WorldWideScience

Sample records for scaling mode shapes

  1. Some Methods to Determine Scaled Mode Shapes in Natural Input Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Canteli, Alfonso Fernández

    2005-01-01

    When the modal model is going to be used for structural modification or for structural response simulation, the scaled mode shapes must be known. If natural input modal analysis is performed, only un-scaled mode shapes can be obtained and an extra method is necessary to obtain the scaling factor....... In this paper, two new methods based on mass change are proposed. The first method involves small mass changes in two repeated tests allowing to achieve good accuracy. The second method involves only one mass change and enables the scaling factors of both the modified and unmodified mode shapes to be obtained...

  2. Scaling of mode shapes from operational modal analysis using harmonic forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, A.; Berardengo, M.; Manzoni, S.; Cigada, A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a new method for scaling mode shapes obtained by means of operational modal analysis. The method is capable of scaling mode shapes on any structure, also structures with closely coupled modes, and the method can be used in the presence of ambient vibration from traffic or wind loads, etc. Harmonic excitation can be relatively easily accomplished by using general-purpose actuators, also for force levels necessary for driving large structures such as bridges and highrise buildings. The signal processing necessary for mode shape scaling by the proposed method is simple and the method can easily be implemented in most measurement systems capable of generating a sine wave output. The tests necessary to scale the modes are short compared to typical operational modal analysis test time. The proposed method is thus easy to apply and inexpensive relative to some other methods for scaling mode shapes that are available in literature. Although it is not necessary per se, we propose to excite the structure at, or close to, the eigenfrequencies of the modes to be scaled, since this provides better signal-to-noise ratio in the response sensors, thus permitting the use of smaller actuators. An extensive experimental activity on a real structure was carried out and the results reported demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed method. Since the method utilizes harmonic excitation for the mode shape scaling, we propose to call the method OMAH.

  3. A Way of Getting Scaled Mode Shapes in Output Only Modal Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper some further work is done following the idea introduced by Parloo et all where they proposed that the scaling factor should be estimated by repeated testing introducing mass changes in different points on the structure. In this paper the approximate formula for determination...... scaling factors can be estimated from relative large frequency shifts without introducing any approximation errors. Further it is explained how testing should be performed in order to significantly reduce approximation errors due to mode shape changes and random errors due to uncertainty on the mode shape...

  4. Scaling the Mode Shapes of a Building Model by Mass Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Rodrigues, J.; Andersen, P.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known, that when using natural input modal analysis, the loads are not known, and thus, the mode scaling factor that relates the magnitude of the loading to the magnitude of the response cannot be estimated. However It has been pointed out by several theoretical papers that mode shapes...... change technique can be used on a ¼ scale model of a 4-storey building. The uncertainties on the estimated scaling factors are illustrated by repeating the estimation using different mass changes....... can be scaled by performing  several natural input modal analysis tests with different mass changes, observe the frequency shift introduced by the mass changes and then follow an estimation scheme that allows the user to estimate the scaling factor modeby- mode, i.e. only information of the particular...

  5. On exact and approximated formulations for scaling-mode shapes in operational modal analysis by mass and stiffness change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Aenlle, Manuel; Brincker, Rune; Pelayo, F.

    2012-01-01

    When operational modal analysis (OMA) is used to estimate modal parameters, mode shapes cannot be mass normalized. In the past few years, some equations have been proposed to scale mode shapes using the mass-change method, which consists of repeating modal testing after changing the mass at diffe...

  6. Shaft mode shape demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, R.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic response of a rotating machine is directly influenced by its geometric configuration and all aspects of the rotor construction. These determine two significant parameters, mass distribution and stiffness, which yield a spectrum of natural frequencies and mode shapes. The mode shapes can be presented as snapshots of the characteristic amplitude/phase reponse patterns of the shaft, due to the major forcing function of unbalance, at different rotative speeds. To demonstrate the three shaft mode shapes of the rotor rig using the Shaft Mode Demonstrator and oscilloscopes. The synchronous (1X) amplitude and phase of the rotor vibration in the vertical direction from several points along the shaft is displayed on corresponding points of the demonstrator. Unfiltered vibration from vertical and horizontal probe pairs is displayed on the oscilloscopes in orbit format for a dynamic presentation of the mode shape.

  7. Structural Synthesis for Prescribed Target Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Hernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the synthesis of structures with prescribed target natural frequencies and mode shapes is presented. The introduction of a modal Rayleigh quotient approximation based on the target mode shapes is the means to propose a structural synthesis problem whose solution is free from eigenvector sensitivity analysis. The frequencies and mode shapes can be adjusted as close as possible to the desired target values, while minimizing the total mass. Several examples corroborate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  8. Vibration mode shape control by prestressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure is described for reducing vibration at sensitive locations on a structure, by induced distortions. The emphasis is placed on the excitation in a narrow frequency band, so that only a small number of vibration modes contribute to the intensity of the forced response. The procedure is demonstrated on an antenna truss example, showing that, with repeated frequencies, it is very easy to move nodal lines of one of the modes.

  9. Focal F0 peak shape and sentence mode in Swedish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert; Buanzur, Tuarik C.; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Shape characteristics of rising-falling accentual F0 peaks of Stockholm Swedish Accent I words in narrow focus are studied in a corpus of 287 read sentences. The corpus includes statements and three types of polar questions. Results reveal a clear effect of sentence mode on the shape of the accen...

  10. Mode Shape Analysis of Multiple Cracked Functionally Graded Timoshenko Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Van Lien

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper addresses free vibration of multiple cracked Timoshenko beams made of Functionally Graded Material (FGM. Cracks are modeled by rotational spring of stiffness calculated from the crack depth and material properties vary according to the power law throughout the beam thickness. Governing equations for free vibration of the beam are formulated with taking into account actual position of the neutral plane. The obtained frequency equation and mode shapes are used for analysis of the beam mode shapes in dependence on the material and crack parameters. Numerical results validate usefulness of the proposed herein theory and show that mode shapes are good indication for detecting multiple cracks in Timoshenko FGM beams.

  11. Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes of Statically Deformed Inclined Risers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfosail, Feras

    2016-10-15

    We investigate numerically the linear vibrations of inclined risers using the Galerkin approach. The riser is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam accounting for the nonlinear mid-plane stretching and self-weight. After solving for the initial deflection of the riser due to self-weight, we use a Galerkin expansion employing 15 axially loaded beam mode shapes to solve the eigenvalue problem of the riser around the static equilibrium configuration. This yields the riser natural frequencies and corresponding exact mode shapes for various values of inclination angles and tension. The obtained results are validated against a boundary-layer analytical solution and are found to be in good agreement. This constitutes a basis to study the nonlinear forced vibrations of inclined risers.

  12. A symmetry measure for damage detection with mode shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Justin G.; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2017-11-01

    This paper introduces a feature for detecting damage or changes in structures, the continuous symmetry measure, which can quantify the amount of a particular rotational, mirror, or translational symmetry in a mode shape of a structure. Many structures in the built environment have geometries that are either symmetric or almost symmetric, however damage typically occurs in a local manner causing asymmetric changes in the structure's geometry or material properties, and alters its mode shapes. The continuous symmetry measure can quantify these changes in symmetry as a novel indicator of damage for data-based structural health monitoring approaches. This paper describes the concept as a basis for detecting changes in mode shapes and detecting structural damage. Application of the method is demonstrated in various structures with different symmetrical properties: a pipe cross-section with a finite element model and experimental study, the NASA 8-bay truss model, and the simulated IASC-ASCE structural health monitoring benchmark structure. The applicability and limitations of the feature in applying it to structures of varying geometries is discussed.

  13. The normal mode analysis shape detection method for automated shape determination of lung nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stember, Joseph N

    2015-04-01

    Surface morphology and shape in general are important predictors for the behavior of solid-type lung nodules detected on CT. More broadly, shape analysis is useful in many areas of computer-aided diagnosis and essentially all scientific and engineering disciplines. Automated methods for shape detection have all previously, to the author's knowledge, relied on some sort of geometric measure. I introduce Normal Mode Analysis Shape Detection (NMA-SD), an approach that measures shape indirectly via the motion it would undergo if one imagined the shape to be a pseudomolecule. NMA-SD allows users to visualize internal movements in the imaging object and thereby develop an intuition for which motions are important, and which geometric features give rise to them. This can guide the identification of appropriate classification features to distinguish among classes of interest. I employ normal mode analysis (NMA) to animate pseudomolecules representing simulated lung nodules. Doing so, I am able to assign a testing set of nodules into the classes circular, elliptical, and irregular with roughly 97 % accuracy. This represents a proof-of-principle that one can obtain shape information by treating voxels as pseudoatoms in a pseudomolecule, and analyzing the pseudomolecule's predicted motion.

  14. The size, scale, and shape of cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Michael

    2008-02-08

    Despite a century of effort, our understanding of how cities evolve is still woefully inadequate. Recent research, however, suggests that cities are complex systems that mainly grow from the bottom up, their size and shape following well-defined scaling laws that result from intense competition for space. An integrated theory of how cities evolve, linking urban economics and transportation behavior to developments in network science, allometric growth, and fractal geometry, is being slowly developed. This science provides new insights into the resource limits facing cities in terms of the meaning of density, compactness, and sprawl, and related questions of sustainability. It has the potential to enrich current approaches to city planning and replace traditional top-down strategies with realistic city plans that benefit all city dwellers.

  15. Delamination monitoring in CFRP laminated plates under noisy conditions using complex-wavelet 2D curvature mode shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Cao, Maosen; Li, Ximing; Radzieński, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wiesław; Bai, Runbo

    2017-10-01

    Delamination monitoring in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminated plates is crucial to ensure the integrity and safety of the structures that accommodate the plates. To identify delaminations in CFRP laminated plates, the two-dimensional (2D) curvature mode shape method is a prevailing method that features instant and simultaneous determination of the presence and location of the delamination. However, this method has two noticeable deficiencies in characterizing incipient small-sized delaminations, namely lack of damage sensitivity and inadequate noise robustness. To this end, this study proposes a new dynamics feature of the complex-wavelet 2D curvature mode shape to discriminate small-sized delaminations. This feature is delicately formulated based on the integration of the 2D curvature mode shape with the complex wavelet. The complex-wavelet 2D curvature mode shape is superior to the 2D curvature mode shape by virtue of its stronger damage sensitivity and noise robustness. These merits can be attributed to the adjustable localization and the multi-scale properties of the second-order Gabor wavelet, respectively. Proof of concept of the complex-wavelet 2D curvature mode shape is numerically undertaken in a finite-element laminated CFRP plate with a small-sized delamination, with emphasis on sensitivity to damage and robustness against noise. The applicability of the feature is experimentally validated on a CFRP laminated plate with a small-sized delamination, whose mode shapes are acquired via the non-contact measurement using a scanning laser vibrometer. The numerical and experimental results show that the complex-wavelet 2D curvature mode shape can effectively designate the presence and location of the delaminations in CFRP laminated plates under noisy conditions.

  16. Mode shape combination in a two-dimensional vibration energy harvester through mass loading structural modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpes, Nathan; Kumar, Prashant [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Abdelmoula, Hichem [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Adler, Jan [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Institute of Dynamics and Vibration Research (IDS), Leibniz Universität, Hannover 30167 (Germany); Priya, Shashank [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2016-07-18

    Mode shapes in the design of mechanical energy harvesters, as a means of performance increase, have been largely overlooked. Currently, the vast majority of energy harvester designs employ some variation of a single-degree-of-freedom cantilever, and the mode shapes of such beams are well known. This is especially true for the first bending mode, which is almost exclusively the chosen vibration mode for energy harvesting. Two-dimensional beam shapes (those which curve, meander, spiral, etc., in a plane) have recently gained research interest, as they offer freedom to modify the vibration characteristics of the harvester beam for achieving higher power density. In this study, the second bending mode shape of the “Elephant” two-dimensional beam shape is examined, and its interaction with the first bending mode is evaluated. A combinatory mode shape created by using mass loading structural modification to lower the second bending modal frequency was found to interact with the first bending mode. This is possible since the first two bending modes do not share common areas of displacement. The combined mode shape is shown to produce the most power of any of the considered mode shapes.

  17. Prediction of presence and severity of damages using experimental Mode Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Rama; Bhalla, Suresh; Gupta, Ashok

    2012-05-01

    Global dynamic technique based on frequencies change is used to detect the damages/ cracks in structures. This technique is based on changes in natural frequencies. However, it is found that changes in frequencies are negligible even in major damage cases. Several researchers have used modes shape instead of frequencies to detect the damage/ crack in structure. It is true that mode shapes approach is better compared to frequencies based analysis for damage detection; however, it fetches excellent result, if real mode shape is used. Researchers are using theoretical/ numerical/ interpolated modes shape, which produce erroneous results. In this paper, a method is proposed to extract the real mode shape of structure experimentally using only one accelerometer and damage was detected successfully in the steel beam using this mode shape. An artificial damages were created in the steel beam in four stages and the mode shapes were determined after damage for each stage. The damage was also located and severity was predicted with the help of the extracted modes shape. It was found that location predicted by proposed method was almost correct. This technique is useful for sensitive structures.

  18. Mode shape expansions for the dynamic testing of cable domes considering random pretension deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoshun; Deng, Hua; Zhu, Dexi

    2017-04-01

    Cable domes maintain their structural stability and deformation resistance substantially depending on the geometrical stiffness contributed by pretension. Dynamic testing can be employed to monitor the possible stiffness degeneration caused by pretension deviations in existing cable domes. The measured incomplete mode shapes should be expanded for effectively evaluating the actual structural stiffness. However, conventional methods lose effectiveness for expanding mode shapes of cable domes whose modes are sensitive to the pretension deviations. A novel method is developed in this paper to expand the incomplete mode shapes of existing cable domes with random pretension deviations. For a monitored target mode of the existing structure, its mode shape can be approximately expressed as a linear combination of a few mode shapes of the ideal structure. Once their combinational coefficients are determined based on the measured incomplete mode shape, the expansion of this target mode is achieved. Two key steps are included: the determination of these so-called contribution modes and the estimation of their combinational coefficients. For the prescribed limit values of equivalent member length errors adopted to simulate random pretension deviations, contribution modes can be determined by considering the mode shape variations and mode jumpings. A proposed contribution mode effective independence (CMEI) method is further put forward to obtain the best estimate of combinational coefficients and the optimal layout of sensors. The numerical example of a cable dome illustrates the invalidation of the conventional expansion methods when random pretension deviations are considered. In contrast, the method proposed in this paper is validated to be effective and reliable even in the cases of severe modal variations and high noise levels.

  19. Damage localization by statistical evaluation of signal-processed mode shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Damkilde, Lars

    2015-01-01

    in the spatial mode shape signals, hereby potentially facilitating damage detection and/or localization. However, by being based on distinguishing damage-induced discontinuities from other signal irregularities, an intrinsic deficiency in these methods is the high sensitivity towards measurement noise....... The present article introduces a damage localization method which, compared to the conventional mode shape-based methods, has greatly enhanced robustness towards measurement noise. The method is based on signal processing of spatial mode shapes by means of continuous wavelet transformation (CWT......) and subsequent application of a generalized discrete Teager-Kaiser energy operator (GDTKEO) to identify damage-induced mode shape discontinuities. In order to evaluate whether the identified discontinuities are in fact damage-induced, outlier analysis of principal components of the signal-processed mode shapes...

  20. Surface vibrational modes in disk-shaped resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, A V; Gritsenko, D S; Mitrofanov, V P

    2014-03-01

    The natural frequencies and distributions of displacement components for the surface vibrational modes in thin isotropic elastic disks are calculated. In particular, the research is focused on even solutions for low-lying resonant vibrations with large angular wave numbers. Several families of modes are found which are interpreted as modified surface modes of an infinitely long cylinder and Lamb modes of a plate. The results of calculation are compared with the results of the experimental measurements of vibrational modes generated by means of resonant excitation in duraluminum disk with radius of ≈90 mm and thickness of 16 mm in the frequency range of 130-200 kHz. An excellent agreement between the calculated and measured frequencies is found. Measurements of the structure of the resonant peaks show splitting of some modes. About a half of the measured modes has splitting Δfsplit/fmode at the level of the order of 10(-5). The Q-factors of all modes measured in vacuum lie in the interval (2…3)×10(5). This value is typical for duraluminum mechanical resonators in the ultrasonic frequency range. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Scaling Fiber Lasers to Large Mode Area: An Investigation of Passive Mode-Locking Using a Multi-Mode Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Edwin; Lefrancois, Simon; Kutz, Jose Nathan; Wise, Frank W.

    2011-01-01

    The mode-locking of dissipative soliton fiber lasers using large mode area fiber supporting multiple transverse modes is studied experimentally and theoretically. The averaged mode-locking dynamics in a multi-mode fiber are studied using a distributed model. The co-propagation of multiple transverse modes is governed by a system of coupled Ginzburg–Landau equations. Simulations show that stable and robust mode-locked pulses can be produced. However, the mode-locking can be destabilized by excessive higher-order mode content. Experiments using large core step-index fiber, photonic crystal fiber, and chirally-coupled core fiber show that mode-locking can be significantly disturbed in the presence of higher-order modes, resulting in lower maximum single-pulse energies. In practice, spatial mode content must be carefully controlled to achieve full pulse energy scaling. This paper demonstrates that mode-locking performance is very sensitive to the presence of multiple waveguide modes when compared to systems such as amplifiers and continuous-wave lasers. PMID:21731106

  2. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Higher-Order Mode Shapes for Damage Identification of Beam Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runbo Bai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractal dimension analysis is an emerging method for vibration-based structural damage identification. An unresolved problem in this method is its incapability of identifying damage by higher-order mode shapes. The natural inflexions of higher-order mode shapes may cause false peaks of high-magnitude estimates of fractal dimension, largely masking any signature of damage. In the situation of a scanning laser vibrometer (SLV providing a chance to reliably acquire higher-order (around tenth-order mode shapes, an improved fractal dimension method that is capable of treating higher-order mode shapes for damage detection is of important significance. This study proposes a sophisticated fractal dimension method with the aid of a specially designed affine transformation that is able to obviate natural inflexions of a higher-order mode shape while preserving its substantial damage information. The affine transformed mode shape facilitates the fractal dimension analysis to yield an effective damage feature: fractal dimension trajectory, in which an abruptly risking peak clearly characterizes the location and severity of the damage. This new fractal dimension method is demonstrated on multiple cracks identification in numerically simulated damage scenarios. The effectiveness of the method is experimentally validated by using a SLV to acquire higher-order mode shapes of a cracked cantilever beam.

  3. The influence of the whispering gallery modes resonators shape on their sensitivity to the movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Yuri V.; Govorenko, Ekaterina V.; Kukaev, Alexander S.; Shalymov, Egor V.; Venediktov, Vladimir Yu.

    2017-05-01

    The optical whispering gallery modes resonators are axially symmetrical resonators with smooth edges, supporting the existence of the whispering gallery modes by the total internal reflection on the surface of the resonator. For today various types of such resonators were developed, namely the ball-shaped, tor-shaped, bottle-shaped, disk-shaped etc. The movement of whispering gallery modes resonators in inertial space causes the changes of their shape. The result is a spectral shift of the whispering gallery modes. Optical methods allow to register this shift with high precision. It can be used in particular for the measurement of angular velocities in inertial orientation and navigation systems. However, different types of resonators react to the movement on a miscellaneous. In addition, their sensitivity to movement can be changed when changing the geometric parameters of these resonators. This work is devoted to a research of these aspects.

  4. Heat and mass transfer intensification and shape optimization a multi-scale approach

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Is the heat and mass transfer intensification defined as a new paradigm of process engineering, or is it just a common and old idea, renamed and given the current taste? Where might intensification occur? How to achieve intensification? How the shape optimization of thermal and fluidic devices leads to intensified heat and mass transfers? To answer these questions, Heat & Mass Transfer Intensification and Shape Optimization: A Multi-scale Approach clarifies  the definition of the intensification by highlighting the potential role of the multi-scale structures, the specific interfacial area, the distribution of driving force, the modes of energy supply and the temporal aspects of processes.   A reflection on the methods of process intensification or heat and mass transfer enhancement in multi-scale structures is provided, including porous media, heat exchangers, fluid distributors, mixers and reactors. A multi-scale approach to achieve intensification and shape optimization is developed and clearly expla...

  5. Optical multistability and Fano line-shape control via mode coupling in whispering-gallery-mode microresonator optomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suzhen; Li, Jiahua; Yu, Rong; Wang, Wei; Wu, Ying

    2017-01-03

    We study a three-mode (i.e., a clockwise mode, a counterclockwise mode, and a mechanical mode) coherent coupling regime of the optical whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microresonator optomechanical system by considering a pair of counterpropagating modes in a general case. The WGM microresonator is coherently driven by a strong control laser field and a relatively weak probe laser field via a tapered fiber. The system parameters utilized to explore this process correspond to experimentally demonstrated values in the WGM microresonator optomechanical systems. By properly adjusting the coupling rate of these two counterpropagating modes in the WGM microresonator, the steady-state displacement behaviors of the mechanical oscillation and the normalized power transmission and reflection spectra of the output fields are analyzed in detail. It is found that the mode coupling plays a crucial role in rich line-shape structures. Some interesting phenomena of the system, including optical multistability and sharp asymmetric Fano-shape optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT), can be generated with a large degree of control and tunability. Our obtained results in this study can be used for designing efficient all-optical switching and high-sensitivity sensor.

  6. Visualization of the Mode Shapes of Pressure Oscillation in a Cylindrical Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xin [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Qi, Yunliang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Wang, Zhi [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Wang, Jianxin [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Shuai, Shijin [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-06-08

    Our work describes a novel experimental method to visualize the mode shapes of pressure oscillation in a cylindrical cavity. Acoustic resonance in a cavity is a grand old problem that has been under investigation (using both analytical and numerical methods) for more than a century. In this article, a novel method based on high speed imaging of combustion chemiluminescence was presented to visualize the mode shapes of pressure oscillation in a cylindrical cavity. By generating high-temperature combustion gases and strong pressure waves simultaneously in a cylindrical cavity, the pressure oscillation can be inferred due to the chemiluminescence emissions of the combustion products. We can then visualized the mode shapes by reconstructing the images based on the amplitudes of the luminosity spectrum at the corresponding resonant frequencies. Up to 11 resonant mode shapes were clearly visualized, each matching very well with the analytical solutions.

  7. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Higher-Order Mode Shapes for Damage Identification of Beam Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Runbo; Cao, Maosen; Su, Zhongqing; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw; Xu, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Fractal dimension analysis is an emerging method for vibration-based structural damage identification. An unresolved problem in this method is its incapability of identifying damage by higher-order mode shapes. The natural inflexions of higher-order mode shapes may cause false peaks of high-magnitude estimates of fractal dimension, largely masking any signature of damage. In the situation of a scanning laser vibrometer (SLV) providing a chance to reliably acquire higher-order (around tenth-or...

  8. Single-mode quantum cascade lasers employing a candy-cane shaped monolithic coupled cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peter Q.; Sladek, Kamil; Wang, Xiaojun; Fan, Jen-Yu; Gmachl, Claire F.

    2011-12-01

    We demonstrate single-mode quantum cascade lasers emitting at ˜4.5 μm by employing a monolithic "candy-cane" shaped coupled-cavity consisting of a straight section connecting at one end to a spiral section. The fabrication process is identical to those for simple Fabry-Perot-type ridge lasers. Continuously tunable single-mode emission across ˜8 cm-1 with side mode suppression ratio up to ˜25 dB and a single-mode operating current range of more than 70% above the threshold current is achieved when the lasers are operated in pulsed-mode from 80 K to 155 K.

  9. Shape mode analysis exposes movement patterns in biology: flagella and flatworms as case studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Werner

    Full Text Available We illustrate shape mode analysis as a simple, yet powerful technique to concisely describe complex biological shapes and their dynamics. We characterize undulatory bending waves of beating flagella and reconstruct a limit cycle of flagellar oscillations, paying particular attention to the periodicity of angular data. As a second example, we analyze non-convex boundary outlines of gliding flatworms, which allows us to expose stereotypic body postures that can be related to two different locomotion mechanisms. Further, shape mode analysis based on principal component analysis allows to discriminate different flatworm species, despite large motion-associated shape variability. Thus, complex shape dynamics is characterized by a small number of shape scores that change in time. We present this method using descriptive examples, explaining abstract mathematics in a graphic way.

  10. Shape mode analysis exposes movement patterns in biology: flagella and flatworms as case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Steffen; Rink, Jochen C; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H; Friedrich, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    We illustrate shape mode analysis as a simple, yet powerful technique to concisely describe complex biological shapes and their dynamics. We characterize undulatory bending waves of beating flagella and reconstruct a limit cycle of flagellar oscillations, paying particular attention to the periodicity of angular data. As a second example, we analyze non-convex boundary outlines of gliding flatworms, which allows us to expose stereotypic body postures that can be related to two different locomotion mechanisms. Further, shape mode analysis based on principal component analysis allows to discriminate different flatworm species, despite large motion-associated shape variability. Thus, complex shape dynamics is characterized by a small number of shape scores that change in time. We present this method using descriptive examples, explaining abstract mathematics in a graphic way.

  11. Chaotic Modes in Scale Free Opinion Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmartsev, Feo V.; Kürten, Karl E.

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate processes associated with formation of public opinion in varies directed random, scale free and small-world social networks. The important factor of the opinion formation is the existence of contrarians which were discovered by Granovetter in various social psychology experiments1,2,3 long ago and later introduced in sociophysics by Galam.4 When the density of contrarians increases the system behavior drastically changes at some critical value. At high density of contrarians the system can never arrive to a consensus state and periodically oscillates with different periods depending on specific structure of the network. At small density of the contrarians the behavior is manifold. It depends primary on the initial state of the system. If initially the majority of the population agrees with each other a state of stable majority may be easily reached. However when originally the population is divided in nearly equal parts consensus can never be reached. We model the emergence of collective decision making by considering N interacting agents, whose opinions are described by two state Ising spin variable associated with YES and NO. We show that the dynamical behaviors are very sensitive not only to the density of the contrarians but also to the network topology. We find that a phase of social chaos may arise in various dynamical processes of opinion formation in many realistic models. We compare the prediction of the theory with data describing the dynamics of the average opinion of the USA population collected on a day-by-day basis by varies media sources during the last six month before the final Obama-McCain election. The qualitative ouctome is in reasonable agreement with the prediction of our theory. In fact, the analyses of these data made within the paradigm of our theory indicates that even in this campaign there were chaotic elements where the public opinion migrated in an unpredictable chaotic way. The existence of such a phase

  12. Ion scale nonlinear interaction triggered by disparate scale electron temperature gradient mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chanho, E-mail: moon@nifs.ac.jp [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Itoh, Kimitaka [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    We have observed that the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the high-frequency (∼0.4 MHz) electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode and the ion-scale low-frequency fluctuations (∼kHz) were enhanced when the amplitude of the ETG mode exceeded a certain threshold. The dynamics of nonlinear coupling between the ETG mode and the drift wave (DW) mode has already been reported [C. Moon, T. Kaneko, and R. Hatakeyama, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2013)]. Here, we have newly observed that another low-frequency fluctuation with f ≃ 3.6 kHz, i.e., the flute mode, was enhanced, corresponding to the saturation of the DW mode growth. Specifically, the bicoherence between the flute mode and the DW mode reaches a significant level when the ∇T{sub e}/T{sub e} strength exceeded 0.54 cm{sup −1}. Thus, it is shown that the ETG mode energy was transferred to the DW mode, and then the energy was ultimately transferred to the flute mode, which was triggered by the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the ETG and ion-scale low-frequency modes.

  13. Nonspherical dynamics and shape mode stability of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvisi, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are shell encapsulated microbubbles developed originally for ultrasound imaging enhancement. UCAs are more recently being exploited for therapeutic applications, such as for drug delivery, gene therapy, and tissue ablation. Ultrasound transducer pulses can induce spherical (radial) UCA oscillations, translation, and nonspherical shape oscillations, the dynamics of which are highly coupled. If driven sufficiently strongly, the ultrasound can induce breakup of UCAs, which can facilitate drug or gene delivery but should be minimized for imaging purposes to increase residence time and maximize diagnostic effect. Therefore, an understanding of the interplay between the acoustic driving and nonspherical shape mode stability of UCAs is essential for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In this work, we use both analytical and numerical methods to analyze shape mode stability for cases of small and large nonspherical oscillations, respectively. To analyze shape mode stability in the limit of small nonspherical perturbations, we couple a radial model of a lipid-coated microbubble with a model for bubble translation and nonspherical shape oscillation. This hybrid model is used to predict shape mode stability for ultrasound driving frequencies and pressure amplitudes of clinical interest. In addition, calculations of the stability of individual shape modes, residence time, maximum radius, and translation are provided with respect to acoustic driving parameters and compared to an unshelled bubble. The effects of shell elasticity, shell viscosity, and initial radius on stability are investigated. Furthermore, the well-established boundary element method (BEM) is used to investigate the dynamics and shape stability of large amplitude nonspherical oscillations of an ultrasonically-forced, polymer-coated microbubble near a rigid boundary. Different instability modes are identified based on the degree of jetting and proximity to the

  14. Throughput scaling by spatial beam shaping and dynamic focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumkar, M.; Kaiser, M.; Kleiner, J.; Flamm, D.; Grossmann, D.; Bergner, K.; Zimmermann, F.; Nolte, S.

    2017-02-01

    With availability of high power ultra short pulsed lasers, one prerequisite towards throughput scaling demanded for industrial ultrafast laser processing was recently achieved. We will present different scaling approaches for ultrafast machining, including raster and vector based concepts. The main attention is on beam shaping for enlarged, tailored processed volume per pulse. Some aspects on vector based machining using beam shaping are discussed. With engraving of steel and full thickness modification of transparent materials, two different approaches for throughput scaling by confined interaction volume, avoiding detrimental heat accumulation, are exemplified. In Contrast, welding of transparent materials based on nonlinear absorption benefits from ultra short pulse processing in heat accumulation regime. Results on in-situ stress birefringence microscopy demonstrate the complex interplay of processing parameters on heat accumulation. With respect to process development, the potential of in-in-situ diagnostics, extended to high power ultrafast lasers and diagnostics allowing for multi-scale resolution in space and time is addressed.

  15. Identification of Damage in a Beam Structure by Using Mode Shape Curvature Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rucevskis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades a great variety of methods have been proposed for damage detection by using the dynamic structure characteristics, however, most of them require modal data of the structure for the healthy state as a reference. In this paper the applicability of the mode shape curvature squares determined from only the damaged state of the structure for damage detection in a beam structure is studied. To establish the method, two aluminium beams containing different-size mill-cut damage at different locations are tested by using the experimentally measured modal data. The experimental modal frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes are obtained by using a scanning laser vibrometer with a PZT actuator. From the mode shapes, mode shape curvatures are obtained by using a central difference approximation. With the example of the beams with free-free and clamped boundary conditions, it is shown that the mode shape curvature squares can be used to detect damage in the structures. Further, the extent of a mill-cut damage is identified via modal frequencies by using a mixed numerical-experimental technique. The method is based on the minimization of the discrepancy between the numerically calculated and experimentally measured frequencies.

  16. Designing for scale: How relationships shape curriculum change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pareja Roblin, Natalie; Corbalan, Gemma; McKenney, Susan; Nieveen, Nienke; Van den Akker, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Pareja Roblin, N., Corbalan Perez, G., McKenney, S., Nieveen, N., & Van den Akker, J. (2012, 13-17 April). Designing for scale: How relationships shape curriculum change. Paper presentation at the AERA annual meeting, Vancouver, Canada. Please see also: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/4678

  17. Designing for scale: How relationships shape curriculum change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pareja Roblin, Natalie; Corbalan, Gemma; McKenney, Susan; Nieveen, Nienke; Van den Akker, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Pareja Roblin, N., Corbalan Perez, G., McKenney, S., Nieveen, N., & Van den Akker, J. (2012, 13-17 April). Designing for scale: How relationships shape curriculum change. Presentation at the AERA annual meeting, Vancouver, Canada. Please see also http://hdl.handle.net/1820/4679

  18. Explaining lengths and shapes of yeast by scaling arguments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Riveline

    Full Text Available Lengths and shapes are approached in different ways in different fields: they serve as a read-out for classifying genes or proteins in cell biology whereas they result from scaling arguments in condensed matter physics. Here, we propose a combined approach with examples illustrated for the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

  19. Widely tunable mode-locked fiber laser using carbon nanotube and LPG W-shaped filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Zhang, A Ping; Shen, Yong Hang; Tam, Hwa-yaw; Wai, P K A

    2015-09-15

    A widely tunable mode-locked fiber laser using a carbon nanotube absorber and a fiber-optic W-shaped spectral filter is presented. The W-shaped filter is constructed by sandwiching a phase-shifted long-period grating between two LPGs of different periods. By adjusting the temperature of the W-shaped filter from 23°C to 100°C, the central wavelength of the mode-locked fiber laser can be continuously tuned from 1597 to 1553 nm. The tuning range is further extended to 1531.6 nm when a shorter erbium-doped fiber is used in the fiber oscillator. The experimental results reveal that the large thermal tunability of the proposed LPG filter provides an effective approach to achieve compact widely tunable mode-locked fiber lasers covering both C and L bands.

  20. Rabi oscillations and stimulated mode conversion on the subwavelength scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Ye, Fangwei; Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Chen, Xianfeng

    2015-03-09

    We study stimulated mode conversion and dynamics of Rabi-like oscillations of weights of guided modes in deeply subwavelength guiding structures, whose dielectric permittivity changes periodically in the direction of light propagation. We show that despite strong localization of the fields of eigenmodes on the scales below the wavelength of light, even weak longitudinal modulation couples modes of selected parity and causes periodic energy exchange between them, thereby opening the way for controllable transformation of the internal structure of subwavelength beams. The effect is reminiscent of Rabi oscillations in multilevel quantum systems subjected to the action of periodic external fields. By using rigorous numerical solution of the full set of the Maxwell's equations, we show that the effect takes place not only in purely dielectric, but also in metallic-dielectric structures, despite the energy dissipation inherent to the plasmonic waveguides. The stimulated conversion of subwavelength light modes is possible in both linear and nonlinear regimes.

  1. Studies of impact of plasma shaping on edge localized modes with a nonlinear code BOUT + +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. Q.; Xu, X. Q.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D.; Xia, T. Y.

    2014-10-01

    The plasma shaping has important effects on the edge localized modes (ELMs). In this work, with the 3-field BOUT + + code, we study the impact of the plasma shaping on the ELMs. Three kinds of typical plasma shapes are studied: circular (cbm), elongated (dbm) and shaped with X-point (meudas). Our calculations show that the shaped plasma and the X-point geometry have stabilizing effect on the ELMs. For linear ideal MHD calculation we benchmark BOUT + + results with ELITE and GATO codes. Then we study the role of non-ideal effects such as resistivity on the ELMs for the X-point geometry. Also the nonlinear calculations are carried out to study the impact of plasma shape on the ELM size. Work supported by China National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program under Grant Nos. 2014GB106001 and 2013GB111000. Also performed for USDOE by LLNL under DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-656997.

  2. On Scaling Modes and Balancing Stochastic, Discretization, and Modeling Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J.

    2015-12-01

    We consider accuracy-cost tradeoffs and the problem of finding Pareto optimal configurations for stochastic forward and inverse problems. As the target accuracy is changed, we should use different physical models, stochastic models, discretizations, and solution algorithms. In this spectrum, we see different scientifically-relevant scaling modes, thus different opportunities and limitations on parallel computers and emerging architectures.

  3. Structural Damage Localization by Outlier Analysis of Signal-processed Mode Shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to global modal parameters such as eigenfrequencies, mode shapes inherently provide structural information on a local level. Therefore, this particular modal parameter and its derivatives are utilized extensively for damage identification. Typically, more or less advanced mathematical...... analysis is conducted by applying the Mahalanobis metric to major principal scores of the sensor-located bands of the signal-processed mode shape. The method is tested analytically on the basis of a free-vibrating beam and experimentally in the context of a residential-sized wind turbine blade subjected...

  4. Extraction of the mode shapes of a segmented ship model with a hydroelastic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yooil Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The mode shapes of a segmented hull model towed in a model basin were predicted using both the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD and cross random decrement technique. The proper orthogonal decomposition, which is also known as Karhunen-Loeve decomposition, is an emerging technology as a useful signal processing technique in structural dynamics. The technique is based on the fact that the eigenvectors of a spatial coherence matrix become the mode shapes of the system under free and randomly excited forced vibration conditions. Taking advantage of the sim-plicity of POD, efforts have been made to reveal the mode shapes of vibrating flexible hull under random wave ex-citation. First, the segmented hull model of a 400 K ore carrier with 3 flexible connections was towed in a model basin under different sea states and the time histories of the vertical bending moment at three different locations were meas-ured. The measured response time histories were processed using the proper orthogonal decomposition, eventually to obtain both the first and second vertical vibration modes of the flexible hull. A comparison of the obtained mode shapes with those obtained using the cross random decrement technique showed excellent correspondence between the two results.

  5. SHAPE FROM TEXTURE USING LOCALLY SCALED POINT PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Didden

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Shape from texture refers to the extraction of 3D information from 2D images with irregular texture. This paper introduces a statistical framework to learn shape from texture where convex texture elements in a 2D image are represented through a point process. In a first step, the 2D image is preprocessed to generate a probability map corresponding to an estimate of the unnormalized intensity of the latent point process underlying the texture elements. The latent point process is subsequently inferred from the probability map in a non-parametric, model free manner. Finally, the 3D information is extracted from the point pattern by applying a locally scaled point process model where the local scaling function represents the deformation caused by the projection of a 3D surface onto a 2D image.

  6. New algorithm for mode shape estimation based on ambient signals considering model order selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Lu, Chao; Han, Yingduo

    2013-12-01

    Using time-synchronized phasor measurements, a new signal processing approach for estimating the electromechanical mode shape properties from ambient signals is proposed. In this method, Bayesian information criterion and the ARMA(2 n,2 n - 1) modeling procedure are first used to automatically select the optimal model order, and the auto regressive moving averaging models are built based on ambient data, then the low-frequency oscillation modal frequency and damping ratio are identified. Next, Prony models of ambient signals are presented, and the mode shape information of multiple dominant interarea oscillation modes are simultaneously estimated. The advantages of the new ARMA-P method are demonstrated by its applications in both a simulation system and measured data from China Southern Power Grid.

  7. Frequency-shaped and observer-based discrete-time sliding mode control

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Axaykumar

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the sliding mode control strategy provides an effective and robust method of controlling the deterministic system due to its well-known invariance property to a class of bounded disturbance and parameter variations. Advances in microcomputer technologies have made digital control increasingly popular among the researchers worldwide. And that led to the study of discrete-time sliding mode control design and its implementation. This brief presents, a method for multi-rate frequency shaped sliding mode controller design based on switching and non-switching type of reaching law. In this approach, the frequency dependent compensator dynamics are introduced through a frequency-shaped sliding surface by assigning frequency dependent weighing matrices in a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) design procedure. In this way, the undesired high frequency dynamics or certain frequency disturbance can be eliminated. The states are implicitly obtained by measuring the output at a faster rate than th...

  8. How congestion shapes cities: from mobility patterns to scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louf, Rémi; Barthelemy, Marc

    2014-07-01

    The recent availability of data for cities has allowed scientists to exhibit scalings which present themselves in the form of a power-law dependence on population of various socio-economical and structural indicators. We propose here a stochastic theory of urban growth which accounts for some of the observed scalings and we confirm these predictions on US and OECD empirical data. In particular, we show that the dependence on population size of the total number of miles driven daily, the total length of the road network, the total traffic delay, the total consumption of gasoline, the quantity of CO2 emitted and the relation between area and population of cities, are all governed by a single parameter which characterizes the sensitivity to congestion. Our results suggest that diseconomies associated with congestion scale superlinearly with population size, implying that -despite polycentrism- cities whose transportation infrastructure rely heavily on traffic sensitive modes are unsustainable.

  9. On the use of a passing vehicle for the estimation of bridge mode shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekjafarian, Abdollah; OBrien, Eugene J.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for the estimation of bridge mode shapes using the response measured on a passing vehicle. A truck-trailer system is assumed, equipped with an external excitation at a frequency close to one of the bridge natural frequencies. The excitation makes the bridge response dominant at its natural frequency. The acceleration responses are measured on two following axles of the vehicle. It is shown that the amplitude of the signal includes the operational deflected shape data which can be used to estimate the bridge mode shapes. The energy of the responses measured on two following axles is obtained using the Hilbert Huang Transform. It is shown that the bridge mode shape can be estimated with high resolution and accuracy using a rescaling process. The presence of road roughness introduces additional contributions to the response measured on the vehicle, in addition to the bridge response. The concept of subtraction of the responses measured from two identical axles is used to remove the effect of road roughness.

  10. Mode shape reconstruction of an impulse excited structure using continuous scanning laser Doppler vibrometer and empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyong, Yongsoo; Kim, Daesung; Dayou, Jedol; Park, Kyihwan; Wang, Semyung

    2008-07-01

    For vibration testing, discrete types of scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) have been developed and have proven to be very useful. For complex structures, however, SLDV takes considerable time to scan the surface of structures and require large amounts of data storage. To overcome these problems, a continuous scan was introduced as an alternative. In this continuous method, the Chebyshev demodulation (or polynomial) technique and the Hilbert transform approach have been used for mode shape reconstruction with harmonic excitation. As an alternative, in this paper, the Hilbert-Huang transform approach is applied to impact excitation cases in terms of a numerical approach, where the vibration of the tested structure is modeled using impulse response functions. In order to verify this technique, a clamped-clamped beam was chosen as the test rig in the numerical simulation and real experiment. This paper shows that with additional innovative steps of using ideal bandpass filters and nodal point determination in the postprocessing, the Hilbert-Huang transformation can be used to create a better mode shape reconstruction even in the impact excitation case.

  11. Mode-locked fibre lasers with an adjustable drop-shaped cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyushkov, B. N.; Kobtsev, S. M.; Koliada, N. A.; Antropov, A. A.; Pivtsov, V. S.; Yakovlev, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    We report the first implementation of a new cavity topology for mode-locked fibre lasers. This new ‘drop-shaped’ cavity topology employs a dual-fibre optical collimator and allows for a relatively simple cavity design with continuously adjustable length. It combines the advantages of the conventional ring cavity topology with the adjustment capabilities of hybrid ring-linear cavities (e.g. σ-cavities). Reliable femtosecond pulsed lasing was demonstrated in the experimental drop-shaped Er-doped fibre lasers, which were mode-locked in two different ways—by exploiting nonlinear polarisation evolution (NPE) and by means of a semiconductor saturable absorber. In the case of NPE-based mode locking, the shortest pulse duration was ~450 fs. The pulse repetition rate could be continuously varied within  ±3 kHz around ~25 MHz in the NPE-mode-locked lasers when the distance between the dual-fibre optical collimator and the cavity mirror was adjusted. This feature could, in principle, allow active stabilisation of the pulse repetition rate. Thus, mode-locked fibre lasers with the proposed drop-shaped cavity topology could be applied in metrology and other fields where a high stability of pulse repetition rate or its synchronization with an external clock is required.

  12. Scale and shape mixtures of multivariate skew-normal distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Arellano-Valle, Reinaldo B.

    2018-02-26

    We introduce a broad and flexible class of multivariate distributions obtained by both scale and shape mixtures of multivariate skew-normal distributions. We present the probabilistic properties of this family of distributions in detail and lay down the theoretical foundations for subsequent inference with this model. In particular, we study linear transformations, marginal distributions, selection representations, stochastic representations and hierarchical representations. We also describe an EM-type algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters of the model and demonstrate its implementation on a wind dataset. Our family of multivariate distributions unifies and extends many existing models of the literature that can be seen as submodels of our proposal.

  13. Dominant modes of variability in large-scale Birkeland currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, E. D. P.; Matsuo, Tomoko; Richmond, A. D.; Anderson, B. J.

    2015-08-01

    Properties of variability in large-scale Birkeland currents are investigated through empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of 1 week of data from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE). Mean distributions and dominant modes of variability are identified for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Differences in the results from the two hemispheres are observed, which are attributed to seasonal differences in conductivity (the study period occurred near solstice). A universal mean and set of dominant modes of variability are obtained through combining the hemispheric results, and it is found that the mean and first three modes of variability (EOFs) account for 38% of the total observed squared magnetic perturbations (δB2) from both hemispheres. The mean distribution represents a standard Region 1/Region 2 (R1/R2) morphology of currents and EOF 1 captures the strengthening/weakening of the average distribution and is well correlated with the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). EOF 2 captures a mixture of effects including the expansion/contraction and rotation of the (R1/R2) currents; this mode correlates only weakly with possible external driving parameters. EOF 3 captures changes in the morphology of the currents in the dayside cusp region and is well correlated with the dawn-dusk component of the IMF. The higher-order EOFs capture more complex, smaller-scale variations in the Birkeland currents and appear generally uncorrelated with external driving parameters. The results of the EOF analysis described here are used for describing error covariance in a data assimilation procedure utilizing AMPERE data, as described in a companion paper.

  14. Cosmological parameters from large scale structure - geometric versus shape information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Århus C (Denmark); Lesgourgues, Julien [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rampf, Cornelius; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y., E-mail: hamann@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk, E-mail: julien.lesgourgues@cern.ch, E-mail: rampf@physik.rwth-aachen.de, E-mail: ywong@physik.rwth-aachen.de [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The matter power spectrum as derived from large scale structure (LSS) surveys contains two important and distinct pieces of information: an overall smooth shape and the imprint of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). We investigate the separate impact of these two types of information on cosmological parameter estimation for current data, and show that for the simplest cosmological models, the broad-band shape information currently contained in the SDSS DR7 halo power spectrum (HPS) is by far superseded by geometric information derived from the baryonic features. An immediate corollary is that contrary to popular beliefs, the upper limit on the neutrino mass m{sub ν} presently derived from LSS combined with cosmic microwave background (CMB) data does not in fact arise from the possible small-scale power suppression due to neutrino free-streaming, if we limit the model framework to minimal ΛCDM+m{sub ν}. However, in more complicated models, such as those extended with extra light degrees of freedom and a dark energy equation of state parameter w differing from -1, shape information becomes crucial for the resolution of parameter degeneracies. This conclusion will remain true even when data from the Planck spacecraft are combined with SDSS DR7 data. In the course of our analysis, we update both the BAO likelihood function by including an exact numerical calculation of the time of decoupling, as well as the HPS likelihood, by introducing a new dewiggling procedure that generalises the previous approach to models with an arbitrary sound horizon at decoupling. These changes allow a consistent application of the BAO and HPS data sets to a much wider class of models, including the ones considered in this work. All the cases considered here are compatible with the conservative 95%-bounds Σm{sub ν} < 1.16eV, N{sub eff} = 4.8±2.0.

  15. Investigations on Shaped Mirror Systems in Quasi-Optical Mode Converters Based on Irradiance Moments Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of transforming high-order Gaussian beams (GBs mode into circular symmetry fundamental Gaussian beam (FGB mode with arbitrary waist size is presented using irradiance moments method in quasi-optical (QO mode converters. The double shaped mirrors correcting amplitude and phase simultaneously are generated by a single incidence irradiance sampling data and known ideal output FGB taking advantage of linear moment matching technique and Fresnel diffraction theory, which can be applied to a wide frequency range especially significant for terahertz band. The numerical coding procedure of creating double correcting mirrors and its fast convergence speed are discussed at 325 GHz. Numerical and experimental comparisons reveal the conclusion that enhancing surface precision and increasing moments order can improve main lobe levels.

  16. Closed-Loop Input Shaping Control of Vibration in Flexible Structures via Adaptive Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chang Pai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Input shaping technique is widely used in reducing or eliminating residual vibration of flexible structures. The exact elimination of the residual vibration via input shaping technique depends on the amplitudes and instants of impulse application. However, systems always have parameter uncertainties which can lead to performance degradation. In this paper, a closed-loop input shaping control scheme is developed for uncertain flexible structures. The algorithm is based on input shaping control and adaptive sliding mode control. The proposed scheme does not need a priori knowledge of upper bounds on the norm of the uncertainties, but estimates them by using the adaptation technique. This scheme guarantees closed-loop system stability, and yields good performance and robustness in the presence of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances as well. Furthermore, it is shown that increasing the robustness to parameter uncertainties does not lengthen the duration of the impulse sequence. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed closed-loop input shaping control scheme.

  17. Mode shape analysis using a commercially available peak store video frame buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Walter L.; Childers, Brooks A.

    1994-01-01

    Time exposure photography, sometimes coupled with strobe illumination, is an accepted method for motion analysis that bypasses frame by frame analysis and resynthesis of data. Garden variety video cameras can now exploit this technique using a unique frame buffer that is a non-integrating memory that compares incoming data with that already stored. The device continuously outputs an analog video signal of the stored contents which can then be redigitized and analyzed using conventional equipment. Historically, photographic time exposures have been used to record the displacement envelope of harmonically oscillating structures to show mode shape. Mode shape analysis is crucial, for example, in aeroelastic testing of wind tunnel models. Aerodynamic, inertial, and elastic forces can couple together leading to catastrophic failure of a poorly designed aircraft. This paper will explore the usefulness of the peak store device as a videometric tool and in particular discuss methods for analyzing a targeted vibrating plate using the 'peak store' in conjunction with calibration methods familiar to the close-range videometry community. Results for the first three normal modes will be presented.

  18. Whispering gallery mode lasing from hexagonal shaped layered lead iodide crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinfeng; Ha, Son Tung; Zhang, Qing; de la Mata, Maria; Magen, César; Arbiol, Jordi; Sum, Tze Chien; Xiong, Qihua

    2015-01-27

    We report on the synthesis and optical gain properties of regularly shaped lead iodide (PbI2) platelets with thickness ranging from 10-500 nm synthesized by chemical vapor deposition methods. The as-prepared single crystalline platelets exhibit a near band edge emission of ∼ 500 nm. Whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasing from individual hexagonal shaped PbI2 platelets is demonstrated in the temperature-range of 77-210 K, where the lasing modes are supported by platelets as thin as 45 nm. The finite-difference time-domain simulation and the edge-length dependent threshold confirm the planar WGM lasing mechanism in such hexagonal shaped PbI2 platelet. Through a comprehensive study of power-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL spectroscopy, we ascribe the WGM lasing to be biexcitonic in nature. Moreover, for different thicknesses of platelet, the lowest lasing threshold occurs in platelets of ∼ 120 nm, which attributes to the formation of a good Fabry-Pérot resonance cavity in the vertical direction between the top and bottom platelet surfaces that enhances the reflection. Our present study demonstrates the feasibility of planar light sources based on layered semiconductor materials and that their thickness-dependent threshold characteristic is beneficial for the optimization of layered material based optoelectronic devices.

  19. Instability and finite-amplitude self-organization of large-scale coastline shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A Brad; Ashton, Andrew D

    2013-12-13

    Recent research addresses the formation of patterns on sandy coastlines on alongshore scales that are large compared with the cross-shore extent of active sediment transport. A simple morphodynamic instability arises from the feedback between wave-driven alongshore sediment flux and coastline shape. Coastline segments with different orientations experience different alongshore sediment fluxes, so that curvatures in coastline shape drive gradients in sediment flux, which can augment the shoreline curvatures. In a simple numerical model, this instability, and subsequent finite-amplitude inter-actions between pattern elements, lead to a wide range of different rhythmic shapes and behaviours--ranging from symmetric cuspate capes and bays to alongshore migrating 'flying spits'--depending on the characteristics of the input wave forcing. The scale of the pattern coarsens in some cases because of the merger of migrating coastline features, and in other cases because of non-local screening interactions between coastline protrusions, which affect the waves reaching other parts of the coastline. Features growing on opposite sides of an enclosed water body mutually affect the waves reaching each other in ways that lead to the segmentation of elongated water bodies. Initial tests of model predictions and comparison with observations suggest that modes of pattern formation in the model are relevant in nature.

  20. A surface plasmon resonance sensor based on a single mode D-shape polymer optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Katarzyna; Martynkien, Tadeusz; Napiorkowski, Maciej; Zolnacz, Kinga; Mergo, Pawel; Urbanczyk, Waclaw

    2017-02-01

    For the first time to our knowledge, we report a successful fabrication of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors in a specially developed single-mode birefringent polymer D-shape fiber with a core made of PMMA/PS copolymer. A small distance between the core and the cladding boundary allows to deposit a gold layer directly onto the flat fiber surface, which significantly simplifies the sensors fabrication process. The developed SPR sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 2765 nm RIU-1 for the refractive index of external medium equal to 1.410, which is similar to the sensitivity of the SPR sensors based on conventional side-polished single-mode silica fibers. Using the finite element method, we also numerically studied the sensor performance. The sensor characteristics obtained in the simulations are in a relatively good agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Fluid-structure interaction modelling of the roof tile-shaped modes in piezoelectric plate microresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Díez, V.; Toledo, J.; Hernando-García, J.; Pfusterschmied, G.; Schmid, U.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the fluid-structure interaction in cantilever-type devices vibrating in the first and higher roof tile-shaped modes is studied. These modes can be most efficiently excited by a thin piezoelectric film on top of the structure in combination with a tailored electrode design. The electrical and optical characterization of the different devices and modes is carried out in liquid media and then the performance of the resonators is evaluated in terms of quality factor and resonant frequency. The effect of the fluid on the in-liquid response is studied using analytical and finite element method models. For the latter, a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction model is developed and compared to a simpler model, in which no coupling feedback from the fluid to the structure is taken into account. The results show that, despite the substantially larger computational effort, the consideration of the fluid-structure coupling is absolutely necessary to explain the experimental results for higher order modes.

  2. Evidence of an embedded vortex translation mode in flake-shaped ferromagnetic particle composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neige, J.; Lepetit, T.; Malléjac, N.; Adenot-Engelvin, A.-L.; Thiaville, A.; Vukadinovic, N.

    2013-06-01

    A low-frequency resonance (sub-GHz) is observed in microwave permeability spectra of anisotropic flake-shaped ferromagnetic particle composites. The resonance frequency of this peak increases linearly with the saturation magnetization of flakes, their aspect ratio, and the amplitude of a perpendicular static magnetic field. In addition, this resonance becomes extinct for a perpendicular RF exciting magnetic field. These experimental features are reproduced by an analytical model of vortex dynamics which militates in favor of an assignment of this low-frequency signal as an embedded vortex translation mode within a multidomain magnetic structure.

  3. Damage detection based on mode shapes of a girder bridge constructed from responses of a moving vehicle under impact excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhongqiang; Au, Francis T. K.

    2016-04-01

    The vibration mode shapes are often used to identify damage of bridges because the mode shapes are not only important modal properties but also sensitive to damage. However, the key issue is how to conveniently obtain the mode shapes of a bridge in service. Traditional methods invariably require installation of instruments on the bridge for collection of dynamic responses for constructing mode shapes, which are both costly and inconvenient. Therefore a method is developed to construct the mode shapes of simply supported bridges based on Hilbert Transform using only vehicle acceleration response for identification of the location of damage. Firstly, an algorithm is devised to construct the mode shapes by using the dynamic responses extracted from a moving vehicle under impact excitation. Then, based on these intermediate results, the coordinate modal assurance criterion in conjunction with suitable wavelets is used to identify the location of damage. Compared with the traditional methods, the proposed method uses only the information from the moving vehicle. Moreover, additional impact excitation on the vehicle helps to excite the bridge. This helps to improve the accuracy by overcoming the adverse effects of measurement noise and road surface roughness, which leads to high accuracy of damage detection. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, some numerical studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of measurement noise, road surface roughness and multiple locations of damage on the accuracy of results.

  4. Damage Identification Based on Curvature Mode Shape using Cubic Polynomial Regression and Chebyshev Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasrizam, C. M.; Fawazi, Noor

    2017-11-01

    Structure Health Monitoring (SHM) has been applied in various application such as aerospace, machinery and civil structures to maintain structure’s safety and integrity. Gapped smoothing method (GSM) is most popular non-destructive identification (NDI) method due to its simplicity and did not require baseline data for comparisons. However, GSM is less accurate to detect wide size of damage in structure and cause false detection. Objective of this study is to propose a method to detect damage in structure using curvature mode shape data estimated from damaged structure and did not require data from undamaged structure. Finite element analysis (FEA) on a free-free boundary condition steel beam was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method that estimate undamaged curvature mode shape data using cubic polynomial regression (CPR) and Chebyshev filters (CF) methods. The results shows proposed method that used Chebyshev filters has better accuracy damage detection on wide notch compared to GSM. Although application of an interpolation and Chebyshev filters showed results with a high potential for overcoming the issue of false detection due to different notch size, however the proposed method still need refinement to better detection of different damage cases.

  5. Obtaining Mode Shapes through the Karhunen-Loève Expansion for Distributed-Parameter Linear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Wolter

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Karhunen-Loève expansion is a powerful spectral technique for the analysis and synthesis of dynamical systems. It consists in decomposing a spatial correlation matrix, which can be obtained through numerical or physical experiments. The decomposition produces orthogonal eigenfunctions or proper orthogonal modes, and eigenvalues that provide a measurement of how much energy is contained in each mode. The relation between KL modes and mode shapes of linear vibrating systems has already been derived and demonstrated for two and three dofs mass-spring-damper systems. The purpose of this paper is to extend this investigation to more complex distributed-parameter linear systems. A plane truss and a simply supported plate subjected to impulsive forces, commonly used in modal analysis are studied. The resulting KL modes are compared to the analytical mode shapes. Damping and random noise effects in the procedure performance are evaluated. Two methods for indirectly obtaining natural frequencies are also presented.

  6. Enhanced method to reconstruct mode shapes of continuous scanning measurements using the Hilbert Huang transform and the modal analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongsuh; Hussain, Syed Hassaan; Wang, Semyung; Park, Kyihwan

    2014-09-01

    Generally, it is time consuming to experimentally identify the operating deflection shape or mode shape of a structure. To overcome this problem, the Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) technique has been recently proposed. This technique is used to extract the mode shape from measurements that continuously measure the vibration of a region of interest within a structure using a non-contact laser sensor. In previous research regarding the HHT, two technical processes were needed to obtain the mode shape for each mode. The purpose of this study is to improve and complement our previous research, and for this purpose, a modal analysis approach is adapted without using the two technical processes to obtain an accurate un-damped impulse response of each mode for continuous scanning measurements. In addition, frequency response functions for each type of beam are derived, making it possible to make continuously scanned measurements along a straight profile. In this paper, the technical limitations and drawbacks of the damping compensation technique used in previous research are identified. In addition, the separation of resonant frequency (the Doppler effect) that occurs in continuous scanning measurements and the separation of damping phenomenon are also observed. The proposed method is quantitatively verified by comparing it with the results obtained from a conventional approach to estimate the mode shape with an impulse response.

  7. Gigadalton-scale shape-programmable DNA assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenbauer, Klaus F.; Sigl, Christian; Dietz, Hendrik

    2017-12-01

    Natural biomolecular assemblies such as molecular motors, enzymes, viruses and subcellular structures often form by self-limiting hierarchical oligomerization of multiple subunits. Large structures can also assemble efficiently from a few components by combining hierarchical assembly and symmetry, a strategy exemplified by viral capsids. De novo protein design and RNA and DNA nanotechnology aim to mimic these capabilities, but the bottom-up construction of artificial structures with the dimensions and complexity of viruses and other subcellular components remains challenging. Here we show that natural assembly principles can be combined with the methods of DNA origami to produce gigadalton-scale structures with controlled sizes. DNA sequence information is used to encode the shapes of individual DNA origami building blocks, and the geometry and details of the interactions between these building blocks then control their copy numbers, positions and orientations within higher-order assemblies. We illustrate this strategy by creating planar rings of up to 350 nanometres in diameter and with atomic masses of up to 330 megadaltons, micrometre-long, thick tubes commensurate in size to some bacilli, and three-dimensional polyhedral assemblies with sizes of up to 1.2 gigadaltons and 450 nanometres in diameter. We achieve efficient assembly, with yields of up to 90 per cent, by using building blocks with validated structure and sufficient rigidity, and an accurate design with interaction motifs that ensure that hierarchical assembly is self-limiting and able to proceed in equilibrium to allow for error correction. We expect that our method, which enables the self-assembly of structures with sizes approaching that of viruses and cellular organelles, can readily be used to create a range of other complex structures with well defined sizes, by exploiting the modularity and high degree of addressability of the DNA origami building blocks used.

  8. A comparison of several methods for the calculation of vibration mode shape derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, T. R.; Camarda, C. J.; Walsh, J. L.; Adelman, H. M.

    1986-01-01

    Four methods for the calculation of derivatives of vibration mode shapes (eigenvectors) with respect to design parameters are reviewed and compared. These methods (finite difference method, Nelson's method, modal method and a modified modal method) are implemented in a general-purpose commercial finite element program and applied to a cantilever beam and a stiffened cylinder with a cutout. A beam tip mass, a beam root height and specific dimensions of the cylinder model comprise the design variables. Data are presented showing the amount of central processor time used to compute the first four eigenvector derivatives for each example problem; errors and rapidity of convergence of the approximate derivative to the exact derivative are taken into account. Nelson's method proved to be most reliable and efficient.

  9. Dynamic identification of beam axial loads using one flexural mode shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullini, Nerio; Laudiero, Ferdinando

    2008-11-01

    In the last decades, various methods have been proposed for the experimental evaluation of tensile forces acting in tie-beams of arches and vaults. Moreover, static and dynamic approaches have been formulated to evaluate critical compressive axial forces and flexural stiffness of end constraints. Adopting Euler-Bernoulli beam model, this paper shows that, if bending stiffness and mass per unit length of a beam with constant cross-section are known, the axial force and the flexural stiffness of the end constraints can be deduced by one vibration frequency and three components of the corresponding mode shape. Finally, data conditions are given to assess a physically admissible identification of the unknown parameters.

  10. Optical surface edge Bloch modes: low-loss subwavelength-scale 2D light localization

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Shu-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Edge modes of a finite-size woodpile can appear within a complete bandgap on an edge. The mode area is as small as 0.066 squared half-in-vacuum-wavelengths, and the propagation loss is small. The field maxima occur at a dielectric-vacuum interface, like at a metal-dielectric interface for surface plasmon modes. The edge mode is a subwavelength-scale 2D light localization mode in non-metallic materials. Analysis of two-mode co-directional coupling between identical surface Bloch modes suggests that a large photonic crystal or surface designing would be needed for suppressing the evanescent field coupling in the woodpile.

  11. Fundamental uncertainty in the BAO scale from isocurvature modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunckel, C., E-mail: caroline.zunckel@gmail.co [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Astrophysics Department, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, 4 Ivy Lane, NJ 08544 (United States); Okouma, P. [Department of Maths and Applied Maths, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Centre for High Performance Computing, CSIR Campus, 15 Lower Hope St., Rosebank, Cape Town (South Africa); South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6-8 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town (South Africa); Muya Kasanda, S.; Moodley, K. [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Centre for High Performance Computing, CSIR Campus, 15 Lower Hope St., Rosebank, Cape Town (South Africa); Bassett, B.A. [Department of Maths and Applied Maths, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Centre for High Performance Computing, CSIR Campus, 15 Lower Hope St., Rosebank, Cape Town (South Africa); South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6-8 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2011-02-14

    Small fractions of isocurvature perturbations correlated with the dominant adiabatic mode are shown to be a significant primordial systematic for Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) surveys which must be accounted for in future surveys. Isocurvature modes distort the standard ruler distance by broadening and shifting the peak in the galaxy correlation function. While a single isocurvature mode does not significantly degrade dark energy constraints, the general case with multiple isocurvature modes leads to biases that exceed 7{sigma} on average in the dark energy parameters even for isocurvature amplitudes undetectable by PLANCK. Accounting for all isocurvature modes corrects for this bias but degrades the dark energy figure of merit by at least 50% in the case of the BOSS experiment. However the BAO data in turn provides significantly stronger constraints on the nature of the primordial perturbations. Future large galaxy surveys will thus be powerful probes of exotic physics in the early Universe in addition to helping pin down the nature of dark energy.

  12. Effect of Manganese on Microstructures and Solidification Modes of Cast Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huabei; Wen, Yuhua; Du, Yangyang; Yu, Qinxu; Yang, Qin

    2013-10-01

    We investigated microstructures and solidification modes of cast Fe-(13-27)Mn-5.5Si-8.5Cr-5Ni shape memory alloys to clarify whether Mn was an austenite former during solidification. Furthermore, we examined whether the Creq/Nieq equations (Delong, Hull, Hammer and WRC-1992 equations) and Thermo-Calc software® together with database TCFE6 were valid to predict the solidification modes of cast Fe-(13-27)Mn-5.5Si-8.5Cr-5Ni shape memory alloys. The results have shown that the solidification modes of Fe-(13-27)Mn-5.5Si-8.5Cr-5Ni alloys changed from the F mode to the FA mode with increasing the Mn concentration. Mn is an austenite former during the solidification for the cast Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni shape memory alloys. The Delong, Hull, Hammer, and WRC-1992 equations as well as Thermo-Calc software® together with database TCFE6 are invalid to predict the solidification modes of cast Fe-(13-27)Mn-5.5Si-8.5Cr-5Ni SMAs. To predict the solidification modes of cast Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni alloys, a new Creq/Nieq equation should be developed or the thermodynamic database of Thermo-Calc software® should be corrected.

  13. Experimental Measurements by AN Optical Method of Resonant Frequences and Mode Shapes for Square Plates with Rounded Corners and Chamfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUANG, C.-H.

    2002-06-01

    Most of the work done on vibration of plates published in the literature includes analytical and numerical studies with few experimental results available. In this paper, an optical system called the amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry for the out-of-plane displacement measurement is employed to investigate the vibration behavior of plates with rounded corners and with chamfers. The boundary conditions are traction free along the circumference of the plate. Based on the fact that clear fringe patterns will appear only at resonant frequencies, both resonant frequencies and corresponding mode shapes can be obtained experimentally using the present method. Numerical calculations by finite element method are also performed and the results are compared with the experimental measurements. Good agreements are obtained for both results. It is interesting to note that the mode number sequences for some resonant modes are changed. The transition of mode shapes from the square plate to the circular plate is also discussed.

  14. North Atlantic explosive cyclones and large scale atmospheric variability modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.

    2015-04-01

    Extreme windstorms are one of the major natural catastrophes in the extratropics, one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe and are responsible for substantial economic damages and even fatalities. During the last decades Europe witnessed major damage from winter storms such as Lothar (December 1999), Kyrill (January 2007), Klaus (January 2009), Xynthia (February 2010), Gong (January 2013) and Stephanie (February 2014) which exhibited uncommon characteristics. In fact, most of these storms crossed the Atlantic in direction of Europe experiencing an explosive development at unusual lower latitudes along the edge of the dominant North Atlantic storm track and reaching Iberia with an uncommon intensity (Liberato et al., 2011; 2013; Liberato 2014). Results show that the explosive cyclogenesis process of most of these storms at such low latitudes is driven by: (i) the southerly displacement of a very strong polar jet stream; and (ii) the presence of an atmospheric river (AR), that is, by a (sub)tropical moisture export over the western and central (sub)tropical Atlantic which converges into the cyclogenesis region and then moves along with the storm towards Iberia. Previous studies have pointed to a link between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and intense European windstorms. On the other hand, the NAO exerts a decisive control on the average latitudinal location of the jet stream over the North Atlantic basin (Woollings et al. 2010). In this work the link between North Atlantic explosive cyclogenesis, atmospheric rivers and large scale atmospheric variability modes is reviewed and discussed. Liberato MLR (2014) The 19 January 2013 windstorm over the north Atlantic: Large-scale dynamics and impacts on Iberia. Weather and Climate Extremes, 5-6, 16-28. doi: 10.1016/j.wace.2014.06.002 Liberato MRL, Pinto JG, Trigo IF, Trigo RM. (2011) Klaus - an exceptional winter storm over Northern Iberia and Southern France. Weather 66:330-334. doi:10.1002/wea.755 Liberato

  15. Large scale test of wedge shaped micro strip gas counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Atz, S.; Aulchenko, V.; Bachmann, S.; Baiboussinov, B.; Barthe, S.; Beaumont, W.; Beckers, T.; Beissel, F.; Benhammou, Y.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Bernier, K.; Bluem, P.; Bondar, A.; Bouhali, O.; Boulogne, I.; Bozzo, M.; Brom, J.M.; Camps, C.; Chorowicz, V.; Coffin, J.; Commichau, V.; Contardo, D.; Croix, J.; Troy, J. de; Drouhin, F.; Eberle, H.; Fluegge, G.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Geist, W.; Goerlach, U.; Gundlfinger, K.; Hangarter, K.; Haroutunian, R.; Helleboid, J.M.; Henkes, Th.; Hoffer, M.; Hoffman, C.; Huss, D.; Ischebeck, R.; Jeanneau, F.; Juillot, P.; Junghans, S.; Kapp, M.R.; Kaercher, K.; Knoblauch, D.; Kraeber, M.; Krauth, M.; Kremp, J.; Lounis, A.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Maazouzi, C.; Macke, D.; Metri, R.; Mirabito, L.; Mueller, Th.; Nagaslaev, V.; Neuberger, D.; Nowack, A.; Pallares, A.; Pandoulas, D.; Petertill, M.; Pooth, O.; Racca, C.; Ripp, I.; Ruoff, E.; Sauer, A.; Schmitz, P.; Schulte, R.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schunk, J.P.; Schuster, G.; Schwaller, B.; Shektman, L.; Siedling, R.; Sigward, M.H.; Simonis, H.J.; Smadja, G.; Stefanescu, J.; Szczesny, H.; Tatarinov, A.; Thuemmel, W.H.; Tissot, S.; Titov, V.; Todorov, T.; Tonutti, M.; Udo, F.; Velde, C. Vander. E-mail: vandervelde@hep.iihe.ac.be; Doninck, W. van; Dyck, Ch. van; Vanlaer, P.; Lancker, L. van; Verdini, P.G.; Weseler, S.; Wittmer, B.; Wortmann, R.; Zghiche, A.; Zhukov, V

    1999-11-01

    In order to check the system aspects of the forward-backward MSGC tracker designed for the future CMS experiment at LHC, 38 trapezoidal MSGC counters assembled in six multi-substrates detector modules were built and exposed to a muon beam at the CERN SPS. Results on the gain uniformity along the wedge-shaped strip pattern and across the detector modules are shown together with measurements of the detection efficiency and the spatial resolution.

  16. Large scale test of wedge shaped micro strip gas counters

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M; Aulchenko, V M; Bachmann, S; Baibusinov, B O; Barthe, S; Beaumont, W; Beckers, T; Beissel, F; Benhammou, Ya; Bergdolt, A M; Bernier, K; Blüm, H P; Bondar, A E; Bouhali, O; Boulogne, I; Bozzo, M; Brom, J M; Camps, C; Chorowicz, V; Coffin, J P; Commichau, V; Contardo, D; Croix, J; De Troy, J G; Drouhin, F; Eberle, H; Flügge, G; Fontaine, J C; Geist, Walter M; Goerlach, U; Gundlfinger, K; Hangarter, K; Haroutunian, R; Helleboid, J M; Henkes, T; Hoffer, M; Hoffmann, C; Huss, D; Ischebeck, R; Jeanneau, F; Juillot, P; Junghans, S; Kapp, M R; Kärcher, K; Knoblauch, D; Kräber, M H; Krauth, M; Kremp, J; Lounis, A; Lübelsmeyer, K; Maazouzi, C; Macke, D; Metri, R; Mirabito, L; Müller, T; Nagaslaev, V; Neuberger, D; Nowak, A; Pallarès, A; Pandoulas, D; Petertill, M; Pooth, O; Racca, C; Ripp, I; Ruoff, E; Sauer, A; Schmitz, P; Schulte, R; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schunk, J P; Schuster, G; Schwaller, B; Shekhtman, L I; Siedling, R; Sigward, M H; Simonis, H J; Smadja, G; Stefanescu, J; Szczesny, H; Tatarinov, A A; Thümmel, W H; Tissot, S; Titov, V; Todorov, T; Tonutti, M; Udo, Fred; Van der Velde, C; Van Doninck, W K; Van Dyck, C; Vanlaer, P; Van Lancker, L; Verdini, P G; Weseler, S; Wittmer, B; Wortmann, R; Zghiche, A; Zhukov, V

    1999-01-01

    In order to check the system aspects of the forward-backward MSGC tracker designed for the future CMS experiment at LHC, 38 trapezoidal MSGC counters assembled in six multi-substrates detector modules were built and exposed to a muon beam at the CERN SPS. Results on the gain uniformity along the wedge-shaped strip pattern and across the detector modules are shown together with measurements of the detection efficiency and the spatial resolution. (8 refs).

  17. Nonlinear evolution of the internal kink mode in toroidal geometry for shaped tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, J.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Hastie, R.J.; Hender, T.C.

    1987-09-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the internal kink mode is studied in toroidal geometry for noncircular cross section tokamak plasmas. The study is focused on very low shear and hollow q profiles with q(rho) greater than or equal to 1 for which the internal kink is unstable, in the latter case even at ..beta.. - 0. The nonlinear evolution is dominated by ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), and the instability saturates, giving a quasi-helical shift to the magnetic axis. The nonlinear saturation is caused by increased field line bending. Time scales of 10/sup 3/ tau/sub Hp/ and axis shifts of 20% are reached when changes in q on the order of 3 x 10/sup -3/ from the marginal profile are produced. 25 refs., 27 figs.

  18. Parabolic dune development modes according to shape at the southern fringes of the Hobq Desert, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chao; Hasi, Eerdun; Zhang, Ping; Tao, Binbin; Liu, Dan; Zhou, Yanguang

    2017-10-01

    Since the 1970s, parabolic dunes at the southern fringe of the Hobq Desert, Inner Mongolia, China have exhibited many different shapes (V-shaped, U-shaped, and palmate) each with a unique mode of development. In the study area, parabolic dunes are mainly distributed in Regions A, B, and C with an intermittent river running from the south to the north. We used high-resolution remote-sensing images from 1970 to 2014 and RTK-GPS measurements to study the development modes of different dune shapes; the modes are characterized by the relationship between the intermittent river and dunes, formation of the incipient dune patterns, the predominant source supply of dunes, and the primary formation of different shapes (V-shaped, U-shaped, and palmate). Most parabolic dunes in Region A are V-shaped and closer to the bank of the river. The original barchans in this region exhibit "disconnected arms" behavior. With the sand blown out of the riverbed through gullies, the nebkhas on the disconnected arms acquire the external sand source through the "fertile island effect", thereby developing into triangular sand patches and further developing into V-shaped parabolic dunes. Most parabolic dunes in Regions B and C are palmate. The residual dunes cut by the re-channelization of river from transverse dune fields on the west bank are the main sand source of Region B. The parabolic dunes in Region C are the original barchans having then been transformed. The stoss slopes of V-shaped parabolic dunes along the riverbank are gradual and the dunes are flat in shape. The dune crest of V-shaped parabolic dune is the deposition area, which forms the "arc-shaped sand ridge". Their two arms are non-parallel; the lateral airflow of the arms jointly transport sand to the middle part of dunes, resulting in a narrower triangle that gradually becomes V-shaped. Palmate parabolic dunes have a steeper stoss slope and height. The dune crest of the palmate parabolic dune is the erosion area, which forms

  19. Selection of a LGp0-shaped fundamental mode in a laser cavity: Phase versus amplitude masks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hasnaoui, A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser beams of a single high-order transverse mode have been of interest to the laser community for several years now. In order to achieve such a mode as the fundamental mode of the cavity, mode selecting elements in the form of a phase or amplitude...

  20. Shaping Component Leads for Small-Scale Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Simple tool makes it easy to bend leads of electronic components quickly and uniformly for assembly on circuit board. Useful in small-scale production of electronic circuits; saves labor but avoids cost of complicated machinery. Made in range of sizes to accommodate components in variety of dimensions.

  1. Quantum Corrections in Nanoplasmonics: Shape, Scale, and Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Yan, Wei; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2017-01-01

    The classical treatment of plasmonics is insufficient at the nanometer-scale due to quantum mechanical surface phenomena. Here, an extension of the classical paradigm is reported which rigorously remedies this deficiency through the incorporation of first-principles surface response functions...

  2. Scaling properties of equilibrating semiconductor mounds of various initial shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzemen, A. T.; Esen, M.; Ozdemir, M.

    2017-07-01

    A surface below its roughening temperature consisting of two dimensional concentric circular monoatomic steps is discussed under step-flow model. Entropic interactions between the steps are considered and the diffusion equation is solved in two dimensional polar coordinates. It is assumed that the local mass transfer occurs due to surface diffusion only during the evolution of the initial surface. The evolution of initial surfaces bounded by both a sinusoidal and other envelope functions of the form xγ are considered. The evolution of the height of surface as a function of time is analyzed for each surface in Diffusion Limited (DL) regime. We have determined three scaling characteristics of evolution of the height of the surface. For an initial sinusoidal surface profile we have the following findings: The height of surface approximately decreases as τα where α is independent of wavelength and initial height of the surface. The time dependence of the evolution of the height scales with the cube of the wavelength of the initial surface. Finally the normalized height of the initial surfaces of different amplitudes with the same wavelength scales linearly with the amplitude as a function of time. Similar findings are obtained for non-sinusoidal initial surfaces also.

  3. Relaxation Mode Analysis and Scale-Dependent Energy Landscape Statistics in Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhikun; Zhang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In contrast to the prevailing focus on short-lived classical phonon modes in liquids, we propose a classical treatment of the relaxation modes in liquids under a framework analogous to the normal mode analysis in solids. Our relaxation mode analysis is built upon the experimentally measurable two-point density-density correlation function (e.g. using quasi-elastic and inelastic scattering experiments). We show in the Laplace-inverted relaxation frequency z-domain, the eigen relaxation modes are readily decoupled. From here, important statistics of the scale-dependent activation energy in the energy landscape as well as the scale-dependent relaxation time distribution function can be obtained. We first demonstrate this approach in the case of supercooled liquids when dynamic heterogeneity emerges in the landscape-influenced regime. And then we show, using this framework, we are able to extract the scale-dependent energy landscape statistics from neutron scattering measurements.

  4. 3D human shape model adaptation by automatic frame selection and batch-mode optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel approach for 3D human body shape model adaptation to a sequence of multi-view images, given an initial shape model and initial pose sequence. In a first step, the most informative frames are determined by optimization of an objective function that maximizes a shape-texture

  5. Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W

    2010-06-03

    Mobile belts are long-lived deformation zones composed of an ensemble of crustal fragments, distributed over hundreds of kilometres inside continental convergent margins. The Mediterranean represents a remarkable example of this tectonic setting: the region hosts a diffuse boundary between the Nubia and Eurasia plates comprised of a mosaic of microplates that move and deform independently from the overall plate convergence. Surface expressions of Mediterranean tectonics include deep, subsiding backarc basins, intraplate plateaux and uplifting orogenic belts. Although the kinematics of the area are now fairly well defined, the dynamical origins of many of these active features are controversial and usually attributed to crustal and lithospheric interactions. However, the effects of mantle convection, well established for continental interiors, should be particularly relevant in a mobile belt, and modelling may constrain important parameters such as slab coherence and lithospheric strength. Here we compute global mantle flow on the basis of recent, high-resolution seismic tomography to investigate the role of buoyancy-driven and plate-motion-induced mantle circulation for the Mediterranean. We show that mantle flow provides an explanation for much of the observed dynamic topography and microplate motion in the region. More generally, vigorous small-scale convection in the uppermost mantle may also underpin other complex mobile belts such as the North American Cordillera or the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone.

  6. Energy scaling of mode-locked fiber lasers with chirally-coupled core fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrancois, Simon; Sosnowski, Thomas S.; Liu, Chi-Hung; Galvanauskas, Almantas; Wise, Frank W.

    2011-01-01

    We report a mode-locked dissipative soliton laser based on large-mode-area chirally-coupled-core Yb-doped fiber. This demonstrates scaling of a fiber oscillator to large mode area in a format that directly holds the lowest-order mode and that is also compatible with standard fiber integration. With an all-normal-dispersion cavity design, chirped pulse energies above 40 nJ are obtained with dechirped durations below 200 fs. Using a shorter fiber, dechirped durations close to 100 fs are achieved at pump-limited energies. The achievement of correct energy scaling is evidence of single-transverse-mode operation, which is confirmed by beam-quality and spectral-interference measurements. PMID:21369169

  7. Complex modes of vibration due to small-scale damping in a guitar topplate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Torres

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Modal analysis is one of the preeminent methods used by scientists and engineers to study vibrating structures. The frequency responsefunctions obtained through this method, are, in general, complex-valued. There is, however, no agreed-upon interpretation given to thereal and imaginary parts of these functions, even though it is acknowledged that their relative magnitude for different frequencies is relatedto the behaviour of the corresponding modes. A simple model is deduced to describe the shape of the spectrum associated with afinite-length time-signal. There is very good agreement between results obtained using this model and numerical results obtained for,in this case, the vibration of a guitar top-plate using finite element methods. One interpretation of the relative magnitudes of the real and imaginary parts of the frequency response functions is advanced. It is found that stationary-wave behaviour is associated with the dominance of the real or imaginary part; traveling-wave behaviour, on the other hand, occurs when the real and imaginary parts are of the same order of magnitude, as long as the scale of damping is large enough and resonance peaks in the spectrum are close enough.

  8. Single higher-order mode ring-shaped VCSEL with surface relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Hao, Yongqin; Wang, Zhiwei; Xie, Jianlai; Zou, Yonggang; Feng, Yuan; Ma, Xiaohui

    2017-10-01

    A novel vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with single mode, high-power, low divergence, and temperature stability is presented. The most prominent structural feature of the device is that the high optical loss region is formed by an anti-phase surface relief above the top Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBRs) and the light-emitting aperture is ringshaped with larger region. The simulation results show the device with 15μm oxide aperture and 5μm width ring light emitting region achieves stable single-higher-order transverse mode emission with a side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of more than 80dB. The maximum continuous-wave (CW) single mode power is up to 15.2 mW and far-field divergence angle (FWHM) is lower than 4.5°. Moreover, the VCSEL maintains CW single mode emission up to a record high temperature of 450K.

  9. The growth of the tearing mode - Boundary and scaling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinolfson, R. S.; Van Hoven, G.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical model of resistive magnetic tearing is developed in order to verify and relate the results of the principal approximations used in analytic analyses and to investigate the solutions and their growth-rate scalings over a large range of primary parameters which include parametric values applicable to the solar atmosphere. The computations cover the linear behavior for a variety of boundary conditions, emphasizing effects which differentiate magnetic tearing in astrophysical situations from that in laboratory devices. Eigenfunction profiles for long and short wavelengths are computed and the applicability of the 'constant psi' approximation is investigated. The growth rate is computed for values of the magnetic Reynolds number up to a trillion and of the dimensionless wavelength parameter down to 0.001. The analysis predicts significant effects due to differing values of the magnetic Reynolds number.

  10. Investigation of a fast transition from pump mode to generating mode in a model scale reversible pump turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stens, C.; Riedelbauch, S.

    2016-11-01

    Pumped storage power plants are an efficient way to store energy at a large scale. In the last years, the changes between pump and turbine mode have become more and more frequent and the necessity of fast changes has increased. This paper analyses the flow in a model scale pump turbine during a fast transition from pump mode to generating mode by means of CFD. Results will be compared between two different mesh sizes and between simulation and measurement. A linear variation of rotational speed over time is chosen. A time-dependent flow rate through the machine is prescribed at the inlet. Due to the varying conditions, a fully transient analysis is carried out using the open-source code OpenFOAM®. The state of the machine at certain points of time during the transient is compared to the results for steady state simulations with identical boundary conditions. To characterize the phenomena in the guide vane channels, torque on selected guide vanes is evaluated as well as pressure at predefined locations. In the runner, pressure sensors are evaluated near the leading edge on pressure and suction side. In the draft tube, four dynamic pressure sensors in a plane below the runner are analysed. Frequencies and amplitudes are compared to simulation.

  11. Optimal electrode shape and size for shear mode thin film acoustic wave resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L. M.; Tang, B. B.; Hu, Y. T.; Fan, H.; Yang, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    We study electrode shape and size for plates of hexagonal crystals or polarized ceramics with the sixfold axis or the poling direction parallel to the plate surfaces so that they can be excited into thickness-shear vibration by an electric field in the plate thickness direction. Electrode size and shape optimal in the sense that they satisfy the criterion of Bechmann's number in every direction are determined.

  12. Modes of planetary-scale Fe isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Ronny; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm

    2006-12-01

    A comprehensive set of high-precision Fe isotope data for the principle meteorite types and silicate reservoirs of the Earth is used to investigate iron isotope fractionation at inter- and intra-planetary scales. 14 chondrite analyses yield a homogeneous Fe isotope composition with an average δ56Fe/ 54Fe value of - 0.015 ± 0.020‰ (2 SE) relative to the international iron standard IRMM-014. Eight non-cumulate and polymict eucrite meteorites that sample the silicate portion of the HED (howardite-eucrite-diogenite) parent body yield an average δ56Fe/ 54Fe value of - 0.001 ± 0.017‰, indistinguishable to the chondritic Fe isotope composition. Fe isotope ratios that are indistinguishable to the chondritic value have also been published for SNC meteorites. This inner-solar system homogeneity in Fe isotopes suggests that planetary accretion itself did not significantly fractionate iron. Nine mantle xenoliths yield a 2 σ envelope of - 0.13‰ to + 0.09‰ in δ56Fe/ 54Fe. Using this range as proxy for the bulk silicate Earth in a mass balance model places the Fe isotope composition of the outer liquid core that contains ca. 83% of Earth's total iron to within ± 0.020‰ of the chondritic δ56Fe/ 54Fe value. These calculations allow to interprete magmatic iron meteorites ( δ56Fe/ 54Fe = + 0.047 ± 0.016‰; N = 8) to be representative for the Earth's inner metallic core. Eight terrestrial basalt samples yield a homogeneous Fe isotope composition with an average δ56Fe/ 54Fe value of + 0.072 ± 0.016‰. The observation that terrestrial basalts appear to be slightly heavier than mantle xenoliths and that thus partial mantle melting preferentially transfers heavy iron into the melt [S. Weyer, A.D. Anbar, G.P. Brey, C. Munker, K. Mezger and A.B. Woodland, Iron isotope fractionation during planetary differentiation, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 240(2), 251-264, 2005.] is intriguing, but also raises some important questions: first it is questionable whether the

  13. Scale and shape issues in focused cluster power for count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puett, Robin C; Lawson, Andrew B; Clark, Allan B; Aldrich, Tim E; Porter, Dwayne E; Feigley, Charles E; Hebert, James R

    2005-03-31

    BACKGROUND: Interest in the development of statistical methods for disease cluster detection has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Evaluations of statistical power provide important information for the selection of an appropriate statistical method in environmentally-related disease cluster investigations. Published power evaluations have not yet addressed the use of models for focused cluster detection and have not fully investigated the issues of disease cluster scale and shape. As meteorological and other factors can impact the dispersion of environmental toxicants, it follows that environmental exposures and associated diseases can be dispersed in a variety of spatial patterns. This study simulates disease clusters in a variety of shapes and scales around a centrally located single pollution source. We evaluate the power of a range of focused cluster tests and generalized linear models to detect these various cluster shapes and scales for count data. RESULTS: In general, the power of hypothesis tests and models to detect focused clusters improved when the test or model included parameters specific to the shape of cluster being examined (i.e. inclusion of a function for direction improved power of models to detect clustering with an angular effect). However, power to detect clusters where the risk peaked and then declined was limited. CONCLUSION: Findings from this investigation show sizeable changes in power according to the scale and shape of the cluster and the test or model applied. These findings demonstrate the importance of selecting a test or model with functions appropriate to detect the spatial pattern of the disease cluster.

  14. Design and Applications of In-Cavity Pulse Shaping by Spectral Sculpturing in Mode-Locked Fibre Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Boscolo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We review our recent progress on the realisation of pulse shaping in passively-mode-locked fibre lasers by inclusion of an amplitude and/or phase spectral filter into the laser cavity. We numerically show that depending on the amplitude transfer function of the in-cavity filter, various regimes of advanced waveform generation can be achieved, including ones featuring parabolic-, flat-top- and triangular-profiled pulses. An application of this approach using a flat-top spectral filter is shown to achieve the direct generation of high-quality sinc-shaped optical Nyquist pulses with a widely tunable bandwidth from the laser oscillator. We also present the operation of an ultrafast fibre laser in which conventional soliton, dispersion-managed soliton (stretched-pulse and dissipative soliton mode-locking regimes can be selectively and reliably targeted by adaptively changing the dispersion profile and bandwidth programmed on an in-cavity programmable filter. The results demonstrate the strong potential of an in-cavity spectral pulse shaper for achieving a high degree of control over the dynamics and output of mode-locked fibre lasers.

  15. Experiment-theory comparison for low frequency BAE modes in the strongly shaped H-1NF stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskey, S. R.; Blackwell, B. D.; Nührenberg, C.; Könies, A.; Bertram, J.; Michael, C.; Hole, M. J.; Howard, J.

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in the modeling, analysis, and measurement of fluctuations have significantly improved the diagnosis and understanding of Alfvén eigenmodes in the strongly shaped H-1NF helical axis stellarator. Experimental measurements, including 3D tomographic inversions of high resolution visible light images, are in close agreement with beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (BAEs) calculated using the compressible ideal MHD code, CAS3D. This is despite the low β in H-1NF, providing experimental evidence that these modes can exist due to compression that is induced by the strong shaping in stellarators, in addition to high β, as is the case in tokamaks. This is confirmed using the CONTI and CAS3D codes, which show significant gap structures at lower frequencies which contain BAE and beta-acoustic Alfvén eigenmodes (BAAEs). The BAEs are excited in the absence of a well confined energetic particle source, further confirming previous studies that thermal particles, electrons, or even radiation fluctuations can drive these modes. Datamining of magnetic probe data shows the experimentally measured frequency of these modes has a clear dependence on the rotational transform profile, which is consistent with a frequency dependency due to postulated confinement related temperature variations.

  16. Pulse-shaping mechanism in colliding-pulse mode-locked laser diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Svend; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Mørk, J.

    1995-01-01

    The large signal dynamics of passively colliding pulse mode-locked laser diodes is studied. We derive a model which explains modelocking via the interplay of gain and loss dynamics; no bandwidth limiting element is necessary for pulse formation. It is found necessary to have both fast and slow ab...... absorber dynamics to achieve mode-locking. Significant chirp is predicted for pulses emitted from long lasers, in agreement with experiment. The pulse width shows a strong dependence on both cavity and saturable absorber length. (C) 1995 American Institute of Physics.......The large signal dynamics of passively colliding pulse mode-locked laser diodes is studied. We derive a model which explains modelocking via the interplay of gain and loss dynamics; no bandwidth limiting element is necessary for pulse formation. It is found necessary to have both fast and slow...

  17. Design and experiment of a cross-shaped mode converter for high-power microwave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Shengren, E-mail: 785751053@qq.com; Yuan, Chengwei; Zhong, Huihuang; Fan, Yuwei [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2013-12-15

    A compact mode converter, which is capable of converting a TM{sub 01} mode into a circularly polarized TE{sub 11} mode, was developed and experimentally studied with high-power microwaves. The converter, consisting of two turnstile junctions, is very short along the wave propagation direction, and therefore is suitable for designing compact and axially aligned high-power microwave radiation systems. In this paper, the principle of a converter working at 1.75 GHz is demonstrated, as well as the experimental results. The experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. At the center frequency, the conversion efficiency is more than 95%, the measured axial ratio is about 0.4 dB, and the power-handing capacity is excess of 1.9 GW.

  18. Design and experiment of a cross-shaped mode converter for high-power microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shengren; Yuan, Chengwei; Zhong, Huihuang; Fan, Yuwei

    2013-12-01

    A compact mode converter, which is capable of converting a TM01 mode into a circularly polarized TE11 mode, was developed and experimentally studied with high-power microwaves. The converter, consisting of two turnstile junctions, is very short along the wave propagation direction, and therefore is suitable for designing compact and axially aligned high-power microwave radiation systems. In this paper, the principle of a converter working at 1.75 GHz is demonstrated, as well as the experimental results. The experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. At the center frequency, the conversion efficiency is more than 95%, the measured axial ratio is about 0.4 dB, and the power-handing capacity is excess of 1.9 GW.

  19. Alternative modes for optical trapping and manipulation using counter-propagating shaped beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Lindballe, T.B.; Kristensen, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Counter-propagating beams have enabled the first stable three-dimensional optical trapping of microparticles and this procedure has been enhanced and developed over the years to achieve independent and interactive manipulation of multiple particles. In this work, we analyse counter...... that deviating from using perfectly counter-propagating beams to use oblique beams can improve the axial stability of the traps and improve the axial trapping stiffness. These alternative geometries can be particularly useful for handling larger particles. These results hint at a rich potential for light shaping......-propagating shaped-beam traps that depart from the conventional geometry based on symmetric, coaxial counter-propagating beams. We show that projecting shaped beams with separation distances previously considered axially unstable can, in fact, enhance the axial and transverse trapping stiffnesses. We also show...

  20. Multi-Scale Pixel-Based Image Fusion Using Multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed ur Rehman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel scheme to perform the fusion of multiple images using the multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD algorithm is proposed. Standard multi-scale fusion techniques make a priori assumptions regarding input data, whereas standard univariate empirical mode decomposition (EMD-based fusion techniques suffer from inherent mode mixing and mode misalignment issues, characterized respectively by either a single intrinsic mode function (IMF containing multiple scales or the same indexed IMFs corresponding to multiple input images carrying different frequency information. We show that MEMD overcomes these problems by being fully data adaptive and by aligning common frequency scales from multiple channels, thus enabling their comparison at a pixel level and subsequent fusion at multiple data scales. We then demonstrate the potential of the proposed scheme on a large dataset of real-world multi-exposure and multi-focus images and compare the results against those obtained from standard fusion algorithms, including the principal component analysis (PCA, discrete wavelet transform (DWT and non-subsampled contourlet transform (NCT. A variety of image fusion quality measures are employed for the objective evaluation of the proposed method. We also report the results of a hypothesis testing approach on our large image dataset to identify statistically-significant performance differences.

  1. Mode of Delivery Shapes Gut Colonization Pattern and Modulates Regulatory Immunity in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    H. F. Hansen, Camilla; S. F. Andersen, Line; Krych, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    Delivery mode has been associated with long-term changes in gut microbiota composition and more recently also with changes in the immune system. This has further been suggested to link Cesarean section (C-section) with an increased risk for development of immune-mediated diseases such as type 1 d...

  2. Perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction switching dynamic modes, extreme events, and performance scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobin; Wang, Zihui; Hao, Xiaojie; Gan, Huadong; Xu, Pengfa; Jung, Dongha; Satoh, Kimihiro; Zhou, Yuchen; Zhang, Jing; Yen, Bing K.; Huai, Yiming

    2017-05-01

    The performance of the state-of-the-art perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction (pMTJ) device is fundamentally determined by the physics of material "extreme events." A dynamic mode approach is used to study "extreme events" of stochastic nonlinear magnetization switching, including magnetic interactions and non-uniform magnetization dynamics. Our theory and experiment show that the magnetization switching "extreme events" are well characterized by the dynamic modes of interacting magnetic systems. The dynamic modes provide a clear understanding of the physical processes of the magnetization switching "extreme events." We predict markedly different pMTJ scaling behaviors for spin transfer torque, spin-orbit-interaction torque, and thermal fluctuations at different operation speeds and bit error rate conditions. Understanding these scaling behaviors is critical for existing and emerging pMTJ device applications.

  3. Multi-scale Simulations of DIII-D near-edge L-mode plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiser, T.; Jenko, F.; Carter, T.; Schmitz, L.; Told, D.; Navarro, A. Banon; McKee, G.; Yan, Z.

    2016-10-01

    In order to self-consistently describe the L-H transition we have to be able to quantitatively characterize near-edge L-mode plasmas (ρ=0.8). Instructed by a linear analysis, we perform nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of a DIII-D L-mode discharge. Comparison between single-scale and multi-scale simulations reveals that stability of ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence affects cross-scale coupling. When ion transport is stabilized by zonal flows, electron temperature gradient (ETG) streamer amplitude is reduced but persists at sub-ion-scales, causing radial electron heat transport to dominate. When ITG modes are unstable, we find that ion heat transport dominates, in agreement with experimental data. Moreover, nonlinear de-stabilization of ion transport occurs at higher critical gradients for multi-scale than for single-scale simulations, showing an enhanced Dimits shift. All simulations are performed with the GENE code (genecode.org). Experimental and computational work supported by the U.S. DOE, DE-FG02-08ER54984, DE-FC02-04ER54698, and DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  4. Body shape shifting during growth permits tests that distinguish between competing geometric theories of metabolic scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Glazier, Douglas S.; Atkinson, David

    2014-01-01

    the size dependence of metabolism is derived from material transport across external surfaces, or through internal resource-transport networks. We show that when body shape changes during growth, these models make opposing predictions. These models are tested using pelagic invertebrates, because...... these animals exhibit highly variable intraspecific scaling relationships for metabolic rate and body shape. Metabolic scaling slopes of diverse integument-breathing species were significantly positively correlated with degree of body flattening or elongation during ontogeny, as expected from surface area...... theory, but contradicting the negative correlations predicted by resource-transport network models. This finding explains strong deviations from predictions of widely adopted theory, and underpins a new explanation for mass-invariant metabolic scaling during ontogeny in animals and plants...

  5. Relation between B-mode Gray-scale Median and Clinical Features of Carotid Stenosis Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkert, Joe L.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Loonstra, Jan; Schenk, Miranda; van der Palen, Job; van den Dungen, Jan J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    Background: Vulnerability of the carotid plaque might be useful as a predictor for ischemic stroke risk. The gray-scale median (GSM) of the carotid plaque at B-mode imaging has been described as an objective tool to quantify vulnerability. However, its use is disputed in the published literature.

  6. Relation between B-mode Gray-scale Median and Clinical Features of Carotid Stenosis Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkert, Joé L.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Loonstra, Jan; Schenk, Miranda; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; van den Dungen, Jan J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vulnerability of the carotid plaque might be useful as a predictor for ischemic stroke risk. The gray-scale median (GSM) of the carotid plaque at B-mode imaging has been described as an objective tool to quantify vulnerability. However, its use is disputed in the published literature.

  7. A continuous-discrete approach for evaluation of natural frequencies and mode shapes of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekinejad, Mohsen; Rahgozar, Reza; Malekinejad, Ali; Rahgozar, Peyman

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a continuous-discrete approach based on the concept of lumped mass and equivalent continuous approach is proposed for free vibration analysis of combined system of framed tube, shear core and outrigger-belt truss in high-rise buildings. This system is treated as a continuous system (i.e., discrete beams and columns are replaced with equivalent continuous membranes) and a discrete system (or lumped mass system) at different stages of dynamic analysis. The structure is discretized at each floor of the building as a series of lumped masses placed at the center of shear core. Each mass has two transitional degrees of freedom (lateral and axial( and one rotational. The effect of shear core and outrigger-belt truss on framed tube system is modeled as a rotational spring placed at the location of outrigger-belt truss system along structure's height. By solving the resulting eigen problem, natural frequencies and mode-shapes are obtained. Numerical examples are presented to show acceptable accuracy of the procedure in estimating the fundamental frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of the combined system as compared to finite element analysis of the complete structure. The simplified proposed method is much faster and should be more suitable for rapid interactive design.

  8. Shaped by the Past: The Default Mode Network Supports Cognition that Is Independent of Immediate Perceptual Input.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahiko Konishi

    Full Text Available Although many different accounts of the functions of the default mode network (DMN have been proposed, few can adequately account for the spectrum of different cognitive functions that utilize this network. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to explore the hypothesis that the role of the DMN in higher order cognition is to allow cognition to be shaped by information from stored representations rather than information in the immediate environment. Using a novel task paradigm, we observed increased BOLD activity in regions of the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex when individuals made decisions on the location of shapes from the prior trial and decreased BOLD activity when individuals made decisions on the location of shapes on the current trial. These data are inconsistent with views of the DMN as a task-negative system or one that is sensitive only to stimuli with strong personal or emotional ties. Instead the involvement of the DMN when people make decisions about where a shape was, rather than where it is now, supports the hypothesis that the core hubs of the DMN allow cognition to be guided by information other than the immediate perceptual input. We propose that a variety of different forms of higher order thought (such as imagining the future or considering the perspective of another person engage the DMN because these more complex introspective forms of higher order thought all depend on the capacity for cognition to be shaped by representations that are not present in the external environment.

  9. Extracting physical properties of arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Martin; Kluska, Sven; Hameiri, Ziv; Hoex, Bram; Aberle, Armin G.

    2013-12-01

    We present a method that allows the extraction of relevant physical properties such as sheet resistance and dopant profile from arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas formed in semiconductors with a focused pulsed laser beam. The key feature of the method is to use large laser-doped areas with an identical average number of laser pulses per area (laser pulse density) as the arbitrarily shaped areas. The method is verified using sheet resistance measurements on laser-doped silicon samples. Furthermore, the method is extended to doping with continuous-wave lasers by using the average number of passes per area or density of passes.

  10. Scale and shape issues in focused cluster power for count data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porter Dwayne E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in the development of statistical methods for disease cluster detection has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Evaluations of statistical power provide important information for the selection of an appropriate statistical method in environmentally-related disease cluster investigations. Published power evaluations have not yet addressed the use of models for focused cluster detection and have not fully investigated the issues of disease cluster scale and shape. As meteorological and other factors can impact the dispersion of environmental toxicants, it follows that environmental exposures and associated diseases can be dispersed in a variety of spatial patterns. This study simulates disease clusters in a variety of shapes and scales around a centrally located single pollution source. We evaluate the power of a range of focused cluster tests and generalized linear models to detect these various cluster shapes and scales for count data. Results In general, the power of hypothesis tests and models to detect focused clusters improved when the test or model included parameters specific to the shape of cluster being examined (i.e. inclusion of a function for direction improved power of models to detect clustering with an angular effect. However, power to detect clusters where the risk peaked and then declined was limited. Conclusion Findings from this investigation show sizeable changes in power according to the scale and shape of the cluster and the test or model applied. These findings demonstrate the importance of selecting a test or model with functions appropriate to detect the spatial pattern of the disease cluster.

  11. Investigation on pulse shaping in fiber laser hybrid mode-locked by Sb(2)Te(3) saturable absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusławski, Jakub; Soboń, Grzegorz; Zybała, Rafał; Mars, Krzysztof; Mikuła, Andrzej; Abramski, Krzysztof M; Sotor, Jarosław

    2015-11-02

    We report a study on a hybrid mode-locked fiber laser with two saturable absorbers: slow and fast, integrated in a single device. Amorphous antimony telluride (Sb(2)Te(3)) layer was deposited on side-polished fiber to form the slow saturable absorber due to the third order nonlinear susceptibility of Sb(2)Te(3). Additionally, an unsymmetrical design of the device causes polarization-dependent losses and together with polarization controller allows to use a nonlinear polarization evolution to form the artificial fast saturable absorber. Sub-200 fs soliton pulses with 0.27 nJ of pulse energy were generated in the hybrid mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser. Differences in the dynamics of mode-locked laser are further investigated with the use of slow and fast saturable absorbers solely, and compared with the hybrid device. Joint operation of two saturable absorbers enhances the laser performance and stability. The conducted experiments allowed to define roles of each mechanism on the pulse shaping in the laser cavity.

  12. Application of the mode-shape expansion based on model order reduction methods to a composite structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuentes Humberto Peredo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of different mode-shape expansion (MSE methods to a CFRP based on model order reduction (MOR and component mode synthesis (CMS methods is evaluated combining the updated stiffness parameters of the full FE model obtained with a mix-numerical experimental technique (MNET in a previous work. The eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies of the different MSE methods obtained are compared with respect to the experimental measurements and with a full FE model solutions using the modal assurance criteria (MAC. Furthermore, the stiffness and mass weighted coefficients (K-MAC and M-MAC respectively are calculated and compared to observe the influence of the different subspace based expansion methods applying the MAC criteria. The K-MAC and M-MAC are basically the MAC coefficients weighted by a partition of the global stiffness and mass matrices respectively. The best K-MAC and M-MAC results per paired mode-sensor are observed in the subspace based expansion MODAL/SEREP and MDRE-WE methods using the updated stiffness parameters. A strong influence of the subspace based on MOR using MSE methods is observed in the K-MAC and M-MAC criteria implemented in SDTools evaluating the stiffness parameters in a contrieved example.

  13. A Dual-Mode Bandpass Filter with Multiple Controllable Transmission-Zeros Using T-Shaped Stub-Loaded Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual-mode broadband bandpass filter (BPF with multiple controllable transmission-zeros using T-shaped stub-loaded resonators (TSSLRs is presented. Due to the symmetrical plane, the odd-even-mode theory can be adopted to characterize the BPF. The proposed filter consists of a dual-mode TSSLR and two modified feed-lines, which introduce two capacitive and inductive source-load (S-L couplings. Five controllable transmission zeros (TZs can be achieved for the high selectivity and the wide stopband because of the tunable amount of coupling capacitance and inductance. The center frequency of the proposed BPF is 5.8 GHz, with a 3 dB fraction bandwidth of 8.9%. The measured insertion and return losses are 1.75 and 28.18 dB, respectively. A compact size and second harmonic frequency suppression can be obtained by the proposed BPF with S-L couplings.

  14. Decomposition of multi-scale coherent structures in a turbulent boundary layer by variational mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenkang; Pan, Chong; Wang, Jinjun

    2016-11-01

    Turbulent boundary layer (TBL) is believed to contain a wide spectrum of coherent structures, from near-wall low-speed streaks characterized by inner scale to log-layer large-scale coherent motions (LSM and VLSM) characterized by outer scale. Recent studies have evidenced the interaction between these multi-scale structures via either bottom-up or top-down mechanisms, which implies the possibility of identifying the coexistence of their footprints at medium flow layer. Here, we propose a Quasi-Bivariate Variational Mode Decomposition method (QB-VMD), which is an update of the traditional Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) with bandwidth limitation, for the decomposition of the PIV measured 2D flow fields with large ROI (Δx × Δz 4 δ × 1 . 5 δ) at specified wall-normal heights (y / δ = 0 . 05 0 . 2) of a turbulent boundary layer with Reτ = 3460 . The empirical modes identified by QB-VMD well capture the characteristics of log-layer LSMs as well as that of near-wall streak-like structures. The lateral scales of these structures are analyzed and their respective energy contribution are evaluated. Supported by both the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11372001 and 11490552) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. YWF-16-JCTD-A-05).

  15. Using input command pre-shaping to suppress multiple mode vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, James M.; Seering, Warren P.

    1990-01-01

    Spacecraft, space-borne robotic systems, and manufacturing equipment often utilize lightweight materials and configurations that give rise to vibration problems. Prior research has led to the development of input command pre-shapers that can significantly reduce residual vibration. These shapers exhibit marked insensitivity to errors in natural frequency estimates and can be combined to minimize vibration at more than one frequency. This paper presents a method for the development of multiple mode input shapers which are simpler to implement than previous designs and produce smaller system response delays. The new technique involves the solution of a group of simultaneous non-linear impulse constraint equations. The resulting shapers were tested on a model of MACE, an MIT/NASA experimental flexible structure.

  16. Tailoring optical resonant cavity modes in SnO2 microstructures through doping and shape engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tecedor, M.; Maestre, D.; Cremades, A.; Piqueras, J.

    2017-10-01

    Optical resonances are effectively tailored by engineering size, morphology and doping in tin oxide microstructures. The use of Cr shifts the light confinement to the near-infrared region, as compared to the undoped microstructures, while achieving good Q and F factors. Other issues, such as appropriate thickness to width ratio, allow the selection of Fabry-Pérot or Whispering Gallery modes, or the appearance of a combination of both kinds of resonances in the same microstructure. Morphology variability would contribute with flexibility in the design of systems for different applications, while combining the observed waveguiding behavior with the optical resonances in the same material is an advantage for applications based in a monolithic design. Refraction index of Cr doped tin oxide has been obtained.

  17. Scaling laws and sum rules for the B-mode polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the microwave background polarization anisotropies is investigated when the stochastic Faraday rate is stationary, random and Markovian. The scaling properties of the polarization power spectra and of their nonlinear combinations are scrutinized as a function of the comoving frequency. It is argued that each frequency channel of a given experiment measuring simultaneously the E-mode and the B-mode spectra can be analyzed in this framework with the aim of testing the physical origin of the polarization in a model-independent perspective.

  18. Shape shifting predicts ontogenetic changes in metabolic scaling in diverse aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Douglas S; Hirst, Andrew G; Atkinson, David

    2015-03-07

    Metabolism fuels all biological activities, and thus understanding its variation is fundamentally important. Much of this variation is related to body size, which is commonly believed to follow a 3/4-power scaling law. However, during ontogeny, many kinds of animals and plants show marked shifts in metabolic scaling that deviate from 3/4-power scaling predicted by general models. Here, we show that in diverse aquatic invertebrates, ontogenetic shifts in the scaling of routine metabolic rate from near isometry (bR = scaling exponent approx. 1) to negative allometry (bR < 1), or the reverse, are associated with significant changes in body shape (indexed by bL = the scaling exponent of the relationship between body mass and body length). The observed inverse correlations between bR and bL are predicted by metabolic scaling theory that emphasizes resource/waste fluxes across external body surfaces, but contradict theory that emphasizes resource transport through internal networks. Geometric estimates of the scaling of surface area (SA) with body mass (bA) further show that ontogenetic shifts in bR and bA are positively correlated. These results support new metabolic scaling theory based on SA influences that may be applied to ontogenetic shifts in bR shown by many kinds of animals and plants. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Design of a shape-memory alloy actuated macro-scale morphing aircraft mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Justin; Garcia, Ephrahim; Wickenheiser, Adam; Horner, Garnett C.

    2005-05-01

    As more alternative, lightweight actuators have become available, the conventional fixed-wing configuration seen on modern aircraft is under investigation for efficiency on a broad scale. If an aircraft could be designed with multiple functional equilibria of drastically varying aerodynamic parameters, one craft capable of 'morphing' its shape could be used to replace two or three designed with particular intentions. One proposed shape for large-scale (geometry change on the same order of magnitude as wingspan) morphing is the Hyper-Elliptical Cambered Span (HECS) wing, designed at NASA Langley to be implemented on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Proposed mechanisms to accomplish the spanwise curvature (in the y-z plane of the craft) that allow near-continuous bending of the wing are narrowed to a tendon-based DC motor actuated system, and a shape memory alloy-based (SMA) mechanism. At Cornell, simulations and wind tunnel experiments assess the validity of the HECS wing as a potential shape for a blended-wing body craft with the potential to effectively serve the needs of two conventional UAVs, and analyze the energetics of actuation associated with a morphing maneuver accomplished with both a DC motor and SMA wire.

  20. Large-scale diversification of skull shape in domestic dogs: disparity and modularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Abby Grace; Klingenberg, Christian Peter

    2010-03-01

    Abstract: The variation among domestic dog breeds offers a unique opportunity to study large-scale diversification by microevolutionary mechanisms. We use geometric morphometrics to quantify the diversity of skull shape in 106 breeds of domestic dog, in three wild canid species, and across the order Carnivora. The amount of shape variation among domestic dogs far exceeds that in wild species, and it is comparable to the disparity throughout the Carnivora. The greatest shape distances between dog breeds clearly surpass the maximum divergence between species in the Carnivora. Moreover, domestic dogs occupy a range of novel shapes outside the domain of wild carnivorans. The disparity among companion dogs substantially exceeds that of other classes of breeds, suggesting that relaxed functional demands facilitated diversification. Much of the diversity of dog skull shapes stems from variation between short and elongate skulls and from modularity of the face versus that of the neurocranium. These patterns of integration and modularity apply to variation among individuals and breeds, but they also apply to fluctuating asymmetry, indicating they have a shared developmental basis. These patterns of variation are also found for the wolf and across the Carnivora, suggesting that they existed before the domestication of dogs and are not a result of selective breeding.

  1. Large-scale experimental landscapes reveal distinctive effects of patch shape and connectivity on arthropod communities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrock, John, L.; Curler, Gregory, R.; Danielson, Brent, J.; Coyle, David. R.

    2011-09-14

    The size, shape, and isolation of habitat patches can affect organism behavior and population dynamics, but little is known about the relative role of shape and connectivity in affecting ecological communities at large spatial scales. Using six sampling sessions from July 2001 until August 2002, we collected 33,685 arthropods throughout seven 12-ha experimental landscapes consisting of clear-cut patches surrounded by a matrix of mature pine forest. Patches were explicitly designed to manipulate connectivity (via habitat corridors) independently of area and edge effects. We found that patch shape, rather than connectivity, affected ground-dwelling arthropod richness and beta diversity (i.e. turnover of genera among patches). Arthropod communities contained fewer genera and exhibited less turnover in high-edge connected and high-edge unconnected patches relative to low-edge unconnected patches of similar area. Connectivity, rather than patch shape, affected the evenness of ground-dwelling arthropod communities; regardless of patch shape, high-edge connected patches had lower evenness than low- or high-edge unconnected patches. Among the most abundant arthropod orders, increased richness in low-edge unconnected patches was largely due to increased richness of Coleoptera, whereas Hymenoptera played an important role in the lower evenness in connected patches and patterns of turnover. These findings suggest that anthropogenic habitat alteration can have distinct effects on ground-dwelling arthropod communities that arise due to changes in shape and connectivity. Moreover, this work suggests that corridors, which are common conservation tools that change both patch shape and connectivity, can have multiple effects on arthropod communities via different mechanisms, and each effect may alter components of community structure.

  2. Multi-scale modeling of shape distortions during sintering of bi-layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Bjørk, Rasmus; Olevsky, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Models for deformational behaviors of porous bodies during sintering often rely on limited number of internal variables as they are formulated based on simplified or ideal microstructures. Considering realistic microstructures can improve the predictive capabilities of the already established...... theories like the continuum theory of sintering. A new multi-scale numerical approach for modeling of shape distortions during sintering of macroscopically inhomogeneous structures combined with a microstructure model is developed. The microstructures of the porous body are described by unit cells based...

  3. Scaling and shear transformations capture beak shape variation in Darwin’s finches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campàs, O.; Mallarino, R.; Herrel, A.; Abzhanov, A.; Brenner, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Evolution by natural selection has resulted in a remarkable diversity of organism morphologies that has long fascinated scientists and served to establish the first relations among species. Despite the essential role of morphology as a phenotype of species, there is not yet a formal, mathematical scheme to quantify morphological phenotype and relate it to both the genotype and the underlying developmental genetics. Herein we demonstrate that the morphological diversity in the beaks of Darwin’s Finches is quantitatively accounted for by the mathematical group of affine transformations. Specifically, we show that all beak shapes of Ground Finches (genus Geospiza) are related by scaling transformations (a subgroup of the affine group), and the same relationship holds true for all the beak shapes of Tree, Cocos, and Warbler Finches (three distinct genera). This analysis shows that the beak shapes within each of these groups differ only by their scales, such as length and depth, which are genetically controlled by Bmp4 and Calmodulin. By measuring Bmp4 expression in the beak primordia of the species in the genus Geospiza, we provide a quantitative map between beak morphology and the expression levels of Bmp4. The complete morphological variation within the beaks of Darwin’s finches can be explained by extending the scaling transformations to the entire affine group, by including shear transformations. Altogether our results suggest that the mathematical theory of groups can help decode morphological variation, and points to a potentially hierarchical structure of morphological diversity and the underlying developmental processes. PMID:20160106

  4. Highly birefringent single mode spiral shape photonic crystal fiber based sensor for gas sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibadul Islam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article represents a gas sensor based on spiral photonic crystal fiber (S-PCF for detecting harmful or colorless gasses and monitoring air pollution by metering gas condensate elements in production facilities. The proposed micro-structured S-PCF contains two layers porous core encircled by a spiral shape cladding. The geometrical parameters are tuned to fix the optimized S-PCF structure. The numerical analysis of the proposed S-PCF is performed by utilizing finite element method (FEM with circular perfectly match layer (C-PML. The relative sensitivity and birefringence of the recommended structure are 57.61% and 7.53 × 10−3 respectively at 1.33 μm wavelength on the absorption line of toxic gasses (methane and hydrogen fluoride. The exhibited beam divergence is about 4.1° at the same wavelength. Besides, beat length, nonlinear coefficient, effective area and V parameters are also described briefly for optimized S-PCF structure over broader wavelength range from 1 μm to 1.8 μm.

  5. Mode shape identification of an existing three-story flexible steel stairway as a continuous dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolis George D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of modal shape identification for a flexible steel stairway located within the building complex comprising the Civil Engineering department of Aristotle University in Thessaloniki, Greece is presented here. The aforementioned stairway is a system with continuous distribution of mass and stiffness, a fact that makes structural identification challenging as compared to structures where lumping of these two basic parameters can be observed. More specifically, this stairway was instrumented using a local multi-channel network of accelerometers. Two 12 bit-nominal resolution, digital uniaxial accelerometers of the type KUOWA-PCD-30A, connected by cables and with ‘common time’ and ‘common start’ characteristics were installed on the stairway. The dominant modes of vibration of the stairway were computed by the ‘modal response acceleration time history methodology’. In parallel, a detailed finite element method model of the stairway was constructed and calibrated according to the ambient vibration results. We note that the identification procedure used for the dynamic characteristics of spatial structures yields results that can be used to develop a family of numerical models for the stairway ranging from the simple single-degree-of-freedom system to highly detailed multiple-degree-of-freedom models. Finally, some useful information on the theoretical procedure for the identification of modal shapes is included herein.

  6. Mitigation of Power frequency Magnetic Fields. Using Scale Invariant and Shape Optimization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas, Ener; Yueqiang Liu; Daalder, Jaap; Cruz, Pedro; Antunez de Souza, Paulo Roberto Jr; Atalaya, Juan Carlos; Paula Marciano, Fabianna de; Eskinasy, Alexandre

    2006-10-15

    The present report describes the development and application of two novel methods for implementing mitigation techniques of magnetic fields at power frequencies. The first method makes use of scaling rules for electromagnetic quantities, while the second one applies a 2D shape optimization algorithm based on gradient methods. Before this project, the first method had already been successfully applied (by some of the authors of this report) to electromagnetic designs involving pure conductive Material (e.g. copper, aluminium) which implied a linear formulation. Here we went beyond this approach and tried to develop a formulation involving ferromagnetic (i.e. non-linear) Materials. Surprisingly, we obtained good equivalent replacement for test-transformers by varying the input current. In spite of the validity of this equivalence constrained to regions not too close to the source, the results can still be considered useful, as most field mitigation techniques are precisely developed for reducing the magnetic field in regions relatively far from the sources. The shape optimization method was applied in this project to calculate the optimal geometry of a pure conductive plate to mitigate the magnetic field originated from underground cables. The objective function was a weighted combination of magnetic energy at the region of interest and dissipated heat at the shielding Material. To our surprise, shapes of complex structure, difficult to interpret (and probably even harder to anticipate) were the results of the applied process. However, the practical implementation (using some approximation of these shapes) gave excellent experimental mitigation factors.

  7. Shape Reconstruction Based on a New Blurring Model at the Micro/Nanometer Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangjie Wei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Real-time observation of three-dimensional (3D information has great significance in nanotechnology. However, normal nanometer scale observation techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and scanning probe microscopy (SPM, have some problems to obtain 3D information because they lack non-destructive, intuitive, and fast imaging ability under normal conditions, and optical methods have not widely used in micro/nanometer shape reconstruction due to the practical requirements and the imaging limitations in micro/nano manipulation. In this paper, a high resolution shape reconstruction method based on a new optical blurring model is proposed. Firstly, the heat diffusion physics equation is analyzed and the optical diffraction model is modified to directly explain the basic principles of image blurring resulting from depth variation. Secondly, a blurring imaging model is proposed based on curve fitting of a 4th order polynomial curve. The heat diffusion equations combined with the blurring imaging are introduced, and their solution is transformed into a dynamic optimization problem. Finally, the experiments with a standard nanogrid, an atomic force microscopy (AFM cantilever and a microlens have been conducted. The experiments prove that the proposed method can reconstruct 3D shapes at the micro/nanometer scale, and the minimal reconstruction error is 3 nm.

  8. Intrinsic multi-scale analysis: a multi-variate empirical mode decomposition framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, David; Hemakom, Apit; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-01-08

    A novel multi-scale approach for quantifying both inter- and intra-component dependence of a complex system is introduced. This is achieved using empirical mode decomposition (EMD), which, unlike conventional scale-estimation methods, obtains a set of scales reflecting the underlying oscillations at the intrinsic scale level. This enables the data-driven operation of several standard data-association measures (intrinsic correlation, intrinsic sample entropy (SE), intrinsic phase synchrony) and, at the same time, preserves the physical meaning of the analysis. The utility of multi-variate extensions of EMD is highlighted, both in terms of robust scale alignment between system components, a pre-requisite for inter-component measures, and in the estimation of feature relevance. We also illuminate that the properties of EMD scales can be used to decouple amplitude and phase information, a necessary step in order to accurately quantify signal dynamics through correlation and SE analysis which are otherwise not possible. Finally, the proposed multi-scale framework is applied to detect directionality, and higher order features such as coupling and regularity, in both synthetic and biological systems.

  9. Numerical analysis of blunting of a crack tip in a ductile material under small-scale yielding and mixed mode loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, M.; Abé, H.; Tanaka, S.

    1986-03-01

    The blunting of the tip of a crack in a ductile material is analysed under the conditions of plane strain, small-scale yielding, and mixed mode loading of Modes I and II. The material is assumed to be an elastic-perfectly plastic solid with Poisson's ratio being 1/2. The stress and strain fields for a sharp crack under mixed mode loading are first determined by means of elastic-plastic finite element analysis. It is shown that only one elastic sector exists around the crack tip, in contrast with the possibility of existence of two elastic sectors as discussed by Gao. The results obtained for a sharp crack are used as the boundary conditions for the subsequent numerical analysis of crack tip blunting under mixed mode loading, based on slip line theory. The characteristic shapes of the blunted crack tip are obtained for a wide range of Mode I and Mode II combinations, and found to resemble the tip of Japanese sword. Also the stress field around the blunted crack tip is determined.

  10. A multitask sliding mode control for mismatched uncertain large-scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yao-Wen; Van Huynh, Van

    2015-09-01

    A new sliding mode control (SMC) approach, output variables only, single phase only and chattering phenomenon free, is presented for a class of mismatched uncertain large-scale systems. For a new multitask SMC, it is not required that the system states are available. Moreover, the sliding function in this study just depends on output variables. Using an exponential type sliding surface, the system states are always in the sliding mode at the beginning time t = 0. Using a newly appropriate linear matrix inequality stability conditions by the Lyapunov method are derived such that each subsystem in the new sliding mode is completely invariant to matched uncertainties. As a result, robustness of the mismatched uncertain large-scale systems can be assured throughout an entire response of the system starting from the initial time t = 0. In every subsystem, a scheme of decentralised control using only output states is proposed. In addition, a continuous controller is finally designed for chattering removal. Finally, a numerical example is used to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  11. Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control for a Model-Scaled Unmanned Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Razzaghian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller (AFSMC for a model-scaled unmanned helicopter as real nonlinear plant. First, in order to efficient control law design, the nonlinear model of the helicopter is reformulated as an affine nonlinear system. To do this aim, a Dynamic Inverter (DI is introduced as a bijective function. The proposed DI is used to interconnect the helicopter actuators' main inputs to the helicopter dynamic inputs. Then, AFSMC is designed to control it, and the asymptotic stability of the closed loop system is proved using Lyapunov stability theorem. To verify the merits of the proposed controller, it is compared with traditional sliding mode control system. Simulation results confirmed that the controller as a robust and stable control method has desired controlling performance and well cope with the undesirable chattering phenomenon.

  12. Glaucomatous changes in lamina pores shape within the lamina cribrosa using wide bandwidth, femtosecond mode-locked laser OCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuhei Shoji

    Full Text Available The lamina cribrosa (LC is known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Although it has been reported that striae-shaped or slit-shaped lamina pores are more frequent in eyes with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, this observation is based only on fundus photography. The primary object of this study is to perform layer-by-layer comparisons of the shape of lamina pores within the LC in vivo.Cross-sectional study.Optic nerve head B-scans were obtained using custom-made broad-wavelength optical coherence tomography with a mode-locked laser. A total of 300 single B-scans per eye were obtained and three-dimensional images were rendered from these image sequences to obtain 2-μm thin-slice en face images of the LC. Elongation indices (EIs of the lamina pores were measured from the anterior surface (AS of the LC to the deeper layers in 40-μm increments.Thirteen eyes from 10 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG patients of mean deviation -15.2 (-16.5, -12.9 (median [25,75 percentile] dB and 10 eyes from 7 normal controls were studied. Although the EI value was not significantly different between the superior, temporal and inferior regions of the LC at any depth level in either group, it was greater at the AS than at the 40 μm and 80 μm depth levels (P < .001 in both groups, and was greater in the POAG group only at the AS and 40 μm depth level (P ≤ .05. After adjustment for age and refraction, the effects of depth and presence of POAG on the EI value remained significant. Also, the severity of glaucoma and depth were significant factors associated with EI in multivariate analysis.Elongation of lamina pores was significantly more evident at the anterior surface and the 40-μm depth level of the LC in POAG eyes than in normal eyes, suggesting that nerve fiber bundles passing through the LC were under greater stress in the anterior layers of the LC.

  13. Scaling of processes shaping the clonal dynamics and genetic mosaic of seagrasses through temporal genetic monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becheler, R; Benkara, E; Moalic, Y; Hily, C; Arnaud-Haond, S

    2014-02-01

    Theoretically, the dynamics of clonal and genetic diversities of clonal plant populations are strongly influenced by the competition among clones and rate of seedling recruitment, but little empirical assessment has been made of such dynamics through temporal genetic surveys. We aimed to quantify 3 years of evolution in the clonal and genetic composition of Zostera marina meadows, comparing parameters describing clonal architecture and genetic diversity at nine microsatellite markers. Variations in clonal structure revealed a decrease in the evenness of ramet distribution among genets. This illustrates the increasing dominance of some clonal lineages (multilocus lineages, MLLs) in populations. Despite the persistence of these MLLs over time, genetic differentiation was much stronger in time than in space, at the local scale. Contrastingly with the short-term evolution of clonal architecture, the patterns of genetic structure and genetic diversity sensu stricto (that is, heterozygosity and allelic richness) were stable in time. These results suggest the coexistence of (i) a fine grained (at the scale of a 20 × 30 m quadrat) stable core of persistent genets originating from an initial seedling recruitment and developing spatial dominance through clonal elongation; and (ii) a local (at the scale of the meadow) pool of transient genets subjected to annual turnover. This simultaneous occurrence of initial and repeated recruitment strategies highlights the different spatial scales at which distinct evolutionary drivers and mating systems (clonal competition, clonal growth, propagule dispersal and so on) operate to shape the dynamics of populations and the evolution of polymorphism in space and time.

  14. Empirical Mode Decomposition on the sphere: application to the spatial scales of surface temperature variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fauchereau

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD is applied here in two dimensions over the sphere to demonstrate its potential as a data-adaptive method of separating the different scales of spatial variability in a geophysical (climatological/meteorological field. After a brief description of the basics of the EMD in 1 then 2 dimensions, the principles of its application on the sphere are explained, in particular via the use of a zonal equal area partitioning. EMD is first applied to an artificial dataset, demonstrating its capability in extracting the different (known scales embedded in the field. The decomposition is then applied to a global mean surface temperature dataset, and we show qualitatively that it extracts successively larger scales of temperature variations related, for example, to topographic and large-scale, solar radiation forcing. We propose that EMD can be used as a global data-adaptive filter, which will be useful in analysing geophysical phenomena that arise as the result of forcings at multiple spatial scales.

  15. Experimental study of the effect of 2/1 classical tearing mode on (intermediate, small)-scale microturbulence in the core of an EAST L mode plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, P. J.; Li, Y. D.; Ren, Y.; Zhang, X. D.; Wu, G. J.; Lyu, B.; Shi, T. H.; Xu, L. Q.; Wang, F. D.; Li, Q.; Zhang, J. Z.; Hu, L. Q.; Li, J. G.; the EAST team

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we report an experimental study of the effect of a m/n = ‑2/‑1 (m, n being poloidal and toroidal mode number, separately) classical tearing mode on (intermediate, small)-scale microturbulence (see the definition in section 1) in the core of an EAST L mode plasma discharge. The microturbulence at different scales k ⊥ = 10, 18 and 26 cm‑1 (i.e., {k}\\perp {ρ }i∼ 2, 3.6 and 5.2, respectively. Here, {ρ }i is the ion gyroradius and k ⊥ is the perpendicular wavenumber) were measured simultaneously by the EAST multi-channel tangential CO2 laser collective scattering diagnostics. Experimental results confirm that the decrease of microturbulent Doppler shift ({f}{{Doppler}}={k}t{v}t/2π ), inversely correlated to the increase of microturbulent mean frequency (defined in equation (1)), is due to the 2/1 tearing mode. Temporal evolution of frequency-integrated spectral power S tot of microturbulence, found to be correlated with the width of 2/1 magnetic island, suggests the modulation effect on microturbulence by the tearing mode beyond Doppler shift effect. Modulation effects on microturbulence by the tearing mode are further demonstrated by the correlation between microturbulent envelope and magnetic fluctuations.

  16. Scale Effect on Mode of Failure and Strength of Offset Rock Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mughieda Omer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a sustainable construction material, the use of rock has increased significantly. In this experimental study, the scale effect on failure mechanisms and compressive strength of rock blocks was investigated. Samples of rock with non-persistent offset joints were subjected to uniaxial loading. The angle of orientation of the rock bridge with respect to the applied axial load and the size of the block were studied. Two different block sizes, having dimensions of (63.5 × 28 × 20.3 cm and (30.5 × 15.24 × 10 cm, were tested. The joint inclination angle was maintained at 22.5° in both cases. Also, degree of persistence was kept constant at 0.3 for all tested blocks. However, the offset angle which connects the inner tips of the joints was changed from 30°-90° with an increment of 15°. The results showed a reduction in strength with increasing the size of the sample. This reduction is becoming more significant as the bridge inclination angle increases. This behavior is due to the fact that as the bridge inclination angle increases the mode of failure shifted from shear to tension mode which is more dependent on the size of sample due to the presence of more micro flaws. No effect of block size was noticed on mode of failure for the tested blocks.

  17. Extracting spatial-temporal coherent patterns in large-scale neural recordings using dynamic mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Bingni W; Johnson, Lise A; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Kutz, J Nathan

    2016-01-30

    There is a broad need in neuroscience to understand and visualize large-scale recordings of neural activity, big data acquired by tens or hundreds of electrodes recording dynamic brain activity over minutes to hours. Such datasets are characterized by coherent patterns across both space and time, yet existing computational methods are typically restricted to analysis either in space or in time separately. Here we report the adaptation of dynamic mode decomposition (DMD), an algorithm originally developed for studying fluid physics, to large-scale neural recordings. DMD is a modal decomposition algorithm that describes high-dimensional dynamic data using coupled spatial-temporal modes. The algorithm is robust to variations in noise and subsampling rate; it scales easily to very large numbers of simultaneously acquired measurements. We first validate the DMD approach on sub-dural electrode array recordings from human subjects performing a known motor task. Next, we combine DMD with unsupervised clustering, developing a novel method to extract spindle networks during sleep. We uncovered several distinct sleep spindle networks identifiable by their stereotypical cortical distribution patterns, frequency, and duration. DMD is closely related to principal components analysis (PCA) and discrete Fourier transform (DFT). We may think of DMD as a rotation of the low-dimensional PCA space such that each basis vector has coherent dynamics. The resulting analysis combines key features of performing PCA in space and power spectral analysis in time, making it particularly suitable for analyzing large-scale neural recordings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Submicron-Scale Control of the Three-Dimensional Modes 1, 2, and 3 of Targets Imploded in the Direct-Drive Configuration on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, D. T.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Davis, A. K.; Edgell, D. H.; Froula, D. H.; Goncharov, V. N.; Jacobs-Perkins, D. W.; Regan, S. P.; Shvydky, A.; Campbell, E. M.

    2017-10-01

    Reducing low-mode nonuniformities has been identified as a critical step to demonstrate conditions for laser-direct-drive targets that are hydrodynamically equivalent to ignition when scaled to the megajoule energies at the National Ignition Facility. The 3-D shape of the imploding target was tomographically recorded using four lines-of-sight x-ray measurements of the ablation front. The projected ablation-front contours during the implosion phase were measured with framing cameras using the x-ray self-emission shadowgraphy technique. The projected ablation-front motions were obtained by comparing the positions of the contours on the framing cameras with the corresponding contour positions measured on a nonimploding solid CH ball shot. The amplitudes of the modes were determined within +/-0.15% by decomposition into spherical harmonics of the contours oriented perpendicular to the lines-of-sight and shifted by the measured motions. The variations of the amplitudes in modes 1, 2, and 3 between shots were shown to change linearly (within +/-0.25%) with the variations of the mode amplitudes of the laser beam energy balance making it possible to compensate the residual target modes (that remain when the laser is balanced) within 1%. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  19. Isostatic compaction of beaker shaped bentonite blocks on the scale 1:4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Nord, Sven [Ifoe Ceramics AB, Bromoella (Sweden ); Pusch, Roland [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of the present work is to test, on a scale of 1:4, the feasibility of manufacturing bentonite blocks by isostatic compaction for application as a buffer material in a repository for spent nuclear fuel. In order for the tests to be sensitive to any weaknesses of the method, the blocks were shaped as beakers. The scope included the following: 1. Preparation of powder: a. mixing of the bentonite and addition of water in predetermined amounts, b. sieving to remove any lumps generated; 2. Isostatic compaction: a. establishment of a separate laboratory for the handling of bentonite powder (weighing, mixing, filling, sampling and machining), b. development and design of equipment and procedures for compaction of bentonite to beaker-shaped specimens, c. compaction process operation, d. visual inspection; 3. Sampling and characterisation: a. extraction of samples from the blocks made, b. determination of water content, c. determination of density, d. determination of strain at maximum stress by means of bending tests, e. determination of tensile strength by means of bending tests, f. determination of geometries of the blocks prepared; 4. Post-treatment by means of machining: a. machining of blocks made, b. visual inspection; 5. Evaluation. The work went very smoothly. No significant obstacles or unexpected events were encountered. The conclusions are as follows: The conclusions drawn in this report from work on the (linear)scale of one to four are very relevant to the full scale. Mixing of bentonite powder as well as moistening can be carried out on a pilot scale with a good homogeneity and with maintained good quality of the press powder. The compaction of bentonite can be carried out in a similar manner to the present operation at Ifoe Ceramics AB. This implies a very efficient handling as well as a very efficient use of the time in the press which may account for a large proportion of the total cost. The blocks could readily be produced to reproducible

  20. Extraversion is encoded by scale-free dynamics of default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xu; Zhao, Zhiying; Chen, Hong

    2013-07-01

    Resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rsfMRI) is a powerful tool to investigate neurological and psychiatric diseases. Recently, the evidences linking the scaling properties of resting-state activity and the personality have been accumulated. However, it remains unknown whether the personality is associated with the scale-free dynamics of default mode network (DMN) - the most widely studied network in the rsfMRI literatures. To investigate this question, we estimated the Hurst exponent, quantifying long memory of a time-series, in DMN of rsfMRI in 20 healthy individuals. The Hurst exponent in DMN, whether extracted by independent component analysis (ICA) or region of interest (ROI), was significantly associated with the extraversion score of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Specifically, longer memory in DMN corresponded to lower extraversion. We provide evidences for an association between individual differences in personality and scaling dynamics in DMN, whose alteration has been previously linked with introspective cognition. This association might arise from the efficiency in online information processing. Our results suggest that personality trait may be reflected by the scaling property of resting-state networks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Strong neutral spatial effects shape tree species distributions across life stages at multiple scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Hua Hu

    Full Text Available Traditionally, ecologists use lattice (regional summary count data to simulate tree species distributions to explore species coexistence. However, no previous study has explicitly compared the difference between using lattice count and basal area data and analyzed species distributions at both individual species and community levels while simultaneously considering the combined scenarios of life stage and scale. In this study, we hypothesized that basal area data are more closely related to environmental variables than are count data because of strong environmental filtering effects. We also address the contribution of niche and the neutral (i.e., solely dependent on distance factors to species distributions. Specifically, we separately modeled count data and basal area data while considering life stage and scale effects at the two levels with simultaneous autoregressive models and variation partitioning. A principal coordinates of neighbor matrix (PCNM was used to model neutral spatial effects at the community level. The explained variations of species distribution data did not differ significantly between the two types of data at either the individual species level or the community level, indicating that the two types of data can be used nearly identically to model species distributions. Neutral spatial effects represented by spatial autoregressive parameters and the PCNM eigenfunctions drove species distributions on multiple scales, different life stages and individual species and community levels in this plot. We concluded that strong neutral spatial effects are the principal mechanisms underlying the species distributions and thus shape biodiversity spatial patterns.

  2. The attention to body shape scale: a new measure of body focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, D W

    1995-12-01

    An abnormal degree of attention to one's body shape has been implicated in the development and maintenance of eating pathology. This article reports on three preliminary reliability and validity studies of the Attention to Body Shape Scale (ABS). Although brief, the ABS was found to be internally consistent and relatively stable over 2 weeks for both women and men. As expected, women were more body-focused on the ABS than were men. Preliminary validation studies on college women had encouraging results. Lending evidence of convergent validity, the ABS correlated with measures of eating pathology and dietary restraint. Moreover, although the ABS correlated with a measure of general-appearance orientation, regression analyses showed that the former was more closely linked than the latter to eating pathology. As evidence of discriminant validity, the ABS failed to correlate with dysphoria, body weight, or the tendency to eat in response to emotional or environmental pressures. As predicted by theory, high scores on the ABS were associated with body-image distortion. However, contrary to predictions, the ABS failed to moderate the impact of induced anxiety on body image on two of three measures. The implications of these findings and suggestions for future work are discussed.

  3. Scales of Disconnection: Mismatches Shaping the Geographies of Emerging Energy Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Charles R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The networked nature of energy systems produces geographies of connection, but the focus of this paper is on geographies of disconnection, exploring the multi-scalar processes which shape the context in which energy landscapes emerge. It does so, first, by presenting a case study of farmers' attitudes to perennial energy crops in south-west Scotland. Their strong antipathy to converting farmland to short-rotation coppice, and the reasons for their negative attitudes, exemplify some of the wider mismatches and disconnects which the paper goes on to discuss. These include socio-political and socio-cultural mismatches, and a range of essentially geographical disconnects which are scalar in nature, such as the familiar local-global tension and the mismatch between the scales (both temporal and spatial at which environmental and human systems organise and function. The discussion shows how these disjunctions not only affect energy geographies but also raise far-reaching questions about the ability of current governance structures and liberal democratic systems to respond swiftly and effectively to global challenges. The way that these mismatches are negotiated will mould both the character of future energy landscapes and the speed at which they take shape.

  4. Shape Memory Micro- and Nanowire Libraries for the High-Throughput Investigation of Scaling Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellers, Tobias; König, Dennis; Kostka, Aleksander; Xie, Shenqie; Brugger, Jürgen; Ludwig, Alfred

    2017-09-11

    The scaling behavior of Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory thin-film micro- and nanowires of different geometry is investigated with respect to its influence on the martensitic transformation properties. Two processes for the high-throughput fabrication of Ti-Ni-Cu micro- to nanoscale thin film wire libraries and the subsequent investigation of the transformation properties are reported. The libraries are fabricated with compositional and geometrical (wire width) variations to investigate the influence of these parameters on the transformation properties. Interesting behaviors were observed: Phase transformation temperatures change in the range from 1 to 72 °C (austenite finish, (A f ), 13 to 66 °C (martensite start, M s ) and the thermal hysteresis from -3.5 to 20 K. It is shown that a vanishing hysteresis can be achieved for special combinations of sample geometry and composition.

  5. On the decadal variability of atmospheric large-scale modes: teleconnections with observational data from Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitoiu, Daniela; Dobrica, Venera; Demetrescu, Crisan

    2010-05-01

    The long-term evolution of surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation (P) in Romania is compared to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) known as major patterns of atmospheric circulation variability with great impact on temperature and precipitation over Europe. Spectral analysis of SAT, P, NAO and AMO indices shows variations of short period (2-7 years), decadal variations with a period of ~11 years (Schwabe cycle) and variations with longer periods 22 and/or 30 years (Hale cycle) and even longer. The decadal and the interdecadal variability are compared to solar/geomagnetic forcing at the corresponding timescales (Schwabe and Hale cycle). Possible teleconnections with other large-scale climate variability modes are discussed.

  6. One-dimensional modelling of limit-cycle oscillation and H-mode power scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xingquan; Xu, Guosheng; Wan, Baonian

    2015-01-01

    To understand the connection between the dynamics of microscopic turbulence and the macroscale power scaling in the L-I-H transition in magnetically confined plasmas, a new time-dependent, one-dimensional (in radius) model has been developed. The model investigates the radial force balance equation...... at the edge region of the plasma and applies the quenching effect of turbulence via the E x B flow shear rate exceeding the shear suppression threshold. By slightly ramping up the heating power, the spatio-temporal evolution of turbulence intensity, density and pressure profiles, poloidal flow and E x B flow...... and the turbulence intensity depending on which oscillation of the diamagnetic flow or poloidal flow is dominant. Specifically, by including the effects of boundary conditions of density and temperature, the model results in a linear dependence of the H-mode access power on the density and magnetic field...

  7. Power Scaling Fiber Amplifiers Using Very-Large-Mode-Area Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-23

    expected resilience to TMI. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Fiber amplifier, high power laser, thermal mode instability, large-mode-area fiber, ytterbium- doped ...18 6.2 Cladded Linear Index Graded (CLING) Fiber ........................................................ 20 6.3 Trefoil Fiber...conventional LMA fiber............ 20 13. Comparison of modes between step-index and graded -index fibers........................... 21 14. Modes of a LING

  8. Finite element modelling of woven composite failure modes at the mesoscopic scale: deterministic versus stochastic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roirand, Q.; Missoum-Benziane, D.; Thionnet, A.; Laiarinandrasana, L.

    2017-09-01

    Textile composites are composed of 3D complex architecture. To assess the durability of such engineering structures, the failure mechanisms must be highlighted. Examinations of the degradation have been carried out thanks to tomography. The present work addresses a numerical damage model dedicated to the simulation of the crack initiation and propagation at the scale of the warp yarns. For the 3D woven composites under study, loadings in tension and combined tension and bending were considered. Based on an erosion procedure of broken elements, the failure mechanisms have been modelled on 3D periodic cells by finite element calculations. The breakage of one element was determined using a failure criterion at the mesoscopic scale based on the yarn stress at failure. The results were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data for the two kinds of macroscopic loadings. The deterministic approach assumed a homogeneously distributed stress at failure all over the integration points in the meshes of woven composites. A stochastic approach was applied to a simple representative elementary periodic cell. The distribution of the Weibull stress at failure was assigned to the integration points using a Monte Carlo simulation. It was shown that this stochastic approach allowed more realistic failure simulations avoiding the idealised symmetry due to the deterministic modelling. In particular, the stochastic simulations performed have shown several variations of the stress as well as strain at failure and the failure modes of the yarn.

  9. Population connectivity among geographic variants within the Lutjanidae (Pisces of the Mexican Pacific coast through fish scale shape recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Ibáñez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish scale shape was used to identify geographic variants among Lutjanidae (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. guttatus and L. peru. Specimens were collected from three different geographic areas, north to south of the tropical Pacific coast of Mexico: Puerto Vallarta (PV, Manzanillo (MA and Caleta de Campos (CC. Configuration of landmark coordinates of fish scales were scaled, translated and rotated using generalized procrustes analysis, followed by principal components analysis of resulting shape coordinates. Principal component scores were submitted to cross-validated discriminant analysis to determine the efficacy of scale landmarks for discrimination by geographic variants. This was done with shape and form (shape plus size. PV and MA were recognized as one population different from the CC sampling area. Using only shape (without size, identification rates predicted geographic variant membership much better than chance (91.3%, 70.6% and 85.4% for L. argentiventris, L. guttatus and L. peru, respectively, and taking size into account, classification is somewhat improved (90.6%, 80.1% and 87.5% for L. argentiventris, L. guttatus and L. peru, respectively. Consistency of the two populations for the three species shows non-fortuitous events. Population discrimination confirmed previous genetic studies that show a zoogeographic barrier between the North Equatorial Current and the California Current. The method is non-destructive, fast and less expensive than genetic analysis, thus allowing screening of many individuals for traceability of fish.

  10. Experimental approach for mixed-mode fatigue delamination crack growth with large-scale bridging in polymer composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, John W.; Liu, Liu; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2014-01-01

    of delaminations in a typical fibre-reinforced polymer composite was investigated under a constant cyclic loading amplitude. Pure mode I, mode II and mixed-mode crack growth conditions were examined. The results, analysed using a J-integral approach, show that the double cantilever beam loaded with uneven bending...... crack growth rate observed. In addition to details concerning the equipment, a general discussion of the development of cyclic bridging laws for delamination growth in the presence of large-scale bridging is provided....

  11. Time-averaged phase-stepped ESPI with CO2 laser and shearography in the visible for identification of vibration mode shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenrijt, Jean-François; Thizy, Cédric; Georges, Marc P.

    2015-08-01

    We present investigation of interferometric methods for vibration mode identification to be applied on shakers in industrial environment. We consider long wave infrared ESPI in time-averaged mode with the use of phase-stepping which allows transforming Bessel fringes, typical to the time averaging, into phase values which provide a better way for identification of vibration mode shapes. The use of long laser wavelength allows measuring larger amplitudes of vibrations compared to what is achieved in visible light. Also longer wavelengths allow lower sensitivity to external perturbations. Time-averaged phase-stepped shearography in visible is also used as a compared alternative to LWIR ESPI for working in industrial environments. Although not demonstrated here, an interesting feature for the future investigations on LWIR ESPI is its potentiality of simultaneous temperature measurement during vibrations.

  12. 5.5 W continuous-wave TEM00-mode Nd:YAG solar laser by a light-guide/2V-shaped pump cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, J.; Liang, D.; Vistas, C. R.; Bouadjemine, R.; Guillot, E.

    2015-12-01

    A significant progress in TEM00-mode solar laser power and efficiency with heliostat-parabolic mirror system is reported here. A double-stage light-guide/2V-shaped pump cavity is used to efficiently couple and redistribute the concentrated pump light from a 2-m-diameter parabolic mirror to a 4-mm-diameter, 30-mm-length, 1.1 at.% Nd:YAG single-crystal rod. The light guide with large rectangular cross section enables a stable uniform pumping profile along the laser rod, resulting also in an enhanced tracking error compensation capacity. 5.5 W cw TEM00-mode solar laser power was measured at the output of a thermally near unstable asymmetric resonator. 150 and 157 % improvement in TEM00-mode solar laser collection efficiency and slope efficiency were obtained, respectively.

  13. Multi-Field/-Scale Interaction of Neoclassical Tearing Modes with Turbulence and Impact on Plasma Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardoczi, Laszlo

    Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs) are a major impediment in the development of operational scenarios of present toroidal fusion devices. The multi-scale and non-linear interaction of NTMs with turbulence has been an active field of theoretical plasma research in the past decade for its role in plasma confinement. However, little to no experimental effort has been devoted to explore this interaction. As part of this thesis, dedicated experiments were conducted utilizing the full complement of the DIII-D turbulence diagnostics to study the effect of NTM on turbulence as well as the effect of turbulence on NTM growth. The first localized measurements of long and intermediate wavelength turbulent density fluctuations and long wavelength turbulent electron temperature fluctuations modified by magnetic islands are presented. These long and intermediate wavelengths correspond to the expected Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) and Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) scales, respectively. Two regimes were observed when tracking density fluctuations during NTM evolution: (1) small islands are characterized by steep electron temperature radial profile and turbulence levels comparable to that of the background; (2) large islands have a flat electron temperature profile and reduced turbulence level at the O-point. Radially outside of the large island, the electron temperature profile is steeper and the turbulence level increased compared to the no or small island case. It was also found that turbulence is reduced in the O-point region compared to the X-point region. This helical structure of turbulence modification leads to a 15% modulation of the density fluctuation power as the island rotates in the lab frame and this modulation is nearly in phase with the electron temperature modulation. These measurements were also used to determine the turbulence penetration length scale at the island separatrix and was found that the turbulence penetration length scale is on the order of the

  14. Multi-scale gyrokinetic simulations of an Alcator C-Mod, ELM-y H-mode plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, N. T.; Holland, C.; White, A. E.; Greenwald, M.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, P.; Candy, J.; Creely, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    High fidelity, multi-scale gyrokinetic simulations capable of capturing both ion ({k}θ {ρ }s∼ { O }(1.0)) and electron-scale ({k}θ {ρ }e∼ { O }(1.0)) turbulence were performed in the core of an Alcator C-Mod ELM-y H-mode discharge which exhibits reactor-relevant characteristics. These simulations, performed with all experimental inputs and realistic ion to electron mass ratio ({({m}i/{m}e)}1/2=60.0) provide insight into the physics fidelity that may be needed for accurate simulation of the core of fusion reactor discharges. Three multi-scale simulations and series of separate ion and electron-scale simulations performed using the GYRO code (Candy and Waltz 2003 J. Comput. Phys. 186 545) are presented. As with earlier multi-scale results in L-mode conditions (Howard et al 2016 Nucl. Fusion 56 014004), both ion and multi-scale simulations results are compared with experimentally inferred ion and electron heat fluxes, as well as the measured values of electron incremental thermal diffusivities—indicative of the experimental electron temperature profile stiffness. Consistent with the L-mode results, cross-scale coupling is found to play an important role in the simulation of these H-mode conditions. Extremely stiff ion-scale transport is observed in these high-performance conditions which is shown to likely play and important role in the reproduction of measurements of perturbative transport. These results provide important insight into the role of multi-scale plasma turbulence in the core of reactor-relevant plasmas and establish important constraints on the the fidelity of models needed for predictive simulations.

  15. On the new modes of planetary-scale electromagnetic waves in the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Aburjania

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Using an analogy method the frequencies of new modes of the electromagnetic planetary-scale waves (with a wavelength of 103 km or more, having a weather forming nature, are found at different ionospheric altitudes. This method gives the possibility to determine spectra of ionospheric electromagnetic perturbations directly from the dynamic equations without solving the general dispersion equation. It is shown that the permanently acting factor-latitude variation of the geomagnetic field generates fast and slow weakly damping planetary electromagnetic waves in both the E- and F-layers of the ionosphere. The waves propagate eastward and westward along the parallels. The fast waves have phase velocities (1–5km s–1 and frequencies (10–1–10–4, and the slow waves propagate with velocities of the local winds with frequencies (10–4–10–6s–1 and are generated in the E-region of the ionosphere. Fast waves having phase velocities (10-1500km s–1 and frequencies (1–10–3s–1 are generated in the F-region of the ionosphere. The waves generate the geomagnetic pulsations of the order of one hundred nanoTesla by magnitude. The properties and parameters of the theoretically studied electromagnetic waves agree with those of large-scale ultra-low frequency perturbations observed experimentally in the ionosphere.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances; waves propagation; ionosphere atmosphere interactions

  16. Extracting surface waves, hum and normal modes: time-scale phase-weighted stack and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventosa, Sergi; Schimmel, Martin; Stutzmann, Eleonore

    2017-10-01

    Stacks of ambient noise correlations are routinely used to extract empirical Green's functions (EGFs) between station pairs. The time-frequency phase-weighted stack (tf-PWS) is a physically intuitive nonlinear denoising method that uses the phase coherence to improve EGF convergence when the performance of conventional linear averaging methods is not sufficient. The high computational cost of a continuous approach to the time-frequency transformation is currently a main limitation in ambient noise studies. We introduce the time-scale phase-weighted stack (ts-PWS) as an alternative extension of the phase-weighted stack that uses complex frames of wavelets to build a time-frequency representation that is much more efficient and fast to compute and that preserve the performance and flexibility of the tf-PWS. In addition, we propose two strategies: the unbiased phase coherence and the two-stage ts-PWS methods to further improve noise attenuation, quality of the extracted signals and convergence speed. We demonstrate that these approaches enable to extract minor- and major-arc Rayleigh waves (up to the sixth Rayleigh wave train) from many years of data from the GEOSCOPE global network. Finally we also show that fundamental spheroidal modes can be extracted from these EGF.

  17. Two-fluid sub-grid-scale viscosity in nonlinear simulation of ballooning modes in a heliotron device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, H.; Hamba, F.; Ito, A.

    2017-07-01

    A large eddy simulation (LES) approach is introduced to enable the study of the nonlinear growth of ballooning modes in a heliotron-type device, by solving fully 3D two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations numerically over a wide range of parameter space, keeping computational costs as low as possible. A model to substitute the influence of scales smaller than the grid size, at sub-grid scale (SGS), and at the scales larger than it—grid scale (GS)—has been developed for LES. The LESs of two-fluid MHD equations with SGS models have successfully reproduced the growth of the ballooning modes in the GS and nonlinear saturation. The numerical results show the importance of SGS effects on the GS components, or the effects of turbulent fluctuation at small scales in low-wavenumber unstable modes, over the course of the nonlinear saturation process. The results also show the usefulness of the LES approach in studying instability in a heliotron device. It is shown through a parameter survey over many SGS model coefficients that turbulent small-scale components in experiments can contribute to keeping the plasma core pressure from totally collapsing.

  18. A thermo-mechanical study of mode I, small-scale yielding crack-tip fields in glassy polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basu, S.; van der Giessen, E.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the stress and temperature fields ahead of a blunted notch under mode 1, small-scale yielding situations. The investigation is motivated by the observation that certain polymers and polymer blends exhibit a marked increase in fracture toughness with increase in

  19. Global two-fluid simulations of geodesic acoustic modes in strongly shaped tight aspect ratio tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. R.; Hnat, B.; Thyagaraja, A.; McClements, K. G.; Knight, P. J.; Kirk, A.; MAST Team

    2013-05-01

    Following recent observations suggesting the presence of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in ohmically heated discharges in the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) [J. R. Robinson et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 105007 (2012)], the behaviour of the GAM is studied numerically using the two fluid, global code CENTORI [P. J. Knight et al. Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 2346 (2012)]. We examine mode localisation and effects of magnetic geometry, given by aspect ratio, elongation, and safety factor, on the observed frequency of the mode. An excellent agreement between simulations and experimental data is found for simulation plasma parameters matched to those of MAST. Increasing aspect ratio yields good agreement between the GAM frequency found in the simulations and an analytical result obtained for elongated large aspect ratio plasmas.

  20. Global two-fluid simulations of geodesic acoustic modes in strongly shaped tight aspect ratio tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, J. R.; Hnat, B. [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Thyagaraja, A. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); McClements, K. G.; Knight, P. J.; Kirk, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Collaboration: MAST Team

    2013-05-15

    Following recent observations suggesting the presence of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in ohmically heated discharges in the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) [J. R. Robinson et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 105007 (2012)], the behaviour of the GAM is studied numerically using the two fluid, global code CENTORI [P. J. Knight et al. Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 2346 (2012)]. We examine mode localisation and effects of magnetic geometry, given by aspect ratio, elongation, and safety factor, on the observed frequency of the mode. An excellent agreement between simulations and experimental data is found for simulation plasma parameters matched to those of MAST. Increasing aspect ratio yields good agreement between the GAM frequency found in the simulations and an analytical result obtained for elongated large aspect ratio plasmas.

  1. Shaping the spectra of the line-to-line voltage using signal injection in the common mode voltage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Pedersen, John Kim

    2009-01-01

    A drawback of Pulse Width Modulation in electrical drives is the high harmonic content of the line to line voltages, which gives rise to Electro-Magnetic Interference and acoustic noise. By injection of a signal into the common mode voltage, the fundamental is not affected, but new frequency...... components are introduced in the line to line voltage spectrum. This paper introduces a new analytical method for estimation of the line to line voltage spectrum, where sinusoidal signal is injected into the common mode voltage. Based on the analytical calculations, also a new fixed carrier frequency quasi...

  2. Scale-up of counter-current chromatography: demonstration of predictable isocratic and quasi-continuous operating modes from the test tube to pilot/process scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Ian; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana

    2009-12-11

    Predictable scale-up from test tube derived distribution ratios and analytical-scale sample loading optimisation is demonstrated using a model sample system of benzyl alcohol and p-cresol in a heptane:ethyl acetate:methanol:water phase system with the new 18 L Maxi counter-current chromatography centrifuge. The versatility of having a liquid stationary phase with its high loading capacity and flexible operating modes is demonstrated at two different scales by separating and concentrating target compounds using a mixture of caffeine, vanillin, naringenin and carvone using a quasi-continuous technique called intermittent counter-current extraction.

  3. Shape shifting predicts ontogenetic changes in metabolic scaling in diverse aquatic invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazier, Douglas S.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Atkinson, D.

    2016-01-01

    in metabolic scaling that deviate from 3/4-power scaling predicted by general models. Here, we show that in diverse aquatic invertebrates, ontogenetic shifts in the scaling of routine metabolic rate from near isometry (bR = scaling exponent approx. 1) to negative allometry (bR

  4. Pulse width shaping of passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser via polarization control in carbon nanotube saturable absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hwanseong; Choi, Sun Young; Rotermund, Fabian; Yeom, Dong-Il

    2013-11-04

    We report the continuous control of the pulse width of a passively mode-locked fiber laser via polarization state adjustment in a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA). The SWCNT, coated on the side-polished fiber, was fabricated with optimized conditions and used for stable mode-locking of the fiber laser without Q-switching instabilities for any polarization state of the laser intra-cavity. The 3-dB spectral bandwidth of the mode-locked pulses can be continuously tuned from 1.8 nm to 8.5 nm with the polarization control for a given laser cavity length and applied pump power. A pulse duration varying from 470 fs to 1.6 ps was also observed with a change in the spectral bandwidth. The linear and the nonlinear transmission properties of the SA were analyzed, and found to exhibit different modulation depths depending on the input polarization state in the SA. The largest modulation depth of the SA was observed at the polarization state of the transverse electric mode that delivers shortest pulses at the laser output.

  5. Storm-tracks interannual variability and large-scale climate modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Isabel F.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2013-04-01

    In this study we focus on the interannual variability and observed changes in northern hemisphere mid-latitude storm-tracks and relate them to large scale atmospheric circulation variability modes. Extratropical storminess, cyclones dominant paths, frequency and intensity have long been the object of climatological studies. The analysis of storm characteristics and historical trends presented here is based on the cyclone detecting and tracking algorithm first developed for the Mediterranean region (Trigo et al. 1999) and recently extended to a larger Euro-Atlantic region (Trigo 2006). The objective methodology, which identifies and follows individual lows as minima in SLP fields, fulfilling a set of conditions regarding the central pressure and the pressure gradient, is applied to the northern hemisphere 6-hourly geopotential data at 1000 hPa from the 20th Century Reanalyses (20CRv2) project and from reanalyses datasets provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF): ERA-40 and ERA Interim reanalyses. First, we assess the interannual variability and cyclone frequency trends for each of the datasets, for the 20th century and for the period between 1958 and 2002 using the highest spatial resolution available (1.125° x 1.125°) from the ERA-40 data. Results show that winter variability of storm paths, cyclone frequency and travel times is in agreement with the reported variability in a number of large-scale climate patterns (including the North Atlantic Oscillation, the East Atlantic Pattern and the Scandinavian Pattern). In addition, three storm-track databases are built spanning the common available extended winter seasons from October 1979 to March 2002. Although relatively short, this common period allows a comparison of systems represented in reanalyses datasets with distinct horizontal resolutions. This exercise is mostly focused on the key areas of cyclogenesis and cyclolysis and main cyclone characteristics over the northern

  6. Systematic large-scale study of the inheritance mode of Mendelian disorders provides new insight into human diseasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Dapeng; Wang, Guangyu; Yin, Zuojing; Li, Chuanxing; Cui, Yan; Zhou, Meng

    2014-11-01

    One important piece of information about the human Mendelian disorders is the mode of inheritance. Recent studies of human genetic diseases on a large scale have provided many novel insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms. However, most successful analyses ignored the mode of inheritance of diseases, which severely limits our understanding of human disease mechanisms relating to the mode of inheritance at the large scale. Therefore, we here conducted a systematic large-scale study of the inheritance mode of Mendelian disorders, to bring new insight into human diseases. Our analyses include the comparison between dominant and recessive disease genes on both genomic and proteomic characteristics, Mendelian mutations, protein network properties and disease connections on both the genetic and the population levels. We found that dominant disease genes are more functionally central, topological central and more sensitive to disease outcome. On the basis of these findings, we suggested that dominant diseases should have higher genetic heterogeneity and should have more comprehensive connections with each other compared with recessive diseases, a prediction we confirm by disease network and disease comorbidity.

  7. A New Set of Creq and Nieq Equations for Predicting Solidification Modes of Cast Austenitic Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huabei; Wen, Yuhua; Du, Yangyang; Chen, Jie; Yang, Qin

    2013-12-01

    Solidification microstructures and solidification modes in different austenitic Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni shape memory alloys were investigated. Based on these results, a new set of Creq and Nieq equations (Creq = Cr + 1.5Si; Nieq = Ni + 0.164Mn + 22C) were developed. The above results show that Mn is still an austenite former in austenitic Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni alloys containing above 12 wt pct Mn and 4 wt pct Si, but its effect is weaker than that in austenitic stainless steels with lower Mn content.

  8. Quasinormal modes of scale dependent black holes in (1 +2 )-dimensional Einstein-power-Maxwell theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Ángel; Panotopoulos, Grigoris

    2018-01-01

    We study for the first time the stability against scalar perturbations, and we compute the spectrum of quasinormal modes of three-dimensional charged black holes in Einstein-power-Maxwell nonlinear electrodynamics assuming running couplings. Adopting the sixth order Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation we investigate how the running of the couplings change the spectrum of the classical theory. Our results show that all modes corresponding to nonvanishing angular momentum are unstable both in the classical theory and with the running of the couplings, while the fundamental mode can be stable or unstable depending on the running parameter and the electric charge.

  9. Shape effects on time-scale divergence at athermal jamming transition of frictionless non-spherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Jin, Weiwei; Liu, Lufeng; Li, Shuixiang

    2017-10-01

    The critical behaviors of a granular system at the jamming transition have been extensively studied from both mechanical and thermodynamic perspectives. In this work, we numerically investigate the jamming behaviors of a variety of frictionless non-spherical particles, including spherocylinder, ellipsoid, spherotetrahedron and spherocube. In particular, for a given particle shape, a series of random configurations at different fixed densities are generated and relaxed to minimize interparticle overlaps using the relaxation algorithm. We find that as the jamming point (i.e., point J) is approached, the number of iteration steps (defined as the ;time-scale; for our systems) required to completely relax the interparticle overlaps exhibits a clear power-law divergence. The dependence of the detailed mathematical form of the power-law divergence on particle shapes is systematically investigated and elucidated, which suggests that the shape effects can be generally categorized as elongation and roundness. Importantly, we show the jamming transition density can be accurately determined from the analysis of time-scale divergence for different non-spherical shapes, and the obtained values agree very well with corresponding ones reported in literature. Moreover, we study the plastic behaviors of over-jammed packings of different particles under a compression-expansion procedure and find that the jamming of ellipsoid is much more robust than other non-spherical particles. This work offers an alternative approximate procedure besides conventional packing algorithms for studying athermal jamming transition in granular system of frictionless non-spherical particles.

  10. What Shapes the Phylogenetic Structure of Anuran Communities in a Seasonal Environment? The Influence of Determinism at Regional Scale to Stochasticity or Antagonistic Forces at Local Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Clarissa de Araújo; Roque, Fabio de Oliveira; Santos, Bráulio A; Ferreira, Vanda Lúcia; Strüssmann, Christine; Tomas, Walfrido Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Ecological communities are structured by both deterministic and stochastic processes. We investigated phylogenetic patterns at regional and local scales to understand the influences of seasonal processes in shaping the structure of anuran communities in the southern Pantanal wetland, Brazil. We assessed the phylogenetic structure at different scales, using the Net Relatedness Index (NRI), the Nearest Taxon Index (NTI), and phylobetadiversity indexes, as well as a permutation test, to evaluate the effect of seasonality. The anuran community was represented by a non-random set of species with a high degree of phylogenetic relatedness at the regional scale. However, at the local scale the phylogenetic structure of the community was weakly related with the seasonality of the system, indicating that oriented stochastic processes (e.g. colonization, extinction and ecological drift) and/or antagonist forces drive the structure of such communities in the southern Pantanal.

  11. Scaled-Up Fabrication of Thin-Walled ZK60 Tubing using Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalen, Scott A.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Overman, Nicole R.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Lavender, Curt A.; Skszek, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE) has been scaled-up and applied to direct extrusion of thin-walled magnesium tubing. Using ShAPE, billets of ZK60A-T5 were directly extruded into round tubes having an outer diameter of 50.8 mm and wall thickness of 1.52 mm. The severe shearing conditions inherent to ShAPE resulted in microstructural refinement with an average grain size of 3.8μm measured at the midpoint of the tube wall. Tensile testing per ATSM E-8 on specimens oriented parallel to the extrusion direction gave an ultimate tensile strength of 254.4 MPa and elongation of 20.1%. Specimens tested perpendicular to the extrusion direction had an ultimate tensile strength of 297.2 MPa and elongation of 25.0%. Due to material flow effects resulting from the simultaneous linear and rotational shear intrinsic to ShAPE, ram force and electrical power consumption during extrusion were just 40 kN and 11.5 kW respectively. This represents a significant reduction in ram force and power consumption compared to conventional extrusion. As such, there is potential for ShAPE to offer a scalable, lower cost extrusion option with potentially improved bulk mechanical properties.

  12. Geometry- and Length Scale-Dependent Deformation and Recovery on Micro- and Nanopatterned Shape Memory Polymer Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei Li; Low, Hong Yee

    2016-03-30

    Micro- and nanoscale surface textures, when optimally designed, present a unique approach to improve surface functionalities. Coupling surface texture with shape memory polymers may generate reversibly tuneable surface properties. A shape memory polyetherurethane is used to prepare various surface textures including 2 μm- and 200 nm-gratings, 250 nm-pillars and 200 nm-holes. The mechanical deformation via stretching and recovery of the surface texture are investigated as a function of length scales and shapes. Results show the 200 nm-grating exhibiting more deformation than 2 μm-grating. Grating imparts anisotropic and surface area-to-volume effects, causing different degree of deformation between gratings and pillars under the same applied macroscopic strain. Full distribution of stress within the film causes the holes to deform more substantially than the pillars. In the recovery study, unlike a nearly complete recovery for the gratings after 10 transformation cycles, the high contribution of surface energy impedes the recovery of holes and pillars. The surface textures are shown to perform a switchable wetting function. This study provides insights into how geometric features of shape memory surface patterns can be designed to modulate the shape programming and recovery, and how the control of reversibly deformable surface textures can be applied to transfer microdroplets.

  13. The Diversity and Scale Matter: Ubiquitous Transportation Mode Detection using Single Cell Tower Information

    OpenAIRE

    AbdelAziz, Ali Mohamed; Youssef, Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    Detecting the transportation mode of a user is important for a wide range of applications. While a number of recent systems addressed the transportation mode detection problem using the ubiquitous mobile phones, these studies either leverage GPS, the inertial sensors, and/or multiple cell towers information. However, these different phone sensors have high energy consumption, limited to a small subset of phones (e.g. high-end phones or phones that support neighbouring cell tower information),...

  14. Influence of Fault Surface Heterogeneity on Apparent Frictional Strength, Slip Mode and Rupture Mode: Insights from Meter-Scale Rock Friction Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S.; Fukuyama, E.; Yamashita, F.; Mizoguchi, K.; Takizawa, S.; Kawakata, H.

    2016-12-01

    Influence of fault zone heterogeneity on the behavior of fault motion has been studied in many aspects, such as strain partitioning, heat generation, slip mode, rupture mode, and effective friction law. However, a multi-scale investigation of fault behavior due to heterogeneity was difficult in nature, because of the limited access to natural fault zones at the seismogenic depth and the lack of in situ high-resolution observations. To overcome these difficulties, we study the behavior of a meter-scale synthetic fault made of Indian metagabbro during laboratory direct shear experiments, utilizing high-density arrays of strain gauges mounted close to the fault. We focus on two target experiments that are loaded under the same normal stress of 6.7 MPa and loading rate of 0.01 mm/s, but with different initial surface conditions. To change the surface condition, we applied a fast loading experiment under a rate of 1 mm/s between the two target experiments. It turned out the fast loading activated many foreshocks before the mainshock and caused a roaming of the mainshock nucleation site. These features were closely related to the re-distribution of the real contact area and surface wear, which together reflected a more heterogeneous state of the surface condition. During the first target experiment before the fast loading, the synthetic fault moved in a classic stick-slip fashion and the typical rupture mode was subshear within the range of the fault length. However, during the second target experiment, the synthetic fault inherited the heterogeneous features generated from the previous fast loading, showing a macroscopic creep-like behavior that actually consisted of many small stick-slip events. The apparent frictional strength increased while the recurrence interval and the stress drop decreased, compared to the levels seen in the first target experiment. The rupture mode became more complicated; supershear phases sometimes emerged but may only exist transiently

  15. Coarse-to-Fine Segmentation with Shape-Tailored Continuum Scale Spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Naeemullah

    2017-11-09

    We formulate an energy for segmentation that is designed to have preference for segmenting the coarse over fine structure of the image, without smoothing across boundaries of regions. The energy is formulated by integrating a continuum of scales from a scale space computed from the heat equation within regions. We show that the energy can be optimized without computing a continuum of scales, but instead from a single scale. This makes the method computationally efficient in comparison to energies using a discrete set of scales. We apply our method to texture and motion segmentation. Experiments on benchmark datasets show that a continuum of scales leads to better segmentation accuracy over discrete scales and other competing methods.

  16. Large-scale continuous-variable dual-rail cluster entangled state based on spatial mode comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Wang, J J; Yang, R G; Liu, K; Gao, J R

    2017-10-30

    In recent continuous-variable (CV) multipartite entanglement researches, the number of fully inseparable light modes has been increased dramatically by the introduction of a multiplexing scheme in either the time domain or the frequency domain. In this paper, we propose a scheme that a large-scale (≥ 20) CV dual-rail cluster entangled state is established based on a spatial mode comb in a self-imaging optical parametric oscillator, which is pumped by two spatial Laguerre-Gaussian modes with different polarization and identical frequency. A sufficient condition of full inseparability for a CV dual-rail cluster entangled state is used to evaluate the degree of quantum entanglement. It is shown that entanglement exists over a wide range of analyzing frequency and pump parameter. We have found a new scheme that uses the optical parametric cavity to generate a large-scale entanglement based on optical spatial mode comb. The presented system will be hopefully as a practical entangled source for quantum information.

  17. Principal Component Analysis of Cerebellar Shape on MRI Separates SCA Types 2 and 6 into Two Archetypal Modes of Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Brian C.; Choi, Soo I.; Du, Annie X.; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Geng, Zhuo Z.; Ying, Howard S.; Perlman, Susan L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Although “cerebellar ataxia” is often used in reference to a disease process, presumably there are different underlying pathogenetic mechanisms for different subtypes. Indeed, spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) types 2 and 6 demonstrate complementary phenotypes, thus predicting a different anatomic pattern of degeneration. Here, we show that an unsupervised classification method, based on principal component analysis (PCA) of cerebellar shape characteristics, can be used to separate SCA2 and SCA6 into two classes, which may represent disease-specific archetypes. Patients with SCA2 (n=11) and SCA6 (n=7) were compared against controls (n=15) using PCA to classify cerebellar anatomic shape characteristics. Within the first three principal components, SCA2 and SCA6 differed from controls and from each other. In a secondary analysis, we studied five additional subjects and found that these patients were consistent with the previously defined archetypal clusters of clinical and anatomical characteristics. Secondary analysis of five subjects with related diagnoses showed that disease groups that were clinically and pathophysiologically similar also shared similar anatomic characteristics. Specifically, Archetype #1 consisted of SCA3 (n=1) and SCA2, suggesting that cerebellar syndromes accompanied by atrophy of the pons may be associated with a characteristic pattern of cerebellar neurodegeneration. In comparison, Archetype #2 was comprised of disease groups with pure cerebellar atrophy (episodic ataxia type 2 (n=1), idiopathic late-onset cerebellar ataxias (n=3), and SCA6). This suggests that cerebellar shape analysis could aid in discriminating between different pathologies. Our findings further suggest that magnetic resonance imaging is a promising imaging biomarker that could aid in the diagnosis and therapeutic management in patients with cerebellar syndromes. PMID:22258915

  18. Single Mode Theory for Impedance Eduction in Large-Scale Ducts with Grazing Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Willie R.; Gerhold, Carl H.; Jones, Michael G.; June, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    An impedance eduction theory for a rigid wall duct containing an acoustic liner with an unknown impedance and uniform grazing flow is presented. The unique features of the theory are: 1) non-planar waves propagate in the hard wall sections of the duct, 2) input data consist solely of complex acoustic pressures acquired on a wall adjacent to the liner, and 3) multiple higher-order modes may exist in the direction perpendicular to the liner and the opposite rigid wall. The approach is to first measure the axial propagation constant of a dominant higher-order mode in the liner sample section. This axial propagation constant is then used in conjunction with a closed-form solution to a reduced form of the convected Helmholtz equation and the wall impedance boundary condition to educe the liner impedance. The theory is validated on a conventional liner whose impedance spectrum is educed in two flow ducts with different cross sections. For the frequencies and Mach numbers of interest, no higher-order modes propagate in the hard wall sections of the smaller duct. A benchmark method is used to educe the impedance spectrum in this duct. A dominant higher-order vertical mode propagates in the larger duct for similar test conditions, and the current theory is applied to educe the impedance spectrum. Results show that when the theory is applied to data acquired in the larger duct with a dominant higher-order vertical mode, the same impedance spectra is educed as that obtained in the small duct where only the plane wave mode is present and the benchmark method is used. This result holds for each higher-order vertical mode that is considered.

  19. Spatial organization in nano-sculptured bacteria, a tale of shape, scale, patterns, and genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, F.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most basic features that pervade biology is the existence of boundaries that separate living cells from their outer environments. Molecules responsible for the internal organization of a living cell must adapt to its boundaries, as the cell grows, divides, and changes in shape and size.

  20. Increasing the efficiency of the axial low pressure compressor in three operation modes by optimizing the shape of its blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, G. M.; Baturin, O. V.; Goriachkin, E. S.; Novikova, Yu D.; Kolmakova, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes a method for multicriteria optimization of the low pressure compressor working process. The optimization was conducted in three engine modes, corresponding to the temperature of the air at engine inlet --15, +15, +45 °C. Parameters of the compressor were calculated in operational and stall points. The LPC modernization was performed with usage of optimization methods that implemented in the software package IOSO. To perform optimization, the LPC numerical model was created using the NUMECA FineTurbo software. Numerical models of the LPC workflow were created based on the design documentation. The coordinates of three points of a spline in a circumferential direction and a stagger angle were changed for the rotor blades. The coordinates of a mid-point and a point of the trailing edge, stagger angles, and also the position of sections in circumferential and axial directions were changed for the guide vanes. To prevent a shift of the LPC characteristics, we set restrictions for the LPC specific massflow, a minimal pressure raise and astall margin. As a result of this work, a variant of the compressor, ensuring the increase in its efficiency by 1.1% (abs.) and stall margins by 7.5% (abs.) in the primary operation mode has been found.

  1. Large-scale parallel surface functionalization of goblet-type whispering gallery mode microcavity arrays for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bog, Uwe; Brinkmann, Falko; Kalt, Heinz; Koos, Christian; Mappes, Timo; Hirtz, Michael; Fuchs, Harald; Köber, Sebastian

    2014-10-15

    A novel surface functionalization technique is presented for large-scale selective molecule deposition onto whispering gallery mode microgoblet cavities. The parallel technique allows damage-free individual functionalization of the cavities, arranged on-chip in densely packaged arrays. As the stamp pad a glass slide is utilized, bearing phospholipids with different functional head groups. Coated microcavities are characterized and demonstrated as biosensors. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Process model comparison and transferability across bioreactor scales and modes of operation for a mammalian cell bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Stephen; Shirsat, Nishikant; Whelan, Jessica; Glennon, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A Monod kinetic model, logistic equation model, and statistical regression model were developed for a Chinese hamster ovary cell bioprocess operated under three different modes of operation (batch, bolus fed-batch, and continuous fed-batch) and grown on two different bioreactor scales (3 L bench-top and 15 L pilot-scale). The Monod kinetic model was developed for all modes of operation under study and predicted cell density, glucose glutamine, lactate, and ammonia concentrations well for the bioprocess. However, it was computationally demanding due to the large number of parameters necessary to produce a good model fit. The transferability of the Monod kinetic model structure and parameter set across bioreactor scales and modes of operation was investigated and a parameter sensitivity analysis performed. The experimentally determined parameters had the greatest influence on model performance. They changed with scale and mode of operation, but were easily calculated. The remaining parameters, which were fitted using a differential evolutionary algorithm, were not as crucial. Logistic equation and statistical regression models were investigated as alternatives to the Monod kinetic model. They were less computationally intensive to develop due to the absence of a large parameter set. However, modeling of the nutrient and metabolite concentrations proved to be troublesome due to the logistic equation model structure and the inability of both models to incorporate a feed. The complexity, computational load, and effort required for model development has to be balanced with the necessary level of model sophistication when choosing which model type to develop for a particular application. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  3. Design of large scale plasmonic nanoslit arrays for arbitrary mode conversion and demultiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Pierre; Tanemura, Takuo; Vermeulen, Nathalie; Van Erps, Jürgen; Miller, David A B; Thienpont, Hugo

    2014-01-13

    We present an iterative design method for the coupling and the mode conversion of arbitrary modes to focused surface plasmons using a large array of aperiodically randomly located slits in a thin metal film. As the distance between the slits is small and the number of slits is large, significant mutual coupling occurs between the slits which makes an accurate computation of the field scattered by the slits difficult. We use an accurate modal source radiator model to efficiently compute the fields in a significantly shorter time compared with three-dimensional (3D) full-field rigorous simulations, so that iterative optimization is efficiently achieved. Since our model accounts for mutual coupling between the slits, the scattering by the slits of both the source wave and the focused surface plasmon can be incorporated in the optimization scheme. We apply this method to the design of various types of couplers for arbitrary fiber modes and a mode demultiplexer that focuses three orthogonal fiber modes to three different foci. Finally, we validate our design results using fully vectorial 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations.

  4. Role of medium‐scale waves on the Southern Annular Mode

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuroda, Yuhji; Mukougawa, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    ...‐scale waves, those with periods shorter than about 6 days. Although medium‐scale waves generally have much smaller amplitudes than synoptic waves, they have a much higher correlation with the SAM index...

  5. Multi-field/-scale interactions of turbulence with neoclassical tearing mode magnetic islands in the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardóczi, L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Bañón Navarro, A.; Sung, C.; Carter, T. A.; La Haye, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Petty, C. C.; Chrystal, C.; Jenko, F.

    2017-05-01

    We present the first localized measurements of long and intermediate wavelength turbulent density fluctuations ( n ˜ ) and long wavelength turbulent electron temperature fluctuations ( T˜ e ) modified by m /n =2 /1 Neoclassical Tearing Mode (NTM) islands (m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively). These long and intermediate wavelengths correspond to the expected Ion Temperature Gradient and Trapped Electron Mode scales, respectively. Two regimes have been observed when tracking n ˜ during NTM evolution: (1) small islands are characterized by a steep Te radial profile and turbulence levels comparable to those of the background; (2) large islands have a flat Te profile and reduced turbulence level at the O-point. Radially outside the large island, the Te profile is steeper and the turbulence level increased compared to the no or small island case. Reduced turbulence at the O-point compared to the X-point leads to a 15% modulation of n˜ 2 across the island that is nearly in phase with the Te modulation. Qualitative comparisons to the GENE non-linear gyrokinetic code are promising with GENE replicating the observed scaling of turbulence modification with island size. These results are significant as they allow the validation of gyrokinetic simulations modeling the interaction of these multi-scale phenomena.

  6. Improvements in scaling of counter-current imbibition recovery curves using a shape factor including permeability anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Jassem; Sarafrazi, Shiva; Riazi, Masoud; Ghaedi, Mojtaba

    2018-02-01

    Spontaneous imbibition is the main oil production mechanism in the water invaded zone of a naturally fractured reservoir (NFR). Different scaling equations have been presented in the literature for upscaling of core scale imbibition recovery curves to field scale matrix blocks. Various scale dependent parameters such as gravity effects and boundary influences are required to be considered in the upscaling process. Fluid flow from matrix blocks to the fracture system is highly dependent on the permeability value in the horizontal and vertical directions. The purpose of this study is to include permeability anisotropy in the available scaling equations to improve the prediction of imbibition assisted oil production in NFRs. In this paper, a commercial reservoir simulator was used to obtain imbibition recovery curves for different scenarios. Then, the effect of permeability anisotropy on imbibition recovery curves was investigated, and the weakness of the existing scaling equations for anisotropic rocks was demonstrated. Consequently, an analytical shape factor was introduced that can better scale all the curves related to anisotropic matrix blocks.

  7. Section 1. Method of determining mode shapes and natural frequencies of the NASA unmodified test structure. Section 2. Continuous beam closed from solution to the NASA-LSS astromast torsional vibration, appendix E

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The methods used to determine the lower natural frequencies and their corresponding mode shapes of the NASA-LSS Astromast (Unmodified Test Structure), and the mass integrals associated with the mode shapes are illustrated. The test structure is modeled as a cantilever beam with 91 lumped masses and without the tip mass on the free end of the bram. This uncouples the torsion and bending modes and allows for them to be determined separately. The frequency range was limited to an upper bound of 100 rad/sec (15.92 Hz.). In this range from 0.-100. rad/sec, three bending frequencies and one torsion frequency was found.

  8. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Martin

    Full Text Available Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to

  9. Ordinary mode reflectometry. Modification of the scattering and cut-off responses due to the shape of localized density fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanack, C.; Boucher, I.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Nancy (France). Lab. de Physique du Solide; Clairet, F.; Zou, X.L. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1996-01-01

    Ordinary wave reflectometry in a plasma containing a localized density perturbation is studied with a 1-D model. The phase response is studied as a function of the wavenumber and position of the perturbation. It is shown that it strongly depends upon the perturbation shape and size. For a small perturbation wavenumber, the response is due to the oscillation of the cut-off layer. For larger wavenumbers, two regimes are found: for a broad perturbation, the phase response is an image of the perturbation itself; for a narrow perturbation, it is rather an image of the Fourier transform. For tokamak plasmas it turns out that, for the fluctuation spectra usually observed, the phase response comes primarily from those fluctuations that are localized at the cut-off. Results of a 2-D numerical model show that geometry effects are negligible for the scattering by radial fluctuations. (author). 18 refs.

  10. Beyond Magic Numbers: Atomic Scale Equilibrium Nanoparticle Shapes for Any Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, J Magnus; Erhart, Paul

    2017-09-13

    In the pursuit of complete control over morphology in nanoparticle synthesis, knowledge of the thermodynamic equilibrium shapes is a key ingredient. While approaches exist to determine the equilibrium shape in the large size limit (≳10-20 nm) as well as for very small particles (≲2 nm), the experimentally increasingly important intermediate size regime has largely remained elusive. Here, we present an algorithm, based on atomistic simulations in a constrained thermodynamic ensemble, that efficiently predicts equilibrium shapes for any number of atoms in the range from a few tens to many thousands of atoms. We apply the algorithm to Cu, Ag, Au, and Pd particles with diameters between approximately 1 and 7 nm and reveal an energy landscape that is more intricate than previously suggested. The thus obtained particle type distributions demonstrate that the transition from icosahedral particles to decahedral and further into truncated octahedral particles occurs only very gradually, which has implications for the interpretation of experimental data. The approach presented here is extensible to alloys and can in principle also be adapted to represent different chemical environments.

  11. Reconstruction of a Large-scale Pre-flare Coronal Current Sheet Associated with a Homologous X-shaped Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chaowei; Yan, Xiaoli; Feng, Xueshang; Duan, Aiying; Hu, Qiang; Zuo, Pingbing; Wang, Yi

    2017-11-01

    As a fundamental magnetic structure in the solar corona, electric current sheets (CSs) can form either prior to or during a solar flare, and they are essential for magnetic energy dissipation in the solar corona because they enable magnetic reconnection. However, the static reconstruction of a CS is rare, possibly due to limitations that are inherent in the available coronal field extrapolation codes. Here we present the reconstruction of a large-scale pre-flare CS in solar active region 11967 using an MHD-relaxation model constrained by the SDO/HMI vector magnetogram. The CS is associated with a set of peculiar homologous flares that exhibit unique X-shaped ribbons and loops occurring in a quadrupolar magnetic configuration.This is evidenced by an ’X’ shape, formed from the field lines traced from the CS to the photosphere. This nearly reproduces the shape of the observed flare ribbons, suggesting that the flare is a product of the dissipation of the CS via reconnection. The CS forms in a hyperbolic flux tube, which is an intersection of two quasi-separatrix layers. The recurrence of the X-shaped flares might be attributed to the repetitive formation and dissipation of the CS, as driven by the photospheric footpoint motions. These results demonstrate the power of a data-constrained MHD model in reproducing a CS in the corona as well as providing insight into the magnetic mechanism of solar flares.

  12. Sexual size and shape dimorphism and allometric scaling patterns in head traits in the New Zealand common gecko Woodworthia maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Clint D

    2015-08-01

    Sexual dimorphism in shape and size is widespread across animal taxa and arises when natural or sexual selection operates differently on the sexes. Male and female common geckos (Woodworthia maculatus; formerly Hoplodactylus maculatus) in New Zealand do not appear to experience different viability selection pressure, nor do males appear to be under intense pre-copulatory sexual selection. It was therefore predicted that this species would be sexually monomorphic with regard to body size and the size and shape of the head. In line with the prediction, there was no sexual difference in head width, depth, or length or in lateral head shape. However, contrary to prediction, males had a larger body and lateral head size than females. This study suggests that males, at least on Maud Island, NZ, might be under stronger pre-copulatory sexual selection than previously recognized and thus have evolved larger heads (i.e. lateral head size) for use in male combat for females. Allometric scaling patterns do not differ between the sexes and suggest that head width and depth are under directional selection whereas lateral head size is under stabilizing selection. Diet ecology - an agent of natural selection common to both sexes - is likely largely responsible for the observed patterns of head size and shape and the lack of sexual dimorphism in them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Void probability as a function of the void's shape and scale-invariant models. [in studies of spacial galactic distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, E.; Gaztanaga, E.

    1992-01-01

    The dependence of counts in cells on the shape of the cell for the large scale galaxy distribution is studied. A very concrete prediction can be done concerning the void distribution for scale invariant models. The prediction is tested on a sample of the CfA catalog, and good agreement is found. It is observed that the probability of a cell to be occupied is bigger for some elongated cells. A phenomenological scale invariant model for the observed distribution of the counts in cells, an extension of the negative binomial distribution, is presented in order to illustrate how this dependence can be quantitatively determined. An original, intuitive derivation of this model is presented.

  14. Random sampling of elementary flux modes in large-scale metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Daniel; Soons, Zita; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Ferreira, Eugénio C; Rocha, Isabel

    2012-09-15

    The description of a metabolic network in terms of elementary (flux) modes (EMs) provides an important framework for metabolic pathway analysis. However, their application to large networks has been hampered by the combinatorial explosion in the number of modes. In this work, we develop a method for generating random samples of EMs without computing the whole set. Our algorithm is an adaptation of the canonical basis approach, where we add an additional filtering step which, at each iteration, selects a random subset of the new combinations of modes. In order to obtain an unbiased sample, all candidates are assigned the same probability of getting selected. This approach avoids the exponential growth of the number of modes during computation, thus generating a random sample of the complete set of EMs within reasonable time. We generated samples of different sizes for a metabolic network of Escherichia coli, and observed that they preserve several properties of the full EM set. It is also shown that EM sampling can be used for rational strain design. A well distributed sample, that is representative of the complete set of EMs, should be suitable to most EM-based methods for analysis and optimization of metabolic networks. Source code for a cross-platform implementation in Python is freely available at http://code.google.com/p/emsampler. dmachado@deb.uminho.pt Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  15. Scaled Bilateral Teleoperation Using Discrete-Time Sliding-Mode Controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.; Sabanovic, A.; Nergiz, A.O.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the design of a discrete-time sliding-mode controller based on Lyapunov theory is presented along with a robust disturbance observer and is applied to a piezostage for high-precision motion. A linear model of a piezostage was used with nominal parameters to compensate the disturbance

  16. Preparative scale production of functional mouse aquaporin 4 using different cell-free expression modes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Kai

    Full Text Available The continuous progress in the structural and functional characterization of aquaporins increasingly attracts attention to study their roles in certain mammalian diseases. Although several structures of aquaporins have already been solved by crystallization, the challenge of producing sufficient amounts of functional proteins still remains. CF (cell free expression has emerged in recent times as a promising alternative option in order to synthesize large quantities of membrane proteins, and the focus of this report was to evaluate the potential of this technique for the production of eukaryotic aquaporins. We have selected the mouse aquaporin 4 as a representative of mammalian aquaporins. The protein was synthesized in an E. coli extract based cell-free system with two different expression modes, and the efficiencies of two modes were compared. In both, the P-CF (cell-free membrane protein expression as precipitate mode generating initial aquaporin precipitates as well as in the D-CF (cell-free membrane protein expression in presence of detergent mode, generating directly detergent solubilized samples, we were able to obtain mg amounts of protein per ml of cell-free reaction. Purified aquaporin samples solubilized in different detergents were reconstituted into liposomes, and analyzed for the water channel activity. The calculated P(f value of proteoliposome samples isolated from the D-CF mode was 133 µm/s at 10°C, which was 5 times higher as that of the control. A reversible inhibitory effect of mercury chloride was observed, which is consistent with previous observations of in vitro reconstituted aquaporin 4. In this study, a fast and convenient protocol was established for functional expression of aquaporins, which could serve as basis for further applications such as water filtration.

  17. Testing of the NASA Hypersonics Project Combined Cycle Engine Large Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE LlMX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J. D.; Stueber, T. J.; Thomas, S. R.; Suder, K. L.; Weir, L. J.; Sanders, B. W.

    2012-01-01

    Status on an effort to develop Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) propulsion is described. This propulsion technology can enable reliable and reusable space launch systems. TBCC propulsion offers improved performance and safety over rocket propulsion. The potential to realize aircraft-like operations and reduced maintenance are additional benefits. Among most the critical TBCC enabling technologies are: 1) mode transition from turbine to scramjet propulsion, 2) high Mach turbine engines and 3) TBCC integration. To address these TBCC challenges, the effort is centered on a propulsion mode transition experiment and includes analytical research. The test program, the Combined-Cycle Engine Large Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE LIMX), was conceived to integrate TBCC propulsion with proposed hypersonic vehicles. The goals address: (1) dual inlet operability and performance, (2) mode-transition sequences enabling a switch between turbine and scramjet flow paths, and (3) turbine engine transients during transition. Four test phases are planned from which a database can be used to both validate design and analysis codes and characterize operability and integration issues for TBCC propulsion. In this paper we discuss the research objectives, features of the CCE hardware and test plans, and status of the parametric inlet characterization testing which began in 2011. This effort is sponsored by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Hypersonics project

  18. Relativistic electron dynamics produced by azimuthally localized poloidal mode ULF waves: Boomerang-shaped pitch angle evolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Y. X.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Rankin, R.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, Y.; Fu, S. Y.; Spence, H. E.; Blake, J. B.; Reeves, G. D.

    2017-08-01

    We present an analysis of "boomerang-shaped" pitch angle evolutions of outer radiation belt relativistic electrons observed by the Van Allen Probes after the passage of an interplanetary shock on 7 June 2014. The flux at different pitch angles is modulated by Pc5 waves, with equatorially mirroring electrons reaching the satellite first. For 90° pitch angle electrons, the phase change of the flux modulations across energy exceeds 180° and increasingly tilts with time. Using estimates of the arrival time of particles of different pitch angles at the spacecraft location, a scenario is investigated in which shock-induced ULF waves interact with electrons through the drift resonance mechanism in a localized region westward of the spacecraft. Numerical calculations on particle energy gain with the modified ULF wavefield reproduce the observed boomerang stripes and modulations in the electron energy spectrogram. The study of boomerang stripes and their relationship to drift resonance taking place at a location different from the observation point adds new understanding of the processes controlling the dynamics of the outer radiation belt.

  19. Capillary Pressure in a Wedge-Shaped Channel from Pore-Scale Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.; Nolte, D. D.; Giordano, N. J.

    2008-12-01

    Our previous experimental investigations of capillary pressure in two-dimensional porous structures observed that, just prior to breakthrough, a deviation occurs between the externally measured capillary pressure and the capillary pressure measured from interfacial curvature. To explore this deviation, we used laser confocal microscopy to image the three-dimensional fluid distribution of two immiscible fluids in a simple wedge-shaped channel to determine whether this deviation occurs from the hidden curvature or the presence of thin films. The wedge-shaped channel was fabricated using two different approaches: two-photon polymerization and broad-illumination photolithography. Both techniques use UV-sensitive photoresist (SU-8) to construct a wedge-shaped micromodel containing a channel that is 100 microns wide at the inlet and 20 microns wide at the outlet with a constant channel depth of 40 microns. A Zeiss LSM 510 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope was used to image the air and water distributions within the micromodel. Initially, the micromodel was saturated withwater containing Alex Fluor-488 or FITC solution by 1%wt. In these experiments, water is the wetting phase and air is the non-wetting phase. A series of drainage and imbibition cycles were performed by incrementing or decrementing the air pressure appropriately. For each increment in pressure, the system was allowed to equilibrate and then a z-stack scan of the fluid distribution was collected with the confocal microscope. The confocal images were analyzed to extract the volume saturation of air and water, the curvature of the three-dimensional fluid-air interface, and the interfacial area per volume. We observed a hysteretic relationship between capillary pressure and wetting phase saturation for the wedge-shaped channel. An analysis of the capillary pressure from interfacial curvature found that initially the calculated and measured values of capillary pressure were equal. However, as breakthrough was

  20. Scale effect of anaerobic digestion tests in fed-batch and semi-continuous mode for the technical and economic feasibility of a full scale digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, Barbara; Fiore, Silvia; Roati, Chiara; Campo, Giuseppe; Novarino, Daniel; Zanetti, Mariachiara

    2015-04-01

    Methane production capacity in mesophilic conditions of waste from two food industry plants was assessed in a semi-pilot (6L, fed-batch) and pilot (300 L, semi-continuous) scale. This was carried out in order to evaluate the convenience of producing heat and electricity in a full scale anaerobic digester. The pilot test was performed in order to obtain more reliable results for the design of the digester. Methane yield, returned from the pilot scale test, was approximately 80% of that from the smaller scale test. This outcome was in line with those from other studies performed in different scales and modes and indicates the success of the pilot scale test. The net electricity produced from the digester accounted for 30-50% of the food industry plants' consumption. The available thermal energy could cover from 10% to 100% of the plant requirements, depending on the energy demand of the processes performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of grain size of parent phase on twinning modes of B19` martensite in an equiatomic Ti-Ni shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, M. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Resource Eng.; Itai, I. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Resource Eng.; Kitamura, K. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Resource Eng.; Chiba, A. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Resource Eng.; Yamauchi, K. [Tokin Corp., Sendai (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    The effect of grain size of B2 parent phase on the twinning modes of B19` martensite in a Ti-50.0 at% Ni shape memory alloy has been studied. The grain size of parent phase was controlled from submicrons to several ten microns by cold-rolling and subsequent annealing. (001) compound twins were dominantly observed in the grain less than 4 {mu}m in diameter, although the (001) compound twinning did not give a solution to the phenomenological crystallographic theory. The triangular self-accommodating morphology of the martensite variants consisting of left angle 011 right angle Type II twins which were theoretically and experimentally recognized as a lattice invariant shear of the present transformation appeared in the whole grain more than 4 {mu}m in diameter. The formation mechanism of the (001) compound twinning in the fine grain is also discussed. (orig.).

  2. Semi-quartic force fields retrieved from multi-mode expansions: Accuracy, scaling behavior, and approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan [Institute of Physical Chemistry and National Center for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials (MARVEL), Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Rauhut, Guntram, E-mail: rauhut@theochem.uni-stuttgart.de [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-04-21

    Semi-quartic force fields (QFF) rely on a Taylor-expansion of the multi-dimensional Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface (PES) and are frequently used within the calculation of anharmonic vibrational frequencies based on 2nd order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2). As such they are usually determined by differentiation of the electronic energy with respect to the nuclear coordinates. Alternatively, potential energy surfaces can be expanded in terms of multi-mode expansions, which typically do not require any derivative techniques. The computational effort to retrieve QFF from size-reduced multi-mode expansions has been studied and has been compared with standard Taylor-expansions. As multi-mode expansions allow for the convenient introduction of subtle approximations, these will be discussed in some detail. In addition, a preliminary study about the applicability of a generalized Duschinsky transformation to QFFs is provided. This transformation allows for the efficient evaluation of VPT2 frequencies of isotopologues from the PES of the parent compound and thus avoids the recalculation of PESs in different axes systems.

  3. Shape up or ship out: migratory behaviour predicts morphology across spatial scale in a freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ben B; Hulthén, Kaj; Brönmark, Christer; Nilsson, P Anders; Skov, Christian; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brodersen, Jakob

    2015-09-01

    1. Migration is a widespread phenomenon, with powerful ecological and evolutionary consequences. Morphological adaptations to reduce the energetic costs associated with migratory transport are commonly documented for migratory species. However, few studies have investigated whether variation in body morphology can be explained by variation in migratory strategy within a species. 2. We address this question in roach Rutilus rutilus, a partially migratory freshwater fish that migrates from lakes into streams during winter. We both compare body shape between populations that differ in migratory opportunity (open vs. closed lakes), and between individuals from a single population that vary in migratory propensity (migrants and residents from a partially migratory population). Following hydrodynamic theory, we posit that migrants should have a more shallow body depth, to reduce the costs associated with migrating into streams with higher flow conditions than the lakes the residents occupy all year round. 3. We find evidence both across and within populations to support our prediction, with individuals from open lakes and migrants from the partially migratory population having a more slender, shallow-bodied morphology than fish from closed lakes and all-year residents. 4. Our data suggest that a shallow body morphology is beneficial to migratory individuals and our study is one of the first to link migratory strategy and intraspecific variation in body shape. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  4. The human milk microbiome changes over lactation and is shaped by maternal weight and mode of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Rubio, Raul; Collado, M Carmen; Laitinen, Kirsi; Salminen, Seppo; Isolauri, Erika; Mira, Alex

    2012-09-01

    Breast milk is recognized as the most important postpartum element in metabolic and immunologic programming of health of neonates. The factors influencing the milk microbiome and the potential impact of microbes on infant health have not yet been uncovered. Our objective was to identify pre- and postnatal factors that can potentially influence the bacterial communities inhabiting human milk. We characterized the milk microbial community at 3 different time points by pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction in mothers (n = 18) who varied in BMI, weight gain, and mode of delivery. We found that the human milk microbiome changes over lactation. Weisella, Leuconostoc, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Lactococcus were predominant in colostrum samples, whereas in 1- and 6-mo milk samples the typical inhabitants of the oral cavity (eg, Veillonella, Leptotrichia, and Prevotella) increased significantly. Milk from obese mothers tended to contain a different and less diverse bacterial community compared with milk from normal-weight mothers. Milk samples from elective but not from nonelective mothers who underwent cesarean delivery contained a different bacterial community than did milk samples from individuals giving birth by vaginal delivery, suggesting that it is not the operation per se but rather the absence of physiological stress or hormonal signals that could influence the microbial transmission process to milk. Our results indicate that milk bacteria are not contaminants and suggest that the milk microbiome is influenced by several factors that significantly skew its composition. Because bacteria present in breast milk are among the very first microbes entering the human body, our data emphasize the necessity to understand the biological role that the milk microbiome could potentially play for human health.

  5. Scale and shape issues in focused cluster power for count data

    OpenAIRE

    Puett, Robin C; Lawson, Andrew B; Clark, Allan B; Aldrich, Tim E; Porter, Dwayne E; Feigley, Charles E; Hebert, James R

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Interest in the development of statistical methods for disease cluster detection has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Evaluations of statistical power provide important information for the selection of an appropriate statistical method in environmentally-related disease cluster investigations. Published power evaluations have not yet addressed the use of models for focused cluster detection and have not fully investigated the issues of disease cluster scale and sh...

  6. Compatibility of separatrix density scaling for divertor detachment with H-mode pedestal operation in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A. W.; McLean, A. G.; Makowski, M. A.; Stangeby, P. C.

    2017-08-01

    The midplane separatrix density is characterized in response to variations in upstream parallel heat flux density and central density through deuterium gas injection. The midplane density is determined from a high spatial resolution Thomson scattering diagnostic at the midplane with power balance analysis to determine the separatrix location. The heat flux density is varied by scans of three parameters, auxiliary heating, toroidal field with fixed plasma current, and plasma current with fixed safety factor, q 95. The separatrix density just before divertor detachment onset is found to scale consistent with the two-point model when radiative dissipation is taken into account. The ratio of separatrix to pedestal density, n e,sep/n e,ped varies from  ⩽30% to  ⩾60% over the dataset, helping to resolve the conflicting scaling of core plasma density limit and divertor detachment onset. The scaling of the separatrix density at detachment onset is combined with H-mode power threshold scaling to obtain a scaling ratio of minimum n e,sep/n e,ped expected in future devices.

  7. Detection of B-mode polarization at degree angular scales by BICEP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, P A R; Aikin, R W; Barkats, D; Benton, S J; Bischoff, C A; Bock, J J; Brevik, J A; Buder, I; Bullock, E; Dowell, C D; Duband, L; Filippini, J P; Fliescher, S; Golwala, S R; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hildebrandt, S R; Hilton, G C; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Karkare, K S; Kaufman, J P; Keating, B G; Kernasovskiy, S A; Kovac, J M; Kuo, C L; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Mason, P; Netterfield, C B; Nguyen, H T; O'Brient, R; Ogburn, R W; Orlando, A; Pryke, C; Reintsema, C D; Richter, S; Schwarz, R; Sheehy, C D; Staniszewski, Z K; Sudiwala, R V; Teply, G P; Tolan, J E; Turner, A D; Vieregg, A G; Wong, C L; Yoon, K W

    2014-06-20

    We report results from the BICEP2 experiment, a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter specifically designed to search for the signal of inflationary gravitational waves in the B-mode power spectrum around ℓ∼80. The telescope comprised a 26 cm aperture all-cold refracting optical system equipped with a focal plane of 512 antenna coupled transition edge sensor 150 GHz bolometers each with temperature sensitivity of ≈300  μK(CMB)√s. BICEP2 observed from the South Pole for three seasons from 2010 to 2012. A low-foreground region of sky with an effective area of 380 square deg was observed to a depth of 87 nK deg in Stokes Q and U. In this paper we describe the observations, data reduction, maps, simulations, and results. We find an excess of B-mode power over the base lensed-ΛCDM expectation in the range 30 5σ. Through jackknife tests and simulations based on detailed calibration measurements we show that systematic contamination is much smaller than the observed excess. Cross correlating against WMAP 23 GHz maps we find that Galactic synchrotron makes a negligible contribution to the observed signal. We also examine a number of available models of polarized dust emission and find that at their default parameter values they predict power ∼(5-10)× smaller than the observed excess signal (with no significant cross-correlation with our maps). However, these models are not sufficiently constrained by external public data to exclude the possibility of dust emission bright enough to explain the entire excess signal. Cross correlating BICEP2 against 100 GHz maps from the BICEP1 experiment, the excess signal is confirmed with 3σ significance and its spectral index is found to be consistent with that of the CMB, disfavoring dust at 1.7σ. The observed B-mode power spectrum is well fit by a lensed-ΛCDM+tensor theoretical model with tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.20_(-0.05)(+0.07), with r = 0 disfavored at 7.0σ. Accounting for the contribution of

  8. Time-Series Comparison of Auto/Motorcycle Ownership and Joint Mode and Destination Choice Models Based on Two Large-Scale Surveys in Jakarta

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    YAGI, Sadayuki; NOBEL, Deo; KAWAGUCHI, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of household auto/motorcycle ownership and joint mode and destination choice models that were developed based on two large-scale travel surveys conducted eight years apart...

  9. Vibration mode shapes visualization in industrial environment by real-time time-averaged phase-stepped electronic speckle pattern interferometry at 10.6 μm and shearography at 532 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Languy, Fabian; Vandenrijt, Jean-François; Thizy, Cédric; Rochet, Jonathan; Loffet, Christophe; Simon, Daniel; Georges, Marc P.

    2016-12-01

    We present our investigations on two interferometric methods suitable for industrial conditions dedicated to the visualization of vibration modes of aeronautic blades. First, we consider long-wave infrared (LWIR) electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). The use of long wavelength allows measuring larger amplitudes of vibrations compared with what can be achieved with visible light. Also longer wavelengths allow lower sensitivity to external perturbations. Second, shearography at 532 nm is used as an alternative to LWIR ESPI. Both methods are used in time-averaged mode with the use of phase-stepping. This allows transforming Bessel fringes, typical to time averaging, into phase values that provide higher contrast and improve the visualization of vibration mode shapes. Laboratory experimental results with both techniques allowed comparison of techniques, leading to selection of shearography. Finally a vibration test on electrodynamic shaker is performed in an industrial environment and mode shapes are obtained with good quality by shearography.

  10. The interannual precipitation variability in the southern part of Iran as linked to large-scale climate modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourasghar, Farnaz; Jahanbakhsh, Saeed; Sari Sarraf, Behrooz [The University of Tabriz, Department of Physical Geography, Faculty of Humanities and Social Science, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tozuka, Tomoki [The University of Tokyo, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Ghaemi, Hooshang [Iran Meteorological Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yamagata, Toshio [The University of Tokyo, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Application Laboratory/JAMSTEC, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    The interannual variation of precipitation in the southern part of Iran and its link with the large-scale climate modes are examined using monthly data from 183 meteorological stations during 1974-2005. The majority of precipitation occurs during the rainy season from October to May. The interannual variation in fall and early winter during the first part of the rainy season shows apparently a significant positive correlation with the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, a partial correlation analysis used to extract the respective influence of IOD and ENSO shows a significant positive correlation only with the IOD and not with ENSO. The southeasterly moisture flux anomaly over the Arabian Sea turns anti-cyclonically and transport more moisture to the southern part of Iran from the Arabian Sea, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf during the positive IOD. On the other hand, the moisture flux has northerly anomaly over Iran during the negative IOD, which results in reduced moisture supply from the south. During the latter part of the rainy season in late winter and spring, the interannual variation of precipitation is more strongly influenced by modes of variability over the Mediterranean Sea. The induced large-scale atmospheric circulation anomaly controls moisture supply from the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. (orig.)

  11. Habitat and scale shape the demographic fate of the keystone sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in Mediterranean macrophyte communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Prado

    Full Text Available Demographic processes exert different degrees of control as individuals grow, and in species that span several habitats and spatial scales, this can influence our ability to predict their population at a particular life-history stage given the previous life stage. In particular, when keystone species are involved, this relative coupling between demographic stages can have significant implications for the functioning of ecosystems. We examined benthic and pelagic abundances of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in order to: 1 understand the main life-history bottlenecks by observing the degree of coupling between demographic stages; and 2 explore the processes driving these linkages. P. lividus is the dominant invertebrate herbivore in the Mediterranean Sea, and has been repeatedly observed to overgraze shallow beds of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica and rocky macroalgal communities. We used a hierarchical sampling design at different spatial scales (100 s, 10 s and <1 km and habitats (seagrass and rocky macroalgae to describe the spatial patterns in the abundance of different demographic stages (larvae, settlers, recruits and adults. Our results indicate that large-scale factors (potentially currents, nutrients, temperature, etc. determine larval availability and settlement in the pelagic stages of urchin life history. In rocky macroalgal habitats, benthic processes (like predation acting at large or medium scales drive adult abundances. In contrast, adult numbers in seagrass meadows are most likely influenced by factors like local migration (from adjoining rocky habitats functioning at much smaller scales. The complexity of spatial and habitat-dependent processes shaping urchin populations demands a multiplicity of approaches when addressing habitat conservation actions, yet such actions are currently mostly aimed at managing predation processes and fish numbers. We argue that a more holistic ecosystem management also needs to incorporate the

  12. Habitat and scale shape the demographic fate of the keystone sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in Mediterranean macrophyte communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Patricia; Tomas, Fiona; Pinna, Stefania; Farina, Simone; Roca, Guillem; Ceccherelli, Giulia; Romero, Javier; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Demographic processes exert different degrees of control as individuals grow, and in species that span several habitats and spatial scales, this can influence our ability to predict their population at a particular life-history stage given the previous life stage. In particular, when keystone species are involved, this relative coupling between demographic stages can have significant implications for the functioning of ecosystems. We examined benthic and pelagic abundances of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in order to: 1) understand the main life-history bottlenecks by observing the degree of coupling between demographic stages; and 2) explore the processes driving these linkages. P. lividus is the dominant invertebrate herbivore in the Mediterranean Sea, and has been repeatedly observed to overgraze shallow beds of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica and rocky macroalgal communities. We used a hierarchical sampling design at different spatial scales (100 s, 10 s and habitats (seagrass and rocky macroalgae) to describe the spatial patterns in the abundance of different demographic stages (larvae, settlers, recruits and adults). Our results indicate that large-scale factors (potentially currents, nutrients, temperature, etc.) determine larval availability and settlement in the pelagic stages of urchin life history. In rocky macroalgal habitats, benthic processes (like predation) acting at large or medium scales drive adult abundances. In contrast, adult numbers in seagrass meadows are most likely influenced by factors like local migration (from adjoining rocky habitats) functioning at much smaller scales. The complexity of spatial and habitat-dependent processes shaping urchin populations demands a multiplicity of approaches when addressing habitat conservation actions, yet such actions are currently mostly aimed at managing predation processes and fish numbers. We argue that a more holistic ecosystem management also needs to incorporate the landscape and habitat

  13. The leaf-level emission factor of volatile isoprenoids: caveats, model algorithms, response shapes and scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ü. Niinemets

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In models of plant volatile isoprenoid emissions, the instantaneous compound emission rate typically scales with the plant's emission potential under specified environmental conditions, also called as the emission factor, ES. In the most widely employed plant isoprenoid emission models, the algorithms developed by Guenther and colleagues (1991, 1993, instantaneous variation of the steady-state emission rate is described as the product of ES and light and temperature response functions. When these models are employed in the atmospheric chemistry modeling community, species-specific ES values and parameter values defining the instantaneous response curves are often taken as initially defined. In the current review, we argue that ES as a characteristic used in the models importantly depends on our understanding of which environmental factors affect isoprenoid emissions, and consequently need standardization during experimental ES determinations. In particular, there is now increasing consensus that in addition to variations in light and temperature, alterations in atmospheric and/or within-leaf CO2 concentrations may need to be included in the emission models. Furthermore, we demonstrate that for less volatile isoprenoids, mono- and sesquiterpenes, the emissions are often jointly controlled by the compound synthesis and volatility. Because of these combined biochemical and physico-chemical drivers, specification of ES as a constant value is incapable of describing instantaneous emissions within the sole assumptions of fluctuating light and temperature as used in the standard algorithms. The definition of ES also varies depending on the degree of aggregation of ES values in different parameterization schemes (leaf- vs. canopy- or region-scale, species vs. plant functional type levels and various

  14. Genome-Wide Motif Statistics are Shaped by DNA Binding Proteins over Evolutionary Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Qian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The composition of a genome with respect to all possible short DNA motifs impacts the ability of DNA binding proteins to locate and bind their target sites. Since nonfunctional DNA binding can be detrimental to cellular functions and ultimately to organismal fitness, organisms could benefit from reducing the number of nonfunctional DNA binding sites genome wide. Using in vitro measurements of binding affinities for a large collection of DNA binding proteins, in multiple species, we detect a significant global avoidance of weak binding sites in genomes. We demonstrate that the underlying evolutionary process leaves a distinct genomic hallmark in that similar words have correlated frequencies, a signal that we detect in all species across domains of life. We consider the possibility that natural selection against weak binding sites contributes to this process, and using an evolutionary model we show that the strength of selection needed to maintain global word compositions is on the order of point mutation rates. Likewise, we show that evolutionary mechanisms based on interference of protein-DNA binding with replication and mutational repair processes could yield similar results and operate with similar rates. On the basis of these modeling and bioinformatic results, we conclude that genome-wide word compositions have been molded by DNA binding proteins acting through tiny evolutionary steps over time scales spanning millions of generations.

  15. Large Scale Applications Using FBG Sensors: Determination of In-Flight Loads and Shape of a Composite Aircraft Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have enabled the development of a number of optical fiber sensing methods over the last few years. The most prevalent optical technique involves the use of fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors. These small, lightweight sensors have many attributes that enable their use for a number of measurement applications. Although much literature is available regarding the use of FBGs for laboratory level testing, few publications in the public domain exist of their use at the operational level. Therefore, this paper gives an overview of the implementation of FBG sensors for large scale structures and applications. For demonstration, a case study is presented in which FBGs were used to determine the deflected wing shape and the out-of-plane loads of a 5.5-m carbon-composite wing of an ultralight aerial vehicle. The in-plane strains from the 780 FBG sensors were used to obtain the out-of-plane loads as well as the wing shape at various load levels. The calculated out-of-plane displacements and loads were within 4.2% of the measured data. This study demonstrates a practical method in which direct measurements are used to obtain critical parameters from the high distribution of FBG sensors. This procedure can be used to obtain information for structural health monitoring applications to quantify healthy vs. unhealthy structures.

  16. Large-Scale Procurement of Radiation Resistant Single-Mode Optical Fibers for CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Guillermain, Elisa; Kuhnhenn, Jochen; Ricci, Daniel; Weinand, Udo

    2015-01-01

    2400 km of special radiation resistant optical fibres were procured by CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), for the installation of more than 55 km of optical fibre cables in the accelerator complex underground during the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1). In the frame of this large-scale industrial production, a thorough quality assurance plan (QAP) was put in place and followed at each step of the process. In-depth qualification of optical fibres preceded the 17-month procurement process. All supplied batches were tested for their resistance to radiation, leading to more than 65 quality control irradiation tests. During the cable assembly process and the installations works, a full traceability down to the optical fibre level was ensured. The actions put in place in the frame of the QAP led to successful installation works and to full respect of the LS1 planning.

  17. Quasar-mode Feedback in Nearby Type 1 Quasars: Ubiquitous Kiloparsec-scale Outflows and Correlations with Black Hole Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupke, David S. N.; Gültekin, Kayhan; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence and properties of kiloparsec-scale outflows in nearby Type 1 quasars have been the subject of little previous attention. This work presents Gemini integral field spectroscopy of 10 Type 1 radio-quiet quasars at z \\equiv ) of 200–1300 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and peak velocities (maximum {v}98 % ) of 500–2600 {km} {{{s}}}-1. These minor-axis outflows are powered primarily by the central active galactic nucleus, reach scales of 3–12 kpc, and often fill the field of view. Including molecular data and Type 2 quasar measurements, nearby quasars show a wide range in mass outflow rates ({dM}/{dt}=1 to > 1000 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1) and momentum boosts [(c {dp}/{dt})/{L}{AGN}=0.01{--}20]. After extending the mass scale to Seyferts, dM/dt and dE/dt correlate with black hole mass ({dM}/{dt}∼ {M}{BH}0.7+/- 0.3 and {dE}/{dt}∼ {M}{BH}1.3+/- 0.5). Thus, the most massive black holes in the local universe power the most massive and energetic quasar-mode winds.

  18. Latest developments on fibered MOPA in mJ range with hollow-core fiber beam delivery and fiber beam shaping used as seeder for large scale laser facilities (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleyze, Jean-François; Scol, Florent; Perrin, Arnaud; Gouriou, Pierre; Valentin, Constance; Bouwmans, Géraud; Hugonnot, Emmanuel

    2017-05-01

    The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) is a French large scale laser facility dedicated to inertial fusion and plasma physics research. LMJ front-ends are based on fiber laser technology at nanojoule range [1]. Scaling the energy of those fiber seeders to the millijoule range is a way to upgrade LMJ's front ends architecture and could also be used as seeder for lasers for ELI project for example. However, required performances are so restrictive (optical-signal-to-noise ratio higher than 50 dB, temporally-shaped nanosecond pulses and spatial single-mode top-hat beam output) that such fiber systems are very tricky to build. High-energy fiber amplifiers In 2015, we have demonstrated, an all-fiber MOPA prototype able to produce a millijoule seeder, but unfortunately not 100% conform for all LMJ's performances. A major difficulty was to manage the frequency modulation used to avoid stimulated Brillouin scattering, to amplitude modulation (FM-AM) conversion, this limits the energy at 170µJ. For upgrading the energy to the millijoule range, it's necessary to use an amplifier with a larger core fiber. However, this fiber must still be flexible; polarization maintaining and exhibit a strictly single-mode behaviour. We are thus developing a new amplifier architecture based on an Yb-doped tapered fiber: its core diameter is from a narrow input to a wide output (MFD 8 to 26 µm). A S² measurement on a 2,5m long tapered fiber rolled-up on 22 cm diameter confirmed that this original geometry allows obtaining strictly single-mode behaviour. In a 1 kHz repetition rate regime, we already obtain 750 µJ pulses, and we are on the way to mJ, respecting LMJ performances. Beam delivery In LMJ architecture the distance between the nanojoule fiber seeder and the amplifier stages is about 16 m. Beam delivery is achieved with a standard PM fiber, such a solution is no longer achievable with hundreds of kilowatt peak powers. An efficient way to minimize nonlinear effects is to use hollow-core (HC

  19. A novel large-scale plasma source: two discharge modes and their correlation to the production of aqueous reactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingchuan; Liu, Dingxin; Zhang, Zhiquan; Li, Qiaosong; Liu, Zhijie; Guo, Li; Wang, Xiaohua; Kong, Michael G.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a novel large-scale plasma source is put forward, which can generate two modes of discharge, i.e. the surface dielectric barrier discharge and the plasma jet array, by just varying the helium gas flow rate. It is found that the discharge power changes a little with the increasing gas flow rate, but the densities of reactive species in the gas phase and in the treated water change a lot. In particular, the gaseous O3 has its density decreasing while the aqueous O3 has its concentration increasing with the increasing gas flow rate. In the plasma-treated water, the reactive nitrogen species such as nitrite and nitrate have their concentrations first increasing and then decreasing, while the reactive oxygen species such as H2O2, O3 and OH have their concentrations increasing monotonically, implying that the plasma source is well-adaptive for different application requirements.

  20. Dynamical scaling, domain-growth kinetics, and domain-wall shapes of quenched two-dimensional anisotropic XY models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Praestgaard, Eigil

    1988-01-01

    obeys dynamical scaling and the shape of the dynamical scaling function pertaining to the structure factor is found to depend on P. Specifically, this function is described by a Porod-law behavior, q-ω, where ω increases with the wall softness. The kinetic exponent, which describes how the linear domain...... infinite to zero temperature as well as to nonzero temperatures below the ordering transition. The continuous nature of the spin variables causes the domain walls to be ‘‘soft’’ and characterized by a finite thickness. The steady-state thickness of the walls can be varied by a model parameter, P. At zero...... size varies with time, R(t)∼tn, is for both models at zero temperature determined to be n≃0.25, independent of P. At finite temperatures, the growth kinetics is found to cross over to the Lifshitz-Allen-Cahn law characterized by n≃0.50. The results support the idea of two separate zero...

  1. Advances in compact manufacturing for shape and performance controllability of large-scale components-a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fangcheng; Li, Yongtang; Qi, Huiping; Ju, Li

    2017-01-01

    Research on compact manufacturing technology for shape and performance controllability of metallic components can realize the simplification and high-reliability of manufacturing process on the premise of satisfying the requirement of macro/micro-structure. It is not only the key paths in improving performance, saving material and energy, and green manufacturing of components used in major equipments, but also the challenging subjects in frontiers of advanced plastic forming. To provide a novel horizon for the manufacturing in the critical components is significant. Focused on the high-performance large-scale components such as bearing rings, flanges, railway wheels, thick-walled pipes, etc, the conventional processes and their developing situations are summarized. The existing problems including multi-pass heating, wasting material and energy, high cost and high-emission are discussed, and the present study unable to meet the manufacturing in high-quality components is also pointed out. Thus, the new techniques related to casting-rolling compound precise forming of rings, compact manufacturing for duplex-metal composite rings, compact manufacturing for railway wheels, and casting-extruding continuous forming of thick-walled pipes are introduced in detail, respectively. The corresponding research contents, such as casting ring blank, hot ring rolling, near solid-state pressure forming, hot extruding, are elaborated. Some findings in through-thickness microstructure evolution and mechanical properties are also presented. The components produced by the new techniques are mainly characterized by fine and homogeneous grains. Moreover, the possible directions for further development of those techniques are suggested. Finally, the key scientific problems are first proposed. All of these results and conclusions have reference value and guiding significance for the integrated control of shape and performance in advanced compact manufacturing.

  2. Experimental observation of multi-scale interactions among kink /tearing modes and high-frequency fluctuations in the HL-2A core NBI plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Jiang, M.; Xu, Y.; Shi, P. W.; Yu, L. M.; Ding, X. T.; Shi, Z. B.; Ji, X. Q.; Yu, D. L.; Li, Y. G.; Yang, Z. C.; Zhong, W. L.; Qiu, Z. Y.; Li, J. Q.; Dong, J. Q.; Yang, Q. W.; Liu, Yi.; Yan, L. W.; Xu, M.; Duan, X. R.

    2017-11-01

    Multi-scale interactions have been observed recently in the HL-2A core NBI plasmas, including the synchronous coupling between m/n=1/1 kink mode and m/n=2/1 tearing mode, nonlinear couplings of TAE/BAE and m/n=2/1 TM near q=2 surface, AITG/KBM/BAE and m/n=1/1 kink mode near q=1 surface, and between m/n=1/1 kink mode and high-frequency turbulence. Experimental results suggest that several couplings can exist simultaneously, Alfvenic fluctuations have an important contribution to the high-frequency turbulence spectra, and the couplings reveal the electromagnetic character. Multi-scale interactions via the nonlinear modulation process maybe enhance plasma transport and trigger sawtooth-crash onset.

  3. Sequential computation of elementary modes and minimal cut sets in genome-scale metabolic networks using alternate integer linear programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hyun-Seob; Goldberg, Noam; Mahajan, Ashutosh; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami

    2017-03-27

    Elementary (flux) modes (EMs) have served as a valuable tool for investigating structural and functional properties of metabolic networks. Identification of the full set of EMs in genome-scale networks remains challenging due to combinatorial explosion of EMs in complex networks. It is often, however, that only a small subset of relevant EMs needs to be known, for which optimization-based sequential computation is a useful alternative. Most of the currently available methods along this line are based on the iterative use of mixed integer linear programming (MILP), the effectiveness of which significantly deteriorates as the number of iterations builds up. To alleviate the computational burden associated with the MILP implementation, we here present a novel optimization algorithm termed alternate integer linear programming (AILP). Results: Our algorithm was designed to iteratively solve a pair of integer programming (IP) and linear programming (LP) to compute EMs in a sequential manner. In each step, the IP identifies a minimal subset of reactions, the deletion of which disables all previously identified EMs. Thus, a subsequent LP solution subject to this reaction deletion constraint becomes a distinct EM. In cases where no feasible LP solution is available, IP-derived reaction deletion sets represent minimal cut sets (MCSs). Despite the additional computation of MCSs, AILP achieved significant time reduction in computing EMs by orders of magnitude. The proposed AILP algorithm not only offers a computational advantage in the EM analysis of genome-scale networks, but also improves the understanding of the linkage between EMs and MCSs.

  4. Decentralized control of large-scale systems: Fixed modes, sensitivity and parametric robustness. Ph.D. Thesis - Universite Paul Sabatier, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarras, A.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of stabilization/pole placement under structural constraints of large scale linear systems is discussed. The existence of a solution to this problem is expressed in terms of fixed modes. The aim is to provide a bibliographic survey of the available results concerning the fixed modes (characterization, elimination, control structure selection to avoid them, control design in their absence) and to present the author's contribution to this problem which can be summarized by the use of the mode sensitivity concept to detect or to avoid them, the use of vibrational control to stabilize them, and the addition of parametric robustness considerations to design an optimal decentralized robust control.

  5. Study of non-condensable gases effect on VVER steam generator operation in condensation mode at large-scale facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, A. V.; Remizov, O. V.; Tzyganok, A. A.; Kalyakin, D. S., E-mail: sas@ippe.r [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering by A. I. Leypunsky, Bondarenko 1 sq. Obninsk, 249033 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-15

    The NNP-2006 project of nuclear power plant with VVER-1200 reactor provides for use of passive safety systems for necessary core cooling. Among these is passive heat removal system (PHRS). In the case of leakage in the primary circuit this system assures the transition of steam generators (Sg) to operation in the mode of condensation of the primary circuit steam. As a result, the condensate from Sg arrives at the core providing its additional cooling. The joint operation of the PHRS and the system of hydro accumulators of the second stage makes it possible to assure the heat removal from the core during 24 hours. The efficiency of the system can be affected by the presence os non-condensable gases in the primary circuit. The main sources of gases are nitrogen, arriving at the circuit, as hydro accumulators actuate and products of radiolysis of water. The circuit design considered in the project makes it possible to remove gas-steam mixture from Sg. At the same time, it is necessary to ascertain if the gas removal is adequate for ensuring the design operation of Sg in the steam condensation mode. For this purpose, series of experiments have been carried out at the large-scale test facility HA2M-Sg. The test facility incorporates VVER reactor Sg model with volumetric-power scale of piping is 1:46, PHRS heat exchanger imitator and buffer tank, equipped by steam supply system. The elevations of the main equipment correspond to those of reactor project. Experiments at the HA2M-Sg test facility have been performed at the pressure 0.36-0.38 MPa, correspond to VVER reactor pressure at the last stage of the beyond design basis accident. The report presents the basic results of experiments aimed at the evaluation of Sg condensation power under the inflow of gas-steam mix to the tube bundle, both under the simulation of gas-steam mixture outflow from Sg and without outflow. (Author)

  6. Sequential computation of elementary modes and minimal cut sets in genome-scale metabolic networks using alternate integer linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Seob; Goldberg, Noam; Mahajan, Ashutosh; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami

    2017-08-01

    Elementary (flux) modes (EMs) have served as a valuable tool for investigating structural and functional properties of metabolic networks. Identification of the full set of EMs in genome-scale networks remains challenging due to combinatorial explosion of EMs in complex networks. It is often, however, that only a small subset of relevant EMs needs to be known, for which optimization-based sequential computation is a useful alternative. Most of the currently available methods along this line are based on the iterative use of mixed integer linear programming (MILP), the effectiveness of which significantly deteriorates as the number of iterations builds up. To alleviate the computational burden associated with the MILP implementation, we here present a novel optimization algorithm termed alternate integer linear programming (AILP). Our algorithm was designed to iteratively solve a pair of integer programming (IP) and linear programming (LP) to compute EMs in a sequential manner. In each step, the IP identifies a minimal subset of reactions, the deletion of which disables all previously identified EMs. Thus, a subsequent LP solution subject to this reaction deletion constraint becomes a distinct EM. In cases where no feasible LP solution is available, IP-derived reaction deletion sets represent minimal cut sets (MCSs). Despite the additional computation of MCSs, AILP achieved significant time reduction in computing EMs by orders of magnitude. The proposed AILP algorithm not only offers a computational advantage in the EM analysis of genome-scale networks, but also improves the understanding of the linkage between EMs and MCSs. The software is implemented in Matlab, and is provided as supplementary information . hyunseob.song@pnnl.gov. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. Wind Tunnel Testing of a 120th Scale Large Civil Tilt-Rotor Model in Airplane and Helicopter Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Willink, Gina C.; Russell, Carl R.; Amy, Alexander R.; Pete, Ashley E.

    2014-01-01

    In April 2012 and October 2013, NASA and the U.S. Army jointly conducted a wind tunnel test program examining two notional large tilt rotor designs: NASA's Large Civil Tilt Rotor and the Army's High Efficiency Tilt Rotor. The approximately 6%-scale airframe models (unpowered) were tested without rotors in the U.S. Army 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Measurements of all six forces and moments acting on the airframe were taken using the wind tunnel scale system. In addition to force and moment measurements, flow visualization using tufts, infrared thermography and oil flow were used to identify flow trajectories, boundary layer transition and areas of flow separation. The purpose of this test was to collect data for the validation of computational fluid dynamics tools, for the development of flight dynamics simulation models, and to validate performance predictions made during conceptual design. This paper focuses on the results for the Large Civil Tilt Rotor model in an airplane mode configuration up to 200 knots of wind tunnel speed. Results are presented with the full airframe model with various wing tip and nacelle configurations, and for a wing-only case also with various wing tip and nacelle configurations. Key results show that the addition of a wing extension outboard of the nacelles produces a significant increase in the lift-to-drag ratio, and interestingly decreases the drag compared to the case where the wing extension is not present. The drag decrease is likely due to complex aerodynamic interactions between the nacelle and wing extension that results in a significant drag benefit.

  8. Impact of neoclassical tearing mode-turbulence multi-scale interaction in global confinement degradation and magnetic island stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardóczi, L.; Carter, T. A.; La Haye, R. J.; Rhodes, T. L.; McKee, G. R.

    2017-12-01

    Recent measurements of turbulent density ( n ˜ ) and electron-temperature ( T˜ e ) fluctuations have reported turbulence modifications by Neoclassical Tearing Mode (NTM) islands: turbulence decreases (increases) inside (outside) the island region when the island width (W) exceeds a threshold (WT), in qualitative agreement with gyrokinetic simulations. As the cross-field transport in tokamaks is dominantly driven by turbulence, these observations call into question the conventional understanding of confinement degradation by NTMs and magnetic island stability physics. The experimental data presented here support the following points: (i) When profiles flatten at the O-point and gradients increase outside of the island, n ˜ decreases (increases) inside (outside) the island. Along with the parallel transport resulting in increased fluxes inside the island, the increase of n ˜ outside of the island offers an explanation for the temporal increase of fluxes in that region. As the plasma stored energy (WMHD) gradually decreases in synchronization with the island growth and saturation, gradients, n ˜ and fluxes also decrease outside the island until they become about the same as before NTM onset. These fluxes balance the constant sources, and the plasma comes to a steady state at lower WMHD. (ii) Turbulence reduction in the O-point region has a destabilizing effect on the island. This effect is, however, nearly compensated by the reduced confinement. These observations suggest that driving turbulence in the island region could lead to smaller saturated islands offering a path toward better confinement and safer operation of reactor-scale fusion devices.

  9. FR-type radio sources in COSMOS: relation of radio structure to size, accretion modes and large-scale environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulaki, Eleni; Faustino Jimenez Andrade, Eric; Delvecchio, Ivan; Karim, Alexander; Smolčić, Vernesa; Magnelli, Benjamin; Bertoldi, Frank; Schinnener, Eva; Sargent, Mark; Finoguenov, Alexis; VLA COSMOS Team

    2018-01-01

    The radio sources associated with active galactic nuclei (AGN) can exhibit a variety of radio structures, from simple to more complex, giving rise to a variety of classification schemes. The question which still remains open, given deeper surveys revealing new populations of radio sources, is whether this plethora of radio structures can be attributed to the physical properties of the host or to the environment. Here we present an analysis on the radio structure of radio-selected AGN from the VLA-COSMOS Large Project at 3 GHz (JVLA-COSMOS; Smolčić et al.) in relation to: 1) their linear projected size, 2) the Eddington ratio, and 3) the environment their hosts lie within. We classify these as FRI (jet-like) and FRII (lobe-like) based on the FR-type classification scheme, and compare them to a sample of jet-less radio AGN in JVLA-COSMOS. We measure their linear projected sizes using a semi-automatic machine learning technique. Their Eddington ratios are calculated from X-ray data available for COSMOS. As environmental probes we take the X-ray groups (hundreds kpc) and the density fields (~Mpc-scale) in COSMOS. We find that FRII radio sources are on average larger than FRIs, which agrees with literature. But contrary to past studies, we find no dichotomy in FR objects in JVLA-COSMOS given their Eddington ratios, as on average they exhibit similar values. Furthermore our results show that the large-scale environment does not explain the observed dichotomy in lobe- and jet-like FR-type objects as both types are found on similar environments, but it does affect the shape of the radio structure introducing bents for objects closer to the centre of an X-ray group.

  10. Shrinking of core neoclassical tearing mode magnetic islands due to edge localized modes and the role of ion-scale turbulence in island recovery in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardóczi, L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Carter, T. A.; La Haye, R. J.; Bañón Navarro, A.; McKee, G. R.

    2017-06-01

    Experimental signature of long-wavelength turbulence accelerating the recovery of Neoclassical Tearing Mode (NTM) magnetic islands after they have been transiently reduced in size due to interaction with Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) is reported for the first time. This work shows that perturbations associated with ELMs result in peaking of the electron temperature (Te) in the O-point region of saturated core m/n = 2/1 islands (m/n being the poloidal/toroidal mode numbers). In synchronization with this Te peak, the island width shrinks by as much as 30% suggesting a key role of the Te peak in NTM stability due to modified pressure gradient (∇p) and perturbed bootstrap current (δjBS) at the O-point. Next, this Te peak relaxes via anomalous transport (i.e., the diffusivity is 2 orders of magnitude larger than the neoclassical value) and the island recovers. Long-wavelength turbulent density fluctuations ( n ˜ ) are reduced at the O-point of flat islands but these fluctuations are increased when Te is peaked which offers an explanation for the observed anomalous transport that is responsible for the relaxation of the Te peak. Linear gyrokinetic simulations indicate that n ˜ inside the peaked island is dominantly driven by the Ion Temperature Gradient instability. These measurements suggest that n ˜ accelerates NTM recovery after an ELM crash via accelerating the relaxation of ∇p at the O-point. These observations are qualitatively replicated by coupled predator-prey equations and modified Rutherford equation. In this simple model, turbulence accelerates NTM recovery via relaxing ∇p and therefore restoring δjBS at the O-point. The key physics of the relationship between the Te peak and NTM stability has potentially far-reaching consequences, such as NTM control via pellet injection in high-β tokamak plasmas.

  11. Scaling Factor Estimation Using an Optimized Mass Change Strategy, Part 1: Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Brincker, Rune

    2007-01-01

    . The scaling factors are determined using the natural frequencies and mode shapes of both the modified and the unmodified structure. However, the uncertainty on the scaling factor estimation depends on the modal analysis and the mass change strategy (number, magnitude and location of the masses) used to modify......In natural input modal analysis, only un-scaled mode shapes can be obtained. The mass change method is, in many cases, the simplest way to estimate the scaling factors, which involves repeated modal testing after changing the mass in different points of the structure where the mode shapes are known...

  12. On-chip coherent combining of angled-grating diode lasers toward bar-scale single-mode lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Yunsong; Zhu, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Single mode operation of broad-area diode lasers, which is the key to obtain high power, high brightness sources, is difficult due to highly nonlinear materials and strong coupling between gain and index...

  13. Wind Tunnel Testing of a 6%-Scale Large Civil Tilt Rotor Model in Airplane and Helicopter Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The test matrix for the LCTR model included high-speed testing (up to 200 knots) in an airplane mode configuration with the engine nacelles parallel...predictions, and to validate performance predictions made during conceptual design . Testing was performed in airplane mode with the nacelles ...to ensure flow transition at a point consistent with the design of the airfoil section. Trip dots were also placed on the nacelles at about 5

  14. Multi-scale and shape constrained localized region-based active contour segmentation of uterine fibroid ultrasound images in HIFU therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyun Liao

    Full Text Available To overcome the severe intensity inhomogeneity and blurry boundaries in HIFU (High Intensity Focused Ultrasound ultrasound images, an accurate and efficient multi-scale and shape constrained localized region-based active contour model (MSLCV, was developed to accurately and efficiently segment the target region in HIFU ultrasound images of uterine fibroids.We incorporated a new shape constraint into the localized region-based active contour, which constrained the active contour to obtain the desired, accurate segmentation, avoiding boundary leakage and excessive contraction. Localized region-based active contour modeling is suitable for ultrasound images, but it still cannot acquire satisfactory segmentation for HIFU ultrasound images of uterine fibroids. We improved the localized region-based active contour model by incorporating a shape constraint into region-based level set framework to increase segmentation accuracy. Some improvement measures were proposed to overcome the sensitivity of initialization, and a multi-scale segmentation method was proposed to improve segmentation efficiency. We also designed an adaptive localizing radius size selection function to acquire better segmentation results.Experimental results demonstrated that the MSLCV model was significantly more accurate and efficient than conventional methods. The MSLCV model has been quantitatively validated via experiments, obtaining an average of 0.94 for the DSC (Dice similarity coefficient and 25.16 for the MSSD (mean sum of square distance. Moreover, by using the multi-scale segmentation method, the MSLCV model's average segmentation time was decreased to approximately 1/8 that of the localized region-based active contour model (the LCV model.An accurate and efficient multi-scale and shape constrained localized region-based active contour model was designed for the semi-automatic segmentation of uterine fibroid ultrasound (UFUS images in HIFU therapy. Compared with other

  15. Shaping non-diffracting beams with a digital micromirror device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yu-Xuan; Fang, Zhao-Xiang; Lu, Rong-De

    2016-02-01

    The micromechanical digital micromirror device (DMD) performs as a spatial light modulator to shape the light wavefront. Different from the liquid crystal devices, which use the birefringence to modulate the light wave, the DMD regulates the wavefront through an amplitude modulation with the digitally controlled mirrors switched on and off. The advantages of such device are the fast speed, polarization insensitivity, and the broadband modulation ability. The fast switching ability for the DMD not only enables the shaping of static light mode, but also could dynamically compensate for the wavefront distortion due to scattering medium. We have employed such device to create the higher order modes, including the Laguerre-Gaussian, Hermite-Gaussian, as well as Mathieu modes. There exists another kind of beam with shape-preservation against propagation, and self-healing against obstacles. Representative modes are the Bessel modes, Airy modes, and the Pearcey modes. Since the DMD modulates the light intensity, a series of algorithms are developed to calculate proper amplitude hologram for shaping the light. The quasi-continuous gray scale images could imitate the continuous amplitude hologram, while the binary amplitude modulation is another means to create the modulation pattern for a steady light field. We demonstrate the generation of the non-diffracting beams with the binary amplitude modulation via the DMD, and successfully created the non-diffracting Bessel beam, Airy beam, and the Pearcey beam. We have characterized the non-diffracting modes through propagation measurements as well as the self-healing measurements.

  16. On the hydroelastic response of box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. Tank test with large scale model; Senkitsusui hakogata futai no harochu dansei oto ni tsuite. Ogata mokei ni yoru suiso shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yago, K.; Endo, H. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The hydroelastic response test was carried out in waves using an approximately 10m long large model, and the numerical analysis was done by the direct method, for a commercial-size (300m long) box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. The scale ratio of the model is 1/30.8, and the minimum wave cycle is around 0.7s from wave-making capacity of the tank, which corresponds to 4 to 14s with the commercial-size structure. Elastic displacement and bending strain were measured. The calculated results by the direct method are in good agreement with the observed results. The fluid dynamic mutual interference effects between elements are weak in added mass but strong in damping force, indicating that the range of mutual interference is strongly related to rolling cycle in the range of mutual interference. Wave pressure on the floating structure bottom is high at the upper side of the wave, greatly damping towards the downside of the wave. However, response amplitude of elastic displacement tends to increase at the ends, both in upside and downside of the wave. For the floating structure studied, the 0 to 4th mode components are predominant in longitudinal waves, and the 6th or higher mode components are negligibly low. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Innovative Method for Automatic Shape Generation and 3D Printing of Reduced-Scale Models of Ultra-Thin Concrete Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tomé

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A research and development project has been conducted aiming to design and produce ultra-thin concrete shells. In this paper, the first part of the project is described, consisting of an innovative method for shape generation and the consequent production of reduced-scale models of the selected geometries. First, the shape generation is explained, consisting of a geometrically nonlinear analysis based on the Finite Element Method (FEM to define the antifunicular of the shell’s deadweight. Next, the scale model production is described, consisting of 3D printing, specifically developed to evaluate the aesthetics and visual impact, as well as to study the aerodynamic behaviour of the concrete shells in a wind tunnel. The goals and constraints of the method are identified and a step-by-step guidelines presented, aiming to be used as a reference in future studies. The printed geometry is validated by high-resolution assessment achieved by photogrammetry. The results are compared with the geometry computed through geometric nonlinear finite-element-based analysis, and no significant differences are recorded. The method is revealed to be an important tool for automatic shape generation and building scale models of shells. The latter enables the performing of wind tunnel tests to obtain pressure coefficients, essential for structural analysis of this type of structures.

  18. Small-scale variations in leaf shape under anthropogenic disturbance in dioecious forest forb mercurialis perennis: A geometric morphometric examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Vukica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are exposed to increasing levels of diverse human activities that have profound effects on their overall morphology and, specifically, on leaf morphology. Anthropogenic disturbances in urban and suburban forest recreational sites are attracting growing research interest. To explore the persisting recreational impact on leaf shape and size, we conducted a field study on the dioecious forb Mercurialis perennis L. (Euphorbiaceae, typical for undisturbed understory communities. We selected adjacent sites in a suburban forest, which experience contrasting regimes of disturbance by human trampling under otherwise concordant natural conditions. Patterns of leaf shape and size variation and putative sex-specific response to disturbance were analyzed using a geometric morphometric approach. In addition to leaf-level data, plant height, internode and leaf number were analyzed to explore the same response at the whole-plant level. The results show significant variations associated with disturbance at both levels: plants growing under a heavy disturbance regime had shorter stems with a greater number of wider and shorter leaves. Significant differences between sites were also found for leaf size, with larger leaves observed in an undisturbed site. The effects of sex and sex x site interaction on leaf size and shape were nonsignificant, pointing to the absence of sexual dimorphism and sex-specific response to disturbance. Contrary to leaf shape and size, all three analyzed shoot traits showed highly significant sexual dimorphism, with male plants being higher and having higher leaf and internode count. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173025

  19. The response of short-scale density fluctuations to the activity of beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes during strong tearing modes on EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, G. M.; Li, Y. D.; Li, Q.; Sun, P. J.; Wu, G. J.; Hu, L. Q.; the EAST Team

    2015-08-01

    Beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (BAEs) during strong tearing modes (TMs) have been frequently observed in fast-electron plasmas of EAST tokamak. The dynamics of the short-scale ({k}\\perp {ρ }s~{1.5-4.3}) density fluctuations during the activity of BAEs with strong TMs has been preliminarily investigated by a tangential CO2 laser collective scattering system. The results suggest the active, but different, response of short-scale density fluctuations to the TMs and BAEs. In the low-frequency (0-10 kHz) part of density fluctuations, there are harmonic oscillations totally corresponding to those of TMs. In the medium-high frequency (10-250 kHz) part of density fluctuations, with the appearance of the BAEs, the medium-high frequency density fluctuations begin to be dominated by several quasi-coherent (QC) modes, and the frequencies of the QC modes seem to be related to the changes of both TMs and BAEs. These results would shed some light on the understanding of the multi-scale interaction physics.

  20. Scaling law to determine peak forces in tapping-mode AFM experiments on finite elastic soft matter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Horacio V

    2017-01-01

    Analytical equations to estimate the peak force will facilitate the interpretation and the planning of amplitude-modulation force microscopy (tapping mode) experiments. A closed-form analytical equation to estimate the tip-sample peak forces while imaging soft materials in liquid environment and within an elastic deformation regime has been deduced. We have combined a multivariate regression method with input from the virial-dissipation equations and Tatara's bidimensional deformation contact mechanics model. The equation enables to estimate the peak force based on the tapping mode observables, probe characteristics and the material properties of the sample. The accuracy of the equation has been verified by comparing it to numerical simulations for the archetypical operating conditions to image soft matter with high spatial resolution in tapping-mode AFM.

  1. Fine-Scale Microclimatic Variation Can Shape the Responses of Organisms to Global Change in Both Natural and Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincebourde, Sylvain; Murdock, Courtney C; Vickers, Mathew; Sears, Michael W

    2016-07-01

    When predicting the response of organisms to global change, models use measures of climate at a coarse resolution from general circulation models or from downscaled regional models. Organisms, however, do not experience climate at such large scales. The climate heterogeneity over a landscape and how much of that landscape an organism can sample will determine ultimately the microclimates experienced by organisms. This past few decades has seen an important increase in the number of studies reporting microclimatic patterns at small scales. This synthesis intends to unify studies reporting microclimatic heterogeneity (mostly temperature) at various spatial scales, to infer any emerging trends, and to discuss the causes and consequences of such heterogeneity for organismal performance and with respect to changing land use patterns and climate. First, we identify the environmental drivers of heterogeneity across the various spatial scales that are pertinent to ectotherms. The thermal heterogeneity at the local and micro-scales is mostly generated by the architecture or the geometrical features of the microhabitat. Then, the thermal heterogeneity experienced by individuals is modulated by behavior. Second, we survey the literature to quantify thermal heterogeneity from the micro-scale up to the scale of a landscape in natural habitats. Despite difficulties in compiling studies that differ much in their design and aims, we found that there is as much thermal heterogeneity across micro-, local and landscape scales, and that the temperature range is large in general (>9 °C on average, and up to 26 °C). Third, we examine the extent to which urban habitats can be used to infer the microclimatic patterns of the future. Urban areas generate globally drier and warmer microclimatic patterns and recent evidence suggest that thermal traits of ectotherms are adapted to them. Fourth, we explore the interplay between microclimate heterogeneity and the behavioral thermoregulatory

  2. Optical properties of accumulation mode, polluted mineral dust: effects of particle shape, hematite content and semi-external mixing with carbonaceous species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Mishra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The morphology, mixing state and hematite content of polluted mineral dust are not well accounted in the optical models and this leads to uncertainty in the radiative forcing estimation. In the present study, based on the morphological and mineralogical characterisation of polluted dust, the three-sphere, two-sphere and two-spheroid model shapes are considered. The optical properties of the above model shapes are computed using Discrete Dipole Approximation code. The single scattering albedo, ω0, was found to vary depending on hematite content (0–6% and model shape. For the two-sphere BC-mineral dust system, hematite was found to be a dominating absorber compared to that of black carbon as the RBC/R dust decreases. The ω 0 of the polluted dust system is larger if polluted dust is considered as pure dust spheroid (with 4% hematite while smaller value is observed for Q ext. Among all the systems, the ω 0 of BCBCD (two BC spheres attached to one dust sphere system showed the maximum departure (40 and 35% for polluted dust with 0 and 6% hematite, respectively from that of pure dust spheroid with 0 and 6% hematite. For the Asian region (pollution-prone zone, the modelled polluted dust optics will help to trace the optical and radiative properties of dust.

  3. Near-Surface Scale-Model GPR Sandbox Experiments with Cylinders and Spheres: Resonances from Mixed Direct, Reflective, Circumferential, and Refractive-Shortcut Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcone, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Scale-model 2.6 GHz GPR experiments performed using a sandbox reveal mode mixing within the frequency spectra of common targets, and the benefits of using frequency spectra to detect target attributes. The box was 4 m long, 1.2 m wide, 1 m deep, and filled with pure quartz medium sand with dielectric constant of 2.6, as verified by bottom reflections and ground wave measurements. The scale factor is 10 for the detection of field targets 20-40 cm deep by a 260 MHz GPR. Modes mean various ray-optic propagation paths between transmitter and receiver antennas, and along which time delays were calculated, even for circumferential modes, which are visualized computationally. Mixing means constructive interference between most of these modes to produce resonances. Cylindrical targets were several cm deep and in diameter. Antennas were on or close to the surface. Processing included background removal to eliminate direct coupling, but which did not reduce its higher frequency modal effects. Despite the short pulse of only 0.7 ns duration, the interference acts as though spectra consist of infinite wavetrains, as is well known from Fourier theory. Important resonances result from interference between 1) direct coupling from transmitter to receiver antennas and circumferential modes for a metal pipe of any length, rather than any half-wave resonance caused by pipe length; 2) direct coupling and target surface reflections for a cylinder or flat plate; and 3) direct ground and surface waves for off-axis detection. Resonances near 800 MHz are masked by the direct coupling and may be caused by subtractive mixing of two pairs of mixed modes. A time domain radargram for a large dielectric sphere shows the enhanced Mie surface creep-refractive short-cut solution. Despite the 2.6 GHz pulse center frequency, the modes range from 0.7-5 GHz. The interference caused by the direct coupling is almost ubiquitous and must be considered in target detection. Resonances hold for antennas

  4. Understanding how the shape and spatial distribution of ULVZs provides insight into their cause and to the nature of global-scale mantle convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Allen; Li, Mingming; Garnero, Ed; Marin, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    Seismic observations of the lower mantle infer multiple scales of compositional heterogeneity. The largest-scale heterogeneity, observed in seismic tomography models, is in the form of large, nearly antipodal regions referred to as the Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs). In contrast, diffracted wave and core-reflection precursor seismic studies reveal small-scale Ultra Low Velocity Zones (ULVZs) at the base of the mantle that are almost two orders of magnitude smaller than the LLSVPs. We hypothesize that ULVZs provide insight into the nature of LLSVPs, and the LLSVPs, in turn, provide clues to the nature of global-scale mantle convection and compositional state. However, both LLSVPs and ULVZs are observations, and it remains unclear what is causing them. Here, we examine several related questions to aid in understanding their cause and the dynamical processes associated with them. Can we use seismic observations of ULVZ locations to differentiate whether they are caused by compositional heterogeneity or simply partial melting in otherwise normal mantle? Can we use the map-view shape of ULVZs to tell us about lowermost mantle flow directions and the temporal stability of these flow directions? Can the cross-sectional morphology of ULVZs tell us something about the viscosity difference between LLSVPs and background mantle? We performed geodynamical experiments to help answer these questions. We find that ULVZs caused by compositional heterogeneity preferentially form patch-like shapes along the margins of LLSVPs. Rounded patches indicate regions with long-lived stable mantle flow patterns, and linear patches indicate changing mantle flow patterns. Typically, these ULVZ patches have an asymmetrical cross-sectional shape; however, if LLSVPs have a larger grain-size than background mantle, their increased diffusion creep viscosity will act to make them more symmetrical. Alternatively, ULVZs caused simply by partial melting of normal mantle are preferentially

  5. What lies beneath: sub-articular long bone shape scaling in eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs suggests different locomotor adaptations for gigantism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F Bonnan

    Full Text Available Eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs both evolved lineages of huge terrestrial herbivores. Although significantly more saurischian dinosaurs were giants than eutherians, the long bones of both taxa scale similarly and suggest that locomotion was dynamically similar. However, articular cartilage is thin in eutherian mammals but thick in saurischian dinosaurs, differences that could have contributed to, or limited, how frequently gigantism evolved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that sub-articular bone, which supports the articular cartilage, changes shape in different ways between terrestrial mammals and dinosaurs with increasing size. Our sample consisted of giant mammal and reptile taxa (i.e., elephants, rhinos, sauropods plus erect and non-erect outgroups with thin and thick articular cartilage. Our results show that eutherian mammal sub-articular shape becomes narrow with well-defined surface features as size increases. In contrast, this region in saurischian dinosaurs expands and remains gently convex with increasing size. Similar trends were observed in non-erect outgroup taxa (monotremes, alligators, showing that the trends we report are posture-independent. These differences support our hypothesis that sub-articular shape scales differently between eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs. Our results show that articular cartilage thickness and sub-articular shape are correlated. In mammals, joints become ever more congruent and thinner with increasing size, whereas archosaur joints remained both congruent and thick, especially in sauropods. We suggest that gigantism occurs less frequently in mammals, in part, because joints composed of thin articular cartilage can only become so congruent before stress cannot be effectively alleviated. In contrast, frequent gigantism in saurischian dinosaurs may be explained, in part, by joints with thick articular cartilage that can deform across large areas with increasing load.

  6. What lies beneath: sub-articular long bone shape scaling in eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs suggests different locomotor adaptations for gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnan, Matthew F; Wilhite, D Ray; Masters, Simon L; Yates, Adam M; Gardner, Christine K; Aguiar, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs both evolved lineages of huge terrestrial herbivores. Although significantly more saurischian dinosaurs were giants than eutherians, the long bones of both taxa scale similarly and suggest that locomotion was dynamically similar. However, articular cartilage is thin in eutherian mammals but thick in saurischian dinosaurs, differences that could have contributed to, or limited, how frequently gigantism evolved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that sub-articular bone, which supports the articular cartilage, changes shape in different ways between terrestrial mammals and dinosaurs with increasing size. Our sample consisted of giant mammal and reptile taxa (i.e., elephants, rhinos, sauropods) plus erect and non-erect outgroups with thin and thick articular cartilage. Our results show that eutherian mammal sub-articular shape becomes narrow with well-defined surface features as size increases. In contrast, this region in saurischian dinosaurs expands and remains gently convex with increasing size. Similar trends were observed in non-erect outgroup taxa (monotremes, alligators), showing that the trends we report are posture-independent. These differences support our hypothesis that sub-articular shape scales differently between eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs. Our results show that articular cartilage thickness and sub-articular shape are correlated. In mammals, joints become ever more congruent and thinner with increasing size, whereas archosaur joints remained both congruent and thick, especially in sauropods. We suggest that gigantism occurs less frequently in mammals, in part, because joints composed of thin articular cartilage can only become so congruent before stress cannot be effectively alleviated. In contrast, frequent gigantism in saurischian dinosaurs may be explained, in part, by joints with thick articular cartilage that can deform across large areas with increasing load.

  7. Drainage reorganization explains the large-scale fan-shape morphology of the northern Pyrenean landscape: no megafan in the northern Pyrenean foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Stéphane; Carretier, Sébastien; Christophoul, Frédéric; Regard, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    On the Northern side of the Pyrenees, the morphology of the foreland corresponds to a piedmont which is currently eroded by rivers belonging to the Garonne and Adour drainage basins. A particularity of this network of rivers is to show a regional divergent pattern at the scale of the piedmont, from a source area located at the mountain-piedmont transition, at mid-distance between the Mediterranee and the Atlantic Ocean. The radial drainage network is closely associated with a large-scale fan-shape topography of the whole piedmont (radius > 100 km, height ~500 m). Some recent studies proposed that this regional-scale fan-shape is the consequence of a recent localized differential uplift of the piedmont, or that it resulted primarily from recent deposition in a unique huge alluvial fan, the megafan of Lannemezan. Here, we show that none interpretation is satisfying and we use numerical simulations of surface processes (numerical code CIDRE) to propose an alternative model for explaining this particular landscape of the northern Pyrenean piedmont. We show that it likely results from successive steps of drainage reorganization, primarily linked to the geometry of boundary conditions for erosion. Our simulations successively reproduce most morphological observations and characteristics of the northern Pyrenean landscape. Then, we show that no recent deformation of the piedmont needs to be invoked to explain its morphology and that there is not any megafan on the northern flank of the Pyrenees.

  8. Scaling of adult regional body mass and body composition as a whole to height: Relevance to body shape and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuna, John M; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    Adult body mass (MB) empirically scales as height (Ht) squared (MB ∝ Ht(2) ), but does regional body mass and body composition as a whole also scale as Ht(2) ? This question is relevant to a wide range of biological topics, including interpretation of body mass index (BMI). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify regional body mass [head (MH), trunk, arms, and legs] and whole-body composition [fat, lean soft tissue (LST), and bone mineral content (BMC)] in non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and Korean adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 17,126) and Korean NHANES (n = 8,942). Regression models were developed to establish Ht scaling powers for each measured component with adjustments for age and adiposity. Exploratory analyses revealed a consistent scaling pattern across men and women of the four population groups: regional mass powers, head (∼0.8-1) body composition, LST (∼2.0-2.3) body mass scaled uniformly across the eight sex and population groups as Ht(∼2) , tall and short subjects differed in body shape (e.g., MH/MB ∝ Ht(-∼1) ) and composition. Adult human body shape and relative composition are a function of body size as represented by stature, a finding that reveals a previously unrecognized phenotypic heterogeneity as defined by BMI. These observations provide new pathways for exploring mechanisms governing the interrelations between adult stature, body morphology, biomechanics, and metabolism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Synergistic modes of vocal tract articulation for American English vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Brad H

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatial similarity of vocal tract shaping patterns across speakers and the similarity of their acoustic effects. Vocal tract area functions for 11 American English vowels were obtained from six speakers, three female and three male, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each speaker's set of area functions was then decomposed into mean area vectors and representative modes (eigenvectors) using principal components analysis (PCA). Three modes accounted for more than 90% of the variance in the original data sets for each speaker. The general shapes of the first two modes were found to be highly correlated across all six speakers. To demonstrate the acoustic effects of each mode, both in isolation and combined, a mapping between the mode scaling coefficients and [F1, F2] pairs was generated for each speaker. The mappings were unique for all six speakers in terms of the exact shape of the [F1, F2] vowel space, but the general effect of the modes was the same in each case. The results support the idea that the modes provide a common system for perturbing a unique underlying neutral vocal tract shape.

  10. Insights about fracture shape and aperture from push-pull thermal tracer tests achieved at different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepikova, Maria V.; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Bour, Olivier; Hochreutener, Rebecca; Lavenant, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    The prediction of transport patterns in fractured media is a challenging task. Different transport mechanisms are generally contributing: dispersion at fracture scale related to aperture variability, dispersion at network scale due to transport in different flowpaths and matrix diffusion. It is however difficult to know which mechanism is dominant. In this study we test the interest of heat tracer tests for providing new constraints on transport in fractured media by interpreting three push-pull tests of different duration. A series of heat and solute push-pull tracer test with Dirac-type injection was conducted in fractured aquifer of Ploemeur, France. The comparison of solute and heat breakthrough curves shows that due to thermal loss to the rock matrix temperature recovery peak arrives earlier than concentration peak. Moreover, the peak is significantly smaller for temperature recovery while it exhibits a longest tailing. Finally, we found that the recovered peak temperature decreases with scale and has a power law slope of -1 on a log-log plot. By means of flow and heat numerical model, we investigate the relevance of different conceptual models: single 'plate', 'tube' and 'ellipse' homogeneous fracture models at different scales. For all tested fracture geometries temperature breakthrough curves were found to be sensitive to fracture aperture. An 'elliptical tube' fracture model was found to provide the best fit to the data and based on this model, we were able to estimate the aperture of the fracture in the present case. Moreover, the comparison of experimental breakthrough curves and modelling results also suggests that the effective fracture aperture may increase with scale. This work emphasizes that multiple-scale push-pull thermal tests can provide valuable insights on fracture geometry and fracture aperture.

  11. Fatigue Damage Prognosis in FRP Composites by Combining Multi-Scale Degradation Fault Modes in an Uncertainty Bayesian Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this work, a framework for the estimation of the fatigue damage propagation in CFRP composites is proposed. Macro-scale phenomena such as stiffness and strength...

  12. Simultaneous characterization of mesoscale and convective-scale tropical rainfall extremes and their dynamical and thermodynamic modes of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fildier, B.; Parishani, H.; Collins, W. D.

    2017-09-01

    The Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model (SPCAM) is used to identify the dynamical and organizational properties of tropical extreme rainfall events on two scales. We compare the mesoscales resolved by General Circulation Models (GCMs) and the convective scales resolved by Cloud-Resolving Models (CRMs) to reassess and extend on previous results from GCMs and CRMs in radiative-convective equilibrium. We first show that the improved representation of subgridscale dynamics in SPCAM allows for a close agreement with the 7%/K Clausius-Clapeyron rate of increase in mesoscale extremes rainfall rates. Three contributions to changes in extremes are quantified and appear consistent in sign and relative magnitude with previous results. On mesoscales, the thermodynamic contribution (5.8%/K) and the contribution from mass flux increases (2%/K) enhance precipitation rates, while the upward displacement of the mass flux profile (-1.1%/K) offsets this increase. Convective-scale extremes behave similarly except that changes in mass flux are negligible due to a balance between greater numbers of strong updrafts and downdrafts and lesser numbers of weak updrafts. Extremes defined on these two scales behave as two independent sets of rainfall events, with different dynamics, geometries, and responses to climate change. In particular, dynamic changes in mesoscale extremes appear primarily sensitive to changes in the large-scale mass flux, while the intensity of convective-scale extremes is not. In particular, the increases in mesoscale mass flux directly contribute to the intensification of mesoscale extreme rain, but do not seem to affect the increase in convective-scale rainfall intensities. These results motivate the need for better understanding the role of the large-scale forcing on the formation and intensification of heavy convective rainfall.

  13. Modulation of Core Turbulent Density Fluctuations by Large-Scale Neoclassical Tearing Mode Islands in the DIII-D Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardóczi, L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Carter, T. A.; Bañón Navarro, A.; Peebles, W. A.; Jenko, F.; McKee, G.

    2016-05-01

    We report the first observation of localized modulation of turbulent density fluctuations n ˜ (via beam emission spectroscopy) by neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) in the core of the DIII-D tokamak. NTMs are important as they often lead to severe degradation of plasma confinement and disruptions in high-confinement fusion experiments. Magnetic islands associated with NTMs significantly modify the profiles and turbulence drives. In this experiment n ˜ was found to be modulated by 14% across the island. Gyrokinetic simulations suggest that n ˜ could be dominantly driven by the ion temperature gradient instability.

  14. DNA binding, DNA cleavage and cytotoxicity studies of a new water soluble copper(II) complex: the effect of ligand shape on the mode of binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Roshanfekr, Hamideh; Shahabadi, Nahid; Mansouri, Ghobad

    2012-02-01

    The interaction of native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with [Cu(ph(2)phen)(phen-dione)Cl]Cl was studied at physiological pH by spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, circular dichroism, and viscometric techniques. Considerable hypochromicity and red shift are observed in the UV absorption band of the Cu complex. Binding constants (K(b)) of DNA with the complex were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy and entropy changes were calculated according to Van't Hoff equation, which indicated that reaction is predominantly enthalpically driven. All these results indicate that Cu(II) complex interacts with CT-DNA via intercalative mode. Also, this new complex induced cleavage in pUC18 plasmid DNA as indicated in gel electrophoresis and showed excellent antitumor activity against K562 (human chronic myeloid leukemia) and human T lymphocyte carcinoma-Jurkat cell lines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Habitat and scale shape the demographic fate of the keystone sea urchin paracentrotus lividus in mediterranean macrophyte communities

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Prado; Fiona Tomas; Stefania Pinna; Simone Farina; Guillem Roca; Giulia Ceccherelli; Javier Romero; Teresa Alcoverro

    2012-01-01

    Demographic processes exert different degrees of control as individuals grow, and in species that span several habitats and spatial scales, this can influence our ability to predict their population at a particular life-history stage given the previous life stage. In particular, when keystone species are involved, this relative coupling between demographic stages can have significant implications for the functioning of ecosystems. We examined benthic and pelagic abundances of the sea urchin P...

  16. Multi-scale bending, buckling and vibration analyses of carbon fiber/carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer nanocomposite plates with various shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, M.; Ansari, R.; Rouhi, H.

    2017-09-01

    Using a finite element-based multi-scale modeling approach, the bending, buckling and free vibration of hybrid polymer matrix composites reinforced by carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes (CF/CNT-RP) are analyzed herein. Thick composite plates with rectangular, circular, annular and elliptical shapes are considered. First, the equivalent material properties of CF/CNT-RP are calculated for different volume fractions of CF and CNT. To accomplish this aim, a two-step procedure is presented through which the coupled effects of nano- and micro-scale are taken into account. In the first step, modeling of dispersion of CNTs into the polymer matrix is done with considering interphase formed by their chemical interaction with the matrix, and the equivalent properties of resulting composite material are determined accordingly. CFs are then dispersed into CNT-RP which is considered a homogenous material in this step. Both distributions of CNTs and CFs are assumed to be random. After computing the equivalent properties of CF/CNT-RP for different volume fractions of its constituents, the bending, buckling and free vibration analyses of plates with different shapes are performed. It is shown that the reinforcement of the polymer matrix with both CF and CNT significantly affects the bending, buckling and free vibration characteristics of plates.

  17. Hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale score and ICH score: which predicts the 30-day mortality better for intracerebral hematoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate the performance of hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale (GCS score, and intracerebral hematoma (ICH score in predicting the 30-day mortality for ICH patients. To examine the influence of the estimation error of hematoma size on the prediction of 30-day mortality.This retrospective study, approved by a local institutional review board with written informed consent waived, recruited 106 patients diagnosed as ICH by non-enhanced computed tomography study. The hemorrhagic shape, hematoma size measured by computer-assisted volumetric analysis (CAVA and estimated by ABC/2 formula, ICH score and GCS score was examined. The predicting performance of 30-day mortality of the aforementioned variables was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, paired t test, nonparametric test, linear regression analysis, and binary logistic regression. The receiver operating characteristics curves were plotted and areas under curve (AUC were calculated for 30-day mortality. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.The overall 30-day mortality rate was 15.1% of ICH patients. The hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH score, and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality for ICH patients, with an AUC of 0.692 (P = 0.0018, 0.715 (P = 0.0008 (by ABC/2 to 0.738 (P = 0.0002 (by CAVA, 0.877 (P<0.0001 (by ABC/2 to 0.882 (P<0.0001 (by CAVA, and 0.912 (P<0.0001, respectively.Our study shows that hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH scores and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality in an increasing order of AUC. The effect of overestimation of hematoma size by ABC/2 formula in predicting the 30-day mortality could be remedied by using ICH score.

  18. III-Vs at Scale: A PV Manufacturing Cost Analysis of the Thin Film Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Maxwell; Horowitz, Kelsey; Woodhouse, Michael; Battaglia, Corsin; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

    2016-06-01

    The authors present a manufacturing cost analysis for producing thin-film indium phosphide modules by combining a novel thin-film vapor-liquid-solid (TF-VLS) growth process with a standard monolithic module platform. The example cell structure is ITO/n-TiO2/p-InP/Mo. For a benchmark scenario of 12% efficient modules, the module cost is estimated to be $0.66/W(DC) and the module cost is calculated to be around $0.36/W(DC) at a long-term potential efficiency of 24%. The manufacturing cost for the TF-VLS growth portion is estimated to be ~$23/m2, a significant reduction compared with traditional metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The analysis here suggests the TF-VLS growth mode could enable lower-cost, high-efficiency III-V photovoltaics compared with manufacturing methods used today and open up possibilities for other optoelectronic applications as well.

  19. Scaling for stress similarity and distorted-shape similarity in bending and torsion under maximal muscle forces concurs with geometric similarity among different-sized animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, R Ake; Aldrin, Björn S Wetterholm

    2010-08-15

    When geometric similarity, or isometry, prevails among animals of different sizes their form and proportions are similar. Weight increases as the cube of the length dimension, while cross-sectional areas increase as its square, so in load-bearing structural elements the stress, caused by the body weight, increases in direct proportion to the length dimension, both for pure axial loads and for transverse bending and torsional loads. On this account, large body sizes would be expected to set up compensatory selection on the proportions of supporting structures, making them disproportionately thicker as required to maintain similar, size-independent safety factors against breakage. Most previous scaling theories have assumed that the strength of support elements has evolved with respect to loads due to the body weight. But then, from the arguments above, a scaling principle different from the geometric similarity rule would be required in order for safety factors to remain similar among different-sized animals. Still, most comparable animals of 'similar kind' scale in accordance with the geometric similarity rule. Here, we instead argue that muscle forces cause much larger loads on structural support elements during maximum performance events (such as during prey capture or escape from predators) than do loads dictated by the body weight (such as during cruising locomotion), and that structural strength therefore might evolve with respect to maximal muscle forces rather than to the body weight. We explore how the transverse and longitudinal lengths of structural support elements must scale to one another, and to muscle transverse length, in order to satisfy each of the following, functionally based, similarity principles for support elements placed in bending, or in torsion, by maximal muscle forces during locomotion: (1) similarity in axial stress, or (2) in torsional shear stress, and (3) similarity in bent shape, or (4) in twisted shape. A dimensional relationship

  20. Multiscale 3D shape analysis using spherical wavelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nain, Delphine; Haker, Steven; Bobick, Aaron; Tannenbaum, Allen R

    2005-01-01

    Shape priors attempt to represent biological variations within a population. When variations are global, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) can be used to learn major modes of variation, even from a limited training set. However, when significant local variations exist, PCA typically cannot represent such variations from a small training set. To address this issue, we present a novel algorithm that learns shape variations from data at multiple scales and locations using spherical wavelets and spectral graph partitioning. Our results show that when the training set is small, our algorithm significantly improves the approximation of shapes in a testing set over PCA, which tends to oversmooth data.

  1. Scaling Behavior of Quantum Nanosystems: Emergence of Quasi-particles, Collective Modes, and Mixed Exchange Symmetry States

    OpenAIRE

    Shreif, Zeina; Ortoleva, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Quantum nanosystems such as graphene nanoribbons or superconducting nanoparticles are studied via a multiscale approach. Long space-time dynamics is derived using a perturbation expansion in the ratio of the nearest-neighbor distance to a nanometer-scale characteristic length, and a theorem on the equivalence of long-time averages and expectation values. This dynamics is shown to satisfy a coarse-grained wave equation (CGWE) which takes a Schr\\"odinger-like form with modified masses and inter...

  2. Mito-nuclear genetic comparison in a Wolbachia infected weevil: insights on reproductive mode, infection age and evolutionary forces shaping genetic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Maternally inherited endosymbionts like Wolbachia pipientis are in linkage disequilibrium with the mtDNA of their hosts. Therefore, they can induce selective sweeps, decreasing genetic diversity over many generations. This sex ratio distorter, that is involved in the origin of parthenogenesis and other reproductive alterations, infects the parthenogenetic weevil Naupactus cervinus, a serious pest of ornamental and fruit plants. Results Molecular evolution analyses of mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS1) sequences from 309 individuals of Naupactus cervinus sampled over a broad range of its geographical distribution were carried out. Our results demonstrate lack of recombination in the nuclear fragment, non-random association between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and the consequent coevolution of both genomes, being an indirect evidence of apomixis. This weevil is infected by a single Wolbachia strain, which could have caused a moderate bottleneck in the invaded population which survived the initial infection. Conclusions Clonal reproduction and Wolbachia infection induce the coevolution of bacterial, mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The time elapsed since the Wolbachia invasion would have erased the traces of the demographic crash in the mtDNA, being the nuclear genome the only one that retained the signal of the bottleneck. The amount of genetic change accumulated in the mtDNA and the high prevalence of Wolbachia in all populations of N. cervinus agree with the hypothesis of an ancient infection. Wolbachia probably had great influence in shaping the genetic diversity of N. cervinus. However, it would have not caused the extinction of males, since sexual and asexual infected lineages coexisted until recent times. PMID:21050430

  3. Biological response to nano-scale titanium dioxide (TiO2): role of particle dose, shape, and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rona M; Teesy, Christel; Franzi, Lisa; Weir, Alex; Westerhoff, Paul; Evans, James E; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most widely used nanomaterials, valued for its highly refractive, photocatalytic, and pigmenting properties. TiO2 is also classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a possible human carcinogen. The objectives of this study were to (1) establish a lowest-observed-effect level (LOEL) for nano-scale TiO2, (2) determine TiO2 uptake in the lungs, and (3) estimate toxicity based on physicochemical properties and retention in the lungs. In vivo lung toxicity of nano-scale TiO2 using varying forms of well-characterized, highly dispersed TiO2 was assessed. Anatase/rutile P25 spheres (TiO2-P25), pure anatase spheres (TiO2-A), and anatase nanobelts (TiO2-NB) were tested. To determine the effects of dose and particle characteristics, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered TiO2 (0, 20, 70, or 200 μg) via intratracheal instillation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were obtained for analysis 1 and 7 d post exposure. Despite abundant TiO2 inclusions in all exposed animals, only TiO2-NB displayed any significant degree of inflammation seen in BALF at the 1-d time point. This inflammation resolved by 7 d, although TiO2 particles had not cleared from alveolar macrophages recovered from the lung. Histological examination showed TiO2-NB produced cellular changes at d 1 that were still evident at d 7. Data indicate TiO2-NB is the most inflammatory with a LOEL of 200 μg at 1 d post instillation.

  4. From Grey Scale B-Mode to Elastosonography: Multimodal Ultrasound Imaging in Meningioma Surgery—Pictorial Essay and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiraghi, Alessandro; Casali, Cecilia; Legnani, Federico Giuseppe; Perin, Alessandro; Mattei, Luca; Richetta, Carla; Saini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The main goal in meningioma surgery is to achieve complete tumor removal, when possible, while improving or preserving patient neurological functions. Intraoperative imaging guidance is one fundamental tool for such achievement. In this regard, intra-operative ultrasound (ioUS) is a reliable solution to obtain real-time information during surgery and it has been applied in many different aspect of neurosurgery. In the last years, different ioUS modalities have been described: B-mode, Fusion Imaging with pre-operative acquired MRI, Doppler, contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), and elastosonography. In this paper, we present our US based multimodal approach in meningioma surgery. We describe all the most relevant ioUS modalities and their intraoperative application to obtain precise and specific information regarding the lesion for a tailored approach in meningioma surgery. For each modality, we perform a review of the literature accompanied by a pictorial essay based on our routinely use of ioUS for meningioma resection. PMID:26101779

  5. Role of large-scale slip in mode II fracture of bimaterial interface produced by diffusion bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, M. R.; Ghosh, A. K.

    2001-08-01

    Bimaterial interfaces present in diffusion-bonded (and in-situ) composites are often not flat interfaces. The unevenness of the interface can result not only from interface reaction products but also from long-range waviness associated with the surfaces of the component phases bonded together. Experimental studies aimed at determining interface mechanical properties generally ignore the departure in the local stress due to waviness and assume a theoretically flat interface. Furthermore, the commonly used testing methods involving superimposed tension often renders the interface so extremely brittle that if microplastic effects were present it becomes impossible to perceive them. This article examines the role of waviness of the interface and microplastic effects on crack initiation. To do this, a test was selected that provides significant stability against crack growth by superimposing compressive stresses. Mode II interface fracture was studied for NiAl/Mo model laminates using a recently developed asymmetrically loaded shear (ALS) interface shear test. The ALS test may be viewed as opposite of the laminate bend test. In the bend test, shear at the interface is created via tension on one surface of the bend, while in the ALS test, shear is created by compression on one side of the interface relative to the other. Normal to the interface, near the crack tip, an initially compressive state is replaced by slight tension due to Poisson’s expansion of the unbonded part of the compressed beam.

  6. From Grey Scale B-Mode to Elastosonography: Multimodal Ultrasound Imaging in Meningioma Surgery-Pictorial Essay and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Francesco; Del Bene, Massimiliano; Moiraghi, Alessandro; Casali, Cecilia; Legnani, Federico Giuseppe; Saladino, Andrea; Perin, Alessandro; Vetrano, Ignazio Gaspare; Mattei, Luca; Richetta, Carla; Saini, Marco; DiMeco, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The main goal in meningioma surgery is to achieve complete tumor removal, when possible, while improving or preserving patient neurological functions. Intraoperative imaging guidance is one fundamental tool for such achievement. In this regard, intra-operative ultrasound (ioUS) is a reliable solution to obtain real-time information during surgery and it has been applied in many different aspect of neurosurgery. In the last years, different ioUS modalities have been described: B-mode, Fusion Imaging with pre-operative acquired MRI, Doppler, contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), and elastosonography. In this paper, we present our US based multimodal approach in meningioma surgery. We describe all the most relevant ioUS modalities and their intraoperative application to obtain precise and specific information regarding the lesion for a tailored approach in meningioma surgery. For each modality, we perform a review of the literature accompanied by a pictorial essay based on our routinely use of ioUS for meningioma resection.

  7. Feasibility of using lateral mode coupling method for a large scale ultrasound phased array for noninvasive transcranial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Junho; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2010-01-01

    A hemispherical-focused, ultrasound phased array was designed and fabricated using 1372 cylindrical piezoelectric transducers that utilize lateral coupling for noninvasive transcranial therapy. The cylindrical transducers allowed the electrical impedance to be reduced by at least an order of magnitude, such that effective operation could be achieved without electronic matching circuits. In addition, the transducer elements generated the maximum acoustic average surface intensity of 27 W/cm(2). The array, driven at the low (306-kHz) or high frequency (840-kHz), achieved excellent focusing through an ex vivo human skull and an adequate beam steering range for clinical brain treatments. It could electronically steer the ultrasound beam over cylindrical volumes of 100-mm in diameter and 60-mm in height at 306 kHz, and 30-mm in diameter and 30-mm in height at 840 kHz. A scanning laser vibrometer was used to investigate the radial and length mode vibrations of the element. The maximum pressure amplitudes through the skull at the geometric focus were predicted to be 5.5 MPa at 306 kHz and 3.7 MPa at 840 kHz for RF power of 1 W on each element. This is the first study demonstrating the feasibility of using cylindrical transducer elements and lateral coupling in construction of ultrasound phased arrays.

  8. Scaling allometric relationships in pure, crowded, even-aged stands: do tree shade-tolerance, repro-ductive mode and wood productivity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Gafta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree allometric relationships are likely to be influenced by species tolerance to shade, nutrient availability and plant ontogenetic origin. The aim of this paper was to test to what extent these factors affect the scaling exponents of two allometric relationships in pure, even-aged, canopy-closed forest stands: stem diameter (D versus stem height (H and versus stem density (N. Data were collected by tree species (Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus petraea, wood productivity class and reproductive mode (seed origin and sprouting stands from published forest yield tables. Reduced major axis analysis was used to estimate the slopes of regression lines in the log-log space of H-D and D-N. The scaling exponent of the H-D relationship was significantly larger in birch than in beech stands (0.897 versus 0.745, and in low productivity, beech stands as compared with their high productivity counterparts (0.876 versus 0.745. However, no significant difference was detected between high stands and coppices of durmast oak. The scaling exponent of the D-N relationship was significantly larger in birch than in beech stands (-0.690 versus -0.558, in low than in high productivity beech stands (-0.694 versus -0.558, and in seed origin than in sprouting stands of durmast oak (-0.609 versus -0.580. We explained these results in terms of plant stem growth strategies and resource availability from a biomechanical perspective. Contrary to certain studies that have reported an invariant scaling relation between stem diameter and density across tree species and communities, but in accordance with other recent studies, we have brought new evidence on species-specific allometric scaling under self-thinning. In addition, we have revealed within-species variance of the scaling exponent of stem diameter-density relationship.

  9. Scaling allometric relationships in pure, crowded, even-aged stands: do tree shade-tolerance, repro-ductive mode and wood productivity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Gafta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tree allometric relationships are likely to be influenced by species tolerance to shade, nutrient availability and plant ontogenetic origin. The aim of this paper was to test to what extent these factors affect the scaling exponents of two allometric relationships in pure, even-aged, canopy-closed forest stands: stem diameter (D versus stem height (H and versus stem density (N. Data were collected by tree species (Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus petraea, wood productivity class and reproductive mode (seed origin and sprouting stands from published forest yield tables. Reduced major axis analysis was used to estimate the slopes of regression lines in the log-log space of H-D and D-N. The scaling exponent of the H-D relationship was significantly larger in birch than in beech stands (0.897 versus 0.745, and in low productivity, beech stands as compared with their high productivity counterparts (0.876 versus 0.745. However, no significant difference was detected between high stands and coppices of durmast oak. The scaling exponent of the D-N relationship was significantly larger in birch than in beech stands (-0.690 versus -0.558, in low than in high productivity beech stands (-0.694 versus -0.558, and in seed origin than in sprouting stands of durmast oak (-0.609 versus -0.580. We explained these results in terms of plant stem growth strategies and resource availability from a biomechanical perspective.Contrary to certain studies that have reported an invariant scaling relation between stem diameter and density across tree species and communities, but in accordance with other recent studies, we have brought new evidence on species-specific allometric scaling under self-thinning. In addition, we have revealed within-species variance of the scaling exponent of stem diameter-density relationship.

  10. Imitating intrinsic alignments: a bias to the CMB lensing-galaxy shape cross-correlation power spectrum induced by the large-scale structure bispectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Philipp M.; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2017-10-01

    Cross-correlating the lensing signals of galaxies and comic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations is expected to provide valuable cosmological information. In particular, it may help tighten constraints on parameters describing the properties of intrinsically aligned galaxies at high redshift. To access the information conveyed by the cross-correlation signal, its accurate theoretical description is required. We compute the bias to CMB lensing-galaxy shape cross-correlation measurements induced by non-linear structure growth. Using tree-level perturbation theory for the large-scale structure bispectrum, we find that the bias is negative on most angular scales, therefore mimicking the signal of intrinsic alignments. Combining Euclid-like galaxy lensing data with a CMB experiment comparable to the Planck satellite mission, the bias becomes significant only on smallest scales (ℓ ≳ 2500). For improved CMB observations, however, the corrections amount to 10-15 per cent of the CMB lensing-intrinsic alignment signal over a wide multipole range (10 ≲ ℓ ≲ 2000). Accordingly, the power spectrum bias, if uncorrected, translates into 2σ and 3σ errors in the determination of the intrinsic alignment amplitude in the case of CMB stage III and stage IV experiments, respectively.

  11. Evaluation of removal of the size effect using data scaling and elliptic Fourier descriptors in otolith shape analysis, exemplified by the discrimination of two yellow croaker stocks along the Chinese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Liu, Jinhu; Song, Junjie; Cao, Liang; Dou, Shuozeng

    2017-11-01

    Removal of the length effect in otolith shape analysis for stock identification using length scaling is an important issue; however, few studies have attempted to investigate the effectiveness or weakness of this methodology in application. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether commonly used size scaling methods and normalized elliptic Fourier descriptors (NEFDs) could effectively remove the size effect of fish in stock discrimination. To achieve this goal, length groups from two known geographical stocks of yellow croaker, Larimichthys polyactis, along the Chinese coast (five groups from the Changjiang River estuary of the East China Sea and three groups from the Bohai Sea) were subjected to otolith shape analysis. The results indicated that the variation of otolith shape caused by intra-stock fish length might exceed that due to inter-stock geographical separation, even when otolith shape variables are standardized with length scaling methods. This variation could easily result in misleading stock discrimination through otolith shape analysis. Therefore, conclusions about fish stock structure should be carefully drawn from otolith shape analysis because the observed discrimination may primarily be due to length effects, rather than differences among stocks. The application of multiple methods, such as otoliths shape analysis combined with elemental fingering, tagging or genetic analysis, is recommended for sock identification.

  12. Filtering approach based on empirical mode decomposition improves the assessment of short scale complexity in long QT syndrome type 1 population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; Girardengo, Giulia; George, Alfred L; Brink, Paul A; Cerutti, Sergio; Crotti, Lia; Schwartz, Peter J; Porta, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the complexity of heart period (HP) and QT variability series through sample entropy (SampEn) in long QT syndrome type 1 individuals. In order to improve signal-to-noise ratio SampEn was evaluated over the original series (SampEn0) and over the residual computed by subtracting the first oscillatory mode identified by empirical mode decomposition (SampEn(EMD1R)). HP and QT interval were continuously extracted during daytime (2:00-6:00 PM) from 24 hour Holter recordings in 14 non mutation carriers (NMCs) and 34 mutation carriers (MCs) subdivided in 11 asymptomatic (ASYMP) and 23 symptomatic (SYMP). Both NMCs and MCs belonged to the same family line. While SampEn0 did not show differences among the three groups, Samp(EnEMD1R) assessed over the QT series significantly decreased in ASYMP subjects. SampEn(EMD1R) identified a possible factor (i.e. the lower short scale QT complexity) that might contribute to the different risk profile of the ASYMP group.

  13. A coupled decadal-scale air-sea interaction theory: the NAT-NAO-AMO-AMOC coupled mode and its global impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2016-04-01

    Observational analysis shows that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) leads the oceanic Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) by 15-20 years and the latter also leads the former by around 15 years. The Community Climate System Model (CCSM) version 4 is employed to investigate the relevant mechanism in the linkage between the NAO and AMO. The results show that the positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) forces the strengthening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and induces a basin-wide uniform sea surface temperature (SST) warming that corresponds to the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). The SST field exhibits a delayed response to the preceding enhanced AMOC, and shows a pattern similar to the North Atlantic tripole (NAT), with SST warming in the northern North Atlantic and cooling in the southern part. This SST pattern (negative NAT phase) may lead to an atmospheric response that resembles the negative NAO phase, and subsequently the oscillation proceeds, but in the opposite sense. This implies a NAO-AMO-AMOC coupled mode in decadal scale. Based on these mechanisms, a simple delayed oscillator model is established to explain the quasi-periodic multidecadal variability of the NAO. The magnitude of the NAO forcing of the AMOC/AMO and the time delay of the AMOC/AMO feedback are two key parameters of the delayed oscillator. For a given set of parameters, the quasi 60-year cycle of the NAO can be well predicted. This delayed oscillator model is useful for understanding of the oscillatory mechanism of the NAO, which has significant potential for decadal predictions as well as the interpretation of proxy data records. The NAT-NAO-AMO-AMOC coupled mode has important influences on global and regional climate. The twentieth century Northern Hemisphere mean surface temperature (NHT) is characterized by a multidecadal warming-cooling-warming pattern followed by a flat trend since about 2000 (recent warming hiatus). Here we demonstrate that

  14. Design optimization of Tm-doped large-mode area fibers for power scaling of 2 μm lasers and amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollivet, C.; Farley, K.; Conroy, M.; Dabhi, H.; Edgecumbe, J.; Carter, A.; Tankala, K.

    2017-03-01

    Large-mode area (LMA) thulium-doped fibers (TDF) are one of the key components when designing 2μm laser and amplifier systems aiming to further scale deliverable output powers. Current design limitations of LMA TDF's affecting optical-to-optical efficiency and output beam quality are well-understood. In the present work, design optimizations focused on the core and pedestal waveguides of the active fiber are proposed. Using experimental and numerical tools, the effect of splice-induced heat on the refractive index profile of the active fiber is investigated. We demonstrate that fibers designed with larger pedestal-to-core ratios suffer less index distortions during splicing allowing the end-user to achieve high coupling efficiencies and high beam qualities in a reliable fashion.

  15. Diffuse mode and diffuse-to-filamentary transition in a high pressure nanosecond scale corona discharge under high voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardiveau, P.; Moreau, N.; Bentaleb, S.; Postel, C.; Pasquiers, S.

    2009-09-01

    The dynamics of a point-to-plane corona discharge induced in high pressure air under nanosecond scale high overvoltage is investigated. The electrical and optical properties of the discharge can be described in space and time with fast and precise current measurements coupled to gated and intensified imaging. Under atmospheric pressure, the discharge exhibits a diffuse pattern like a multielectron avalanche propagating through a direct field ionization mechanism. The diffuse regime can exist since the voltage rise time is much shorter than the characteristic time of the field screening effects, and as long as the local field is higher than the critical ionization field in air. As one of these conditions is not fulfilled, the discharge turns into a multi-channel regime and the diffuse-to-filamentary transition strongly depends on the overvoltage, the point-to-plane gap length and the pressure. When pressure is increased above atmospheric pressure, the diffuse stage and its transition to streamers seem to satisfy similarity rules as the key parameter is the reduced critical ionization field only. However, above 3 bar, neither diffuse avalanche nor streamer filaments are observed but a kind of streamer-leader regime, due to the fact that mechanisms such as photoionization and heat diffusion are not similar to pressure.

  16. Simulation of transverse modes with their intrinsic Landau damping for bunched beams in the presence of space charge

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Macridin; Alexey Burov; Eric Stern; James Amundson; Panagiotis Spentzouris

    2015-01-01

    Transverse dipole modes in bunches with space charge are simulated using the synergia accelerator modeling package and analyzed with dynamic mode decomposition. The properties of the first three space charge modes, including their shape, damping rates, and tune shifts are described over the entire range of space charge strength. The intrinsic Landau damping predicted and estimated in 2009 by one of the authors is confirmed with a reasonable scaling factor of ≃2.4. For the KV distribution, ver...

  17. Incipient loose detection of hoops for pipeline based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition and multi-scale entropy and extreme learning machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Wei, Qin; Qu, Yongzhi; Cai, Lin

    2017-06-01

    Hoops are very important fittings in hydraulic pipeline, incipient loose detection of hoops will help to prevent hydraulic piping system from breaking down. Since the vibration signals of fluid pipe are non-stationary and of great complexity, multi-scale entropy(MSE), a method characterized by evaluating complexity and irregularity of time series on multiple scales, is used for extracting feature vectors from the vibration signals. In order to obtain components related to system characteristics, ensemble empirical mode decomposition(EEMD) is applied to reconstruct the original signals before the procedure of MSE. Extreme learning machine(ELM) is a new machine learning algorithm characterized by high accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, ELM is introduced as a classifier to identify the different conditions of hoops according to feature vectors extracted by EEMD and MSE algorithms. Thus a novel loose detection method combining with EEMD-MSE and ELM is put forward. The analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed loose detection and feature extraction method for hydraulic pipeline is effective with high performance.

  18. Modeling of Shape Memory Alloys: Phase Transformation/Plasticity Interaction at the Nano Scale and the Statistics of Variation in Pseudoelastic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Harshad Madhukar

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) show two remarkable properties- pseudoelasticity and shape memory effect. These properties make them an attractive material for a variety of commercial applications. However, the mechanism of austenite to martensite phase transformation, responsible for these properties also induces plastic deformation leading to structural and functional fatigue. Micron scale experiments suggest that the plastic deformation is induced in part due to the local stress field of the fine martensite microstructure. However, the results are qualitative and the nature of transformation-plasticity interaction is dependent on factors like the width of the interfaces. This thesis presents a new modeling approach to study the interaction between martensite correspondence variant scale microstructure and plastic deformation in austenite. A phase field method based evolution law is developed for phase transformation and reorientation of martensite CVs. This is coupled with a crystal plasticity law for austenite plastic deformation. The model is formulated with finite deformation and rotations. The effect of local crystal orientation is incorporated. An explicit time integration scheme is developed and implemented in a finite element method (FEM) based framework, allowing the modeling of complex boundary conditions and arbitrary loading conditions. Two systematic studies are carried out with the model. First, the interaction between plasticity and phase transformation is studied for load-free and load-biased thermal cycling of single crystals. Key outcomes of this study are that, the residual martensite formed during thermal cycling provides nucleation sites for the phase transformation in the subsequent cycles. Further, the distribution of slip on different slip systems is determined by the martensite texture. This is a strong evidence for transformation induced plasticity. In the second study, experimentally informed simulations of NiTi micropillar compression are

  19. Body mass and wing shape explain variability in broad-scale bird species distributions of migratory passerines along an ecological barrier during stopover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J; Lyon, Rebecca J; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A; Zenzal, Theodore J; Moore, Frank R

    2017-08-29

    Migrating birds are under selective pressure to complete long-distance flights quickly and efficiently. Wing morphology and body mass influence energy expenditure of flight, such that certain characteristics may confer a greater relative advantage when making long crossings over ecological barriers by modifying the flight range or speed. We explored the possibility, among light (mass body mass have a lower margin for error in dealing with the exigencies of a long water crossing across the Gulf of Mexico and consequently minimize their travel time or distance. We found that species-mean fat-free body mass and wing tip pointedness independently explained variability among species distributions within ~50 km from the northern coast. In both spring and autumn, lighter (i.e., slower flying) species and species with more rounded wings were concentrated nearest the coastline. Our results support the idea that morphology helps to shape broad-scale bird distributions along an ecological barrier and that migration exerts some selective force on passerine morphology. Furthermore, smaller species with less-efficient flight appear constrained to stopping over in close proximity to ecological barriers, illustrating the importance of coastal habitats for small passerine migrants.

  20. A tandem laboratory scale protein purification process using Protein A affinity and anion exchange chromatography operated in a weak partitioning mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamashkin, Michael; Godavarti, Ranga; Iskra, Timothy; Coffman, Jon

    2013-10-01

    A significant consequence of scaling up production of high titer monoclonal antibody (mAb) processes in existing facilities is the generation of in-process pools that exceed the capacity of storage vessels. A semi-continuous downstream process where columns and filters are linked and operated in tandem would eliminate the need for intermediate holding tanks. This study is a bench-scale demonstration of the feasibility of a tandem process for the purification of mAbs employing an affinity Protein A capture step, followed by a flow-through anion-exchange (AEX) step with the possibility of adding an in-line virus filtration step (VF). All three steps were linked sequentially and operated as one continuous process using an ÄKTA FPLC equipped with two pumps and a system of valves and bypasses that allowed the components to be engaged at different stages of the process. The AEX column was operated in a weak partitioning (WP) mode enabled by a precise in-line titration of Protein A effluent. In order to avoid complex control schemes and facilitate validation, quality and robustness were built into the system through selection of buffers based on thermodynamic and empirical models. The tandem system utilized the simplest possible combination of valves, pumps, controls, and automation, so that it could easily be implemented in a clinical or commercial production facility. Linking the purification steps in a tandem process is expected to generate savings in time and production costs and also reduce the size of quality systems due to reduced documentation requirements, microbial sampling, and elimination of hold time validation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Perspectives in shape analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckstein, Alfred; Maragos, Petros; Wuhrer, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in the field of shape analysis. Written by experts in the fields of continuous-scale shape analysis, discrete shape analysis and sparsity, and numerical computing who hail from different communities, it provides a unique view of the topic from a broad range of perspectives. Over the last decade, it has become increasingly affordable to digitize shape information at high resolution. Yet analyzing and processing this data remains challenging because of the large amount of data involved, and because modern applications such as human-computer interaction require real-time processing. Meeting these challenges requires interdisciplinary approaches that combine concepts from a variety of research areas, including numerical computing, differential geometry, deformable shape modeling, sparse data representation, and machine learning. On the algorithmic side, many shape analysis tasks are modeled using partial differential equations, which can be solved using tools from the field of n...

  2. Midpoint Shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welchman, Rosamond; Urso, Josephine

    2000-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of children exploring hands-on and minds-on mathematics. Presents a midpoint shape activity for students to explore the midpoint shape of familiar quadrilaterals, such as squares and rectangles. (KHR)

  3. Shape memory alloy based motor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/sadh/033/05/0699-0712. Keywords. Shape Memory Alloy (SMA); poly phase; rotary actuator; torque; ripple. Abstract. Design and characterization of a new shape memory alloy wire based Poly Phase Motor has been reported in this paper. The motor can be used either in stepping mode or ...

  4. Automatic shape model building based on principal geodesic analysis bootstrapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Erik B; Fletcher, P Thomas; Pizer, Stephen M

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel method for automatic shape model building from a collection of training shapes. The result is a shape model consisting of the mean model and the major modes of variation with a dense correspondence map between individual shapes. The framework consists of iterations where a medial...... shape representation is deformed into the training shapes followed by computation of the shape mean and modes of shape variation. In the first iteration, a generic shape model is used as starting point - in the following iterations in the bootstrap method, the resulting mean and modes from the previous...... iteration are used. Thereby, we gradually capture the shape variation in the training collection better and better. Convergence of the method is explicitly enforced. The method is evaluated on collections of artificial training shapes where the expected shape mean and modes of variation are known by design...

  5. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape : A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, Thomas W.; Justice, Anne E.; Graff, Mariaelisa; Barata, Llilda; Feitosa, Mary F.; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.; Lu, Yingchang; Magi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H.; Rueeger, Sina; Teumer, Alexander; Ehret, Georg B.; Ferreira, Teresa; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Karjalainen, Juha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mahajan, Anubha; Neinast, Michael D.; Prokopenko, Inga; Simino, Jeannette; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Jansen, Rick; Westra, Harm-Jan; White, Charles C.; Absher, Devin; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ahmad, Shafqat; Albrecht, Eva; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Bis, Joshua C.; Bonnefond, Amelie; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cadby, Gemma; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Delgado, Graciela; Demirkan, Ayse; Dueker, Nicole; Eklund, Niina; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Joel; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fischer, Krista; Frau, Francesca; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Geller, Frank; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haitjema, Saskia; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Johansson, Asa; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E.; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lehne, Benjamin; Liu, Youfang; Lo, Ken Sin; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L.; Montasser, May E.; Mueller, Gabriele; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Rizzi, Federica; Rose, Lynda M.; Ryan, Kathy A.; Salo, Perttu; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Southam, Lorraine; Stancakova, Alena; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Trompet, Stella; Pervjakova, Natalia; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van der Laan, Sander W.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Setten, Jessica|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345493990; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Verweij, Niek; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wang, Sophie R.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wild, Sarah H.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilson, James F.; Wong, Andrew; Yang, Jian; Yengo, Loic; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andersson, Ehm A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Baldassarre, Damiano; Banasik, Karina; Barcella, Matteo; Barlassina, Cristina; Bellis, Claire; Benaglio, Paola; Blangero, John; Blueher, Matthias; Bonnet, Fabrice; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buchman, Aron S.; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cole, John; Collins, Francis S.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Dimitriou, Maria; Duan, Jubao; Enroth, Stefan; Eury, Elodie; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Forouhi, Nita G.; Friedrich, Nele; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gigante, Bruna; Glorioso, Nicola; Go, Alan S.; Gottesman, Omri; Graessler, Juergen; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gu, Yu-Mei; Broer, Linda; Ham, Annelies C.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise L.; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Hysi, Pirro G.; Illig, Thomas; De Jager, Philip L.; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Jorgensen, Torben; Jukema, J. Wouter; Juonala, Markus; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karaleftheri, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinnunen, Leena; Kittner, Steven J.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Krarup, Nikolaj T.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Krueger, Janine; Kuh, Diana; Kumari, Meena; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Langenberg, Claudia; Lannfelt, Lars; Lanzani, Chiara; Lotay, Vaneet; Launer, Lenore J.; Leander, Karin; Lindstrom, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yan-Ping; Lobbens, Stephane; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Mannisto, Satu; Magnusson, Patrik K.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Andrew P.; Narisu, Narisu; Nelis, Mari; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Perusse, Louis; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G.; Pouta, Anneli; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Richards, Marcus; Rice, Kenneth M.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivolta, Carlo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A.; Scott, William R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengupta, Sebanti; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Silveira, Angela; Slagboom, P. Eline; Smit, Jan H.; Sparso, Thomas H.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P.; Stringham, Heather M.; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorand, Barbara; Toenjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; van der Most, Peter J.; Voelker, Uwe; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Vonk, Judith M.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Walker, Ryan W.; Wennauer, Roman; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wright, Alan F.; Zillikens, M. Carola; van Dijk, Suzanne C.; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/270752137; de Bakker, Paul I. W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/342957082; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Beilby, John; Bennett, David A.; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Boeger, Carsten A.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bouchard, Claude; Chambers, John C.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Dedoussis, George; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; de Faire, Ulf; Farrall, Martin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Franke, Lude; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Gronberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Heliovaara, Markku; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Hveem, Kristian; James, Alan L.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kaehoenen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.; Kivimaki, Mika; Knekt, Paul B.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kuusisto, Johanna; Maerz, Winfried; Martin, Nicholas G.; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lettre, Guillaume; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lind, Lars; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Mantyselka, Pekka; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Moll, Frans L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070246882; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Musk, Arthur W.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Njolstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pankow, James S.; Pasterkamp, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/138488304; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pedersen, Oluf; Penninx, Brenda W.; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Qi, Lu; Quertermous, Thomas; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rauramaa, Rainer; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; den Ruijter, Hester M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304123846; Saltevo, Juha; Sattar, Naveed; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Snieder, Harold; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Spector, Tim D.; Staessen, Jan A.; Stefania, Bandinelli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Verbeek, Andre L. M.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Voelzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clegg, Deborah J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Rao, D. C.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Ines; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert C.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Heid, Iris M.; North, Kari E.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially

  6. Wall compliance and violin cavity modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, George

    2003-03-01

    Violin corpus wall compliance, which has a substantial effect on cavity mode frequencies, was added to Shaw's two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) network model for A0 ("main air") and A1 (lowest length mode included in "main wood") cavity modes. The 2DOF model predicts a V(-0.25) volume dependence for A0 for rigid violin-shaped cavities, to which a semiempirical compliance correction term, V(-x(c)) (optimization parameter x(c)) consistent with cavity acoustical compliance and violin-based scaling was added. Optimizing x(c) over A0 and A1 frequencies measured for a Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet yielded x(c) approximately 0.08. This markedly improved A0 and A1 frequency predictions to within approximately +/- 10% of experiment over a range of about 4.5:1 in length, 10:1 in f-hole area, 3:1 in top plate thickness, and 128:1 in volume. Compliance is a plausible explanation for A1 falling close to the "main wood" resonance, not increasingly higher for the larger instruments, which were scaled successively shorter compared to the violin for ergonomic and practical reasons. Similarly incorporating compliance for A2 and A4 (lowest lower-/upper-bout modes, respectively) improves frequency predictions within +/-20% over the octet.

  7. Multi-scaled normal mode analysis method for dynamics simulation of protein-membrane complexes: A case study of potassium channel gating motion correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaokun; Han, Min; Ming, Dengming, E-mail: dming@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-10-07

    Membrane proteins play critically important roles in many cellular activities such as ions and small molecule transportation, signal recognition, and transduction. In order to fulfill their functions, these proteins must be placed in different membrane environments and a variety of protein-lipid interactions may affect the behavior of these proteins. One of the key effects of protein-lipid interactions is their ability to change the dynamics status of membrane proteins, thus adjusting their functions. Here, we present a multi-scaled normal mode analysis (mNMA) method to study the dynamics perturbation to the membrane proteins imposed by lipid bi-layer membrane fluctuations. In mNMA, channel proteins are simulated at all-atom level while the membrane is described with a coarse-grained model. mNMA calculations clearly show that channel gating motion can tightly couple with a variety of membrane deformations, including bending and twisting. We then examined bi-channel systems where two channels were separated with different distances. From mNMA calculations, we observed both positive and negative gating correlations between two neighboring channels, and the correlation has a maximum as the channel center-to-center distance is close to 2.5 times of their diameter. This distance is larger than recently found maximum attraction distance between two proteins embedded in membrane which is 1.5 times of the protein size, indicating that membrane fluctuation might impose collective motions among proteins within a larger area. The hybrid resolution feature in mNMA provides atomic dynamics information for key components in the system without costing much computer resource. We expect it to be a conventional simulation tool for ordinary laboratories to study the dynamics of very complicated biological assemblies. The source code is available upon request to the authors.

  8. Plate Tearing Under Mixed Mode Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus Grau; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Felter, Christian Lotz

    2016-01-01

    Cohesive-zone finite element modeling is often the technique of choice when dealing with extensive crack growth in large-scale ductile sheet metal structures. Shell elements with in-plane dimensions much larger than the plate thickness are typically employed to discretize the structure, and thus...... that takes place in front of an advancing crack can significantly enhance the crack growth resistanceas the energy going into thinning the sheet typically dominates the total fracture energy.This has been investigated in great details for the case of pure Mode I tearing and both the energy dissipation, peak...... stress, and shape of the cohesive traction-separation law have been laid out. In a similar fashion, the present study resolves the sequence of failure details related to steady-state sheet tearing under mixed mode loading by employing the micro-mechanics based Gurson model. But, the fracture process...

  9. Development of new punch shape to replicate scale-up issues in laboratory tablet press II: a new design of punch head to emulate consolidation and dwell times in commercial tablet press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Shigeru; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Ito, Manabu

    2014-06-01

    Differences between laboratory and commercial tablet presses are frequently observed during scale-up of tableting process. These scale-up issues result from the differences in total compression time that is the sum of consolidation and dwell times. When a lubricated blend is compressed into tablets, the tablet thickness produced by the commercial tablet press is often thicker than that by a laboratory tablet press. A new punch shape design, designated as shape adjusted for scale-up (SAS), was developed and used to demonstrate the ability to replicate scale-up issues in commercial-scale tableting processes. It was found that the consolidation time can be slightly shortened by changing the vertical curvature of the conventional punch head rim. However, this approach is not enough to replicate the consolidation time. A secondary two-stage SAS punch design and an embossed punch head was designed to replicate the consolidation and dwell times on a laboratory tablet press to match those of a commercial tablet press. The resulting tablet thickness using this second SAS punch on a laboratory tablet press was thicker than when using a conventional punch in the same laboratory tablet press. The secondary SAS punches are more useful tools for replicating and understanding potential scale-up issues. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. Mode decomposition evolution equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2012-03-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) based methods have become some of the most powerful tools for exploring the fundamental problems in signal processing, image processing, computer vision, machine vision and artificial intelligence in the past two decades. The advantages of PDE based approaches are that they can be made fully automatic, robust for the analysis of images, videos and high dimensional data. A fundamental question is whether one can use PDEs to perform all the basic tasks in the image processing. If one can devise PDEs to perform full-scale mode decomposition for signals and images, the modes thus generated would be very useful for secondary processing to meet the needs in various types of signal and image processing. Despite of great progress in PDE based image analysis in the past two decades, the basic roles of PDEs in image/signal analysis are only limited to PDE based low-pass filters, and their applications to noise removal, edge detection, segmentation, etc. At present, it is not clear how to construct PDE based methods for full-scale mode decomposition. The above-mentioned limitation of most current PDE based image/signal processing methods is addressed in the proposed work, in which we introduce a family of mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs) for a vast variety of applications. The MoDEEs are constructed as an extension of a PDE based high-pass filter (Europhys. Lett., 59(6): 814, 2002) by using arbitrarily high order PDE based low-pass filters introduced by Wei (IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 6(7): 165, 1999). The use of arbitrarily high order PDEs is essential to the frequency localization in the mode decomposition. Similar to the wavelet transform, the present MoDEEs have a controllable time-frequency localization and allow a perfect reconstruction of the original function. Therefore, the MoDEE operation is also called a PDE transform. However, modes generated from the present approach are in the spatial or time domain and can be

  11. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Thomas W.; Anne E Justice; Graff, Mariaelisa; Barata, Llilda; Feitosa, Mary F; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Lu, Yingchang; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H.; Rüeger, Sina

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age-and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of Eur...

  12. Estimating tropical vertical motion profile shapes from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, L. E.; Handlos, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical structure of tropical deep convection strongly influences interactions with larger scale circulations and climate. This research focuses on investigating this vertical structure and its relationship with mesoscale tropical weather states. We test the hypothesis that vertical motion shape varies in association with weather state type. We estimate mean state vertical motion profile shapes for six tropical weather states defined using cloud top pressure and optical depth properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The relationship between vertical motion and the dry static energy budget are utilized to set up a regression analysis that empirically determines two modes of variability in vertical motion from reanalysis data. We use these empirically determined modes, this relationship and surface convergence to estimate vertical motion profile shape from observations of satellite retrievals of rainfall and surface convergence. We find that vertical motion profile shapes vary systematically between different tropical weather states. The "isolated systems" regime exhibits a more ''bottom-heavy'' profile shape compared to the convective/thick cirrus and vigorous deep convective regimes, with maximum upward vertical motion occurring in the lower troposphere rather than the middle to upper troposphere. The variability we observe with our method does not coincide with that expected based on conventional ideas about how stratiform rain fraction and vertical motion are related.

  13. A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background B-mode Polarization Power Spectrum at Subdegree Scales from Two Years of polarbear Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The POLARBEAR Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguilar, M.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Baccigalupi, C.; Barron, D.; Beck, D.; Bianchini, F.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Crowley, K.; Cukierman, A.; Dünner, R.; Dobbs, M.; Ducout, A.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feeney, S. M.; Feng, C.; Fujino, T.; Galitzki, N.; Gilbert, A.; Goeckner-Wald, N.; Groh, J. C.; Hall, G.; Halverson, N.; Hamada, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Hazumi, M.; Hill, C. A.; Howe, L.; Inoue, Y.; Jaehnig, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jeong, O.; Kaneko, D.; Katayama, N.; Keating, B.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kusaka, A.; Le Jeune, M.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Leon, D.; Linder, E.; Lowry, L.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Minami, Y.; Montgomery, J.; Navaroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Paar, H.; Peloton, J.; Pham, A. T. P.; Poletti, D.; Puglisi, G.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Segawa, Y.; Sherwin, B. D.; Silva-Feaver, M.; Siritanasak, P.; Stebor, N.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Tajima, O.; Takakura, S.; Takatori, S.; Tanabe, D.; Teply, G. P.; Tomaru, T.; Tucker, C.; Whitehorn, N.; Zahn, A.

    2017-10-01

    We report an improved measurement of the cosmic microwave background B-mode polarization power spectrum with the Polarbear experiment at 150 GHz. By adding new data collected during the second season of observations (2013–2014) to re-analyzed data from the first season (2012–2013), we have reduced twofold the band-power uncertainties. The band powers are reported over angular multipoles 500≤slant {\\ell }≤slant 2100, where the dominant B-mode signal is expected to be due to the gravitational lensing of E-modes. We reject the null hypothesis of no B-mode polarization at a confidence of 3.1σ including both statistical and systematic uncertainties. We test the consistency of the measured B-modes with the Λ Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) framework by fitting for a single lensing amplitude parameter A L relative to the Planck 2015 best-fit model prediction. We obtain {A}L={0.60}-0.24+0.26({stat}{)}-0.04+0.00({inst}) ± 0.14(foreground) ± 0.04(multi), where {A}L=1 is the fiducial ΛCDM value.

  14. Single mode solid state distributed feedback dye laser fabricated by grey scale electron beam lithography on dye doped SU-8 resist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Rasmussen, Torben; Shi, Peixiong

    2005-01-01

    are optically pumped at 532 nm, and exhibit low lasing threshold from 530 nJ/mm2 and single mode output at selectable wavelengths from 580 to 630 nm, determined by the grating pitch. The lasers are well suited for integration into polymer based lab-on-chip circuits for interference based sensing....

  15. Multi-scale and angular analysis of ray-optical light trapping schemes in thin-film solar cells: micro lens array, V-shaped configuration, and double parabolic trapper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Changsoon; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2013-03-11

    An efficient light trapping scheme is a key to enhancing the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) cells by compensating for the insufficient light absorption. To handle optical components from nano-scale to micro-scale seamlessly, a multi-scale optical simulation is carefully designed in this study and is used to qualitatively analyze the light trapping performances of a micro lens array (MLA), a V-shaped configuration, and the newly proposed scheme, which is termed a double parabolic trapper (DPT) according to both daily and annual movement of the sun. DPT has the potential to enhance the PCE significantly, from 5.9% to 8.9%, for PCDTBT:PC(70)BM-based polymer solar cells by perfectly trapping the incident light between two parabolic PV cells.

  16. Dynamic shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenderink, J J; van Doorn, A J

    1986-01-01

    Many useful notions of partial order and/or similarity and relatedness of different geometrical features of smooth shapes that occur in psychologically valid descriptions of shape have no equivalents in the usual geometrical shape theories. This is especially true where similarities are noted between objects of different connectivity: in almost all of the present theories the topological type generates the primary categorization. It is argued that such relations find a logical place only in shape theories that involve morphogenesis. Any object can be embedded uniquely in a morphogenetic sequence if one takes resolution as the parameter of the sequence. A theory of measurement is presented that allows one to define surfaces and (boundary-) curves on multiple levels of resolution. The embedding is essentially unique and is generated via a partial differential equation that governs the evolution. A canonical projection connects any high resolution specimen to lower resolution versions. The bifurcation set of the projection generates natural part boundaries. Singularities of the evolution are completely characterized as emergence, accretion and versification processes (involving topological change) and singularities by which inflections (inflection points for curves, parabolic curves for surfaces) are generated. The latter singularities involve a single process for the generation of inflections and three other processes by which the existing inflection structure may be changed. Relations with existing theories in vogue in robotics and AI, as well as in psychophysics are discussed.

  17. Shape Changing Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Eric A.

    2005-01-01

    Scoping of shape changing airfoil concepts including both aerodynamic analysis and materials-related technology assessment effort was performed. Three general categories of potential components were considered-fan blades, booster and compressor blades, and stator airfoils. Based on perceived contributions to improving engine efficiency, the fan blade was chosen as the primary application for a more detailed assessment. A high-level aerodynamic assessment using a GE90-90B Block 4 engine cycle and fan blade geometry indicates that blade camber changes of approximately +/-4deg would be sufficient to result in fan efficiency improvements nearing 1 percent. Constraints related to flight safety and failed mode operation suggest that use of the baseline blade shape with actuation to the optimum cruise condition during a portion of the cycle would be likely required. Application of these conditions to the QAT fan blade and engine cycle was estimated to result in an overall fan efficiency gain of 0.4 percent.

  18. Overlapping double potential wells in a single optical microtube cavity with vernier-scale-like tuning effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madani, A.; Schmidt, O. G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Bolaños Quiñones, V. A.; Ma, L. B., E-mail: l.ma@ifw-dresden.de; Jorgensen, M. R. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Miao, S. D. [Anhui Key Lab of Controllable Chemical Reaction and Material Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Tunxi Road. 193, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China)

    2016-04-25

    Spatially and temporally overlapping double potential wells are realized in a hybrid optical microtube cavity due to the coexistence of an aggregate of luminescent quantum dots embedded in the tube wall and the cone-shaped tube's geometry. The double potential wells produce two independent sets of optical modes with different sets of mode numbers, indicating phase velocity separation for the modes overlapping at the same frequency. The overlapping mode position can be tuned by modifying the tube cavity, where these mode sets shift with different magnitudes, allowing for a vernier-scale-like tuning effect.

  19. Overlapping double potential wells in a single optical microtube cavity with vernier-scale-like tuning effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, A.; Bolaños Quiñones, V. A.; Ma, L. B.; Miao, S. D.; Jorgensen, M. R.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2016-04-01

    Spatially and temporally overlapping double potential wells are realized in a hybrid optical microtube cavity due to the coexistence of an aggregate of luminescent quantum dots embedded in the tube wall and the cone-shaped tube's geometry. The double potential wells produce two independent sets of optical modes with different sets of mode numbers, indicating phase velocity separation for the modes overlapping at the same frequency. The overlapping mode position can be tuned by modifying the tube cavity, where these mode sets shift with different magnitudes, allowing for a vernier-scale-like tuning effect.

  20. The Eating Disorder Inventory-2 Perfectionism scale: factor structure and associations with dietary restraint and weight and shape concern in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M; Byrne, Susan M; McLean, Neil; Fursland, Anthea

    2012-01-01

    The Eating Disorder Inventory-2 Perfectionism subscale (EDI-P) was originally construed as a unidimensional measure of perfectionism. However, research in non-clinical samples suggests that the EDI-P measures two dimensions of perfectionism: self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. This study aimed to investigate the factor structure of the EDI-P in a transdiagnostic sample of females seeking treatment for an eating disorder, and to determine the unique association between EDI-P dimensions, weight and shape concern, and dietary restraint in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified. Two hundred and ninety nine females seeking treatment for an eating disorder at an outpatient eating disorder service completed the Eating Disorder Examination and the EDI-P. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model of the EDI-P comprising self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. Self-oriented perfectionism, but not socially prescribed perfectionism, accounted for unique variance in weight and shape concern and dietary restraint in both AN and BN. Results highlight the potential importance of self-oriented perfectionism in eating disorders and support the argument that self-imposed standards are central to perfectionism in eating disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Automated Identification of MHD Mode Bifurcation and Locking in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquezes, J. D.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Park, Y. S.; Bell, R. E.; Morton, L. A.

    2017-10-01

    Disruption avoidance is critical in reactor-scale tokamaks such as ITER to maintain steady plasma operation and avoid damage to device components. A key physical event chain that leads to disruptions is the appearance of rotating MHD modes, their slowing by resonant field drag mechanisms, and their locking. An algorithm has been developed that automatically detects bifurcation of the mode toroidal rotation frequency due to loss of torque balance under resonant braking, and mode locking for a set of shots using spectral decomposition. The present research examines data from NSTX, NSTX-U and KSTAR plasmas which differ significantly in aspect ratio (ranging from A = 1.3 - 3.5). The research aims to examine and compare the effectiveness of different algorithms for toroidal mode number discrimination, such as phase matching and singular value decomposition approaches, and to examine potential differences related to machine aspect ratio (e.g. mode eigenfunction shape variation). Simple theoretical models will be compared to the dynamics found. Main goals are to detect or potentially forecast the event chain early during a discharge. This would serve as a cue to engage active mode control or a controlled plasma shutdown. Supported by US DOE Contracts DE-SC0016614 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  2. Transformation and Modes of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    modes of production and examine the ways of life that are enabled by the two modes of production. The central questions are around how market-based fisheries management transforms the principal preconditions for the self-employed fishers; and, in turn, why capitalist organized large-scale fisheries...

  3. Helical crack-front instability in mixed-mode fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Antonio J; Karma, Alain

    2010-03-04

    Planar crack propagation under pure tension loading (mode I) is generally stable. However, it becomes universally unstable with the superposition of a shear stress parallel to the crack front (mode III). Under this mixed-mode (I + III) loading configuration, an initially flat parent crack segments into an array of daughter cracks that rotate towards a direction of maximum tensile stress. This segmentation produces stepped fracture surfaces with characteristic 'lance-shaped' markings observed in a wide range of engineering and geological materials. The origin of this instability remains poorly understood and a theory with which to predict the surface roughness scale is lacking. Here we perform large-scale simulations of mixed-mode I + III brittle fracture using a continuum phase-field method that describes the complete three-dimensional crack-front evolution. The simulations reveal that planar crack propagation is linearly unstable against helical deformations of the crack front, which evolve nonlinearly into a segmented array of finger-shaped daughter cracks. Furthermore, during their evolution, facets gradually coarsen owing to the growth competition of daughter cracks in striking analogy with the coarsening of finger patterns observed in nonequilibrium growth phenomena. We show that the dynamically preferred unstable wavelength is governed by the balance of the destabilizing effect of far-field stresses and the stabilizing effect of cohesive forces on the process zone scale, and we derive a theoretical estimate for this scale using a new propagation law for curved cracks in three dimensions. The rotation angles of coarsened facets are also compared to theoretical predictions and available experimental data.

  4. Helicity scalings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plunian, F [ISTerre, CNRS, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Lessinnes, T; Carati, D [Physique Statistique et Plasmas, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Stepanov, R, E-mail: Franck.Plunian@ujf-grenoble.fr [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Science, Perm (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-22

    Using a helical shell model of turbulence, Chen et al. (2003) showed that both helicity and energy dissipate at the Kolmogorov scale, independently from any helicity input. This is in contradiction with a previous paper by Ditlevsen and Giuliani (2001) in which, using a GOY shell model of turbulence, they found that helicity dissipates at a scale larger than the Kolmogorov scale, and does depend on the helicity input. In a recent paper by Lessinnes et al. (2011), we showed that this discrepancy is due to the fact that in the GOY shell model only one helical mode (+ or -) is present at each scale instead of both modes in the helical shell model. Then, using the GOY model, the near cancellation of the helicity flux between the + and - modes cannot occur at small scales, as it should be in true turbulence. We review the main results with a focus on the numerical procedure needed to obtain accurate statistics.

  5. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Mary F.; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Lu, Yingchang; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H.; Rüeger, Sina; Teumer, Alexander; Ehret, Georg B.; Ferreira, Teresa; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Karjalainen, Juha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mahajan, Anubha; Neinast, Michael D.; Prokopenko, Inga; Simino, Jeannette; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Jansen, Rick; Westra, Harm-Jan; White, Charles C.; Absher, Devin; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ahmad, Shafqat; Albrecht, Eva; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Bis, Joshua C.; Bonnefond, Amélie; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cadby, Gemma; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Delgado, Graciela; Demirkan, Ayse; Dueker, Nicole; Eklund, Niina; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Joel; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fischer, Krista; Frau, Francesca; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Geller, Frank; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haitjema, Saskia; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Johansson, Åsa; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E.; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lehne, Benjamin; Liu, Youfang; Lo, Ken Sin; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L.; Montasser, May E.; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renström, Frida; Rizzi, Federica; Rose, Lynda M.; Ryan, Kathy A.; Salo, Perttu; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Southam, Lorraine; Stančáková, Alena; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Trompet, Stella; Pervjakova, Natalia; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van der Laan, Sander W; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Setten, Jessica; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Verweij, Niek; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wang, Sophie R.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wild, Sarah H.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilson, James F.; Wong, Andrew; Yang, Jian; Yengo, Loïc; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andersson, Ehm A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Baldassarre, Damiano; Banasik, Karina; Barcella, Matteo; Barlassina, Cristina; Bellis, Claire; Benaglio, Paola; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bonnet, Fabrice; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buchman, Aron S; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cole, John; Collins, Francis S.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Dimitriou, Maria; Duan, Jubao; Enroth, Stefan; Eury, Elodie; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Forouhi, Nita G.; Friedrich, Nele; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gigante, Bruna; Glorioso, Nicola; Go, Alan S.; Gottesman, Omri; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gu, Yu-Mei; Broer, Linda; Ham, Annelies C.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hovingh, Kees G; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise L.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Hysi, Pirro G.; Illig, Thomas; De Jager, Philip L.; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Jørgensen, Torben; Jukema, J. Wouter; Juonala, Markus; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karaleftheri, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinnunen, Leena; Kittner, Steven J.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Krarup, Nikolaj T.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Krüger, Janine; Kuh, Diana; Kumari, Meena; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Langenberg, Claudia; Lannfelt, Lars; Lanzani, Chiara; Lotay, Vaneet; Launer, Lenore J.; Leander, Karin; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yan-Ping; Lobbens, Stéphane; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Magnusson, Patrik K.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Andrew P.; Narisu, Narisu; Nelis, Mari; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Pérusse, Louis; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G.; Pouta, Anneli; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Richards, Marcus; Rice, Kenneth M.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivolta, Carlo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A.; Scott, William R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengupta, Sebanti; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Silveira, Angela; Slagboom, P. Eline; Smit, Jan H.; Sparsø, Thomas H.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P.; Stringham, Heather M.; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorand, Barbara; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; van der Most, Peter J.; Völker, Uwe; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Vonk, Judith M.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Walker, Ryan W.; Wennauer, Roman; Widén, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wright, Alan F.; Zillikens, M. Carola; van Dijk, Suzanne C.; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Beilby, John; Bennett, David A.; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Böger, Carsten A.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bouchard, Claude; Chambers, John C.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Dedoussis, George; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; de Faire, Ulf; Farrall, Martin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Franke, Lude; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Heliövaara, Markku; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Hveem, Kristian; James, Alan L.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.; Kivimaki, Mika; Knekt, Paul B.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kuusisto, Johanna; Maerz, Winfried; Martin, Nicholas G; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lettre, Guillaume; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lind, Lars; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Moll, Frans L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Musk, Arthur W.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Njølstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J; Pankow, James S.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pedersen, Oluf; Penninx, Brenda W.; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polašek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Qi, Lu; Quertermous, Thomas; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rauramaa, Rainer; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Saltevo, Juha; Sattar, Naveed; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Spector, Tim D.; Staessen, Jan A.; Stefania, Bandinelli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Verbeek, André L. M.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clegg, Deborah J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Rao, D. C.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert C.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Heid, Iris M.; North, Kari E.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape. PMID:26426971

  6. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Winkler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI, a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE, sex-specific effects (G x SEX or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX. For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel that showed significant (FDR<5% age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y than in older adults (≥50y. No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.

  7. Hardware Development of a Laboratory-Scale Microgrid Phase 1--Single Inverter in Island Mode Operation: Base Year Report, December 2000 -- November 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataramanan, G.; Illindala, M. S.; Houle, C.; Lasseter, R. H.

    2002-11-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the first year of a three-year project to develop control software for micro-source distributed generation systems. The focus of this phase was on internal energy storage requirements, the modification of an off-the-shelf motor drive system inverter to supply utility-grade ac power, and a single inverter system operating in island mode. The report provides a methodology for determining battery energy storage requirements, a method for converting a motor drive inverter into a utility-grade inverter, and typical characteristics and test results of using such an inverter in a complex load environment.

  8. Simulation of transverse modes with their intrinsic Landau damping for bunched beams in the presence of space charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Macridin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transverse dipole modes in bunches with space charge are simulated using the synergia accelerator modeling package and analyzed with dynamic mode decomposition. The properties of the first three space charge modes, including their shape, damping rates, and tune shifts are described over the entire range of space charge strength. The intrinsic Landau damping predicted and estimated in 2009 by one of the authors is confirmed with a reasonable scaling factor of ≃2.4. For the KV distribution, very good agreement with PATRIC simulations performed by Kornilov and Boine-Frankenheim is obtained.

  9. Simulation of transverse modes with their intrinsic Landau damping for bunched beams in the presence of space charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macridin, Alexandru; Burov, Alexey; Stern, Eric; Amundson, James; Spentzouris, Panagiotis

    2015-07-01

    Transverse dipole modes in bunches with space charge are simulated using the synergia accelerator modeling package and analyzed with dynamic mode decomposition. The properties of the first three space charge modes, including their shape, damping rates, and tune shifts are described over the entire range of space charge strength. The intrinsic Landau damping predicted and estimated in 2009 by one of the authors is confirmed with a reasonable scaling factor of ≃2.4 . For the KV distribution, very good agreement with PATRIC simulations performed by Kornilov and Boine-Frankenheim is obtained.

  10. Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K. P.; Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1999-01-01

    The present appendix contains the derivation of ten different limit state equations divided on three different failure modes. Five of the limit state equations can be used independently of the characteristics of the subsoil, whereas the remaining five can be used for either drained or undrained s...

  11. Inhibiting multiple mode vibration in controlled flexible systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, James M.; Chang, Kenneth W.; Seering, Warren P.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on inhibiting multiple mode vibration in controlled flexible systems are presented. Topics covered include: input pre-shaping background; developing multiple-mode shapers; Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) test article; and tests and results.

  12. Habitat and scale shape the demographic fate of the keystone sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in Mediterranean macrophyte communities

    OpenAIRE

    Prado, Patricia; Tomas, Fiona; Pinna, Stefania; Farina, Simone; Roca, Guillem; Ceccherelli, Giulia; Romero, Javier; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Demographic processes exert different degrees of control as individuals grow, and in species that span several habitats and spatial scales, this can influence our ability to predict their population at a particular life-history stage given the previous life stage. In particular, when keystone species are involved, this relative coupling between demographic stages can have significant implications for the functioning of ecosystems. We examined benthic and pelagic abundances of the sea urchin P...

  13. Towards Liquid Chromatography Time-Scale Peptide Sequencing and Characterization of Post-Translational Modifications in the Negative-Ion Mode Using Electron Detachment Dissociation Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Frank; Hørning, Ole B; Jensen, Søren S

    2008-01-01

    Electron detachment dissociation (EDD) of peptide poly-anions is gentle towards post-translational modifications (PTMs) and produces predictable and interpretable fragment ion types (a., x ions). However, EDD is considered an inefficient fragmentation technique and has not yet been implemented...... in large-scale peptide characterization strategies. We successfully increased the EDD fragmentation efficiency (up to 9%), and demonstrate for the first time the utility of EDD-MS/MS in liquid chromatography time-scale experiments. Peptides and phosphopeptides were analyzed in both positive- and negative...

  14. Scaling Laws at the Nano Size: The Effect of Particle Size and Shape on the Magnetism and Relaxivity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Eric D; Park, Hee-Yun E; Zhou, Yue; Rolla, Gabriele A; Marjańska, Małgorzata; Botta, Mauro; Pierre, Valérie C

    2013-06-14

    The magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles govern their relaxivities and efficacy as contrast agents for MRI. These properties are in turn determined by their composition, size and morphology. Herein we present a systematic study of the effect of particle size and shape of magnetite nanocrystals synthesized by thermal decompositions of iron salts on both their magnetism and their longitudinal and transverse relaxivities, r 1 and r 2 , respectively. Faceted nanoparticles demonstrate superior magnetism and relaxivities than spherical nanoparticles of similar size. For faceted nanoparticles, but not for spherical ones, r 1 and r 2 further increase with increasing particle size up to a size of 18 nm. This observation is in accordance with increasing saturation magnetization for nanoparticles increasing in size up to 12 nm, above which a plateau is observed. The NMRD (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Dispersion) profiles of MIONs (Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles) display an increase in longitudinal relaxivity with decreasing magnetic field strength with a plateau below 1 MHz. The transverse relaxivity shows no dependence on the magnetic field strength between 20 MHz and 500 MHz. These observations translate to phantom MR images: in T 1 -weighted SWIFT (SWeep imaging with Fourier Transform) images MIONs have a positive contrast with little dependence on particle size, whereas in T 2 -weighted gradient-echo images MIONs create a negative contrast which increases in magnitude with increasing particle size. Altogether, these results will enable the development of particulate MRI contrast agents with enhanced efficacy for biomedical and clinical applications.

  15. Waveguides having patterned, flattened modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerly, Michael J.; Pax, Paul H.; Dawson, Jay W.

    2015-10-27

    Field-flattening strands may be added to and arbitrarily positioned within a field-flattening shell to create a waveguide that supports a patterned, flattened mode. Patterning does not alter the effective index or flattened nature of the mode, but does alter the characteristics of other modes. Compared to a telecom fiber, a hexagonal pattern of strands allows for a three-fold increase in the flattened mode's area without reducing the separation between its effective index and that of its bend-coupled mode. Hexagonal strand and shell elements prove to be a reasonable approximation, and, thus, to be of practical benefit vis-a-vis fabrication, to those of circular cross section. Patterned flattened modes offer a new and valuable path to power scaling.

  16. Scaling allometric relationships in pure, crowded, even-aged stands: do tree shade-tolerance, repro-ductive mode and wood productivity matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Gafta; Florin Crişan

    2013-01-01

    Tree allometric relationships are likely to be influenced by species tolerance to shade, nutrient availability and plant ontogenetic origin. The aim of this paper was to test to what extent these factors affect the scaling exponents of two allometric relationships in pure, even-aged, canopy-closed forest stands: stem diameter (D) versus stem height (H) and versus stem density (N). Data were collected by tree species (Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus petraea), wood productivity clas...

  17. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lee; Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  18. Fine-scale variation in microclimate across an urban landscape shapes variation in mosquito population dynamics and the potential of Aedes albopictus to transmit arboviral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Courtney C; Evans, Michelle V; McClanahan, Taylor D; Miazgowicz, Kerri L; Tesla, Blanka

    2017-05-01

    Most statistical and mechanistic models used to predict mosquito-borne disease transmission incorporate climate drivers of disease transmission by utilizing environmental data collected at geographic scales that are potentially coarser than what mosquito populations may actually experience. Temperature and relative humidity can vary greatly between indoor and outdoor environments, and can be influenced strongly by variation in landscape features. In the Aedes albopictus system, we conducted a proof-of-concept study in the vicinity of the University of Georgia to explore the effects of fine-scale microclimate variation on mosquito life history and vectorial capacity (VC). We placed Ae. albopictus larvae in artificial pots distributed across three replicate sites within three different land uses-urban, suburban, and rural, which were characterized by high, intermediate, and low proportions of impervious surfaces. Data loggers were placed into each larval environment and in nearby vegetation to record daily variation in water and ambient temperature and relative humidity. The number of adults emerging from each pot and their body size and sex were recorded daily. We found mosquito microclimate to significantly vary across the season as well as with land use. Urban sites were in general warmer and less humid than suburban and rural sites, translating into decreased larval survival, smaller body sizes, and lower per capita growth rates of mosquitoes on urban sites. Dengue transmission potential was predicted to be higher in the summer than the fall. Additionally, the effects of land use on dengue transmission potential varied by season. Warm summers resulted in a higher predicted VC on the cooler, rural sites, while warmer, urban sites had a higher predicted VC during the cooler fall season.

  19. Fine-scale variation in microclimate across an urban landscape shapes variation in mosquito population dynamics and the potential of Aedes albopictus to transmit arboviral disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney C Murdock

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most statistical and mechanistic models used to predict mosquito-borne disease transmission incorporate climate drivers of disease transmission by utilizing environmental data collected at geographic scales that are potentially coarser than what mosquito populations may actually experience. Temperature and relative humidity can vary greatly between indoor and outdoor environments, and can be influenced strongly by variation in landscape features. In the Aedes albopictus system, we conducted a proof-of-concept study in the vicinity of the University of Georgia to explore the effects of fine-scale microclimate variation on mosquito life history and vectorial capacity (VC. We placed Ae. albopictus larvae in artificial pots distributed across three replicate sites within three different land uses-urban, suburban, and rural, which were characterized by high, intermediate, and low proportions of impervious surfaces. Data loggers were placed into each larval environment and in nearby vegetation to record daily variation in water and ambient temperature and relative humidity. The number of adults emerging from each pot and their body size and sex were recorded daily. We found mosquito microclimate to significantly vary across the season as well as with land use. Urban sites were in general warmer and less humid than suburban and rural sites, translating into decreased larval survival, smaller body sizes, and lower per capita growth rates of mosquitoes on urban sites. Dengue transmission potential was predicted to be higher in the summer than the fall. Additionally, the effects of land use on dengue transmission potential varied by season. Warm summers resulted in a higher predicted VC on the cooler, rural sites, while warmer, urban sites had a higher predicted VC during the cooler fall season.

  20. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matamoros, Víctor, E-mail: victor.matamoros@idaea.csic.es; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The effect of microalgae on the removal of pesticides has been evaluated. • Continuous feeding operational mode is more efficient for removing pesticides. • Microalgae increased the removal of some pesticides. • Pesticide TPs confirmed that biodegradation was relevant. - Abstract: Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2 L batch reactors and 5 L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L{sup −1} of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology’s effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off.

  1. Use of ENVISAT ASAR Global Monitoring Mode to complement optical data in the mapping of rapid broad-scale flooding in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O'Grady

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Envisat ASAR Global Monitoring Mode (GM data are used to produce maps of the extent of the flooding in Pakistan which are made available to the rapid response effort within 24 h of acquisition. The high temporal frequency and independence of the data from cloud-free skies makes GM data a viable tool for mapping flood waters during those periods where optical satellite data are unavailable, which may be crucial to rapid response disaster planning, where thousands of lives are affected. Image differencing techniques are used, with pre-flood baseline image backscatter values being deducted from target values to eliminate regions with a permanent flood-like radar response due to volume scattering and attenuation, and to highlight the low response caused by specular reflection by open flood water. The effect of local incidence angle on the received signal is mitigated by ensuring that the deducted image is acquired from the same orbit track as the target image. Poor separability of the water class with land in areas beyond the river channels is tackled using a region-growing algorithm which seeks threshold-conformance from seed pixels at the center of the river channels. The resultant mapped extents are tested against MODIS SWIR data where available, with encouraging results.

  2. On the shape memory of red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, Daniel; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2017-04-01

    , followed by a slow recovery to the biconcave shape combined with membrane rotation, and a final rotational return of the membrane elements back to their original locations. A fast time scale on the order of a few hundred milliseconds characterizes the initial compression phase while a slow time scale on the order of tens of seconds is associated with the rotational phase. We observe that the response is strongly dependent on the stress-free state of the cells, that is, the relaxation time decreases significantly and the mode of recovery changes from rotation-driven to deformation-driven as the stress-free state becomes more non-spherical. We show that while membrane shear elasticity and non-spherical stress-free shape are necessary and sufficient for the membrane elements to return to their original locations, bending rigidity is needed for the "global" recovery of the biconcave shape. We also perform a novel relaxation simulation in which the cell axis of revolution is not aligned with the shear plane and show that the shape memory is exhibited even when the membrane elements are displaced normal to the imposed flow direction. The results presented here could motivate new experiments to determine the exact stress-free state of the RBC and also to clearly identify different tank-treading modes.

  3. Terahertz guided mode properties in an internally corrugated plasmonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Maidul; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy; Ahmad, Amir; Kumar, Gagan

    2017-08-01

    We discuss the terahertz surface plasmon propagation properties in a waveguide comprising of subwavelength scale internally corrugated V-shaped structures. The structures are assumed to be periodically arranged in a thin sheet of metal and ensure plasmonic response of the waveguide. We comprehensively examine the effect of internal corrugations on the plasmonic properties of the guided modes supported by the waveguide. The guided mode properties are found to vary with the internal corrugations of the structures. We observe that multimode propagation can be switched to a single mode as we increase the steps of internal corrugations. The findings are supported with a semi-analytical model that we employ specifically for our geometry. We also analyze the dispersion properties of the fundamental modes under the different steps of corrugations and calculate group velocity in order to understand the slow light behavior of the modes. The results are compared with the waveguides having V-grooves without any internal corrugations. Our study could be significant to understand the role of corrugations along the waveguide as well as within the structures and accordingly their applications in the active and passive plasmonic guided wave devices.

  4. Statistical dynamo theory: Mode excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyng, P

    2009-04-01

    We compute statistical properties of the lowest-order multipole coefficients of the magnetic field generated by a dynamo of arbitrary shape. To this end we expand the field in a complete biorthogonal set of base functions, viz. B= summation operator_{k}a;{k}(t)b;{k}(r) . The properties of these biorthogonal function sets are treated in detail. We consider a linear problem and the statistical properties of the fluid flow are supposed to be given. The turbulent convection may have an arbitrary distribution of spatial scales. The time evolution of the expansion coefficients a;{k} is governed by a stochastic differential equation from which we infer their averages a;{k} , autocorrelation functions a;{k}(t)a;{k *}(t+tau) , and an equation for the cross correlations a;{k}a;{l *} . The eigenfunctions of the dynamo equation (with eigenvalues lambda_{k} ) turn out to be a preferred set in terms of which our results assume their simplest form. The magnetic field of the dynamo is shown to consist of transiently excited eigenmodes whose frequency and coherence time is given by Ilambda_{k} and -1/Rlambda_{k} , respectively. The relative rms excitation level of the eigenmodes, and hence the distribution of magnetic energy over spatial scales, is determined by linear theory. An expression is derived for |a;{k}|;{2}/|a;{0}|;{2} in case the fundamental mode b;{0} has a dominant amplitude, and we outline how this expression may be evaluated. It is estimated that |a;{k}|;{2}/|a;{0}|;{2} approximately 1/N , where N is the number of convective cells in the dynamo. We show that the old problem of a short correlation time (or first-order smoothing approximation) has been partially eliminated. Finally we prove that for a simple statistically steady dynamo with finite resistivity all eigenvalues obey Rlambda_{k}<0 .

  5. Shape and catalytic mechanism of RuO{sub 2} particles at CO oxidation reaction conditions. First-principles based multi-scale modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, Karsten [TU Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Chemie

    2016-11-01

    For model catalyst studies on low-index single-crystal surfaces close agreement between detailed measurements and quantitative microkinetic modeling can increasingly be achieved. However, for 'real' catalyst particles, such structure-morphology-activity relationships are only scarcely established. This is prototypically reflected by the situation for RuO{sub 2}, as a most active catalyst for CO oxidation. Here, existing first-principles kinetic modeling is restricted to just one facet, namely the RuO{sub 2}(110) surface, which is not able to fully account for activity data obtained from polycrystalline RuO{sub 2} powder catalysts. The overarching objective of this project was correspondingly to close this gap and demonstrate that similarly close agreement as for individual single-crystal model catalysts can also be achieved for catalyst particles. Specifically, we addressed experiments where an intact RuO{sub 2} bulk structure is conserved, and establish the atomic-scale structure and reactivity of other RuO{sub 2} low-index facets under the gas-phase conditions characteristic for catalytic CO oxidation.

  6. A multi-scaled hybrid orthopedic implant: bone ECM-shaped Sr-HA nanofibers on the microporous walls of a macroporous titanium scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong; Zhou, Jianhong; Zhang, Lan; Xu, Kewei

    2011-07-01

    We report here, for the first time, a novel multi-scaled hybrid orthopedic implant material consisting of a macroporous Ti scaffold, whose macropores' walls have a microporous titania layer which is fully covered with nanofibers of Sr-doped hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA). The microporous titania layer is formed on and within the Ti scaffold by micro-arc oxidation, which firmly binds to the Ti substrate and contains Ca2 + , Sr2 + and PO43 - ions. It is then hydrothermally treated to form Sr-HA nanofibers. During the hydrothermal treatment, Sr-HA nanoprisms nucleate from Ca0.5Sr0.5TiO3 pre-formed on the TiO2 and grow in length to nanofibers at the expense of Ca2 + , Sr2 + and PO43 - ions that migrate from the TiO2. These Sr-HA nanofibers construct a network structure similar to the hierarchical organization of bone extracellular matrix (ECM), and the resulting nanofibrous surface displays a firm adhesion to substrate, superhydrophilicity and apatite-inducing ability. The induced apatite prefers to nucleate on the basal-faceted surfaces of Sr-HA nanofibers. The nanofiber-walled scaffold has a great potential for load-bearing orthotopic use.

  7. A multi-scaled hybrid orthopedic implant: bone ECM-shaped Sr-HA nanofibers on the microporous walls of a macroporous titanium scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong; Zhou, Jianhong; Zhang, Lan; Xu, Kewei

    2011-07-08

    We report here, for the first time, a novel multi-scaled hybrid orthopedic implant material consisting of a macroporous Ti scaffold, whose macropores' walls have a microporous titania layer which is fully covered with nanofibers of Sr-doped hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA). The microporous titania layer is formed on and within the Ti scaffold by micro-arc oxidation, which firmly binds to the Ti substrate and contains Ca2+, Sr2+ and PO4(3-) ions. It is then hydrothermally treated to form Sr-HA nanofibers. During the hydrothermal treatment, Sr-HA nanoprisms nucleate from Ca0.5Sr0.5TiO3 pre-formed on the TiO2 and grow in length to nanofibers at the expense of Ca2+, Sr2+ and PO4(3-) ions that migrate from the TiO2. These Sr-HA nanofibers construct a network structure similar to the hierarchical organization of bone extracellular matrix (ECM), and the resulting nanofibrous surface displays a firm adhesion to substrate, superhydrophilicity and apatite-inducing ability. The induced apatite prefers to nucleate on the basal-faceted surfaces of Sr-HA nanofibers. The nanofiber-walled scaffold has a great potential for load-bearing orthotopic use.

  8. Simulation of long-term influence from technical systems on permafrost with various short-scale and hourly operation modes in Arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaganova, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    Technogenic and climatic influences have a significant impact on the degradation of permafrost. Long-term forecasts of such changes during long-time periods have to be taken into account in the oil and gas and construction industries in view to development the Arctic and Subarctic regions. There are considered constantly operating technical systems (for example, oil and gas wells) that affect changes in permafrost, as well as the technical systems that have a short-term impact on permafrost (for example, flare systems for emergency flaring of associated gas). The second type of technical systems is rather complex for simulation, since it is required to reserve both short and long-scales in computations with variable time steps describing the complex technological processes. The main attention is paid to the simulation of long-term influence on the permafrost from the second type of the technical systems.

  9. Deformation-based nuclear morphometry: capturing nuclear shape variation in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Gustavo K; Ribeiro, Alexandre J S; Dahl, Kris N; Murphy, Robert F

    2008-04-01

    The empirical characterization of nuclear shape distributions is an important unsolved problem with many applications in biology and medicine. Numerous genetic diseases and cancers have alterations in nuclear morphology, and methods for characterization of morphology could aid in both diagnoses and fundamental understanding of these disorders. Automated approaches have been used to measure features related to the size and shape of the cell nucleus, and statistical analysis of these features has often been performed assuming an underlying Euclidean (linear) vector space. We discuss the difficulties associated with the analysis of nuclear shape in light of the fact that shape spaces are nonlinear, and demonstrate methods for characterizing nuclear shapes and shape distributions based on spatial transformations that map one nucleus to another. By combining large deformation metric mapping with multidimensional scaling we offer a flexible approach for elucidating the intrinsic nonlinear degrees of freedom of a distribution of nuclear shapes. More specifically, we demonstrate approaches for nuclear shape interpolation and computation of mean nuclear shape. We also provide a method for estimating the number of free parameters that contribute to shape as well as an approach for visualizing most representative shape variations within a distribution of nuclei. The proposed methodology can be completely automated, is independent of the dimensionality of the images, and can handle complex shapes. Results obtained by analyzing two sets of images of HeLa cells are shown. In addition to identifying the modes of variation in normal HeLa nuclei, the effects of lamin A/C on nuclear morphology are quantitatively described. (c) 2007 International Society for Analytical Cytology.

  10. Micro-tearing modes in the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Applegate, D J; Connor, J W; Cowley, S C; Dorland, W; Hastie, R J; Joiner, N; 10.1088/0741-3335/49/8/001

    2011-01-01

    Recent gyrokinetic stability calculations have revealed that the spherical tokamak is susceptible to tearing parity instabilities with length scales of a few ion Larmor radii perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. Here we investigate this 'micro-tearing' mode in greater detail to uncover its key characteristics, and compare it with existing theoretical models of the phenomenon. This has been accomplished using a full numerical solution of the linear gyrokinetic-Maxwell equations. Importantly, the instability is found to be driven by the free energy in the electron temperature gradient as described in the literature. However, our calculations suggest it is not substantially affected by either of the destabilising mechanisms proposed in previous theoretical models. Instead the instability is destabilised by interactions with magnetic drifts, and the electrostatic potential. Further calculations reveal that the mode is not significantly destabilised by the flux surface shaping or the large trapped particle f...

  11. Mode Launcher Design for the Multi-moded DLDS

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Z

    2003-01-01

    The DLDS (Delay Line Distribution System) power delivery system proposed by KEK combines several klystrons to obtain the high peak power required to drive a TeV scale linear collider. In this system the combined klystron output is subdivided into shorter pulses by proper phasing of the sources, and each subpulse is delivered to various accelerator sections via separate waveguides. A cost-saving improvement suggested by SLAC is to use a single multimoded waveguide to deliver the power of all the subpulses. This scheme requires a mode launcher that can deliver each subpulse by way of a different waveguide mode through selective phasing of the sources when combining their power. We present a compact design for such a mode launcher that converts the power from four rectangular waveguide feeds to separate modes in a multi-moded circular guide through coupling slots. Such a design has been simulated and found to satisfy the requirements for high efficiency and low surface fields.

  12. Novel approach of high cell density recombinant bioprocess development: Optimisation and scale-up from microlitre to pilot scales while maintaining the fed-batch cultivation mode of E. coli cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Bioprocess development of recombinant proteins is time consuming and laborious as many factors influence the accumulation of the product in the soluble and active form. Currently, in most cases the developmental line is characterised by a screening stage which is performed under batch conditions followed by the development of the fed-batch process. Performing the screening already under fed-batch conditions would limit the amount of work and guarantee that the selected favoured conditions also work in the production scale. Results Here, for the first time, high throughput multifactorial screening of a cloning library is combined with the fed-batch technique in 96-well plates, and a strategy is directly derived for scaling to bioreactor scale. At the example of a difficult to express protein, an RNase inhibitor, it is demonstrated that screening of various vector constructs and growth conditions can be performed in a coherent line by (i) applying a vector library with promoters and ribosome binding sites of different strength and various fusion partners together with (ii) an early stage use of the fed-batch technology. It is shown that the EnBase® technology provides an easy solution for controlled cultivation conditions in the microwell scale. Additionally the high cell densities obtained provide material for various analyses from the small culture volumes. Crucial factors for a high yield of the target protein in the actual case were (i) the fusion partner, (ii) the use of of a mineral salt medium together with the fed-batch technique, and (iii) the preinduction growth rate. Finally, it is shown that the favorable conditions selected in the microwell plate and shake flask scales also work in the bioreactor. Conclusions Cultivation media and culture conditions have a major impact on the success of a screening procedure. Therefore the application of controlled cultivation conditions is pivotal. The consequent use of fed-batch conditons from the first

  13. Edge energy transport barrier and turbulence in the I-mode regime on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, A. E.; Whyte, D. G.; Churchill, R. M.; Cziegler, I.; Dominguez, A.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E.; Bespamyatnov, I.; Greenwald, M. J.; Howard, N.; Lipschultz, B.; Marmar, E. S.; Reinke, M. L.; Rowan, W. L.; Terry, J. L.

    2011-05-01

    We report extended studies of the I-mode regime [Whyte et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105005 (2010)] obtained in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [Marmar et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 51(3), 3261 (2007)]. This regime, usually accessed with unfavorable ion B × ∇B drift, features an edge thermal transport barrier without a strong particle transport barrier. Steady I-modes have now been obtained with favorable B × ∇B drift, by using specific plasma shapes, as well as with unfavorable drift over a wider range of shapes and plasma parameters. With favorable drift, power thresholds are close to the standard scaling for L-H transitions, while with unfavorable drift they are ˜ 1.5-3 times higher, increasing with Ip. Global energy confinement in both drift configurations is comparable to H-mode scalings, while density profiles and impurity confinement are close to those in L-mode. Transport analysis of the edge region shows a decrease in edge χeff, by typically a factor of 3, between L- and I-mode. The decrease correlates with a drop in mid-frequency fluctuations (f ˜ 50-150 kHz) observed on both density and magnetics diagnostics. Edge fluctuations at higher frequencies often increase above L-mode levels, peaking at f ˜ 250 kHz. This weakly coherent mode is clearest and has narrowest width (Δf/f ˜ 0.45) at low q95 and high Tped, up to 1 keV. The Er well in I-mode is intermediate between L- and H-mode and is dominated by the diamagnetic contribution in the impurity radial force balance, without the Vpol shear typical of H-modes.

  14. Low-Pass Filtering Approach via Empirical Mode Decomposition Improves Short-Scale Entropy-Based Complexity Estimation of QT Interval Variability in Long QT Syndrome Type 1 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Bari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Entropy-based complexity of cardiovascular variability at short time scales is largely dependent on the noise and/or action of neural circuits operating at high frequencies. This study proposes a technique for canceling fast variations from cardiovascular variability, thus limiting the effect of these overwhelming influences on entropy-based complexity. The low-pass filtering approach is based on the computation of the fastest intrinsic mode function via empirical mode decomposition (EMD and its subtraction from the original variability. Sample entropy was exploited to estimate complexity. The procedure was applied to heart period (HP and QT (interval from Q-wave onset to T-wave end variability derived from 24-hour Holter recordings in 14 non-mutation carriers (NMCs and 34 mutation carriers (MCs subdivided into 11 asymptomatic MCs (AMCs and 23 symptomatic MCs (SMCs. All individuals belonged to the same family developing long QT syndrome type 1 (LQT1 via KCNQ1-A341V mutation. We found that complexity indexes computed over EMD-filtered QT variability differentiated AMCs from NMCs and detected the effect of beta-blocker therapy, while complexity indexes calculated over EMD-filtered HP variability separated AMCs from SMCs. The EMD-based filtering method enhanced features of the cardiovascular control that otherwise would have remained hidden by the dominant presence of noise and/or fast physiological variations, thus improving classification in LQT1.

  15. Predicting the Diversity of Foreign Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashai, Niron; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Benito, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    This paper expands entry mode literature by referring to multiple modes exerted in different value chain activities within and across host markets, rather than to a single entry mode at the host market level. Scale of operations and knowledge intensity are argued to affect firms' entry mode...... diversity across value chain activities and host markets. Analyzing a sample of Israeli based firms we show that larger firms exhibit a higher degree of entry mode diversity both across value chain activities and across host markets. Higher levels of knowledge intensity are also associated with more...... diversity in firms' entry modes across both dimensions....

  16. Transverse mode selection in a monolithic microchip laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines an approach to mode selection in a microchip laser through judicious shaping of the pump light to create a high modal overlap with the desired mode. The authors demonstrate the principle by creating a donut-shaped pump profile...

  17. Modes of Large-Scale Brain Network Organization during Threat Processing and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Reduction during TF-CBT among Adolescent Girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh M Cisler

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is often chronic and disabling across the lifespan. The gold standard treatment for adolescent PTSD is Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT, though treatment response is variable and mediating neural mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we test whether PTSD symptom reduction during TF-CBT is associated with individual differences in large-scale brain network organization during emotion processing. Twenty adolescent girls, aged 11-16, with PTSD related to assaultive violence completed a 12-session protocol of TF-CBT. Participants completed an emotion processing task, in which neutral and fearful facial expressions were presented either overtly or covertly during 3T fMRI, before and after treatment. Analyses focused on characterizing network properties of modularity, assortativity, and global efficiency within an 824 region-of-interest brain parcellation separately during each of the task blocks using weighted functional connectivity matrices. We similarly analyzed an existing dataset of healthy adolescent girls undergoing an identical emotion processing task to characterize normative network organization. Pre-treatment individual differences in modularity, assortativity, and global efficiency during covert fear vs neutral blocks predicted PTSD symptom reduction. Patients who responded better to treatment had greater network modularity and assortativity but lesser efficiency, a pattern that closely resembled the control participants. At a group level, greater symptom reduction was associated with greater pre-to-post-treatment increases in network assortativity and modularity, but this was more pronounced among participants with less symptom improvement. The results support the hypothesis that modularized and resilient brain organization during emotion processing operate as mechanisms enabling symptom reduction during TF-CBT.

  18. Modes of Large-Scale Brain Network Organization during Threat Processing and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Reduction during TF-CBT among Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisler, Josh M; Sigel, Benjamin A; Kramer, Teresa L; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often chronic and disabling across the lifespan. The gold standard treatment for adolescent PTSD is Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT), though treatment response is variable and mediating neural mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we test whether PTSD symptom reduction during TF-CBT is associated with individual differences in large-scale brain network organization during emotion processing. Twenty adolescent girls, aged 11-16, with PTSD related to assaultive violence completed a 12-session protocol of TF-CBT. Participants completed an emotion processing task, in which neutral and fearful facial expressions were presented either overtly or covertly during 3T fMRI, before and after treatment. Analyses focused on characterizing network properties of modularity, assortativity, and global efficiency within an 824 region-of-interest brain parcellation separately during each of the task blocks using weighted functional connectivity matrices. We similarly analyzed an existing dataset of healthy adolescent girls undergoing an identical emotion processing task to characterize normative network organization. Pre-treatment individual differences in modularity, assortativity, and global efficiency during covert fear vs neutral blocks predicted PTSD symptom reduction. Patients who responded better to treatment had greater network modularity and assortativity but lesser efficiency, a pattern that closely resembled the control participants. At a group level, greater symptom reduction was associated with greater pre-to-post-treatment increases in network assortativity and modularity, but this was more pronounced among participants with less symptom improvement. The results support the hypothesis that modularized and resilient brain organization during emotion processing operate as mechanisms enabling symptom reduction during TF-CBT.

  19. Statistical sulcal shape comparisons: Application to the detection of genetic encoding of the central sulcus shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Goualher, G.; Argenti, A.M.; Duyme, M.; Baare, W.F.C.; Hulshoff Poll, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Zouaoui, A.; Barillot, C.; Evans, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis allows a quantitative description of shape variability with a restricted number of parameters (or modes) which can be used to quantify the difference between two shapes through the computation of a modal distance. A statistical test can then be applied to this set of

  20. Bayesian Vision for Shape Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalobeanu, Andre

    2004-01-01

    We present a new Bayesian vision technique that aims at recovering a shape from two or more noisy observations taken under similar lighting conditions. The shape is parametrized by a piecewise linear height field, textured by a piecewise linear irradiance field, and we assume Gaussian Markovian priors for both shape vertices and irradiance variables. The observation process. also known as rendering, is modeled by a non-affine projection (e.g. perspective projection) followed by a convolution with a piecewise linear point spread function. and contamination by additive Gaussian noise. We assume that the observation parameters are calibrated beforehand. The major novelty of the proposed method consists of marginalizing out the irradiances considered as nuisance parameters, which is achieved by Laplace approximations. This reduces the inference to minimizing an energy that only depends on the shape vertices, and therefore allows an efficient Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM) optimization scheme to be implemented. A Gaussian approximation of the posterior shape density is computed, thus providing estimates both the geometry and its uncertainty. We illustrate the effectiveness of the new method by shape reconstruction results in a 2D case. A 3D version is currently under development and aims at recovering a surface from multiple images, reconstructing the topography by marginalizing out both albedo and shading.

  1. Intelligence and musical mode preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli...... that varied only in mode. Mood and personality were assessed, respectively, by the Brief Mood Introspection Scale and the Big Five Questionnaire. Preference for minor stimuli was related positively and significantly to fluid intelligence and openness to experience. The results add evidence of individual...

  2. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data......F) docking experiment against an existing technique, which requires the user to perform the rotation and scaling of the box explicitly. The precision of the users' box construction is evaluated by a novel error metric measuring the difference between two boxes. The results of the experiment strongly indicate...... that for precision docking of 9 DoF boxes, some of the proposed techniques are significantly better than ones with explicit rotation and scaling. Another interesting result is that the number of DoF simultaneously controlled by the user significantly influences the precision of the docking....

  3. Damage mechanics - failure modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajcinovic, D.; Vujosevic, M. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The present study summarizes the results of the DOE sponsored research program focused on the brittle failure of solids with disordered microstructure. The failure is related to the stochastic processes on the microstructural scale; namely, the nucleation and growth of microcracks. The intrinsic failure modes, such as the percolation, localization and creep rupture, are studied by emphasizing the effect of the micro-structural disorder. A rich spectrum of physical phenomena and new concepts that emerges from this research demonstrates the reasons behind the limitations of traditional, deterministic, and local continuum models.

  4. Shape Determination for Deformed Electromagnetic Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akcelik, Volkan; Ko, Kwok; Lee, Lie-Quan; Li, Zhenghai; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Xiao, Liling; /SLAC

    2007-12-10

    The measured physical parameters of a superconducting cavity differ from those of the designed ideal cavity. This is due to shape deviations caused by both loose machine tolerances during fabrication and by the tuning process for the accelerating mode. We present a shape determination algorithm to solve for the unknown deviations from the ideal cavity using experimentally measured cavity data. The objective is to match the results of the deformed cavity model to experimental data through least-squares minimization. The inversion variables are unknown shape deformation parameters that describe perturbations of the ideal cavity. The constraint is the Maxwell eigenvalue problem. We solve the nonlinear optimization problem using a line-search based reduced space Gauss-Newton method where we compute shape sensitivities with a discrete adjoint approach. We present two shape determination examples, one from synthetic and the other from experimental data. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is very effective in determining the deformed cavity shape.

  5. Filamentation as primitive growth mode?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigan, Erwan; Steyaert, Jean-Marc; Douady, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    Osmotic pressure influences cellular shape. In a growing cell, chemical reactions and dilution induce changes in osmolarity, which in turn influence the cellular shape. Using a protocell model relying upon random conservative chemical reaction networks with arbitrary stoichiometry, we find that when the membrane is so flexible that its shape adjusts itself quasi-instantaneously to balance the osmotic pressure, the protocell either grows filamentous or fails to grow. This behavior is consistent with a mathematical proof. This suggests that filamentation may be a primitive growth mode resulting from the simple physical property of balanced osmotic pressure. We also find that growth is favored if some chemical species are only present inside the protocell, but not in the outside growth medium. Such an insulation requires specific chemical schemes. Modern evolved cells such as E. coli meet these requirements through active transport mechanisms such as the phosphotransferase system.

  6. Edge energies and shapes of nanoprecipitates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, John C.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we present a model to explain the size-dependent shapes of lead nano-precipitates in aluminum. Size-dependent shape transitions, frequently observed at nanolength scales, are commonly attributed to edge energy effects. This report resolves an ambiguity in the definition and calculation of edge energies and presents an atomistic calculation of edge energies for free clusters. We also present a theory for size-dependent shapes of Pb nanoprecipitates in Al, introducing the concept of ''magic-shapes'' defined as precipitate shapes having near zero elastic strains when inserted into similarly shaped voids in the Al matrix. An algorithm for constructing a complete set of magic-shapes is presented. The experimental observations are explained by elastic strain energies and interfacial energies; edge energies play a negligible role. We replicate the experimental observations by selecting precipitates having magic-shapes and interfacial energies less than a cutoff value.

  7. Wavelet reconstruction of E and B modes for CMB polarization and cosmic shear analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Boris; McEwen, Jason D.; Büttner, Martin; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2017-04-01

    We present new methods for mapping the curl-free (E-mode) and divergence-free (B-mode) components of spin 2 signals using spin directional wavelets. Our methods are equally applicable to measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the shear of galaxy shapes due to weak gravitational lensing. We derive pseudo- and pure wavelet estimators, where E-B mixing arising due to incomplete sky coverage is suppressed in wavelet space using scale- and orientation-dependent masking and weighting schemes. In the case of the pure estimator, ambiguous modes (which have vanishing curl and divergence simultaneously on the incomplete sky) are also cancelled. On simulations, we demonstrate the improvement (i.e. reduction in leakage) provided by our wavelet space estimators over standard harmonic space approaches. Our new methods can be directly interfaced in a coherent and computationally efficient manner with component separation or feature extraction techniques that also exploit wavelets.

  8. Distortional Modes of Thin-Walled Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Andreassen, Michael Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The classic thin-walled beam theory for open and closed cross-sections can be generalized by including distortional displacement modes. The introduction of additional displacement modes leads to coupled differential equations, which seems to have prohibited the use of exact shape functions...... in the modelling of coupled torsion and distortion. However, if the distortional displacement modes are chosen as those which decouple the differential equations as in non proportionally damped modal dynamic analysis then it may be possible to use exact shape functions and perform analysis on a reduced problem....... In the recently developed generalized beam theory (GBT) the natural distortional displacement modes are determined on the basis of a quadratic eigenvalue problem. However, as in linear modal dynamic analysis of proportionally damped structures this problem has been solved approximately using linear eigenvalue...

  9. Mode I and mixed mode crack-tip fields in strain gradient plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios

    2011-01-01

    Strain gradients develop near the crack-tip of Mode I or mixed mode cracks. A finite strain version of the phenomenological strain gradient plasticity theory of Fleck–Hutchinson (2001) is used here to quantify the effect of the material length scales on the crack-tip stress field for a sharp...... stationary crack under Mode I and mixed mode loading. It is found that for material length scales much smaller than the scale of the deformation gradients, the predictions converge to conventional elastic–plastic solutions. For length scales sufficiently large, the predictions converge to elastic solutions....... Thus, the range of length scales over which a strain gradient plasticity model is necessary is identified. The role of each of the three material length scales, incorporated in the multiple length scale theory, in altering the near-tip stress field is systematically studied in order to quantify...

  10. Shape Control of Solar Collectors Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobitz, D. W.; Grossman, J. W.; Allen, J. J.; Rice, T. M.; Liang, C.; Davidson, F. M.

    1996-01-01

    Solar collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun's rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper is principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a minimal amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical solar energy systems. In this paper the design, analysis and testing of a solar collector which is deformed into its desired shape by shape memory alloy actuators is presented. Computations indicate collector shapes much closer to spherical and with smaller focal lengths can be achieved by moving the actuators inward to a radius of approximately 6 inches. This would require actuators with considerably more stroke and some alternate SMA actuators are currently under consideration. Whatever SMA actuator is finally chosen for this application, repeatability and fatigue tests will be required to investigate the long term performance of the actuator.

  11. Principal Metabolic Flux Mode Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Sahely; Blomberg, Peter; Castillo, Sandra; Rousu, Juho; Wren, Jonathan

    2018-02-06

    In the analysis of metabolism, two distinct and complementary approaches are frequently used: Principal component analysis (PCA) and stoichiometric flux analysis. PCA is able to capture the main modes of variability in a set of experiments and does not make many prior assumptions about the data, but does not inherently take into account the flux mode structure of metabolism. Stoichiometric flux analysis methods, such as Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) and Elementary Mode Analysis, on the other hand, are able to capture the metabolic flux modes, however, they are primarily designed for the analysis of single samples at a time, and not best suited for exploratory analysis on a large sets of samples. We propose a new methodology for the analysis of metabolism, called Principal Metabolic Flux Mode Analysis (PMFA), which marries the PCA and stoichiometric flux analysis approaches in an elegant regularized optimization framework. In short, the method incorporates a variance maximization objective form PCA coupled with a stoichiometric regularizer, which penalizes projections that are far from any flux modes of the network. For interpretability, we also introduce a sparse variant of PMFA that favours flux modes that contain a small number of reactions. Our experiments demonstrate the versatility and capabilities of our methodology. The proposed method can be applied to genome-scale metabolic network in efficient way as PMFA does not enumerate elementary modes. In addition, the method is more robust on out-of-steady steady-state experimental data than competing flux mode analysis approaches. Matlab software for PMFA and SPMFA and data set used for experiments are available in https://github.com/aalto-ics-kepaco/PMFA. sahely@iitpkd.ac.in, juho.rousu@aalto.fi, Peter.Blomberg@vtt.fi, Sandra.Castillo@vtt.fi. Detailed results are in Supplementary files. Supplementary data are available at https://github.com/aalto-ics-kepaco/PMFA/blob/master/Results.zip.

  12. Shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  13. Shape memory polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-08-29

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  14. The physics of transverse mode instability-induced nonlinear phase distortions in large area optical fiber amplifiers and their mitigation with applications in scaling of pulsed and continuous wave high-energy lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-13

    saturation may be avoided by amplifying the signal using multiple stages. The large- mode area (LMA) double-clad fibers facilitate high-power multimode ...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0001 The physics of transverse mode instability-induced nonlinear phase distortions in large area optical fiber amplifiers and...2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 24 Sep 2015 to 23 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The physics of transverse mode instability

  15. Acoustofluidic particle trapping, manipulation, and release using dynamic-mode cantilever sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Blake N; Mutharasan, Raj

    2016-12-19

    We show here that dynamic-mode cantilever sensors enable acoustofluidic fluid mixing and trapping of suspended particles as well as the rapid manipulation and release of trapped micro-particles via mode switching in liquid. Resonant modes of piezoelectric cantilever sensors over the 0 to 8 MHz frequency range are investigated. Sensor impedance response, flow visualization studies using dye and micro-particle tracers (100 μm diameter), and finite element simulations of cantilever modal mechanics and acoustic streaming show fluid mixing and particle trapping configurations depend on the resonant mode shape. We found trapped particles could be: (1) rapidly manipulated on millimeter length scales, and (2) released from the cantilever surface after trapping by switching between low- and high-order resonant modes (less than 250 kHz and greater than 1 MHz, respectively). Such results suggest a potentially promising future for dynamic-mode cantilevers in separations, pumping and mixing applications as well as acoustofluidic-enhanced sensing applications.

  16. Nanofabricated Optomechanical Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strong interest in whispering gallery mode resonators (WGMR) for use in chip-scale photonic devices is motivated by their high optical quality, mechanical simplicity...

  17. Quantifying the shape of aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrycza, Tomasz F; Missov, Trifon I; Baudisch, Annette

    2015-01-01

    of aging rates, suggest the shape of aging as a novel and valuable alternative concept for comparative aging research. The concept of shape captures the direction and degree of change in the force of mortality over age, which—on a demographic level—reflects aging. We 1) provide a list of shape properties......In Biodemography, aging is typically measured and compared based on aging rates. We argue that this approach may be misleading, because it confounds the time aspect with the mere change aspect of aging. To disentangle these aspects, here we utilize a time-standardized framework and, instead...... suggested here aim to provide a general means to classify aging patterns independent of any particular mortality model and independent of any species-specific time-scale. Thereby they support systematic comparative aging research across different species or between populations of the same species under...

  18. Mode Selection in Flame-Vortex driven Combustion Instabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Speth, Ray

    2011-01-04

    In this paper, we investigate flame-vortex interaction in a lean premixed, laboratory scale, backward-facing step combustor. Two series of tests were conducted, using propane/hydrogen mixtures and carbon monoxide/hydrogen mixtures as fuels, respectively. Pressure measurements and high speed particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) were employed to generate pressure response curves as well as the images of the velocity field and the flame brush. We demonstrate that the step combustor exhibits several operating modes depending on the inlet conditions and fuel composition, characterized by the amplitude and frequency of pressure oscillations along with distinct dynamic flame shapes. We propose a model in which the combustor\\'s selection of the acoustic mode is governed by a combustion-related time delay inversely proportional to the flame speed. Our model predicts the transition between distinct operating modes. We introduce non-dimensional parameters characterizing the flame speed and stretch rate, and develop a relationship between these quantities at the operating conditions corresponding to each mode transition. Based on this relationship, we show that numerically-calculated density-weighted strained flame speed can be used to collapse the combustion dynamics data over the full range of conditions (inlet temperature, fuel composition, and equivalence ratio). Finally, we validate our strain flame based model by measuring the strain rate using the flame image and the velocity field from the PIV measurement. Our results show that the measured strain rates lie in the same range as the critical values at the transitions among distinct modes as those predicted by our model.

  19. Viscoelastic pulsational mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Pranamika; Karmakar, Pralay Kumar

    2017-08-01

    We present a theoretical model analysis to study the linear pulsational mode dynamics in viscoelastic complex self-gravitating infinitely extended clouds in the presence of active frictional coupling and dust-charge fluctuations. The complex cloud consists of uniformly distributed lighter hot mutually thermalized electrons and ions, and heavier cold dust grains amid partial ionization in a homogeneous, quasi-neutral, hydrostatic equilibrium configuration. A normal mode analysis over the closed set of slightly perturbed cloud governing equations is employed to obtain a generalized dispersion relation (septic) of unique analytic construct on the plasma parameters. Two extreme cases of physical interest depending on the perturbation scaling, hydrodynamic limits and kinetic limits are considered. It is shown that the grain mass and viscoelastic relaxation time associated with the charged dust fluid play stabilizing roles to the fluctuations in the hydrodynamic regime. In contrast, however in the kinetic regime, the stabilizing effects are introduced by the dust mass, dust equilibrium density and equilibrium ionic population distribution. Besides, the oscillatory and propagatory features are illustrated numerically and interpreted in detail. The results are in good agreement with the previously reported findings as special corollaries in like situations. Finally, a focalized indication to new implications and applications of the outcomes in the astronomical context is foregrounded.

  20. An interdecadal American rainfall mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2009-04-01

    Low-frequency climate variability across the American continents and surrounding oceans is analyzed by application of singular value decomposition (SVD) to gauge-based rainfall and environmental anomaly fields in the period 1901-2002. A 5-year filter is used to maintain a focus on interdecadal cycles. The rainfall regime of particular interest (mode 1) is when West Africa and the Caribbean share positive loading and North and South America share negative loading. Wavelet cospectral energy is found at ˜8, 24, and 50 years for Caribbean/West African zones and 16 and 32 years for North/South America. West Africa and South America exhibit antiphase multidecadal variability, while North America and the Caribbean rainfall exhibit quasi-decadal cycles. The rainfall associations are nonstationary. In the early 1900s, Caribbean and South American rainfall were antiphase. Since 1930 low-frequency oscillations of North American (West African) rainfall have been positively (negatively) associated with South America. Low-frequency oscillations of North American rainfall have been consistently antiphase with respect to Caribbean rainfall; however, West Africa rainfall fluctuations have been in phase with the Caribbean more in the period 1920-1950 than at other times. Hemispheric-scale environmental SVD patterns and scores were compared with the leading rainfall modes. The north-south gradient modes in temperature are influential in respect of mode 1 rainfall, while east-west gradients relate to mode 2 (northern Brazil) rainfall. The ability of the GFDL2.1 coupled (ocean-atmosphere) general circulation model to represent interdecadal rainfall modes in the 20th century was evaluated. While mode 2 is reproduced, mode 1 remains elusive.

  1. Shape Oscillations of Gas Bubbles With Newtonian Interfacial Rheological Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadim, Ali

    1996-01-01

    The oscillation frequency and damping rate for small-amplitude axisymmetric shape modes of a gas bubble in an ideal liquid are obtained, in the limit when the bubble interface possesses Newtonian interfacial rheology with constant surface shear and dilatational viscosities. Such results permit the latter surface properties to be measured by analyzing experimental data on frequency shift and damping rate of specific shape modes of suspended bubbles in the presence of surfactants.

  2. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.

    2009-01-01

    The alignment of shape data to a common mean before its subsequent processing is an ubiquitous step within the area shape analysis. Current approaches to shape analysis or, as more specifically considered in this work, shape classification perform the alignment in a fully unsupervised way......, not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...

  3. Tapping mode microwave impedance microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.

    2009-01-01

    We report tapping mode microwave impedance imaging based on atomic force microscope platforms. The shielded cantilever probe is critical to localize the tip-sample interaction near the tip apex. The modulated tip-sample impedance can be accurately simulated by the finite-element analysis and the result agrees quantitatively to the experimental data on a series of thin-film dielectric samples. The tapping mode microwave imaging is also superior to the contact mode in that the thermal drift in a long time scale is totally eliminated and an absolute measurement on the dielectric properties is possible. We demonstrated tapping images on working nanodevices, and the data are consistent with the transport results. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-04-20

    The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repeated at a non-perturbative level by investigating the nonlinear curvature inhomogeneities induced by the spatial variation of the viscous coefficients. It is demonstrated that the quasiadiabatic modes are suppressed in comparison with a bona fide adiabatic solution. Because of its anomalously large tensor to scalar ratio the quasiadiabatic mode cannot be a substitute for the conventional adiabatic paradigm so that, ultimately, the present findings seems to exclude the possibility of a successful accelerated dynamics solely...

  5. Scaling down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L Breiger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While “scaling up” is a lively topic in network science and Big Data analysis today, my purpose in this essay is to articulate an alternative problem, that of “scaling down,” which I believe will also require increased attention in coming years. “Scaling down” is the problem of how macro-level features of Big Data affect, shape, and evoke lower-level features and processes. I identify four aspects of this problem: the extent to which findings from studies of Facebook and other Big-Data platforms apply to human behavior at the scale of church suppers and department politics where we spend much of our lives; the extent to which the mathematics of scaling might be consistent with behavioral principles, moving beyond a “universal” theory of networks to the study of variation within and between networks; and how a large social field, including its history and culture, shapes the typical representations, interactions, and strategies at local levels in a text or social network.

  6. Evaluation of bipartite entanglement between two optical multi-mode systems using mode translation symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Yi; Hofmann, Holger F.

    2017-10-01

    Optical multi-mode systems provide large scale Hilbert spaces that can be accessed and controlled using single photon sources, linear optics and photon detection. Here, we consider the bipartite entanglement generated by coherently distributing M photons in M modes to two separate locations, where linear optics and photon detection is used to verify the non-classical correlations between the two M-mode systems. We show that the entangled state is symmetric under mode shift operations performed in the two systems and use this symmetry to derive correlations between photon number distributions detected after a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of the modes. The experimentally observable correlations can be explained by a simple and intuitive rule that relates the sum of the output mode indices to the eigenvalue of the input state under the mode shift operation. Since the photon number operators after the DFT do not commute with the initial photon number operators, entanglement is necessary to achieve strong correlations in both the initial mode photon numbers and the photon numbers observed after the DFT. We can therefore derive entanglement witnesses based on the experimentally observable correlations in both photon number distributions, providing a practical criterion for the evaluation of large scale entanglement in optical multi-mode systems. Our method thus demonstrates how non-classical signatures in large scale optical quantum circuits can be accessed experimentally by choosing an appropriate combination of modes in which to detect the photon number distributions that characterize the quantum coherences of the state.

  7. Self-erecting shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reading, Matthew W.

    2017-07-04

    Technologies for making self-erecting structures are described herein. An exemplary self-erecting structure comprises a plurality of shape-memory members that connect two or more hub components. When forces are applied to the self-erecting structure, the shape-memory members can deform, and when the forces are removed the shape-memory members can return to their original pre-deformation shape, allowing the self-erecting structure to return to its own original shape under its own power. A shape of the self-erecting structure depends on a spatial orientation of the hub components, and a relative orientation of the shape-memory members, which in turn depends on an orientation of joining of the shape-memory members with the hub components.

  8. Shaped Recess Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram (Inventor); Poinsatte, Philip (Inventor); Thurman, Douglas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    One or more embodiments of techniques or systems for shaped recess flow control are provided herein. A shaped recess or cavity can be formed on a surface associated with fluid flow. The shaped recess can be configured to create or induce fluid effects, temperature effects, or shedding effects that interact with a free stream or other structures. The shaped recess can be formed at an angle to a free stream flow and may be substantially "V" shaped. The shaped recess can be coupled with a cooling channel, for example. The shaped recess can be upstream or downstream from a cooling channel and aligned in a variety of manners. Due to the fluid effects, shedding effects, and temperature effects created by a shaped recess, lift-off or separation of cooling jets of cooling channels can be mitigated, thereby enhancing film cooling effectiveness.

  9. Deformable segmentation via sparse shape representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoting; Zhan, Yiqiang; Dewan, Maneesh; Huang, Junzhou; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Zhou, Xiang Sean

    2011-01-01

    Appearance and shape are two key elements exploited in medical image segmentation. However, in some medical image analysis tasks, appearance cues are weak/misleading due to disease/artifacts and often lead to erroneous segmentation. In this paper, a novel deformable model is proposed for robust segmentation in the presence of weak/misleading appearance cues. Owing to the less trustable appearance information, this method focuses on the effective shape modeling with two contributions. First, a shape composition method is designed to incorporate shape prior on-the-fly. Based on two sparsity observations, this method is robust to false appearance information and adaptive to statistically insignificant shape modes. Second, shape priors are modeled and used in a hierarchical fashion. More specifically, by using affinity propagation method, our deformable surface is divided into multiple partitions, on which local shape models are built independently. This scheme facilitates a more compact shape prior modeling and hence a more robust and efficient segmentation. Our deformable model is applied on two very diverse segmentation problems, liver segmentation in PET-CT images and rodent brain segmentation in MR images. Compared to state-of-art methods, our method achieves better performance in both studies.

  10. Electrohydraulic Forming of Near-Net Shape Automotive Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovaschenko, Sergey F.

    2013-09-26

    The objective of this project was to develop the electrohydraulic forming (EHF) process as a near-net shape automotive panel manufacturing technology that simultaneously reduces the energy embedded in vehicles and the energy consumed while producing automotive structures. Pulsed pressure is created via a shockwave generated by the discharge of high voltage capacitors through a pair of electrodes in a liquid-filled chamber. The shockwave in the liquid initiated by the expansion of the plasma channel formed between two electrodes propagates towards the blank and causes the blank to be deformed into a one-sided die cavity. The numerical model of the EHF process was validated experimentally and was successfully applied to the design of the electrode system and to a multi-electrode EHF chamber for full scale validation of the process. The numerical model was able to predict stresses in the dies during pulsed forming and was validated by the experimental study of the die insert failure mode for corner filling operations. The electrohydraulic forming process and its major subsystems, including durable electrodes, an EHF chamber, a water/air management system, a pulse generator and integrated process controls, were validated to be capable to operate in a fully automated, computer controlled mode for forming of a portion of a full-scale sheet metal component in laboratory conditions. Additionally, the novel processes of electrohydraulic trimming and electrohydraulic calibration were demonstrated at a reduced-scale component level. Furthermore, a hybrid process combining conventional stamping with EHF was demonstrated as a laboratory process for a full-scale automotive panel formed out of AHSS material. The economic feasibility of the developed EHF processes was defined by developing a cost model of the EHF process in comparison to the conventional stamping process.

  11. The Hue of Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Da Pos, Osvaldo; Canal, Luisa; Micciolo, Rocco; Malfatti, Michela; Vescovi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an experimental study on the naturally biased association between shape and color. For each basic geometric shape studied, participants were asked to indicate the color perceived as most closely related to it, choosing from the Natural Color System Hue Circle. Results show that the choices of color for each shape were not…

  12. Building with shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Mooney, Carla

    2014-01-01

    There are shapes everywhere you look. You can put shapes together or build with them. What can you build with three circles? In this title, students will explore and understand that certain attributes define what a shape is called. This title will allow students to identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

  13. 3D geometry analysis of the medial meniscus – a statistical shape modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, A C T; Crijns, S P M; Ploegmakers, M J M; O'Kane, C; van Tienen, T G; Janssen, D; Buma, P; Verdonschot, N

    2014-01-01

    The geometry-dependent functioning of the meniscus indicates that detailed knowledge on 3D meniscus geometry and its inter-subject variation is essential to design well functioning anatomically shaped meniscus replacements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify 3D meniscus geometry and to determine whether variation in medial meniscus geometry is size- or shape-driven. Also we performed a cluster analysis to identify distinct morphological groups of medial menisci and assessed whether meniscal geometry is gender-dependent. A statistical shape model was created, containing the meniscus geometries of 35 subjects (20 females, 15 males) that were obtained from MR images. A principal component analysis was performed to determine the most important modes of geometry variation and the characteristic changes per principal component were evaluated. Each meniscus from the original dataset was then reconstructed as a linear combination of principal components. This allowed the comparison of male and female menisci, and a cluster analysis to determine distinct morphological meniscus groups. Of the variation in medial meniscus geometry, 53.8% was found to be due to primarily size-related differences and 29.6% due to shape differences. Shape changes were most prominent in the cross-sectional plane, rather than in the transverse plane. Significant differences between male and female menisci were only found for principal component 1, which predominantly reflected size differences. The cluster analysis resulted in four clusters, yet these clusters represented two statistically different meniscal shapes, as differences between cluster 1, 2 and 4 were only present for principal component 1. This study illustrates that differences in meniscal geometry cannot be explained by scaling only, but that different meniscal shapes can be distinguished. Functional analysis, e.g. through finite element modeling, is required to assess whether these distinct shapes actually influence

  14. 3D geometry analysis of the medial meniscus--a statistical shape modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, A C T; Crijns, S P M; Ploegmakers, M J M; O'Kane, C; van Tienen, T G; Janssen, D; Buma, P; Verdonschot, N

    2014-10-01

    The geometry-dependent functioning of the meniscus indicates that detailed knowledge on 3D meniscus geometry and its inter-subject variation is essential to design well functioning anatomically shaped meniscus replacements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify 3D meniscus geometry and to determine whether variation in medial meniscus geometry is size- or shape-driven. Also we performed a cluster analysis to identify distinct morphological groups of medial menisci and assessed whether meniscal geometry is gender-dependent. A statistical shape model was created, containing the meniscus geometries of 35 subjects (20 females, 15 males) that were obtained from MR images. A principal component analysis was performed to determine the most important modes of geometry variation and the characteristic changes per principal component were evaluated. Each meniscus from the original dataset was then reconstructed as a linear combination of principal components. This allowed the comparison of male and female menisci, and a cluster analysis to determine distinct morphological meniscus groups. Of the variation in medial meniscus geometry, 53.8% was found to be due to primarily size-related differences and 29.6% due to shape differences. Shape changes were most prominent in the cross-sectional plane, rather than in the transverse plane. Significant differences between male and female menisci were only found for principal component 1, which predominantly reflected size differences. The cluster analysis resulted in four clusters, yet these clusters represented two statistically different meniscal shapes, as differences between cluster 1, 2 and 4 were only present for principal component 1. This study illustrates that differences in meniscal geometry cannot be explained by scaling only, but that different meniscal shapes can be distinguished. Functional analysis, e.g. through finite element modeling, is required to assess whether these distinct shapes actually influence

  15. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  16. Transforming shape in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats, Miquel; Lim, Sungwoo; Jowers, Iestyn

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with how design shapes are generated and explored by means of sketching. It presents research into the way designers transform shapes from one state to another using sketch representations. An experimental investigation of the sketching processes of designers is presented....... Connections between sketches are defined in terms of shape transformations and described according to shape rules. These rules provide a formal description of the shape exploration process and develop understanding of the mechanics of sketching in design. The paper concludes by discussing the important...

  17. Earthquake Response of Reinforced Concrete Building Retrofitted with Geopolymer Concrete and X-shaped Metallic Damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madheswaran, C. K.; Prakash vel, J.; Sathishkumar, K.; Rao, G. V. Rama

    2017-06-01

    A three-storey half scale reinforced concrete (RC) building is fixed with X-shaped metallic damper at the ground floor level, is designed and fabricated to study its seismic response characteristics. Experimental studies are carried out using the (4 m × 4 m) tri-axial shake-table facility to evaluate the seismic response of a retrofitted RC building with open ground storey (OGS) structure using yielding type X-shaped metallic dampers (also called as Added Damping and Stiffness-ADAS elements) and repairing the damaged ground storey columns using geopolymer concrete composites. This elasto-plastic device is normally incorporated within the frame structure between adjacent floors through chevron bracing, so that they efficiently enhance the overall energy dissipation ability of the seismically deficient frame structure under earthquake loading. Free vibration tests on RC building without and with yielding type X-shaped metallic damper is carried out. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of RC building without and with yielding type X-shaped metallic damper are determined. The retrofitted reinforced concrete building is subjected to earthquake excitations and the response from the structure is recorded. This work discusses the preparation of test specimen, experimental set-up, instrumentation, method of testing of RC building and the response of the structure. The metallic damper reduces the time period of the structure and displacement demands on the OGS columns of the structure. Nonlinear time history analysis is performed using structural analysis package, SAP2000.

  18. A new versatile electrochemical etching chamber (VECEC) system for multi-size and multi-shape detector processing

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrabi, M

    1999-01-01

    A new versatile electrochemical etching ECE chamber (VECE) system is introduced in which the effective electrochemically etched area can have variable sizes and/or shapes required using templet etching. The flat rubber washers act as templets and holders of the etchant, and control the size and shape of the effective etched area of the detector which can be of various shapes and sizes desired. The system was operated in two operation modes A and B in which the both sides and one side of the detector were etched respectively. Detectors with etched areas having diameters from 1 to 18 cm have also been successfully etched by this system. Multi-chambers have been also designed using this principle for larger-scale multi-detector processing. The effects of etching area and time on the current through the detector have also been studied.

  19. Anomalous ion thermal transport in hot ion plasmas by the ion temperature gradient mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies); Coppi, B. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Research Lab. of Electronics)

    1992-01-01

    Experiments show that the observed radial profiles of the ion thermal conductivity {chi}{sub i} have the opposite shapes with those obtained from the ion temperature gradient mode ({eta}{sub i} mode) turbulence model by the traditional mixing length estimate. In this work, this radial profile problem is reconsidered with an electromagnetic study of the linear stability of the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode and a new rule for choosing the mixing length. It is first shown that the electromagnetic effect gives a significant stabilizing effect on the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode, and that the observed reduction of {chi}{sub i}(r) in the core region can be explained by this electromagnetic effect. Secondly, in view of earlier numerical simulations showing the transfer of fluctuation energy to larger scales that those for the fastest growth rate, as well as fluctuation measurements indicating longer radial correlation lengths, a new mixing length formula is proposed to explain the radial increase of the {chi}{sub i}. It is shown the new formula fits well the observed {chi}{sub i}(r) profiles in two TFTR supershot discharges and also gives the scaling law in the current and the magnetic field which agrees better with experiment than the conventional formula.

  20. Anomalous ion thermal transport in hot ion plasmas by the ion temperature gradient mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Coppi, B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Research Lab. of Electronics

    1992-08-01

    Experiments show that the observed radial profiles of the ion thermal conductivity {chi}{sub i} have the opposite shapes with those obtained from the ion temperature gradient mode ({eta}{sub i} mode) turbulence model by the traditional mixing length estimate. In this work, this radial profile problem is reconsidered with an electromagnetic study of the linear stability of the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode and a new rule for choosing the mixing length. It is first shown that the electromagnetic effect gives a significant stabilizing effect on the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode, and that the observed reduction of {chi}{sub i}(r) in the core region can be explained by this electromagnetic effect. Secondly, in view of earlier numerical simulations showing the transfer of fluctuation energy to larger scales that those for the fastest growth rate, as well as fluctuation measurements indicating longer radial correlation lengths, a new mixing length formula is proposed to explain the radial increase of the {chi}{sub i}. It is shown the new formula fits well the observed {chi}{sub i}(r) profiles in two TFTR supershot discharges and also gives the scaling law in the current and the magnetic field which agrees better with experiment than the conventional formula.

  1. SNV's modes of ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, John; Duim, van der Rene

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an aidnographic approach to examine how internal organizational modes of ordering have influenced tourism development practices of SNV Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV). Our research revealed six modes of ordering: administration, project management, enterprising,

  2. Mirror mode structures and ELF plasma waves in the Giacobini-Zinner magnetosheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Tsurutani

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We show evidence for mirror mode structures at comet Giacobini-Zinner. These are plasma structures with alternating high ß and low ß regions driven unstable when ß /ß > 1+ 1/. These structures are detected in a region just adjacent to the magnetic tail and have scale sizes of ≈ 12 H2O group ion cyclotron radii. Calculations are presented to show that mirror mode instability can occur due to the perpendicular pressure associated with H2O+ cometary pickup ions in the region of mirror mode observation. Adjacent regions (in the magnetic tail and further in the sheath are found to be stable to the mirror mode. Plasma waves are detected in relation with the mirror mode structures. Low frequency 56 to 100 Hz waves are present in the high beta portions, and high frequency, 311 Hz to 10 kHz, waves are present in low beta regions. These may be electromagnetic lion roar waves and electrostatic festoon-shaped waves, respectively, in analogy to plasma waves detected in the Earth's magnetosheath.

  3. Mode coupling mechanisms in liquids studied by 2D Raman scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffen, T; Duppen, K.; Elsaesser, T; Fujimoto, JG; Wiersma, DA; Zinth, W

    1998-01-01

    Femtosecond temporally two-dimensional Raman scattering, that was originally designed to characterize the time scale(s) of intermolecular dynamics in liquids, also provides information on mode coupling mechanisms. Polarizability mode coupling suppresses the formation of motional echoes, that

  4. Projects of scale-making: new perspectives for the anthropology of tourism1

    OpenAIRE

    Neveling, Patrick; Wergin, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Scale has recently entered social anthropology as both a unit of analysis and a heuristic tool. This paper highlights the applicability to the anthropology of tourism of what has been identified as “projects of scale-making” by Tsing (2000) and respective “modes of incorporation” by Glick Schiller, Caglar and Guldbrandsen (2006). Because tourism is one of the central industries ­shaping present-day understandings of what is global and what is local, scale as a theoretical and methodological t...

  5. Modes of log gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K.

    2011-01-01

    The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional "critical gravity'', linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All "log mode'' solutions, which we categorize as "spin-2'' or "Proca'', arise as limits of the massive spin-2 modes of the noncritical theory. The linearized

  6. Tensor B mode and stochastic Faraday mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the Faraday effect as a different source of B mode polarization. The E mode polarization is Faraday rotated provided a stochastic large-scale magnetic field is present prior to photon decoupling. In the first part of the paper we discuss the case where the tensor modes of the geometry are absent and we argue that the B mode recently detected by the Bicep2 collaboration cannot be explained by a large-scale magnetic field rotating, through the Faraday effect, the well established E mode polarization. In this case, the observed temperature autocorrelations would be excessively distorted by the magnetic field. In the second part of the paper the formation of Faraday rotation is treated as a stationary, random and Markovian process with the aim of generalizing a set of scaling laws originally derived in the absence of the tensor modes of the geometry. We show that the scalar, vector and tensor modes of the brightness perturbations can all be Faraday rotated even if the vector and tensor par...

  7. VH mode accessibility and global H-mode properties in previous and present JET configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.T.C.; Ali-Arshad, S.; Bures, M.; Christiansen, J.P.; Esch, H.P.L. de; Fishpool, G.; Jarvis, O.N.; Koenig, R.; Lawson, K.D.; Lomas, P.J.; Marcus, F.B.; Sartori, R.; Schunke, B.; Smeulders, P.; Stork, D.; Taroni, A.; Thomas, P.R.; Thomsen, K. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    In JET VH modes, there is a distinct confinement transition following the cessation of ELMs, observed in a wide variety of tokamak operating conditions, using both NBI and ICRF heating methods. Important factors which influence VH mode accessibility such as magnetic configuration and vessel conditions have been identified. The new JET pumped divertor configuration has much improved plasma shaping control and power and particle exhaust capability and should permit exploitation of plasmas with VH confinement properties over an even wider range of operating regimes, particularly at high plasma current; first H-modes have been obtained in the 1994 JET operating period and initial results are reported. (authors). 7 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Mode repulsion of ultrasonic guided waves in rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Philip W; Long, Craig S; Ramatlo, Dineo A

    2018-03-01

    Accurate computation of dispersion characteristics of guided waves in rails is important during the development of inspection and monitoring systems. Wavenumber versus frequency curves computed by the semi-analytical finite element method exhibit mode repulsion and mode crossing which can be difficult to distinguish. Eigenvalue derivatives, with respect to the wavenumber, are used to investigate these regions. A term causing repulsion between two modes is identified and a condition for two modes to cross is established. In symmetric rail profiles the mode shapes are either symmetric or antisymmetric. Symmetric and antisymmetric modes can cross each other while the modes within the symmetric and antisymmetric families do not appear to cross. The modes can therefore be numbered in the same way that Lamb waves in plates are numbered, making it easier to communicate results. The derivative of the eigenvectors with respect to wavenumber contains the same repulsion term and shows how the mode shapes swop during a repulsion. The introduction of even a small asymmetry appears to lead to repulsion forces that prevent any mode crossings. Measurements on a continuously welded rail track were performed to illustrate a mode repulsion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Glass-on-Glass Fabrication of Bottle-Shaped Tunable Micro-Lasers and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Jonathan M; Chormaic, Sile Nic

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel method for making microbottle-shaped lasers by using a CO$_2$ laser to melt Er:Yb glass onto silica microcapillaries or fibres. This is realised by the fact that the two glasses have different melting points. The CO$_2$ laser power is controlled to flow the doped glass around the silica cylinder. In the case of a capillary, the resulting geometry is a hollow, microbottle-shaped resonator. This is a simple method for fabricating a number of glass WGM lasers with a wide range of sizes on a single, micron-scale structure. The Er:Yb doped glass outer layer is pumped at 980 nm via a tapered optical fibre and whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasing is recorded around 1535 nm. This structure facilitates a new way to thermo-optically tune the microlaser modes by passing gas through the capillary. The cooling effect of the gas flow shifts the WGMs towards shorter wavelengths, thus thermal tuning of the lasing modes over 70 GHz is achieved. Results are fitted using the theory of hot wire anemometry, al...

  10. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  11. Mode selection laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor mode selection laser, particularly to a VCSEL laser (200) having mode selection properties. The mode selection capability of the laser is achieved by configuring one of the reflectors (15,51) in the resonance cavity so that a reflectivity of the reflector...... (15) varies spatially in one dimension or two dimensions. Accordingly, the reflector (15) with spatially varying reflectivity is part both of the resonance cavity and the mode selection functionality of the laser. A plurality of the lasers configured with different mode selectors, i.e. different...... spatial reflector variations, may be combined to generate a laser beam containing a plurality of orthogonal modes. The laser beam may be injected into a few- mode optical fiber, e.g. for the purpose of optical communication. The VCSEL may have intra-cavity contacts (31,37) and a Tunnel junction (33...

  12. Plasmons in nanoscale and atomic-scale systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadaaki Nagao, Gui Han, ChungVu Hoang, Jung-Sub Wi, Annemarie Pucci, Daniel Weber, Frank Neubrech, Vyacheslav M Silkin, Dominik Enders, Osamu Saito and Masud Rana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmons in metallic nanomaterials exhibit very strong size and shape effects, and thus have recently gained considerable attention in nanotechnology, information technology, and life science. In this review, we overview the fundamental properties of plasmons in materials with various dimensionalities and discuss the optical functional properties of localized plasmon polaritons in nanometer-scale to atomic-scale objects. First, the pioneering works on plasmons by electron energy loss spectroscopy are briefly surveyed. Then, we discuss the effects of atomistic charge dynamics on the dispersion relation of propagating plasmon modes, such as those for planar crystal surface, atomic sheets and straight atomic wires. Finally, standing-wave plasmons, or antenna resonances of plasmon polariton, of some widely used nanometer-scale structures and atomic-scale wires (the smallest possible plasmonic building blocks are exemplified along with their applications.

  13. Star-shaped oscillations of Leidenfrost drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolei; Liétor-Santos, Juan-José; Burton, Justin C.

    2017-03-01

    We experimentally investigate the self-sustained, star-shaped oscillations of Leidenfrost drops. The drops levitate on a cushion of evaporated vapor over a heated, curved surface. We observe modes with n =2 -13 lobes around the drop periphery. We find that the wavelength of the oscillations depends only on the capillary length of the liquid and is independent of the drop radius and substrate temperature. However, the number of observed modes depends sensitively on the liquid viscosity. The dominant frequency of pressure variations in the vapor layer is approximately twice the drop oscillation frequency, consistent with a parametric forcing mechanism. Our results show that the star-shaped oscillations are driven by capillary waves of a characteristic wavelength beneath the drop and that the waves are generated by a large shear stress at the liquid-vapor interface.

  14. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of Active Magnetic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Lijesh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present research work Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA of an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB has been presented. Various possible failures modes of AMBs and the corresponding effects of those failures on performance of AMBs have been identified. The identified failure modes of AMBs will facilitate designer to incorporate necessary design features that would prevent the occurrence of the failure. The severity, occurrence and detection of the failures modes are determined based on a rating scale of 1 to 5 to quantify the Risk Priority Number (RPN of the failure modes. The methods to eliminate or reduce the high-risk-failure modes are proposed.

  15. Generic method for lossless generation of arbitrarily shaped photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sych, Denis; Averchenko, Valentin; Leuchs, Gerd

    2017-11-01

    We put forward a generic method that enables lossless generation of pure single photons with arbitrary shape over any degree of freedom or several degrees of freedom simultaneously. The method exploits pairs of entangled photons. One of the photons is the subject for lossy shaping manipulations followed by a specially designed mode-equalizing measurement. A successful measurement outcome heralds the losslessly shaped second photon. The method has three crucial ingredients that define the quantum state of the shaped photon: the initial bipartite state of the photons, modulation of the first photon, and its mode-equalizing detection. We provide a specific recipe with a combination of these ingredients for achieving any desired pure state of the shaped photon.

  16. Influence of toroidal rotation on tearing modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huishan; Cao, Jintao; Li, Ding

    2017-10-01

    Tearing modes stability analysis including toroidal rotation is studied. It is found that rotation affects the stability of tearing modes mainly through the interaction with resistive inner region of tearing mode. The coupling of magnetic curvature with centrifugal force and Coriolis force provides a perturbed perpendicular current, and a return parallel current is induced to affect the stability of tearing modes. Toroidal rotation plays a stable role, which depends on the magnitude of Mach number and adiabatic index Γ, and is independent on the direction of toroidal rotation. For Γ >1, the scaling of growth rate is changed for typical Mach number in present tokamaks. For Γ = 1 , the scaling keeps unchanged, and the effect of toroidal rotation is much less significant, compared with that for Γ >1. National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program and National Science Foundation of China under Grants No. 2014GB106004, No. 2013GB111000, No. 11375189, No. 11075161 and No. 11275260, and Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS.

  17. Scaling Factor Estimation Using Optimized Mass Change Strategy, Part 2: Experimental Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Aenlle, Manuel López; Garcia, Luis M. Villa

    2007-01-01

    of the structure. On the other hand, the aforementioned objectives are difficult to achieve for all modes simultaneously. Thus, a study of the number, magnitude and location of the masses must be performed previously to the modal tests. In this paper, the mass change method was applied to estimate the scaling......The mass change method is used to estimate the scaling factors, the uncertainty is reduced when, for each mode, the frequency shift is maximized and the changes in the mode shapes are minimized, which in turn, depends on the mass change strategy chosen to modify the dynamic behavior...... factors of a steel cantilever beam. The effect of the mass change strategy was experimentally studied by performing several modal tests in which the magnitude, the location and the number of the attached masses were changed....

  18. Modular, Parallel Pulse-Shaping Filter Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Andrew A.

    2003-01-01

    Novel architectures based on parallel subconvolution frequency-domain filtering methods have been developed for modular processing rate reduction of discrete-time pulse-shaping filters. Such pulse-shaping is desirable and often necessary to obtain bandwidth efficiency in very-high-rate wireless communications systems. In principle, this processing could be implemented in very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. Whereas other approaches to digital pulse-shaping are based primarily on time-domain processing concepts, the theory and design rules of the architectures presented here are founded on frequency-domain processing that has advantages in certain systems.

  19. Experimental Demonstration on Air Cavity Mode of Violin Using Holed Sheets of Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, Akihiro

    2018-01-01

    The fundamental air cavity mode (A0) of a violin was investigated from the viewpoint of its dependence on the opening area and shape by using holed sheets of paper. The dependences of the frequency response of the A0 cavity mode on the shape, opening area, and orientation of the openings were observed. It was also demonstrated that the change of…

  20. Transverse-mode-selectable microlens vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Debernardi, Pierluigi; Lee, Yong Tak

    2010-01-01

    A new vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structure employing a thin microlens is suggested and numerically investigated. The laser can be made to emit in either a high-power Gaussian-shaped single-fundamental mode or a high-power doughnut-shaped higher-order mode. The physical origin...

  1. Theoretical analysis of crack front instability in mode I+III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Karma, Alain; Lazarus, Véronique

    2011-09-01

    This paper focusses on the theoretical prediction of the widely observed crack front instability in mode I+III, that causes both the crack surface and crack front to deviate from planar and straight shapes, respectively. This problem is addressed within the classical framework of fracture mechanics, where the crack front evolution is governed by conditions of constant energy-release-rate (Griffith criterion) and vanishing stress intensity factor of mode II (principle of local symmetry) along the front. The formulation of the linear stability problem for the evolution of small perturbations of the crack front exploits previous results of Movchan et al. (1998) (suitably extended) and Gao and Rice (1986), which are used to derive expressions for the variations of the stress intensity factors along the front resulting from both in-plane and out-of-plane perturbations. We find exact eigenmode solutions to this problem, which correspond to perturbations of the crack front that are shaped as elliptic helices with their axis coinciding with the unperturbed straight front and an amplitude exponentially growing or decaying along the propagation direction. Exponential growth corresponding to unstable propagation occurs when the ratio of the unperturbed mode III to mode I stress intensity factors exceeds some "threshold" depending on Poisson's ratio. Moreover, the growth rate of helical perturbations is inversely proportional to their wavelength along the front. This growth rate therefore diverges when this wavelength goes to zero, which emphasizes the need for some "regularization" of crack propagation laws at very short scales. This divergence also reveals an interesting similarity between crack front instability in mode I+III and well-known growth front instabilities of interfaces governed by a Laplacian or diffusion field.

  2. Multiscale shape analysis for computed radiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ben K.

    1996-04-01

    The construction of a multiscale (scale space) representation requires the smoothing of the given image to generate a set of corresponding images at other coarser scales, and the extraction of features at these scales. Various methods of smoothing, combined with various feature extractors, will result in drastically different scale space representations. The particular application and desired criteria determine the choice of smoothing and feature extractor. In this paper, we first put foreword a framework for the scale space representation. Then we focus on the Gaussian and morphological scale space for planar shape analysis of computed radiographic (CR) images. The discussion of the various scale space methods is organized into three categories -- boundary approach, region approach, and hybrid approach. Properties, limitations, performance, and applications of these scale space methods are discussed. Extensive experiments on CR images of various exam types were conducted and the results are evaluated.

  3. Shape from touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, A.M.L.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.

    2014-01-01

    The shape of objects cannot only be recognized by vision, but also by touch. Vision has the advantage that shapes can be seen at a distance, but touch has the advantage that during exploration many additional object properties become available, such as temperature (Jones, 2009), texture (Bensmaia,

  4. Cartography of irregularly shaped satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, R. M.; Edwards, Kathleen

    1987-01-01

    Irregularly shaped satellites, such as Phobos and Amalthea, do not lend themselves to mapping by conventional methods because mathematical projections of their surfaces fail to convey an accurate visual impression of the landforms, and because large and irregular scale changes make their features difficult to measure on maps. A digital mapping technique has therefore been developed by which maps are compiled from digital topographic and spacecraft image files. The digital file is geometrically transformed as desired for human viewing, either on video screens or on hard copy. Digital files of this kind consist of digital images superimposed on another digital file representing the three-dimensional form of a body.

  5. Vainshtein solutions without superluminal modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Kimura, Rampei; Pirtskhalava, David

    2015-06-01

    The Vainshtein mechanism suppresses the fifth force at astrophysical distances, while enabling it to compete with gravity at cosmological scales. Typically, Vainshtein solutions exhibit superluminal perturbations. However, a restricted class of solutions with special boundary conditions was shown to be devoid of the faster-than-light modes. Here we extend this class by finding solutions in a theory of quasidilaton, amended by derivative terms consistent with its symmetries. Solutions with Minkowski asymptotics are not stable, while the ones that exhibit the Vainshtein mechanism by transitioning to cosmological backgrounds are free of ghosts, tachyons, gradient instability, and superluminality, for all propagating modes present in the theory. These solutions require a special choice of the strength and signs of nonlinear terms, as well as a choice of asymptotic cosmological boundary conditions.

  6. Efficient Coding of Shape and Transparency for Video Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Forchhammer, Søren

    2007-01-01

    A novel scheme for coding gray-level alpha planes in object-based video is presented. Gray-level alpha planes convey the shape and the transparency information, which are required for smooth composition of video objects. The algorithm proposed is based on the segmentation of the alpha plane...... shape layer is processed by a novel video shape coder. In intra mode, the DSLSC binary image coder presented in is used. This is extended here with an intermode utilizing temporal redundancies in shape image sequences. Then the opaque layer is compressed by a newly designed scheme which models...

  7. The Shape of Color: Retinal Cones and Spectral Dispersion

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, John A.; Medeiros, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Why are the retinal color receptors cone-shaped? This is not a trivial question: the cone shape is evidently a universal feature of the color receptors while the achromatic rod receptors are always rod-shaped. What might be behind this dichotomy has not previously been explored in any meaningful way. We suggest here that the cone shape is not an incidental feature, but actually integral to cone function. We describe a waveguide mode cut-off effect that can physically separate light into its s...

  8. Differences in the H-mode pedestal width of temperature and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P. A.; Wolfrum, E.; Groebner, R. J.; Osborne, T. H.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; Dunne, M. G.; Ferron, J. R.; Günter, S.; Kurzan, B.; Lackner, K.; Snyder, P. B.; Zohm, H.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the DIII-D Team; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2012-10-01

    A pedestal database was built using data from type-I ELMy H-modes of ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D and JET. ELM synchronized pedestal data were analysed with the two-line method. The two-line method is a bilinear fit which shows better reproducibility of pedestal parameters than a modified hyperbolic tangent fit. This was tested with simulated and experimental data. The influence of the equilibrium reconstruction on pedestal parameters was investigated with sophisticated reconstructions from CLISTE and EFIT including edge kinetic profiles. No systematic deviation between the codes could be observed. The flux coordinate system is influenced by machine size, poloidal field and plasma shape. This will change the representation of the width in different coordinates, in particular, the two normalized coordinates ΨN and r/a show a very different dependence on the plasma shape. The scalings derived for the pedestal width, Δ, of all machines suggest a different scaling for the electron temperature and the electron density. Both cases show similar dependence with machine size, poloidal magnetic field and pedestal electron temperature and density. The influence of ion temperature and toroidal magnetic field is different on each of \\Delta_{T_\\rme} and \\Delta_{n_\\rme} . In dimensionless form the density pedestal width in ΨN scales with \\rho^{0.6}_{i\\star} , the temperature pedestal width with \\beta_p,ped^{0.5} . Both widths also show a strong correlation with the plasma shape. The shape dependence originates from the coordinate transformation and is not visible in real space. The presented scalings predict that in ITER the temperature pedestal will be appreciably wider than the density pedestal.

  9. Dual-Mode Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  10. Statistical Shape Modeling of Proximal Femoral Shape Deformities in Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease and Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Elaine F.; Farnsworth, Christine L.; Koziol, James A.; Hosalkar, Harish S.; Sah, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The current understanding of morphological deformities of the hip such as femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD), and slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is based on 2-dimensional metrics, primarily involving the femoral head, that only partially describe the complex skeletal morphology. Objective This study aimed to improve the 3-dimensional understanding of shape variations during normal growth, and in LCPD and SCFE, through statistical shape modeling. Design Thirty-two patients with asymptomatic, LCPD, and SCFE hips, determined from physical and radiographic examination, were scanned using 3-D CT at a voxel size of (0.5–0.9mm)2 in-plane and 0.63mm slice thickness. Statistical shape modeling was performed on segmented proximal femoral surfaces to determine modes of variation and shape variables quantifying 3-D shape. In addition, conventional variables were determined for all femora. Results Proximal femur shape was described by 8 modes of variation and corresponding shape variables. Statistical shape variables were distinct with age and revealed coordinated, growth-associated differences in neck length-to-width ratio, femoral head medialization, and trochanter protrusion. After size and age-based shape adjustment, diseased proximal femora were characterized by shape variables distinct from those of asymptomatic hips. The shape variables defined morphology in health and disease, and were correlated with certain conventional variables of shape, including neck-shaft angle, head diameter, and neck diameter. Conclusion 3-D quantitative analyses of proximal femoral bone shape during growth and in disease are useful for furthering the understanding of normal and abnormal shape deviations which affect cartilage biomechanics and risk of developing osteoarthritis. PMID:23274103

  11. Statistical sulcal shape comparisons: application to the detection of genetic encoding of the central sulcus shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Goualher, G; Argenti, A.M.; Duyme, M

    2000-01-01

    of measurements in order to detect a statistically significant difference between two groups. We have applied this methodology to highlight evidence of genetic encoding of the shape of neuroanatomical structures. To investigate genetic constraint, we studied if shapes were more similar within 10 pairs......Principal Component Analysis allows a quantitative description of shape variability with a restricted number of parameters (or modes) which can be used to quantify the difference between two shapes through the computation of a modal distance. A statistical test can then be applied to this set...... of monozygotic twins than within interpairs and compared the results with those obtained from 10 pairs of dizygotic twins. The statistical analysis was performed using a Mantel permutation test. We show, using simulations, that this statistical test applied on modal distances can detect a possible genetic...

  12. Transparency windows of the plasmonic nanostructure composed of C-shaped and U-shaped resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Ouyang, Min; Tang, Bin; Wang, Zhibing; He, Jun

    2017-02-01

    We in this study investigated numerically the plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) effect on the plasmonic nanostructures composed of C-shaped and U-shaped resonators by using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The PIT effect in the nanosystem stemmed from the near field coupling between the bright and dark modes. The nanostructure composed of three resonators exhibited double PIT effect. And the PIT spectral response of the proposed nanostructures was demonstrated having a dependence on the parameters of the compound plasmonic system such as the widths of C-shaped resonator and U-shaped resonator, the resonators spatial arrangement and the edge-to-edge distance between the adjacent resonators. The electric and magnetic field distributions of certain resonance wavelengths were also given to discuss the underlying physics. The resonator design strategy opens up a rich pathway to develop the building block of systems for all optical switching, plasmonic sensing applications.

  13. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.

  14. Multi-focus beam shaping of high power multimode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Volpp, Joerg; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

    2017-08-01

    Beam shaping of powerful multimode fiber lasers, fiber-coupled solid-state and diode lasers is of great importance for improvements of industrial laser applications. Welding, cladding with millimetre scale working spots benefit from "inverseGauss" intensity profiles; performance of thick metal sheet cutting, deep penetration welding can be enhanced when distributing the laser energy along the optical axis as more efficient usage of laser energy, higher edge quality and reduction of the heat affected zone can be achieved. Building of beam shaping optics for multimode lasers encounters physical limitations due to the low beam spatial coherence of multimode fiber-coupled lasers resulting in big Beam Parameter Products (BPP) or M² values. The laser radiation emerging from a multimode fiber presents a mixture of wavefronts. The fiber end can be considered as a light source which optical properties are intermediate between a Lambertian source and a single mode laser beam. Imaging of the fiber end, using a collimator and a focusing objective, is a robust and widely used beam delivery approach. Beam shaping solutions are suggested in form of optics combining fiber end imaging and geometrical separation of focused spots either perpendicular to or along the optical axis. Thus, energy of high power lasers is distributed among multiple foci. In order to provide reliable operation with multi-kW lasers and avoid damages the optics are designed as refractive elements with smooth optical surfaces. The paper presents descriptions of multi-focus optics as well as examples of intensity profile measurements of beam caustics and application results.

  15. Digital holographic measurements of shape and 3D sound-induced displacements of Tympanic Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Morteza; Lu, Weina; Dobrev, Ivo; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J

    2013-10-01

    Acoustically-induced vibrations of the Tympanic Membrane (TM) play a primary role in the hearing process, in that these motions are the initial mechanical response of the ear to airborne sound. Characterization of the shape and 3D displacement patterns of the TM is a crucial step to a better understanding of the complicated mechanics of sound reception by the ear. In this paper, shape and sound-induced 3D displacements of the TM in cadaveric chinchillas are measured by a lensless Dual-Wavelength Digital Holography system (DWDHS). The DWDHS consists of Laser Delivery (LD), Optical Head (OH), and Computing Platform (CP) subsystems. Shape measurements are performed in double-exposure mode and with the use of two wavelengths of a tunable laser while nanometer-scale displacements are measured along a single sensitivity direction and with a constant wavelength. In order to extract the three principal components of displacement in full-field-of-view, and taking into consideration the anatomical dimensions of the TM, we combine principles of thin-shell theory together with both, displacement measurements along the single sensitivity vector and TM surface shape. To computationally test this approach, Finite Element Methods (FEM) are applied to the study of artificial geometries.

  16. Robust mechanisms of ventral furrow invagination require the combination of cellular shape changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Vito; Muñoz, José J.; Baum, Buzz; Miodownik, Mark

    2009-03-01

    Ventral furrow formation in Drosophila is the first large-scale morphogenetic movement during the life of the embryo, and is driven by co-ordinated changes in the shape of individual epithelial cells within the cellular blastoderm. Although many of the genes involved have been identified, the details of the mechanical processes that convert local changes in gene expression into whole-scale changes in embryonic form remain to be fully understood. Biologists have identified two main cell deformation modes responsible for ventral furrow invagination: constriction of the apical ends of the cells (apical wedging) and deformation along their apical-basal axes (radial lengthening/shortening). In this work, we used a computer 2D finite element model of ventral furrow formation to investigate the ability of different combinations of three plausible elementary active cell shape changes to bring about epithelial invagination: ectodermal apical-basal shortening, mesodermal apical-basal lengthening/shortening and mesodermal apical constriction. We undertook a systems analysis of the biomechanical system, which revealed many different combinations of active forces (invagination mechanisms) were able to generate a ventral furrow. Two important general features were revealed. First that combinations of shape changes are the most robust to environmental and mutational perturbation, in particular those combining ectodermal pushing and mesodermal wedging. Second, that ectodermal pushing plays a big part in all of the robust mechanisms (mesodermal forces alone do not close the furrow), and this provides evidence that it may be an important element in the mechanics of invagination in Drosophila.

  17. Shape memory polymer foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Loredana

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in shape memory polymer (SMP) foam research are reviewed. The SMPs belong to a new class of smart polymers which can have interesting applications in microelectromechanical systems, actuators and biomedical devices. They can respond to specific external stimulus changing their configuration and then remember the original shape. In the form of foams, the shape memory behaviour can be enhanced because they generally have higher compressibility. Considering also the low weight, and recovery force, the SMP foams are expected to have great potential applications primarily in aerospace. This review highlights the recent progress in characterization, evaluation, and proposed applications of SMP foams mainly for aerospace applications.

  18. Two-mode elliptical-core weighted fiber sensors for vibration analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengsarkar, Ashish M.; Murphy, Kent A.; Fogg, Brian R.; Miller, William V.; Greene, Jonathan A.; Claus, Richard O.

    1992-01-01

    Two-mode, elliptical-core optical fibers are demonstrated in weighted, distributed and selective vibration-mode-filtering applications. We show how appropriate placement of optical fibers on a vibrating structure can lead to vibration mode filtering. Selective vibration-mode suppression on the order of 10 dB has been obtained using tapered two-mode, circular-core fibers with tapering functions that match the second derivatives of the modes of vibration to be enhanced. We also demonstrate the use of chirped, two-mode gratings in fibers as spatial modal sensors that are equivalents of shaped piezoelectric sensors.

  19. Modes of storage ring coherent instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    Longitudinal impedance in a beam and various modes of longitudinal coherent instabilities are discussed. The coasting beam coherent instability, microwave instability, and single-bunch longitudinal coherent instabilities are considered. The Vlasov equation is formulated, and a method of solving it is developed. The synchrotron modes are treated, which take the possible bunch shape distortion fully into consideration. A method of treating the synchrotron mode coupling in the case of a small bunch is discussed which takes advantage of the fact that only a few of the synchrotron modes can contribute in such a case. The effect of many bunches on the coherent motion of the beam and the longitudinal symmetric coupled bunch modes are discussed. The transverse impedance is then introduced, and the transverse coasting beam instability is discussed. Various bunched beam instabilities are discussed, including both single bunch instabilities and coupled bunch instabilities. The Vlasov equation for transverse as well as longitudinal motion of particles is introduced as well as a method of solving it within a linear approximation. Head-tail modes and short bunch instabilities and strong coupling instabilities in the long bunch case are covered. (LEW)

  20. Microbubble Surface Modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Michel; Palanchon, P.; Goertz, D.; van der Meer, S.M.; Chin, C.T.; Lohse, Detlef; de Jong, N.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated surface vibrations generated by ultrasound excitation of individual unencapsulated micron-sized bubbles. In addition, we present surface modes (n=2 and 3) observed for phospholipid-coated ultrasound contrast agents excited through excitation of radial modes at frequencies

  1. Locating irregularly shaped clusters of infection intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Yiannakoulias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease may take on irregular geographic shapes, especially when features of the physical environment influence risk. Identifying these patterns can be important for planning, and also identifying new environmental or social factors associated with high or low risk of illness. Until recently, cluster detection methods were limited in their ability to detect irregular spatial patterns, and limited to finding clusters that were roughly circular in shape. This approach has less power to detect irregularly-shaped, yet important spatial anomalies, particularly at high spatial resolutions. We employ a new method of finding irregularly-shaped spatial clusters at micro-geographical scales using both simulated and real data on Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infection intensities. This method, which we refer to as the “greedy growth scan”, is a modification of the spatial scan method for cluster detection. Real data are based on samples of hookworm and S. mansoni from Kitengei, Makueni district, Kenya. Our analysis of simulated data shows how methods able to find irregular shapes are more likely to identify clusters along rivers than methods constrained to fixed geometries. Our analysis of infection intensity identifies two small areas within the study region in which infection intensity is elevated, possibly due to local features of the physical or social environment. Collectively, our results show that the “greedy growth scan” is a suitable method for exploratory geographical analysis of infection intensity data when irregular shapes are suspected, especially at micro-geographical scales.

  2. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others....... The research presented in this thesis falls in three parts. In the first part, a first time demonstration of the break of the azimuthal symmetry of the Bessel-like LP0X modes is presented. This effect, known as the bowtie effect, causes the mode to have an azimuthal dependence as well as a quasi......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...

  3. Shape memory polyurethane foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molded flexible polyurethane (PU foams have been synthesized from polypropylene glycol (PPG with different molecular weights (Mw and functionalities (f, and 2,4/2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI-80 with water as blowing agent. It was found that the glassy state properties of the foam mainly depended on the urethane group content while the rubbery state properties on the crosslink density. That is, PPG of low MW and low f (more urethane groups provided superior glass state modulus, strength, density, shape fixity and glass transition temperature (Tg, while that of high Mw and high f (higher crosslink density showed high rubbery modulus and shape recovery. Consequently shape fixity of low Mw PPG decreased from 85 to 72% while shape recovery increased from 52 to 63% as the content of high Mw PPG increased from 0 to 40%.

  4. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...... and surrounds an internal volume of the body, a distance member that is connected to the facing inside the body and extends from the facing and into the internal volume of the body, and at least one reinforcing member that operates in tension for reinforcing the facing against inward deflections...... and that is connected to the facing inside the internal volume of the body at the same side of the profile chord as the connection of the distance member to the facing and to the distance member at a distance from the facing....

  5. Shape memory polyurethane nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feina

    Shape memory polymers are smart materials which can remember their original shapes. However, the low recovery stress and low mechanical strength limit the commercial applications of shape memory polymers. In this study, nanoclays were introduced to shape memory polyurethanes (SMPU) to augment these properties by enhance the network of SMPU. Several factors which influence the shape recovery stress were evaluated, including the nature of polymer chain by using different monomers, type of clay particles, extent of filler dispersion, clay content and deformation conditions. It was found that only reactive clay particles were well dispersed into polyurethane matrix by the tethering between --CH2CH 2OH functional groups in clay surfactants and polyurethane chains. Two different shape memory polyurethanes (Systems I & II) prepared by bulk polymerization were compared. The shape memory effect of System I was triggered by melting of the soft segment crystals, while that of System II was by glass transition of the soft segments. It was seen that the reactive clay particles dispersed well in both polyurethane matrices and augmented the recovery stress, e.g., 20% increase with 1 wt % nanoclay in System I and 40% increase with 5 wt % nanoclay in System II were observed. In System I, clay particles interfered with soft segment crystallization, and promoted phase mixing between the hard and soft segments, thus affecting the fixity and recovery ratio. Nevertheless, the soft segment crystallinity was still enough and in some cases increased due to stretching to exhibit excellent shape fixity and shape recovery ratio. The higher loading of clay particles accelerated the stress relaxation, resulting in reduction of recovery stress. In System II, no significant effect of clay particles in phase separation was observed, so there was no influence of clay on shape fixity and recovery ratio. The recovery stress increased with reactive nanoclay content. It was also found that the recovery

  6. Exploration of continuous variability in collections of 3D shapes

    KAUST Repository

    Ovsjanikov, Maks

    2011-07-01

    As large public repositories of 3D shapes continue to grow, the amount of shape variability in such collections also increases, both in terms of the number of different classes of shapes, as well as the geometric variability of shapes within each class. While this gives users more choice for shape selection, it can be difficult to explore large collections and understand the range of variations amongst the shapes. Exploration is particularly challenging for public shape repositories, which are often only loosely tagged and contain neither point-based nor part-based correspondences. In this paper, we present a method for discovering and exploring continuous variability in a collection of 3D shapes without correspondences. Our method is based on a novel navigation interface that allows users to explore a collection of related shapes by deforming a base template shape through a set of intuitive deformation controls. We also help the user to select the most meaningful deformations using a novel technique for learning shape variability in terms of deformations of the template. Our technique assumes that the set of shapes lies near a low-dimensional manifold in a certain descriptor space, which allows us to avoid establishing correspondences between shapes, while being rotation and scaling invariant. We present results on several shape collections taken directly from public repositories. © 2011 ACM.

  7. Shaping the Global Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-09

    SHAPING THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL MICHAEL D. ELLERBE United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release...THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT by Lieutenant Colonel Michael D. Ellerbe United States Army Colonel Jef Troxel Project Advisor The views expressed in this...Distribution is unlimited. ii ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Michael D. Ellerbe TITLE: SHAPING THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 09 April

  8. On Characterizing Particle Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Bryan J.; Rickman, Douglas; Rollins, A. Brent; Ennis, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that particle shape affects flow characteristics of granular materials, as well as a variety of other solids processing issues such as compaction, rheology, filtration and other two-phase flow problems. The impact of shape crosses many diverse and commercially important applications, including pharmaceuticals, civil engineering, metallurgy, health, and food processing. Two applications studied here include the dry solids flow of lunar simulants (e.g. JSC-1, NU-LHT-2M, OB-1), and the flow properties of wet concrete, including final compressive strength. A multi-dimensional generalized, engineering method to quantitatively characterize particle shapes has been developed, applicable to both single particle orientation and multi-particle assemblies. The two-dimension, three dimension inversion problem is also treated, and the application of these methods to DEM model particles will be discussed. In the case of lunar simulants, flow properties of six lunar simulants have been measured, and the impact of particle shape on flowability - as characterized by the shape method developed here -- is discussed, especially in the context of three simulants of similar size range. In the context of concrete processing, concrete construction is a major contributor to greenhouse gas production, of which the major contributor is cement binding loading. Any optimization in concrete rheology and packing that can reduce cement loading and improve strength loading can also reduce currently required construction safety factors. The characterization approach here is also demonstrated for the impact of rock aggregate shape on concrete slump rheology and dry compressive strength.

  9. Mechanism of shape determination in motile cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Kinneret; Pincus, Zachary; Allen, Greg M; Barnhart, Erin L; Marriott, Gerard; Mogilner, Alex; Theriot, Julie A

    2008-05-22

    The shape of motile cells is determined by many dynamic processes spanning several orders of magnitude in space and time, from local polymerization of actin monomers at subsecond timescales to global, cell-scale geometry that may persist for hours. Understanding the mechanism of shape determination in cells has proved to be extremely challenging due to the numerous components involved and the complexity of their interactions. Here we harness the natural phenotypic variability in a large population of motile epithelial keratocytes from fish (Hypsophrys nicaraguensis) to reveal mechanisms of shape determination. We find that the cells inhabit a low-dimensional, highly correlated spectrum of possible functional states. We further show that a model of actin network treadmilling in an inextensible membrane bag can quantitatively recapitulate this spectrum and predict both cell shape and speed. Our model provides a simple biochemical and biophysical basis for the observed morphology and behaviour of motile cells.

  10. Shapes of interacting RNA complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Benjamin Mingming; Reidys, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Shapes of interacting RNA complexes are studied using a filtration via their topological genus. A shape of an RNA complex is obtained by (iteratively) collapsing stacks and eliminating hairpin loops.This shape-projection preserves the topological core of the RNA complex and for fixed topological...... genus there are only finitely many such shapes. Our main result is a new bijection that relates the shapes of RNA complexes with shapes of RNA structures. This allows to compute the shape polynomial of RNA complexes via the shape polynomial of RNA structures. We furthermore present a linear time uniform...... sampling algorithm for shapes of RNA complexes of fixed topological genus....

  11. Climate history shapes contemporary leaf litter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Strickland; Ashley D. Keiser; Mark A. Bradford

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition is mediated by multiple variables, of which climate is expected to be a dominant factor at global scales. However, like other organisms, traits of decomposers and their communities are shaped not just by the contemporary climate but also their climate history. Whether or not this affects decomposition rates is underexplored. Here we source...

  12. Extreme reaction times determine fluctuation scaling in human color vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José M.; Díaz, José A.

    2016-11-01

    In modern mental chronometry, human reaction time defines the time elapsed from stimulus presentation until a response occurs and represents a reference paradigm for investigating stochastic latency mechanisms in color vision. Here we examine the statistical properties of extreme reaction times and whether they support fluctuation scaling in the skewness-kurtosis plane. Reaction times were measured for visual stimuli across the cardinal directions of the color space. For all subjects, the results show that very large reaction times deviate from the right tail of reaction time distributions suggesting the existence of dragon-kings events. The results also indicate that extreme reaction times are correlated and shape fluctuation scaling over a wide range of stimulus conditions. The scaling exponent was higher for achromatic than isoluminant stimuli, suggesting distinct generative mechanisms. Our findings open a new perspective for studying failure modes in sensory-motor communications and in complex networks.

  13. Mode choice model parameters estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Strnad, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The present work focuses on parameter estimation of two mode choice models: multinomial logit and EVA 2 model, where four different modes and five different trip purposes are taken into account. Mode choice model discusses the behavioral aspect of mode choice making and enables its application to a traffic model. Mode choice model includes mode choice affecting trip factors by using each mode and their relative importance to choice made. When trip factor values are known, it...

  14. Surface modes in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic surface modes are present at all surfaces and interfaces between material of different dielectric properties. These modes have very important effects on numerous physical quantities: adhesion, capillary force, step formation and crystal growth, the Casimir effect etc. They cause surface tension and wetting and they give rise to forces which are important e.g. for the stability of colloids.This book is a useful and elegant approach to the topic, showing how the concept of electromagnetic modes can be developed as a unifying theme for a range of condensed matter physics. The

  15. Engineered circuit QED with dense resonant modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Daniel; Wilhelm, Frank [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Meta-materials are systems engineered at a wavelength smaller than the radiation considered but larger than the atomic scale; they gain their properties from their structure. Of notable interest are left-handed meta-materials. They exhibit negative permittivity and permeability. On chip quantum optics routinely use right-handed transmission lines, made of a microwave strip-line, as information mediators. In this work, we discuss the properties of a left-handed/right-handed hybrid transmission line. The resulting mode structure presents a mode pile-up at a lower cut-off frequency. Placing a qubit near the hybrid line results in strong to ultra-strong coupling to a quasi-continuum of modes. This system generates strongly entangled multi-mode states and also serves as quantum simulator for a spin-boson model with a sub-sub-ohmic density of states.

  16. Mode III effects on interface delamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Hutchinson, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    For crack growth along an interface between dissimilar materials the effect of combined modes I, II and III at the crack-tip is investigated. First, in order to highlight situations where crack growth is affected by a mode III contribution, examples of material configurations are discussed where...... mode III has an effect. Subsequently, the focus is on crack growth along an interface between an elastic-plastic solid and an elastic substrate. The analyses are carried out for conditions of small-scale yielding, with the fracture process at the interface represented by a cohesive zone model. Due...... to the mismatch of elastic properties across the interface the corresponding elastic solution has an oscillating stress singularity, and this solution is applied as boundary conditions on the outer edge of the region analyzed. For several combinations of modes I, II and III crack growth resistance curves...

  17. CMB delensing beyond the B modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel; Meyers, Joel; van Engelen, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure significantly impacts observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB): it smooths the acoustic peaks in temperature and E-mode polarization power spectra, correlating previously uncorrelated modes; and it converts E-mode polarization into B-mode polarization. The act of measuring and removing the effect of lensing from CMB maps, or delensing, has been well studied in the context of B modes, but little attention has been given to the delensing of the temperature and E modes. In this paper, we model the expected delensed T and E power spectra to all orders in the lensing potential, demonstrating the sharpening of the acoustic peaks and a significant reduction in lens-induced power spectrum covariances. We then perform cosmological forecasts, demonstrating that delensing will yield improved sensitivity to parameters with upcoming surveys. We highlight the breaking of the degeneracy between the effective number of neutrino species and primordial helium fraction as a concrete application. We also show that delensing increases cosmological information as long as the measured lensing reconstruction is included in the analysis. We conclude that with future data, delensing will be crucial not only for primordial B-mode science but for a range of other observables as well.

  18. Mode Selection in Compressible Active Flow Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrow, Aden; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn

    2017-07-01

    Coherent, large-scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. Here, we introduce and explore an analytically tractable nonlinear model for compressible active flow networks. In contrast to thermally driven systems, we find that active friction selects discrete states with a limited number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks and find good agreement with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data. Our results suggest that the macroscopic response of active network structures, from actomyosin force networks to cytoplasmic flows, can be dominated by a significantly reduced number of modes, in contrast to energy equipartition in thermal equilibrium. The model is also well suited to study topological sound modes and spectral band gaps in active matter.

  19. The Dynamics of Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, Henrique

    2011-01-01

    This thesis consists of two parts, connected by one central theme: the dynamics of the "shape of space". The first part of the thesis concerns the construction of a theory of gravity dynamically equivalent to general relativity (GR) in 3+1 form (ADM). What is special about this theory is that it does not possess foliation invariance, as does ADM. It replaces that "symmetry" by another: local conformal invariance. In so doing it more accurately reflects a theory of the "shape of space", giving us reason to call it \\emph{shape dynamics} (SD). In the first part we will try to present some of the highlights of results so far, and indicate what we can and cannot do with shape dynamics. Because this is a young, rapidly moving field, we have necessarily left out some interesting new results which are not yet in print and were developed alongside the writing of the thesis. The second part of the thesis will develop a gauge theory for "shape of space"--theories. To be more precise, if one admits that the physically re...

  20. SHAPE selection (SHAPES) enrich for RNA structure signal in SHAPE sequencing-based probing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Line Dahl; Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan; Salama, Sofie R

    2015-01-01

    transcriptase. Here, we introduce a SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) reagent, N-propanone isatoic anhydride (NPIA), which retains the ability of SHAPE reagents to accurately probe RNA structure, but also allows covalent coupling between the SHAPES reagent and a biotin molecule. We demonstrate that SHAPES...

  1. The use of Weissler method for scale-up a Kraft pulp oxidation by TEMPO-mediated system from a batch mode to a continuous flow-through sonoreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, Michel; Loranger, Éric; Hannaux, Virginie; Chabot, Bruno; Daneault, Claude

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of cellulose oxidation mediated by the 4-acetamido-TEMPO radical under ultrasonic cavitation was investigated using two ultrasonic systems: a batch lab scale ultrasonic bath with a glass reactor and a semi-continuous flow-through sonoreactor. The main objective was to explore the possibility of scaling up the production of oxidized cellulose under ultrasound, from a lab scale process to a pilot plant process, which served as a precursor for producing nanofibrils cellulose. It was found that under acoustic cavitation, the efficiency of TEMPO-mediation oxidation of native cellulose was significantly improved, particularly in the flow-through sonoreactor. In comparison with the glass reactor, the flow-through sonoreactor reduce the applied energy by 88% while increasing 7.8 times the production rate of radicals. These results enable a possibility of producing oxidized fibers for industrial applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. HEp-2 Cell Classification Using Shape Index Histograms With Donut-Shaped Spatial Pooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Larsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    We present a new method for automatic classification of indirect immunoflourescence images of HEp-2 cells into different staining pattern classes. Our method is based on a new texture measure called shape index histograms that captures second-order image structure at multiple scales. Moreover, we...... datasets. Our results show that shape index histograms are superior to other popular texture descriptors for HEp-2 cell classification. Moreover, when comparing to other automated systems for HEp-2 cell classification we show that shape index histograms are very competitive; especially considering...

  3. Shape memory polymer medical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Duncan [Pleasant Hill, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Bearinger, Jane P [Livermore, CA; Wilson, Thomas S [San Leandro, CA; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L [Concord, CA; Jensen, Wayne A [Livermore, CA; Ortega, Jason M [Pacifica, CA; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M [Stockton, CA

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  4. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, M. Yu.; Zakharenko, A. D.; Kozitskiy, S. B.

    2016-10-01

    A mode parabolic equation in the ray centered coordinates for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the ASA wedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method in the case of cross-slope propagation. But in the cases of wave propagation at some angles to the cross-slope direction an account of mode interaction becomes necessary.

  5. Laser beam shaping techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DICKEY,FRED M.; WEICHMAN,LOUIS S.; SHAGAM,RICHARD N.

    2000-03-16

    Industrial, military, medical, and research and development applications of lasers frequently require a beam with a specified irradiance distribution in some plane. A common requirement is a laser profile that is uniform over some cross-section. Such applications include laser/material processing, laser material interaction studies, fiber injection systems, optical data image processing, lithography, medical applications, and military applications. Laser beam shaping techniques can be divided into three areas: apertured beams, field mappers, and multi-aperture beam integrators. An uncertainty relation exists for laser beam shaping that puts constraints on system design. In this paper the authors review the basics of laser beam shaping and present applications and limitations of various techniques.

  6. Thermal transport contributed by the torsional phonons in cylindrical nanowires: Role of evanescent modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Zhong-Xiang [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science Technology, International Collaborative Laboratory of 2D Materials for Optoelectronic Science & Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Hunan Institute of Technology, Hengyang 421002 (China); Zhang, Yong [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Hunan Institute of Technology, Hengyang 421002 (China); Zhang, Li-Fu, E-mail: zhanglifu68@hotmail.com [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science Technology, International Collaborative Laboratory of 2D Materials for Optoelectronic Science & Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Fan, Dian-Yuan [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science Technology, International Collaborative Laboratory of 2D Materials for Optoelectronic Science & Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2017-05-03

    Thermal transport contributed by the torsional phonons in cylindrical nanowires is investigated by using the isotropic elastic continuum theory. The numerical calculations for both the concavity-shaped and convexity-shaped cylindrical structures are made to reveal the role of the evanescent modes. Results show that the evanescent modes play an important role in influencing the thermal transport in such structures. For the concavity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, the evanescent modes can enhance the thermal conductance by about 20 percent, while for the convexity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, the evanescent modes can suppress the thermal conductance by 6 percent. It is also shown that the influence of the evanescent modes on the thermal conductance is strongly related to the attenuation length of the evanescent modes. A brief analysis of these results is given. - Highlights: • The evanescent modes play an important role in influencing thermal transport contributed by torsional phonons in cylindrical nanowires. • For the concavity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, the evanescent modes can enhance the thermal conductance by about 20 percent, while for the convexity-shaped cylindrical nanowire, they can suppress the thermal conductance by 6 percent.

  7. ICRF heated enhanced performance modes and mode conversion electron heating in alcator C-mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, Y.; Golovato, S.; Porkolab, M.; Boivin, R.; Bombarda, F.; Bonoli, P.; Fiore, C.; Garnier, D.; Goetz, J.; Graf, M.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Horne, S.; Hubbard, A.; Hutchinson, I.; Irby, J.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Majeski, R.; Marmar, E.; May, M.; Mazurenko, A.; McCracken, G.; OShea, P.; Pinsker, R.; Reardon, J.; Rice, J.; Rost, C.; Snipes, J.; Terry, J.; Watterson, R.; Welch, B.; Wolfe, S. [MIT Plasma Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    1996-02-01

    D(H) minority heating experiments were performed at {ital B}{sub {ital T}}=5.3 T with up to 3.5 MW of RF power. The highest stored energy of 130 kJ was achieved in an ELM-free H-mode plasma. The H-mode power threshold is roughly consistent with the ITER scaling, {ital P}/{ital S}=0.044{bar {ital n}}{sub {ital eB}}{sub {ital T}}, but H-modes have been obtained at power levels as much as a factor of two below this scaling. H-factors of up to 1.5 have been observed in ELM-free H-mode plasmas. The highest fusion reactivity of 9{times}10{sup 13} sec{sup {minus}1} was obtained in a PEP H-mode plasma with lithium pellet injection and on-axis ICRF heating. These discharges are characterized by highly peaked density and ion temperature profiles, with fusion reactivity enhanced by typically an order of magnitude above similar L-mode discharges. Effective localized direct electron heating by mode converted IBW was observed in H-{sup 3}He plasmas (analogous to D-T plasmas) at 6.5 T. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Shape and spin determination of Barbarian asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devogèle, M.; Tanga, P.; Bendjoya, P.; Rivet, J. P.; Surdej, J.; Hanuš, J.; Abe, L.; Antonini, P.; Artola, R. A.; Audejean, M.; Behrend, R.; Berski, F.; Bosch, J. G.; Bronikowska, M.; Carbognani, A.; Char, F.; Kim, M.-J.; Choi, Y.-J.; Colazo, C. A.; Coloma, J.; Coward, D.; Durkee, R.; Erece, O.; Forne, E.; Hickson, P.; Hirsch, R.; Horbowicz, J.; Kamiński, K.; Kankiewicz, P.; Kaplan, M.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Konstanciak, I.; Kruszewki, A.; Kudak, V.; Manzini, F.; Moon, H.-K.; Marciniak, A.; Murawiecka, M.; Nadolny, J.; Ogłoza, W.; Ortiz, J. L.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Pallares, H.; Peixinho, N.; Poncy, R.; Reyes, F.; de los Reyes, J. A.; Santana-Ros, T.; Sobkowiak, K.; Pastor, S.; Pilcher, F.; Quiñones, M. C.; Trela, P.; Vernet, D.

    2017-11-01

    Context. The so-called Barbarian asteroids share peculiar, but common polarimetric properties, probably related to both their shape and composition. They are named after (234) Barbara, the first on which such properties were identified. As has been suggested, large scale topographic features could play a role in the polarimetric response, if the shapes of Barbarians are particularly irregular and present a variety of scattering/incidence angles. This idea is supported by the shape of (234) Barbara, that appears to be deeply excavated by wide concave areas revealed by photometry and stellar occultations. Aims: With these motivations, we started an observation campaign to characterise the shape and rotation properties of Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey (SMASS) type L and Ld asteroids. As many of them show long rotation periods, we activated a worldwide network of observers to obtain a dense temporal coverage. Methods: We used light-curve inversion technique in order to determine the sidereal rotation periods of 15 asteroids and the convergence to a stable shape and pole coordinates for 8 of them. By using available data from occultations, we are able to scale some shapes to an absolute size. We also study the rotation periods of our sample looking for confirmation of the suspected abundance of asteroids with long rotation periods. Results: Our results show that the shape models of our sample do not seem to have peculiar properties with respect to asteroids with similar size, while an excess of slow rotators is most probably confirmed. The light curves are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/607/A119

  9. Shaping Adolescent Gambling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcuri, Alan F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed the incidence of casino gambling by adolescents. Results indicated that 64 percent of the students at one Atlantic City high school had gambled at the casinos. The dangers of shaping compulsive gambling behavior through societal acceptance of legalized gambling are discussed. (Author/BL)

  10. Shape Up Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Jensen, Bjarne Bruun

    "Shape Up: a School Community Approach to Influencing the Determinants of Childhood Overweight and Obesity, Lessons Learnt" is a report that aims to provide a synthesis of the project overall evaluation documentation, with a view to systematically review and discuss lessons learnt, and to suggest...... recommendations concerning future practice and policy in the area of preventing childhood overweight and obesity....

  11. Aerodynamically shaped vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Velte, Clara Marika; Øye, Stig

    2016-01-01

    An aerodynamically shaped vortex generator has been proposed, manufactured and tested in a wind tunnel. The effect on the overall performance when applied on a thick airfoil is an increased lift to drag ratio compared with standard vortex generators. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  12. Trends Shaping Education 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Trends Shaping Education 2010" brings together evidence showing the effects on education of globalisation, social challenges, changes in the workplace, the transformation of childhood, and ICT. To make the content accessible, each trend is presented on a double page, containing an introduction, two charts with brief descriptive text and a set of…

  13. How life shaped Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2015-10-05

    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet.

  14. Shaping Faster Question Answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lloyd O.

    To test a hypothesis that question answering speed and accuracy can be increased by an automated shaping procedure, a film, "The Analysis of Behavior," was presented individually by a teaching machine during twice-per-week sessions to one high school student and 12 junior college students. Six of the students were informed of monetary rewards for…

  15. Tornado-Shaped Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Sol Sáez; de la Rosa, Félix Martínez; Rojas, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    In Advanced Calculus, our students wonder if it is possible to graphically represent a tornado by means of a three-dimensional curve. In this paper, we show it is possible by providing the parametric equations of such tornado-shaped curves.

  16. Analysis of () Line Shape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The line shape is also simulated by the Monte–Carlo method, the molecular dissociation contributes to 57% neutral atoms and 53% emission intensity in front of the limiter, and 85% neutral atoms and 82% emission intensity in front of the wall. The processes of atoms and molecules influence on the energy balance is ...

  17. Bend me, shape me

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A Japanese team has found a way to bend and shape silicon substrates by growing a thin layer of diamond on top. The technique has been proposed as an alternative to mechanical bending, which is currently used to make reflective lenses for X-ray systems and particle physics systems (2 paragraphs).

  18. Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ugc

    (sensor), magnetocaloric (refrigeration), and shape memory effect. (actuation) may be important for their future application. Magnetoresistance (8%). Giant magnetocaloric ..... Experimental studies on Ga. 2. MnNi: SEM, EDAX, DSC. T. M. = 780 K. Homogeneous, composition Ga. 1.9. Mn. 0.8. Ni. 1.02. Secondary electron ...

  19. Frequency and Spatial Shaping of Inputs for Multiaxis Shaker Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig C. Smith

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled amplitude and phase relationships between multiaxial shaker inputs (i.e., spatial shaping provides for more realistic simulation of a service environment than does conventional frequency shaping alone. Spatial shaping is described in terms of a basic mathematical model relating test article response (absolute and relative motions to excitation by the shaker. Advantages and objectives are viewed through spectral relationships. The objective of simulating dynamic responses as in service is shown to be the duplication of the resultant cross-modal response for all important modes, even if the sources of excitation in service are unknown.

  20. 2D Affine and Projective Shape Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, Darshan; Klassen, Eric; Huiling Le; Srivastava, Anuj

    2014-05-01

    Current techniques for shape analysis tend to seek invariance to similarity transformations (rotation, translation, and scale), but certain imaging situations require invariance to larger groups, such as affine or projective groups. Here we present a general Riemannian framework for shape analysis of planar objects where metrics and related quantities are invariant to affine and projective groups. Highlighting two possibilities for representing object boundaries-ordered points (or landmarks) and parameterized curves-we study different combinations of these representations (points and curves) and transformations (affine and projective). Specifically, we provide solutions to three out of four situations and develop algorithms for computing geodesics and intrinsic sample statistics, leading up to Gaussian-type statistical models, and classifying test shapes using such models learned from training data. In the case of parameterized curves, we also achieve the desired goal of invariance to re-parameterizations. The geodesics are constructed by particularizing the path-straightening algorithm to geometries of current manifolds and are used, in turn, to compute shape statistics and Gaussian-type shape models. We demonstrate these ideas using a number of examples from shape and activity recognition.

  1. Fluting Modes in Transversely Nonuniform Solar Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic waves of different types are frequently observed in magnetic flux tubes of the solar atmosphere and are often modeled using simple models. In the standard flux tube model made of a straight uniform tube with an abrupt boundary, transverse wave modes are classified according to their azimuthal wavenumber, m. Sausage (m = 0) and kink (m = 1) modes produce pulsations of the cross section and transverse oscillations of tube axis, respectively. Both sausage and kink modes have been observed in the solar atmosphere. Fluting (m≥slant 2) modes produce perturbations that are essentially confined around the boundary of the tube, I.e., they have a strong surface-like character. Unlike sausage and kink modes, the detection of fluting modes remains elusive. Here we show that the inclusion of transverse inhomogeneity in the flux tube model dramatically affects the properties of fluting modes. Even in a thin tube, kink and fluting modes are no longer degenerate in frequency when the tube has a smooth boundary. In addition, fluting modes become heavily damped by resonant absorption in a timescale shorter than the oscillation period. The perturbations loose their global shape and their distinctive surface-like appearance. As a consequence of that, we argue that nonuniform flux tubes with smooth boundaries may not be able to support fluting-like perturbations as coherent, global modes.

  2. Mode lifetimes of stellar oscillations. Implications for asteroseismology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaplin, W.J.; Houdek, G.; Karoff, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    is the effective temperature). When this relation is combined with the well-known scaling relation of Kjeldsen & Bedding for mode amplitudes observed in narrow-band intensity observations, we obtain the unexpected result that the height (the maximum power spectral density) of mode peaks in the frequency power...... as their hotter counterparts. When observations are instead made in Doppler velocity, our results imply that mode height does increase with increasing effective temperature....

  3. Scale issues in tourism development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinji Yang; Lori Pennington-Gray; Donald F. Holecek

    1998-01-01

    Proponents of Alternative Tourism overwhelmingly believe that alternative forms of tourism development need to be small in scale. Inasmuch as tourists' demand has great power to shape the market, the issues surrounding the tourism development scale deserve further consideration. This paper discusses the implications and effects of the tourism development scale on...

  4. Excitation Mechanisms for Jovian Seismic Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Stephen; Stevenson, David J.

    2017-10-01

    Recent (2011) results from the Nice Observatory indicate the existence of global seismic modes on Jupiter in the frequency range between 0.7 and 1.5mHz with amplitudes of tens of cm/s. Currently, the driving force behind these modes is a mystery; the measured amplitudes were much larger than anticipated based on theory analogous to helioseismology (that is, turbulent convection as a source of stochastic excitation). One of the most promising hypotheses is that these modes are driven by Jovian storms. This work constructs a framework to analytically model the expected equilibrium normal mode amplitudes arising from convective columns in storms. We also place rough constraints of Jupiter's seismic modal quality factor. Using this model, neither meteor strikes, turbulent convection, nor water storms can feasibly excite the order of magnitude of observed amplitudes. Next we speculate about the potential role of rock storms deeper in Jupiter's atmosphere, because the rock storms' expected energy scales make them promising candidates to be the chief source of excitation for Jovian seismic modes, based on simple scaling arguments. Finally we suggest a predicted power spectrum for frequencies which have not yet been observed based on our findings, and supply some commentary on potential applications to Juno, Saturn, and future missions to Uranus and Neptune.

  5. Limit Shapes and Fluctuations of Bounded Random Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan

    Young diagrams confined to a rectangle. When the rectangle grows, and diagrams are rescaled, the probability measure degenerates to a delta measure on a continuous curve, the limit shape. In the intermediate scaling, the fluctuations around the limit shape turn out to be governed by an Ornstein...

  6. L1 Generalized Procrustes 2D Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Eiriksson, Hrafnkell

    2002-01-01

    We describe a new method for resistant and robust alignment of sets of 2D shapes wrt. position, rotation, and isotropical scaling based on minimization of absolute distances. The shapes are represented by \\$k\\$ landmarks in two dimensions. It is formulated as a linear programming (LP) problem, th...

  7. Duality based contact shape optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vondrák, Vít; Dostal, Zdenek; Rasmussen, John

    2001-01-01

    An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization.......An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization....

  8. The sensitivity of cartilage contact pressures in the knee joint to the size and shape of an anatomically shaped meniscal implant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshgoftar, M.; Vrancken, A.C.T.; Tienen, T.G. van; Buma, P.; Janssen, D.W.; Verdonschot, N.J.

    2015-01-01

    Since meniscal geometry affects the cartilage contact pressures, it is essential to carefully define the geometry of the synthetic meniscal implant that we developed. Recently, six independent modes of size- and shape-related geometry variation were identified through 3D statistical shape modeling

  9. Normalizing and Classifying Shape Indexes of Cities by Ideas from Fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-01-01

    A standard scientific study comprises two processes: one is to describe a thing, and the other is to understand how the thing works. In order to understand the principle of urban growth, a number of shape indexes are proposed to describe the size and shape of cities. However, the comparability of a shape index is often influenced by the resolution of remote sensing images or digital maps because the calculated values depend on spatial measurement scales. This paper is devoted to exploring the scaling in classical shape indexes. Two typical regular fractals, Koch's island and Vicsek's figure, are employed to illustrate the property of scale dependence of many shape indexes. Two main problems are solved in this work. First, several different correlated shape indexes such as circularity ratios and compactness ratios are normalized and unified by substituting Feret's diameter for the major axis of urban figure. Second, three levels of scaling in shape indexes are revealed, and shape indexes are classified into th...

  10. Effects of the shape anisotropy and biasing field on the magnetization reversal process of the diamond-shaped NiFe nano films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sichen; Yin, Jianfeng; Tang, Rujun; Zhang, Wenxu; Peng, Bin; Zhang, Wanli

    2017-11-01

    The effects of the planar shape anisotropy and biasing field on the magnetization reversal process (MRP) of the diamond-shaped NiFe nano films have been investigated by micromagnetic simulations. Results show that when the length to width ratio (LWR) of the diamond-shaped film is small, the MRP of the diamond-shaped films are sensitive to LWR. But when LWR is larger than 2, a stable domain switching mode is observed which nucleates from the center of the diamond and then expands to the edges. At a fixed LWR, the magnitude of the switching fields decrease with the increase of the biasing field, but the domain switching mode is not affected by the biasing field. Further analysis shows that demagnetization energy dominates over the MRP of the diamond-shaped films. The above LWR dependence of MRP can be well explained by a variation of the shape anisotropic factor with LWR.

  11. Modes of winter precipitation variability in the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, E. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik; Saenz, J.; Fernandez, J.; Zubillaga, J. [Bilbao Univ. (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The modes of variability of winter precipitation in the North Atlantic sector are identified by Empirical Orthogonal Functions Analysis in the NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis data sets. These modes are also present in a gridded precipitation data set over the Western Europe. The large-scale fields of atmospheric seasonal mean circulation, baroclinic activity, evaporation and humidity transport that are connected to the rainfall modes have been also analyzed in order to investigate the physical mechanisms that are causally linked to the rainfall modes. The results indicate that the leading rainfall mode is associated to the North Atlantic oscillation and represents a meridional redistribution of precipitation in the North Atlantic through displacements of the storm tracks. The second mode is related to evaporation anomalies in the Eastern Atlantic that precipitate almost entirely in the Western Atlantic. The third mode seems to be associated to meridional transport of water vapor from the Tropical Atlantic. (orig.)

  12. Imaging out-of-plane polarized emission patterns on gap mode SERS substrates: from high molecular coverage to the single molecule regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P B; Anthony, T P; Wilson, A J; Willets, K A

    2017-12-04

    Gap mode surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates are created when a single nanoparticle is deposited on a thin metal film, creating a region of significant electromagnetic field enhancement in the gap between the nanoparticle and the film due to excitation of a vertically-oriented, out-of-plane dipole plasmon mode, e.g. the gap plasmon. When molecules are located in the gap and couple to the gap plasmon mode, the resulting emission is polarized perpendicular to the thin film, generating SERS emission patterns that have a characteristic donut shape. We analyze these SERS emission patterns using a dipole emission model and extract out-of-plane and in-plane emission angles associated with the gap plasmon mode. Fluctuations in both of these angles reveal dynamic heterogeneity due to molecular motion within the hot spot that changes as a function of molecular coverage. We also reveal static heterogeneity associated with structural defects in the thin film component of the gap mode substrates, indicating that even nanometer-scale surface roughness can impact the quality of gap mode emission.

  13. Two-mode chaos and its synchronization properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D E; Shishkin, A V; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Using a simple model with bimodal dynamics, we investigate the intra- and inter-system entrainment of the two different time scales involved in the chaotic oscillations. The transition between mode-locked and mode-unlocked chaos is analyzed for a single system. For coupled oscillators, we...

  14. Sliding mode control and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Shtessel, Yuri; Fridman, Leonid; Levant, Arie

    2014-01-01

    The sliding mode control methodology has proven effective in dealing with complex dynamical systems affected by disturbances, uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics. Robust control technology based on this methodology has been applied to many real-world problems, especially in the areas of aerospace control, electric power systems, electromechanical systems, and robotics. Sliding Mode Control and Observation represents the first textbook that starts with classical sliding mode control techniques and progresses toward newly developed higher-order sliding mode control and observation algorithms and their applications. The present volume addresses a range of sliding mode control issues, including: *Conventional sliding mode controller and observer design *Second-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Frequency domain analysis of conventional and second-order sliding mode controllers *Higher-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Higher-order sliding mode observers *Sliding mode disturbanc...

  15. Free boundary ballooning mode representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Linjin

    2012-03-01

    Considerable efforts have been made in this field to develop a free boundary ballooning mode representation, which can incorporate the peeling mode stability criterion. Those efforts have not succeeded, simply because the so-called ballooning mode invariance is broken toward plasma edge. This makes 1D description of high n modes at plasma edge become impossible, where n is toroidal mode number. Nevertheless, we prove that the existence of ``half" ballooning mode invariance toward plasma core enables an 1.δ-dimentional representation of the modes, where δ˜O(1/n). This considerably reduces the complicity in investigating high n modes at plasma edge and can be used to study peeling-ballooning modes. This technique can also be useful to extend the 1D calculation of fixed boundary ballooning modes for free boundary ballooning modes. Numerical example will also be presented together with the topological symmetry analysis.

  16. H.264 SVC Complexity Reduction Based on Likelihood Mode Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC was prolonged to Scalable Video Coding (SVC. SVC executes in different electronics gadgets such as personal computer, HDTV, SDTV, IPTV, and full-HDTV in which user demands various scaling of the same content. The various scaling is resolution, frame rate, quality, heterogeneous networks, bandwidth, and so forth. Scaling consumes more encoding time and computational complexity during mode selection. In this paper, to reduce encoding time and computational complexity, a fast mode decision algorithm based on likelihood mode decision (LMD is proposed. LMD is evaluated in both temporal and spatial scaling. From the results, we conclude that LMD performs well, when compared to the previous fast mode decision algorithms. The comparison parameters are time, PSNR, and bit rate. LMD achieve time saving of 66.65% with 0.05% detriment in PSNR and 0.17% increment in bit rate compared with the full search method.

  17. Physical models of polarization mode dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menyuk, C.R.; Wai, P.K.A. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The effect of randomly varying birefringence on light propagation in optical fibers is studied theoretically in the parameter regime that will be used for long-distance communications. In this regime, the birefringence is large and varies very rapidly in comparison to the nonlinear and dispersive scale lengths. We determine the polarization mode dispersion, and we show that physically realistic models yield the same result for polarization mode dispersion as earlier heuristic models that were introduced by Poole. We also prove an ergodic theorem.

  18. Modeli diskretne izbire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Kerbler – Kefo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available V članku je sistematično predstavljena posebna oblika regresijskih metod – modelov diskretne izbire –, imenovanih tudi verjetnostni modeli. Poleg njihovega pomena so opisane še metodološke značilnosti pri njihovi izvedbi, natančneje pa so predstavljeni modeli binarne izbire in tisti z omejeno odvisno spremenljivko, logistični model ter modela probit in tobit kot izhodiščni metodološki pristopi k izvedbi modelov.

  19. Mode og mozzarella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2013-01-01

    Under en samtale i Paolo Sorrentinos La grande bellezza/da. Den store skønhed (2013) anføres det, at Italiens primære eksportvarer er mode og mozzarella. Selve filmen vidner om, at Italien har andet at byde på – heriblandt filmkunst og Roms righoldige kulturhistorie.......Under en samtale i Paolo Sorrentinos La grande bellezza/da. Den store skønhed (2013) anføres det, at Italiens primære eksportvarer er mode og mozzarella. Selve filmen vidner om, at Italien har andet at byde på – heriblandt filmkunst og Roms righoldige kulturhistorie....

  20. Finite Elements Analysis of a Butterfly-Shaped Composite patch Repair and its Comparison to the Usual Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElHadj BESSEGHIER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 3-D finite element analysis was conducted on a thin aluminum plate with a 45 ° inclined central crack.  A modeling of the bonding repair with composite patch of different shapes was carried out. In addition to the patch shapes studied in the literature, a new butterfly shape was proposed. The latter is defined by a length H, a width B and a neck C in the middle. The main objective is to analyze the effect of patch geometry on the rate of decrease of stress intensity factors. This rate is characterized by a coefficient R which combines between the mode I and the mode II of the rupture (KI and KII. Thus, an optimization of the patch shape is made with respect to the effectiveness in decreasing the stress intensity factor. The comparison between the results obtained with the different patch shapes has shown that the butterfly-shaped patch is more effective for relatively small surfaces. On the other hand, the extended octagon shape has been shown to be more effective for higher patch surfaces.

  1. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dunner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe approx.70% of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at approx.10Hz to suppress the 1/f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.

  2. Breathing Life into Shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Alec

    2015-01-01

    Shape articulation transforms a lifeless geometric object into a vibrant character. Computers enrich artists' toolsets dramatically. They not only endow artists with the power to manipulate virtual 2D and 3D scenes, but they also eliminate tedium and expedite prototyping, freeing artists to focus on creative aspects. With such power comes a temptation to lean entirely on the computer. Computationally intensive animation systems sacrifice real-time feedback for physical accuracy. How can we leverage modern computational power to create the best possible shape deformations while maintaining real-time performance as a mandatory invariant? This article summarizes efforts to answer this, culminating in a deformation system with the quality of slow, nonlinear optimization, but at lightning speed.

  3. Shaping the Social

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Susan; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The social environment at schools is an important setting to promote educational attainment, and health and well-being of young people. However, within upper secondary education there is a need for evidence-based school intervention programmes. The Shaping the Social intervention...... is a comprehensive programme integrating social and educational activities to promote student well-being and reduce smoking and dropout in upper secondary vocational education. The evaluation design is reported here. METHODS/DESIGN: The evaluation employed a non-randomised cluster controlled design, and schools were...... national education registers through a 2-year follow-up period. DISCUSSION: Shaping the Social was designed to address that students at Danish vocational schools constitute a high risk population concerning health behaviour as well as school dropout by modifying the school environment, alongside developing...

  4. Shaping the Social

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Susan; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2015-01-01

    is a comprehensive programme integrating social and educational activities to promote student well-being and reduce smoking and dropout in upper secondary vocational education. The evaluation design is reported here. METHODS/DESIGN: The evaluation employed a non-randomised cluster controlled design, and schools were......BACKGROUND: The social environment at schools is an important setting to promote educational attainment, and health and well-being of young people. However, within upper secondary education there is a need for evidence-based school intervention programmes. The Shaping the Social intervention...... national education registers through a 2-year follow-up period. DISCUSSION: Shaping the Social was designed to address that students at Danish vocational schools constitute a high risk population concerning health behaviour as well as school dropout by modifying the school environment, alongside developing...

  5. Social Shaping of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Mack, Alexandra

    - in particular in a large corporation? This workshop explores how innovation is socially shaped in organizations. Based on our experiences with practices around innovation and collaboration, we start from three proposition about the social shaping of innovation: • Ideas don't thrive as text (i.e. we need......Why is it that some business proposals – no matter how well researched with users and business developed – don’t seem to make it through the organizational jungle to become a real product, while others do? How shall we understand the innovative practices that we engage with our ethnographic work...... to consider other media) • Ideas need socialization (ideas are linked to people, we need to be careful about how we support the social innovation context) • Ideas are local (ideas spring out of a local contingency, we need to take care in how we like them to travel)....

  6. Biomedical Shape Memory Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Xue-lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory polymers(SMPs are a class of functional "smart" materials that have shown bright prospects in the area of biomedical applications. The novel smart materials with multifunction of biodegradability and biocompatibility can be designed based on their general principle, composition and structure. In this review, the latest process of three typical biodegradable SMPs(poly(lactide acide, poly(ε-caprolactone, polyurethane was summarized. These three SMPs were classified in different structures and discussed, and shape-memory mechanism, recovery rate and fixed rate, response speed was analysed in detail, also, some biomedical applications were presented. Finally, the future development and applications of SMPs are prospected: two-way SMPs and body temperature induced SMPs will be the focus attension by researchers.

  7. Nonclassicality in two-mode BEC

    OpenAIRE

    Giri, Sandip Kumar; Sen, Biswajit; Ooi, C H Raymond; Pathak, Anirban

    2013-01-01

    The operator solution of a completely quantum mechanical Hamiltonian of the Raman processes is used here to investigate the possibility of obtaining intermodal entanglement between different modes involved in the Raman processes (e.g. pump mode, Stokes mode, vibration (phonon) mode and anti-Stokes mode). Intermodal entanglement is reported between a) pump mode and anti-Stokes mode, b) pump mode and vibration (phonon) mode c) Stokes mode and vibration phonon mode, d) Stokes mode and anti-stoke...

  8. Goldstone-like phonon modes in a (111)-strained perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthinsen, A.; Griffin, S. M.; Moreau, M.; Grande, T.; Tybell, T.; Selbach, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Goldstone modes are massless particles resulting from spontaneous symmetry breaking. Although such modes are found in elementary particle physics as well as in condensed-matter systems like superfluid helium, superconductors, and magnons, structural Goldstone modes are rare. Epitaxial strain in thin films can induce structures and properties not accessible in bulk and has been intensively studied for (001)-oriented perovskite oxides. Here we predict Goldstone-like phonon modes in (111)-strained SrMn O3 by first-principles calculations. Under compressive strain the coupling between two in-plane rotational instabilities gives rise to a Mexican hat-shaped energy surface characteristic of a Goldstone mode. Conversely, large tensile strain induces in-plane polar instabilities with no directional preference, giving rise to a continuous polar ground state. Such phonon modes with U (1) symmetry could emulate structural condensed-matter Higgs modes. The mass of this Higgs boson, given by the shape of the Mexican hat energy surface, can be tuned by strain through proper choice of substrate.

  9. Mode resolved density of atmospheric aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aalto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the mode resolved density of ultrafine atmospheric particles measured in boreal forest environment. The method used here enables us to find the distinct density information for each mode in atmospheric fine particle population: the density values for nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation mode particles are presented. The experimental data was gained during 2 May 2005–19 May 2005 at the boreal forest measurement station "SMEAR II" in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland. The density values for accumulation mode varied from 1.1 to 2 g/cm3 (average 1.5 g/cm3 and for Aitken mode from 0.4 to 2 g/cm3 (average 0.97 g/cm3. As an overall trend during the two weeks campaign, the density value of Aitken mode was seen to gradually increase. With the present method, the time dependent behaviour of the particle density can be investigated in the time scale of 10 min. This allows us to follow the density evolution of the nucleation mode particles during the particle growth process following the nucleation burst. The density of nucleation mode particles decreased during the growth process. The density values for 15 nm particles were 1.2–1.5 g/cm3 and for grown 30 nm particles 0.5–1 g/cm3. These values are consistent with the present knowledge that the condensing species are semi-volatile organics, emitted from the boreal forest.

  10. Constraining Light Colored Particles with Event Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David E.; Schwartz, Matthew D.

    2008-07-01

    Using recently developed techniques for computing event shapes with soft-collinear effective theory, CERN Large Electron Positron Collider event shape data are used to derive strong model-independent bounds on new colored particles. In the effective field theory computation, colored particles contribute in loops not only to the running of αs but also to the running of hard, jet, and soft functions. Moreover, the differential distribution in the effective theory explicitly probes many energy scales, so even shapes have a strong sensitivity to new particle thresholds. Using thrust data from ALEPH and OPAL, colored adjoint fermions (such as a gluino) below 51.0 GeV are ruled out to 95% confidence. This is nearly an order-of-magnitude improvement over the previous model-independent bound of 6.3 GeV.

  11. Two-mode chaos and its synchronization properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.E.; Shishkin, A.V.; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Using a simple model with bimodal dynamics, we investigate the intra- and inter-system entrainment of the two different time scales involved in the chaotic oscillations. The transition between mode-locked and mode-unlocked chaos is analyzed for a single system. For coupled oscillators, we demonst...... demonstrate full and partial synchronization patterns depending on the adjustment between the fast and slow time scales and reveal the embedded structure of the corresponding synchronization regions....

  12. Audiometric shape and presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeester, Kelly; van Wieringen, Astrid; Hendrickx, Jan-jaap; Topsakal, Vedat; Fransen, Erik; van Laer, Lut; Van Camp, Guy; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of specific audiogram configurations in a healthy, otologically screened population between 55 and 65 years old. The audiograms of 1147 subjects (549 males and 598 females between 55 and 65 years old) were collected through population registries and classified according to the configuration of hearing loss. Gender and noise/solvent-exposure effects on the prevalence of the different audiogram shapes were determined statistically. In our population 'Flat' audiograms were most dominantly represented (37%) followed by 'High frequency Gently sloping' audiograms (35%) and 'High frequency Steeply sloping' audiograms (27%). 'Low frequency Ascending' audiograms, 'Mid frequency U-shape' audiograms and 'Mid frequency Reverse U-shape' audiograms were very rare (together less than 1%). The 'Flat'-configuration was significantly more common in females, whereas the 'High frequency Steeply sloping'-configuration was more common in males. Exposure to noise and/or solvents did not change this finding. In addition, females with a 'Flat' audiogram had a significantly larger amount of overall hearing loss compared to males. Furthermore, our data reveal a significant association between the prevalence of 'High frequency Steeply sloping' audiograms and the degree of noise/solvent exposure, despite a relatively high proportion of non-exposed subjects showing a 'High frequency Steeply sloping' audiogram as well.

  13. Island Shape-Induced Transition from 2D to 3D Growth for Pt/Pt(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Joachim; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Stoltze, Per

    1995-01-01

    We present a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of the growth of Pt on Pt(111) capable of describing the experimentally observed temperature dependence of the island shapes and the growth mode. We show that the transition from a 2D growth mode at low temperatures to a 3D mode at higher temperatures i...

  14. Vibrational modes of nanolines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyliger, Paul R.; Flannery, Colm M.; Johnson, Ward L.

    2008-04-01

    Brillouin-light-scattering spectra previously have been shown to provide information on acoustic modes of polymeric lines fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. Finite-element methods for modeling such modes are presented here. These methods provide a theoretical framework for determining elastic constants and dimensions of nanolines from measured spectra in the low gigahertz range. To make the calculations feasible for future incorporation in inversion algorithms, two approximations of the boundary conditions are employed in the calculations: the rigidity of the nanoline/substrate interface and sinusoidal variation of displacements along the nanoline length. The accuracy of these approximations is evaluated as a function of wavenumber and frequency. The great advantage of finite-element methods over other methods previously employed for nanolines is the ability to model any cross-sectional geometry. Dispersion curves and displacement patterns are calculated for modes of polymethyl methacrylate nanolines with cross-sectional dimensions of 65 nm × 140 nm and rectangular or semicircular tops. The vibrational displacements and dispersion curves are qualitatively similar for the two geometries and include a series of flexural, Rayleigh-like, and Sezawa-like modes. This paper is a contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and is not subject to copyright in the United States.

  15. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    CERN Document Server

    Trofimov, M Yu; Kozitskiy, S B

    2015-01-01

    An adiabatic mode Helmholtz equation for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the crosswedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method.

  16. New Modes of Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2017-01-01

    in common that they involve important elements of autonomy and self-care and are part of an international movement toward empowering citizens and patients. This chapter discusses the relation between care innovation and new modes of citizenship in terms of the ‘active’ citizen. By way of an ethnographic...

  17. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  18. Theories and Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    In his work on the Theory of Modes, Beck (1996) suggested that there were flaws with his cognitive theory. He suggested that though there are shortcomings to his cognitive theory, there were not similar shortcomings to the practice of Cognitive Therapy. The author suggests that if there are shortcomings to cognitive theory the same shortcomings…

  19. Towards robust and effective shape modeling: sparse shape composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoting; Zhan, Yiqiang; Dewan, Maneesh; Huang, Junzhou; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Zhou, Xiang Sean

    2012-01-01

    Organ shape plays an important role in various clinical practices, e.g., diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment evaluation. It is usually derived from low level appearance cues in medical images. However, due to diseases and imaging artifacts, low level appearance cues might be weak or misleading. In this situation, shape priors become critical to infer and refine the shape derived by image appearances. Effective modeling of shape priors is challenging because: (1) shape variation is complex and cannot always be modeled by a parametric probability distribution; (2) a shape instance derived from image appearance cues (input shape) may have gross errors; and (3) local details of the input shape are difficult to preserve if they are not statistically significant in the training data. In this paper we propose a novel Sparse Shape Composition model (SSC) to deal with these three challenges in a unified framework. In our method, a sparse set of shapes in the shape repository is selected and composed together to infer/refine an input shape. The a priori information is thus implicitly incorporated on-the-fly. Our model leverages two sparsity observations of the input shape instance: (1) the input shape can be approximately represented by a sparse linear combination of shapes in the shape repository; (2) parts of the input shape may contain gross errors but such errors are sparse. Our model is formulated as a sparse learning problem. Using L1 norm relaxation, it can be solved by an efficient expectation-maximization (EM) type of framework. Our method is extensively validated on two medical applications, 2D lung localization in X-ray images and 3D liver segmentation in low-dose CT scans. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, our model exhibits better performance in both studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Abstract shape analysis of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Stefan; Giegerich, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract shape analysis abstract shape analysis is a method to learn more about the complete Boltzmann ensemble of the secondary structures of a single RNA molecule. Abstract shapes classify competing secondary structures into classes that are defined by their arrangement of helices. It allows us to compute, in addition to the structure of minimal free energy, a set of structures that represents relevant and interesting structural alternatives. Furthermore, it allows to compute probabilities of all structures within a shape class. This allows to ensure that our representative subset covers the complete Boltzmann ensemble, except for a portion of negligible probability. This chapter explains the main functions of abstract shape analysis, as implemented in the tool RNA shapes. RNA shapes It reports on some other types of analysis that are based on the abstract shapes idea and shows how you can solve novel problems by creating your own shape abstractions.