International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lysenko, W.P.
1986-01-01
Accelerator scaling laws how they can be generated, and how they are used are discussed. A scaling law is a relation between machine parameters and beam parameters. An alternative point of view is that a scaling law is an imposed relation between the equations of motion and the initial conditions. The relation between the parameters is obtained by requiring the beam to be matched. (A beam is said to be matched if the phase-space distribution function is a function of single-particle invariants of the motion.) Because of this restriction, the number of independent parameters describing the system is reduced. Using simple models for bunched- and unbunched-beam situations. Scaling laws are shown to determine the general behavior of beams in accelerators. Such knowledge is useful in design studies for new machines such as high-brightness linacs. The simple model presented shows much of the same behavior as a more detailed RFQ model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfirsch, D.; Duechs, D.F.
1985-01-01
A number of statistical implications of empirical scaling laws in form of power products obtained by linear regression are analysed. The sensitivity of the error against a change of exponents is described by a sensitivity factor and the uncertainty of predictions by a ''range of predictions factor''. Inner relations in the statistical material is discussed, as well as the consequences of discarding variables.A recipe is given for the computations to be done. The whole is exemplified by considering scaling laws for the electron energy confinement time of ohmically heated tokamak plasmas. (author)
Tokamak confinement scaling laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connor, J.
1998-01-01
The scaling of energy confinement with engineering parameters, such as plasma current and major radius, is important for establishing the size of an ignited fusion device. Tokamaks exhibit a variety of modes of operation with different confinement properties. At present there is no adequate first principles theory to predict tokamak energy confinement and the empirical scaling method is the preferred approach to designing next step tokamaks. This paper reviews a number of robust theoretical concepts, such as dimensional analysis and stability boundaries, which provide a framework for characterising and understanding tokamak confinement and, therefore, generate more confidence in using empirical laws for extrapolation to future devices. (author)
On inertial range scaling laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowman, J.C.
1994-12-01
Inertial-range scaling laws for two- and three-dimensional turbulence are re-examined within a unified framework. A new correction to Kolmogorov's k -5/3 scaling is derived for the energy inertial range. A related modification is found to Kraichnan's logarithmically corrected two-dimensional enstrophy cascade law that removes its unexpected divergence at the injection wavenumber. The significance of these corrections is illustrated with steady-state energy spectra from recent high-resolution closure computations. The results also underscore the asymptotic nature of inertial-range scaling laws. Implications for conventional numerical simulations are discussed
Minimum scaling laws in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.
1986-10-01
Scaling laws governing anomalous electron transport in tokamaks with ohmic and/or auxiliary heating are derived using renormalized Vlasov-Ampere equations for low frequency electromagnetic microturbulence. It is also shown that for pure auxiliary heating (or when auxiliary heating power far exceeds the ohmic power), the energy confinement time scales as tau/sub E/ ∼ P/sub inj//sup -1/3/, where P/sub inj/ is the injected power
Scaling laws of Rydberg excitons
Heckötter, J.; Freitag, M.; Fröhlich, D.; Aßmann, M.; Bayer, M.; Semina, M. A.; Glazov, M. M.
2017-09-01
Rydberg atoms have attracted considerable interest due to their huge interaction among each other and with external fields. They demonstrate characteristic scaling laws in dependence on the principal quantum number n for features such as the magnetic field for level crossing or the electric field of dissociation. Recently, the observation of excitons in highly excited states has allowed studying Rydberg physics in cuprous oxide crystals. Fundamentally different insights may be expected for Rydberg excitons, as the crystal environment and associated symmetry reduction compared to vacuum give not only optical access to many more states within an exciton multiplet but also extend the Hamiltonian for describing the exciton beyond the hydrogen model. Here we study experimentally and theoretically the scaling of several parameters of Rydberg excitons with n , for some of which we indeed find laws different from those of atoms. For others we find identical scaling laws with n , even though their origin may be distinctly different from the atomic case. At zero field the energy splitting of a particular multiplet n scales as n-3 due to crystal-specific terms in the Hamiltonian, e.g., from the valence band structure. From absorption spectra in magnetic field we find for the first crossing of levels with adjacent principal quantum numbers a Br∝n-4 dependence of the resonance field strength, Br, due to the dominant paramagnetic term unlike for atoms for which the diamagnetic contribution is decisive, resulting in a Br∝n-6 dependence. By contrast, the resonance electric field strength shows a scaling as Er∝n-5 as for Rydberg atoms. Also similar to atoms with the exception of hydrogen we observe anticrossings between states belonging to multiplets with different principal quantum numbers at these resonances. The energy splittings at the avoided crossings scale roughly as n-4, again due to crystal specific features in the exciton Hamiltonian. The data also allow us to
Scaling law in laboratory astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia Jiangfan; Zhang Jie
2001-01-01
The use of state-of-the-art lasers makes it possible to produce, in the laboratory, the extreme conditions similar to those in astrophysical processes. The introduction of astrophysics-relevant ideas in laser-plasma interaction experiments is propitious to the understanding of astrophysical phenomena. However, the great difference between laser-produced plasma and astrophysical objects makes it awkward to model the latter by laser-plasma experiments. The author presents the physical reasons for modeling astrophysical plasmas by laser plasmas, connecting these two kinds of plasmas by scaling laws. This allows the creation of experimental test beds where observation and models can be quantitatively compared with laboratory data
Divertor scaling laws for tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catto, P.J.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Connor, J.W.
1997-01-01
The breakdown of two body scaling laws is illustrated by using the two dimensional plasma code UEDGE coupled to an advanced Navier-Stokes neutrals transport package to model attached and detached regimes in a simplified geometry. Two body similarity scalings are used as benchmarks for runs retaining non-two body modifications due to the effects of (i) multi-step processes altering ionization and radiation via the excited states of atomic hydrogen and (ii) three body recombination. Preliminary investigations indicate that two body scaling interpretations of experimental data fail due to (i) multi-step processes when a significant region of the plasma exceeds a plasma density of 10 19 m -3 , or (ii) three body recombination when there is a significant region in which the temperature is ≤1 eV while the plasma density is ≥10 20 m -3 . These studies demonstrate that two body scaling arguments are often inappropriate in the divertor and the first results for alternate scalings are presented. (orig.)
Scaling laws for specialized hohlraums
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosen, M.D.
1993-01-01
The author presents scaling laws for the behavior of hohlraums that are somewhat more complex than a simple sphere or cylinder. In particular the author considers hohlraums that are in what has become known as a open-quotes primaryclose quotes open-quotes secondaryclose quotes configuration, namely geometries in which the laser is absorbed in a primary region of a hohlraum, and only radiation energy is transported to a secondary part of the hohlraum that is shielded from seeing the laser light directly. Such hohlraums have been in use of late for doing LTE opacity experiments on a sample in the secondary and in recently proposed open-quotes shimmedclose quotes hohlraums that use gold disks on axis to block a capsule's view of the cold laser entrance hole. The temperature/drive of the secondary, derived herein, scales somewhat differently than the drive in simple hohlraums
Multitude scaling laws in axisymmetric turbulent wake
Layek, G. C.; Sunita
2018-03-01
We establish theoretically multitude scaling laws of a self-similar (statistical) axisymmetric turbulent wake. At infinite Reynolds number limit, the flow evolves as general power law and a new exponential law of streamwise distance, consistent with the criterion of equilibrium similarity hypothesis. We found power law scalings for components of the homogeneous dissipation rate (ɛ) obeying the non-Richardson-Kolmogorov cascade as ɛu˜ku3 /2/(l R elm ) , ɛv˜kv3 /2/l , kv˜ku/R el2 m, 0 stress, l is the local length scale, and Rel is the Reynolds number. The Richardson-Kolmogorov cascade corresponds to m = 0. For m ≈ 1, the power law agrees with non-equilibrium scaling laws observed in recent experiments of the axisymmetric wake. On the contrary, the exponential scaling law follows the above dissipation law with different regions of existence for power index m = 3. At finite Reynolds number with kinematic viscosity ν, scalings obey the dissipation laws ɛu ˜ νku/l2 and ɛv ˜ νkv/l2 with kv˜ku/R eln. The value of n is preferably 0 and 2. Different possibilities of scaling laws and symmetry breaking process are discussed at length.
Scaling laws for coastal overwash morphology
Lazarus, Eli D.
2016-12-01
Overwash is a physical process of coastal sediment transport driven by storm events and is essential to landscape resilience in low-lying barrier environments. This work establishes a comprehensive set of scaling laws for overwash morphology: unifying quantitative descriptions with which to compare overwash features by their morphological attributes across case examples. Such scaling laws also help relate overwash features to other morphodynamic phenomena. Here morphometric data from a physical experiment are compared with data from natural examples of overwash features. The resulting scaling relationships indicate scale invariance spanning several orders of magnitude. Furthermore, these new relationships for overwash morphology align with classic scaling laws for fluvial drainages and alluvial fans.
Power law scaling for rotational energy transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pritchard, D.E.; Smith, N.; Driver, R.D.; Brunner, T.A.
1979-01-01
We have applied a new scaling law to several sets of rotational energy transfer cross sections. The new law asserts that the square of the T-matrix depends on the amount of energy transferred as a power law. Two different kinds of angular momentum statistics are assumed, one corresponding to m/sub j/ being conserved and the other corresponding to m/sub j/ being completely randomized. Numerical fits are presented which demonstrate that the data follow the power law better than the widely used exponential gap law
Acoustofluidics 10: Scaling laws in acoustophoresis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruus, Henrik
2012-01-01
In Part 10 of the thematic tutorial series “Acoustofluidics – exploiting ultrasonic standing waves forces and acoustic streaming in microfluidic systems for cell and particle manipulation”, we present and analyze a number of scaling laws relevant for microsystem acoustophoresis. Such laws...
RFQ scaling-law implications and examples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wadlinger, E.A.
1986-01-01
We demonstrate the utility of the RFQ scaling laws that have been previously derived. These laws are relations between accelerator parameters (electric field, fr frequency, etc.) and beam parameters (current, energy, emittance, etc.) that act as guides for designing radio-frequency quadrupoles (RFQs) by showing the various tradeoffs involved in making RFQ designs. These scaling laws give a unique family of curves, at any given synchronous particle phase, that relates the beam current, emittance, particle mass, and space-charge tune depression with the RFQ frequency and maximum vane-tip electric field when assuming equipartitioning and equal longitudinal and transverse tune depressions. These scaling curves are valid at any point in any given RFQ where there is a bunched and equipartitioned beam. We show several examples for designing RFQs, examine the performance characteristics of an existing device, and study various RFQ performance limitations required by the scaling laws
Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quentin S Hanley
Full Text Available Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026 while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029 indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes. Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.
Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.
Hanley, Quentin S; Khatun, Suniya; Yosef, Amal; Dyer, Rachel-May
2014-01-01
Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026) while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029) indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs) to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes). Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.
Practical scaling law for photoelectron angular distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Dongsheng; Zhang Jingtao; Xu Zhizhan; Li Xiaofeng; Fu Panming; Freeman, R.R.
2003-01-01
A practical scaling law that predicts photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) is derived using angular distribution formulas which explicitly contain spontaneous emission. The scaling law is used to analyze recent PAD measurements in above-threshold ionization, and to predict results of future experiments. Our theoretical and numerical studies show that, in the non-relativistic regime and long-wavelength approximation, the shapes of PADs are determined by only three dimensionless numbers: (1) u p ≡U p /(ℎ/2π)ω, the ponderomotive number (ponderomotive energy in units of laser photon energy); (2) ε b ≡E b /(ℎ/2π)ω, the binding number (atomic binding energy in units of the laser photon energy); (3) j, the absorbed-photon number. The scaling law is shown to be useful in predictions of results from strong-field Kapitza-Dirac effect measurements; specifically, the application of this scaling law to recently reported Kapitza-Dirac diffraction is discussed. Possible experimental tests to verify the scaling law are suggested
Temperature Scaling Law for Quantum Annealing Optimizers.
Albash, Tameem; Martin-Mayor, Victor; Hen, Itay
2017-09-15
Physical implementations of quantum annealing unavoidably operate at finite temperatures. We point to a fundamental limitation of fixed finite temperature quantum annealers that prevents them from functioning as competitive scalable optimizers and show that to serve as optimizers annealer temperatures must be appropriately scaled down with problem size. We derive a temperature scaling law dictating that temperature must drop at the very least in a logarithmic manner but also possibly as a power law with problem size. We corroborate our results by experiment and simulations and discuss the implications of these to practical annealers.
A crude scaling law for lasertrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rees, J.
1987-11-01
The lasertron is under consideration in several laboratories as a promising new source of high-power microwaves that is competitive with conventional klystrons in its properties - particularly in efficiency. In this note, a crude scaling law for high-power lasertrons is derived based on the observation that the main limiting phenomenon, the phenomenon that curtails the tube's efficiency, is debunching due to longitudinal space-charge forces acting in the electron gun. The scaling law indicates that lasertrons are quite restricted in the power they can generate at high frequencies
Scaling laws for radial foil bearings
Honavara Prasad, Srikanth
The effects of fluid pressurization, structural deformation of the compliant members and heat generation in foil bearings make the design and analysis of foil bearings very complicated. The complex fluid-structural-thermal interactions in foil bearings also make modeling efforts challenging because these phenomena are governed by highly non-linear partial differential equations. Consequently, comparison of various bearing designs require detailed calculation of the flow fields (velocities, pressures), bump deflections (structural compliance) and heat transfer phenomena (viscous dissipation in the fluid, frictional heating, temperature profile etc.,) resulting in extensive computational effort (time/hardware). To obviate rigorous computations and aid in feasibility assessments of foil bearings of various sizes, NASA developed the "rule of thumb" design guidelines for estimation of journal bearing load capacity. The guidelines are based on extensive experimental data. The goal of the current work is the development of scaling laws for radial foil bearings to establish an analytical "rule of thumb" for bearing clearance and bump stiffness. The use of scale invariant Reynolds equation and experimentally observed NASA "rule of thumb" yield scale factors which can be deduced from first principles. Power-law relationships between: a. Bearing clearance and bearing radius, and b. bump stiffness and bearing radius, are obtained. The clearance and bump stiffness values obtained from scaling laws are used as inputs for Orbit simulation to study various cases. As the clearance of the bearing reaches the dimensions of the material surface roughness, asperity contact breaks the fluid film which results in wear. Similarly, as the rotor diameter increases (requiring larger bearing diameters), the load capacity of the fluid film should increase to prevent dry rubbing. This imposes limits on the size of the rotor diameter and consequently bearing diameter. Therefore, this thesis aims
Scaling Laws in Chennai Bus Network
Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan
2015-01-01
In this paper, we study the structural properties of the complex bus network of Chennai. We formulate this extensive network structure by identifying each bus stop as a node, and a bus which stops at any two adjacent bus stops as an edge connecting the nodes. Rigorous statistical analysis of this data shows that the Chennai bus network displays small-world properties and a scale-free degree distribution with the power-law exponent, $\\gamma > 3$.
Scaling laws for nonintercommuting cosmic string networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, C.J.A.P.
2004-01-01
We study the evolution of noninteracting and entangled cosmic string networks in the context of the velocity-dependent one-scale model. Such networks may be formed in several contexts, including brane inflation. We show that the frozen network solution L∝a, although generic, is only a transient one, and that the asymptotic solution is still L∝t as in the case of ordinary (intercommuting) strings, although in the present context the universe will usually be string dominated. Thus the behavior of two strings when they cross does not seem to affect their scaling laws, but only their densities relative to the background
Scaling laws in (e,3e) processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gasaneo, G; Rodriguez, K V; Ancarani, L U; Cappello, C Dal; Charpentier, I
2009-01-01
We study the double ionization of helium-like ions by impact of electrons with high incident energy. Within the isoelectronic sequence, an approximate scaling law for (e,3e) differential cross sections is proposed and confirmed by calculations. The latter are performed using 14-parameters Hylleraas-like wave functions to represent the bound electrons in the initial channel, plane waves for the fast incoming and scattered electrons, and a continuum distorted wave approach for the two ejected electrons in the final channel.
New Empirical Earthquake Source‐Scaling Laws
Thingbaijam, Kiran Kumar S.
2017-12-13
We develop new empirical scaling laws for rupture width W, rupture length L, rupture area A, and average slip D, based on a large database of rupture models. The database incorporates recent earthquake source models in a wide magnitude range (M 5.4–9.2) and events of various faulting styles. We apply general orthogonal regression, instead of ordinary least-squares regression, to account for measurement errors of all variables and to obtain mutually self-consistent relationships. We observe that L grows more rapidly with M compared to W. The fault-aspect ratio (L/W) tends to increase with fault dip, which generally increases from reverse-faulting, to normal-faulting, to strike-slip events. At the same time, subduction-inter-face earthquakes have significantly higher W (hence a larger rupture area A) compared to other faulting regimes. For strike-slip events, the growth of W with M is strongly inhibited, whereas the scaling of L agrees with the L-model behavior (D correlated with L). However, at a regional scale for which seismogenic depth is essentially fixed, the scaling behavior corresponds to the W model (D not correlated with L). Self-similar scaling behavior with M − log A is observed to be consistent for all the cases, except for normal-faulting events. Interestingly, the ratio D/W (a proxy for average stress drop) tends to increase with M, except for shallow crustal reverse-faulting events, suggesting the possibility of scale-dependent stress drop. The observed variations in source-scaling properties for different faulting regimes can be interpreted in terms of geological and seismological factors. We find substantial differences between our new scaling relationships and those of previous studies. Therefore, our study provides critical updates on source-scaling relations needed in seismic–tsunami-hazard analysis and engineering applications.
Scaling Laws for NanoFET Sensors
Wei, Qi-Huo; Zhou, Fu-Shan
2008-03-01
In this paper, we report our numerical studies of the scaling laws for nanoplate field-effect transistor (FET) sensors by simplifying the nanoplates as random resistor networks. Nanowire/tube FETs are included as the limiting cases where the device width goes small. Computer simulations show that the field effect strength exerted by the binding molecules has significant impact on the scaling behaviors. When the field effect strength is small, nanoFETs have little size and shape dependence. In contrast, when the field-effect strength becomes stronger, there exists a lower detection threshold for charge accumulation FETs and an upper detection threshold for charge depletion FET sensors. At these thresholds, the nanoFET devices undergo a transition between low and large sensitivities. These thresholds may set the detection limits of nanoFET sensors. We propose to eliminate these detection thresholds by employing devices with very short source-drain distance and large width.
Scaling laws for spherical pinch experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, D.P.; Palleschi, V.; Vaselli, M.
1991-01-01
In spherical pinch (SP) experiments, the plasma heated at the center of a cell to reach ignition temperature is confined by imploding shock waves for a time long enough to satisfy the Lawson criterion for plasma fusion. In earlier theoretical studies, the expansion of the central plasma either is neglected or is assumed to be radially uniform. The energy is considered to be deposited instantaneously at the center of the cell and the nonlinear heat conduction equation is solved to study the temporal evolution of the central plasma. Incorporating the ignition condition for the average temperature of the expanding fireball, and its confinement by imploding convergent shock waves, which may be fired from the periphery of the cell with some time delay, the scaling laws for satisfying the Lawson criterion are investigated in detail. The relevant calculations indicate that the cumulative effects of the convergent shock waves in the vicinity of the center of the cell play an important role in these scaling laws. (author)
Scaling Law of Urban Ride Sharing
Tachet, R.; Sagarra, O.; Santi, P.; Resta, G.; Szell, M.; Strogatz, S. H.; Ratti, C.
2017-03-01
Sharing rides could drastically improve the efficiency of car and taxi transportation. Unleashing such potential, however, requires understanding how urban parameters affect the fraction of individual trips that can be shared, a quantity that we call shareability. Using data on millions of taxi trips in New York City, San Francisco, Singapore, and Vienna, we compute the shareability curves for each city, and find that a natural rescaling collapses them onto a single, universal curve. We explain this scaling law theoretically with a simple model that predicts the potential for ride sharing in any city, using a few basic urban quantities and no adjustable parameters. Accurate extrapolations of this type will help planners, transportation companies, and society at large to shape a sustainable path for urban growth.
On generalized scaling laws with continuously varying exponents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sittler, Lionel; Hinrichsen, Haye
2002-01-01
Many physical systems share the property of scale invariance. Most of them show ordinary power-law scaling, where quantities can be expressed as a leading power law times a scaling function which depends on scaling-invariant ratios of the parameters. However, some systems do not obey power-law scaling, instead there is numerical evidence for a logarithmic scaling form, in which the scaling function depends on ratios of the logarithms of the parameters. Based on previous ideas by Tang we propose that this type of logarithmic scaling can be explained by a concept of local scaling invariance with continuously varying exponents. The functional dependence of the exponents is constrained by a homomorphism which can be expressed as a set of partial differential equations. Solving these equations we obtain logarithmic scaling as a special case. The other solutions lead to scaling forms where logarithmic and power-law scaling are mixed
Scaling laws for nanoFET sensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Fushan; Wei Qihuo
2008-01-01
The sensitive conductance change of semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes in response to the binding of charged molecules provides a novel sensing modality which is generally denoted as nanoFET sensors. In this paper, we study the scaling laws of nanoplate FET sensors by simplifying nanoplates as random resistor networks with molecular receptors sitting on lattice sites. Nanowire/tube FETs are included as the limiting cases where the device width goes small. Computer simulations show that the field effect strength exerted by the binding molecules has significant impact on the scaling behaviors. When the field effect strength is small, nanoFETs have little size and shape dependence. In contrast, when the field effect strength becomes stronger, there exists a lower detection threshold for charge accumulation FETs and an upper detection threshold for charge depletion FET sensors. At these thresholds, the nanoFET devices undergo a transition between low and large sensitivities. These thresholds may set the detection limits of nanoFET sensors, while they could be eliminated by designing devices with very short source-drain distance and large width
A Unified Scaling Law in Spiral Galaxies.
Koda; Sofue; Wada
2000-03-01
We investigate the origin of a unified scaling relation in spiral galaxies. Observed spiral galaxies are spread on a plane in the three-dimensional logarithmic space of luminosity L, radius R, and rotation velocity V. The plane is expressed as L~&parl0;VR&parr0;alpha in the I passband, where alpha is a constant. On the plane, observed galaxies are distributed in an elongated region which looks like the shape of a surfboard. The well-known scaling relations L-V (Tully-Fisher [TF] relation), V-R (also the TF relation), and R-L (Freeman's law) can be understood as oblique projections of the surfboard-like plane into two-dimensional spaces. This unified interpretation of the known scaling relations should be a clue to understand the physical origin of all the relations consistently. Furthermore, this interpretation can also explain why previous studies could not find any correlation between TF residuals and radius. In order to clarify the origin of this plane, we simulate formation and evolution of spiral galaxies with the N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics method, including cooling, star formation, and stellar feedback. Initial conditions are set to 14 isolated spheres with two free parameters, such as mass and angular momentum. The cold dark matter (h=0.5, Omega0=1) cosmology is considered as a test case. The simulations provide the following two conclusions: (1) The slope of the plane is well reproduced but the zero point is not. This zero-point discrepancy could be solved in a low-density (Omega00.5) cosmology. (2) The surfboard-shaped plane can be explained by the control of galactic mass and angular momentum.
A scaling law beyond Zipf's law and its relation to Heaps' law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Font-Clos, Francesc; Corral, Álvaro; Boleda, Gemma
2013-01-01
The dependence on text length of the statistical properties of word occurrences has long been considered a severe limitation on the usefulness of quantitative linguistics. We propose a simple scaling form for the distribution of absolute word frequencies that brings to light the robustness of this distribution as text grows. In this way, the shape of the distribution is always the same, and it is only a scale parameter that increases (linearly) with text length. By analyzing very long novels we show that this behavior holds both for raw, unlemmatized texts and for lemmatized texts. In the latter case, the distribution of frequencies is well approximated by a double power law, maintaining the Zipf's exponent value γ ≃ 2 for large frequencies but yielding a smaller exponent in the low-frequency regime. The growth of the distribution with text length allows us to estimate the size of the vocabulary at each step and to propose a generic alternative to Heaps' law, which turns out to be intimately connected to the distribution of frequencies, thanks to its scaling behavior. (paper)
Intermittency and scaling laws for wall bounded turbulence
Benzi, R.; Amati, G.; Casciola, C.M.; Toschi, F.; Piva, R.
1999-01-01
Well defined scaling laws clearly appear in wall bounded turbulence, very close to the wall, where a distinct violation of the refined Kolmogorov similarity hypothesis (RKSH) occurs together with the simultaneous persistence of scaling laws. A new form of RKSH for the wall region is here proposed in
Origin of Noncubic Scaling Law in Disordered Granular Packing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xia, Chengjie; Li, Jindong; Kou, Binquan; Cao, Yixin; Li, Zhifeng; Xiao, Xianghui; Fu, Yanan; Xiao, Tiqiao; Hong, Liang; Zhang, Jie; Kob, Walter; Wang, Yujie
2017-06-01
Recent diffraction experiments on metallic glasses have unveiled an unexpected non-cubic scaling law between density and average interatomic distance, which lead to the speculations on the presence of fractal glass order. Using X-ray tomography we identify here a similar non-cubic scaling law in disordered granular packing of spherical particles. We find that the scaling law is directly related to the contact neighbors within first nearest neighbor shell, and therefore is closely connected to the phenomenon of jamming. The seemingly universal scaling exponent around 2.5 arises due to the isostatic condition with contact number around 6, and we argue that the exponent should not be universal.
Scaling laws for fractional Brownian motion with power-law clock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Malley, Daniel; Cushman, John H; Johnson, Graham
2011-01-01
We study the mean first passage time (MFPT) for fractional Brownian motion (fBm) in a finite interval with absorbing boundaries at each end. Analytical arguments are used to suggest a simple scaling law for the MFPT and numerical experiments are performed to verify its accuracy. The same approach is used to derive a scaling law for fBm with a power-law clock (fBm-plc). The MFPT scaling laws are employed to develop scaling laws for the finite-size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE) of fBm and fBm-plc. We apply these results to diffusion of a large polymer in a region with absorbing boundaries. (letter)
Scaling laws for modeling nuclear reactor systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nahavandi, A.N.; Castellana, F.S.; Moradkhanian, E.N.
1979-01-01
Scale models are used to predict the behavior of nuclear reactor systems during normal and abnormal operation as well as under accident conditions. Three types of scaling procedures are considered: time-reducing, time-preserving volumetric, and time-preserving idealized model/prototype. The necessary relations between the model and the full-scale unit are developed for each scaling type. Based on these relationships, it is shown that scaling procedures can lead to distortion in certain areas that are discussed. It is advised that, depending on the specific unit to be scaled, a suitable procedure be chosen to minimize model-prototype distortion
Strain scaling law for flux pinning in practical superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ekin, J.W.
1980-01-01
Detailed experimental data are reported on the critical current and pinning force density of a number of different Nb 3 Sn conductors measured over an extensive range of magnetic fields and strain. Strain scaling in terms of the upper-critical field as scaling parameter is tested and a strain scaling relation formulated. This is compared with the data and its application to practical conductors described. The relation between this strain scaling law and the usual temperature scaling law is discussed and an empirical expression is obtained unifying the two. (U.K.)
SCALING LAW FOR THE IMPACT OF MAGNET FRINGE FIELDS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
WEI, J.; PAPAPHILIPPOU, Y.; TALMAN, R.
2000-01-01
A general scaling law can be derived for the relative momentum deflection produced on a particle beam by fringe fields, to leading order. The formalism is applied to two concrete examples, for magnets having dipole and quadrupole symmetry. During recent years, the impact of magnet fringe fields is becoming increasingly important for rings of relatively small circumference but large acceptance. A few years ago, following some heuristic arguments, a scaling law was proposed [1], for the relative deflection of particles passing through a magnet fringe-field. In fact, after appropriate expansion of the magnetic fields in Cartesian coordinates, which generalizes the expansions of Steffen [2], one can show that this scaling law is true for any multipole magnet, at leading order in the transverse coefficients [3]. This paper intends to provide the scaling law to estimate the impact of fringe fields in the special cases of magnets with dipole and quadrupole symmetry
Intermittency and scaling laws for wall bounded turbulence
Benzi, R.; Amati, G.; Casciola, C. M.; Toschi, F.; Piva, R.
1998-01-01
Well defined scaling laws clearly appear in wall bounded turbulence, even very close to the wall, where a distinct violation of the refined Kolmogorov similarity hypothesis (RKSH) occurs together with the simultaneous persistence of scaling laws. A new form of RKSH for the wall region is here proposed in terms of the structure functions of order two which, in physical terms, confirms the prevailing role of the momentum transfer towards the wall in the near wall dynamics.
Chiral battery, scaling laws and magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anand, Sampurn; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Pandey, Arun Kumar, E-mail: sampurn@prl.res.in, E-mail: jeet@prl.res.in, E-mail: arunp@prl.res.in [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India)
2017-07-01
We study the generation and evolution of magnetic field in the presence of chiral imbalance and gravitational anomaly which gives an additional contribution to the vortical current. The contribution due to gravitational anomaly is proportional to T {sup 2} which can generate seed magnetic field irrespective of plasma being chirally charged or neutral. We estimate the order of magnitude of the magnetic field to be 10{sup 30} G at T ∼ 10{sup 9} GeV, with a typical length scale of the order of 10{sup −18} cm, which is much smaller than the Hubble radius at that temperature (10{sup −8} cm). Moreover, such a system possess scaling symmetry. We show that the T {sup 2} term in the vorticity current along with scaling symmetry leads to more power transfer from lower to higher length scale as compared to only chiral anomaly without scaling symmetry.
Aeroelastic scaling laws for gust load alleviation control system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tang Bo
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Gust load alleviation (GLA tests are widely conducted to study the effectiveness of the control laws and methods. The physical parameters of models in these tests are aeroelastic scaled, while the scaling of GLA control system is always unreached. This paper concentrates on studying the scaling laws of GLA control system. Through theoretical demonstration, the scaling criterion of a classical PID control system has been come up and a scaling methodology is provided and verified. By adopting the scaling laws in this paper, gust response of the scaled model could be directly related to the full-scale aircraft theoretically under both open-loop and closed-loop conditions. Also, the influences of different scaling choices of an important non-dimensional parameter, the Froude number, have been studied in this paper. Furthermore for practical application, a compensating method is given when the theoretical scaled actuators or sensors cannot be obtained. Also, the scaling laws of some non-linear elements in control system such as the rate and amplitude saturations in actuator have been studied and examined by a numerical simulation.
Scaling laws between population and facility densities.
Um, Jaegon; Son, Seung-Woo; Lee, Sung-Ik; Jeong, Hawoong; Kim, Beom Jun
2009-08-25
When a new facility like a grocery store, a school, or a fire station is planned, its location should ideally be determined by the necessities of people who live nearby. Empirically, it has been found that there exists a positive correlation between facility and population densities. In the present work, we investigate the ideal relation between the population and the facility densities within the framework of an economic mechanism governing microdynamics. In previous studies based on the global optimization of facility positions in minimizing the overall travel distance between people and facilities, it was shown that the density of facility D and that of population rho should follow a simple power law D approximately rho(2/3). In our empirical analysis, on the other hand, the power-law exponent alpha in D approximately rho(alpha) is not a fixed value but spreads in a broad range depending on facility types. To explain this discrepancy in alpha, we propose a model based on economic mechanisms that mimic the competitive balance between the profit of the facilities and the social opportunity cost for populations. Through our simple, microscopically driven model, we show that commercial facilities driven by the profit of the facilities have alpha = 1, whereas public facilities driven by the social opportunity cost have alpha = 2/3. We simulate this model to find the optimal positions of facilities on a real U.S. map and show that the results are consistent with the empirical data.
Scaling laws for a compliant biomimetic swimmer
Gibouin, Florence; Raufaste, Christophe; Bouret, Yann; Argentina, Mederic
2017-11-01
Motivated by the seminal work of Lord Lighthill in the sixties, we study the motion of inertial aquatic swimmers that propels with undulatory gaits. In 2014, Gazzola et al. have uncovered the law linking the swimming velocity to the kinematics of the swimmer and the fluid properties. At high Reynolds numbers, the velocity appears to be equal to 0.4 Af /(2 π) , where A and f are respectively the amplitude and the frequency of the oscillating fin. We have constructed a compliant biomimetic swimmer, whose muscles have been modeled through a torque distribution thanks to a servomotor. A soft polymeric material mimics the flesh and provides the flexibility. By immersing our robot into a water tunnel, we find and characterize the operating point for which the propulsive force balances the drag. We bring the first experimental proof of the former law and probe large amplitude undulations which exhibits nonlinear effects. All data collapse perfectly onto a single master curve. We investigate the role of the fin flexibility by varying its length and its thickness and we figured out the existence of an efficient swimming regime. We thank the support of CNRS and Université Côte d'Azur.
Scaling laws for TEXT plasma profiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCool, S.C.; Bravenec, R.V.; Chen, J.Y.; Foster, M.S.; Li, W.L.; Ouroura, A.; Phillips, P.E.; Richards, B.; Wenzel, K.W.; Zhang, Z.M.
1994-01-01
Regression analysis has been performed on a number of measured profiles including temperature and density vs. nominal macroscopic operating parameters for TEXT tokamak (pre-upgrade) ohmic plasmas. The resulting simple empirical model has enabled the authors to quickly approximate profiles of electron temperature and density, ion temperature, and soft x-ray brightness, as well as the scalar quantities: total radiated power, q=1 radius, sawtooth period and amplitude, and energy confinement time as a power law of toroidal field, plasma current, chord average density, and fueling gas atomic weight. The model profiles are only applicable to the plasma interior, i.e. within the limiter radius. In most cases the predicted model profiles are within the experimental error bars of measured profiles and are more accurate at predicting profile variation for small operating parameter changes than the measured profiles
Newton's Third Law on a Scale Balance
Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Huntula, Jiradawan
2009-01-01
We propose a series of experiments involving balance readings of an object naturally floating or forced to be partially or fully immersed in water contained in a beaker sitting on an electronic scale balance. Students were asked to predict, observe and explain each case. The teacher facilitated the learning by asking probing questions, giving…
Scaling laws for mode lockings in circle maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cvitanovic, P.; Shraiman, B.; Soederberg, B.
1985-06-01
The self-similar structure of mode lockings for circle maps is studied by means of the associated Farey trees. We investigate numerically several classes of scaling relations implicit in the Farey organization of mode lockings and discuss the extent to which they lead to universal scaling laws. (orig.)
Human learning: Power laws or multiple characteristic time scales?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gottfried Mayer-Kress
2006-09-01
Full Text Available The central proposal of A. Newell and Rosenbloom (1981 was that the power law is the ubiquitous law of learning. This proposition is discussed in the context of the key factors that led to the acceptance of the power law as the function of learning. We then outline the principles of an epigenetic landscape framework for considering the role of the characteristic time scales of learning and an approach to system identification of the processes of performance dynamics. In this view, the change of performance over time is the product of a superposition of characteristic exponential time scales that reflect the influence of different processes. This theoretical approach can reproduce the traditional power law of practice within the experimental resolution of performance data sets - but we hypothesize that this function may prove to be a special and perhaps idealized case of learning.
Scaling laws of design parameters for plasma wakefield accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uhm, Han S.; Nam, In H.; Suk, Hyyong
2012-01-01
Simple scaling laws for the design parameters of plasma wakefield accelerators were obtained using a theoretical model, which were confirmed via particle simulation studies. It was found that the acceleration length was given by Δx=0.804λ p /(1−β g ), where λ p is the plasma wavelength and β g c the propagation velocity of the ion cavity. The acceleration energy can also be given by ΔE=(γ m −1)mc 2 =2.645mc 2 /(1−β g ), where m is the electron rest mass. As expected, the acceleration length and energy increase drastically as β g approached unity. These simple scaling laws can be very instrumental in the design of better-performing plasma wakefield accelerators. -- Highlights: ► Simple scaling laws for the design parameters of laser wakefield accelerators were obtained using a theoretical model. ► The scaling laws for acceleration length and acceleration energy were compared with particle-in-cell simulation results. ► The acceleration length and the energy increase drastically as β g approaches unity. ► These simple scaling laws can be very instrumental in the design of laser wakefield accelerators.
Numerical assessment of the ion turbulent thermal transport scaling laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ottaviani, M.; Manfredi, G.
2001-01-01
Numerical simulations of ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence were carried out to investigate the parametric dependence of the ion thermal transport on the reduced gyroradius and on the local safety factor. Whereas the simulations show a clear proportionality of the conductivity to the gyroradius, the dependence on the safety factor cannot be represented as a simple power law like the one exhibited by the empirical scaling laws. (author)
Scaling laws for HTGR core block seismic response
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dove, R.C.
1977-01-01
This paper discusses the development of scaling laws, physical modeling, and seismic testing of a model designed to represent a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) core consisting of graphite blocks. The establishment of the proper scale relationships for length, time, force, and other parameters is emphasized. Tests to select model materials and the appropriate scales are described. Preliminary results obtained from both model and prototype systems tested under simulated seismic vibration are presented
Scaling laws and properties of compositional data
Buccianti, Antonella; Albanese, Stefano; Lima, AnnaMaria; Minolfi, Giulia; De Vivo, Benedetto
2016-04-01
Many random processes occur in geochemistry. Accurate predictions of the manner in which elements or chemical species interact each other are needed to construct models able to treat presence of random components. Geochemical variables actually observed are the consequence of several events, some of which may be poorly defined or imperfectly understood. Variables tend to change with time/space but, despite their complexity, may share specific common traits and it is possible to model them stochastically. Description of the frequency distribution of the geochemical abundances has been an important target of research, attracting attention for at least 100 years, starting with CLARKE (1889) and continued by GOLDSCHMIDT (1933) and WEDEPOHL (1955). However, it was AHRENS (1954a,b) who focussed on the effect of skewness distributions, for example the log-normal distribution, regarded by him as a fundamental law of geochemistry. Although modeling of frequency distributions with some probabilistic models (for example Gaussian, log-normal, Pareto) has been well discussed in several fields of application, little attention has been devoted to the features of compositional data. When compositional nature of data is taken into account, the most typical distribution models for compositions are the Dirichlet and the additive logistic normal (or normal on the simplex) (AITCHISON et al. 2003; MATEU-FIGUERAS et al. 2005; MATEU-FIGUERAS and PAWLOWSKY-GLAHN 2008; MATEU-FIGUERAS et al. 2013). As an alternative, because compositional data have to be transformed from simplex space to real space, coordinates obtained by the ilr transformation or by application of the concept of balance can be analyzed by classical methods (EGOZCUE et al. 2003). In this contribution an approach coherent with the properties of compositional information is proposed and used to investigate the shape of the frequency distribution of compositional data. The purpose is to understand data-generation processes
Theoretical scaling law for ohmically heated tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minardi, E.
1981-06-01
The electrostatic drift instability arising from the reduction of shear damping, due to toroidal effects, is assumed to be the basic source of the anomalous electron transport in tokamaks. The Maxwellian population of electrons constitutes a medium whose adiabatic nonlinear reaction to the instability (described in terms of an effective dielectric constant of the medium) determines the stationary electrostatic fluctuation level in marginally unstable situations. The existence of a random electrostatic potenial implies a fluctuating current of the Maxwellian electrons which creates a random magnetic field and a stocasticization of a magnetic configuration. The application of recent results allows the calculation of the realted radial electron transport. It is found that the confinement time under stationary ohmic conditions scales as n Tsub(i)sup( - 1/2) and is proportional roughly to the cube of the geometric dimenisions. Moreover, it is deduced that the loop voltage is approximateley the same for all tokamaks, irrespective of temperature and density and to a large extent, also of geometrical conditions. Thes results are characteristic of the ohmic stationary regime and can hardly be extrapolated to order heating regimes. (orig.)
Scaling laws and fluctuations in the statistics of word frequencies
Gerlach, Martin; Altmann, Eduardo G.
2014-11-01
In this paper, we combine statistical analysis of written texts and simple stochastic models to explain the appearance of scaling laws in the statistics of word frequencies. The average vocabulary of an ensemble of fixed-length texts is known to scale sublinearly with the total number of words (Heaps’ law). Analyzing the fluctuations around this average in three large databases (Google-ngram, English Wikipedia, and a collection of scientific articles), we find that the standard deviation scales linearly with the average (Taylor's law), in contrast to the prediction of decaying fluctuations obtained using simple sampling arguments. We explain both scaling laws (Heaps’ and Taylor) by modeling the usage of words using a Poisson process with a fat-tailed distribution of word frequencies (Zipf's law) and topic-dependent frequencies of individual words (as in topic models). Considering topical variations lead to quenched averages, turn the vocabulary size a non-self-averaging quantity, and explain the empirical observations. For the numerous practical applications relying on estimations of vocabulary size, our results show that uncertainties remain large even for long texts. We show how to account for these uncertainties in measurements of lexical richness of texts with different lengths.
Scaling laws and fluctuations in the statistics of word frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerlach, Martin; Altmann, Eduardo G
2014-01-01
In this paper, we combine statistical analysis of written texts and simple stochastic models to explain the appearance of scaling laws in the statistics of word frequencies. The average vocabulary of an ensemble of fixed-length texts is known to scale sublinearly with the total number of words (Heaps’ law). Analyzing the fluctuations around this average in three large databases (Google-ngram, English Wikipedia, and a collection of scientific articles), we find that the standard deviation scales linearly with the average (Taylor's law), in contrast to the prediction of decaying fluctuations obtained using simple sampling arguments. We explain both scaling laws (Heaps’ and Taylor) by modeling the usage of words using a Poisson process with a fat-tailed distribution of word frequencies (Zipf's law) and topic-dependent frequencies of individual words (as in topic models). Considering topical variations lead to quenched averages, turn the vocabulary size a non-self-averaging quantity, and explain the empirical observations. For the numerous practical applications relying on estimations of vocabulary size, our results show that uncertainties remain large even for long texts. We show how to account for these uncertainties in measurements of lexical richness of texts with different lengths. (paper)
Triadic closure dynamics drives scaling laws in social multiplex networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimek, Peter; Thurner, Stefan
2013-01-01
Social networks exhibit scaling laws for several structural characteristics, such as degree distribution, scaling of the attachment kernel and clustering coefficients as a function of node degree. A detailed understanding if and how these scaling laws are inter-related is missing so far, let alone whether they can be understood through a common, dynamical principle. We propose a simple model for stationary network formation and show that the three mentioned scaling relations follow as natural consequences of triadic closure. The validity of the model is tested on multiplex data from a well-studied massive multiplayer online game. We find that the three scaling exponents observed in the multiplex data for the friendship, communication and trading networks can simultaneously be explained by the model. These results suggest that triadic closure could be identified as one of the fundamental dynamical principles in social multiplex network formation. (paper)
Scattering Length Scaling Laws for Ultracold Three-Body Collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Incao, J.P.; Esry, B.D.
2005-01-01
We present a simple and unifying picture that provides the energy and scattering length dependence for all inelastic three-body collision rates in the ultracold regime for three-body systems with short-range two-body interactions. Here, we present the scaling laws for vibrational relaxation, three-body recombination, and collision-induced dissociation for systems that support s-wave two-body collisions. These systems include three identical bosons, two identical bosons, and two identical fermions. Our approach reproduces all previous results, predicts several others, and gives the general form of the scaling laws in all cases
Data adaptive control parameter estimation for scaling laws
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dinklage, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Dose, Volker [Max-Planck- Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2007-07-01
Bayesian experimental design quantifies the utility of data expressed by the information gain. Data adaptive exploration determines the expected utility of a single new measurement using existing data and a data descriptive model. In other words, the method can be used for experimental planning. As an example for a multivariate linear case, we apply this method for constituting scaling laws of fusion devices. In detail, the scaling of the stellarator W7-AS is examined for a subset of {iota}=1/3 data. The impact of the existing data on the scaling exponents is presented. Furthermore, in control parameter space regions of high utility are identified which improve the accuracy of the scaling law. This approach is not restricted to the presented example only, but can also be extended to non-linear models.
Scaling laws in high energy electron-nuclear processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chemtob, M.
1980-11-01
We survey the parton model description of high momentum transfer electron scattering processes with nuclei. We discuss both nucleon and quark parton models and confront the patterns of scaling laws violations, induced by binding effects, in the former, and perturbative QCD effects, in the latter
The Origin of Scales and Scaling Laws in Star Formation
Guszejnov, David; Hopkins, Philip; Grudich, Michael
2018-01-01
Star formation is one of the key processes of cosmic evolution as it influences phenomena from the formation of galaxies to the formation of planets, and the development of life. Unfortunately, there is no comprehensive theory of star formation, despite intense effort on both the theoretical and observational sides, due to the large amount of complicated, non-linear physics involved (e.g. MHD, gravity, radiation). A possible approach is to formulate simple, easily testable models that allow us to draw a clear connection between phenomena and physical processes.In the first part of the talk I will focus on the origin of the IMF peak, the characteristic scale of stars. There is debate in the literature about whether the initial conditions of isothermal turbulence could set the IMF peak. Using detailed numerical simulations, I will demonstrate that not to be the case, the initial conditions are "forgotten" through the fragmentation cascade. Additional physics (e.g. feedback) is required to set the IMF peak.In the second part I will use simulated galaxies from the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project to show that most star formation theories are unable to reproduce the near universal IMF peak of the Milky Way.Finally, I will present analytic arguments (supported by simulations) that a large number of observables (e.g. IMF slope) are the consequences of scale-free structure formation and are (to first order) unsuitable for differentiating between star formation theories.
Unified scaling law for earthquakes in Crimea and Northern Caucasus
Nekrasova, A. K.; Kossobokov, V. G.
2016-10-01
This study continues detailed investigations on the construction of regional charts of the parameters of the generalized Guttenberg-Richter Law, which takes into account the properties of the spatiotemporal seismic energy scaling. We analyzed the parameters of the law in the vicinity of the intersections of morphostructural lineaments in Crimea and Greater Caucasus. It was shown that ignoring the fractal character of the spatial distribution of earthquakes in the southern part of the Russian Federation can lead to significant underestimation of the seismic hazard in the largest cities of the region.
Scaling laws for trace impurity confinement: a variational approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thyagaraja, A.; Haas, F.A.
1990-01-01
A variational approach is outlined for the deduction of impurity confinement scaling laws. Given the forms of the diffusive and convective components to the impurity particle flux, we present a variational principle for the impurity confinement time in terms of the diffusion time scale and the convection parameter, which is a non-dimensional measure of the size of the convective flux relative to the diffusive flux. These results are very general and apply irrespective of whether the transport fluxes are of theoretical or empirical origin. The impurity confinement time scales exponentially with the convection parameter in cases of practical interest. (orig.)
Power Laws, Scale-Free Networks and Genome Biology
Koonin, Eugene V; Karev, Georgy P
2006-01-01
Power Laws, Scale-free Networks and Genome Biology deals with crucial aspects of the theoretical foundations of systems biology, namely power law distributions and scale-free networks which have emerged as the hallmarks of biological organization in the post-genomic era. The chapters in the book not only describe the interesting mathematical properties of biological networks but moves beyond phenomenology, toward models of evolution capable of explaining the emergence of these features. The collection of chapters, contributed by both physicists and biologists, strives to address the problems in this field in a rigorous but not excessively mathematical manner and to represent different viewpoints, which is crucial in this emerging discipline. Each chapter includes, in addition to technical descriptions of properties of biological networks and evolutionary models, a more general and accessible introduction to the respective problems. Most chapters emphasize the potential of theoretical systems biology for disco...
Scaling Laws for Dynamic Aperture due to Chromatic Sextupoles
Scandale, Walter
1997-01-01
Scaling laws for the dynamic aperture due to chromatic sextupoles are investigated. The problem is addressed in a simplified lattice model containing 4 N identical cells and one linear betatron phase shifter to break the overall cell-lattice symmetry. Two families of chromatic sextupoles are used to compensate the natural chromaticity. Analytical formulae for the dynamic apertur as a function of the number of cells and of the cell length are found and confirmed through computer tracking.
Scaling laws for steady-state fusion plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Husseiny, A A [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA)
1975-12-01
Experimental and semi-theoretical scaling laws are extrapolated to include the effect of fusion burn on the lifetime of plasma ions. Fractional burnups are also reconsidered on the same basis. The actual lifetime of fusion plasma ions and the estimated time necessary for feasible reactors, provide a correlation between the laboratory data and the hypothesis of reactor feasibility conditions. Based on these correlations criteria for the realization of self-heated plasmas are established.
On global H-mode scaling laws for JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kardaun, O.; Lackner, K.; Thomsen, K.; Christiansen, J.; Cordey, J.; Gottardi, N.; Keilhacker, M.; Smeulders, P.
1989-01-01
Investigation of the scaling of the energy confinement time τ E with various plasma parameters has since long been an interesting, albeit not uncontroversial topic in plasma physics. Various global scaling laws have been derived for ohmic as well as (NBI and/or RF heated) L-mode discharges. Due to the scarce availability of computerised, extensive and validated H-mode datasets, systematic statistical analysis of H-mode scaling behaviour has hitherto been limited. A common approach is to fit the available H-mode data by an L-mode scaling law (e.g., Kaye-Goldston, Rebut-Lallia) with one or two adjustable constant terms. In this contribution we will consider the alternative approach of fitting all free parameters of various simple scaling models to two recently compiled datasets consisting of about 140 ELM-free and 40 ELMy H-mode discharges, measured at JET in the period 1986-1988. From this period, approximately all known H-mode shots have been included that satisfy the following criteria: D-injected D + discharges with no RF heating, a sufficiently long (≥300 ms) and regular P NBI flat-top, and validated main diagnostics. (author) 13 refs., 1 tab
Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series
Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.
1997-01-01
A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.
Power-law citation distributions are not scale-free.
Golosovsky, Michael
2017-09-01
We analyze time evolution of statistical distributions of citations to scientific papers published in the same year. While these distributions seem to follow the power-law dependence we find that they are nonstationary and the exponent of the power-law fit decreases with time and does not come to saturation. We attribute the nonstationarity of citation distributions to different longevity of the low-cited and highly cited papers. By measuring citation trajectories of papers we found that citation careers of the low-cited papers come to saturation after 10-15 years while those of the highly cited papers continue to increase indefinitely: The papers that exceed some citation threshold become runaways. Thus, we show that although citation distribution can look as a power-law dependence, it is not scale free and there is a hidden dynamic scale associated with the onset of runaways. We compare our measurements to our recently developed model of citation dynamics based on copying-redirection-triadic closure and find explanations to our empirical observations.
Scaling and scale invariance of conservation laws in Reynolds transport theorem framework
Haltas, Ismail; Ulusoy, Suleyman
2015-07-01
Scale invariance is the case where the solution of a physical process at a specified time-space scale can be linearly related to the solution of the processes at another time-space scale. Recent studies investigated the scale invariance conditions of hydrodynamic processes by applying the one-parameter Lie scaling transformations to the governing equations of the processes. Scale invariance of a physical process is usually achieved under certain conditions on the scaling ratios of the variables and parameters involved in the process. The foundational axioms of hydrodynamics are the conservation laws, namely, conservation of mass, conservation of linear momentum, and conservation of energy from continuum mechanics. They are formulated using the Reynolds transport theorem. Conventionally, Reynolds transport theorem formulates the conservation equations in integral form. Yet, differential form of the conservation equations can also be derived for an infinitesimal control volume. In the formulation of the governing equation of a process, one or more than one of the conservation laws and, some times, a constitutive relation are combined together. Differential forms of the conservation equations are used in the governing partial differential equation of the processes. Therefore, differential conservation equations constitute the fundamentals of the governing equations of the hydrodynamic processes. Applying the one-parameter Lie scaling transformation to the conservation laws in the Reynolds transport theorem framework instead of applying to the governing partial differential equations may lead to more fundamental conclusions on the scaling and scale invariance of the hydrodynamic processes. This study will investigate the scaling behavior and scale invariance conditions of the hydrodynamic processes by applying the one-parameter Lie scaling transformation to the conservation laws in the Reynolds transport theorem framework.
Catastrophic Failure and Critical Scaling Laws of Fiber Bundle Material
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shengwang Hao
2017-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a spring-fiber bundle model used to describe the failure process induced by energy release in heterogeneous materials. The conditions that induce catastrophic failure are determined by geometric conditions and energy equilibrium. It is revealed that the relative rates of deformation of, and damage to the fiber bundle with respect to the boundary controlling displacement ε0 exhibit universal power law behavior near the catastrophic point, with a critical exponent of −1/2. The proportion of the rate of response with respect to acceleration exhibits a linear relationship with increasing displacement in the vicinity of the catastrophic point. This allows for the prediction of catastrophic failure immediately prior to failure by extrapolating the trajectory of this relationship as it asymptotes to zero. Monte Carlo simulations are completed and these two critical scaling laws are confirmed.
Empirical scaling law connecting persistence and severity of global terrorism
Gao, Jianbo; Fang, Peng; Liu, Feiyan
2017-09-01
Terrorism and counterterrorism have both been evolving rapidly. From time to time, there have been debates on whether the new terrorism is evolutionary or revolutionary. Such debate often becomes more heated after major terrorist activities, such as the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 and the November 13, 2015 coordinated Paris terror attack. Using country-wide terrorism data since 1970, we show that there exist scaling laws governing the continuity and persistence of world-wide terrorism, with the long-term scaling parameter for each country closely related to its yearly global terrorism index. This suggests that the new terrorism is more accurately considered evolutionary. It is further shown that the imbalance in the seesaw of terrorism and counterterrorism is not only responsible for the scaling behavior found here, but also provides new means of quantifying the severity of the global terrorism.
Centrifugal fans: Similarity, scaling laws, and fan performance
Sardar, Asad Mohammad
Centrifugal fans are rotodynamic machines used for moving air continuously against moderate pressures through ventilation and air conditioning systems. There are five major topics presented in this thesis: (1) analysis of the fan scaling laws and consequences of dynamic similarity on modelling; (2) detailed flow visualization studies (in water) covering the flow path starting at the fan blade exit to the evaporator core of an actual HVAC fan scroll-diffuser module; (3) mean velocity and turbulence intensity measurements (flow field studies) at the inlet and outlet of large scale blower; (4) fan installation effects on overall fan performance and evaluation of fan testing methods; (5) two point coherence and spectral measurements conducted on an actual HVAC fan module for flow structure identification of possible aeroacoustic noise sources. A major objective of the study was to identity flow structures within the HVAC module that are responsible for noise and in particular "rumble noise" generation. Possible mechanisms for the generation of flow induced noise in the automotive HVAC fan module are also investigated. It is demonstrated that different modes of HVAC operation represent very different internal flow characteristics. This has implications on both fan HVAC airflow performance and noise characteristics. It is demonstrated from principles of complete dynamic similarity that fan scaling laws require that Reynolds, number matching is a necessary condition for developing scale model fans or fan test facilities. The physical basis for the fan scaling laws derived was established from both pure dimensional analysis and also from the fundamental equations of fluid motion. Fan performance was measured in a three times scale model (large scale blower) in air of an actual forward curved automotive HVAC blower. Different fan testing methods (based on AMCA fan test codes) were compared on the basis of static pressure measurements. Also, the flow through an actual HVAC
Crater ejecta scaling laws: fundamental forms based on dimensional analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Housen, K.R.; Schmidt, R.M.; Holsapple, K.A.
1983-01-01
A model of crater ejecta is constructed using dimensional analysis and a recently developed theory of energy and momentum coupling in cratering events. General relations are derived that provide a rationale for scaling laboratory measurements of ejecta to larger events. Specific expressions are presented for ejection velocities and ejecta blanket profiles in two limiting regimes of crater formation: the so-called gravity and strength regimes. In the gravity regime, ejectra velocities at geometrically similar launch points within craters vary as the square root of the product of crater radius and gravity. This relation implies geometric similarity of ejecta blankets. That is, the thickness of an ejecta blanket as a function of distance from the crater center is the same for all sizes of craters if the thickness and range are expressed in terms of crater radii. In the strength regime, ejecta velocities are independent of crater size. Consequently, ejecta blankets are not geometrically similar in this regime. For points away from the crater rim the expressions for ejecta velocities and thickness take the form of power laws. The exponents in these power laws are functions of an exponent, α, that appears in crater radius scaling relations. Thus experimental studies of the dependence of crater radius on impact conditions determine scaling relations for ejecta. Predicted ejection velocities and ejecta-blanket profiles, based on measured values of α, are compared to existing measurements of velocities and debris profiles
Scaling Law for Irreversible Entropy Production in Critical Systems.
Hoang, Danh-Tai; Prasanna Venkatesh, B; Han, Seungju; Jo, Junghyo; Watanabe, Gentaro; Choi, Mahn-Soo
2016-06-09
We examine the Jarzynski equality for a quenching process across the critical point of second-order phase transitions, where absolute irreversibility and the effect of finite-sampling of the initial equilibrium distribution arise in a single setup with equal significance. We consider the Ising model as a prototypical example for spontaneous symmetry breaking and take into account the finite sampling issue by introducing a tolerance parameter. The initially ordered spins become disordered by quenching the ferromagnetic coupling constant. For a sudden quench, the deviation from the Jarzynski equality evaluated from the ideal ensemble average could, in principle, depend on the reduced coupling constant ε0 of the initial state and the system size L. We find that, instead of depending on ε0 and L separately, this deviation exhibits a scaling behavior through a universal combination of ε0 and L for a given tolerance parameter, inherited from the critical scaling laws of second-order phase transitions. A similar scaling law can be obtained for the finite-speed quench as well within the Kibble-Zurek mechanism.
Scaling Law between Urban Electrical Consumption and Population in China
Zhu, Xiaowu; Xiong, Aimin; Li, Liangsheng; Liu, Maoxin; Chen, X. S.
The relation between the household electrical consumption Y and population N for Chinese cities in 2006 has been investigated with the power law scaling form Y = A_0 N^{β}. It is found that the Chinese cities should be divided into three categories characterized by different scaling exponent β. The first category, which includes the biggest and coastal cities of China, has the scaling exponent β> 1. The second category, which includes mostly the cities in central China, has the scaling exponent β ≈ 1. The third category, which consists of the cities in northwestern China, has the scaling exponent β 1, there is also a fixed point population N f . If the initial population N(0) > N f , the population increases very fast with time and diverges within a finite time. If the initial population N(0) < N f , the population decreases with time and collapse finally. The pattern of population evolution in a city is determined by its scaling exponent and initial population.
Similitude observations and scaling laws for the plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaeppeler, H.J.
It has been attempted to give a coherent explanation of the most important physical processes concerning a model theory of the plasma focus of the Mather type. For this purpose the compression process, the stable dense phase and the subsequent neutron-producing instable phase were described. With the assumption that I 0 2 /rho 0 R 0 2 = const and t 0 /t/sub c/ = const a theoretical explanation is given for the already experimentally determined dependence of the neutron production on the fourth power of the maximum current. A few other conclusions based on these scaling laws are being discussed
Interaction of ion clusters with fusion plasmas: Scaling laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arista, N.R.; Bringa, E.M.
1997-01-01
The interaction between large ion clusters or very intense ion beams with fusion plasma is studied using the dielectric function formalism with appropriate quantum corrections. The contributions from individual and collective modes to the energy loss are calculated. The general properties of the interference effects are characterized in terms of the relevant parameters, and simple scaling laws are obtained. In particular, the conditions for a maximum enhancement in the energy deposition are derived. The study provides a unified view and a general formulation of collective effects in the energy loss for low and high velocities of the beam particles. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Scaling laws for particle growth in plasma reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemons, D.S.; Keinigs, R.K.; Winske, D.; Jones, M.E.
1996-01-01
We quantify a model which incorporates observed features of contaminant particle growth in plasma processing reactors. According to the model, large open-quote open-quote predator close-quote close-quote particles grow by adsorbing smaller, typically neutral, open-quote open-quote prey close-quote close-quote protoparticles. The latter are supplied by an assumed constant mass injection of contaminant material. Scaling laws and quantitative predictions compare favorably with published experimental results. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Dimensionless parameters, scaling laws, and the implications for ETG
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castle, G.G.
1995-04-20
ETG will be useful in resolving several physical issues relevant to Spherical Tokamak Reactor concepts. First, it will provide a test of whether transport is Bohm or gyro-Bohm in nature. The second point is that ETG will operate in a completely different range of {rho}* space from other high performance machines, opening up a previously inaccessible region of parameter space. ETG is also a (very) high-{beta} machine. It would be the only device that would have all of its parameters except {rho}* similar to those of a Spherical tokamak Reactor. If it turns out that the transport scales definitively as either Bohm or gyro-Bohm, then extrapolation to reactor conditions with significantly lower values of {rho}* would become more credible. It is also shown that in general one cannot obtain a power law relation in the dimensionless variables for the confinement tim from a power law fit to the engineering variables. It is shown, however, that if T{sub i}/T{sub e} and n{sub i}/n{sub e} are constant or if a modified definition of certain dimensionless variables is adopted, then such a power law conversion is possible.
Two-dimensional divertor modeling and scaling laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catto, P.J.; Connor, J.W.; Knoll, D.A.
1996-01-01
Two-dimensional numerical models of divertors contain large numbers of dimensionless parameters that must be varied to investigate all operating regimes of interest. To simplify the task and gain insight into divertor operation, we employ similarity techniques to investigate whether model systems of equations plus boundary conditions in the steady state admit scaling transformations that lead to useful divertor similarity scaling laws. A short mean free path neutral-plasma model of the divertor region below the x-point is adopted in which all perpendicular transport is due to the neutrals. We illustrate how the results can be used to benchmark large computer simulations by employing a modified version of UEDGE which contains a neutral fluid model. (orig.)
Dynamical scaling law in the development of drift wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, T.; Fujisaka, H.; Iwayama, T.
1997-01-01
The Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation, with random forcing at the narrow band wave-number region, which is set to be slightly larger than the characteristic wave number λ, evaluating the inverse ion Larmor radius in plasma, is numerically studied. It is shown that the Fourier spectrum of the potential vorticity fluctuation in the development of turbulence with an initial condition of quiescent state obeys a dynamic scaling law for k 1/2 ε 5/4 t 7/4 F(k/bar k(t))[bar k(t)∼λ 3/4 ε -1/8 t -3/8 ] with a scaling function F(x), which turns out to be in good agreement with numerical experiments. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Entropy of gravitating systems: scaling laws versus radial profiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pesci, Alessandro
2007-01-01
Through the consideration of spherically symmetric gravitating systems consisting of perfect fluids with linear equation of state constrained to be in a finite volume, an account is given of the properties of entropy at conditions in which it is no longer an extensive quantity (it does not scale with the system's size). To accomplish this, the methods introduced by Oppenheim (2003 Phys. Rev.E 68 016108) to characterize non-extensivity are used, suitably generalized to the case of gravitating systems subject to an external pressure. In particular when, far from the system's Schwarzschild limit, both area scaling for conventional entropy and inverse radius law for the temperature set in (i.e. the same properties of the corresponding black hole thermodynamical quantities), the entropy profile is found to behave like 1/r, with r the area radius inside the system. In such circumstances entropy heavily resides in internal layers, in opposition to what happens when area scaling is gained while approaching the Schwarzschild mass, in which case conventional entropy lies at the surface of the system. The information content of these systems, even if it globally scales like the area, is then stored in the whole volume, instead of packed on the boundary
On spectral scaling laws for incompressible anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galtier, Sebastien; Pouquet, Annick; Mangeney, Andre
2005-01-01
A heuristic model is given for anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics turbulence in the presence of a uniform external magnetic field B 0 e parallel . The model is valid for both moderate and strong B 0 and is able to describe both the strong and weak wave turbulence regimes as well as the transition between them. The main ingredient of the model is the assumption of constant ratio at all scales between the linear wave period and the nonlinear turnover time scale. Contrary to the model of critical balance introduced by Goldreich and Sridhar [Astrophys. J. 438, 763 (1995)], it is not assumed, in addition, that this ratio be equal to unity at all scales. This allows us to make use of the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan phenomenology; it is then possible to recover the widely observed anisotropic scaling law k parallel ∝k perpendicular 2/3 between parallel and perpendicular wave numbers (with reference to B 0 e parallel and to obtain for the total-energy spectrum E(k perpendicular ,k parallel )∼k perpendicular -α k parallel -β the universal prediction, 3α+2β=7. In particular, with such a prediction, the weak Alfven wave turbulence constant-flux solution is recovered and, for the first time, a possible explanation to its precursor found numerically by Galtier et al. [J. Plasma Phys. 63, 447 (2000)] is given.
Earthquake scaling laws for rupture geometry and slip heterogeneity
Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.; Mai, P. Martin; Goda, Katsuichiro
2016-04-01
We analyze an extensive compilation of finite-fault rupture models to investigate earthquake scaling of source geometry and slip heterogeneity to derive new relationships for seismic and tsunami hazard assessment. Our dataset comprises 158 earthquakes with a total of 316 rupture models selected from the SRCMOD database (http://equake-rc.info/srcmod). We find that fault-length does not saturate with earthquake magnitude, while fault-width reveals inhibited growth due to the finite seismogenic thickness. For strike-slip earthquakes, fault-length grows more rapidly with increasing magnitude compared to events of other faulting types. Interestingly, our derived relationship falls between the L-model and W-model end-members. In contrast, both reverse and normal dip-slip events are more consistent with self-similar scaling of fault-length. However, fault-width scaling relationships for large strike-slip and normal dip-slip events, occurring on steeply dipping faults (δ~90° for strike-slip faults, and δ~60° for normal faults), deviate from self-similarity. Although reverse dip-slip events in general show self-similar scaling, the restricted growth of down-dip fault extent (with upper limit of ~200 km) can be seen for mega-thrust subduction events (M~9.0). Despite this fact, for a given earthquake magnitude, subduction reverse dip-slip events occupy relatively larger rupture area, compared to shallow crustal events. In addition, we characterize slip heterogeneity in terms of its probability distribution and spatial correlation structure to develop a complete stochastic random-field characterization of earthquake slip. We find that truncated exponential law best describes the probability distribution of slip, with observable scale parameters determined by the average and maximum slip. Applying Box-Cox transformation to slip distributions (to create quasi-normal distributed data) supports cube-root transformation, which also implies distinctive non-Gaussian slip
Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Resolving Scaling Laws of Polyethylene Melts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazuaki Z. Takahashi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Long-timescale molecular dynamics simulations were performed to estimate the actual physical nature of a united-atom model of polyethylene (PE. Several scaling laws for representative polymer properties are compared to theoretical predictions. Internal structure results indicate a clear departure from theoretical predictions that assume ideal chain statics. Chain motion deviates from predictions that assume ideal motion of short chains. With regard to linear viscoelasticity, the presence or absence of entanglements strongly affects the duration of the theoretical behavior. Overall, the results indicate that Gaussian statics and dynamics are not necessarily established for real atomistic models of PE. Moreover, the actual physical nature should be carefully considered when using atomistic models for applications that expect typical polymer behaviors.
Scaling law of resistance fluctuations in stationary random resistor networks
Pennetta; Trefan; Reggiani
2000-12-11
In a random resistor network we consider the simultaneous evolution of two competing random processes consisting in breaking and recovering the elementary resistors with probabilities W(D) and W(R). The condition W(R)>W(D)/(1+W(D)) leads to a stationary state, while in the opposite case, the broken resistor fraction reaches the percolation threshold p(c). We study the resistance noise of this system under stationary conditions by Monte Carlo simulations. The variance of resistance fluctuations is found to follow a scaling law |p-p(c)|(-kappa(0)) with kappa(0) = 5.5. The proposed model relates quantitatively the defectiveness of a disordered media with its electrical and excess-noise characteristics.
The Physical Origin of Galaxy Morphologies and Scaling Laws
Steinmetz, Matthias; Navarro, Julio F.
2002-01-01
We propose a numerical study designed to interpret the origin and evolution of galaxy properties revealed by space- and ground-based imaging and spectroscopical surveys. Our aim is to unravel the physical processes responsible for the development of different galaxy morphologies and for the establishment of scaling laws such as the Tully-Fisher relation for spirals and the Fundamental Plane of ellipticals. In particular, we plan to address the following major topics: (1) The morphology and observability of protogalaxies, and in particular the relationship between primordial galaxies and the z approximately 3 'Ly-break' systems identified in the Hubble Deep Field and in ground-based searches; (2) The origin of the disk and spheroidal components in galaxies, the timing and mode of their assembly, the corresponding evolution in galaxy morphologies and its sensitivity to cosmological parameters; (3) The origin and redshift evolution of the scaling laws that link the mass, luminosity size, stellar content, and metal abundances of galaxies of different morphological types. This investigation will use state-of-the-art N-body/gasdynamical codes to provide a spatially resolved description of the galaxy formation process in hierarchically clustering universes. Coupled with population synthesis techniques. our models can be used to provide synthetic 'observations' that can be compared directly with observations of galaxies both nearby and at cosmologically significant distances. This study will thus provide insight into the nature of protogalaxies and into the formation process of galaxies like our own Milky Way. It will also help us to assess the cosmological significance of these observations within the context of hierarchical theories of galaxy formation and will supply a theoretical context within which current and future observations can be interpreted.
Cope's Rule and the Universal Scaling Law of Ornament Complexity.
Raia, Pasquale; Passaro, Federico; Carotenuto, Francesco; Maiorino, Leonardo; Piras, Paolo; Teresi, Luciano; Meiri, Shai; Itescu, Yuval; Novosolov, Maria; Baiano, Mattia Antonio; Martínez, Ricard; Fortelius, Mikael
2015-08-01
Luxuriant, bushy antlers, bizarre crests, and huge, twisting horns and tusks are conventionally understood as products of sexual selection. This view stems from both direct observation and from the empirical finding that the size of these structures grows faster than body size (i.e., ornament size shows positive allometry). We contend that the familiar evolutionary increase in the complexity of ornaments over time in many animal clades is decoupled from ornament size evolution. Increased body size comes with extended growth. Since growth scales to the quarter power of body size, we predicted that ornament complexity should scale according to the quarter power law as well, irrespective of the role of sexual selection in the evolution and function of the ornament. To test this hypothesis, we selected three clades (ammonites, deer, and ceratopsian dinosaurs) whose species bore ornaments that differ in terms of the importance of sexual selection to their evolution. We found that the exponent of the regression of ornament complexity to body size is the same for the three groups and is statistically indistinguishable from 0.25. We suggest that the evolution of ornament complexity is a by-product of Cope's rule. We argue that although sexual selection may control size in most ornaments, it does not influence their shape.
Pinch-off Scaling Law of Soap Bubbles
Davidson, John; Ryu, Sangjin
2014-11-01
Three common interfacial phenomena that occur daily are liquid drops in gas, gas bubbles in liquid and thin-film bubbles. One aspect that has been studied for these phenomena is the formation or pinch-off of the drop/bubble from the liquid/gas threads. In contrast to the formation of liquid drops in gas and gas bubbles in liquid, thin-film bubble pinch-off has not been well documented. Having thin-film interfaces may alter the pinch-off process due to the limiting factor of the film thickness. We observed the pinch-off of one common thin-film bubble, soap bubbles, in order to characterize its pinch-off behavior. We achieved this by constructing an experimental model replicating the process of a human producing soap bubbles. Using high-speed videography and image processing, we determined that the minimal neck radius scaled with the time left till pinch-off, and that the scaling law exponent was 2/3, similar to that of liquid drops in gas.
Localized Enzymatic Degradation of Polymers: Physics and Scaling Laws
Lalitha Sridhar, Shankar; Vernerey, Franck
2018-03-01
Biodegradable polymers are naturally abundant in living matter and have led to great advances in controlling environmental pollution due to synthetic polymer products, harnessing renewable energy from biofuels, and in the field of biomedicine. One of the most prevalent mechanisms of biodegradation involves enzyme-catalyzed depolymerization by biological agents. Despite numerous studies dedicated to understanding polymer biodegradation in different environments, a simple model that predicts the macroscopic behavior (mass and structural loss) in terms of microphysical processes (enzyme transport and reaction) is lacking. An interesting phenomenon occurs when an enzyme source (released by a biological agent) attacks a tight polymer mesh that restricts free diffusion. A fuzzy interface separating the intact and fully degraded polymer propagates away from the source and into the polymer as the enzymes diffuse and react in time. Understanding the characteristics of this interface will provide crucial insight into the biodegradation process and potential ways to precisely control it. In this work, we present a centrosymmetric model of biodegradation by characterizing the moving fuzzy interface in terms of its speed and width. The model predicts that the characteristics of this interface are governed by two time scales, namely the polymer degradation and enzyme transport times, which in turn depend on four main polymer and enzyme properties. A key finding of this work is simple scaling laws that can be used to guide biodegradation of polymers in different applications.
Electrostatic direct energy converter performance and cost scaling laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffman, M.A.
1977-08-01
This study is concerned with electrostatic type direct energy converters for direct recovery of a large fraction of the plasma ion energy from fusion reactors. Simplified equations are presented for each of the important loss mechanisms in both single-stage direct converters and multistage ''Venetian Blind'' type direct converters. These equations can be used to estimate the efficiency and electric power output of the direct converter subsystem. Scaling relations for the cost of each major component in the direct converter subsystem are also given; these include the vacuum tank, direct converter modules, the DC power conditioning equipment, cryogenic vacuum pumping system and the thermal bottoming plant. The performance and cost scaling laws have been developed primarily for use in overall fusion power plant systems codes. However, to illustrate their utility, cost-effectiveness studies of two specific reference direct converter designs are presented in terms of the specific capital costs (i.e., the capital cost per unit electric power produced) for the Direct Converter Subsystem alone. Some examples of design improvements which can significantly reduce the specific capital costs of the Direct Converter Subsystem are also given
Nonstandard scaling law of fluctuations in finite-size systems of globally coupled oscillators.
Nishikawa, Isao; Tanaka, Gouhei; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2013-08-01
Universal scaling laws form one of the central issues in physics. A nonstandard scaling law or a breakdown of a standard scaling law, on the other hand, can often lead to the finding of a new universality class in physical systems. Recently, we found that a statistical quantity related to fluctuations follows a nonstandard scaling law with respect to the system size in a synchronized state of globally coupled nonidentical phase oscillators [I. Nishikawa et al., Chaos 22, 013133 (2012)]. However, it is still unclear how widely this nonstandard scaling law is observed. In the present paper, we discuss the conditions required for the unusual scaling law in globally coupled oscillator systems and validate the conditions by numerical simulations of several different models.
Gravity, turbulence and the scaling ``laws'' in molecular clouds
Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier
The so-called Larson (1981) scaling laws found empirically in molecular clouds have been generally interpreted as evidence that the clouds are turbulent and fractal. In the present contribution we discussed how recent observations and models of cloud formation suggest that: (a) these relations are the result of strong observational biases due to the cloud definition itself: since the filling factor of the dense structures is small, by thresholding the column density the computed mean density between clouds is nearly constant, and nearly the same as the threshold (Ballesteros-Paredes et al. 2012). (b) When accounting for column density variations, the velocity dispersion-size relation does not appears anymore. Instead, dense cores populate the upper-left corner of the δ v-R diagram (Ballesteros-Paredes et al. 2011a). (c) Instead of a δ v-R relation, a more appropriate relation seems to be δ v 2 / R = 2 GMΣ, which suggest that clouds are in collapse, rather than supported by turbulence (Ballesteros-Paredes et al. 2011a). (d) These results, along with the shapes of the star formation histories (Hartmann, Ballesteros-Paredes & Heitsch 2012), line profiles of collapsing clouds in numerical simulations (Heitsch, Ballesteros-Paredes & Hartmann 2009), core-to-core velocity dispersions (Heitsch, Ballesteros-Paredes & Hartmann 2009), time-evolution of the column density PDFs (Ballesteros-Paredes et al. 2011b), etc., strongly suggest that the actual source of the non-thermal motions is gravitational collapse of the clouds, so that the turbulent, chaotic component of the motions is only a by-product of the collapse, with no significant ``support" role for the clouds. This result calls into question if the scale-free nature of the motions has a turbulent, origin (Ballesteros-Paredes et al. 2011a; Ballesteros-Paredes et al. 2011b, Ballesteros-Paredes et al. 2012).
Scaling laws for e+/e- linear colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delahaye, J.P.; Guignard, G.; Raubenheimer, T.; Wilson, I.
1999-01-01
Design studies of a future TeV e + e - Linear Collider (TLC) are presently being made by five major laboratories within the framework of a world-wide collaboration. A figure of merit is defined which enables an objective comparison of these different designs. This figure of merit is shown to depend only on a small number of parameters. General scaling laws for the main beam parameters and linac parameters are derived and prove to be very effective when used as guidelines to optimize the linear collider design. By adopting appropriate parameters for beam stability, the figure of merit becomes nearly independent of accelerating gradient and RF frequency of the accelerating structures. In spite of the strong dependence of the wake fields with frequency, the single-bunch emittance blow-up during acceleration along the linac is also shown to be independent of the RF frequency when using equivalent trajectory correction schemes. In this situation, beam acceleration using high-frequency structures becomes very advantageous because it enables high accelerating fields to be obtained, which reduces the overall length and consequently the total cost of the linac. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bache, Morten; Moses, J.; Wise, F.W.
2010-01-01
Erratum for [M. Bache, J. Moses, and F. W. Wise, "Scaling laws for soliton pulse compression by cascaded quadratic nonlinearities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2752-2762 (2007)].......Erratum for [M. Bache, J. Moses, and F. W. Wise, "Scaling laws for soliton pulse compression by cascaded quadratic nonlinearities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2752-2762 (2007)]....
Empirical Scaling Laws of Neutral Beam Injection Power in HL-2A Tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Jian-Yong; Wei Hui-Ling; Liu He; Yang Xian-Fu; Zou Gui-Qing; Yu Li-Ming; Li Qing; Luo Cui-Wen; Pan Yu-Dong; Jiang Shao-Feng; Lei Guang-Jiu; Li Bo; Rao Jun; Duan Xu-Ru
2015-01-01
We present an experimental method to obtain neutral beam injection (NBI) power scaling laws with operating parameters of the NBI system on HL-2A, including the beam divergence angle, the beam power transmission efficiency, the neutralization efficiency and so on. With the empirical scaling laws, the estimating power can be obtained in every shot of experiment on time, therefore the important parameters such as the energy confinement time can be obtained precisely. The simulation results by the tokamak simulation code (TSC) show that the evolution of the plasma parameters is in good agreement with the experimental results by using the NBI power from the empirical scaling law. (paper)
A scaling law derived from a broadband impedance applications to SPEAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vos, L.
1990-01-01
The bunch length in high-brightness synchrotron radiation sources is an important performance parameter. It is critically dependent on the μ-wave instability. Usually the SPEAR scaling law is used to compute the expected bunch length. In this paper we show that the SPEAR scaling law is compatible with a broadband impedance. This makes it possible to calculate the appropriate scaling law for a machine like the one proposed in Berkeley assuming that the impedance is known from measurements and/or calculations. (author) 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab
Asymptotic scaling laws for precision of parameter estimates in dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horbelt, W.; Timmer, J.
2003-01-01
When parameters are estimated from noisy data, the uncertainty of the estimates in terms of their standard deviation typically scales like the inverse square root of the number of data points. In the case of deterministic dynamical systems with added observation noise, superior scaling laws can be achieved. This is demonstrated numerically for the logistic map, the van der Pol oscillator and the Lorenz system, where exponential scaling laws and power laws have been found, depending on the number of degrees of freedom. For some special cases, analytical expressions are derived
Dynamical scaling laws – A few unanswered questions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
a highly nonlinear process far from equilibrium. The second phase grows with ... The scaling hypothesis assumes the existence of a single characteristic length scale L(t) such that the domain sizes and ... the mean density of the medium varies as a function of distance from a given point, should exhibit the scaling form with ...
Robust scaling laws for energy confinement time, including radiated fraction, in Tokamaks
Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.
2017-12-01
In recent years, the limitations of scalings in power-law form that are obtained from traditional log regression have become increasingly evident in many fields of research. Given the wide gap in operational space between present-day and next-generation devices, robustness of the obtained models in guaranteeing reasonable extrapolability is a major issue. In this paper, a new technique, called symbolic regression, is reviewed, refined, and applied to the ITPA database for extracting scaling laws of the energy-confinement time at different radiated fraction levels. The main advantage of this new methodology is its ability to determine the most appropriate mathematical form of the scaling laws to model the available databases without the restriction of their having to be power laws. In a completely new development, this technique is combined with the concept of geodesic distance on Gaussian manifolds so as to take into account the error bars in the measurements and provide more reliable models. Robust scaling laws, including radiated fractions as regressor, have been found; they are not in power-law form, and are significantly better than the traditional scalings. These scaling laws, including radiated fractions, extrapolate quite differently to ITER, and therefore they require serious consideration. On the other hand, given the limitations of the existing databases, dedicated experimental investigations will have to be carried out to fully understand the impact of radiated fractions on the confinement in metallic machines and in the next generation of devices.
Networks, complexity and internet regulation scale-free law
Guadamuz, Andres
2013-01-01
This book, then, starts with a general statement: that regulators should try, wherever possible, to use the physical methodological tools presently available in order to draft better legislation. While such an assertion may be applied to the law in general, this work will concentrate on the much narrower area of Internet regulation and the science of complex networks The Internet is the subject of this book not only because it is my main area of research, but also because –without...
Scaling laws and indications of self-organized criticality in urban systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yanguang; Zhou Yixing
2008-01-01
Evolution of urban systems has been considered to exhibit some form of self-organized criticality (SOC) in the literature. This paper provides further mathematical foundations and empirical evidences to support the supposition. The hierarchical structure of systems of cities can be formulated as three exponential functions: the number law, the population size law, and the area law. These laws are identical in form to the Horton-Strahler laws of rivers and Gutenberg-Richter laws of earthquakes. From the exponential functions, three indications of SOC are also derived: the frequency-spectrum relation indicting the 1/f noise, the power laws indicating the fractal structure, and the Zipf's law indicating the rank-size distribution. These mathematical models form a set of scaling laws for urban systems, as demonstrated in the empirical study of the system of cities in China. The fact that the scaling laws of urban systems bear an analogy to those on rivers and earthquakes lends further support to the notion of possible SOC in urban systems
Intrinsic symmetry of the scaling laws and generalized relations for critical indices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plechko, V.N.
1982-01-01
It is shown that the scating taws for criticat induces can be expressed as a consequence of a simple symmetry principle. Heuristic relations for critical induces of generalizing scaling laws for the case of arbitrary order parameters are presented, which manifestiy have a symmetric form and include the standard scalling laws as a particular case
Ekin, Jack W; Goodrich, Loren; Splett, Jolene; Bordini, Bernardo; Richter, David
2016-01-01
A scaling study of several thousand Nb$_{3}$Sn critical-current $(I_c)$ measurements is used to derive the Extrapolative Scaling Expression (ESE), a relation that can quickly and accurately extrapolate limited datasets to obtain full three-dimensional dependences of I c on magnetic field (B), temperature (T), and mechanical strain (ε). The relation has the advantage of being easy to implement, and offers significant savings in sample characterization time and a useful tool for magnet design. Thorough data-based analysis of the general parameterization of the Unified Scaling Law (USL) shows the existence of three universal scaling constants for practical Nb$_{3}$Sn conductors. The study also identifies the scaling parameters that are conductor specific and need to be fitted to each conductor. This investigation includes two new, rare, and very large I c(B,T,ε) datasets (each with nearly a thousand I c measurements spanning magnetic fields from 1 to 16 T, temperatures from ~2.26 to 14 K, and intrinsic strain...
Investigation of scaling laws in frequency-dependent minor hysteresis loops for ferromagnetic steels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, S.; Tsukidate, S.; Kamada, Y.; Kikuchi, H.; Ohtani, T.
2012-01-01
Scaling laws in dynamical magnetic minor hysteresis loops have been investigated in the magnetizing frequency range of 0.05-300 Hz for various steels including Cr-Mo-V steel subjected to creep, cold rolled steels, and plastically deformed Ni. Although scaling laws in the medium magnetization range found previously fail in the high magnetization frequency regime owing to a significant contribution of eddy currents, a scaling power law of the relation between remanence and remanence work of minor loops, associated with a constant exponent of approximately 1.9, holds true in a very low magnetization regime, irrespective of magnetization frequency and investigated materials. The coefficient of the law is proportionally related to Vickers hardness over the wide frequency range. These observations demonstrate that the scaling analysis of dynamical minor loops enables us to evaluate materials degradation in a short measurement time with low measurement field and high sensitivity to defect density. - Highlights: → We performed hysteresis scaling for dynamical minor loops in ferromagnetic steels. → An universal scaling power law with an exponent of 1.9 was observed. → Coefficient of the scaling law reflects defect density due to creep and deformation. → This method is useful for on-line non-destructive evaluation.
An alcator-like confinement time scaling law derived from buckingham's PI theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roth, J.R.
1983-01-01
The unsatisfactory state of understanding of particle transport and confinement in tokamaks is well known. The best available theory, neoclassical transport, predicts a confinement time which scales as the square of the magnetic field, and inversely as the number density. Until recently, the best available phenomenological scaling law was the Alcator scaling law. This scaling law has recently been supplanted by the neoAlcator scaling law. Both of these expressions are unsatisfactory, because they not only are unsupported by any physical theory, but also their numerical constants are dimensional, suggesting that additional physical parameters need to be accounted for. A more firmly based scaling law can be derived from Buckingham's pi theorem. We adopt the particle confinement time as the dependent variable (derived dimension), and as independent variables (fundamental dimensions) we use the plasma volume, the average ion charge density, the ion current on the limiter, and the magnetic induction. From Buckingham's pi theorem, we obtain an equation which correctly predicts the absence of magnetic induction dependence, and the direct dependence on the ion density. The dependence on the product of the major radius and the plasma radius is intermediate between the original and neoAlcator scaling laws, and may be consistent with the data if the ion kinetic temperature and limiter area were accounted for
Computational Study of Separation Control Using ZNMF Devices: Flow Physics and Scaling Laws
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Mittal, Rajat
2008-01-01
The primary objective of the proposed research was to gain a fundamental understanding of strategies, mechanisms, and scaling laws for successful control of separation using zern-net mass-flux (ZNMF) actuators...
Multifractal aspects of the scaling laws in fully developed compressible turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shivamoggi, B.K.
1995-01-01
In this paper, multifractal aspects of the scalings laws in fully developed compressible turbulence are considered. Compressibility effects on known results of incompressible turbulence are pointed out. copyright 1995 Academic Press, Inc
The use of scaling laws for the design of high beta tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mauel, M.E.
1987-01-01
Several different empirical scaling laws for the tokamak energy confinement time are used to estimate the auxiliary heating power required for a laboratory experiment capable of testing tokamak confinement at high beta and techniques to access the second stability regime. Since operating experience in the second stability regime does not yet exist, these laws predict a wide range of possible power requirements, especially at large aspect ratios. However, by examining a model DT fusion power reactor with reasonable restrictions on the fusion island weight, neutron loading, and maximum magnetic field of the external coils, only a limited range of operating conditions are found for both first and second regime tokamaks, and only a subset of the scaling laws predict ignition. These particular scaling laws are then used to set confinement goals which if demonstrated by the laboratory experiment would indicate favourable scaling to a reactor. (author)
Beyond KNO multiplicative cascades and novel multiplicity scaling laws
Hegyi, S
1999-01-01
The collapse of multiplicity distributions P/sub n/ onto a universal scaling curve arises when P/sub n/ is expressed as a function of the standardized multiplicity (n-c)/ lambda with c and lambda being location and scale parameters governed by leading particle effects and the growth of average multiplicity. It is demonstrated that self- similar multiplicative cascade processes such as QCD parton branching naturally lead to a novel type of scaling behavior of P/sub n/ which manifests itself in Mellin space through a location change controlled by the degree of multifractality and a scale change governed by the depth of the cascade. Applying the new scaling rule it is shown how to restore data collapsing behavior of P/sub n/ measured in hh collisions at ISR and SPS energies. (21 refs).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, N.; Pritchard, D.E.
1981-01-01
We have recently demonstrated that the energy corrected sudden (ECS) scaling law of De Pristo et al. when conbined with the power law assumption for the basis rates k/sub l/→0proportional[l(l+1)]/sup -g/ can accurately fit a wide body of rotational energy transfer data. We develop a simple and accurate approximation to this fitting law, and in addition mathematically show the connection between it and our earlier proposed energy based law which also has been successful in describing both theoretical and experimental data on rotationally inelastic collisions
Scaling symmetries, conservation laws and action principles in one-dimensional gas dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webb, G M; Zank, G P
2009-01-01
Scaling symmetries of the planar, one-dimensional gas dynamic equations with adiabatic index γ are used to obtain Lagrangian and Eulerian conservation laws associated with the symmetries. The known Eulerian symmetry operators for the scaling symmetries are converted to the Lagrangian form, in which the Eulerian spatial position of the fluid element is given in terms of the Lagrangian fluid labels. Conditions for a linear combination of the three scaling symmetries to be a divergence or variational symmetry of the action are established. The corresponding Lagrangian and Eulerian form of the conservation laws are determined by application of Noether's theorem. A nonlocal conservation law associated with the scaling symmetries is obtained by applying a nonlocal symmetry operator to the scaling symmetry-conserved vector. An action principle incorporating known conservation laws using Lagrangian constraints is developed. Noether's theorem for the constrained action principle gives the same formulas for the conserved vector as the classical Noether theorem, except that the Lie symmetry vector field now includes the effects of nonlocal potentials. Noether's theorem for the constrained action principle is used to obtain nonlocal conservation laws. The scaling symmetry conservation laws only apply for special forms of the entropy of the gas.
Mobile user forecast and power-law acceleration invariance of scale-free networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Jin-Li; Guo Zhao-Hua; Liu Xue-Jiao
2011-01-01
This paper studies and predicts the number growth of China's mobile users by using the power-law regression. We find that the number growth of the mobile users follows a power law. Motivated by the data on the evolution of the mobile users, we consider scenarios of self-organization of accelerating growth networks into scale-free structures and propose a directed network model, in which the nodes grow following a power-law acceleration. The expressions for the transient and the stationary average degree distributions are obtained by using the Poisson process. This result shows that the model generates appropriate power-law connectivity distributions. Therefore, we find a power-law acceleration invariance of the scale-free networks. The numerical simulations of the models agree with the analytical results well. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Law machines: scale models, forensic materiality and the making of modern patent law.
Pottage, Alain
2011-10-01
Early US patent law was machine made. Before the Patent Office took on the function of examining patent applications in 1836, questions of novelty and priority were determined in court, within the forum of the infringement action. And at all levels of litigation, from the circuit courts up to the Supreme Court, working models were the media through which doctrine, evidence and argument were made legible, communicated and interpreted. A model could be set on a table, pointed at, picked up, rotated or upended so as to display a point of interest to a particular audience within the courtroom, and, crucially, set in motion to reveal the 'mode of operation' of a machine. The immediate object of demonstration was to distinguish the intangible invention from its tangible embodiment, but models also'machined' patent law itself. Demonstrations of patent claims with models articulated and resolved a set of conceptual tensions that still make the definition and apprehension of the invention difficult, even today, but they resolved these tensions in the register of materiality, performativity and visibility, rather than the register of conceptuality. The story of models tells us something about how inventions emerge and subsist within the context of patent litigation and patent doctrine, and it offers a starting point for renewed reflection on the question of how technology becomes property.
Nonlinear Analysis and Scaling Laws for Noncircular Composite Structures Subjected to Combined Loads
Hilburger, Mark W.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.
2001-01-01
Results from an analytical study of the response of a built-up, multi-cell noncircular composite structure subjected to combined internal pressure and mechanical loads are presented. Nondimensional parameters and scaling laws based on a first-order shear-deformation plate theory are derived for this noncircular composite structure. The scaling laws are used to design sub-scale structural models for predicting the structural response of a full-scale structure representative of a portion of a blended-wing-body transport aircraft. Because of the complexity of the full-scale structure, some of the similitude conditions are relaxed for the sub-scale structural models. Results from a systematic parametric study are used to determine the effects of relaxing selected similitude conditions on the sensitivity of the effectiveness of using the sub-scale structural model response characteristics for predicting the full-scale structure response characteristics.
A scaling law for random walks on networks
Perkins, Theodore J.; Foxall, Eric; Glass, Leon; Edwards, Roderick
2014-10-01
The dynamics of many natural and artificial systems are well described as random walks on a network: the stochastic behaviour of molecules, traffic patterns on the internet, fluctuations in stock prices and so on. The vast literature on random walks provides many tools for computing properties such as steady-state probabilities or expected hitting times. Previously, however, there has been no general theory describing the distribution of possible paths followed by a random walk. Here, we show that for any random walk on a finite network, there are precisely three mutually exclusive possibilities for the form of the path distribution: finite, stretched exponential and power law. The form of the distribution depends only on the structure of the network, while the stepping probabilities control the parameters of the distribution. We use our theory to explain path distributions in domains such as sports, music, nonlinear dynamics and stochastic chemical kinetics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mazda Biglari
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Two modeling approaches, the scaling-law and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics approaches, are presented in this paper. To save on experimental cost of the pilot plant, the scaling-law approach as a low-computational-cost method was adopted and a small scale column operating under ambient temperature and pressure was built. A series of laboratory tests and computer simulations were carried out to evaluate the hydrodynamic characteristics of a pilot fluidized-bed biomass gasifier. In the small scale column solids were fluidized. The pressure and other hydrodynamic properties were monitored for the validation of the scaling-law application. In addition to the scaling-law modeling method, the CFD approach was presented to simulate the gas-particle system in the small column. 2D CFD models were developed to simulate the hydrodynamic regime. The simulation results were validated with the experimental data from the small column. It was proved that the CFD model was able to accurately predict the hydrodynamics of the small column. The outcomes of this research present both the scaling law with the lower computational cost and the CFD modeling as a more robust method to suit various needs for the design of fluidized-bed gasifiers.
Dynamo Scaling Laws for Uranus and Neptune: The Role of Convective Shell Thickness on Dipolarity
Stanley, Sabine; Yunsheng Tian, Bob
2017-10-01
Previous dynamo scaling law studies (Christensen and Aubert, 2006) have demonstrated that the morphology of a planet’s magnetic field is determined by the local Rossby number (Ro_l): a non-dimensional diagnostic variable that quantifies the ratio of inertial forces to Coriolis forces on the average length scale of the flow. Dynamos with Ro_l ~ 0.1 produce multipolar magnetic fields. Scaling studies have also determined the dependence of the local Rossby number on non-dimensional parameters governing the system - specifically the Ekman, Prandtl, magnetic Prandtl and flux-based Rayleigh numbers (Olson and Christensen, 2006). When these scaling laws are applied to the planets, it appears that Uranus and Neptune should have dipole-dominated fields, contrary to observations. However, those scaling laws were derived using the specific convective shell thickness of the Earth’s core. Here we investigate the role of convective shell thickness on dynamo scaling laws. We find that the local Rossby number depends exponentially on the convective shell thickness. Including this new dependence on convective shell thickness, we find that the dynamo scaling laws now predict that Uranus and Neptune reside deeply in the multipolar regime, thereby resolving the previous contradiction with observations.
Maxwell Prize Talk: Scaling Laws for the Dynamical Plasma Phenomena
Ryutov, Livermore, Ca 94550, Usa, D. D.
2017-10-01
The scaling and similarity technique is a powerful tool for developing and testing reduced models of complex phenomena, including plasma phenomena. The technique has been successfully used in identifying appropriate simplified models of transport in quasistationary plasmas. In this talk, the similarity and scaling arguments will be applied to highly dynamical systems, in which temporal evolution of the plasma leads to a significant change of plasma dimensions, shapes, densities, and other parameters with respect to initial state. The scaling and similarity techniques for dynamical plasma systems will be presented as a set of case studies of problems from various domains of the plasma physics, beginning with collisonless plasmas, through intermediate collisionalities, to highly collisional plasmas describable by the single-fluid MHD. Basic concepts of the similarity theory will be introduced along the way. Among the results discussed are: self-similarity of Langmuir turbulence driven by a hot electron cloud expanding into a cold background plasma; generation of particle beams in disrupting pinches; interference between collisionless and collisional phenomena in the shock physics; similarity for liner-imploded plasmas; MHD similarities with an emphasis on the effect of small-scale (turbulent) structures on global dynamics. Relations between astrophysical phenomena and scaled laboratory experiments will be discussed.
Coulomb and Nuclear Breakup at Low Energies: Scaling Laws
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hussein M. S.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available We report on a recent work on the low-energy behavior of the breakup cross section in so far as it has important role in the fusion of weakly bound and halo nuclei at near-barrier energies. We assess the way the nuclear component of this cross section scales with the target mass. In complete accord with previous finding at higher energies we verify that the low energy behavior of the breakup cross section for a given projectile and relative center of mass energy with respect to the Coulomb barrier height scales as the cubic root of the mass number of the target. Surprisingly we find that the Coulomb component of the breakup cross section at these low energies also obeys scaling, but with a linear dependence on the target charge. Our findings are important when planning for experiments involving these exotic nuclei.
Scaling laws for photoelectron holography in the midinfrared wavelength regime
Huismans, Y.; Gijsbertsen, A.; Smolkowska, A S; Jungmann, J H; Rouz??e, A.; Logman, P. S W M; L??pine, F.; Cauchy, C.; Zamith, S; Marchenko, T; Bakker, Joost M.; Berden, G.; Redlich, B; Van Der Meer, A. F G; Ivanov, M Yu; Yan, T. M.; Bauer, D.; Smirnova, O; Vrakking, M. J J
2012-01-01
Midinfrared strong-field laser ionization offers the promise of measuring holograms of atoms and molecules, which contain both spatial and temporal information of the ion and the photoelectron with subfemtosecond temporal and angstrom spatial resolution. We report on the scaling of photoelectron
Scaling Laws for Photoelectron Holography in the Midinfrared Wavelength Regime
Huismans, Y.; Gijsbertsen, A.; Smolkowska, A. S.; Jungmann, J. H.; Rouzee, A.; Logman, Pswm; Lepine, F.; Cauchy, C.; Zamith, S.; Marchenko, T.; Bakker, J. M.; G. Berden,; Redlich, B.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Ivanov, M. Y.; Yan, T. M.; Bauer, D.; Smirnova, O.; Vrakking, M. J. J.
2012-01-01
Midinfrared strong-field laser ionization offers the promise of measuring holograms of atoms and molecules, which contain both spatial and temporal information of the ion and the photoelectron with subfemtosecond temporal and angstrom spatial resolution. We report on the scaling of photoelectron
EXTENDED SCALING LAWS IN NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mason, Joanne; Cattaneo, Fausto; Perez, Jean Carlos; Boldyrev, Stanislav
2011-01-01
Magnetized turbulence is ubiquitous in astrophysical systems, where it notoriously spans a broad range of spatial scales. Phenomenological theories of MHD turbulence describe the self-similar dynamics of turbulent fluctuations in the inertial range of scales. Numerical simulations serve to guide and test these theories. However, the computational power that is currently available restricts the simulations to Reynolds numbers that are significantly smaller than those in astrophysical settings. In order to increase computational efficiency and, therefore, probe a larger range of scales, one often takes into account the fundamental anisotropy of field-guided MHD turbulence, with gradients being much slower in the field-parallel direction. The simulations are then optimized by employing the reduced MHD equations and relaxing the field-parallel numerical resolution. In this work we explore a different possibility. We propose that there exist certain quantities that are remarkably stable with respect to the Reynolds number. As an illustration, we study the alignment angle between the magnetic and velocity fluctuations in MHD turbulence, measured as the ratio of two specially constructed structure functions. We find that the scaling of this ratio can be extended surprisingly well into the regime of relatively low Reynolds number. However, the extended scaling easily becomes spoiled when the dissipation range in the simulations is underresolved. Thus, taking the numerical optimization methods too far can lead to spurious numerical effects and erroneous representation of the physics of MHD turbulence, which in turn can affect our ability to identify correctly the physical mechanisms that are operating in astrophysical systems.
A generalized power-law scaling law for a two-phase imbibition in a porous medium
El-Amin, Mohamed
2013-11-01
Dimensionless time is a universal parameter that may be used to predict real field behavior from scaled laboratory experiments in relation to imbibition processes in porous media. Researchers work to nondimensionalize the time has been through the use of parameters that are inherited to the properties of the moving fluids and the porous matrix, which may be applicable to spontaneous imbibition. However, in forced imbibition, the dynamics of the process depends, in addition, on injection velocity. Therefore, we propose the use of scaling velocity in the form of a combination of two velocities, the first of which (the characteristic velocity) is defined by the fluid and the porous medium parameters and the second is the injection velocity, which is a characteristic of the process. A power-law formula is suggested for the scaling velocity such that it may be used as a parameter to nondimensionalize time. This may reduce the complexities in characterizing two-phase imbibition through porous media and works well in both the cases of spontaneous and forced imbibition. The proposed scaling-law is tested against some oil recovery experimental data from the literature. In addition, the governing partial differential equations are nondimensionalized so that the governing dimensionless groups are manifested. An example of a one-dimensional countercurrent imbibition is considered numerically. The calculations are carried out for a wide range of Ca and Da to illustrate their influences on water saturation as well as relative water/oil permeabilities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
A generalized power-law scaling law for a two-phase imbibition in a porous medium
El-Amin, Mohamed; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu
2013-01-01
Dimensionless time is a universal parameter that may be used to predict real field behavior from scaled laboratory experiments in relation to imbibition processes in porous media. Researchers work to nondimensionalize the time has been through the use of parameters that are inherited to the properties of the moving fluids and the porous matrix, which may be applicable to spontaneous imbibition. However, in forced imbibition, the dynamics of the process depends, in addition, on injection velocity. Therefore, we propose the use of scaling velocity in the form of a combination of two velocities, the first of which (the characteristic velocity) is defined by the fluid and the porous medium parameters and the second is the injection velocity, which is a characteristic of the process. A power-law formula is suggested for the scaling velocity such that it may be used as a parameter to nondimensionalize time. This may reduce the complexities in characterizing two-phase imbibition through porous media and works well in both the cases of spontaneous and forced imbibition. The proposed scaling-law is tested against some oil recovery experimental data from the literature. In addition, the governing partial differential equations are nondimensionalized so that the governing dimensionless groups are manifested. An example of a one-dimensional countercurrent imbibition is considered numerically. The calculations are carried out for a wide range of Ca and Da to illustrate their influences on water saturation as well as relative water/oil permeabilities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Evidence for large-scale uniformity of physical laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tubbs, A.D.; Wolfe, A.M.
1980-01-01
The coincidence of redshifts deduced from 21 cm and resonance transitions in absorbing gas detected in front of four quasi-stellar objects results in stringent limits on the variation of the product of three physical constants both in space and in time. We find that α 2 g/sub p/(m/M) is spatially uniform, to a few parts in 10 4 , throughout the observable universe. This uniformity holds subsequent to an epoch corresponding to less than 5% of the current age of the universe t 0 . Moreover, time variations in α 2 g/sub p/m/M are excluded to the same accuracy subsequent to an epoch corresponding to > or approx. =0.20 t 0 . These limits are largely model independent, relying only upon the cosmoligical interpretation of redshifts, and the isotropy of the 3 K background radiation. That a quantity as complex as g/sub p/, which depends on all the details of strong interaction physics, is uniform throughout most of spacetime, even in causally disjoint regions, suggests that all physical laws are globally invariant
On a Possible Unified Scaling Law for Volcanic Eruption Durations.
Cannavò, Flavio; Nunnari, Giuseppe
2016-03-01
Volcanoes constitute dissipative systems with many degrees of freedom. Their eruptions are the result of complex processes that involve interacting chemical-physical systems. At present, due to the complexity of involved phenomena and to the lack of precise measurements, both analytical and numerical models are unable to simultaneously include the main processes involved in eruptions thus making forecasts of volcanic dynamics rather unreliable. On the other hand, accurate forecasts of some eruption parameters, such as the duration, could be a key factor in natural hazard estimation and mitigation. Analyzing a large database with most of all the known volcanic eruptions, we have determined that the duration of eruptions seems to be described by a universal distribution which characterizes eruption duration dynamics. In particular, this paper presents a plausible global power-law distribution of durations of volcanic eruptions that holds worldwide for different volcanic environments. We also introduce a new, simple and realistic pipe model that can follow the same found empirical distribution. Since the proposed model belongs to the family of the self-organized systems it may support the hypothesis that simple mechanisms can lead naturally to the emergent complexity in volcanic behaviour.
A study of flame spread in engineered cardboard fuelbeds: Part II: Scaling law approach
Brittany A. Adam; Nelson K. Akafuah; Mark Finney; Jason Forthofer; Kozo Saito
2013-01-01
In this second part of a two part exploration of dynamic behavior observed in wildland fires, time scales differentiating convective and radiative heat transfer is further explored. Scaling laws for the two different types of heat transfer considered: Radiation-driven fire spread, and convection-driven fire spread, which can both occur during wildland fires. A new...
Huang, Y.; Song, Q. W.; Tan, B. L.
2018-04-01
It is first proposed a theoretical scaling law respectively for the coronal magnetic field strength B and electron power-law index δ versus frequency and coronal height in solar microwave burst sources. Based on the non-thermal gyro-synchrotron radiation model (Ramaty in Astrophys. J. 158:753, 1969), B and δ are uniquely solved by the observable optically-thin spectral index and turnover (peak) frequency, the other parameters (plasma density, temperature, view angle, low and high energy cutoffs, etc.) are relatively insensitive to the calculations, thus taken as some typical values. Both of B and δ increase with increasing of radio frequency but with decreasing of coronal height above photosphere, and well satisfy a square or cubic logarithmic fitting.
Nano-scaling law: geometric foundation of thiolated gold nanomolecules.
Dass, Amala
2012-04-07
Thiolated gold nanomolecules show a power correlation between the number of gold atoms and the thiolate ligands with a 2/3 scaling similar to Platonic and Archimedean solids. Nanomolecule stability is influenced by a universal geometric factor that is foundational to its stability through the Euclidean surface rule, in addition to the electronic shell closing factor and staple motif requirements. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012
Global and local confinement scaling laws of NBI-heated gas-puffing plasmas on LHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamazaki, K.; Miyazawa, J.; Sakakibara, S.; Yamada, H.; Narihara, K.; Tanaka, K.; Osakabe, M.
2003-01-01
The relation between global confinement scaling laws and local transport characteristics is evaluated on the Large Helical Device (LHD). Previous 'new LHD' global scaling laws are revised using the precise plasma edge definition and the recent LHD data of 4th, 5th and 6th experimental campaigns. Strong Gyro-Bohm-like feature of global confinement is reconfirmed. The magnetic field dependence and geometrical scale dependence are stronger than the conventional scaling laws. Using same database of LHD data, the radial profiles of transport coefficients are evaluated, and it is reconfirmed that the local transport in the core is Gyro-Bohm-like, and that near the boundary is strong Gyro-Bohm-like. The global confinement property is consistent with effective transport coefficient near the edge. (author)
Likert scales, levels of measurement and the "laws" of statistics.
Norman, Geoff
2010-12-01
Reviewers of research reports frequently criticize the choice of statistical methods. While some of these criticisms are well-founded, frequently the use of various parametric methods such as analysis of variance, regression, correlation are faulted because: (a) the sample size is too small, (b) the data may not be normally distributed, or (c) The data are from Likert scales, which are ordinal, so parametric statistics cannot be used. In this paper, I dissect these arguments, and show that many studies, dating back to the 1930s consistently show that parametric statistics are robust with respect to violations of these assumptions. Hence, challenges like those above are unfounded, and parametric methods can be utilized without concern for "getting the wrong answer".
A Scaling Law for the Snapback in Superconducting Accelerator Magnets
Bottura, L; Bauer, P; Haverkamp, M; Pieloni, T; Sanfilippo, S; Velev, G
2005-01-01
The decay of the sextupole component in the bending dipoles during injection and the subsequent snapback at the start of beam acceleration are issues of common concern for all superconducting colliders built or in construction. Recent studies performed on LHC and Tevatron dipole magnets revealed many similarities in the snapback characteristics. Some are expected, e.g. the effect of operational history. One particular similarity, however, is striking and is the subject of this paper. It appears that there is a simple linear relation between the amount of sextupole drift during the decay and the magnet current (or field) change during the ramp required to resolve the snapback. It is surprising that the linear correlation between snapback amplitude and snapback field holds very well for all magnets of the same family (e.g. Tevatron or LHC dipoles). In this paper we present the data collected to date and discuss a simple theory that explains the scaling found.
Power law scaling in synchronization of brain signals depends on cognitive load
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose Luis ePerez Velazquez
2014-05-01
Full Text Available As it has several features that optimize information processing, it has been proposed that criticality governs the dynamics of nervous system activity. Indications of such dynamics have been reported for a variety of in vitro and in vivo recordings, ranging from in vitro slice electrophysiology to human functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, there still remains considerable debate as to whether the brain actually operates close to criticality or in another governing state such as stochastic or oscillatory dynamics. A tool used to investigate the criticality of nervous system data is the inspection of power-law distributions. Although the findings are controversial, such power-law scaling has been found in different types of recordings. Here, we studied whether there is a power law scaling in the distribution of the phase synchronization derived from magnetoencephalographic recordings during executive function tasks performed by children with and without autism. Characterizing the brain dynamics that is different between autistic and non-autistic individuals is important in order to find differences that could either aid diagnosis or provide insights as to possible therapeutic interventions in autism. We report in this study that power law scaling in the distributions of a phase synchrony index is not very common and its frequency of occurrence is similar in the control and the autism group. In addition, power law scaling tends to diminish with increased cognitive load (difficulty or engagement in the task. There were indications of changes in the probability distribution functions for the phase synchrony that were associated with a transition from power law scaling to lack of power law (or vice versa, which suggests the presence of phenomenological bifurcations in brain dynamics associated with cognitive load. Hence, brain dynamics may fluctuate between criticality and other regimes depending upon context and behaviours.
Tippett, Michael K; Cohen, Joel E
2016-02-29
Tornadoes cause loss of life and damage to property each year in the United States and around the world. The largest impacts come from 'outbreaks' consisting of multiple tornadoes closely spaced in time. Here we find an upward trend in the annual mean number of tornadoes per US tornado outbreak for the period 1954-2014. Moreover, the variance of this quantity is increasing more than four times as fast as the mean. The mean and variance of the number of tornadoes per outbreak vary according to Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling (TL), with parameters that are consistent with multiplicative growth. Tornado-related atmospheric proxies show similar power-law scaling and multiplicative growth. Path-length-integrated tornado outbreak intensity also follows TL, but with parameters consistent with sampling variability. The observed TL power-law scaling of outbreak severity means that extreme outbreaks are more frequent than would be expected if mean and variance were independent or linearly related.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Guanghong; Zambelli, Joseph; Li Ke; Bevins, Nicholas; Qi Zhihua
2011-01-01
Purpose: The noise variance versus spatial resolution relationship in differential phase contrast (DPC) projection imaging and computed tomography (CT) are derived and compared to conventional absorption-based x-ray projection imaging and CT. Methods: The scaling law for DPC-CT is theoretically derived and subsequently validated with phantom results from an experimental Talbot-Lau interferometer system. Results: For the DPC imaging method, the noise variance in the differential projection images follows the same inverse-square law with spatial resolution as in conventional absorption-based x-ray imaging projections. However, both in theory and experimental results, in DPC-CT the noise variance scales with spatial resolution following an inverse linear relationship with fixed slice thickness. Conclusions: The scaling law in DPC-CT implies a lesser noise, and therefore dose, penalty for moving to higher spatial resolutions when compared to conventional absorption-based CT in order to maintain the same contrast-to-noise ratio.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaw, J.A.; Robicheaux, F.
1998-01-01
The photoabsorption spectra of atoms in a static external electric field shows modulations from recurrences: electron waves that go out from and return to the vicinity of the atomic core. Closed-orbit theory predicts the amplitudes and phases of these modulations in terms of closed classical orbits. A classical scaling law relates the properties of a closed orbit at one energy and field strength to its properties at another energy and field strength at fixed scaled energy ε=EF -1/2 . The scaling law states that the recurrence strength of orbits along the electric field axis scale as F 1/4 . We show how this law fails near bifurcations when the effective Planck constant ℎ≡ℎF 1/4 increases with increasing field at fixed ε. The recurrences of orbits away from the axis scale as F 1/8 in accordance with the classical prediction. These deviations from the classical scaling law are important in interpreting the recurrence spectra of atoms in current experiments. This leads to an extension of the uniform approximation developed by Gao and Delos [Phys. Rev. A 56, 356 (1997)] to complex momenta. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
SCALING LAW OF RELATIVISTIC SWEET-PARKER-TYPE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Kudoh, Takahiro; Masada, Youhei; Matsumoto, Jin
2011-01-01
Relativistic Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection is investigated by relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamic (RRMHD) simulations. As an initial setting, we assume anti-parallel magnetic fields and a spatially uniform resistivity. A perturbation imposed on the magnetic fields triggers magnetic reconnection around a current sheet, and the plasma inflows into the reconnection region. The inflows are then heated due to ohmic dissipation in the diffusion region and finally become relativistically hot outflows. The outflows are not accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds (i.e., Lorentz factor ≅ 1), even when the magnetic energy dominates the thermal and rest mass energies in the inflow region. Most of the magnetic energy in the inflow region is converted into the thermal energy of the outflow during the reconnection process. The energy conversion from magnetic to thermal energy in the diffusion region results in an increase in the plasma inertia. This prevents the outflows from being accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds. We find that the reconnection rate R obeys the scaling relation R≅S -0.5 , where S is the Lundquist number. This feature is the same as that of non-relativistic reconnection. Our results are consistent with the theoretical predictions of Lyubarsky for Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ding Zhonghai; Chen, Goong; Lin, Chang-Shou
2010-01-01
The dimensional scaling (D-scaling) technique is an innovative asymptotic expansion approach to study the multiparticle systems in molecular quantum mechanics. It enables the calculation of ground and excited state energies of quantum systems without having to solve the Schroedinger equation. In this paper, we present a mathematical analysis of the D-scaling technique for the Schroedinger equation with power-law potentials. By casting the D-scaling technique in an appropriate variational setting and studying the corresponding minimization problem, the D-scaling technique is justified rigorously. A new asymptotic dimensional expansion scheme is introduced to compute asymptotic expansions for ground state energies.
A psychometric appraisal of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy using law students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Williams B
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Adiva Sifris,2 Marty Lynch1 1Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, 2Faculty of Law, Monash University, Frankston, VIC, Australia Background: A growing body of literature indicates that empathic behaviors are positively linked, in several ways, with the professional performance and mental well-being of lawyers and law students. It is therefore important to assess empathy levels among law students using psychometrically sound tools that are suitable for this cohort.Participants and methods: The 20-item Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Health Profession Students Version was adapted for a law context (eg, the word “health care” became “legal”, and the new Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Law Students (JSE-L-S version was completed by 275 students at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. Data were subjected to principal component analysis.Results: Four factors emerged from the principal component analysis (“understanding the client’s perspective”, “responding to clients’ experiences and emotions”, “responding to clients’ cues and behaviors”, and “standing in clients’ shoes”, which accounted for 46.7% of the total variance. The reliability of the factors varied, but the overall 18-item JSE-L-S yielded a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.80. Several patterns among the item loadings were similar to those reported in studies using other versions of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy.Conclusion: The JSE-L-S appears to be a reliable measure of empathy among undergraduate law students, which could help provide insights into law student welfare and future performance as legal practitioners. Additional evaluation of the JSE-L-S is required to disambiguate some of the minor findings explored. Adjustments may improve the psychometric properties. Keywords: empathy, law, student, Jefferson, sympathy
Scaling Law for Photon Transmission through Optically Turbid Slabs Based on Random Walk Theory
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Xuesong Li
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Past work has demonstrated the value of a random walk theory (RWT to solve multiple-scattering problems arising in numerous contexts. This paper’s goal is to investigate the application range of the RWT using Monte Carlo simulations and extending it to anisotropic media using scaling laws. Meanwhile, this paper also reiterates rules for converting RWT formulas to real physical dimensions, and corrects some errors which appear in an earlier publication. The RWT theory, validated by the Monte Carlo simulations and combined with the scaling law, is expected to be useful to study multiple scattering and to greatly reduce the computation cost.
Lechuga, Julia; Galletly, Carol L; Broaddus, Michelle R; Dickson-Gomez, Julia B; Glasman, Laura R; McAuliffe, Timothy L; Vega, Miriam Y; LeGrand, Sarah; Mena, Carla A; Barlow, Morgan L; Valera, Erik; Montenegro, Judith I
2017-11-08
To develop, pilot test, and conduct psychometric analyses of an innovative scale measuring the influence of perceived immigration laws on Latino migrants' HIV-testing behavior. The Immigration Law Concerns Scale (ILCS) was developed in three phases: Phase 1 involved a review of law and literature, generation of scale items, consultation with project advisors, and subsequent revision of the scale. Phase 2 involved systematic translation- back translation and consensus-based editorial processes conducted by members of a bilingual and multi-national study team. In Phase 3, 339 sexually active, HIV-negative Spanish-speaking, non-citizen Latino migrant adults (both documented and undocumented) completed the scale via audio computer-assisted self-interview. The psychometric properties of the scale were tested with exploratory factor analysis and estimates of reliability coefficients were generated. Bivariate correlations were conducted to test the discriminant and predictive validity of identified factors. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor, 17-item scale. subscale reliability ranged from 0.72 to 0.79. There were significant associations between the ILCS and the HIV-testing behaviors of participants. Results of the pilot test and psychometric analysis of the ILCS are promising. The scale is reliable and significantly associated with the HIV-testing behaviors of participants. Subscales related to unwanted government attention and concerns about meeting moral character requirements should be refined.
DOES A SCALING LAW EXIST BETWEEN SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS AND SOLAR FLARES?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kahler, S. W.
2013-01-01
Among many other natural processes, the size distributions of solar X-ray flares and solar energetic particle (SEP) events are scale-invariant power laws. The measured distributions of SEP events prove to be distinctly flatter, i.e., have smaller power-law slopes, than those of the flares. This has led to speculation that the two distributions are related through a scaling law, first suggested by Hudson, which implies a direct nonlinear physical connection between the processes producing the flares and those producing the SEP events. We present four arguments against this interpretation. First, a true scaling must relate SEP events to all flare X-ray events, and not to a small subset of the X-ray event population. We also show that the assumed scaling law is not mathematically valid and that although the flare X-ray and SEP event data are correlated, they are highly scattered and not necessarily related through an assumed scaling of the two phenomena. An interpretation of SEP events within the context of a recent model of fractal-diffusive self-organized criticality by Aschwanden provides a physical basis for why the SEP distributions should be flatter than those of solar flares. These arguments provide evidence against a close physical connection of flares with SEP production.
Plasma performance and scaling laws in the RFX-mod reversed-field pinch experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Innocente, P.; Alfier, A.; Canton, A.; Pasqualotto, R.
2009-01-01
The large range of plasma currents (I p = 0.2-1.6 MA) and feedback-controlled magnetic boundary conditions of the RFX-mod experiment make it well suited to performing scaling studies. The assessment of such scaling, in particular those on temperature and energy confinement, is crucial both for improving the operating reversed-field pinch (RFP) devices and for validating the RFP configuration as a candidate for the future fusion reactors. For such a purpose scaling laws for magnetic fluctuations, temperature and energy confinement have been evaluated in stationary operation. RFX-mod scaling laws have been compared with those obtained from other RFP devices and numerical simulations. The role of the magnetic boundary has been analysed, comparing discharges performed with different active control schemes of the edge radial magnetic field.
Scaling laws in high-energy inverse compton scattering. II. Effect of bulk motions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nozawa, Satoshi; Kohyama, Yasuharu; Itoh, Naoki
2010-01-01
We study the inverse Compton scattering of the CMB photons off high-energy nonthermal electrons. We extend the formalism obtained by the previous paper to the case where the electrons have nonzero bulk motions with respect to the CMB frame. Assuming the power-law electron distribution, we find the same scaling law for the probability distribution function P 1,K (s) as P 1 (s) which corresponds to the zero bulk motions, where the peak height and peak position depend only on the power-index parameter. We solved the rate equation analytically. It is found that the spectral intensity function also has the same scaling law. The effect of the bulk motions to the spectral intensity function is found to be small. The present study will be applicable to the analysis of the x-ray and gamma-ray emission models from various astrophysical objects with nonzero bulk motions such as radio galaxies and astrophysical jets.
Two-phase flow in porous media: power-law scaling of effective permeability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Groeva, Morten; Hansen, Alex, E-mail: Morten.Grova@ntnu.no, E-mail: Alex.Hansen@ntnu.no [Department of Physics, NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)
2011-09-15
A recent experiment has reported power-law scaling of effective permeability of two-phase flow with respect to capillary number for a two-dimensional model porous medium. In this paper, we consider the simultaneous flow of two phases through a porous medium under steady-state conditions, fixed total flow-rate and saturation, using a two-dimensional network simulator. We obtain power-law exponents for the scaling of effective permeability with respect to capillary number. The simulations are performed both for viscosity matched fluids and for a high viscosity ratio resembling that of air and water. Good power-law behaviour is found for both cases. Different exponents are found, depending on saturation.
Scaling laws for file dissemination in P2P networks with random contacts
Nunez-Queija, R.; Prabhu, B.
2008-01-01
In this paper we obtain the scaling law for the mean broadcast time of a file in a P2P network with an initial population of N nodes. In the model, at Poisson rate λ a node initiates a contact with another node chosen uniformly at random. This contact is said to be successful if the contacted node
Scaling laws for file dissemination in P2P networks with random contacts
Núñez-Queija, R.; Prabhu, B.
2008-01-01
In this paper we obtain the scaling law for the mean broadcast time of a file in a P2P network with an initial population of N nodes. In the model, at Poisson rate lambda a node initiates a contact with another node chosen uniformly at random. This contact is said to be successful if the contacted
Testing of Large-Scale ICV Glasses with Hanford LAW Simulant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hrma, Pavel R.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Matyas, Josef; Smith, Donald E.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Yeager, John D.
2005-03-01
Preliminary glass compositions for immobilizing Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) by the in-container vitrification (ICV) process were initially fabricated at crucible- and engineering-scale, including simulants and actual (radioactive) LAW. Glasses were characterized for vapor hydration test (VHT) and product consistency test (PCT) responses and crystallinity (both quenched and slow-cooled samples). Selected glasses were tested for toxicity characteristic leach procedure (TCLP) responses, viscosity, and electrical conductivity. This testing showed that glasses with LAW loading of 20 mass% can be made readily and meet all product constraints by a far margin. Glasses with over 22 mass% Na2O can be made to meet all other product quality and process constraints. Large-scale testing was performed at the AMEC, Geomelt Division facility in Richland. Three tests were conducted using simulated LAW with increasing loadings of 12, 17, and 20 mass% Na2O. Glass samples were taken from the test products in a manner to represent the full expected range of product performance. These samples were characterized for composition, density, crystalline and non-crystalline phase assemblage, and durability using the VHT, PCT, and TCLP tests. The results, presented in this report, show that the AMEC ICV product with meets all waste form requirements with a large margin. These results provide strong evidence that the Hanford LAW can be successfully vitrified by the ICV technology and can meet all the constraints related to product quality. The economic feasibility of the ICV technology can be further enhanced by subsequent optimization.
A New Scaling Law of Resonance in Total Scattering Cross Section in Gases
Raju, Gorur Govinda
2009-10-01
Electrical discharges in gases continue to be an active area of research because of industrial applications such as power systems, environmental clean up, laser technology, semiconductor fabrication etc. A fundamental knowledge of electron-gas neutral interaction is indispensable and, the total scattering cross section is one of the quantities that have been measured extensively. The energy dependence of the total cross sections shows peaks or resonance processes that are operative in the collision process. These peaks and the energies at which they occur are shown to satisfy a broad relationship involving the polarizability and the dipole moment of the target particle. Data on 62 target particles belonging to the following species are analyzed. (Eq 1) Rare gas atoms (Eq 2) Di-atomic molecules with combinations of polar, non-polar, attaching, and non-attaching properties Poly-atomic molecules with combinations of polar, non-polar, attaching, and non-attaching properties. Methods of improving the newly identified scaling law and possible application have been identified. 1 INTRODUCTION: Data on electron-neutral interactions are one of the most fundamental in the study of gaseous electronics and an immense literature, both experimental and theoretical, has become available since about the year 1920. [1-5]. In view of the central role which these data play in all facets of gas discharges and plasma science, it is felt that a critical review of available data is timely, mainly for the community of high voltage engineers and industries connected with plasma science in general. The electron-neutral interaction, often referred to as scattering in the scientific literature, is quantified by using the quantity called the total scattering cross section (QT, m^2). In the literature on cross section, total cross section and total scattering cross section are terms used synonymously and we follow the same practice. A definition may be found in reference [1]. This paper concerns
Titius--Bode law and the possibility of recent large-scale evolution in the solar system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neito, M.M.
1974-01-01
Although it is by no means clear that the Titius--Bode law of planetary distances is indeed a ''law'' (even though there are enticing indications), it is proposed that if one assumes that the law is a ''law'' and that the planets obey it, then this argues against recent large-scale evolution in the solar system. Put another way: one can believe in the Titius--Bode law or in recent large-scale evolution or in neither of them. But it appears difficult to believe in both of them
Extended power-law scaling of air permeabilities measured on a block of tuff
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M. Siena
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We use three methods to identify power-law scaling of multi-scale log air permeability data collected by Tidwell and Wilson on the faces of a laboratory-scale block of Topopah Spring tuff: method of moments (M, Extended Self-Similarity (ESS and a generalized version thereof (G-ESS. All three methods focus on q-th-order sample structure functions of absolute increments. Most such functions exhibit power-law scaling at best over a limited midrange of experimental separation scales, or lags, which are sometimes difficult to identify unambiguously by means of M. ESS and G-ESS extend this range in a way that renders power-law scaling easier to characterize. Our analysis confirms the superiority of ESS and G-ESS over M in identifying the scaling exponents, ξ(q, of corresponding structure functions of orders q, suggesting further that ESS is more reliable than G-ESS. The exponents vary in a nonlinear fashion with q as is typical of real or apparent multifractals. Our estimates of the Hurst scaling coefficient increase with support scale, implying a reduction in roughness (anti-persistence of the log permeability field with measurement volume. The finding by Tidwell and Wilson that log permeabilities associated with all tip sizes can be characterized by stationary variogram models, coupled with our findings that log permeability increments associated with the smallest tip size are approximately Gaussian and those associated with all tip sizes scale show nonlinear variations in ξ(q with q, are consistent with a view of these data as a sample from a truncated version (tfBm of self-affine fractional Brownian motion (fBm. Since in theory the scaling exponents, ξ(q, of tfBm vary linearly with q we conclude that nonlinear scaling in our case is not an indication of multifractality but an artifact of sampling from tfBm. This allows us to explain theoretically how power-law scaling of our data, as well
From coastal barriers to mountain belts - commonalities in fundamental geomorphic scaling laws
Lazarus, E.
2016-12-01
Overwash is a sediment-transport process essential to the form and resilience of coastal barrier landscapes. Driven by storm events, overwash leaves behind distinctive sedimentary features that, although intensively studied, have lacked unifying quantitative descriptions with which to compare their morphological attributes across documented examples or relate them to other morphodynamic phenomena. Geomorphic scaling laws quantify how measures of shape and size change with respect to another - information that helps to constrain predictions of future change and reconstructions of past environmental conditions. Here, a physical model of erosional and depositional overwash morphology yields intrinsic, allometric scaling laws involving length, width, area, volume, and alongshore spacing. Corroborative comparisons with natural washover morphology indicate scale invariance spanning several orders of magnitude. Several observers of the physical model remarked that the overwashed barrier resembled a dissected linear mountain front with an alluvial apron - an intriguing reimagining of the intended analog. Indeed, that resemblance is reflected quantitatively in these new scaling relationships, which align with canonical scaling laws for terrestrial and marine drainage basins and alluvial fans on Earth and Mars. This finding suggests disparate geomorphic systems that share common allometric properties may be related dynamically, perhaps by an influence more fundamental than characteristic erosion and deposition processes. Such an influence could come from emergent behavior at the intersection of advection and diffusion. Geomorphic behaviors at advection-diffusion transitions (and vice versa), specifically, could be the key to disentangling mechanistic causality from acausality in physical landscape patterns.
Identifying all moiety conservation laws in genome-scale metabolic networks.
De Martino, Andrea; De Martino, Daniele; Mulet, Roberto; Pagnani, Andrea
2014-01-01
The stoichiometry of a metabolic network gives rise to a set of conservation laws for the aggregate level of specific pools of metabolites, which, on one hand, pose dynamical constraints that cross-link the variations of metabolite concentrations and, on the other, provide key insight into a cell's metabolic production capabilities. When the conserved quantity identifies with a chemical moiety, extracting all such conservation laws from the stoichiometry amounts to finding all non-negative integer solutions of a linear system, a programming problem known to be NP-hard. We present an efficient strategy to compute the complete set of integer conservation laws of a genome-scale stoichiometric matrix, also providing a certificate for correctness and maximality of the solution. Our method is deployed for the analysis of moiety conservation relationships in two large-scale reconstructions of the metabolism of the bacterium E. coli, in six tissue-specific human metabolic networks, and, finally, in the human reactome as a whole, revealing that bacterial metabolism could be evolutionarily designed to cover broader production spectra than human metabolism. Convergence to the full set of moiety conservation laws in each case is achieved in extremely reduced computing times. In addition, we uncover a scaling relation that links the size of the independent pool basis to the number of metabolites, for which we present an analytical explanation.
Identifying all moiety conservation laws in genome-scale metabolic networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea De Martino
Full Text Available The stoichiometry of a metabolic network gives rise to a set of conservation laws for the aggregate level of specific pools of metabolites, which, on one hand, pose dynamical constraints that cross-link the variations of metabolite concentrations and, on the other, provide key insight into a cell's metabolic production capabilities. When the conserved quantity identifies with a chemical moiety, extracting all such conservation laws from the stoichiometry amounts to finding all non-negative integer solutions of a linear system, a programming problem known to be NP-hard. We present an efficient strategy to compute the complete set of integer conservation laws of a genome-scale stoichiometric matrix, also providing a certificate for correctness and maximality of the solution. Our method is deployed for the analysis of moiety conservation relationships in two large-scale reconstructions of the metabolism of the bacterium E. coli, in six tissue-specific human metabolic networks, and, finally, in the human reactome as a whole, revealing that bacterial metabolism could be evolutionarily designed to cover broader production spectra than human metabolism. Convergence to the full set of moiety conservation laws in each case is achieved in extremely reduced computing times. In addition, we uncover a scaling relation that links the size of the independent pool basis to the number of metabolites, for which we present an analytical explanation.
Scaling laws and vortex profiles in two-dimensional decaying turbulence.
Laval, J P; Chavanis, P H; Dubrulle, B; Sire, C
2001-06-01
We use high resolution numerical simulations over several hundred of turnover times to study the influence of small scale dissipation onto vortex statistics in 2D decaying turbulence. A scaling regime is detected when the scaling laws are expressed in units of mean vorticity and integral scale, like predicted in Carnevale et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2735 (1991), and it is observed that viscous effects spoil this scaling regime. The exponent controlling the decay of the number of vortices shows some trends toward xi=1, in agreement with a recent theory based on the Kirchhoff model [C. Sire and P. H. Chavanis, Phys. Rev. E 61, 6644 (2000)]. In terms of scaled variables, the vortices have a similar profile with a functional form related to the Fermi-Dirac distribution.
Fractionaly Integrated Flux model and Scaling Laws in Weather and Climate
Schertzer, Daniel; Lovejoy, Shaun
2013-04-01
The Fractionaly Integrated Flux model (FIF) has been extensively used to model intermittent observables, like the velocity field, by defining them with the help of a fractional integration of a conservative (i.e. strictly scale invariant) flux, such as the turbulent energy flux. It indeed corresponds to a well-defined modelling that yields the observed scaling laws. Generalised Scale Invariance (GSI) enables FIF to deal with anisotropic fractional integrations and has been rather successful to define and model a unique regime of scaling anisotropic turbulence up to planetary scales. This turbulence has an effective dimension of 23/9=2.55... instead of the classical hypothesised 2D and 3D turbulent regimes, respectively for large and small spatial scales. It therefore theoretically eliminates a non plausible "dimension transition" between these two regimes and the resulting requirement of a turbulent energy "mesoscale gap", whose empirical evidence has been brought more and more into question. More recently, GSI-FIF was used to analyse climate, therefore at much larger time scales. Indeed, the 23/9-dimensional regime necessarily breaks up at the outer spatial scales. The corresponding transition range, which can be called "macroweather", seems to have many interesting properties, e.g. it rather corresponds to a fractional differentiation in time with a roughly flat frequency spectrum. Furthermore, this transition yields the possibility to have at much larger time scales scaling space-time climate fluctuations with a much stronger scaling anisotropy between time and space. Lovejoy, S. and D. Schertzer (2013). The Weather and Climate: Emergent Laws and Multifractal Cascades. Cambridge Press (in press). Schertzer, D. et al. (1997). Fractals 5(3): 427-471. Schertzer, D. and S. Lovejoy (2011). International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos 21(12): 3417-3456.
The cooling law and the search for a good temperature scale, from Newton to Dalton
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Besson, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.besson@unipv.it [Department of Physics ' A Volta' , University of Pavia, Via A Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)
2011-03-15
The research on the cooling law began with an article by Newton published in 1701. Later, many studies were performed by other scientists confirming or confuting Newton's law. This paper presents a description and an interpretation of Newton's article, provides a short overview of the research conducted on the topic during the 18th century, and discusses the relationships between the research on cooling laws and the definition of a temperature scale, as it was treated in Newton's article and in the work of Dalton, including Dalton's search for the absolute zero of temperature. It is shown that these scientists considered the exponential cooling law as a fundamental principle rather than a conjecture to be tested by means of experiments. The faith in the simplicity of natural laws and the spontaneous idea of proportionality between cause and effect seem to have strongly influenced Newton and Dalton. The topic is developed in a way that can be suitable for both undergraduate students and general physicists.
The cooling law and the search for a good temperature scale, from Newton to Dalton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besson, Ugo
2011-01-01
The research on the cooling law began with an article by Newton published in 1701. Later, many studies were performed by other scientists confirming or confuting Newton's law. This paper presents a description and an interpretation of Newton's article, provides a short overview of the research conducted on the topic during the 18th century, and discusses the relationships between the research on cooling laws and the definition of a temperature scale, as it was treated in Newton's article and in the work of Dalton, including Dalton's search for the absolute zero of temperature. It is shown that these scientists considered the exponential cooling law as a fundamental principle rather than a conjecture to be tested by means of experiments. The faith in the simplicity of natural laws and the spontaneous idea of proportionality between cause and effect seem to have strongly influenced Newton and Dalton. The topic is developed in a way that can be suitable for both undergraduate students and general physicists.
Scaling laws for free piston Stirling engine design: Benefits and challenges of miniaturization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Formosa, Fabien; Fréchette, Luc G.
2013-01-01
This work explores the scaling effects for FPSE (free piston Stirling engines), which are known for their simple architecture and potentially high thermodynamic performances. Scaling laws are given and their potential for miniaturization is highlighted. A simple model which allows the design of the geometrical parameters of the heat exchangers, the regenerator and the masses of the pistons is proposed. It is based on the definition of six characteristic dimensionless groups. They are derived from the physics underlying the behavior of the free piston Stirling machine and their relevancy is backed up by comparisons between documented Stirling engines from the literature. Keeping constant values for each group throughout the scaling range theoretically ensures constant performance. The main losses of Stirling engine (heat conduction loss, reheat loss in the regenerator, pressure drop and gas-spring hysteresis) can be expressed as a function of the geometrical and operating parameters. Additionally, the consequences of leakage due to the manufacturing precision of pistons architectures are underlined. From the proposed scaling laws, potential power and efficiency of Stirling cycle engines at a millimeter scale can be anticipated. It appears that the power density increases with miniaturization. It is also shown that the dynamic masses related to the engine size are increased when scaling down and that the gap leakage presents the highest detrimental effects on the efficiency. These results call for dedicated architectures for micro-engines. - Highlights: • Similitude strategy is applied to Stirling engines and allows preliminary design. • New scaling laws are derived. • The power density can be increased with miniaturization. • The gap between the piston and casing is highly detrimental to the performances. • High engine operating pressure is required when miniaturizing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakimoto, P.J.
1985-01-01
Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) are apparently the excessively bright nuclei of distant galaxies. They are thought to be powered by accretion disks surrounding supermassive black holes: however, proof of this presumption is hampered by major uncertainties in the viscous stress necessary for accretion to occur. Models generally assume an and hoc stress law which scales the stress with the total pressure. Near the black hole, radiation pressure dominates gas pressure; scaling the stress with the radiation pressure results in disk models that are thermally unstable and optically thin. This dissertation shows that a radiation pressure scaling for the stress is not possible if the viscosity is due to turbulent magnetic Maxwell stresses. The argument is one of internal self-consistency. First, four model accretion disks that bound the reasonably expected ranges of viscous stress scalings and vertical structures are constructed. Magnetic flux tubes of various initial field strengths are then placed within these models, nd their buoyancy is modeled numerically. In disks using the radiation pressure stress law scaling, low opacities allow rapid heat flow into the flux tubes: the tubes are extremely buoyant, and magnetic fields strong enough to provide the required stress cannot be retained. If an alternative gas pressure scaling for the stress is assumed, then the disks are optically thick; flux tubes have corresponding lower buoyancy, and magnetic fields strong enough to provide the stress can be retained for dynamically significant time periods
Volume-law scaling for the entanglement entropy in spin-1/2 chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vitagliano, G; Riera, A; Latorre, J I
2010-01-01
Entanglement entropy obeys area law scaling for typical physical quantum systems. This may naively be argued to follow from the locality of interactions. We show that this is not the case by constructing an explicit simple spin chain Hamiltonian with nearest-neighbor interactions that presents an entanglement volume scaling law. This non-translational model is contrived to have couplings that force the accumulation of singlet bonds across the half-chain. This configuration of the couplings is suggested by real-space renormalization group arguments. Computation of the entanglement entropy is performed by mapping the system to free fermions and diagonalizing numerically its correlation matrix. An analytical relationship between the entanglement entropy and the Frobenius norm of the correlation matrix is also established. Our result is complementary to the known relationship between non-translational invariant, nearest-neighbor interacting Hamiltonians and quantum Merlin-Arthur (QMA)-complete problems.
The l-mixing cross section of Rydberg states of atomic Rb and the scaling LAW
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Hong; Chen Aiqiu; Li Baiwen
1991-01-01
On the basis of impulse approximate method, a kind of analytical wavefunctions based on a potential model was used to calculate the l mixing cross section of thermal collision of Rydberg states of atomic Rb with rare gas (He, Ne). The results were compared with the experimental results and other theoretical values. These results show that there exists a kind of scaling law for the l mixing cross section of Rydberg alkali atoms
SCALING LAWS AND TEMPERATURE PROFILES FOR SOLAR AND STELLAR CORONAL LOOPS WITH NON-UNIFORM HEATING
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martens, P. C. H.
2010-01-01
The bulk of solar coronal radiative loss consists of soft X-ray emission from quasi-static loops at the cores of active regions. In order to develop diagnostics for determining the heating mechanism of these loops from observations by coronal imaging instruments, I have developed analytical solutions for the temperature structure and scaling laws of loop strands for a set of temperature- and pressure-dependent heating functions that encompass heating concentrated at the footpoints, uniform heating, and heating concentrated at the loop apex. Key results are that the temperature profile depends only weakly on the heating distribution-not sufficiently to be of significant diagnostic value-and that the scaling laws survive for this wide range of heating distributions, but with the constant of proportionality in the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana scaling law (P 0 L ∼ T 3 max ) depending on the specific heating function. Furthermore, quasi-static solutions do not exist for an excessive concentration of heating near the loop footpoints, a result in agreement with recent numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that a generalization of the results to a set of solutions for strands with a functionally prescribed variable diameter leads to only relatively small correction factors in the scaling laws and temperature profiles for constant diameter loop strands. A quintet of leading theoretical coronal heating mechanisms is shown to be captured by the formalism of this paper, and the differences in thermal structure between them may be verified through observations. Preliminary results from full numerical simulations demonstrate that, despite the simplifying assumptions, the analytical solutions from this paper are accurate and stable.
Tippett, Michael K.; Cohen, Joel E.
2016-01-01
Tornadoes cause loss of life and damage to property each year in the United States and around the world. The largest impacts come from ‘outbreaks' consisting of multiple tornadoes closely spaced in time. Here we find an upward trend in the annual mean number of tornadoes per US tornado outbreak for the period 1954–2014. Moreover, the variance of this quantity is increasing more than four times as fast as the mean. The mean and variance of the number of tornadoes per outbreak vary according to Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling (TL), with parameters that are consistent with multiplicative growth. Tornado-related atmospheric proxies show similar power-law scaling and multiplicative growth. Path-length-integrated tornado outbreak intensity also follows TL, but with parameters consistent with sampling variability. The observed TL power-law scaling of outbreak severity means that extreme outbreaks are more frequent than would be expected if mean and variance were independent or linearly related. PMID:26923210
A simple model for determining photoelectron-generated radiation scaling laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dipp, T.M.
1993-12-01
The generation of radiation via photoelectrons induced off of a conducting surface was explored using a simple model to determine fundamental scaling laws. The model is one-dimensional (small-spot) and uses monoenergetic, nonrelativistic photoelectrons emitted normal to the illuminated conducting surface. Simple steady-state radiation, frequency, and maximum orbital distance equations were derived using small-spot radiation equations, a sin 2 type modulation function, and simple photoelectron dynamics. The result is a system of equations for various scaling laws, which, along with model and user constraints, are simultaneously solved using techniques similar to linear programming. Typical conductors illuminated by low-power sources producing photons with energies less than 5.0 eV are readily modeled by this small-spot, steady-state analysis, which shows they generally produce low efficiency (η rsL -10.5 ) pure photoelectron-induced radiation. However, the small-spot theory predicts that the total conversion efficiency for incident photon power to photoelectron-induced radiated power can go higher than 10 -5.5 for typical real conductors if photons having energies of 15 eV and higher are used, and should go even higher still if the small-spot limit of this theory is exceeded as well. Overall, the simple theory equations, model constraint equations, and solution techniques presented provide a foundation for understanding, predicting, and optimizing the generated radiation, and the simple theory equations provide scaling laws to compare with computational and laboratory experimental data
Network-state modulation of power-law frequency-scaling in visual cortical neurons.
El Boustani, Sami; Marre, Olivier; Béhuret, Sébastien; Baudot, Pierre; Yger, Pierre; Bal, Thierry; Destexhe, Alain; Frégnac, Yves
2009-09-01
Various types of neural-based signals, such as EEG, local field potentials and intracellular synaptic potentials, integrate multiple sources of activity distributed across large assemblies. They have in common a power-law frequency-scaling structure at high frequencies, but it is still unclear whether this scaling property is dominated by intrinsic neuronal properties or by network activity. The latter case is particularly interesting because if frequency-scaling reflects the network state it could be used to characterize the functional impact of the connectivity. In intracellularly recorded neurons of cat primary visual cortex in vivo, the power spectral density of V(m) activity displays a power-law structure at high frequencies with a fractional scaling exponent. We show that this exponent is not constant, but depends on the visual statistics used to drive the network. To investigate the determinants of this frequency-scaling, we considered a generic recurrent model of cortex receiving a retinotopically organized external input. Similarly to the in vivo case, our in computo simulations show that the scaling exponent reflects the correlation level imposed in the input. This systematic dependence was also replicated at the single cell level, by controlling independently, in a parametric way, the strength and the temporal decay of the pairwise correlation between presynaptic inputs. This last model was implemented in vitro by imposing the correlation control in artificial presynaptic spike trains through dynamic-clamp techniques. These in vitro manipulations induced a modulation of the scaling exponent, similar to that observed in vivo and predicted in computo. We conclude that the frequency-scaling exponent of the V(m) reflects stimulus-driven correlations in the cortical network activity. Therefore, we propose that the scaling exponent could be used to read-out the "effective" connectivity responsible for the dynamical signature of the population signals measured
Network-state modulation of power-law frequency-scaling in visual cortical neurons.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sami El Boustani
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Various types of neural-based signals, such as EEG, local field potentials and intracellular synaptic potentials, integrate multiple sources of activity distributed across large assemblies. They have in common a power-law frequency-scaling structure at high frequencies, but it is still unclear whether this scaling property is dominated by intrinsic neuronal properties or by network activity. The latter case is particularly interesting because if frequency-scaling reflects the network state it could be used to characterize the functional impact of the connectivity. In intracellularly recorded neurons of cat primary visual cortex in vivo, the power spectral density of V(m activity displays a power-law structure at high frequencies with a fractional scaling exponent. We show that this exponent is not constant, but depends on the visual statistics used to drive the network. To investigate the determinants of this frequency-scaling, we considered a generic recurrent model of cortex receiving a retinotopically organized external input. Similarly to the in vivo case, our in computo simulations show that the scaling exponent reflects the correlation level imposed in the input. This systematic dependence was also replicated at the single cell level, by controlling independently, in a parametric way, the strength and the temporal decay of the pairwise correlation between presynaptic inputs. This last model was implemented in vitro by imposing the correlation control in artificial presynaptic spike trains through dynamic-clamp techniques. These in vitro manipulations induced a modulation of the scaling exponent, similar to that observed in vivo and predicted in computo. We conclude that the frequency-scaling exponent of the V(m reflects stimulus-driven correlations in the cortical network activity. Therefore, we propose that the scaling exponent could be used to read-out the "effective" connectivity responsible for the dynamical signature of the population
Li, Shan; Lin, Ruokuang; Bian, Chunhua; Ma, Qianli D Y; Ivanov, Plamen Ch
2016-01-01
Scaling laws characterize diverse complex systems in a broad range of fields, including physics, biology, finance, and social science. The human language is another example of a complex system of words organization. Studies on written texts have shown that scaling laws characterize the occurrence frequency of words, words rank, and the growth of distinct words with increasing text length. However, these studies have mainly concentrated on the western linguistic systems, and the laws that govern the lexical organization, structure and dynamics of the Chinese language remain not well understood. Here we study a database of Chinese and English language books. We report that three distinct scaling laws characterize words organization in the Chinese language. We find that these scaling laws have different exponents and crossover behaviors compared to English texts, indicating different words organization and dynamics of words in the process of text growth. We propose a stochastic feedback model of words organization and text growth, which successfully accounts for the empirically observed scaling laws with their corresponding scaling exponents and characteristic crossover regimes. Further, by varying key model parameters, we reproduce differences in the organization and scaling laws of words between the Chinese and English language. We also identify functional relationships between model parameters and the empirically observed scaling exponents, thus providing new insights into the words organization and growth dynamics in the Chinese and English language.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shan Li
Full Text Available Scaling laws characterize diverse complex systems in a broad range of fields, including physics, biology, finance, and social science. The human language is another example of a complex system of words organization. Studies on written texts have shown that scaling laws characterize the occurrence frequency of words, words rank, and the growth of distinct words with increasing text length. However, these studies have mainly concentrated on the western linguistic systems, and the laws that govern the lexical organization, structure and dynamics of the Chinese language remain not well understood. Here we study a database of Chinese and English language books. We report that three distinct scaling laws characterize words organization in the Chinese language. We find that these scaling laws have different exponents and crossover behaviors compared to English texts, indicating different words organization and dynamics of words in the process of text growth. We propose a stochastic feedback model of words organization and text growth, which successfully accounts for the empirically observed scaling laws with their corresponding scaling exponents and characteristic crossover regimes. Further, by varying key model parameters, we reproduce differences in the organization and scaling laws of words between the Chinese and English language. We also identify functional relationships between model parameters and the empirically observed scaling exponents, thus providing new insights into the words organization and growth dynamics in the Chinese and English language.
Scaling law of runaway electrons in the HL-1M tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Yongzhen
2005-01-01
Runaway confinement time in ohmic and additionally heated tokamak plasmas presents an anomalous behavior in comparison with theoretical predictions based on neoclassical models. A one-dimensional numerical including generation and loss effects for runaway electrons is used to deduce the dependence of runaway energy ε τ on runaway confinement time. The simulation results are presented in the form of a scaling law for ε τ on plasma parameters. The scaling of ε τ and therefore the runaway confinement time and runaway electron diffusivity has been studied in the HL-1M tokamak, by measuring hard X-ray spectra under different experimental conditions. (authors)
On the Scaling Law for Broadband Shock Noise Intensity in Supersonic Jets
Kanudula, Max
2009-01-01
A theoretical model for the scaling of broadband shock noise intensity in supersonic jets was formulated on the basis of linear shock-shear wave interaction. An hypothesis has been postulated that the peak angle of incidence (closer to the critical angle) for the shear wave primarily governs the generation of sound in the interaction process rather than the noise generation contribution from off-peak incident angles. The proposed theory satisfactorily explains the well-known scaling law for the broadband shock -associated noise in supersonic jets.
Truncation of power law behavior in 'scale-free' network models due to information filtering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mossa, Stefano; Barthelemy, Marc; Eugene Stanley, H.; Nunes Amaral, Luis A.
2002-01-01
We formulate a general model for the growth of scale-free networks under filtering information conditions--that is, when the nodes can process information about only a subset of the existing nodes in the network. We find that the distribution of the number of incoming links to a node follows a universal scaling form, i.e., that it decays as a power law with an exponential truncation controlled not only by the system size but also by a feature not previously considered, the subset of the network 'accessible' to the node. We test our model with empirical data for the World Wide Web and find agreement
Theory and evidence for using the economy-of-scale law in power plant economics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phung, D.L.
1987-05-01
This report compiles theory and evidence for the use of the economy-of-scale law in energy economics, particularly in the estimation of capital costs for coal-fired and nuclear power plants. The economy-of-scale law is widely used in its simplest form: cost is directly proportional to capacity raised to an exponent. An additive constant is an important component that is not generally taken into account. Also, the economy of scale is perforce valid only over a limited size range. The majority of engineering studies have estimated an economy of scale exponent of 0.7 to 0.9 for coal-fired plants and an exponent of 0.4 to 0.6 for nuclear plants in the capacity ranges of 400 to 1000 MWe. However, the majority of econometric analyses found little or no economy of scale for coal-fired plants and only a slight economy of scale for nuclear plants. This disparity is explained by the fact that economists have included regulatory and time-related costs in addition to the direct and indirect costs used by the engineers. Regulatory and time-related costs have become an increasingly larger portion of total costs during the last decade. In addition, these costs appeared to have either a very small economy of scale or to be increasing as the size of the power plant increased. We conclude that gains in economy of scale can only be made by reducing regulatory and time-related costs through design standardization and regulatory stability, in combination with more favorable economic conditions. 59 refs
The star-formation law at GMC scales in M33, the Triangulum Galaxy
Williams, Thomas G.; Gear, Walter K.; Smith, Matthew W. L.
2018-06-01
We present a high spatial resolution study, on scales of ˜100pc, of the relationship between star-formation rate (SFR) and gas content within Local Group galaxy M33. Combining deep SCUBA-2 observations with archival GALEX, SDSS, WISE, Spitzer and submillimetre Herschel data, we are able to model the entire SED from UV to sub-mm wavelengths. We calculate the SFR on a pixel-by-pixel basis using the total infrared luminosity, and find a total SFR of 0.17 ± 0.06 {M}_⊙/yr, somewhat lower than our other two measures of SFR - combined FUV and 24μ SFR (0.25^{+0.10}_{-0.07} {M}_⊙/yr) and SED-fitting tool MAGPHYS (0.33^{+0.05}_{-0.06} {M}_⊙/yr). We trace the total gas using a combination of the 21cm HI line for atomic hydrogen, and CO(J=2-1) data for molecular hydrogen. We have also traced the total gas using dust masses. We study the star-formation law in terms of molecular gas, total gas, and gas from dust. We perform an analysis of the star-formation law on a variety of pixel scales, from 25" to 500" (100pc to 2kpc). At kpc scales, we find that a linear Schmidt-type power law index is suitable for molecular gas, but the index appears to be much higher with total gas, and gas from dust. Whilst we find a strong scale dependence on the Schmidt index, the gas depletion timescale is invariant with pixel scale.
Scaling law of diffusivity generated by a noisy telegraph signal with fractal intermittency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paradisi, Paolo; Allegrini, Paolo
2015-01-01
In many complex systems the non-linear cooperative dynamics determine the emergence of self-organized, metastable, structures that are associated with a birth–death process of cooperation. This is found to be described by a renewal point process, i.e., a sequence of crucial birth–death events corresponding to transitions among states that are faster than the typical long-life time of the metastable states. Metastable states are highly correlated, but the occurrence of crucial events is typically associated with a fast memory drop, which is the reason for the renewal condition. Consequently, these complex systems display a power-law decay and, thus, a long-range or scale-free behavior, in both time correlations and distribution of inter-event times, i.e., fractal intermittency. The emergence of fractal intermittency is then a signature of complexity. However, the scaling features of complex systems are, in general, affected by the presence of added white or short-term noise. This has been found also for fractal intermittency. In this work, after a brief review on metastability and noise in complex systems, we discuss the emerging paradigm of Temporal Complexity. Then, we propose a model of noisy fractal intermittency, where noise is interpreted as a renewal Poisson process with event rate r_p. We show that the presence of Poisson noise causes the emergence of a normal diffusion scaling in the long-time range of diffusion generated by a telegraph signal driven by noisy fractal intermittency. We analytically derive the scaling law of the long-time normal diffusivity coefficient. We find the surprising result that this long-time normal diffusivity depends not only on the Poisson event rate, but also on the parameters of the complex component of the signal: the power exponent μ of the inter-event time distribution, denoted as complexity index, and the time scale T needed to reach the asymptotic power-law behavior marking the emergence of complexity. In particular
Vilella, Kenny; Kaminski, Edouard
2017-05-01
The long-term habitability of a planet rises from its ability to generate and maintain an atmosphere through partial melting and volcanism. This question has been mainly addressed in the framework of plate tectonics, which may be too specific to apply to the wide range of internal dynamics expected for exoplanets, and even to the thermal evolution of the early Earth. Here we propose a more general theoretical approach of convection to build a regime diagram giving the conditions for partial melting to occur, in planetary bodies, as a function of key parameters that can be estimated for exoplanets, their size and internal heating rate. To that aim, we introduce a refined view of the Thermal Boundary Layer (TBL) in a convective system heated from within, that focuses on the temperature and thickness of the TBL at the top of the hottest temperature profiles, along which partial melting shall first occur. This ;Hottest Thermal Boundary Layer; (HotTBL) is first characterized using fully theoretical scaling laws based on the dynamics of thermal boundary layers. These laws are the first ones proposed in the literature that do not rely on empirical determinations of dimensionless constants and that apply to both low Rayleigh and high Rayleigh convective regimes. We show that the scaling laws can be successfully applied to planetary bodies by comparing their predictions to full numerical simulations of the Moon. We then use the scaling laws to build a regime diagram for exoplanets. Combined with estimates of internal heating in exoplanets, the regime diagram predicts that in the habitable zone partial melting occurs in planets younger than the Earth.
Contact area of rough spheres: Large scale simulations and simple scaling laws
Pastewka, Lars; Robbins, Mark O.
2016-05-01
We use molecular simulations to study the nonadhesive and adhesive atomic-scale contact of rough spheres with radii ranging from nanometers to micrometers over more than ten orders of magnitude in applied normal load. At the lowest loads, the interfacial mechanics is governed by the contact mechanics of the first asperity that touches. The dependence of contact area on normal force becomes linear at intermediate loads and crosses over to Hertzian at the largest loads. By combining theories for the limiting cases of nominally flat rough surfaces and smooth spheres, we provide parameter-free analytical expressions for contact area over the whole range of loads. Our results establish a range of validity for common approximations that neglect curvature or roughness in modeling objects on scales from atomic force microscope tips to ball bearings.
Contact area of rough spheres: Large scale simulations and simple scaling laws
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pastewka, Lars, E-mail: lars.pastewka@kit.edu [Institute for Applied Materials & MicroTribology Center muTC, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Engelbert-Arnold-Straße 4, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Robbins, Mark O., E-mail: mr@pha.jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)
2016-05-30
We use molecular simulations to study the nonadhesive and adhesive atomic-scale contact of rough spheres with radii ranging from nanometers to micrometers over more than ten orders of magnitude in applied normal load. At the lowest loads, the interfacial mechanics is governed by the contact mechanics of the first asperity that touches. The dependence of contact area on normal force becomes linear at intermediate loads and crosses over to Hertzian at the largest loads. By combining theories for the limiting cases of nominally flat rough surfaces and smooth spheres, we provide parameter-free analytical expressions for contact area over the whole range of loads. Our results establish a range of validity for common approximations that neglect curvature or roughness in modeling objects on scales from atomic force microscope tips to ball bearings.
BPS ZN string tensions, sine law and Casimir scaling, and integrable field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kneipp, Marco A. C.
2007-01-01
We consider a Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with spontaneous symmetry breaking of the gauge group G→U(1) r →C G , with C G being the center of G. We study two vacua solutions of the theory which produce this symmetry breaking. We show that for one of these vacua, the theory in the Coulomb phase has the mass spectrum of particles and monopoles which is exactly the same as the mass spectrum of particles and solitons of two-dimensional affine Toda field theory, for suitable coupling constants. That result holds also for N=4 super Yang-Mills theories. On the other hand, in the Higgs phase, we show that for each of the two vacua the ratio of the tensions of the BPS Z N strings satisfy either the Casimir scaling or the sine law scaling for G=SU(N). These results are extended to other gauge groups: for the Casimir scaling, the ratios of the tensions are equal to the ratios of the quadratic Casimir constant of specific representations; for the sine law scaling, the tensions are proportional to the components of the left Perron-Frobenius eigenvector of Cartan matrix K ij and the ratios of tensions are equal to the ratios of the soliton masses of affine Toda field theories
Muller, Nicholas Z; Jha, Akshaya
2017-01-01
Modern cities are engines of production, innovation, and growth. However, urbanization also increases both local and global pollution from household consumption and firms' production. Do emissions change proportionately to city size or does pollution tend to outpace or lag urbanization? Do emissions scale differently with population versus economic growth or are emissions, population, and economic growth inextricably linked? How are the scaling relationships between emissions, population, and economic growth affected by environmental regulation? This paper examines the link between urbanization, economic growth and pollution using data from Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States between 1999 and 2011. We find that the emissions of local air pollution in these MSAs scale according to a ¾ power law with both population size and gross domestic product (GDP). However, the monetary damages from these local emissions scale linearly with both population and GDP. Counties that have previously been out of attainment with the local air quality standards set by the Clean Air Act show an entirely different relationship: local emissions scale according to the square root of population, while the monetary damages from local air pollution follow a 2/3rds power law with population. Counties out of attainment are subject to more stringent emission controls; we argue based on this that enforcement of the Clean Air Act induces sublinear scaling between emissions, damages, and city size. In contrast, we find that metropolitan GDP scales super-linearly with population in all MSAs regardless of attainment status. Summarizing, our findings suggest that environmental policy limits the adverse effects of urbanization without interfering with the productivity benefits that manifest in cities.
Scaling laws for perturbations in the ocean-atmosphere system following large CO2 emissions
Towles, N.; Olson, P.; Gnanadesikan, A.
2015-07-01
Scaling relationships are found for perturbations to atmosphere and ocean variables from large transient CO2 emissions. Using the Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir (LOSCAR) model (Zeebe et al., 2009; Zeebe, 2012b), we calculate perturbations to atmosphere temperature, total carbon, ocean temperature, total ocean carbon, pH, alkalinity, marine-sediment carbon, and carbon-13 isotope anomalies in the ocean and atmosphere resulting from idealized CO2 emission events. The peak perturbations in the atmosphere and ocean variables are then fit to power law functions of the form of γ DαEβ, where D is the event duration, E is its total carbon emission, and γ is a coefficient. Good power law fits are obtained for most system variables for E up to 50 000 PgC and D up to 100 kyr. Although all of the peak perturbations increase with emission rate E/D, we find no evidence of emission-rate-only scaling, α + β = 0. Instead, our scaling yields α + β ≃ 1 for total ocean and atmosphere carbon and 0 < α + β < 1 for most of the other system variables.
Scaling laws for perturbations in the ocean–atmosphere system following large CO2 emissions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Towles
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Scaling relationships are found for perturbations to atmosphere and ocean variables from large transient CO2 emissions. Using the Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir (LOSCAR model (Zeebe et al., 2009; Zeebe, 2012b, we calculate perturbations to atmosphere temperature, total carbon, ocean temperature, total ocean carbon, pH, alkalinity, marine-sediment carbon, and carbon-13 isotope anomalies in the ocean and atmosphere resulting from idealized CO2 emission events. The peak perturbations in the atmosphere and ocean variables are then fit to power law functions of the form of γ DαEβ, where D is the event duration, E is its total carbon emission, and γ is a coefficient. Good power law fits are obtained for most system variables for E up to 50 000 PgC and D up to 100 kyr. Although all of the peak perturbations increase with emission rate E/D, we find no evidence of emission-rate-only scaling, α + β = 0. Instead, our scaling yields α + β ≃ 1 for total ocean and atmosphere carbon and 0 < α + β < 1 for most of the other system variables.
Air-chemistry "turbulence": power-law scaling and statistical regularity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.-m. Hsu
2011-08-01
Full Text Available With the intent to gain further knowledge on the spectral structures and statistical regularities of surface atmospheric chemistry, the chemical gases (NO, NO_{2}, NO_{x}, CO, SO_{2}, and O_{3} and aerosol (PM_{10} measured at 74 air quality monitoring stations over the island of Taiwan are analyzed for the year of 2004 at hourly resolution. They represent a range of surface air quality with a mixed combination of geographic settings, and include urban/rural, coastal/inland, plain/hill, and industrial/agricultural locations. In addition to the well-known semi-diurnal and diurnal oscillations, weekly, and intermediate (20 ~ 30 days peaks are also identified with the continuous wavelet transform (CWT. The spectra indicate power-law scaling regions for the frequencies higher than the diurnal and those lower than the diurnal with the average exponents of −5/3 and −1, respectively. These dual-exponents are corroborated with those with the detrended fluctuation analysis in the corresponding time-lag regions. These exponents are mostly independent of the averages and standard deviations of time series measured at various geographic settings, i.e., the spatial inhomogeneities. In other words, they possess dominant universal structures. After spectral coefficients from the CWT decomposition are grouped according to the spectral bands, and inverted separately, the PDFs of the reconstructed time series for the high-frequency band demonstrate the interesting statistical regularity, −3 power-law scaling for the heavy tails, consistently. Such spectral peaks, dual-exponent structures, and power-law scaling in heavy tails are important structural information, but their relations to turbulence and mesoscale variability require further investigations. This could lead to a better understanding of the processes controlling air quality.
Vilella, Kenny; Deschamps, Frederic
2018-04-01
Thermal evolution of terrestrial planets is controlled by heat transfer through their silicate mantles. A suitable framework for modelling this heat transport is a system including bottom heating (from the core) and internal heating, e.g., generated by secular cooling or by the decay of radioactive isotopes. The mechanism of heat transfer depends on the physical properties of the system. In systems where convection is able to operate, two different regimes are possible depending on the relative amount of bottom and internal heating. For moderate internal heating rates, the system is composed of active hot upwellings and cold downwellings. For large internal heating rates, the bottom heat flux becomes negative and the system is only composed of active cold downwellings. Here, we build theoretical scaling laws for both convective regimes following the approach of Vilella & Kaminski (2017), which links the surface heat flux and the temperature jump across both the top and bottom thermal boundary layer (TBL) to the Rayleigh number and the dimensionless internal heating rate. Theoretical predictions are then verified against numerical simulations performed in 2D and 3D-Cartesian geometry, and covering a large range of the parameter space. Our theoretical scaling laws are more successful in predicting the thermal structure of systems with large internal heating rates than that of systems with no or moderate internal heating. The differences between moderate and large internal heating rates are interpreted as differences in the mechanisms generating thermal instabilities. We identified three mechanisms: conductive growth of the TBL, instability impacting, and TBL erosion, the last two being present only for moderate internal heating rates, in which hot plumes are generated at the bottom of the system and are able to reach the surface. Finally, we apply our scaling laws to the evolution of the early Earth, proposing a new model for the cooling of the primordial magma ocean
Scaling laws and higher-order effects in Coulomb excitation of neutron halo nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Typel, S.; Baur, G.
2008-01-01
Essential properties of halo nuclei can be described in terms of a few low-energy constants. For neutron halo nuclei, analytical results can be found for wave functions and electromagnetic transition matrix elements in simple but well-adapted models. These wave functions can be used to study nuclear reactions; an especially simple and instructive example is Coulomb excitation. A systematic expansion in terms of small parameters can be given. We present scaling laws for excitation amplitudes and cross-sections. The results can be used to analyze experiments like 11 Be Coulomb excitation. They also serve as benchmark tests for more involved reaction theories. (orig.)
Scaling Laws for Unstable Interfaces Driven by Strong Shocks in Cylindrical Geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Q.; Graham, M.J.; Graham, M.J.
1997-01-01
The Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability is an interfacial interface between two fluids of different densities driven by shock waves and plays an important role in the studies of inertial confinement fusion and of supernovas. So far, most of the studies are for RM unstable interfaces driven by weak or intermediate shocks in planar geometry. For experiments conducted at the Nova laser, the unstable material interface is accelerated by very strong shocks. In this Letter, we present scaling laws for the RM unstable interface driven by strong imploding and exploding shocks. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
The O(epsilon2) scaling law for dsigma/dt in the Reggeon field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dash, J.W.; Grandou, Thierry.
1979-04-01
The two loop contributions were calculated within the epsilon-expansion to the Reggeon Field Theory scaling law for dsigma/dt, derived using the renormalization group and a general renormalization point for the Pomeron propagator. This generalizes the O(epsilon) work of Abarbanel, Bartels, Bronzan, and Sidhu. The invariance of the results under certain coupling constant rescalings is demonstrated. Some qualitative comments were made regarding phenomenological applications. Our amplitude in a certain limit approximates the form of the low energy diffractive amplitude advocated by Kane
Transport coefficients for the plasma thermal energy and empirical scaling ''laws''
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coppi, B.
1989-01-01
A set of transport coefficients has been identified for the electron and nuclei thermal energy of plasmas with temperatures in the multi-keV range, taking into account the available experimental information including the temperature spatial profiles and the inferred scaling ''laws'' for the measured energy replacement times. The specific form of these coefficients is suggested by the theory of a mode, so-called ''ubiquitous,'' that can be excited when a significant fraction of the electron population has magnetically trapped orbits. (author)
Conservation laws and radiation in the scale covariant theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beesham, A.
1988-01-01
The conservation laws for mass, energy, and momentum are derived in the scale covariant theory of gravitation. The entropy problem which exists in the standard Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker models can be solved in the present context. Since the weak and strong energy conditions may be violated, a big bang singularity may be avoided, in contrast to general relativity. Since beta is shown to be constant during the radiation-dominated era, the difficulties in the theory associated with nucleosynthesis are avoided. 10 references
Scaling laws for dislocation microstructures in monotonic and cyclic deformation of fcc metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubin, L.P.; Sauzay, M.
2011-01-01
This work reviews and critically discusses the current understanding of two scaling laws, which are ubiquitous in the modeling of monotonic plastic deformation in face-centered cubic metals. A compilation of the available data allows extending the domain of application of these scaling laws to cyclic deformation. The strengthening relation tells that the flow stress is proportional to the square root of the average dislocation density, whereas the similitude relation assumes that the flow stress is inversely proportional to the characteristic wavelength of dislocation patterns. The strengthening relation arises from short-range reactions of non-coplanar segments and applies all through the first three stages of the monotonic stress vs. strain curves. The value of the proportionality coefficient is calculated and simulated in good agreement with the bulk of experimental measurements published since the beginning of the 1960's. The physical origin of what is called similitude is not understood and the related coefficient is not predictable. Its value is determined from a review of the experimental literature. The generalization of these scaling laws to cyclic deformation is carried out on the base of a large collection of experimental results on single and polycrystals of various materials and on different microstructures. Surprisingly, for persistent slip bands (PSBs), both the strengthening and similitude coefficients appear to be more than two times smaller than the corresponding monotonic values, whereas their ratio is the same as in monotonic deformation. The similitude relation is also checked in cell structures and in labyrinth structures. Under low cyclic stresses, the strengthening coefficient is found even lower than in PSBs. A tentative explanation is proposed for the differences observed between cyclic and monotonic deformation. Finally, the influence of cross-slip on the temperature dependence of the saturation stress of PSBs is discussed in some detail
Engagement in the electoral processes: scaling laws and the role of political positions.
Mantovani, M C; Ribeiro, H V; Lenzi, E K; Picoli, S; Mendes, R S
2013-08-01
We report on a statistical analysis of the engagement in the electoral processes of all Brazilian cities by considering the number of party memberships and the number of candidates for mayor and councillor. By investigating the relationships between the number of party members and the population of voters, we have found that the functional forms of these relationships are well described by sublinear power laws (allometric scaling) surrounded by a multiplicative log-normal noise. We have observed that this pattern is quite similar to those we previously reported for the relationships between the number of candidates (mayor and councillor) and population of voters [Europhys. Lett. 96, 48001 (2011)], suggesting that similar universal laws may be ruling the engagement in the electoral processes. We also note that the power-law exponents display a clear hierarchy, where the more influential is the political position the smaller is the value of the exponent. We have also investigated the probability distributions of the number of candidates (mayor and councillor), party memberships, and voters. The results indicate that the most influential positions are characterized by distributions with very short tails, while less influential positions display an intermediate power-law decay before showing an exponential-like cutoff. We discuss the possibility that, in addition to the political power of the position, limitations in the number of available seats can also be connected with this changing of behavior. We further believe that our empirical findings point out to an under-representation effect, where the larger the city is, the larger are the obstacles for more individuals to become directly engaged in the electoral process.
A novel nonlinear nano-scale wear law for metallic brake pads.
Patil, Sandeep P; Chilakamarri, Sri Harsha; Markert, Bernd
2018-05-03
In the present work, molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the temperature distribution as well as the fundamental friction characteristics such as the coefficient of friction and wear in a disc-pad braking system. A wide range of constant velocity loadings was applied on metallic brake pads made of aluminium, copper and iron with different rotating speeds of a diamond-like carbon brake disc. The average temperature of Newtonian atoms and the coefficient of friction of the brake pad were investigated. The resulting relationship of the average temperature with the speed of the disc as well as the applied loading velocity can be described by power laws. The quantitative description of the volume lost from the brake pads was investigated, and it was found that the volume lost increases linearly with the sliding distance. Our results show that Archard's linear wear law is not applicable to a wide range of normal loads, e.g., in cases of low normal load where the wear rate was increased considerably and in cases of high load where there was a possibility of severe wear. In this work, a new formula for the brake pad wear in a disc brake assembly is proposed, which displays a power law relationship between the lost volume of the metallic brake pads per unit sliding distance and the applied normal load with an exponent of 0.62 ± 0.02. This work provides new insights into the fundamental understanding of the wear mechanism at the nano-scale leading to a new bottom-up wear law for metallic brake pads.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nandi, S.
1977-08-01
We propose simple scaling laws for the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka violating decays and the inclusive productions of hidden flavour vector mesons. These laws are in good agreement with the available data on phi, PSI and PSI'. Assuming that the recently observed bumps at approximately 9.44 (UPSILON) and at approximately 10.17 (UPSILON') GeV to be due to some new hidden flavour vector mesons, (such as t anti t and/or b anti b), these scaling laws are used to estimate the direct hadronic decay widths and the inclusive yields of UPSILON and UPSILON'. (orig.) [de
Conceptual design based on scale laws and algorithms for sub-critical transmutation reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Kwang Gu; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
In order to conduct the effective integration of computer-aided conceptual design for integrated nuclear power reactor, not only is a smooth information flow required, but also decision making for both conceptual design and construction process design must be synthesized. In addition to the aboves, the relations between the one step and another step and the methodologies to optimize the decision variables are verified, in this paper especially, that is, scaling laws and scaling criteria. In the respect with the running of the system, the integrated optimization process is proposed in which decisions concerning both conceptual design are simultaneously made. According to the proposed reactor types and power levels, an integrated optimization problems are formulated. This optimization is expressed as a multi-objective optimization problem. The algorithm for solving the problem is also presented. The proposed method is applied to designing a integrated sub-critical reactors. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)
Analysis of Scaling Law and Figure of Merit of Fiber-Based Biosensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jui-Teng Lin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a normalized transmitted signal (NTS of a fiber-based sensor using gold nanorods as the plasmon excitation medium of the evanescent wave. The NTS and the refractive index (RI sensitivity is calculated as a function of the gold aspect ratio (R, the RI of the sensing medium, and a scaling parameter given by the ratio of the fiber length and its diameter. Finally, the optimal value of gold aspect ratio is calculated to be R = (3.0–4.0 for maximum figure of merits (FOMs defined by the ratio of the refractive index sensitivity and the full width at half maximum. The scaling laws and the FOM presented in this paper may serve as the guidelines for optimal designs in fiber-based nanosensors.
Conceptual design based on scale laws and algorithms for sub-critical transmutation reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Kwang Gu; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
In order to conduct the effective integration of computer-aided conceptual design for integrated nuclear power reactor, not only is a smooth information flow required, but also decision making for both conceptual design and construction process design must be synthesized. In addition to the aboves, the relations between the one step and another step and the methodologies to optimize the decision variables are verified, in this paper especially, that is, scaling laws and scaling criteria. In the respect with the running of the system, the integrated optimization process is proposed in which decisions concerning both conceptual design are simultaneously made. According to the proposed reactor types and power levels, an integrated optimization problems are formulated. This optimization is expressed as a multi-objective optimization problem. The algorithm for solving the problem is also presented. The proposed method is applied to designing a integrated sub-critical reactors. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)
Particle simulation of pedestal buildup and study of pedestal scaling law in a quiescent plasma edge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, C.S.; Ku, S.; Weitzner, H.; Groebner, R.; Osborne, T.
2005-01-01
A discrete guiding-center particle code XGC (X-point included Guiding Center code) is used to study pedestal buildup and sheared E r formation in a quiescent plasma edge of a diverted tokamak. A neoclassical pedestal scaling law has been deduced, which shows that the density pedestal width is proportional to T i 1/2 M 1/2 /B t where T i is the ion temperature, M is ion mass and B t is the toroidal magnetic field. Dependence on the pedestal density or the poloidal magnetic field is found to be much weaker. Ion temperature pedestal is not as well defined as the density pedestal. Neoclassical electron transport rate, including the collisional heat exchange rate with ions, is too slow to be considered in the time scale of simulation (∼ 10 ms). (author)
A general scaling law reveals why the largest animals are not the fastest.
Hirt, Myriam R; Jetz, Walter; Rall, Björn C; Brose, Ulrich
2017-08-01
Speed is the fundamental constraint on animal movement, yet there is no general consensus on the determinants of maximum speed itself. Here, we provide a general scaling model of maximum speed with body mass, which holds across locomotion modes, ecosystem types and taxonomic groups. In contrast to traditional power-law scaling, we predict a hump-shaped relationship resulting from a finite acceleration time for animals, which explains why the largest animals are not the fastest. This model is strongly supported by extensive empirical data (474 species, with body masses ranging from 30 μg to 100 tonnes) from terrestrial as well as aquatic ecosystems. Our approach unravels a fundamental constraint on the upper limit of animal movement, thus enabling a better understanding of realized movement patterns in nature and their multifold ecological consequences.
Cardiovascular performance of adult breeding sows fails to obey allometric scaling laws.
van Essen, G J; Vernooij, J C M; Heesterbeek, J A P; Anjema, D; Merkus, D; Duncker, D J
2011-02-01
In view of the remarkable decrease of the relative heart weight (HW) and the relative blood volume in growing pigs, we investigated whether HW, cardiac output (CO), and stroke volume (SV) of modern growing pigs are proportional to BW, as predicted by allometric scaling laws: HW (or CO or SV) = a·BW(b), in which a and b are constants, and constant b is a multiple of 0.25 (quarter-power scaling law). Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that both HW and CO scale with BW to the power of 0.75 (HW or CO = a·BW(0.75)) and SV scales with BW to the power of 1.00 (SV = a·BW(1.0)). For this purpose, 2 groups of pigs (group 1, consisting of 157 pigs of 50 ± 1 kg; group 2, consisting of 45 pigs of 268 ± 18 kg) were surgically instrumented with a flow probe or a thermodilution dilution catheter, under open-chest anesthetized conditions to measure CO and SV, after which HW was determined. The 95% confidence intervals of power-coefficient b for HW were 0.74 to 0.80, encompassing the predicted value of 0.75, suggesting that HW increased proportionally with BW, as predicted by the allometric scaling laws. In contrast, the 95% confidence intervals of power-coefficient b for CO and SV as measured with flow probes were 0.40 to 0.56 and 0.39 to 0.61, respectively, and values obtained with the thermodilution technique were 0.34 to 0.53 and 0.40 to 0.62, respectively. Thus, the 95% confidence limits failed to encompass the predicted values of b for CO and SV of 0.75 and 1.0, respectively. In conclusion, although adult breeding sows display normal heart growth, cardiac performance appears to be disproportionately low for BW. This raises concern regarding the health status of adult breeding sows.
Pore scale simulations for the extension of the Darcy-Forchheimer law to shear thinning fluids
Tosco, Tiziana; Marchisio, Daniele; Lince, Federica; Boccardo, Gianluca; Sethi, Rajandrea
2014-05-01
Flow of non-Newtonian fluids through porous media at high Reynolds numbers is often encountered in chemical, pharmaceutical and food as well as petroleum and groundwater engineering and in many other industrial applications (1 - 2). In particular, the use of shear thinning polymeric solutions has been recently proposed to improve colloidal stability of micro- and nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (MZVI and NZVI) for groundwater remediation. In all abovementioned applications, it is of paramount importance to correctly predict the pressure drop resulting from non-Newtonian fluid flow through the porous medium. For small Reynolds numbers, usually up to 1, typical of laboratory column tests, the extended Darcy law is known to be applicable also to non Newtonian fluids, provided that all non-Newtonian effects are lumped together into a proper viscosity parameter (1,3). For higher Reynolds numbers (eg. close to the injection wells) non linearities between pressure drop and flow rate arise, and the Darcy-Forchheimer law holds for Newtonian fluids, while for non-Newtonian fluids, it has been demonstrated that, at least for simple rheological models (eg. power law fluids) a generalized Forchheimer law can be applied, even if the determination of the flow parameters (permeability K, inertial coefficient β, and equivalent viscosity) is not straightforward. This work (co-funded by European Union project AQUAREHAB FP7 - Grant Agreement Nr. 226565) aims at proposing an extended formulation of the Darcy-Forchheimer law also for shear-thinning fluids, and validating it against results of pore-scale simulations via computational fluid dynamics (4). Flow simulations were performed using Fluent 12.0 on four different 2D porous domains for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids (Cross, Ellis and Carreau models). The micro-scale flow simulation results are analyzed in terms of 'macroscale' pressure drop between inlet and outlet of the model domain as a function of flow rate. The
A generalized scaling law for the ignition energy of inertial confinement fusion capsules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrmann, M.C.
2001-01-01
The minimum energy needed to ignite an inertial confinement fusion capsule is of considerable interest in the optimization of an inertial fusion driver. Recent computational work investigating this minimum energy has found that it depends on the capsule implosion history, in particular, on the capsule drive pressure. This dependence is examined using a series of LASNEX simulations to find ignited capsules which have different values of the implosion velocity, fuel adiabat and drive pressure. It is found that the main effect of varying the drive pressure is to alter the stagnation of the capsule, changing its stagnation adiabat, which, in turn, affects the energy required for ignition. To account for this effect a generalized scaling law has been devised for the ignition energy, E ign ∝α if 1.88±0.05 υ -5.89±0.12 P -0.77±0.03 . This generalized scaling law agrees with the results of previous work in the appropriate limits. (author)
Fractal and multifractal approaches for the analysis of crack-size dependent scaling laws in fatigue
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paggi, Marco [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Structural Engineering and Geotechnics, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)], E-mail: marco.paggi@polito.it; Carpinteri, Alberto [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Structural Engineering and Geotechnics, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)
2009-05-15
The enhanced ability to detect and measure very short cracks, along with a great interest in applying fracture mechanics formulae to smaller and smaller crack sizes, has pointed out the so-called anomalous behavior of short cracks with respect to their longer counterparts. The crack-size dependencies of both the fatigue threshold and the Paris' constant C are only two notable examples of these anomalous scaling laws. In this framework, a unified theoretical model seems to be missing and the behavior of short cracks can still be considered as an open problem. In this paper, we propose a critical reexamination of the fractal models for the analysis of crack-size effects in fatigue. The limitations of each model are put into evidence and removed. At the end, a new generalized theory based on fractal geometry is proposed, which permits to consistently interpret the short crack-related anomalous scaling laws within a unified theoretical formulation. Finally, this approach is herein used to interpret relevant experimental data related to the crack-size dependence of the fatigue threshold in metals.
Fractal and multifractal approaches for the analysis of crack-size dependent scaling laws in fatigue
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paggi, Marco; Carpinteri, Alberto
2009-01-01
The enhanced ability to detect and measure very short cracks, along with a great interest in applying fracture mechanics formulae to smaller and smaller crack sizes, has pointed out the so-called anomalous behavior of short cracks with respect to their longer counterparts. The crack-size dependencies of both the fatigue threshold and the Paris' constant C are only two notable examples of these anomalous scaling laws. In this framework, a unified theoretical model seems to be missing and the behavior of short cracks can still be considered as an open problem. In this paper, we propose a critical reexamination of the fractal models for the analysis of crack-size effects in fatigue. The limitations of each model are put into evidence and removed. At the end, a new generalized theory based on fractal geometry is proposed, which permits to consistently interpret the short crack-related anomalous scaling laws within a unified theoretical formulation. Finally, this approach is herein used to interpret relevant experimental data related to the crack-size dependence of the fatigue threshold in metals.
Scaling-Laws of Flow Entropy with Topological Metrics of Water Distribution Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni Francesco Santonastaso
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Robustness of water distribution networks is related to their connectivity and topological structure, which also affect their reliability. Flow entropy, based on Shannon’s informational entropy, has been proposed as a measure of network redundancy and adopted as a proxy of reliability in optimal network design procedures. In this paper, the scaling properties of flow entropy of water distribution networks with their size and other topological metrics are studied. To such aim, flow entropy, maximum flow entropy, link density and average path length have been evaluated for a set of 22 networks, both real and synthetic, with different size and topology. The obtained results led to identify suitable scaling laws of flow entropy and maximum flow entropy with water distribution network size, in the form of power–laws. The obtained relationships allow comparing the flow entropy of water distribution networks with different size, and provide an easy tool to define the maximum achievable entropy of a specific water distribution network. An example of application of the obtained relationships to the design of a water distribution network is provided, showing how, with a constrained multi-objective optimization procedure, a tradeoff between network cost and robustness is easily identified.
Song, Hongjun; Wang, Yi; Pant, Kapil
2013-01-01
This paper presents an analytical study of the cross-stream diffusion of an analyte in a rectangular microchannel under combined electroosmotic flow (EOF) and pressure driven flow to investigate the heterogeneous transport behavior and spatially-dependent diffusion scaling law. An analytical model capable of accurately describing 3D steady-state convection-diffusion in microchannels with arbitrary aspect ratios is developed based on the assumption of the thin Electric Double Layer (EDL). The model is verified against high-fidelity numerical simulation in terms of flow velocity and analyte concentration profiles with excellent agreement (parametric analysis is then undertaken to interrogate the effect of the combined flow velocity field on the transport behavior in both the positive pressure gradient (PPG) and negative pressure gradient (NPG) cases. For the first time, the evolution from the spindle-shaped concentration profile in the PPG case, via the stripe-shaped profile (pure EOF), and finally to the butterfly-shaped profile in the PPG case is obtained using the analytical model along with a quantitative depiction of the spatially-dependent diffusion layer thickness and scaling law across a wide range of the parameter space.
Chromospheric scaling laws, width-luminosity correlations, and the Wilson-Bappu effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayres, T.R.
1979-01-01
Simple scaling laws are developed to explain the thickness and mean electron density of late-type stellar chromospheres in an effort to understand why the emission cores of effectively thick resonance lines such as Ca II H and K broaden with increasing stellar luminosity (the Wilson-Bappu effect). It is shown that stellar chromospheres become thicker in mass column density as stellar gravity g decreases and that the mean chromospheric electric density n/sub e/ decreases if the chromospheric heating dF/dm is constant with height and if the total heating F/sup tot/ is independent of g. It is also shown that chromospheres becomes thicker and the mean electron density becomes larger than the total chromospheric heating increases. The predicted behavior of the K 1 minimum separation and full width at half-maximum of the Ca II emission core (W 0 ) based on the derived scaling laws agree quantitatively with the observed correlations of these widths with fundamental stellar parameters, particularly surface gravity. In addition, the predicted behavior of the K 2 peak separation and base emission width with increasing chromospheric heating is consistent with the behavior of the Ca II emission core shapes in solar plages. The analytical arguments suggest that the Wilson-Bappu effect is largely a consequence of hydrostatic equilibrium rather than chromospheric dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hampshire, D.P.
1993-01-01
The exponential magnetic field dependence of the critical current density (J c (B,T)) found in many high temperature superconductors, given by: J c (B,T) α(T)exp(-B/β(T)) where α(T) and β(T) are functions of temperature alone, necessarily implies a Universal Scaling Law for the volume pinning force (F p ) of the form: F p /F PMAX exp(+1).(B/β(T)).exp(-B/β(T)). If the Upper Critical Field is not explicitly measured but is artificially determined by smooth extrapolation of J c (B,T) to zero on a linear J c (B,T) vs B plot, this exponential scaling law can be closely approximated by the Kramer dependence given by: F p /F PMAX C.b p .(1-b) q where p = 0.5, q = 2, C ∼ 3.5 and b = B/B C2 (T). The implications for flux pinning studies are discussed. (orig.)
Mojdehi, Ahmad R; Holmes, Douglas P; Dillard, David A
2017-10-25
A generalized scaling law, based on the classical fracture mechanics approach, is developed to predict the bond strength of adhesive systems. The proposed scaling relationship depends on the rate of change of debond area with compliance, rather than the ratio of area to compliance. This distinction can have a profound impact on the expected bond strength of systems, particularly when the failure mechanism changes or the compliance of the load train increases. Based on the classical fracture mechanics approach for rate-independent materials, the load train compliance should not affect the force capacity of the adhesive system, whereas when the area to compliance ratio is used as the scaling parameter, it directly influences the bond strength, making it necessary to distinguish compliance contributions. To verify the scaling relationship, single lap shear tests were performed for a given pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) tape specimens with different bond areas, number of backing layers, and load train compliance. The shear lag model was used to derive closed-form relationships for the system compliance and its derivative with respect to the debond area. Digital image correlation (DIC) is implemented to verify the non-uniform shear stress distribution obtained from the shear lag model in a lap shear geometry. The results obtained from this approach could lead to a better understanding of the relationship between bond strength and the geometry and mechanical properties of adhesive systems.
The Evolution of the Social Criminal Law on an International Wide Scale
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radu Razvan Popescu
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Brought to maturity, the labor criminal law represents a real branch of the criminal law, as well as the business criminal law, fiscal criminal law or the environment criminal law. Notwithstanding labor criminal law cannot be considered merely as an accessory part of the corporate criminal law, but having an essential part such as an exhibit test, in order to determine new legal mechanisms, such as the ones regarding criminal liability of the legal persons. In the Romanian legislation, the labor criminal law, as an interference zone between the criminal law and labor law, has to be regarded from the internal social realities governing the labor aspects, as well from the comparative law's point of view.
Scaling laws governing the multiple scattering of diatomic molecules under Coulomb explosion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sigmund, P.
1992-01-01
The trajectories of fast molecules during and after penetration through foils are governed by Coulomb explosion and distorted by multiple scattering and other penetration phenomena. A scattering event may cause the energy available for Coulomb explosion to increase or decrease, and angular momentum may be transferred to the molecule. Because of continuing Coulomb explosion inside and outside the target foil, the transmission pattern recorded at a detector far away from the target is not just a linear superposition of Coulomb explosion and multiple scattering. The velocity distribution of an initially monochromatic and well-collimated, but randomly oriented, beam of molecular ions is governed by a generalization of the standard Bothe-Landau integral that governs the multiple scattering of atomic ions. Emphasis has been laid on the distribution in relative velocity and, in particular, relative energy. The statistical distributions governing the longitudinal motion (i.e., the relative motion along the molecular axis) and the rotational motion can be scaled into standard multiple-scattering distributions of atomic ions. The two scaling laws are very different. For thin target foils, the significance of rotational energy transfer is enhanced by an order of magnitude compared to switched-off Coulomb explosion. A distribution for the total relative energy (i.e., longitudinal plus rotational motion) has also been found, but its scaling behavior is more complex. Explicit examples given for all three distributions refer to power-law scattering. As a first approximation, scattering events undergone by the two atoms in the molecule were assumed uncorrelated. A separate section has been devoted to an estimate of the effect of impact-parameter correlation on the multiple scattering of penetrating molecules
Scaling laws for gas–liquid flow in swirl vane separators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Li; Bai, Bofeng
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Model for swirl vane separator performance is established with similarity criteria. • Scaling laws are developed to correlate downscale test with prototype separator. • Effects of key similarity criteria on separation performance are studied. • The vital role of droplet size distribution on separation performance is discussed. - Abstract: Laboratory tests on gas–liquid flow in swirl vane separators are usually carried out to help establish an experimental database for separator design and performance improvement. Such model tests are generally performed in the reduced scale and not on the actual working conditions. Though great efficiency is often obtainable in the reduced model, the performance of the full-sized prototype usually cannot be well predicted. To design downscale model tests and apply the experimental results to predict the prototype, a general relationship to correlate them is required. In this paper, the relation of the similitude-criterion concerning the pressure loss is presented by using the dimensionless analysis, and mathematical models for critical droplet diameter, grade efficiency and overall separation efficiency are established by analyzing the features of the droplet trajectory in gas swirling flow field. The essential similarity criteria accounting for pressure loss and separation efficiency are obtained, respectively. On this basis, the scaling laws which enable a comparison between the reduced model and the full-sized prototype under similar conditions are also developed. It is found that the overall separation efficiency is significantly affected by the size distribution of the small droplets, especially when the mean diameter is smaller than the critical droplet diameter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan
2016-01-01
It has been shown recently that a specific class of path-dependent stochastic processes, which reduce their sample space as they unfold, lead to exact scaling laws in frequency and rank distributions. Such sample space reducing processes offer an alternative new mechanism to understand the emergence of scaling in countless processes. The corresponding power law exponents were shown to be related to noise levels in the process. Here we show that the emergence of scaling is not limited to the simplest SSRPs, but holds for a huge domain of stochastic processes that are characterised by non-uniform prior distributions. We demonstrate mathematically that in the absence of noise the scaling exponents converge to −1 (Zipf’s law) for almost all prior distributions. As a consequence it becomes possible to fully understand targeted diffusion on weighted directed networks and its associated scaling laws in node visit distributions. The presence of cycles can be properly interpreted as playing the same role as noise in SSRPs and, accordingly, determine the scaling exponents. The result that Zipf’s law emerges as a generic feature of diffusion on networks, regardless of its details, and that the exponent of visiting times is related to the amount of cycles in a network could be relevant for a series of applications in traffic-, transport- and supply chain management. (paper)
The US business cycle: power law scaling for interacting units with complex internal structure
Ormerod, Paul
2002-11-01
In the social sciences, there is increasing evidence of the existence of power law distributions. The distribution of recessions in capitalist economies has recently been shown to follow such a distribution. The preferred explanation for this is self-organised criticality. Gene Stanley and colleagues propose an alternative, namely that power law scaling can arise from the interplay between random multiplicative growth and the complex structure of the units composing the system. This paper offers a parsimonious model of the US business cycle based on similar principles. The business cycle, along with long-term growth, is one of the two features which distinguishes capitalism from all previously existing societies. Yet, economics lacks a satisfactory theory of the cycle. The source of cycles is posited in economic theory to be a series of random shocks which are external to the system. In this model, the cycle is an internal feature of the system, arising from the level of industrial concentration of the agents and the interactions between them. The model-in contrast to existing economic theories of the cycle-accounts for the key features of output growth in the US business cycle in the 20th century.
Scaling laws and universality for the strength of genetic interactions in yeast
Velenich, Andrea; Dai, Mingjie; Gore, Jeff
2012-02-01
Genetic interactions provide a window to the organization of the thousands of biochemical reactions in living cells. If two mutations affect unrelated cellular functions, the fitness effects of their combination can be easily predicted from the two separate fitness effects. However, because of interactions, for some pairs of mutations their combined fitness effect deviates from the naive prediction. We study genetic interactions in yeast cells by analyzing a publicly available database containing experimental growth rates of 5 million double mutants. We show that the characteristic strength of genetic interactions has a simple power law dependence on the fitness effects of the two interacting mutations and that the probability distribution of genetic interactions is a universal function. We further argue that the strength of genetic interactions depends only on the fitness effects of the interacting mutations and not on their biological origin in terms of single point mutations, entire gene knockouts or even more complicated physiological perturbations. Finally, we discuss the implications of the power law scaling of genetic interactions on the ruggedness of fitness landscapes and the consequent evolutionary dynamics.
Temporal scaling law and intrinsic characteristic of laser induced damage on the dielectric coating
Zhou, Li; Jiang, Youen; Wang, Chao; Wei, Hui; Zhang, Peng; Fan, Wei; Li, Xuechun
2018-01-01
High power laser is essential for optical manipulation and fabrication. When the laser travels through optics and to the target finally, irreversible damage on the dielectric coating is always accompanied without knowing the law and principle of laser induced damage. Here, an experimental study of laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) Fth of the dielectric coating under different pulse duration t is implemented. We observe that the temporal scaling law of square pulse for high-reflectivity (HR) coating and anti-reflectivity (AR) coating are Fth = 9.53t0.47 and Fth = 6.43t0.28 at 1064 nm, respectively. Moreover, the intrinsic LIDT of HR coating is 62.7 J/cm2 where the coating is just 100% damaged by gradually increasing the fluence densities of a 5ns-duration pulse, which is much higher than the actual LIDT of 18.6 J/cm2. Thus, a more robust and reliable high power laser system will be a reality, even working at very high fluence, if measures are taken to improve the actual LIDT to a considerable level near the intrinsic value.
Scaling law for (e, 2e) cross sections for isoelectronic hydrogen- and alkali-like ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ancarani, L U; Hervieux, P-A
2003-01-01
Triple differential cross sections (TDCSs) for (e, 2e) processes on the valence electrons of H-, Li-, Na- and K-like positive ions are calculated for asymmetric coplanar geometries and intermediate incident energies. Although the proper boundary conditions are not respected, both the long-range Coulomb interaction in the initial and final channels, and the short-range effects, are taken into account in the Coulomb Born approximation through the use of two effective charges. The latter are obtained within the framework of the frozen-core Hartree-Fock approximation which is also used for describing the bound state wavefunctions. An approximate scaling law for the TDCSs is predicted for the ionization of sequences of isoelectronic ions, provided the incident and ejected energies are properly scaled. The calculations illustrate that the scaling is generally well verified, in particular for increasing ionicity within a sequence. Moreover, as one moves from the H- to K-like sequences, more TDCS structure is observed. Two main peaks are always situated close to the direction of the momentum transfer and opposite direction, although with strong shifts. Contrary to what is observed for the ionization of outer-shells electrons in neutral atoms, the dominant peak of all cross sections is in the opposite direction to the momentum transfer, a signature of strong elastic scattering from the nucleus
Bhutwala, Krish; Beg, Farhat; Mariscal, Derek; Wilks, Scott; Ma, Tammy
2017-10-01
The Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) laser at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's most energetic short-pulse laser. It comprises four beamlets, each of substantial energy ( 1.5 kJ), extended short-pulse duration (10-30 ps), and large focal spot (>=50% of energy in 150 µm spot). This allows ARC to achieve proton and light ion acceleration via the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) mechanism, but it is yet unknown how proton beam characteristics scale with ARC-regime laser parameters. As theory has also not yet been validated for laser-generated protons at ARC-regime laser parameters, we attempt to formulate the scaling physics of proton beam characteristics as a function of laser energy, intensity, focal spot size, pulse length, target geometry, etc. through a review of relevant proton acceleration experiments from laser facilities across the world. These predicted scaling laws should then guide target design and future diagnostics for desired proton beam experiments on the NIF ARC. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the LLNL LDRD program under tracking code 17-ERD-039.
Peak Fields of Nb$_{3}$Sn Superconducting Undulators and a Scaling Law
Kim, S H
2005-01-01
The peak fields on the beam axis and the maximum fields in the conductor of Nb$_{3}$Sn superconducting undulators (SCUs) were calculated for an undulator period length of 16 mm. Using a simple scaling law for SCUs [1], the peak fields, as well as the conductor maximum fields and the current densities, were calculated for a period range of 8 to 32 mm. The critical current densities of commercially available Nb$_{3}$Sn superconducting strands were used for the calculations. The achievable peak fields are limited mainly by the flux-jump instabilities at low fields. The possible or feasible peak field will also be compared with that achieved in prototype development of SCUs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vahedi, V.; Birdsall, C.K.; Lieberman, M.A.; DiPeso, G.; Rognlien, T.D.
1993-01-01
Weakly ionized processing plasmas are studied in two dimensions using a bounded particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code with a Monte Carlo collision (MCC) package. The MCC package models the collisions between charged and neutral particles, which are needed to obtain a self-sustained plasma and the proper electron and ion energy loss mechanisms. A two-dimensional capacitive radio-frequency (rf) discharge is investigated in detail. Simple frequency scaling laws for predicting the behavior of some plasma parameters are derived and then compared with simulation results, finding good agreements. It is found that as the drive frequency increases, the sheath width decreases, and the bulk plasma becomes more uniform, leading to a reduction of the ion angular spread at the target and an improvement of ion dose uniformity at the driven electrode
Validation of a power-law noise model for simulating small-scale breast tissue
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reiser, I; Edwards, A; Nishikawa, R M
2013-01-01
We have validated a small-scale breast tissue model based on power-law noise. A set of 110 patient images served as truth. The statistical model parameters were determined by matching the radially averaged power-spectrum of the projected simulated tissue with that of the central tomosynthesis patient breast projections. Observer performance in a signal-known exactly detection task in simulated and actual breast backgrounds was compared. Observers included human readers, a pre-whitening observer model and a channelized Hotelling observer model. For all observers, good agreement between performance in the simulated and actual backgrounds was found, both in the tomosynthesis central projections and the reconstructed images. This tissue model can be used for breast x-ray imaging system optimization. The complete statistical description of the model is provided. (paper)
Scaling law in free walking of mice in circular open fields of various diameters.
Shoji, Hiroto
2016-03-01
Open-field tests are routinely used to study locomotor activity in rodents. I studied the effects of apparatus size on rodent locomotor activity, specifically with respect to how resting and walking periods are interwoven. I explored the open-field behavior of mice utilizing circular open fields of various diameters. When the diameter of the test apparatus was greater than 75 cm, the durations of the resting and moving periods of free walking behavior obeyed bounded power-law distribution functions. I found that the properties of the scaling exponents and model selection became similar for test apparatus diameters greater than 75 cm. These results can provide a guide for the selection of the size of the test apparatus for use in the study of the open-field behavior of rodents.
In-medium scaling law and electron scattering from high-spin states in 208Pb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arias de Saavedra, F.; Lallena, A.M.
1994-01-01
The effects of the environment modifications in the structure of the low-lying high-spin states of 208 Pb are studied by analyzing how the in-medium scaling law works on the excitation energies, wave functions, and electron scattering form factors corresponding to these states. It is shown that the consideration of f π * in addition to the effective ρ-meson mass does not affect too much most of the states analyzed. However, some of them appear to be extremely sensitive to its inclusion in the residual nucleon-nucleon interaction. As a result, a value of m ρ * /m ρ ∼f π * /f π ∼0.91 gives a good description of the (e,e') form factors of these particular states without any quenching factor. This value is in agreement with the one found for 48 Ca in a similar analysis performed in a previous work
Scaling laws of free dendritic growth in a forced Oseen flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurnatowski, M von; Kassner, K
2014-01-01
We use the method presented in M von Kurnatowski et al (2013 Phys. Rev. E 87 042405) to solve the nonlinear problem of free dendritic growth in an Oseen flow. The growth process is assumed to be limited by thermal transport via diffusion and convection. A singular perturbation expansion is treated to lowest nontrivial order in the framework of asymptotic decomposition. The resulting complex integro-differential equation is solved using an elaborate numerical method. The approximate scaling laws V∝U 2/3 and ρ∝U −1/3 for the growth velocity and the tip radius of curvature of the dendrite, respectively, are found as a function of the forced flow velocity. The results are compared to those by Pelcé and Bouissou, constituting the only other attempt so far to treat the problem analytically. (paper)
Solving large scale unit dilemma in electricity system by applying commutative law
Legino, Supriadi; Arianto, Rakhmat
2018-03-01
The conventional system, pooling resources with large centralized power plant interconnected as a network. provides a lot of advantages compare to the isolated one include optimizing efficiency and reliability. However, such a large plant need a huge capital. In addition, more problems emerged to hinder the construction of big power plant as well as its associated transmission lines. By applying commutative law of math, ab = ba, for all a,b €-R, the problem associated with conventional system as depicted above, can be reduced. The idea of having small unit but many power plants, namely “Listrik Kerakyatan,” abbreviated as LK provides both social and environmental benefit that could be capitalized by using proper assumption. This study compares the cost and benefit of LK to those of conventional system, using simulation method to prove that LK offers alternative solution to answer many problems associated with the large system. Commutative Law of Algebra can be used as a simple mathematical model to analyze whether the LK system as an eco-friendly distributed generation can be applied to solve various problems associated with a large scale conventional system. The result of simulation shows that LK provides more value if its plants operate in less than 11 hours as peaker power plant or load follower power plant to improve load curve balance of the power system. The result of simulation indicates that the investment cost of LK plant should be optimized in order to minimize the plant investment cost. This study indicates that the benefit of economies of scale principle does not always apply to every condition, particularly if the portion of intangible cost and benefit is relatively high.
Scaling Laws in the Transient Dynamics of Firefly-like Oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rubido, N; Cabeza, C; Marti, A; Ramirez Avila, G M
2011-01-01
Fireflies constitute a paradigm of pulse-coupled oscillators. In order to tackle the problems related to synchronisation transients of pulse-coupled oscillators, a Light-Controlled Oscillator (LCO) model is presented. A single LCO constitutes a one-dimensional relaxation oscillator described by two distinct time-scales meant to mimic fireflies in the sense that: it is capable of emitting light in a pulse-like fashion and detect the emitted by others in order to adjust its oscillation. We present dynamical results for two interacting LCOs in the torus for all possible coupling configurations. Transient times to the synchronous limit cycle are obtained experimentally and numerically as a function of initial conditions and coupling strengths. Scaling laws are found based on dimensional analysis and critical exponents calculated, thus, global dynamic is restricted. Furthermore, an analytical orthogonal transformation that allows to calculate Floquet multipliers directly from the time series is presented. As a consequence, local dynamics is also fully characterized. This transformation can be easily extended to a system with an arbitrary number of interacting LCOs.
Determination of fractional flow reserve (FFR) based on scaling laws: a simulation study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, Jerry T; Molloi, Sabee
2008-01-01
Fractional flow reserve (FFR) provides an objective physiological evaluation of stenosis severity. A technique that can measure FFR using only angiographic images would be a valuable tool in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. To perform this, the diseased blood flow can be measured with a first pass distribution analysis and the theoretical normal blood flow can be estimated from the total coronary arterial volume based on scaling laws. A computer simulation of the coronary arterial network was used to gain a better understanding of how hemodynamic conditions and coronary artery disease can affect blood flow, arterial volume and FFR estimation. Changes in coronary arterial flow and volume due to coronary stenosis, aortic pressure and venous pressure were examined to evaluate the potential use of flow and volume for FFR determination. This study showed that FFR can be estimated using arterial volume and a scaling coefficient corrected for aortic pressure. However, variations in venous pressure were found to introduce some error in FFR estimation. A relative form of FFR was introduced and was found to cancel out the influence of pressure on coronary flow, arterial volume and FFR estimation. The use of coronary flow and arterial volume for FFR determination appears promising
Additive scaling law for structural organization of chromatin in chicken erythrocyte nuclei
Iashina, E. G.; Velichko, E. V.; Filatov, M. V.; Bouwman, W. G.; Duif, C. P.; Brulet, A.; Grigoriev, S. V.
2017-07-01
Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) on nuclei of chicken erythrocytes demonstrates the cubic dependence of the scattering intensity Q-3 in the range of momentum transfer Q ∈10-3-10-2nm-1 . Independent spin-echo SANS measurements give the spin-echo function, which is well described by the exponential law in a range of sizes (3 ×102) -(3 ×104) nm. Both experimental dependences reflect the nature of the structural organization of chromatin in the nucleus of a living cell, which corresponds to the correlation function γ (r )=ln(ξ /r ) for r <ξ , where ξ =(3.69 ±0.07 ) ×103 nm, the size of the nucleus. It has the specific scaling property of the logarithmic fractal γ (r /a )=γ (r )+ln(a ), i.e., the scaling down by a gives an additive constant to the correlation function, which distinguishes it from the mass fractal, which is characterized by multiplicative constant.
Scaling law and enhancement of lift generation of an insect-size hovering flexible wing
Kang, Chang-kwon; Shyy, Wei
2013-01-01
We report a comprehensive scaling law and novel lift generation mechanisms relevant to the aerodynamic functions of structural flexibility in insect flight. Using a Navier–Stokes equation solver, fully coupled to a structural dynamics solver, we consider the hovering motion of a wing of insect size, in which the dynamics of fluid–structure interaction leads to passive wing rotation. Lift generated on the flexible wing scales with the relative shape deformation parameter, whereas the optimal lift is obtained when the wing deformation synchronizes with the imposed translation, consistent with previously reported observations for fruit flies and honeybees. Systematic comparisons with rigid wings illustrate that the nonlinear response in wing motion results in a greater peak angle compared with a simple harmonic motion, yielding higher lift. Moreover, the compliant wing streamlines its shape via camber deformation to mitigate the nonlinear lift-degrading wing–wake interaction to further enhance lift. These bioinspired aeroelastic mechanisms can be used in the development of flapping wing micro-robots. PMID:23760300
An exponential scaling law for the strain dependence of the Nb3Sn critical current density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bordini, B; Alknes, P; Bottura, L; Rossi, L; Valentinis, D
2013-01-01
The critical current density of the Nb 3 Sn superconductor is strongly dependent on the strain applied to the material. In order to investigate this dependence, it is a common practice to measure the critical current of Nb 3 Sn strands for different values of applied axial strain. In the literature, several models have been proposed to describe these experimental data in the reversible strain region. All these models are capable of fitting the measurement results in the strain region where data are collected, but tend to predict unphysical trends outside the range of data, and especially for large strain values. In this paper we present a model of a new strain function, together with the results obtained by applying the new scaling law on relevant datasets. The data analyzed consisted of the critical current measurements at 4.2 K that were carried out under applied axial strain at Durham University and the University of Geneva on different strand types. With respect to the previous models proposed, the new scaling function does not present problems at large strain values, has a lower number of fitting parameters (only two instead of three or four), and is very stable, so that, starting from few experimental points, it can estimate quite accurately the strand behavior in a strain region where there are no data. A relationship is shown between the proposed strain function and the elastic strain energy, and an analogy is drawn with the exponential form of the McMillan equation for the critical temperature. (paper)
Constraining self-interacting dark matter with scaling laws of observed halo surface densities
Bondarenko, Kyrylo; Boyarsky, Alexey; Bringmann, Torsten; Sokolenko, Anastasia
2018-04-01
The observed surface densities of dark matter halos are known to follow a simple scaling law, ranging from dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters, with a weak dependence on their virial mass. Here we point out that this can not only be used to provide a method to determine the standard relation between halo mass and concentration, but also to use large samples of objects in order to place constraints on dark matter self-interactions that can be more robust than constraints derived from individual objects. We demonstrate our method by considering a sample of about 50 objects distributed across the whole halo mass range, and by modelling the effect of self-interactions in a way similar to what has been previously done in the literature. Using additional input from simulations then results in a constraint on the self-interaction cross section per unit dark matter mass of about σ/mχlesssim 0.3 cm2/g. We expect that these constraints can be significantly improved in the future, and made more robust, by i) an improved modelling of the effect of self-interactions, both theoretical and by comparison with simulations, ii) taking into account a larger sample of objects and iii) by reducing the currently still relatively large uncertainties that we conservatively assign to the surface densities of individual objects. The latter can be achieved in particular by using kinematic observations to directly constrain the average halo mass inside a given radius, rather than fitting the data to a pre-selected profile and then reconstruct the mass. For a velocity-independent cross-section, our current result is formally already somewhat smaller than the range 0.5‑5 cm2/g that has been invoked to explain potential inconsistencies between small-scale observations and expectations in the standard collisionless cold dark matter paradigm.
Tutcuoglu, A.; Majidi, C.
2014-12-01
Using principles of damped harmonic oscillation with continuous media, we examine electrostatic energy harvesting with a "soft-matter" array of dielectric elastomer (DE) transducers. The array is composed of infinitely thin and deformable electrodes separated by layers of insulating elastomer. During vibration, it deforms longitudinally, resulting in a change in the capacitance and electrical enthalpy of the charged electrodes. Depending on the phase of electrostatic loading, the DE array can function as either an actuator that amplifies small vibrations or a generator that converts these external excitations into electrical power. Both cases are addressed with a comprehensive theory that accounts for the influence of viscoelasticity, dielectric breakdown, and electromechanical coupling induced by Maxwell stress. In the case of a linearized Kelvin-Voigt model of the dielectric, we obtain a closed-form estimate for the electrical power output and a scaling law for DE generator design. For the complete nonlinear model, we obtain the optimal electrostatic voltage input for maximum electrical power output.
Ideal-MHD beta limits: scaling laws and comparison with Doublet III high-beta plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, L.C.; Bhadra, D.K.; Helton, F.J.; Lao, L.L.; Todd, T.N.
1983-06-01
Doublet III (DIII) recently has achieved a value for #betta#, the ratio of volume averaged plasma to magnetic pressure, of 4.5%. This #betta# value is in the range required for an economically attractive tokamak reactor, and also close to the relevant limit predicted by ideal-MHD theory. It is therefore of great interest to assess the validity of the theory by comparison with experiment and thus to have a basis for the prediction of future reactor performance. A large variety of plasma shapes have been obtained in DIII. These shapes can be divided into two classes: (1) limiter discharges, and (2) diverted discharges, which are of great interest because of their good confinement in the H-mode operation. We derive simple scaling laws from the variation of optimized ideal-MHD beta limits (#betta#/sub c/) with plasma shape parameters. The current profile is optimized for fixed plasma shapes, separately for the high-n (ballooning) and the low-n (kink) modes. Results are presented in the form of suitability normalized curves of #betta# versus poloidal beta, #betta#/sub p/, for both ballooning and kink modes in order to simultaneously compare all the DIII experimental data
Scaling laws for the rotational velocity of a J x B driven rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kataoka, Tomohiro; Ikehata, Takashi; Sato, Naoyuki; Tanabe, Toshio; Mase, Hiroshi
1994-01-01
Rapidly rotating plasmas of helium and argon have been extracted from a coaxial plasma gun operated in pulsed glow mode. The rotational velocity and its parametric dependence have been analyzed systematically by means of visible - emission spectroscopy. The plasma is observed to rotate rigidly inside the diameter of the gun anode while outside the velocity decreases rapidly ; furthermore, different ions are found to rotate at different angular frequencies as ω (Ar + ) = 0.5 x 10 6 rad/sec, ω (Ar 2+ ) = 1.1 x 10 6 rad/sec, ω (C 2+ ) = 1.8 x 10 6 rad/sec, ω (N + ) = 1.2 x 10 6 rad/sec. The plasma density and rotational velocity have been measured as a function of the discharge current and magnetic field to derive experimental scaling laws. They are summarized as : 1. Ion density is proportional to the square of discharge current. 2. Rotational and axial velocities are proportional to the driving force per ion. These results are confirmed to agree well with a theoretical prediction. (author)
Park, Junghyun A; Kim, Minki; Yoon, Seokjoon
2016-05-17
Sophisticated anti-fraud systems for the healthcare sector have been built based on several statistical methods. Although existing methods have been developed to detect fraud in the healthcare sector, these algorithms consume considerable time and cost, and lack a theoretical basis to handle large-scale data. Based on mathematical theory, this study proposes a new approach to using Benford's Law in that we closely examined the individual-level data to identify specific fees for in-depth analysis. We extended the mathematical theory to demonstrate the manner in which large-scale data conform to Benford's Law. Then, we empirically tested its applicability using actual large-scale healthcare data from Korea's Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA) National Patient Sample (NPS). For Benford's Law, we considered the mean absolute deviation (MAD) formula to test the large-scale data. We conducted our study on 32 diseases, comprising 25 representative diseases and 7 DRG-regulated diseases. We performed an empirical test on 25 diseases, showing the applicability of Benford's Law to large-scale data in the healthcare industry. For the seven DRG-regulated diseases, we examined the individual-level data to identify specific fees to carry out an in-depth analysis. Among the eight categories of medical costs, we considered the strength of certain irregularities based on the details of each DRG-regulated disease. Using the degree of abnormality, we propose priority action to be taken by government health departments and private insurance institutions to bring unnecessary medical expenses under control. However, when we detect deviations from Benford's Law, relatively high contamination ratios are required at conventional significance levels.
Potirakis, Stelios M.; Kopanas, John; Antonopoulos, George; Nomicos, Constantinos; Eftaxias, Konstantinos
2015-04-01
One of the largest controversial issues of the materials science community is the interpretation of scaling laws associated with the fracture and faulting processes. Especially, an important open question is whether the spatial and temporal complexity of earthquakes and fault structures, above all the interpretation of the observed scaling laws, emerge from geometrical and material built-in heterogeneities or from the critical behavior inherent to the nonlinear equations governing the earthquake dynamics. Crack propagation is the basic mechanism of material's failure. A number of laboratory studies carried out on a wide range of materials have revealed the existence of EMEs during fracture experiments, while these emissions are ranging in a wide frequency spectrum, i.e., from the kHz to the MHz bands. A crucial feature observed on the laboratory scale is that the MHz EME systematically precedes the corresponding kHz one. The aforementioned crucial feature is observed in geophysical scale, as well. The remarkable asynchronous appearance of these two EMEs both on the laboratory and the geophysical scale implies that they refer to different final stages of faulting process. Accumulated laboratory, theoretical and numerical evidence supports the hypothesis that the MHz EME is emitted during the fracture of process of heterogeneous medium surrounding the family of strong entities (asperities) distributed along the fault sustaining the system. The kHz EME is attributed to the family of asperities themselves. We argue in terms of the fracture induced pre-seismic MHz-kHz EMEs that the scaling laws associated with the fracture of heterogeneous materials emerge from the critical behavior inherent to the nonlinear equations governing their dynamics (second-order phase transition), while the scaling laws associated with the fracture of family of asperities have geometric nature, namely, are rooted in the fractal nature of the population of asperities.
Scaling-law for the energy dependence of anatomic power spectrum in dedicated breast CT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi, Linxi; Glick, Stephen J.; Karellas, Andrew [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States)
2013-01-15
Purpose: To determine the x-ray photon energy dependence of the anatomic power spectrum of the breast when imaged with dedicated breast computed tomography (CT). Methods: A theoretical framework for scaling the empirically determined anatomic power spectrum at one x-ray photon energy to that at any given x-ray photon energy when imaged with dedicated breast CT was developed. Theory predicted that when the anatomic power spectrum is fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, where k and {beta} are fit coefficients and f is spatial frequency, the exponent {beta} would be independent of x-ray photon energy (E), and the amplitude k scales with the square of the difference in energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues. Twenty mastectomy specimens based numerical phantoms that were previously imaged with a benchtop flat-panel cone-beam CT system were converted to 3D distribution of glandular weight fraction (f{sub g}) and were used to verify the theoretical findings. The 3D power spectrum was computed in terms of f{sub g} and after converting to linear attenuation coefficients at monoenergetic x-ray photon energies of 20-80 keV in 5 keV intervals. The 1D power spectra along the axes were extracted and fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}. The energy dependence of k and {beta} were analyzed. Results: For the 20 mastectomy specimen based numerical phantoms used in the study, the exponent {beta} was found to be in the range of 2.34-2.42, depending on the axis of measurement. Numerical simulations agreed with the theoretical predictions that for a power-law anatomic spectrum of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, {beta} was independent of E and k(E) =k{sub 1}[{mu}{sub g}(E) -{mu}{sub a}(E)]{sup 2}, where k{sub 1} is a constant, and {mu}{sub g}(E) and {mu}{sub a}(E) represent the energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues, respectively. Conclusions: Numerical
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alex Osei-Kojo
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Ghana’s small-scale mining sector faces complex challenges, including environmental degradation and pollution, loss of life and increased health risks, despite several years of implementation of small-scale mining laws. These challenges, generally, are known to have escalated because of illegal small-scale mining, locally known as “galamsey”. Despite the illegal status of this category of miners, this paper examines the extent to which stakeholder participation can improve implementation of mining regulations and also address the marginalization of these miners. This paper about stakeholder participation is timely because news reports in mid-2016 mentioned that the Government of Ghana, despite many years of disengagement, is now planning to engage with galamsey operators, in terms of registration, as part of measures to effectively regulate the activities of small-scale miners. Findings from fieldwork indicate that (1 chiefs are seldom consulted in the granting of mining licenses; (2 illegal miners do not participate in the implementation of small-scale mining laws; and (3 stakeholders, such as officers in district mining offices, feel distant from the implementation process. Against the backdrop of these findings, it remains useful to explore the extent to which effective stakeholder participation could help overcome the status quo—particularly its ramifications for both the implementation of ASM laws and the eradication of other underlying challenges the sector faces.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakabe, Shuji; Hashida, Masaki
2015-01-01
To discuss the feasibility of compact neutron sources the yield of laser produced neutrons is scaled by the laser energy. High-energy ions are generated by Coulomb explosion of clusters through intense femtosecond laser-cluster interactions. The laser energy scaling law of the neutron yield is estimated using the laser intensity scaling law for the energy of ions emitted from clusters Coulomb-exploded by an intense laser pulse. The neutron yield for D (D, n) He shows the potential of compact neutron sources with modern laser technology, and the yield for p (Li, n) Be shows much higher than that for Li (p, n) Be with the assumption of 500 nm-class cluster Coulomb explosion. (author)
The Cooling Law and the Search for a Good Temperature Scale, from Newton to Dalton
Besson, Ugo
2011-01-01
The research on the cooling law began with an article by Newton published in 1701. Later, many studies were performed by other scientists confirming or confuting Newton's law. This paper presents a description and an interpretation of Newton's article, provides a short overview of the research conducted on the topic during the 18th century, and…
Hernandez-Perez, Ruth; García-Cordero, José L; Escobar, Juan V
2017-12-01
The evaporation of droplets can give rise to a wide range of interesting phenomena in which the dynamics of the evaporation are crucial. In this work, we find simple scaling laws for the evaporation dynamics of axisymmetric droplets pinned on millimeter-sized pillars. Different laws are found depending on whether evaporation is limited by the diffusion of vapor molecules or by the transfer rate across the liquid-vapor interface. For the diffusion-limited regime, we find that a mass-loss rate equal to 3/7 of that of a free-standing evaporating droplet brings a good balance between simplicity and physical correctness. We also find a scaling law for the evaporation of multicomponent solutions. The scaling laws found are validated against experiments of the evaporation of droplets of (1) water, (2) blood plasma, and (3) a mixture of water and polyethylene glycol, pinned on acrylic pillars of different diameters. These results shed light on the macroscopic dynamics of evaporation on pillars as a first step towards the understanding of other complex phenomena that may be taking place during the evaporation process, such as particle transport and chemical reactions.
Hernandez-Perez, Ruth; García-Cordero, José L.; Escobar, Juan V.
2017-12-01
The evaporation of droplets can give rise to a wide range of interesting phenomena in which the dynamics of the evaporation are crucial. In this work, we find simple scaling laws for the evaporation dynamics of axisymmetric droplets pinned on millimeter-sized pillars. Different laws are found depending on whether evaporation is limited by the diffusion of vapor molecules or by the transfer rate across the liquid-vapor interface. For the diffusion-limited regime, we find that a mass-loss rate equal to 3/7 of that of a free-standing evaporating droplet brings a good balance between simplicity and physical correctness. We also find a scaling law for the evaporation of multicomponent solutions. The scaling laws found are validated against experiments of the evaporation of droplets of (1) water, (2) blood plasma, and (3) a mixture of water and polyethylene glycol, pinned on acrylic pillars of different diameters. These results shed light on the macroscopic dynamics of evaporation on pillars as a first step towards the understanding of other complex phenomena that may be taking place during the evaporation process, such as particle transport and chemical reactions.
ROLE OF LAW IN CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES THROUGH NORMATIVE PERSPECTIVE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Endang Sutrisno
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The presence of law has become an absolute prerequisite that must exist in the dynamics of civil society. It is to achieve justice, certainty, and expediency, so the works of it will not be separated from such a noble mission. On the other side, the law is likely inseparable from the fields of meta-juridical, including economics. The expectations of the interference of law into economy, makes the existence of justice for the business players can be realized through the enacted product legislation. Regulations concerning investments and partnerships have the intent to build self-reliance and empowerment for small industry players so as to compete in the era of economic globalization. Laws employed as the instrument of social change to strengthen the capitalization of small industry and business empowerment through the training and development of small industries, as normatively mandated by law.
Size and shape characteristics of drumlins, derived from a large sample, and associated scaling laws
Clark, Chris D.; Hughes, Anna L. C.; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Spagnolo, Matteo; Ng, Felix S. L.
2009-04-01
- L space, and records a scale-dependent maximum elongation limit (approximated by Emax = L1/3, when L measured in metres). For a given length, for some reason as yet unknown, drumlins do not exceed the elongation ratio defined by this scaling law. We also report and compare our statistics to an amalgamated sample (25,907 drumlins) of measures derived from around 50 published investigations. Any theory must be able to explain the drumlin statistics and fundamental scaling properties reported herein and they thus provide powerful tests for drumlin modelling.
Forsterite Shock Temperatures and Entropy: New Scaling Laws for Impact Melting and Vaporization
Davies, E.; Root, S.; Kraus, R. G.; Townsend, J. P.; Spaulding, D.; Stewart, S. T.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Fratanduono, D.; Millot, M. A.; Mattsson, T. R.; Hanshaw, H. L.
2017-12-01
The observed masses, radii and temperatures of thousands of extra-solar planets have challenged our theoretical understanding of planet formation and planetary structures. Planetary materials are subject to extreme pressures and temperatures during formation and within the present-day interiors of large bodies. Here, we focus on improving understanding of the physical properties of rocky planets for calculations of internal structure and the outcomes of giant impacts. We performed flyer plate impact experiments on forsterite [Mg2SiO4] on the Z-Machine at Sandia National Laboratory and decaying shock temperature measurements at the Omega EP laser at U. Rochester. At Z, planar, supported shock waves are generated in single crystal samples, permitting observation of both compressed and released states. Using available static and dynamic thermodynamic data, we calculate absolute entropy and heat capacity along the forsterite shock Hugoniot. Entropy and heat capacity on the Hugoniot are larger than previous estimates. Our data constrain the thermodynamic properties of forsterite liquid at high pressures and temperatures and the amount of melt and vapor produced during impact events. For an ambient pressure of 1 bar, shock-vaporization begins upon reaching the liquid region on the forsterite Hugoniot (about 200 GPa). Using hydrocode simulations of giant impacts between rocky planets with forsterite mantles and iron cores and the new experimentally-constrained forsterite shock entropy, we present a new scaling law for the fraction of mantle that is melted or vaporized by the initial shock wave. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Prepared by the Center
Dynamic evaluation of seismic hazard and risks based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes
Kossobokov, V. G.; Nekrasova, A.
2016-12-01
We continue applying the general concept of seismic risk analysis in a number of seismic regions worldwide by constructing seismic hazard maps based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), i.e. log N(M,L) = A + B•(6 - M) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an seismically prone area of linear dimension L, A characterizes the average annual rate of strong (M = 6) earthquakes, B determines the balance between magnitude ranges, and C estimates the fractal dimension of seismic locus in projection to the Earth surface. The parameters A, B, and C of USLE are used to assess, first, the expected maximum magnitude in a time interval at a seismically prone cell of a uniform grid that cover the region of interest, and then the corresponding expected ground shaking parameters. After a rigorous testing against the available seismic evidences in the past (e.g., the historically reported macro-seismic intensity or paleo data), such a seismic hazard map is used to generate maps of specific earthquake risks for population, cities, and infrastructures. The hazard maps for a given territory change dramatically, when the methodology is applied to a certain size moving time window, e.g. about a decade long for an intermediate-term regional assessment or exponentially increasing intervals for a daily local strong aftershock forecasting. The of dynamical seismic hazard and risks assessment is illustrated by applications to the territory of Greater Caucasus and Crimea and the two-year series of aftershocks of the 11 October 2008 Kurchaloy, Chechnya earthquake which case-history appears to be encouraging for further systematic testing as potential short-term forecasting tool.
Seismic hazard assessment based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: the Greater Caucasus
Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V. G.
2015-12-01
Losses from natural disasters continue to increase mainly due to poor understanding by majority of scientific community, decision makers and public, the three components of Risk, i.e., Hazard, Exposure, and Vulnerability. Contemporary Science is responsible for not coping with challenging changes of Exposures and their Vulnerability inflicted by growing population, its concentration, etc., which result in a steady increase of Losses from Natural Hazards. Scientists owe to Society for lack of knowledge, education, and communication. In fact, Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering such knowledge in advance catastrophic events. We continue applying the general concept of seismic risk analysis in a number of seismic regions worldwide by constructing regional seismic hazard maps based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), i.e. log N(M,L) = A - B•(M-6) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an seismically prone area of linear dimension L. The parameters A, B, and C of USLE are used to estimate, first, the expected maximum magnitude in a time interval at a seismically prone cell of a uniform grid that cover the region of interest, and then the corresponding expected ground shaking parameters including macro-seismic intensity. After a rigorous testing against the available seismic evidences in the past (e.g., the historically reported macro-seismic intensity), such a seismic hazard map is used to generate maps of specific earthquake risks (e.g., those based on the density of exposed population). The methodology of seismic hazard and risks assessment based on USLE is illustrated by application to the seismic region of Greater Caucasus.
Emergence of good conduct, scaling and zipf laws in human behavioral sequences in an online world.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefan Thurner
Full Text Available We study behavioral action sequences of players in a massive multiplayer online game. In their virtual life players use eight basic actions which allow them to interact with each other. These actions are communication, trade, establishing or breaking friendships and enmities, attack, and punishment. We measure the probabilities for these actions conditional on previous taken and received actions and find a dramatic increase of negative behavior immediately after receiving negative actions. Similarly, positive behavior is intensified by receiving positive actions. We observe a tendency towards antipersistence in communication sequences. Classifying actions as positive (good and negative (bad allows us to define binary 'world lines' of lives of individuals. Positive and negative actions are persistent and occur in clusters, indicated by large scaling exponents α ~ 0.87 of the mean square displacement of the world lines. For all eight action types we find strong signs for high levels of repetitiveness, especially for negative actions. We partition behavioral sequences into segments of length n (behavioral 'words' and 'motifs' and study their statistical properties. We find two approximate power laws in the word ranking distribution, one with an exponent of κ ~ -1 for the ranks up to 100, and another with a lower exponent for higher ranks. The Shannon n-tuple redundancy yields large values and increases in terms of word length, further underscoring the non-trivial statistical properties of behavioral sequences. On the collective, societal level the timeseries of particular actions per day can be understood by a simple mean-reverting log-normal model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
César Merino Soto
2016-06-01
Full Text Available RESUMEN: La medición de la inteligencia emocional ha tenido muchas propuestas en formato de autorreporte. Una de estas es el Wong-Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS, creada para el contexto laboral y que evalúa valoración y expresión de las emociones propias, valoración y reconocimiento de las emociones en otros, regulación de las propias emociones y uso de la emoción para facilitar el desempeño. Hay poca evidencia psicométrica sobre el Wong-Law Emotional Intelligence Scale en habla hispana, lo que posiblemente conduce a que sea también poco utilizado en la investigación y práctica profesional. El objetivo del presente estudio es presentar los primeros resultados de la validez de la estructura interna del WLEIS en adultos peruanos. Fueron 120 participantes (72 mujeres entre 17 y 59 años, quienes respondieron al cuestionario mediados por internet. Se analizó la estructura interna mediante metodología de ecuaciones estructurales. Se halló una satisfactoria estructura de 4 factores y elevadas cargas factoriales de los ítems; las correlaciones interfactores fueron altas o moderadamente altas; y la consistencia interna fue buena. Se concluye que los primeros resultados son aceptables para asumir que el modelo de Wong-Law también es aparentemente generalizable. ABSTRACT: The measurement of emotional intelligence has had many proposals in the form of self-report. One of these is the Wong-Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS, created for the job context and which evaluates valuation and the expression of self-emotions; valuation and recognition of emotions in others; regulation of one’s own emotions and the use of emotion to facilitate performance. There is little psychometric evidence regarding the Wong-Law Emotional Intelligence Scale in the Spanish speaking world, which could lead to it also being little used in research and professional practice. The objective of this study is to present the first results of the internal
A scaling law for the local CHF on the external bottom side of a fully submerged reactor vessel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C.
1997-01-01
A scaling law for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water has been developed from the results of an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model for pool boiling on a downward facing curved heating surface. The scaling law accounts for the effects of the size of the vessel, the level of liquid subcooling, the intrinsic properties of the fluid, and the spatial variation of the local critical heat flux along the heating surface. It is found that for vessels with diameters considerably larger than the characteristic size of the vapor masses, the size effect on the local critical heat flux is limited almost entirely to the effect of subcooling associated with the local liquid head. When the subcooling effect is accounted for separately, the local CHF limit is nearly independent of the vessel size. Based upon the scaling law developed in this work, it is possible to merge, within the experimental uncertainties, all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes under both saturated and subcooled boiling conditions into a single curve. Applications of the scaling law to commercial-size vessels have been made for various system pressures and water levels above the heated vessel. Over the range of conditions explored in this study, the local CHF limit is found to increase by a factor of two or more from the bottom center to the upper edge of the vessel. Meanwhile, the critical heat flux at a given angular position of the heated vessel is also found to increase appreciably with the system pressure and the water level
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verdoolaege, Geert; Van Oost, Guido
2012-01-01
Pattern recognition is becoming an important tool in fusion data analysis. However, fusion diagnostic measurements are often affected by considerable statistical uncertainties, rendering the extraction of useful patterns a significant challenge. Therefore, we assume a probabilistic model for the data and perform pattern recognition in the space of probability distributions. We show the considerable advantage of our method for identifying confinement regimes and edge localized mode behavior, and we discuss the potential for scaling laws.
Malka, Elad; Shvarts, Dov
2017-10-01
We re-examine the way 2/3D effects on scaling laws for ignition metrics, such as the generalized Lawson Criterion (GLC) and the Ignition Threshold Factor (ITF). These scaling laws were derived for 1D symmetrical case and 2/3D perturbations [Hann et al. PoP 2010; Lindl et al., PoP 2014; Betti et al., PoP 2010]. The main cause for the difference between the 1D and the 2/3D scaling laws in those works, is heat conduction losses from the hot-spot bubbles to the cold shell [Kishony and Shvarts, PoP 2001]. This ``dry out'' of the bubbles is the dominant mechanism for intermediate mode number perturbations (6hot spot. These two effects do not have an effective 1D analogue and therefore needs a more complicated model. A consistent extension of the ignition metrics for l <=6, accounting for both energy loss mechanisms, will be presented and compared with previous models and results. This work was supported by the LLNL under subcontract B614207.
Knowing the dense plasma focus - The coming of age (of the PF) with broad-ranging scaling laws
Saw, S. H.; Lee, S.
2017-03-01
The dense plasma focus is blessed not only with copious multi-radiations ranging from electron and ion beams, x-rays both soft and hard, fusion neutrons D-D and D-T but also with the property of enhanced compression from radiative collapse leading to HED (high energy density) states. The Lee code has been used in extensive systematic numerical experiments tied to reality through fitting with measured current waveforms and verified through comparison of measured and computed yields and measurements of multi-radiation. The studies have led to establishment of scaling laws with respect to storage energy, discharge current and pinch currents for fusion neutrons, characteristic soft x-rays, all-line radiation and ion beams. These are summarized here together with a first-time presentation of a scaling law of radiatively enhanced compression as a function of atomic number of operational gas. This paper emphasizes that such a broad range of scaling laws signals the coming of age of the DPF and presents a reference platform for planning the many potential applications such as in advanced SXR lithography, materials synthesizing and testing, medical isotopes, imaging and energy and high energy density (HED).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, T.; Hirata, M.; Hojo, H.; Ichimura, M.; Ishii, K.; Itakura, A.; Katanuma, I.; Kohagura, J.; Nakashima, Y.; Saito, T.; Tanaka, S.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.; Numakura, T.; Minami, R.; Nagashima, S.; Watanabe, H.; Yoshida, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Tamano, T.; Yatsu, K.; Miyoshi, S.
2001-01-01
Generalized scaling laws for the formation of plasma confining potentials and the associated effectiveness of the potentials produced are systematically investigated to find the physics essentials common to the representative tandem mirror operational modes of GAMMA 10, and to explore novel extended operational modes from the scaling bases constructed. (a) The potential formation scalings are generalized using a novel finding of wider validity of Cohen's strong ECH theory covering the representative modes. (b) The potentials produced, in turn, provide a favourable novel scaling of the increase in the central cell electron temperatures T e with increasing thermal barrier potentials φ b , limited by the available ECH power. The scaling of T e with φ b is well interpreted in terms of the generalized Pastukhov theory of plasma potential confinement. A detailed comparison of the results from several related modified theories is also made. (c) Consolidation of the two major scalings of (a) and (b) in a tandem mirror is carried out by the use of an electron energy balance equation for the first time. In addition, (d) an empirical scaling of φ c with ECH power in the plug region and the central cell densities are studied to discover whether there is the possibility of extending these theoretically well interpreted scaling data to parameters in the future scalable regime. There is also a discussion about numerical scalings in the three dimensional parameter spaces. (author)
Sohrab, Siavash H.; Pitch, Nancy (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
A scale-invariant statistical theory of fields is presented that leads to invariant definition of density, velocity, temperature, and pressure, The definition of Boltzmann constant is introduced as k(sub k) = m(sub k)v(sub k)c = 1.381 x 10(exp -23) J x K(exp -1), suggesting that the Kelvin absolute temperature scale is equivalent to a length scale. Two new state variables called the reversible heat Q(sub rev) = TS and the reversible work W(sub rev) = PV are introduced. The modified forms of the first and second law of thermodynamics are presented. The microscopic definition of heat (work) is presented as the kinetic energy due to the random (peculiar) translational, rotational, and pulsational motions. The Gibbs free energy of an element at scale Beta is identified as the total system energy at scale (Beta-1), thus leading to an invariant form of the first law of thermodynamics U(sub Beta) = Q(sub Beta) - W(sub Beta) +N(e3)U(sub Beta-1).
Animal Construction as a Free Boundary Problem: Evidence of Fractal Scaling Laws
Nicolis, S. C.
2014-12-01
We suggest that the main features of animal construction can be understood as the sum of locally independent actions of non-interacting individuals subjected to the global constraints imposed by the nascent structure. We first formulate an analytically tractable oscopic description of construction which predicts a 1/3 power law for how the length of the structure grows with time. We further show how the power law is modified when biases in random walk performed by the constructors as well as halting times between consecutive construction steps are included.
Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Ganti, V. K.; Passalacqua, P.
2010-12-01
Nonlinear geomorphic transport laws are often derived from mechanistic considerations at a point, and yet they are implemented on 90m or 30 m DEMs, presenting a mismatch in the scales of derivation and application of the flux laws. Since estimates of local slopes and curvatures are known to depend on the scale of the DEM used in their computation, two questions arise: (1) how to meaningfully compensate for the scale dependence, if any, of local transport laws? and (2) how to formally derive, via upscaling, constitutive laws that are applicable at larger scales? Recently, non-local geomorphic transport laws for sediment transport on hillslopes have been introduced using the concept of an integral flux that depends on topographic attributes in the vicinity of a point of interest. In this paper, we demonstrate the scale dependence of local nonlinear hillslope sediment transport laws and derive a closure term via upscaling (Reynolds averaging). We also show that the non-local hillslope transport laws are inherently scale independent owing to their non-local, scale-free nature. These concepts are demonstrated via an application to a small subbasin of the Oregon Coast Range using 2m LiDAR topographic data.
The application of J integral to measure cohesive laws under large-scale yielding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goutianos, Stergios; Sørensen, Bent F.
2016-01-01
A method is developed to obtain the mode I cohesive law of elastic-plastic materials using a Double Cantilever Beam sandwich specimen loaded with pure bending moments. The approach is based on the validity of the J integral for materials having a non-linear stress-strain relationship without...
Elsas, José Hugo; Szalay, Alexander S.; Meneveau, Charles
2018-04-01
Motivated by interest in the geometry of high intensity events of turbulent flows, we examine the spatial correlation functions of sets where turbulent events are particularly intense. These sets are defined using indicator functions on excursion and iso-value sets. Their geometric scaling properties are analysed by examining possible power-law decay of their radial correlation function. We apply the analysis to enstrophy, dissipation and velocity gradient invariants Q and R and their joint spatial distributions, using data from a direct numerical simulation of isotropic turbulence at Reλ ≈ 430. While no fractal scaling is found in the inertial range using box-counting in the finite Reynolds number flow considered here, power-law scaling in the inertial range is found in the radial correlation functions. Thus, a geometric characterisation in terms of these sets' correlation dimension is possible. Strong dependence on the enstrophy and dissipation threshold is found, consistent with multifractal behaviour. Nevertheless, the lack of scaling of the box-counting analysis precludes direct quantitative comparisons with earlier work based on multifractal formalism. Surprising trends, such as a lower correlation dimension for strong dissipation events compared to strong enstrophy events, are observed and interpreted in terms of spatial coherence of vortices in the flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murari, A; Peluso, E; Gelfusa, M; Lupelli, I; Lungaroni, M; Gaudio, P
2015-01-01
Many measurements are required to control thermonuclear plasmas and to fully exploit them scientifically. In the last years JET has shown the potential to generate about 50 GB of data per shot. These amounts of data require more sophisticated data analysis methodologies to perform correct inference and various techniques have been recently developed in this respect. The present paper covers a new methodology to extract mathematical models directly from the data without any a priori assumption about their expression. The approach, based on symbolic regression via genetic programming, is exemplified using the data of the International Tokamak Physics Activity database for the energy confinement time. The best obtained scaling laws are not in power law form and suggest a revisiting of the extrapolation to ITER. Indeed the best non-power law scalings predict confinement times in ITER approximately between 2 and 3 s. On the other hand, more comprehensive and better databases are required to fully profit from the power of these new methods and to discriminate between the hundreds of thousands of models that they can generate. (paper)
Roth, J. R.
1976-01-01
Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of bumpy torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied included the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings, the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.
English, Devin; Bowleg, Lisa; Del Río-González, Ana Maria; Tschann, Jeanne M; Agans, Robert P; Malebranche, David J
2017-04-01
Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men's perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale. In Study 1, we used thematic analysis on transcripts of individual qualitative interviews with 90 Black men to assess key themes and concepts and develop quantitative items. In Study 2, we used 2 focus groups comprised of 5 Black men each (n = 10), intensive cognitive interviewing with a separate sample of Black men (n = 15), and piloting with another sample of Black men (n = 13) to assess the ecological validity of the quantitative items. For Study 3, we analyzed data from a sample of 633 Black men between the ages of 18 and 65 to test the factor structure of the PLE, as we all as its concurrent validity and convergent/discriminant validity. Qualitative analyses and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a 5-item, 1-factor measure appropriately represented respondents' experiences of police/law enforcement discrimination. As hypothesized, the PLE was positively associated with measures of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Preliminary evidence suggests that the PLE is a reliable and valid measure of Black men's experiences of discrimination with police/law enforcement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
The application of J integral to measure cohesive laws in materials undergoing large scale yielding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Bent F.; Goutianos, Stergios
2015-01-01
We explore the possibility of determining cohesive laws by the J-integral approach for materials having non-linear stress-strain behaviour (e.g. polymers and composites) by the use of a DCB sandwich specimen, consisting of stiff elastic beams bonded to the non-linear test material, loaded with pure...... bending moments. For a wide range of parameters of the non-linear material, the plastic unloading during crack extension is small, resulting in J integral values (fracture resistance) that deviate maximum 15% from the work of the cohesive traction. Thus the method can be used to extract the cohesive laws...... directly from experiments without any presumption about their shape. Finally, the DCB sandwich specimen was also analysed using the I integral to quantify the overestimation of the steady-state fracture resistance obtained using the J integral based method....
On correction factor in scaling law for low pressure DC gas breakdown
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gleb Wataghin, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil))" >Ronchi, G; Gleb Wataghin, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil))" >Machida, M
2014-01-01
The low pressure gas breakdown described by Paschen's law in Townsend theory, i.e. the breakdown voltage as a function of gas pressure p and the electrode distance d, provides an accurate description of breakdown in DC discharges when the ratio between inter-electrode gap distance d and electrode radii R tends to zero. On increasing of the ratio d/R, the Paschen's curves are shifted to the region of higher breakdown voltage and higher pd values. A modified Paschen's law recently proposed is well satisfied in our measurements. However, the value of constant b changes not only due to gas type but also according to electrode gap distance; furthermore, gas breakdown voltages are considerably modified by plasma-wall interactions due to glass tube proximity in the discharge.
Safety and risk, a comparison on an international scale with regard to society, law and economy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Compes, P.C.
1987-01-01
More than 130 experts of different nations and different fields of science met to discuss the following subjects: Traffic and transport, labour and employment, products and commodities, energy and environment (safety concepts for fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants, international harmonisation of nuclear technical standards, harmonisation of environmental law in a European context). All contributions are presented in their original language, with abstracts in German, English, and French. (HP) [de
Scaling of mean inertia and theoretical basis for a log law in turbulent boundary layers
Philip, Jimmy; Morrill-Winter, Caleb; Klewicki, Joseph
2017-11-01
Log law in the mean streamwise velocity (U) for pipes/channels is well accepted based on the derivation from the mean momentum balance (MMB) equation and support from experimental data. For flat plate turbulent boundary layers (TBLs), however, there is only empirical evidence and a theoretical underpinning of the kind available for pipes/channels in lacking. The main difficultly is the mean inertia (MI) term in the MMB equation, which, unlike in pipes/channels, is not a constant in TBLs. We present results from our paper (JFM `` 2017, Vol 813, pp 594-617), where the MI term for TBL is transformed so as to render it invariant in the outer region, corroborated with high Re (δ+) data from Melbourne Wind Tunnel and New Hampshire Flow Physics Facility. The transformation is possible because the MI term in the TBL has a `shape' which becomes invariant with increasing δ+ and a `magnitude' which is proportional to 1 /δ+ . The transformed equation is then employed to derive a log law for U with κ an order one (von-Karman) constant. We also show that the log law begins at y+ =C1√{δ+} , and the peak location of the Reynolds shear stress, ym+ =C2√{δ+} , where, C1 3.6 and C2 2.17 are from high Re data. Australian Research Council and the US National Science Foundation.
Scaling laws and technology development strategies for biorefineries and bioenergy plants.
Jack, Michael W
2009-12-01
The economies of scale of larger biorefineries or bioenergy plants compete with the diseconomies of scale of transporting geographically distributed biomass to a central location. This results in an optimum plant size that depends on the scaling parameters of the two contributions. This is a fundamental aspect of biorefineries and bioenergy plants and has important consequences for technology development as "bigger is better" is not necessarily true. In this paper we explore the consequences of these scaling effects via a simplified model of biomass transportation and plant costs. Analysis of this model suggests that there is a need for much more sophisticated technology development strategies to exploit the consequences of these scaling effects. We suggest three potential strategies in terms of the scaling parameters of the system.
Wang, Yin; Xu, Wei; He, Xiao-Zhou; Yik, Hiu-Fai; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Schumacher, Jorg; Tong, Penger
2017-11-01
We report a combined experimental and numerical study of the scaling properties of the temperature variance profile η(z) along the central z axis of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a thin disk cell and an upright cylinder of aspect ratio unity. In the mixing zone outside the thermal boundary layer region, the measured η(z) is found to scale with the cell height H in both cells and obey a power law, η(z) (z/H)ɛ, with the obtained values of ɛ being very close to -1. Based on the experimental and numerical findings, we derive a new equation for η(z) in the mixing zone, which has a power-law solution in good agreement with the experimental and numerical results. Our work thus provides a common framework for understanding the effect of boundary layer fluctuations on the scaling properties of the temperature variance profile in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection. This work was supported in part by Hong Kong Research Grants Council.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Kwang Gu; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
The feasibility study on conceptual design methodology for accelerator-driven sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactors has been conducted to optimize the design parameters from the scale laws and validates the reactor performance with the integrated code system. A 1000 MWth sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactor has been scaled and verified through the methodology in this paper, which is referred to Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR). A Pb-Bi target material and a partitioned fuel are the liquid phases, and they are cooled by the circulation of secondary Pb-Bi coolant and by primary sodium coolant, respectively. Overall key design parameters are generated from the scale laws and they are improved and validated by the integrated code system. Integrated Code System (ICS) consists of LAHET, HMCNP, ORIGEN2, and COMMIX codes and some files. Through ICS the target region, the core region, and thermal-hydraulic related regions are analyzed once-through Results of conceptual design are attached in this paper. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guenter, S.; Gude, A.; Igochine, V.; Maraschek, M.; Sips, A.C.C.; Zohm, H.; Gantenbein, G.; Sauter, O.
2003-01-01
In this paper recent results on the physics of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) achieved on ASDEX Upgrade are reported. A scaling law for NTM decay has been found, showing that the minimum local bootstrap current density required for mode growth is proportional to the ion gyro radius. As this scaling law does not depend on the seed island size, and thus on the background MHD activity, it is more reliable than previously derived scaling laws for the NTM onset. Furthermore, the recently reported Frequently Interrupted Regime (FIR) is discussed. In this new regime (m,n) NTMs are characterized by frequent amplitude drops caused by interaction with (m+1,n+1) background MHD activity. Due to the resulting reduced time averaged island size this leads to lower confinement degradation compared to that caused by the usual NTMs. As shown here, the transition into this regime can actively be triggered by lowering the magnetic shear at the q=(m+1)/=(n+1) rational surface. Further investigations regard mechanisms to increase the β N value for NTM onset such as plasma shaping, seed island size and density profile control. Using these studies, a scenario with high β N (β N = 3:5) at high density (n/n GW = 0.83) and confinement (H 98(y,2) = 1.2) has been developed. Moreover, this scenario is characterized by type II ELM activity and thus by moderate heat load to the target plates. Finally, new NTM stabilization experiments are reported, demonstrating an increase in β N after NTM stabilization. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, T.; Higaki, H.; Hirata, M.; Hojo, H.; Ichimura, M.; Ishii, K.; Itakura, A.; Katanuma, I.; Kohagura, J.; Nakashima, Y.; Saito, T.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.; Minami, R.; Numakura, T.; Yoshida, M.; Watanabe, H.; Yatsu, K.; Miyoshi, S.; Cho, T.
2003-01-01
Scaling laws of potential formation and associated effects along with their physical interpretations are consolidated on the basis of experimental verification using the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. A proposal of extended consolidation and generalization of the two major theories - (i) Cohen's strong electron cyclotron heating (ECH) theory for the formation physics of plasma confining potentials and (ii) the generalized Pastukhov theory for the effectiveness of the produced potentials on plasma confinement is made through the use of the energy balance equation. This proposal is then followed by verification using experimental data from two representative operational modes of GAMMA 10, characterized in terms of (i) a high-potential mode having plasma confining potentials of the order of kilovolts and (ii) a hot ion mode yielding fusion neutrons with bulk ion temperatures of 10-20 keV. The importance of the validity of the proposed physics-based scaling is highlighted by the possibility of extended capability inherent in Pastukhov's prediction of requiring an ion confining potential of ∼30 kV for a fusion Q value of unity on the basis of an application of Cohen's potential formation method. In addition to the above potential physics scaling, an externally controllable parameter scaling of the potential formation increasing with either plug or barrier ECH powers is summarized. The combination of (i) the physics-based scaling of the proposed consolidation of potential formation and effects with (ii) the externally controllable practical ECH power scaling provides a new direction for future tandem mirror studies. (author)
Experimental verification of the scaling laws for CFB boilers of different designs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mirek Paweł
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In the paper flow dynamic similarity criteria have been presented to reflect the macroscopic flow pattern in the combustion chamber of large-scale circulating fluidised bed boilers. The proposed scaling rules have been verified on two cold models of CFB boilers operating in Tauron Wytwarzanie S.A. - El. Lagisza division (scale factor 1/20 and Fortum Power and Heat Poland Sp. z o. o. Czestochowa division (scale factor 1/10 – working with the power of 966 MWth and 120 MWth, respectively. As follows from the results of measurements, regardless of CFB boiler’s geometry the use of a defined set of criterial numbers allows to obtain satisfactory agreement between the suspension density distributions registered in the CFB boilers and scaling models.
Tavares, Gabriela; Faisal, Aldo
2013-01-01
Human behaviour is highly individual by nature, yet statistical structures are emerging which seem to govern the actions of human beings collectively. Here we search for universal statistical laws dictating the timing of human actions in communication decisions. We focus on the distribution of the time interval between messages in human broadcast communication, as documented in Twitter, and study a collection of over 160,000 tweets for three user categories: personal (controlled by one person), managed (typically PR agency controlled) and bot-controlled (automated system). To test our hypothesis, we investigate whether it is possible to differentiate between user types based on tweet timing behaviour, independently of the content in messages. For this purpose, we developed a system to process a large amount of tweets for reality mining and implemented two simple probabilistic inference algorithms: 1. a naive Bayes classifier, which distinguishes between two and three account categories with classification performance of 84.6% and 75.8%, respectively and 2. a prediction algorithm to estimate the time of a user's next tweet with an R(2) ≈ 0.7. Our results show that we can reliably distinguish between the three user categories as well as predict the distribution of a user's inter-message time with reasonable accuracy. More importantly, we identify a characteristic power-law decrease in the tail of inter-message time distribution by human users which is different from that obtained for managed and automated accounts. This result is evidence of a universal law that permeates the timing of human decisions in broadcast communication and extends the findings of several previous studies of peer-to-peer communication.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriela Tavares
Full Text Available Human behaviour is highly individual by nature, yet statistical structures are emerging which seem to govern the actions of human beings collectively. Here we search for universal statistical laws dictating the timing of human actions in communication decisions. We focus on the distribution of the time interval between messages in human broadcast communication, as documented in Twitter, and study a collection of over 160,000 tweets for three user categories: personal (controlled by one person, managed (typically PR agency controlled and bot-controlled (automated system. To test our hypothesis, we investigate whether it is possible to differentiate between user types based on tweet timing behaviour, independently of the content in messages. For this purpose, we developed a system to process a large amount of tweets for reality mining and implemented two simple probabilistic inference algorithms: 1. a naive Bayes classifier, which distinguishes between two and three account categories with classification performance of 84.6% and 75.8%, respectively and 2. a prediction algorithm to estimate the time of a user's next tweet with an R(2 ≈ 0.7. Our results show that we can reliably distinguish between the three user categories as well as predict the distribution of a user's inter-message time with reasonable accuracy. More importantly, we identify a characteristic power-law decrease in the tail of inter-message time distribution by human users which is different from that obtained for managed and automated accounts. This result is evidence of a universal law that permeates the timing of human decisions in broadcast communication and extends the findings of several previous studies of peer-to-peer communication.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, T.; Higaki, H.; Hirata, M.
2003-01-01
Scaling laws of potential formation and associated effects are constructed in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. A novel proposal of extended consolidation and generalization of the two major theories of (i) Cohen's strong electron cyclotron heating (ECH) theory for the formation physics of plasma confining potentials, and (ii) the generalized Pastukhov theory for the effectiveness of the produced potentials on plasma confinement is made through the use of the energy-balance equation. This proposal is then followed by the verification from experimental data in two representative operational modes, characterized in terms of (i) a high-potential mode having kV-order plasma-confining potentials, and (ii) a hot-ion mode yielding fusion neutrons with 10-20 keV bulk-ion temperatures. The importance of the validity of the proposed consolidated physics-based scaling is highlighted by a possibility of extended capability inherent in Pastukhov's prediction of requiring ion-confining potential (φ c ) of 30 kV for a fusion Q value of unity on the basis of an application of Cohen's potential formation method. In addition to the above potential physics scaling, an externally controllable parameter scaling including both plug and barrier ECH powers for potential formation is investigated. The combination of (i) the physics scaling of the above-proposed consolidation over potential formation and effects with (ii) the externally controllable practical ECH power scaling provides a scalable way for the future tandem-mirror researches. Under the assumption of the validity of the extension of the present theoretically well interpreted scaling, the formation of Pastukhov's predicted φ c for confining Q=1 plasmas is scaled to require total plug with barrier ECH powers of 3 MW. (author)
Nezhadhaghighi, Mohsen Ghasemi
2017-08-01
Here, we present results of numerical simulations and the scaling characteristics of one-dimensional random fluctuations with heavy-tailed probability distribution functions. Assuming that the distribution function of the random fluctuations obeys Lévy statistics with a power-law scaling exponent, we investigate the fractional diffusion equation in the presence of μ-stable Lévy noise. We study the scaling properties of the global width and two-point correlation functions and then compare the analytical and numerical results for the growth exponent β and the roughness exponent α. We also investigate the fractional Fokker-Planck equation for heavy-tailed random fluctuations. We show that the fractional diffusion processes in the presence of μ-stable Lévy noise display special scaling properties in the probability distribution function (PDF). Finally, we numerically study the scaling properties of the heavy-tailed random fluctuations by using the diffusion entropy analysis. This method is based on the evaluation of the Shannon entropy of the PDF generated by the random fluctuations, rather than on the measurement of the global width of the process. We apply the diffusion entropy analysis to extract the growth exponent β and to confirm the validity of our numerical analysis.
Nezhadhaghighi, Mohsen Ghasemi
2017-08-01
Here, we present results of numerical simulations and the scaling characteristics of one-dimensional random fluctuations with heavy-tailed probability distribution functions. Assuming that the distribution function of the random fluctuations obeys Lévy statistics with a power-law scaling exponent, we investigate the fractional diffusion equation in the presence of μ -stable Lévy noise. We study the scaling properties of the global width and two-point correlation functions and then compare the analytical and numerical results for the growth exponent β and the roughness exponent α . We also investigate the fractional Fokker-Planck equation for heavy-tailed random fluctuations. We show that the fractional diffusion processes in the presence of μ -stable Lévy noise display special scaling properties in the probability distribution function (PDF). Finally, we numerically study the scaling properties of the heavy-tailed random fluctuations by using the diffusion entropy analysis. This method is based on the evaluation of the Shannon entropy of the PDF generated by the random fluctuations, rather than on the measurement of the global width of the process. We apply the diffusion entropy analysis to extract the growth exponent β and to confirm the validity of our numerical analysis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Yimin; Bhattacharjee, A.
2010-01-01
The Sweet-Parker layer in a system that exceeds a critical value of the Lundquist number (S) is unstable to the plasmoid instability. In this paper, a numerical scaling study has been done with an island coalescing system driven by a low level of random noise. In the early stage, a primary Sweet-Parker layer forms between the two coalescing islands. The primary Sweet-Parker layer breaks into multiple plasmoids and even thinner current sheets through multiple levels of cascading if the Lundquist number is greater than a critical value S c ≅4x10 4 . As a result of the plasmoid instability, the system realizes a fast nonlinear reconnection rate that is nearly independent of S, and is only weakly dependent on the level of noise. The number of plasmoids in the linear regime is found to scales as S 3/8 , as predicted by an earlier asymptotic analysis [N. F. Loureiro et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 100703 (2007)]. In the nonlinear regime, the number of plasmoids follows a steeper scaling, and is proportional to S. The thickness and length of current sheets are found to scale as S -1 , and the local current densities of current sheets scale as S -1 . Heuristic arguments are given in support of theses scaling relations.
Mishra, Gaurav; Ghosh, Karabi; Ray, Aditi; Gupta, N. K.
2018-06-01
Radiation hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations for four different potential high-Z hohlraum materials, namely Tungsten (W), Gold (Au), Lead (Pb), and Uranium (U) are performed in order to investigate their performance with respect to x-ray absorption, re-emission and ablation properties, when irradiated by constant temperature drives. A universal functional form is derived for estimating time dependent wall albedo for high-Z materials. Among the high-Z materials studied, it is observed that for a fixed simulation time the albedo is maximum for Au below 250 eV, whereas it is maximum for U above 250 eV. New scaling laws for shock speed vs drive temperature, applicable over a wide temperature range of 100 eV to 500 eV, are proposed based on the physics of x-ray driven stationary ablation. The resulting scaling relation for a reference material Aluminium (Al), shows good agreement with that of Kauffman's power law for temperatures ranging from 100 eV to 275 eV. New scaling relations are also obtained for temperature dependent mass ablation rate and ablation pressure, through RHD simulation. Finally, our study reveals that for temperatures above 250 eV, U serves as a better hohlraum material since it offers maximum re-emission for x-rays along with comparable mass ablation rate. Nevertheless, traditional choice, Au works well for temperatures below 250 eV. Besides inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the new scaling relations may find its application in view-factor codes, which generally ignore atomic physics calculations of opacities and emissivities, details of laser-plasma interaction and hydrodynamic motions.
Holmes, Scott A; Mulla, Ali; Binsted, Gordon; Heath, Matthew
2011-09-01
The 'just noticeable difference' (JND) represents the minimum amount by which a stimulus must change to produce a noticeable variation in one's perceptual experience and is related to initial stimulus magnitude (i.e., Weber's law). The goal of the present study was to determine whether aperture shaping for visually derived and memory-guided grasping elicit a temporally dependent or temporally independent adherence to Weber's law. Participants were instructed to grasp differently sized objects (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60mm) in conditions wherein vision of the grasping environment was available throughout the response (i.e., closed-loop), when occluded at movement onset (i.e., open-loop), and when occluded for a brief (i.e., 0ms) or longer (i.e., 2000ms) delay in advance of movement onset. Within-participant standard deviations of grip aperture (i.e., the JNDs) computed at decile increments of normalized grasping time were used to determine participant's sensitivity to detecting changes in object size. Results showed that JNDs increased linearly with increasing object size from 10% to 40% of grasping time; that is, the trial-to-trial stability (i.e., visuomotor certainty) of grip aperture (i.e., the comparator) decreased with increasing object size (i.e., the initial stimulus). However, a null JND/object size scaling was observed during the middle and late stages of the response (i.e., >50% of grasping time). Most notably, the temporal relationship between JNDs and object size scaling was similar across the different visual conditions used here. Thus, our results provide evidence that aperture shaping elicits a time-dependent early, but not late, adherence to the psychophysical principles of Weber's law. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Drobinski, P.; Bastin, S.; Dabas, A.; Delville, P.; Reitebuch, O.
2006-08-01
Sea-breeze dynamics in southern France is investigated using an airborne Doppler lidar, a meteorological surface station network and radiosoundings, in the framework of the ESCOMPTE experiment conducted during summer 2001 in order to evaluate the role of thermal circulations on pollutant transport and ventilation. The airborne Doppler lidar WIND contributed to three-dimensional (3-D) mapping of the sea breeze circulation in an unprecedented way. The data allow access to the onshore and offshore sea breeze extents (xsb), and to the sea breeze depth (zsb) and intensity (usb). They also show that the return flow of the sea breeze circulation is very seldom seen in this area due to (i) the presence of a systematic non zero background wind, and (ii) the 3-D structure of the sea breeze caused by the complex coastline shape and topography. A thorough analysis is conducted on the impact of the two main valleys (Rhône and Durance valleys) affecting the sea breeze circulation in the area. Finally, this dataset also allows an evaluation of the existing scaling laws used to derive the sea breeze intensity, depth and horizontal extent. The main results of this study are that (i) latitude, cumulative heating and surface friction are key parameters of the sea breeze dynamics; (ii) in presence of strong synoptic flow, all scaling laws fail in predicting the sea breeze characteristics (the sea breeze depth, however being the most accurately predicted); and (iii) the ratio zsb/usb is approximately constant in the sea breeze flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jui-Teng Lin
2014-02-01
Full Text Available We present a modeling study of photoinitiated polymerization in a thick polymer-absorbing medium using a focused UV laser. Transient profiles of the initiator concentration at various focusing conditions are analyzed to define the polymerization boundary. Furthermore, we demonstrate the optimal focusing conditions that yield more uniform polymerization over a larger volume than the collimated or non-optimal cases. Too much focusing with the focal length f < f* (an optimal focal length yields a fast process; however, it provides a smaller polymerization volume at a given time than in the optimal focusing case. Finally, a scaling law is derived and shows that f* is inverse proportional to the product of the extinction coefficient and the initiator initial concentration. The scaling law provides useful guidance for the prediction of optimal conditions for photoinitiated polymerization under a focused UV laser irradiation. The focusing technique also provides a novel and unique means for obtaining uniform photo-polymerization within a limited irradiation time.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rezzoug, A.; Konig, D.; Triantafyllidis, Th. [Ruhr Bochum Univ. (Germany); Coumoulos, H.; Soga, K. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)
2000-07-01
The capillary movement of water through soils is of interest in many practical environmental engineering problems, especially problems concerning pollutant transport in soils. The potential use of the geotechnical centrifuge to study the capillary phenomena in soils has been proposed and some results have been reported. The main issue in relation is the verification of the scaling laws for the capillary phenomena in soils. However, the theoretical aspect of the capillary rise in relation to the accelerated gravity effect is still poorly understood; further investigation is required on the gravity effect on the capillary pressure, the meniscus form, the scaling of the capillary height and the scaling of the time. A theoretical analysis of the movement in capillary tube, representing soil, is presented. Scaling laws for the capillary height and the time are proposed. The effect of the contact angle changes on the scaling laws is also considered. (authors)
Wall thickness dependence of the scaling law for ferroic stripe domains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catalan, G; Scott, J F; Schilling, A; Gregg, J M
2007-01-01
The periodicity of 180 0 stripe domains as a function of crystal thickness scales with the width of the domain walls, both for ferroelectric and for ferromagnetic materials. Here we derive an analytical expression for the generalized ferroic scaling factor and use this to calculate the domain wall thickness and gradient coefficients (exchange constants) in some ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials. We then use these to discuss some of the wider implications for the physics of ferroelectric nanodevices and periodically poled photonic crystals. (fast track communication)
Energy loss as the origin of a universal scaling law of the elliptic flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andres, Carlota; Pajares, Carlos [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Instituto Galego de Fisica de Altas Enerxias IGFAE, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Braun, Mikhail [Saint Petersburg State University, Department of High-Energy Physics, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
It is shown that the excellent scaling of the elliptic flow found for all centralities, species and energies from RHIC to the LHC for p{sub T} less than the saturation momentum is a consequence of the energy lost by a parton interacting with the color field produced in a nucleus-nucleus collision. In particular, the deduced shape of the scaling curve describes correctly all the data. We discuss the possible extensions to higher p{sub T}, proton-nucleus and proton-proton collisions as well as higher harmonics. (orig.)
An allometric scaling law between gray matter and white matter of cerebral cortex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Jihuan
2006-01-01
An allometric scaling relationship between cortical white and gray volumes is derived from a general model that describes brain's remarkable efficiency and prodigious communications between brain areas. The model assumes that (1) a cell's metabolic rate depends upon cell's surface; (2) the overall basal metabolic rates of brain areas depend upon their fractal structures; (3) differential brain areas have same basal metabolic rate at slow wave sleep. The obtained allometric exponent scaling white matter to gray matter is 1.2, which is very much close to Zhang and Sejnowski's observation data
From HERA to the Tevatron: A scaling law in hard diffraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goulianos, K.
1997-01-01
Results on hard diffraction from CDF are reviewed and compared with predictions based on the diffractive structure function of the proton measured in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. The predictions are generally larger than the measured rates by a factor of ∼ 6, suggesting a breakdown of conventional factorization. Correct predictions are obtained by scaling the rapidity gap probability distribution of the diffractive structure function to the total integrated gap probability. The scaling of the gap probability is traced back to the pomeron flux renormalization hypothesis, which was introduced to unitarize the soft diffraction amplitude
Scaling Laws of Nitrogen Soft X-Ray Yields from 1 to 200 kJ Plasma Focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akel, M.; Lee, S.
2013-01-01
Numerical experiments are carried out systematically to determine the nitrogen soft x-ray yield for optimized nitrogen plasma focus with storage energy E 0 from 1 kJ to 200 kJ. Scaling laws on nitrogen soft x-ray yield, in terms of storage energies E 0 , peak discharge current I p eak and focus pinch current I p inch were found. It was found that the nitrogen x-ray yields scales on average with y s xr, N= 1.93xE o 1 .21 J (E 0 in kJ) with the scaling showing gradual deterioration as E 0 rises over the range. A more robust scaling is y s xr = 8x10 - 8I 0 3.38 p inch . The optimum nitrogen soft x-ray yield emitted from plasma focus is found to be about 1 kJ for storage energy of 200 kJ. This indicates that nitrogen plasma focus is a good water-window soft x-ray source when properly designed. (author)
The Mathematics of Networks Science: Scale-Free, Power-Law Graphs and Continuum Theoretical Analysis
Padula, Janice
2012-01-01
When hoping to initiate or sustain students' interest in mathematics teachers should always consider relevance, relevance to students' lives and in the middle and later years of instruction in high school and university, accessibility. A topic such as the mathematics behind networks science, more specifically scale-free graphs, is up-to-date,…
Thomas C. Brown; George L. Peterson
2009-01-01
The method of paired comparisons is used to measure individuals' preference orderings of items presented to them as discrete binary choices. This paper reviews the theory and application of the paired comparison method, describes a new computer program available for eliciting the choices, and presents an analysis of methods for scaling paired choice data to...
an evaluation of the indonesian law and policy on small-scale fisheries
African Journals Online (AJOL)
RAYAN_
Fisheries play an important role in food security, especially in Indonesia. ... context of fulfilling animal protein needs or providing a basis for the local, ... and 42 per cent of them are women.4 Small-scale fisheries make a .... Provision of school facilities and health centres; h. ... Indonesia, the first problem lies in inequality.
Pebble-isolation mass: Scaling law and implications for the formation of super-Earths and gas giants
Bitsch, Bertram; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Johansen, Anders; Lega, Elena; Lambrechts, Michiel; Crida, Aurélien
2018-04-01
The growth of a planetary core by pebble accretion stops at the so-called pebble isolation mass, when the core generates a pressure bump that traps drifting pebbles outside its orbit. The value of the pebble isolation mass is crucial in determining the final planet mass. If the isolation mass is very low, gas accretion is protracted and the planet remains at a few Earth masses with a mainly solid composition. For higher values of the pebble isolation mass, the planet might be able to accrete gas from the protoplanetary disc and grow into a gas giant. Previous works have determined a scaling of the pebble isolation mass with cube of the disc aspect ratio. Here, we expand on previous measurements and explore the dependency of the pebble isolation mass on all relevant parameters of the protoplanetary disc. We use 3D hydrodynamical simulations to measure the pebble isolation mass and derive a simple scaling law that captures the dependence on the local disc structure and the turbulent viscosity parameter α. We find that small pebbles, coupled to the gas, with Stokes number τf gap at pebble isolation mass. However, as the planetary mass increases, particles must be decreasingly smaller to penetrate the pressure bump. Turbulent diffusion of particles, however, can lead to an increase of the pebble isolation mass by a factor of two, depending on the strength of the background viscosity and on the pebble size. We finally explore the implications of the new scaling law of the pebble isolation mass on the formation of planetary systems by numerically integrating the growth and migration pathways of planets in evolving protoplanetary discs. Compared to models neglecting the dependence of the pebble isolation mass on the α-viscosity, our models including this effect result in higher core masses for giant planets. These higher core masses are more similar to the core masses of the giant planets in the solar system.
McAteer, R. T. James
2015-08-01
My soul is spiraling in frozen fractals all around, And one thought crystallizes like an icy blast, I'm never going back, the past is in the past.Elsa, from Disney’s Frozen, characterizes two fundamental aspects of scale-free processes in Nature: fractals are everywhere in space; fractals can be used to probe changes in time. Self-Organized Criticality provides a powerful set of tools to study scale-free processes. It connects spatial fractals (more generically, multifractals) to temporal evolution. The drawback is that this usually results in scale-free, unit-less, indices, which can be difficult to connect to everyday physics. Here, I show a novel method that connects one of the most powerful SOC tools - the wavelet transform modulus maxima approach to calculating multifractality - to one of the most powerful equations in all of physics - Ampere’s law. In doing so I show how the multifractal spectra can be expressed in terms of current density, and how current density can then be used for the prediction of future energy release from such a system.Our physical understanding of the solar magnetic field structure, and hence our ability to predict solar activity, is limited by the type of data currently available. I show that the multifractal spectrum provides a powerful physical connection between the details of photospheric magnetic gradients of current data and the coronal magnetic structure. By decomposing Ampere’s law and comparing it to the wavelet transform modulus maximum method, I show how the scale-free Holder exponent provides a direct measure of current density across all relevant sizes. The prevalence of this current density across various scales is connected to its stability in time, and hence to the ability of the magnetic structure to store and then release energy. Hence (spatial) multifractals inform us of (future) solar activity.Finally I discuss how such an approach can be used in any study of scale-free processes, and highlight the necessary
Gastner, Michael T; Oborny, Beata; Zimmermann, D K; Pruessner, Gunnar
2009-07-01
A change in the environmental conditions across space-for example, altitude or latitude-can cause significant changes in the density of a vegetation type and, consequently, in spatial connectivity. We use spatially explicit simulations to study the transition from connected to fragmented vegetation. A static (gradient percolation) model is compared to dynamic (gradient contact process) models. Connectivity is characterized from the perspective of various species that use this vegetation type for habitat and differ in dispersal or migration range, that is, "step length" across the landscape. The boundary of connected vegetation delineated by a particular step length is termed the " hull edge." We found that for every step length and for every gradient, the hull edge is a fractal with dimension 7/4. The result is the same for different spatial models, suggesting that there are universal laws in ecotone geometry. To demonstrate that the model is applicable to real data, a hull edge of fractal dimension 7/4 is shown on a satellite image of a piñon-juniper woodland on a hillside. We propose to use the hull edge to define the boundary of a vegetation type unambiguously. This offers a new tool for detecting a shift of the boundary due to a climate change.
Katul, Gabriel G; Porporato, Amilcare; Nikora, Vladimir
2012-12-01
The existence of a "-1" power-law scaling at low wavenumbers in the longitudinal velocity spectrum of wall-bounded turbulence was explained by multiple mechanisms; however, experimental support has not been uniform across laboratory studies. This letter shows that Heisenberg's eddy viscosity approach can provide a theoretical framework that bridges these multiple mechanisms and explains the elusiveness of the "-1" power law in some experiments. Novel theoretical outcomes are conjectured about the role of intermittency and very-large scale motions in modifying the k⁻¹ scaling.
Scaling laws for perturbations in the ocean–atmosphere system following large CO2 emissions
Towles, N.; Olson, P.; Gnanadesikan, A.
2015-01-01
Scaling relationships are derived for the perturbations to atmosphere and ocean variables from large transient CO2 emissions. Using the carbon cycle model LOSCAR (Zeebe et al., 2009; Zeebe, 2012b) we calculate perturbations to atmosphere temperature and total carbon, ocean temperature, total ocean carbon, pH, and alkalinity, marine sediment carbon, plus carbon-13 isotope anomalies in the ocean and atmosphere resulting from idealized CO2 emission events. The...
Scaling-Laws of Flow Entropy with Topological Metrics of Water Distribution Networks
Giovanni Francesco Santonastaso; Armando Di Nardo; Michele Di Natale; Carlo Giudicianni; Roberto Greco
2018-01-01
Robustness of water distribution networks is related to their connectivity and topological structure, which also affect their reliability. Flow entropy, based on Shannon’s informational entropy, has been proposed as a measure of network redundancy and adopted as a proxy of reliability in optimal network design procedures. In this paper, the scaling properties of flow entropy of water distribution networks with their size and other topological metrics are studied. To such aim, flow entropy, ma...
Estimation of neutral-beam-induced field reversal in MFTF by an approximate scaling law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shearer, J.W.
1980-01-01
Scaling rules are derived for field-reversed plasmas whose dimensions are common multiples of the ion gyroradius in the vacuum field. These rules are then applied to the tandem MFTF configuration, and it is shown that field reversal appears to be possible for neutral beam currents of the order of 150 amperes, provided that the electron temperature is at least 500 eV
Seismic equivalents of volcanic jet scaling laws and multipoles in acoustics
Haney, Matthew M.; Matoza, Robin S.; Fee, David; Aldridge, David F.
2018-04-01
We establish analogies between equivalent source theory in seismology (moment-tensor and single-force sources) and acoustics (monopoles, dipoles and quadrupoles) in the context of volcanic eruption signals. Although infrasound (acoustic waves volcanic eruptions may be more complex than a simple monopole, dipole or quadrupole assumption, these elementary acoustic sources are a logical place to begin exploring relations with seismic sources. By considering the radiated power of a harmonic force source at the surface of an elastic half-space, we show that a volcanic jet or plume modelled as a seismic force has similar scaling with respect to eruption parameters (e.g. exit velocity and vent area) as an acoustic dipole. We support this by demonstrating, from first principles, a fundamental relationship that ties together explosion, torque and force sources in seismology and highlights the underlying dipole nature of seismic forces. This forges a connection between the multipole expansion of equivalent sources in acoustics and the use of forces and moments as equivalent sources in seismology. We further show that volcanic infrasound monopole and quadrupole sources exhibit scalings similar to seismicity radiated by volume injection and moment sources, respectively. We describe a scaling theory for seismic tremor during volcanic eruptions that agrees with observations showing a linear relation between radiated power of tremor and eruption rate. Volcanic tremor over the first 17 hr of the 2016 eruption at Pavlof Volcano, Alaska, obeyed the linear relation. Subsequent tremor during the main phase of the eruption did not obey the linear relation and demonstrates that volcanic eruption tremor can exhibit other scalings even during the same eruption.
Study on scaling law of PWR natural circulation with motion condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Donghua; Xiao Zejun; Chen Bingde
2009-01-01
For some nuclear reactors installed on automobiles, boats or deep sea vehicles, it is an important way to investigate their system safety by performing natural circulation experiments under motion condition. This paper studied the natural circulation on moving plants based on work of static natural circulation scaling method. With rigid motion theory, acceleration at each point was obtained on primary system and introduced to momentum equation. Thus a set of motion similar criteria were obtained. Furthermore, equal and unequal height simulation were analyzed. As to the unequal one, non isochronous simulation was needed for displacement and angular acceleration. (authors)
Power-law scaling of extreme dynamics near higher-order exceptional points
Zhong, Q.; Christodoulides, D. N.; Khajavikhan, M.; Makris, K. G.; El-Ganainy, R.
2018-02-01
We investigate the extreme dynamics of non-Hermitian systems near higher-order exceptional points in photonic networks constructed using the bosonic algebra method. We show that strong power oscillations for certain initial conditions can occur as a result of the peculiar eigenspace geometry and its dimensionality collapse near these singularities. By using complementary numerical and analytical approaches, we show that, in the parity-time (PT ) phase near exceptional points, the logarithm of the maximum optical power amplification scales linearly with the order of the exceptional point. We focus in our discussion on photonic systems, but we note that our results apply to other physical systems as well.
Probabilistic finite-size transport models for fusion: Anomalous transport and scaling laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milligen, B.Ph. van; Sanchez, R.; Carreras, B.A.
2004-01-01
Transport in fusion plasmas in the low confinement mode is characterized by several remarkable properties: the anomalous scaling of transport with system size, stiff (or 'canonical') profiles, power degradation, and rapid transport phenomena. The present article explores the possibilities of constructing a unified transport model, based on the continuous-time random walk, in which all these phenomena are handled adequately. The resulting formalism appears to be sufficiently general to provide a sound starting point for the development of a full-blown plasma transport code, capable of incorporating the relevant microscopic transport mechanisms, and allowing predictions of confinement properties
Experimental scaling law for the subcritical transition to turbulence in plane Poiseuille flow.
Lemoult, Grégoire; Aider, Jean-Luc; Wesfreid, José Eduardo
2012-02-01
We present an experimental study of the transition to turbulence in a plane Poiseuille flow. Using a well-controlled perturbation, we analyze the flow by using extensive particle image velocimetry and flow visualization (using laser-induced fluorescence) measurements, and use the deformation of the mean velocity profile as a criterion to characterize the state of the flow. From a large parametric study, four different states are defined, depending on the values of the Reynolds number and the amplitude of the perturbation. We discuss the role of coherent structures, such as hairpin vortices, in the transition. We find that the minimal amplitude of the perturbation triggering transition scales asymptotically as Re(-1).
Scaling laws and sum rules for the B-mode polarization
Giovannini, Massimo
2014-01-01
The formation of the microwave background polarization anisotropies is investigated when the stochastic Faraday rate is stationary, random and Markovian. The scaling properties of the polarization power spectra and of their nonlinear combinations are scrutinized as a function of the comoving frequency. It is argued that each frequency channel of a given experiment measuring simultaneously the E-mode and the B-mode spectra can be analyzed in this framework with the aim of testing the physical origin of the polarization in a model-independent perspective.
Hagedorn, Charles; Venkateswara, Krishna; Gundlach, Jens
2016-03-01
Proper execution of an experiment is independent of its result. Physicists who test fundamental physical law face the reality that signals for new physics receive more attention and scrutiny than null results. Yet, null results may have greater impact upon the direction of both experiment and theory. Blind experiments and result-blind review are bulwarks against systematic human bias for both experimenters and referees. I'll describe the method that made possible an irreversible public unblinding of our torsion-balance parallel-plate test of gravity at submillimeter scales in 2015. One publicly-available computer procedure generated from blind raw data the analysis, the final result, and the complete documenting thesis. The experiment included an optical ``foil monitor'' to constrain a systematic effect intrinsic to all short-range parallel-plate gravity experiments. I'll describe the experiment, successes, lessons learned, and result. Supported by NSF (PHY-1305726) and DOE support for CENPA.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Drobinski
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Sea-breeze dynamics in southern France is investigated using an airborne Doppler lidar, a meteorological surface station network and radiosoundings, in the framework of the ESCOMPTE experiment conducted during summer 2001 in order to evaluate the role of thermal circulations on pollutant transport and ventilation. The airborne Doppler lidar WIND contributed to three-dimensional (3-D mapping of the sea breeze circulation in an unprecedented way. The data allow access to the onshore and offshore sea breeze extents (x_{sb}, and to the sea breeze depth (z_{sb} and intensity (u_{sb}. They also show that the return flow of the sea breeze circulation is very seldom seen in this area due to (i the presence of a systematic non zero background wind, and (ii the 3-D structure of the sea breeze caused by the complex coastline shape and topography. A thorough analysis is conducted on the impact of the two main valleys (Rhône and Durance valleys affecting the sea breeze circulation in the area.
Finally, this dataset also allows an evaluation of the existing scaling laws used to derive the sea breeze intensity, depth and horizontal extent. The main results of this study are that (i latitude, cumulative heating and surface friction are key parameters of the sea breeze dynamics; (ii in presence of strong synoptic flow, all scaling laws fail in predicting the sea breeze characteristics (the sea breeze depth, however being the most accurately predicted; and (iii the ratio z_{sb}/u_{sb} is approximately constant in the sea breeze flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Drobinski
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Sea-breeze dynamics in southern France is investigated using an airborne Doppler lidar, a meteorological surface station network and radiosoundings, in the framework of the ESCOMPTE experiment conducted during summer 2001 in order to evaluate the role of thermal circulations on pollutant transport and ventilation. The airborne Doppler lidar WIND contributed to three-dimensional (3-D mapping of the sea breeze circulation in an unprecedented way. The data allow access to the onshore and offshore sea breeze extents (xsb, and to the sea breeze depth (zsb and intensity (usb. They also show that the return flow of the sea breeze circulation is very seldom seen in this area due to (i the presence of a systematic non zero background wind, and (ii the 3-D structure of the sea breeze caused by the complex coastline shape and topography. A thorough analysis is conducted on the impact of the two main valleys (Rhône and Durance valleys affecting the sea breeze circulation in the area. Finally, this dataset also allows an evaluation of the existing scaling laws used to derive the sea breeze intensity, depth and horizontal extent. The main results of this study are that (i latitude, cumulative heating and surface friction are key parameters of the sea breeze dynamics; (ii in presence of strong synoptic flow, all scaling laws fail in predicting the sea breeze characteristics (the sea breeze depth, however being the most accurately predicted; and (iii the ratio zsb/usb is approximately constant in the sea breeze flow.
Zhang; Deltour; Zhao
2000-10-16
The electrical transport properties of epitaxial superconducting Bi(2+y)Sr(2-x-y)La(x)CuO(6+delta) thin films have been studied in magnetic fields. Using a modified Coulomb-gas scaling law, we can fit all the magnetic field dependent low resistance data with a universal scaling curve, which allows us to determine a relation between the activation energy of the thermally activated flux flow resistance and the characteristic temperature scaling parameters.
Thermal stability of a thermonuclear plasma for different confinement scaling laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johner, J.
1985-10-01
The thermal stability of the ignition curve is investigated using a simple OD model for a temperature dependent energy confinement time (tausub(E) is proportional to 1/Tsup(γ)). The stability limit in the (ntausub(E),T) plane is also calculated for a plasma with external heating. The degradation of confinement time with increasing temperature is found to be favourable for divergence temperature and minimum temperature for stable ignition. It also decreases the external power per unit volume necessary to reach divergence. On the contrary, it is extremely unfavourable for the required μsub(E) for divergence and ignition. Detailed results are given for the special case of the Kaye-Goldston scaling (γ=1.38)
Investigation of scaling laws by critical neutron scattering from beta-brass
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage
1969-01-01
Using a Cu65-Zn β-brass crystal, the critical scattering of neutrons has been studied, both above and below T c. The staggered susceptibilities χ vary as C+(T/Tc-1)-γ and C-(1-T/Tc)-γ ', respectively. It is found that γ=γ' within an accuracy of 3%, in agreement with the scaling hypothesis of static...... critical phenomena; and that C+/C-=5.46±0.05, in excellent agreement with the recent parametric representation theory of Schofield and in fair agreement with the results of series expansions by Essam and Hunter. For fixed q, a flat maximum is observed in the wave-vector-dependent susceptibility χ(q, T...
Regimes of Axisymmetric Flow and Scaling Laws in a Rotating Annulus with Local Convective Forcing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Susie Wright
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We present a numerical study of axisymmetric flow in a rotating annulus in which local thermal forcing, via a heated annular ring on the outside of the base and a cooled circular disk in the centre of the top surface, drives convection. This new configuration is a variant of the classical thermally-driven annulus, where uniform heating and cooling are applied through the outer and inner sidewalls respectively. The annulus provides an analogue to a planetary circulation and the new configuration, with its more relaxed vertical thermal boundary conditions, is expected to better emulate vigorous convection in the tropics and polar regions as well as baroclinic instability in the mid-latitude baroclinic zone. Using the Met Office/Oxford Rotating Annulus Laboratory (MORALS code, we have investigated a series of equilibrated, two dimensional axisymmetric flows across a large region of parameter space. These are characterized in terms of their velocity and temperature fields. When rotation is applied several distinct flow regimes may be identified for different rotation rates and strengths of differential heating. These regimes are defined as a function of the ratio of the horizontal Ekman layer thickness to the non-rotating thermal boundary layer thickness and are found to be similar to those identified in previous annulus experiments. Convection without rotation is also considered and the scaling of the heat transport with Rayleigh number is calculated. This is then compared with existing work on the classical annulus as well as horizontal and Rayleigh-Bénard convection. As with previous studies on both rotating and non-rotating convection the system’s behaviour is found to be aspect ratio dependent. This dependence is seen in the scaling of the non-rotating Nusselt number and in transitions between regimes in the rotating case although further investigation is required to fully explain these observations.
Danel, J.-F.; Kazandjian, L.
2018-06-01
It is shown that the equation of state (EOS) and the radial distribution functions obtained by density-functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) obey a simple scaling law. At given temperature, the thermodynamic properties and the radial distribution functions given by a DFT-MD simulation remain unchanged if the mole fractions of nuclei of given charge and the average volume per atom remain unchanged. A practical interest of this scaling law is to obtain an EOS table for a fluid from that already obtained for another fluid if it has the right characteristics. Another practical interest of this result is that an asymmetric mixture made up of light and heavy atoms requiring very different time steps can be replaced by a mixture of atoms of equal mass, which facilitates the exploration of the configuration space in a DFT-MD simulation. The scaling law is illustrated by numerical results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bang Chul Jung
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We introduce a distributed protocol to achieve multiuser diversity in a multicell multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO uplink network, referred to as a MIMO interfering multiple-access channel (IMAC. Assuming both no information exchange among base stations (BS and local channel state information at the transmitters for the MIMO IMAC, we propose a joint beamforming and user scheduling protocol, and then show that the proposed protocol can achieve the optimal multiuser diversity gain, i.e., KMlog(SNRlog N, as long as the number of mobile stations (MSs in a cell, N, scales faster than SNR K M − L 1 − ϵ for a small constant ϵ > 0, where M, L, K, and SNR denote the number of receive antennas at each BS, the number of transmit antennas at each MS, the number of cells, and the signal-to-noise ratio, respectively. Our result indicates that multiuser diversity can be achieved in the presence of intra-cell and inter-cell interference even in a distributed fashion. As a result, vital information on how to design distributed algorithms in interference-limited cellular environments is provided.
The long-range correlation and evolution law of centennial-scale temperatures in Northeast China.
Zheng, Xiaohui; Lian, Yi; Wang, Qiguang
2018-01-01
This paper applies the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method to investigate the long-range correlation of monthly mean temperatures from three typical measurement stations at Harbin, Changchun, and Shenyang in Northeast China from 1909 to 2014. The results reveal the memory characteristics of the climate system in this region. By comparing the temperatures from different time periods and investigating the variations of its scaling exponents at the three stations during these different time periods, we found that the monthly mean temperature has long-range correlation, which indicates that the temperature in Northeast China has long-term memory and good predictability. The monthly time series of temperatures over the past 106 years also shows good long-range correlation characteristics. These characteristics are also obviously observed in the annual mean temperature time series. Finally, we separated the centennial-length temperature time series into two time periods. These results reveal that the long-range correlations at the Harbin station over these two time periods have large variations, whereas no obvious variations are observed at the other two stations. This indicates that warming affects the regional climate system's predictability differently at different time periods. The research results can provide a quantitative reference point for regional climate predictability assessment and future climate model evaluation.
Ekin, Jack W.; Cheggour, Najib; Goodrich, Loren; Splett, Jolene
2017-03-01
In Part 2 of these articles, an extensive analysis of pinning-force curves and raw scaling data was used to derive the Extrapolative Scaling Expression (ESE). This is a parameterization of the Unified Scaling Law (USL) that has the extrapolation capability of fundamental unified scaling, coupled with the application ease of a simple fitting equation. Here in Part 3, the accuracy of the ESE relation to interpolate and extrapolate limited critical-current data to obtain complete I c(B,T,ɛ) datasets is evaluated and compared with present fitting equations. Accuracy is analyzed in terms of root mean square (RMS) error and fractional deviation statistics. Highlights from 92 test cases are condensed and summarized, covering most fitting protocols and proposed parameterizations of the USL. The results show that ESE reliably extrapolates critical currents at fields B, temperatures T, and strains ɛ that are remarkably different from the fitted minimum dataset. Depending on whether the conductor is moderate-J c or high-J c, effective RMS extrapolation errors for ESE are in the range 2-5 A at 12 T, which approaches the I c measurement error (1-2%). The minimum dataset for extrapolating full I c(B,T,ɛ) characteristics is also determined from raw scaling data. It consists of one set of I c(B,ɛ) data at a fixed temperature (e.g., liquid helium temperature), and one set of I c(B,T) data at a fixed strain (e.g., zero applied strain). Error analysis of extrapolations from the minimum dataset with different fitting equations shows that ESE reduces the percentage extrapolation errors at individual data points at high fields, temperatures, and compressive strains down to 1/10th to 1/40th the size of those for extrapolations with present fitting equations. Depending on the conductor, percentage fitting errors for interpolations are also reduced to as little as 1/15th the size. The extrapolation accuracy of the ESE relation offers the prospect of straightforward implementation of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumann, W.
1982-01-01
This is the final part of an article published in Bay. (VBL 1982, 257). The author comes to the following conclusions: Proposals for reducing the protection of rights frames against a certain background of interests and partly taken over in practice by administrative courts meet with a variety of dogmatic and political considerations relating to these rights. This does not only hold for the attempt to restrict the rights of all those under public and substantive law who are affected by construction and operation, but also for making it harder for the complainants to pursue their rights, and especially for efforts intended to further limit the fact-finding of courts in case of large-scale projects. The judicature is called to review the individual licences issued for large-scale projects, especially because of the inherent symptomatic collisions of basic rights. The judge has a confidence-building advantage; i.e. his independence, which is gaining in importance in the struggle between hardened fronts and economic interests. (orig./HSCH) [de
Scaling laws, renormalization group flow and the continuum limit in non-compact lattice QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goeckeler, M.; Horsley, R.; Rakow, P.; Schierholz, G.; Sommer, R.
1992-01-01
We investigate the ultra-violet behavior of non-compact lattice QED with light staggered fermions. The main question is whether QED is a non-trivial theory in the continuum limit, and if not, what is its range of validity as a low-energy theory. Perhaps the limited range of validity could offer an explanation of why the fine-structure constant is so small. Non-compact QED undergoes a second-order chiral phase transition at strong coupling, at which the continuum limit can be taken. We examine the phase diagram and the critical behavior of the theory in detail. Moreover, we address the question as to whether QED confines in the chirally broken phase. This is done by investigating the potential between static external charges. We then compute the renormalized charge and derive the Callan-Symanzik β-function in the critical region. No ultra-violet stable zero is found. Instead, we find that the evolution of charge is well described by renormalized perturbation theory, and that the renormalized charge vanishes at the critical point. The consequence is that QED can only be regarded as a cut-off theory. We evaluate the maximum value of the cut-off as a function of the renormalized charge. Next, we compute the masses of fermion-antifermion composite states. The scaling behavior of these masses is well described by an effective action with mean-field critical exponents plus logarithmic corrections. This indicates that also the matter sector of the theory is non-interacting. Finally, we investigate and compare the renormalization group flow of different quantities. Altogether, we find that QED is a valid theory only for samll renormalized charges. (orig.)
Universal artifacts affect the branching of phylogenetic trees, not universal scaling laws.
Altaba, Cristian R
2009-01-01
for tree shape convergence of large trees. There is no evidence for any universal scaling in the tree of life. Instead, there is a need for improved methods of tree analysis that can be used to discriminate the noise due to outgroups from the phylogenetic signal within the taxon of interest, and to evaluate realistic models of evolution, correcting the retrospective perspective and explicitly recognizing extinction as a driving force. Artifacts are pervasive, and can only be overcome through understanding the structure and biological meaning of phylogenetic trees. Catalan Abstract in Translation S1.
Scaling Laws in Arctic Permafrost River Basins: Statistical Signature in Transition
Rowland, J. C.; Gangodagamage, C.; Wilson, C. J.; Prancevic, J. P.; Brumby, S. P.; Marsh, P.; Crosby, B. T.
2011-12-01
The Arctic landscape has been shown to be fundamentally different from the temperate landscape in many ways. Long winters and cold temperatures have led to the development of permafrost, perennially frozen ground, that controls geomorphic processes and the structure of the Arctic landscape. Climate warming is causing changes in permafrost and the active layer (the seasonally thawed surface layer) that is driving an increase in thermal erosion including thermokarst (collapsed soil), retrogressive thaw slumps, and gullies. These geomorphic anomalies in the arctic landscapes have not been well quantified, even though some of the landscape geomorphic and hydrologic characteristics and changes are detectable by our existing sensor networks. We currently lack understanding of the fundamental fluvio-thermal-erosional processes that underpin Arctic landscape structure and form, which limits our ability to develop models to predict the landscape response to current and future climate change. In this work, we seek a unified framework that can explain why permafrost landscapes are different from temperate landscapes. We use high resolution LIDAR data to analyze arctic geomorphic processes at a scale of less than a 1 m and demonstrate our ability to quantify the fundamental difference in the arctic landscape. We first simulate the arctic hillslopes from a stochastic space-filling network and demonstrate that the flow-path convergent properties of arctic landscape can be effectively captured from this simple model, where the simple model represents a landscape flowpath arrangement on a relatively impervious frozen soil layer. Further, we use a novel data processing algorithm to analyze landscape attributes such as slope, curvature, flow-accumulation, elevation-drops and other geomorphic properties, and show that the pattern of diffusion and advection dominated soil transport processes (diffusion/advection regime transition) in the arctic landscape is substantially different
Hou, Chen
Space-filling fractal surfaces play a fundamental role in how organisms function at various levels and in how structure determines function at different levels. In this thesis, we develop a quantitative theory of oxygen transport to and across the surface of the highly branched, space-filling system of alveoli, the fundamental gas exchange unit (acinar airways), in the human lung. Oxygen transport in the acinar airways is by diffusion, and we treat the two steps---diffusion through the branched airways, and transfer across the alveolar membranes---as a stationary diffusion-reaction problem, taking into account that there may be steep concentration gradients between the entrance and remote alveoli (screening). We develop a renormalization treatment of this screening effect and derive an analytic formula for the oxygen current across the cumulative alveolar membrane surface, modeled as a fractal, space-filling surface. The formula predicts the current from a minimum of morphological data of the acinus and appropriate values of the transport parameters, through a number of power laws (scaling laws). We find that the lung at rest operates near the borderline between partial screening and no screening; that it switches to no screening under exercise; and that the computed currents agree with measured values within experimental uncertainties. From an analysis of the computed current as a function of membrane permeability, we find that the space-filling structure of the gas exchanger is simultaneously optimal with respect to five criteria. The exchanger (i) generates a maximum oxygen current at minimum permeability; (ii) 'wastes' a minimum of surface area; (iii) maintains a minimum residence time of oxygen in the acinar airways; (iv) has a maximum fault tolerance to loss of permeability; and (v) generates a maximum current increase when switching from rest to exercise.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murari, A.; Lupelli, I.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Vega, J.
2012-01-01
In this paper, a refined set of statistical techniques is developed and then applied to the problem of deriving the scaling law for the threshold power to access the H-mode of confinement in tokamaks. This statistical methodology is applied to the 2010 version of the ITPA International Global Threshold Data Base v6b(IGDBTHv6b). To increase the engineering and operative relevance of the results, only macroscopic physical quantities, measured in the vast majority of experiments, have been considered as candidate variables in the models. Different principled methods, such as agglomerative hierarchical variables clustering, without assumption about the functional form of the scaling, and nonlinear regression, are implemented to select the best subset of candidate independent variables and to improve the regression model accuracy. Two independent model selection criteria, based on the classical (Akaike information criterion) and Bayesian formalism (Bayesian information criterion), are then used to identify the most efficient scaling law from candidate models. The results derived from the full multi-machine database confirm the results of previous analysis but emphasize the importance of shaping quantities, elongation and triangularity. On the other hand, the scaling laws for the different machines and at different currents are different from each other at the level of confidence well above 95%, suggesting caution in the use of the global scaling laws for both interpretation and extrapolation purposes. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, T.; Inutake, M.; Ishii, K.
1988-01-01
In the thermal barrier tandem mirror GAMMA 10, the scaling law governing the enhancement of the ion confining potential, φ c , resulting from thermal barrier formation, is obtained experimentally, and is consistently interpreted in terms of the weak and strong ECH theories set up by Cohen and co-workers. The scaling law on the axial particle confinement time, τ pparallel , related to this φ c formation, is also demonstrated in detail; it is in good agreement with the Pastukhov theory as modified by Cohen and co-workers. This scaling is verified at any radial position in the core plasma region and at any time through the various stages of a discharge; this indicates a scaling with drastic improvement of τ pparallel , due to the potential formation in the tandem mirror plasma. (author). 41 refs, 12 figs
Ghannam, Khaled
The atmospheric boundary-layer is the lowest 500-2000 m of the Earth's atmosphere where much of human life and ecosystem services reside. This layer responds to land surface (e.g. buoyancy and roughness elements) and slowly evolving free tropospheric (e.g. temperature and humidity lapse rates) conditions that arguably mediate and modulate biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Such response often results in spatially- and temporally-rich turbulence scales that continue to be the subject of inquiry given their significance to a plethora of applications in environmental sciences and engineering. The work here addresses key aspects of boundary layer turbulence with a focus on the role of roughness elements (vegetation canopies) and buoyancy (surface heating) in modifying the well-studied picture of shear-dominated wall-bounded turbulence. A combination of laboratory channel experiments, field experiments, and numerical simulations are used to explore three distinct aspects of boundary layer turbulence. These are: • The concept of ergodicity in turbulence statistics within canopies: It has been long-recognized that homogeneous and stationary turbulence is ergodic, but less is known about the effects of inhomogeneity introduced by the presence of canopies on the turbulence statistics. A high resolution (temporal and spatial) flume experiment is used here to test the convergence of the time statistics of turbulent scalar concentrations to their ensemble (spatio-temporal) counterpart. The findings indicate that within-canopy scalar statistics have a tendency to be ergodic, mostly in shallow layers (close to canopy top) where the sweeping flow events appear to randomize the statistics. Deeper layers within the canopy are dominated by low-dimensional (quasi-deterministic) von Karman vortices that tend to break ergodicity. • Scaling laws of turbulent velocity spectra and structure functions in near-surface atmospheric turbulence: the existence of a logarithmic scaling in the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Scholkmann F.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The recent (14 th July 2015 flyby of NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft of the dwarf planet Pluto resulted in the first high-resolution images of the geological surface- features of Pluto. Since previous studies showed that the impact crater size-frequency distribution (SFD of different celestial objects of our solar system follows power-laws, the aim of the present analysis was to determine, for the first time, the power-law scaling behavior for Pluto’s crater SFD based on the first images available in mid-September 2015. The analysis was based on a high-resolution image covering parts of Pluto’s re- gions Sputnik Planum , Al-Idrisi Montes and Voyager Terra . 83 impact craters could be identified in these regions and their diameter ( D was determined. The analysis re- vealed that the crater diameter SFD shows a statistically significant power-law scaling ( α = 2.4926±0.3309 in the interval of D values ranging from 3.75±1.14 km to the largest determined D value in this data set of 37.77 km. The value obtained for the scaling coefficient α is similar to the coefficient determined for the power-law scaling of the crater SFDs from the other celestial objects in our solar system. Further analysis of Pluto’s crater SFD is warranted as soon as new images are received from the spacecraft.
Chen, T.; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Alexander, J. D.; Zhang, Y.; Rousseau, P.; Domaracka, A.; Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Adoui, L.; Huber, B. A.; Schlathölter, T.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H.
2014-01-01
We present scaling laws for absolute cross sections for non-statistical fragmentation in collisions between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH/PAH+) and hydrogen or helium atoms with kinetic energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 keV. Further, we calculate the total fragmentation cross sections
Failure of the n3 scaling law in the Temkin-Poet model of e-H scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shakletron, T.; Stelbovics, A.T.
2000-01-01
Full text: We have carried out a study of the Temkin-Poet model of e-H scattering. This model has been of considerable interest to scattering theorists because it is a subset of the full e-H problem and has been used many times to test methods of solution of the full problem. Recently it was shown by Ihra and Macek that the ionisation cross section should be suppressed near threshold. The reason for this is that, classically, ionisation is forbidden in a small region above threshold and hence quantum mechanically we expect a manifestation of quantum mechanical tunnelling. Because the total ionisation cross section can be found using the optical theorem for total cross section and then subtracting off the discrete inelastic scattering cross sections, one might expect interesting behaviour of the inelastic cross sections. Indeed this is confirmed by our extensive numerical simulations using a solution method based on Poet's Fredholm equation of the first kind for the scattering matrix. We conclude that the cross sections fall off at a rate faster than the n 3 scaling law in a region of about 2eV below and above the ionisation threshold. The rate varies with nearness to the threshold
Balseiro, C A; Usaj, G; Sánchez, M J
2010-10-27
We study non-equilibrium electron transport through a quantum impurity coupled to metallic leads using the equation of motion technique at finite temperature T. Assuming that the interactions are taking place solely in the impurity and focusing on the infinite Hubbard limit, we compute the out of equilibrium density of states and the differential conductance G(2)(T, V) in order to test several scaling laws. We find that G(2)(T, V)/G(2)(T, 0) is a universal function of both eV/T(K) and T/T(K), T(K) being the Kondo temperature. The effect of an in-plane magnetic field on the splitting of the zero bias anomaly in the differential conductance is also analyzed. For a Zeeman splitting Δ, the computed differential conductance peak splitting depends only on Δ/T(K), and for large fields approaches the value of 2Δ. Besides studying the traditional two leads setup, we also consider other configurations that mimic recent experiments, namely, an impurity embedded in a mesoscopic wire and the presence of a third weakly coupled lead. In these cases, a double peak structure of the Kondo resonance is clearly obtained in the differential conductance while the amplitude of the highest peak is shown to decrease as ln(eV/T(K)). Several features of these results are in qualitative agreement with recent experimental observations reported on quantum dots.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicholas J. Sammut
2007-08-01
Full Text Available A superconducting particle accelerator like the LHC (Large Hadron Collider at CERN, can only be controlled well if the effects of the magnetic field multipoles on the beam are compensated. The demands on a control system solely based on beam feedback may be too high for the requirements to be reached at the specified bandwidth and accuracy. Therefore, we designed a suitable field description for the LHC (FIDEL as part of the machine control baseline to act as a feed-forward magnetic field prediction system. FIDEL consists of a physical and empirical parametric field model based on magnetic measurements at warm and in cryogenic conditions. The performance of FIDEL is particularly critical at injection when the field decays, and in the initial part of the acceleration when the field snaps back. These dynamic components are both current and time dependent and are not reproducible from cycle to cycle since they also depend on the magnet powering history. In this paper a qualitative and quantitative description of the dynamic field behavior substantiated by a set of scaling laws is presented.
Cohen, Joel E; Xu, Meng; Schuster, William S F
2012-09-25
Two widely tested empirical patterns in ecology are combined here to predict how the variation of population density relates to the average body size of organisms. Taylor's law (TL) asserts that the variance of the population density of a set of populations is a power-law function of the mean population density. Density-mass allometry (DMA) asserts that the mean population density of a set of populations is a power-law function of the mean individual body mass. Combined, DMA and TL predict that the variance of the population density is a power-law function of mean individual body mass. We call this relationship "variance-mass allometry" (VMA). We confirmed the theoretically predicted power-law form and the theoretically predicted parameters of VMA, using detailed data on individual oak trees (Quercus spp.) of Black Rock Forest, Cornwall, New York. These results connect the variability of population density to the mean body mass of individuals.
Nekrasova, A. K.; Kossobokov, V. G.; Parvez, I. A.
2015-03-01
For the Himalayas and neighboring regions, the maps of seismic hazard and seismic risk are constructed with the use of the estimates for the parameters of the unified scaling law for earthquakes (USLE), in which the Gutenberg-Richter law for magnitude distribution of seismic events within a given area is applied in the modified version with allowance for linear dimensions of the area, namely, log N( M, L) = A + B (5 - M) + C log L, where N( M, L) is the expected annual number of the earthquakes with magnitude M in the area with linear dimension L. The spatial variations in the parameters A, B, and C for the Himalayas and adjacent regions are studied on two time intervals from 1965 to 2011 and from 1980 to 2011. The difference in A, B, and C between these two time intervals indicates that seismic activity experiences significant variations on a scale of a few decades. With a global consideration of the seismic belts of the Earth overall, the estimates of coefficient A, which determines the logarithm of the annual average frequency of the earthquakes with a magnitude of 5.0 and higher in the zone with a linear dimension of 1 degree of the Earth's meridian, differ by a factor of 30 and more and mainly fall in the interval from -1.1 to 0.5. The values of coefficient B, which describes the balance between the number of earthquakes with different magnitudes, gravitate to 0.9 and range from less than 0.6 to 1.1 and higher. The values of coefficient C, which estimates the fractal dimension of the local distribution of epicenters, vary from 0.5 to 1.4 and higher. In the Himalayas and neighboring regions, the USLE coefficients mainly fall in the intervals of -1.1 to 0.3 for A, 0.8 to 1.3 for B, and 1.0 to 1.4 for C. The calculations of the local value of the expected peak ground acceleration (PGA) from the maximal expected magnitude provided the necessary basis for mapping the seismic hazards in the studied region. When doing this, we used the local estimates of the
Adiabatic shear banding and scaling laws in chip formation with application to cutting of Ti-6Al-4V
Molinari, A.; Soldani, X.; Miguélez, M. H.
2013-11-01
The phenomenon of adiabatic shear banding is analyzed theoretically in the context of metal cutting. The mechanisms of material weakening that are accounted for are (i) thermal softening and (ii) material failure related to a critical value of the accumulated plastic strain. Orthogonal cutting is viewed as a unique configuration where adiabatic shear bands can be experimentally produced under well controlled loading conditions by individually tuning the cutting speed, the feed (uncut chip thickness) and the tool geometry. The role of cutting conditions on adiabatic shear banding and chip serration is investigated by combining finite element calculations and analytical modeling. This leads to the characterization and classification of different regimes of shear banding and the determination of scaling laws which involve dimensionless parameters representative of thermal and inertia effects. The analysis gives new insights into the physical aspects of plastic flow instability in chip formation. The originality with respect to classical works on adiabatic shear banding stems from the various facets of cutting conditions that influence shear banding and from the specific role exercised by convective flow on the evolution of shear bands. Shear bands are generated at the tool tip and propagate towards the chip free surface. They grow within the chip formation region while being convected away by chip flow. It is shown that important changes in the mechanism of shear banding take place when the characteristic time of shear band propagation becomes equal to a characteristic convection time. Application to Ti-6Al-4V titanium are considered and theoretical predictions are compared to available experimental data in a wide range of cutting speeds and feeds. The fundamental knowledge developed in this work is thought to be useful not only for the understanding of metal cutting processes but also, by analogy, to similar problems where convective flow is also interfering with
Lal, Shankar; Pant, K. K.; Krishnagopal, S.
2011-12-01
Developing a photocathode RF gun with the desired RF properties of the π-mode, such as field balance (eb) ˜1, resonant frequency fπ = 2856 MHz, and waveguide-to-cavity coupling coefficient βπ ˜1, requires precise tuning of the resonant frequencies of the independent full- and half-cells (ff and fh), and of the waveguide-to-full-cell coupling coefficient (βf). While contemporary electromagnetic codes and precision machining capability have made it possible to design and tune independent cells of a photocathode RF gun for desired RF properties, thereby eliminating the need for tuning, access to such computational resources and quality of machining is not very widespread. Therefore, many such structures require tuning after machining by employing conventional tuning techniques that are iterative in nature. Any procedure that improves understanding of the tuning process and consequently reduces the number of iterations and the associated risks in tuning a photocathode gun would, therefore, be useful. In this paper, we discuss a method devised by us to tune a photocathode RF gun for desired RF properties under operating conditions. We develop and employ a simple scaling law that accounts for inter-dependence between frequency of independent cells and waveguide-to-cavity coupling coefficient, and the effect of brazing clearance for joining of the two cells. The method has been employed to successfully develop multiple 1.6 cell BNL/SLAC/UCLA type S-band photocathode RF guns with the desired RF properties, without the need to tune them by a tiresome cut-and-measure process. Our analysis also provides a physical insight into how the geometrical dimensions affect the RF properties of the photo-cathode RF gun.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Teruji; Nakashima, Yousuke; Foote, J.H.
1987-01-01
In the tandem mirror GAMMA 10, (i) the enhancement of the ion confining potential, φ c , only during the period of the thermal barrier potential φ b -formation, has been observed first by using not only end-loss-analysers (ELA's) of GAMMA 10 but an end-loss-ion-spectrometer (ELIS) installed from TMX-U. This results in strong end-loss-ion plugging with increased central cell density. (ii) The first experimental observation of the φ c vs φ b -scaling law is obtained, where φ c increases with φ b . This scaling law is consistently interpreted by Cohen's theories of the weak-ECH and the strong-ECH in the plug region. (iii) Good agreement of the plug potential measured with the ELA's and the ELIS is achieved. (author)
Numerical experiments on plasma focus for soft x-ray yield scaling laws derivation using Lee model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akel, M.
2015-01-01
The required plasma parameters of krypton and xenon at different temperatures were calculated, the x-ray emission properties of plasmas were studied, and based on the corona model the suitable temperature range for generating H-like and He-like ions (therefore soft x-ray emissions) of different gases plasma were found. The code is applied to characterize the plasma focus in different plasma focus devices, and for optimizing the nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon soft x-ray yields based on bank, tubes and operating parameters. It is found that t he soft x-ray yield increases with changing pressure until it reaches the maximum value for each plasma focus device. Keeping the bank parameters, operational voltage unchanged but systematically changing other parameters, numerical experiments were performed finding the optimum combination of Po, z0 and 'a' for the maximum soft x-ray yield. Thus we expect to increase the soft x-ray yield of plasma focus device several-fold from its present typical operation; without changing the capacitor bank, merely by changing the electrode configuration and the operating pressure. The Lee model code was also used to run numerical experiments on plasma focus devices for optimizing soft x-ray yield with reducing Lo, varying z0 and 'a' to get engineering designs with maximum soft x-ray yield for these devices at different experimental conditions and gases. Numerical experiments showed the influence of the gas used in plasma focus and its propor ties on soft x-ray emission and its propor ties and then on its applications. Scaling laws for soft x-ray of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon plasma focus in terms of energy, peak discharge current and focus pinch current were found. Radiative cooling effects are studied indicating that radiative collapse may be observed for heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr, Xe) for pinch currents even below 100 k A. The results show that the line radiation emission and
Numerical experiments on plasma focus for soft x-ray yield scaling laws derivation using Lee model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akel, M.
2012-09-01
The required plasma parameters of krypton and xenon at different temperatures were calculated, the x-ray emission properties of plasmas were studied, and based on the corona model the suitable temperature range for generating H-like and He-like ions (therefore soft x-ray emissions) of different gases plasma were found. The code is applied to characterize the plasma focus in different plasma focus devices, and for optimizing the nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon soft x-ray yields based on bank, tubes and operating parameters. It is found that the soft x-ray yield increases with changing pressure until it reaches the maximum value for each plasma focus device. Keeping the bank parameters, operational voltage unchanged but systematically changing other parameters, numerical experiments were performed finding the optimum combination of P o , Z o and 'a' for the maximum soft x-ray yield. Thus we expect to increase the soft x-ray yield of plasma focus device several-fold from its present typical operation; without changing the capacitor bank, merely by changing the electrode configuration and the operating pressure. The Lee model code was also used to run numerical experiments on plasma focus devices for optimizing soft x-ray yield with reducing L o , varying L o and 'a' to get engineering designs with maximum soft x-ray yield for these devices at different experimental conditions and gases. Numerical experiments showed the influence of the gas used in plasma focus and its properties on soft x-ray emission and its properties and then on its applications. Scaling laws for soft x-ray of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon plasma focus, in terms of energy, peak discharge current and focus pinch current were found. Radiative cooling effects are studied indicating that radiative collapse may be observed for heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr, Xe) for pinch currents even below 100 kA. The results show that the line radiation emission and tube voltages have
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bender, B.; Sparwasser, R.
1988-01-01
Environmental law is discussed exhaustively in this book. Legal and scientific fundamentals are taken into account, a systematic orientation is given, and hints for further information are presented. The book covers general environmental law, plan approval procedures, protection against nuisances, atomic law and radiation protection law, water protection law, waste management law, laws on chemical substances, conservation law. (HSCH) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Felix, T., E-mail: tsfelix81@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Cassini, F.A.; Benetoli, L.O.B. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Dotto, M.E.R. [Physics Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Debacher, N.A. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)
2017-05-01
Highlights: • Polymeric surfaces were etched using non-thermal plasma at different intensities. • Polymers of low mechanical hardness reached the saturation level faster. • A mathematical model based on scaling laws was proposed. - Abstract: The experiments presented in this communication have the purpose to elaborate an explanation for the morphological evolution of the growth of polymeric surfaces provided by the treatment of non-thermal plasma. According to the roughness analysis and the model proposed by scaling laws it is possible relate to a predictable or merely random effect. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and poly(etherether)ketone (PEEK) samples were exposed to a non-thermal plasma discharge and the resulting surfaces roughness were analyzed based on the measurements from contact angle, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy coupled with scaling laws analysis which can help to describe and understand the dynamic of formation of a wide variety of rough surfaces. The roughness, R{sub RMS} (RMS- Root Mean Square) values for polymer surface range between 19.8 nm and 110.9 nm. The contact angle and the AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) measurements as a function of the plasma exposure time were in agreement with both polar and dispersive components according to the surface roughness and also with the morphology evaluated described by Wolf-Villain model, with proximate values of α between 0.91{sub (PET)} and 0.88{sub (PEEK)}, β = 0.25{sub (PET)} and z = 3,64{sub (PET)}.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rezzoug, A.; Konig, D.; Triantafyllidis, Th. [Ruhr Bochum Univ. (Germany)
2000-07-01
It appears to be possible to extend the application of geotechnical centrifuge modelling to environmental problems. In this paper, one aspect of similitude laws concerning the flow of water through soils is investigated. Within the Network of European Centrifuges of Environmental Geotechnic Research (NECER), several tests have been carried out to study similitude laws describing the capillary ascension in porous media under different levels of acceleration. The aim of this paper is to present the results obtained at Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum. A fine sand is used in the experiment. For the visualisation of capillary height in the soil sample, image processing is used. Different boundary conditions (constant water level or variable) have been investigated and discussed. A simple similitude law for capillary rise has been investigated and the kinetic phenomena has been measured at different g-levels. These experiments confirm, that capillary rise appears to be scaled by the factor N and time seems to be scaled by N{sup 2}. These results validate thus the possibility of using accelerated small-scale models of capillary phenomena in a centrifuge, and open the way to more complex investigations on flow and pollutant transports in unsaturated centrifuged soils. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaudio, P; Gelfusa, M; Lupelli, I; Murari, A; Vega, J
2014-01-01
A new approach to determine the power law expressions for the threshold between the H and L mode of confinement is presented. The method is based on two powerful machine learning tools for classification: neural networks and support vector machines. Using as inputs clear examples of the systems on either side of the transition, the machine learning tools learn the input–output mapping corresponding to the equations of the boundary separating the confinement regimes. Systematic tests with synthetic data show that the machine learning tools provide results competitive with traditional statistical regression and more robust against random noise and systematic errors. The developed tools have then been applied to the multi-machine International Tokamak Physics Activity International Global Threshold Database of validated ITER-like Tokamak discharges. The machine learning tools converge on the same scaling law parameters obtained with non-linear regression. On the other hand, the developed tools allow a reduction of 50% of the uncertainty in the extrapolations to ITER. Therefore the proposed approach can effectively complement traditional regression since its application poses much less stringent requirements on the experimental data, to be used to determine the scaling laws, because they do not require examples exactly at the moment of the transition. (paper)
Li, Dongna; Li, Xudong; Dai, Jianfeng; Xi, Shangbin
2018-02-01
In this paper, three kinds of constitutive laws, elastic, "cure hardening instantaneously linear elastic (CHILE)" and viscoelastic law, are used to predict curing process-induced residual stress for the thermoset polymer composites. A multi-physics coupling finite element analysis (FEA) model implementing the proposed three approaches is established in COMSOL Multiphysics-Version 4.3b. The evolution of thermo-physical properties with temperature and degree of cure (DOC), which improved the accuracy of numerical simulations, and cure shrinkage are taken into account for the three models. Subsequently, these three proposed constitutive models are implemented respectively in a 3D micro-scale composite laminate structure. Compared the differences between these three numerical results, it indicates that big error in residual stress and cure shrinkage generates by elastic model, but the results calculated by the modified CHILE model are in excellent agreement with those estimated by the viscoelastic model.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke
Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....
English, Devin; Bowleg, Lisa; del Río-González, Ana Maria; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Agans, Robert; Malebranche, David J
2017-01-01
Objectives Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men’s perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) scale. Methods In Study 1, we employed thematic analysis on transcripts of individual qualitative interviews with 90 Black men to assess key themes and concepts and develop quantitative items. In Study 2, we used 2 focus groups comprised of 5 Black men each (n=10), intensive cognitive interviewing with a separate sample of Black men (n=15), and piloting with another sample of Black men (n=13) to assess the ecological validity of the quantitative items. For study 3, we analyzed data from a sample of 633 Black men between the ages of 18 and 65 to test the factor structure of the PLE, as we all as its concurrent validity and convergent/discriminant validity. Results Qualitative analyses and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a 5-item, 1-factor measure appropriately represented respondents’ experiences of police/law enforcement discrimination. As hypothesized, the PLE was positively associated with measures of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Preliminary evidence suggests that the PLE is a reliable and valid measure of Black men’s experiences of discrimination with police/law enforcement. PMID:28080104
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Felix, T.; Cassini, F.A.; Benetoli, L.O.B.; Dotto, M.E.R.; Debacher, N.A.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Polymeric surfaces were etched using non-thermal plasma at different intensities. • Polymers of low mechanical hardness reached the saturation level faster. • A mathematical model based on scaling laws was proposed. - Abstract: The experiments presented in this communication have the purpose to elaborate an explanation for the morphological evolution of the growth of polymeric surfaces provided by the treatment of non-thermal plasma. According to the roughness analysis and the model proposed by scaling laws it is possible relate to a predictable or merely random effect. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and poly(etherether)ketone (PEEK) samples were exposed to a non-thermal plasma discharge and the resulting surfaces roughness were analyzed based on the measurements from contact angle, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy coupled with scaling laws analysis which can help to describe and understand the dynamic of formation of a wide variety of rough surfaces. The roughness, R_R_M_S (RMS- Root Mean Square) values for polymer surface range between 19.8 nm and 110.9 nm. The contact angle and the AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) measurements as a function of the plasma exposure time were in agreement with both polar and dispersive components according to the surface roughness and also with the morphology evaluated described by Wolf-Villain model, with proximate values of α between 0.91_(_P_E_T_) and 0.88_(_P_E_E_K_), β = 0.25_(_P_E_T_) and z = 3,64_(_P_E_T_).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Q. Cheng
2010-10-01
Full Text Available This contribution introduces a fractal filtering technique newly developed on the basis of a spectral energy density vs. area power-law model in the context of multifractal theory. It can be used to map anisotropic singularities of geochemical landscapes created from geochemical concentration values in various surface media such as soils, stream sediments, tills and water. A geochemical landscape can be converted into a Fourier domain in which the spectral energy density is plotted against the area (in wave number units, and the relationship between the spectrum energy density (S and the area (A enclosed by the above-threshold spectrum energy density can be fitted by power-law models. Mixed geochemical landscape patterns can be fitted with different S-A power-law models in the frequency domain. Fractal filters can be defined according to these different S-A models and used to decompose the geochemical patterns into components with different self-similarities. The fractal filtering method was applied to a geochemical dataset from 7,349 stream sediment samples collected from Gejiu mineral district, which is famous for its word-class tin and copper production. Anomalies in three different scales were decomposed from total values of the trace elements As, Sn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. These anomalies generally correspond to various geological features and geological processes such as sedimentary rocks, intrusions, fault intersections and mineralization.
Validation of the Wiedemann–Franz law in a granular s-wave superconductor in the nanometer scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yousefvand, A; Salehi, H; Shoushtari, M Zargar
2017-01-01
The present study tries to evaluate the validity of the Wiedemann–Franz law in a granular s-wave superconductor in the presence of concentrated impurities. By using Green’s function method and the Kubo formula technique, three distinct contributions of the Aslamazov–Larkin, the Maki–Thompson and, the density of states are calculated for both the electrical conductivity and the thermal conductivity in a granular s-wave superconductor. It is demonstrated that these different contributions to the fluctuation conductivity depend differently on the tunneling because of their different natures. This study examines the transport in a granular superconductor system in three dimensions in the limit of large tunneling conductance, which makes it possible to ignore all localization effects and the Coulomb interaction. We find that the tunneling is efficient near the critical temperature and that there is a crossover to the characteristic behavior of a homogeneous system. When it is far from the critical temperature, the tunneling is not effective and the system behaves as an ensemble of real zero-dimensional grains. The results show that the Wiedemann–Franz law is violated in both temperature regions. (paper)
West, Geoffrey
2013-04-01
Many of the most challenging, exciting and profound questions facing science and society, from the origins of life to global sustainability, fall under the banner of ``complex adaptive systems.'' This talk explores how scaling can be used to begin to develop physics-inspired quantitative, predictive, coarse-grained theories for understanding their structure, dynamics and organization based on underlying mathematisable principles. Remarkably, most physiological, organisational and life history phenomena in biology and socio-economic systems scale in a simple and ``universal'' fashion: metabolic rate scales approximately as the 3/4-power of mass over 27 orders of magnitude from complex molecules to the largest organisms. Time-scales (such as lifespans and growth-rates) and sizes (such as genome lengths and RNA densities) scale with exponents which are typically simple multiples of 1/4, suggesting that fundamental constraints underlie much of the generic structure and dynamics of living systems. These scaling laws follow from dynamical and geometrical properties of space-filling, fractal-like, hierarchical branching networks, presumed optimised by natural selection. This leads to a general framework that potentially captures essential features of diverse systems including vasculature, ontogenetic growth, cancer, aging and mortality, sleep, cell size, and DNA nucleotide substitution rates. Cities and companies also scale: wages, profits, patents, crime, disease, pollution, road lengths scale similarly across the globe, reflecting underlying universal social network dynamics which point to general principles of organization transcending their individuality. These have dramatic implications for global sustainability: innovation and wealth creation that fuel social systems, left unchecked, potentially sow the seeds for their inevitable collapse.
Felix, T.; Cassini, F. A.; Benetoli, L. O. B.; Dotto, M. E. R.; Debacher, N. A.
2017-05-01
The experiments presented in this communication have the purpose to elaborate an explanation for the morphological evolution of the growth of polymeric surfaces provided by the treatment of non-thermal plasma. According to the roughness analysis and the model proposed by scaling laws it is possible relate to a predictable or merely random effect. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and poly(etherether)ketone (PEEK) samples were exposed to a non-thermal plasma discharge and the resulting surfaces roughness were analyzed based on the measurements from contact angle, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy coupled with scaling laws analysis which can help to describe and understand the dynamic of formation of a wide variety of rough surfaces. The roughness, RRMS (RMS- Root Mean Square) values for polymer surface range between 19.8 nm and 110.9 nm. The contact angle and the AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) measurements as a function of the plasma exposure time were in agreement with both polar and dispersive components according to the surface roughness and also with the morphology evaluated described by Wolf-Villain model, with proximate values of α between 0.91(PET) and 0.88(PEEK), β = 0.25(PET) and z = 3,64(PET).
On scaling laws for modelling the steam/water flow in a 'Dodewaard' fuel-assembly using Freon-12
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graaf, R. van de; Mudde, R.F.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der.
1991-09-01
To stimulate the steam/water flow behaviour in a fuel assembly as present in the boiling water reactor at Dodewaard, Freon-12 is used as a modelling fluid. Scaling criteria are elaborated using dimensional analysis as a fluid-to-fluid modelling technique. When scaling is emphasized on void-fraction distribution and flow-regime transitions it is found that an approximately half-scale geometry for the Freon-model should be used. Together with the low latent heat of vaporization of Freon-12 this reduces the total required heat input significantly to be only 2% of the required heat input in a 'Dodewaard' fuel-assembly. Finally, working pressure (and saturation temperature) can also be brought to a convenient level. (author). 16 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K.
1988-01-01
In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST) [de
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Macchiato
2001-06-01
Full Text Available Self-potential time series are investigated to characterise self-potential time scales. The data analysed were recorded in stations located in two active seismic areas of the Mediterranean region, the Southern Apennine chain (Giuliano and Crete Island (Heraklion, where in past and recent years many destructive seismic events have taken place. The seismological and geological settings, combined with a low level of cultural noise, allow us to consider these areas ideal outdoor laboratories to study the time dynamics of geophysical parameters of electrical nature. At the same time, the different seismological features of such areas make an inter-comparison between the geoelectrical variability observed at the two sites interesting. Fractal analysis tools, able to detect scale laws and quantify persistence features, are used to better understand the background variability properties of the self-potential signals. As results from our analysis, antipersistence seems to be a ubiquitous feature on short time scales (minutes regardless of environmental conditions. On such scales, the accumulation of random fluctuations is not particularly efficient and significant variations mostly occur as sudden jumps.
Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.
2014-01-01
The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, T.
2002-01-01
(i) A verification of our novel proposal of extended consolidation of the two major theories of Cohen's potential formation and Pastukhov's potential effectiveness is carried out by the use of a novel experimental mode with central ECH. The validity of the proposal provides a roadmap of bridging and combining two present representative modes in GAMMA 10 for upgrading to hot-ion plasmas with high potentials. (ii) A novel efficient scaling of ion-confining potential formation due to plug ECH with barrier ECH is constructed as the extension over the IAEA 2000 scaling with plug ECH alone. The combination of the physics scaling of (i) with the externally controllable power scaling of (ii) provides a scalable way for future tandem-mirror researches. The importance of the validity of the present consolidation is highlighted by a possibility of the extended capability inherent in Pastukhov's prediction of requiring 30 kV potentials for a fusion Q of unity with an application of Cohen's potential formation method. (author)
Size effect and scaling power-law for superelasticity in shape-memory alloys at the nanoscale.
Gómez-Cortés, Jose F; Nó, Maria L; López-Ferreño, Iñaki; Hernández-Saz, Jesús; Molina, Sergio I; Chuvilin, Andrey; San Juan, Jose M
2017-08-01
Shape-memory alloys capable of a superelastic stress-induced phase transformation and a high displacement actuation have promise for applications in micro-electromechanical systems for wearable healthcare and flexible electronic technologies. However, some of the fundamental aspects of their nanoscale behaviour remain unclear, including the question of whether the critical stress for the stress-induced martensitic transformation exhibits a size effect similar to that observed in confined plasticity. Here we provide evidence of a strong size effect on the critical stress that induces such a transformation with a threefold increase in the trigger stress in pillars milled on [001] L2 1 single crystals from a Cu-Al-Ni shape-memory alloy from 2 μm to 260 nm in diameter. A power-law size dependence of n = -2 is observed for the nanoscale superelasticity. Our observation is supported by the atomic lattice shearing and an elastic model for homogeneous martensite nucleation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hodge, J. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Riechers, D. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, NY 14853 (United States); Decarli, R.; Walter, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Carilli, C. L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Daddi, E. [CEA, Laboratoire AIM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dannerbauer, H., E-mail: jhodge@nrao.edu [Universität Wien, Institut für Astrophysik, Türkenschanzstraße 17, 1180 Wien (Austria)
2015-01-01
We present high-resolution observations of the 880 μm (rest-frame FIR) continuum emission in the z = 4.05 submillimeter galaxy GN20 from the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). These data resolve the obscured star formation (SF) in this unlensed galaxy on scales of 0.''3 × 0.''2 (∼2.1 × 1.3 kpc). The observations reveal a bright (16 ± 1 mJy) dusty starburst centered on the cold molecular gas reservoir and showing a bar-like extension along the major axis. The striking anti-correlation with the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging suggests that the copious dust surrounding the starburst heavily obscures the rest-frame UV/optical emission. A comparison with 1.2 mm PdBI continuum data reveals no evidence for variations in the dust properties across the source within the uncertainties, consistent with extended SF, and the peak star formation rate surface density (119 ± 8 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}) implies that the SF in GN20 remains sub-Eddington on scales down to 3 kpc{sup 2}. We find that the SF efficiency (SFE) is highest in the central regions of GN20, leading to a resolved SF law with a power-law slope of Σ{sub SFR} ∼ Σ{sub H{sub 2}{sup 2.1±1.0}}, and that GN20 lies above the sequence of normal star-forming disks, implying that the dispersion in the SF law is not due solely to morphology or choice of conversion factor. These data extend previous evidence for a fixed SFE per free-fall time to include the star-forming medium on ∼kiloparsec scales in a galaxy 12 Gyr ago.
Laso Carbajo, Manuel; Karayiannis, Nikos Ch.
2008-01-01
We present predictions for the static scaling exponents and for the cross-over polymer volumetric fractions in the marginal and concentrated solution regimes. Corrections for finite chain length are made. Predictions are based on an analysis of correlated fluctuations in density and chain length, in a semigrand ensemble in which mers and solvent sites exchange identities. Cross-over volumetric fractions are found to be chain length independent to first order, although reciprocal-N corrections...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn
<> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harold J. Berman
1999-03-01
Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.
Fubiani, G.; Garrigues, L.; Boeuf, J. P.
2018-02-01
We model the extraction of negative ions from a high brightness high power magnetized negative ion source. The model is a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) algorithm with Monte-Carlo Collisions. The negative ions are generated only on the plasma grid surface (which separates the plasma from the electrostatic accelerator downstream). The scope of this work is to derive scaling laws for the negative ion beam properties versus the extraction voltage (potential of the first grid of the accelerator) and plasma density and investigate the origins of aberrations on the ion beam. We show that a given value of the negative ion beam perveance correlates rather well with the beam profile on the extraction grid independent of the simulated plasma density. Furthermore, the extracted beam current may be scaled to any value of the plasma density. The scaling factor must be derived numerically but the overall gain of computational cost compared to performing a PIC simulation at the real plasma density is significant. Aberrations appear for a meniscus curvature radius of the order of the radius of the grid aperture. These aberrations cannot be cancelled out by switching to a chamfered grid aperture (as in the case of positive ions).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, T.; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Alexander, J. D.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H., E-mail: henning@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Zhang, Y. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Physics, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Rousseau, P.; Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Adoui, L. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Esplanade de la Paix, F-14032 Caen (France); Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Schlathölter, T. [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747AG Groningen (Netherlands)
2014-06-14
We present scaling laws for absolute cross sections for non-statistical fragmentation in collisions between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH/PAH{sup +}) and hydrogen or helium atoms with kinetic energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 keV. Further, we calculate the total fragmentation cross sections (including statistical fragmentation) for 110 eV PAH/PAH{sup +} + He collisions, and show that they compare well with experimental results. We demonstrate that non-statistical fragmentation becomes dominant for large PAHs and that it yields highly reactive fragments forming strong covalent bonds with atoms (H and N) and molecules (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}). Thus nonstatistical fragmentation may be an effective initial step in the formation of, e.g., Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles (PANHs). This relates to recent discussions on the evolution of PAHNs in space and the reactivities of defect graphene structures.
Wang, Tiening; Takayasu, Makoto; Bordini, Bernardo
2014-01-01
Superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn Powder-In-Tube (PIT) strands could be used for the superconducting magnets of the next generation Large Hadron Collider. The strands are cabled into the typical flat Rutherford cable configuration. During the assembly of a magnet and its operation the strands experience not only longitudinal but also transverse load due to the pre-compression applied during the assembly and the Lorentz load felt when the magnets are energized. To properly design the magnets and guarantee their safe operation, mechanical load effects on the strand superconducting properties are studied extensively; particularly, many scaling laws based on tensile load experiments have been established to predict the critical current dependence on strain. However, the dependence of the superconducting properties on transverse load has not been extensively studied so far. One of the reasons is that transverse loading experiments are difficult to conduct due to the small diameter of the strand (about 1 mm) and the data ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aschwanden, Markus J.; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Kai
2013-01-01
We extend a previous statistical solar flare study of 155 GOES M- and X-class flares observed with AIA/SDO to all seven coronal wavelengths (94, 131, 171, 193, 211, 304, and 335 Å) to test the wavelength dependence of scaling laws and statistical distributions. Except for the 171 and 193 Å wavelengths, which are affected by EUV dimming caused by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), we find near-identical size distributions of geometric (lengths L, flare areas A, volumes V, and fractal dimension D 2 ), temporal (flare durations T), and spatio-temporal parameters (diffusion coefficient κ, spreading exponent β, and maximum expansion velocities v max ) in different wavelengths, which are consistent with the universal predictions of the fractal-diffusive avalanche model of a slowly driven, self-organized criticality (FD-SOC) system, i.e., N(L)∝L –3 , N(A)∝A –2 , N(V)∝V –5/3 , N(T)∝T –2 , and D 2 = 3/2, for a Euclidean dimension d = 3. Empirically, we find also a new strong correlation κ∝L 0.94±0.01 and the three-parameter scaling law L∝κ T 0.1 , which is more consistent with the logistic-growth model than with classical diffusion. The findings suggest long-range correlation lengths in the FD-SOC system that operate in the vicinity of a critical state, which could be used for predictions of individual extreme events. We find also that eruptive flares (with accompanying CMEs) have larger volumes V, longer flare durations T, higher EUV and soft X-ray fluxes, and somewhat larger diffusion coefficients κ than confined flares (without CMEs)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shvarts, D.; Oron, D.; Kartoon, D.; Rikanati, A.; Sadot, O.; Srebro, Y.; Yedvab, Y.; Ofer, D.; Levin, A.; Sarid, E.; Shvarts, D.; Oron, D.; Kartoon, D.; Rikanati, A.; Sadot, O.; Srebro, Y.; Yedvab, Y.; Ben-Dor, G.; Erez, L.; Erez, G.; Yosef-Hai, A.; Alon, U.; Arazi, L.
2000-01-01
The late-time nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities for random initial perturbations is investigated using a statistical mechanics model based on single-mode and bubble-competition physics at al Atwood numbers (A) and full numerical simulations in two and three dimensions. It is shown that the RT mixing zone bubble and spike fronts evolve as h∼α.A.gt 2 with different values of α for the bubble and spike fronts. The RM mixing zone fronts evolve as h∼θ with different values of θ for bubbles and spikes. Similar analysis yields a linear growth with time of the Kelvin-Helmholtz mixing zone. The dependence of the RT and RM scaling parameters on A and the dimensionality will be discussed. The 3-D predictions are found to be in good agreement with recent Linear Electric Motor (LEM) experiments. (authors)
Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oron, D.; Arazi, L.; Kartoon, D.; Rikanati, A.; Alon, U.; Shvarts, D.
2001-01-01
The late-time nonlinear evolution of the three-dimensional (3D) Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities for random initial perturbations is investigated. Using full 3D numerical simulations, a statistical mechanics bubble-competition model, and a Layzer-type drag-buoyancy model, it is shown that the RT scaling parameters, α B and α S , are similar in two and three dimensions, but the RM exponents, θ B and θ S are lower by a factor of 2 in three dimensions. The similarity parameter h B / is higher by a factor of 3 in the 3D case compared to the 2D case, in very good agreement with recent Linear Electric Motor (LEM) experiments. A simple drag-buoyancy model, similar to that proposed by Youngs [see J. C. V. Hanson et al., Laser Part. Beams 8, 51 (1990)], but using the coefficients from the A=1 Layzer model, rather than phenomenological ones, is introduced
Scher, C.; Tennant, C.; Larsen, L.; Bellugi, D. G.
2016-12-01
Advances in remote-sensing technology allow for cost-effective, accurate, high-resolution mapping of river-channel topography and shallow aquatic bathymetry over large spatial scales. A combination of near-infrared and green spectra airborne laser swath mapping was used to map river channel bathymetry and watershed geometry over 90+ river-kilometers (75-1175 km2) of the Greys River in Wyoming. The day of flight wetted channel was identified from green LiDAR returns, and more than 1800 valley-bottom cross-sections were extracted at regular 50-m intervals. The bankfull channel geometry was identified using a "watershed-based" algorithm that incrementally filled local minima to a "spill" point, thereby constraining areas of local convergence and delineating all the potential channels along the cross-section for each distinct "spill stage." Multiple potential channels in alluvial floodplains and lack of clearly defined channel banks in bedrock reaches challenge identification of the bankfull channel based on topology alone. Here we combine a variety of topological measures, geometrical considerations, and stage levels to define a stage-dependent bankfull channel geometry, and compare the results with day of flight wetted channel data. Initial results suggest that channel hydraulic geometry and basin hydrology power-law scaling may not accurately capture downstream channel adjustments for rivers draining complex mountain topography.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. P. Tolstopiatenko
2014-01-01
Full Text Available At the origin of the International Law Department were such eminent scientists, diplomats and teachers as V.N. Durdenevsky, S.B. Krylov and F.I. Kozhevnikov. International law studies in USSR and Russia during the second half of the XX century was largely shaped by the lawyers of MGIMO. They had a large influence on the education in the international law in the whole USSR, and since 1990s in Russia and other CIS countries. The prominence of the research of MGIMO international lawyers was due to the close connections with the international practice, involving international negotiations in the United Nations and other international fora, diplomatic conferences and international scientific conferences. This experience is represented in the MGIMO handbooks on international law, which are still in demand. The Faculty of International Law at MGIMO consists of seven departments: Department of International Law, Department of Private International and Comparative Law; Department of European Law; Department of Comparative Constitutional Law; Department of Administrative and Financial Law; Department of Criminal Law, Department Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics. Many Russian lawyers famous at home and abroad work at the Faculty, contributing to domestic and international law studies. In 1947 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR published "International Law" textbook which was the first textbook on the subject in USSR. S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky were the authors and editors of the textbook. First generations of MGIMO students studied international law according to this textbook. All subsequent books on international law, published in the USSR, were based on the approach to the teaching of international law, developed in the textbook by S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky. The first textbook of international law with the stamp of MGIMO, edited by F.I. Kozhevnikov, was published in 1964. This textbook later went through five editions in 1966, 1972
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnsson, L; Netzer, G
2016-01-01
Moore's law, the doubling of transistors per unit area for each CMOS technology generation, is expected to continue throughout the decade, while Dennard voltage scaling resulting in constant power per unit area stopped about a decade ago. The semiconductor industry's response to the loss of Dennard scaling and the consequent challenges in managing power distribution and dissipation has been leveled off clock rates, a die performance gain reduced from about a factor of 2.8 to 1.4 per technology generation, and multi-core processor dies with increased cache sizes. Increased caches sizes offers performance benefits for many applications as well as energy savings. Accessing data in cache is considerably more energy efficient than main memory accesses. Further, caches consume less power than a corresponding amount of functional logic. As feature sizes continue to be scaled down an increasing fraction of the die must be “underutilized” or “dark” due to power constraints. With power being a prime design constraint there is a concerted effort to find significantly more energy efficient chip architectures than dominant in servers today, with chips potentially incorporating several types of cores to cover a range of applications, or different functions in an application, as is already common for the mobile processor market. Digital Signal Processors (DSPs), largely targeting the embedded and mobile processor markets, typically have been designed for a power consumption of 10% or less of a typical x86 CPU, yet with much more than 10% of the floating-point capability of the same technology generation x86 CPUs. Thus, DSPs could potentially offer an energy efficient alternative to x86 CPUs. Here we report an assessment of the Texas Instruments TMS320C6678 DSP in regards to its energy efficiency for two common HPC benchmarks: STREAM (memory system benchmark) and HPL (CPU benchmark) (paper)
Johnsson, L.; Netzer, G.
2016-10-01
Moore's law, the doubling of transistors per unit area for each CMOS technology generation, is expected to continue throughout the decade, while Dennard voltage scaling resulting in constant power per unit area stopped about a decade ago. The semiconductor industry's response to the loss of Dennard scaling and the consequent challenges in managing power distribution and dissipation has been leveled off clock rates, a die performance gain reduced from about a factor of 2.8 to 1.4 per technology generation, and multi-core processor dies with increased cache sizes. Increased caches sizes offers performance benefits for many applications as well as energy savings. Accessing data in cache is considerably more energy efficient than main memory accesses. Further, caches consume less power than a corresponding amount of functional logic. As feature sizes continue to be scaled down an increasing fraction of the die must be “underutilized” or “dark” due to power constraints. With power being a prime design constraint there is a concerted effort to find significantly more energy efficient chip architectures than dominant in servers today, with chips potentially incorporating several types of cores to cover a range of applications, or different functions in an application, as is already common for the mobile processor market. Digital Signal Processors (DSPs), largely targeting the embedded and mobile processor markets, typically have been designed for a power consumption of 10% or less of a typical x86 CPU, yet with much more than 10% of the floating-point capability of the same technology generation x86 CPUs. Thus, DSPs could potentially offer an energy efficient alternative to x86 CPUs. Here we report an assessment of the Texas Instruments TMS320C6678 DSP in regards to its energy efficiency for two common HPC benchmarks: STREAM (memory system benchmark) and HPL (CPU benchmark)
Shaw, Malcolm N
2017-01-01
International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1980-01-01
This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellmann, U.
1992-01-01
Participation of the public in licensing procedures for large-scale projects has been an item of discussion since the sixties in the legal sciences and on the political level. The introduction of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) as a legal requirement in EC law and its implementation in practice was the occasion to once again investigate the principle of participation of the public in the current legal framework. The study in hand reviews the legal provisions found in administrative law, constitutional law and European Community law governing the right of participation of the public and also takes a look at the situation in practice. The results show both the legal status and conditions of enforcement as prevailing after the coming into force in 1989 of the Act on Performance of an EIA, as well as inadequacies and deficits in the current legal framework. (orig.) [de
Hashimoto, Y.; Morita, K.; Okubo, M.; Hamada, Y.; Lin, W.; Hirose, T.; Kitamura, M.
2015-12-01
Fault motion has been estimated by diffusion pattern of frictional heating recorded in geology (e.g., Fulton et al., 2012). The same record in deeper subduction plate interface can be observed from micro-faults in an exhumed accretionary complex. In this study, we focused on a micro-fault within the Cretaceous Shimanto Belt, SW Japan to estimate fault motion from the frictional heating diffusion pattern. A carbonaceous material concentrated layer (CMCL) with ~2m of thickness is observed in study area. Some micro-faults cut the CMCL. Thickness of a fault is about 3.7mm. Injection veins and dilatant fractures were observed in thin sections, suggesting that the high fluid pressure was existed. Samples with 10cm long were collected to measure distribution of vitrinite reflectance (Ro) as a function of distance from the center of micro-fault. Ro of host rock was ~1.0%. Diffusion pattern was detected decreasing in Ro from ~1.2%-~1.1%. Characteristic diffusion distance is ~4-~9cm. We conducted grid search to find the optimal frictional heat generation per unit area (Q, the product of friction coefficient, normal stress and slip velocity) and slip duration (t) to fit the diffusion pattern. Thermal diffusivity (0.98*10-8m2/s) and thermal conductivity (2.0 W/mK) were measured. In the result, 2000-2500J/m2 of Q and 63000-126000s of t were estimated. Moment magnitudes (M0) of slow earthquakes (slow EQs) follow a scaling law with slip duration and its dimension is different from that for normal earthquakes (normal EQ) (Ide et al., 2007). The slip duration estimated in this study (~104-~105s) consistent with 4-5 of M0, never fit to the scaling law for normal EQ. Heat generation can be inverted from 4-5 of M0, corresponding with ~108-~1011J, which is consistent with rupture area of 105-108m2 in this study. The comparisons in heat generation and slip duration between geological measurements and geophysical remote observations give us the estimation of rupture area, M0, and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gañán-Calvo, A M; Rebollo-Muñoz, N; Montanero, J M
2013-01-01
We aim to establish the scaling laws for both the minimum rate of flow attainable in the steady cone–jet mode of electrospray, and the size of the resulting droplets in that limit. Use is made of a small body of literature on Taylor cone–jets reporting precise measurements of the transported electric current and droplet size as a function of the liquid properties and flow rate. The projection of the data onto an appropriate non-dimensional parameter space maps a region bounded by the minimum rate of flow attainable in the steady state. To explain these experimental results, we propose a theoretical model based on the generalized concept of physical symmetry, stemming from the system time invariance (steadiness). A group of symmetries rising at the cone-to-jet geometrical transition determines the scaling for the minimum flow rate and related variables. If the flow rate is decreased below that minimum value, those symmetries break down, which leads to dripping. We find that the system exhibits two instability mechanisms depending on the nature of the forces arising against the flow: one dominated by viscosity and the other by the liquid polarity. In the former case, full charge relaxation is guaranteed down to the minimum flow rate, while in the latter the instability condition becomes equivalent to the symmetry breakdown by charge relaxation or separation. When cone–jets are formed without artificially imposing a flow rate, a microjet is issued quasi-steadily. The flow rate naturally ejected this way coincides with the minimum flow rate studied here. This natural flow rate determines the minimum droplet size that can be steadily produced by any electrohydrodynamic means for a given set of liquid properties. (paper)
Gañán-Calvo, A. M.; Rebollo-Muñoz, N.; Montanero, J. M.
2013-03-01
We aim to establish the scaling laws for both the minimum rate of flow attainable in the steady cone-jet mode of electrospray, and the size of the resulting droplets in that limit. Use is made of a small body of literature on Taylor cone-jets reporting precise measurements of the transported electric current and droplet size as a function of the liquid properties and flow rate. The projection of the data onto an appropriate non-dimensional parameter space maps a region bounded by the minimum rate of flow attainable in the steady state. To explain these experimental results, we propose a theoretical model based on the generalized concept of physical symmetry, stemming from the system time invariance (steadiness). A group of symmetries rising at the cone-to-jet geometrical transition determines the scaling for the minimum flow rate and related variables. If the flow rate is decreased below that minimum value, those symmetries break down, which leads to dripping. We find that the system exhibits two instability mechanisms depending on the nature of the forces arising against the flow: one dominated by viscosity and the other by the liquid polarity. In the former case, full charge relaxation is guaranteed down to the minimum flow rate, while in the latter the instability condition becomes equivalent to the symmetry breakdown by charge relaxation or separation. When cone-jets are formed without artificially imposing a flow rate, a microjet is issued quasi-steadily. The flow rate naturally ejected this way coincides with the minimum flow rate studied here. This natural flow rate determines the minimum droplet size that can be steadily produced by any electrohydrodynamic means for a given set of liquid properties.
EEHG Performance and Scaling Laws
Penn, Gregory
2013-01-01
This note will calculate the idealized performance of echo-enabled harmonic generation performance (EEHG), explore the parameter settings, and look at constraints determined by incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR) and intrabeam scattering (IBS). Another important effect, time-of-flight variations related to transverse emittance, is included here but without detailed explanation because it has been described previously. The importance of ISR and IBS is that they lead to ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kloepfer, M.
1989-01-01
This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atzeni, S.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.
2001-01-01
A recent article (details in the title) reported a generalized scaling law for the ignition energy of inertial confinement fusion targets in terms of the in-flight fuel adiabat, the peak implosion velocity, and the peak drive pressure. Previous scaling laws had not taken into account the scaling with the peak drive pressure. The key point of the analysis was the realization that the adiabat of the stagnated fuel is not simply given by the in-flight adiabat, as previously assumed implicitly, but instead depends on implosion history, and involves the drive pressure. In these comments it is pointed out that, while the simulations in said recent article account for complicated transport and equations of state, a simpler physical model based on ideal gas dynamics without heat conduction or any other transport physics advanced previously by one of the authors of these comments (for instance, Meyer-ter-Vehn, J. and Schalk, C., Z. Nat. forsch. 37A, 955 (1982)) yields quite similar scaling. This observation leads to a form of the scaling laws in terms of only the drive pressure and the Mach number, indicating the central importance of these variables, rather than the complicated transport and equations of state, for the determination of the ignition temperature
Modified circular velocity law
Djeghloul, Nazim
2018-05-01
A modified circular velocity law is presented for a test body orbiting around a spherically symmetric mass. This law exhibits a distance scale parameter and allows to recover both usual Newtonian behaviour for lower distances and a constant velocity limit at large scale. Application to the Galaxy predicts the known behaviour and also leads to a galactic mass in accordance with the measured visible stellar mass so that additional dark matter inside the Galaxy can be avoided. It is also shown that this circular velocity law can be embedded in a geometrical description of spacetime within the standard general relativity framework upon relaxing the usual asymptotic flatness condition. This formulation allows to redefine the introduced Newtonian scale limit in term of the central mass exclusively. Moreover, a satisfactory answer to the galactic escape speed problem can be provided indicating the possibility that one can also get rid of dark matter halo outside the Galaxy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Triffterer, O.
1980-01-01
In the draft proposed by the legal advisory board the law for the controlling of environmental criminality was promulgated on 28th March 1980. The present commentary therefore - as seen from the results - corresponds in essential to the original assessment of the governmental draft. However, an introduction into the problems of environmental law precedes this commentary for the better unterstanding of all those not acquainted with pollution law and the whole legal matter. (orig./HP) [de
Zhao, Lei; Cheng, Jiangtao
2018-04-05
Besides the Wenzel state, liquid droplets on micro/nanostructured surfaces can stay in the Cassie state and consequently exhibit intriguing characteristics such as a large contact angle, small contact angle hysteresis and exceptional mobility. Here we report molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the wetting dynamics of Cassie-state water droplets on nanostructured ultrahydrophobic surfaces with an emphasis on the genesis of the contact line friction (CLF). From an ab initio perspective, CLF can be ascribed to the collective effect of solid-liquid retarding and viscous damping. Solid-liquid retarding is related to the work of adhesion, whereas viscous damping arises from the viscous force exerted on the liquid molecules within the three-phase (liquid/vapor/solid) contact zone. In this work, a universal scaling law is derived to generalize the CLF on nanostructured ultrahydrophobic surfaces. With the decreasing fraction of solid-liquid contact (i.e., the solid fraction), CLF for a Cassie-state droplet gets enhanced due to the fact that viscous damping is counter-intuitively intensified while solid-liquid retarding remains unchanged. Nevertheless, the overall friction between a Cassie-state droplet and the structured surface is indeed reduced since the air cushion formed in the interstices of the surface roughness underneath the Cassie-state droplet applies negligible resistance to the contact line. Our results have revealed the genesis of CLF from an ab initio perspective, demonstrated the effects of surface structures on a moving contact line and justified the critical role of CLF in the analysis of wetting-related situations.
Eliazar, Iddo
2017-11-01
Aging means that as things grow old their remaining expected lifetimes lessen. Either faster or slower, most of the things we encounter in our everyday lives age with time. However, there are things that do quite the opposite - they anti-age: as they grow old their remaining expected lifetimes increase rather than decrease. A quantitative formulation of anti-aging is given by the so-called ;Lindy's Law;. In this paper we explore Lindy's Law and its connections to Pareto's Law, to Zipf's Law, and to socioeconomic inequality.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2016-01-01
This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Case Law France: Conseil d'etat decision, 22 February 2016, EDF v. Republic and Canton of Geneva relative to the Bugey nuclear power plant (No. 373516); United States: Brodsky v. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 650 Fed. Appx. 804 (2. Cir. 2016)
Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.
This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sadl, Urska
2013-01-01
Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pascal, Maurice.
1979-01-01
This book on nuclear law is the first of a series of analytical studies to be published by the French Energy Commission (CEA) concerning all the various nuclear activities. It describes national and international legislation applicable in France covering the following main sectors: the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the law of the sea and nuclear law, the legal system governing radioisotopes, the transport of radioactive materials, third party liability and insurance and radiation protection. In each chapter, the overall analysis is supplemented by the relevant regulatory texts and by organisation charts in annex. (NEA) [fr
Nanoplasmonics beyond Ohm's law
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, N. Asger; Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren
2012-01-01
-of-motion that goes beyond the common local-response approximation and use of Ohm's law as the central constitutive equation. The electron gas is treated within a semi-classical hydrodynamic model with the emergence of a new intrinsic length scale. We briefly review the new governing wave equations and give examples...
Doranda Maracineanu
2009-01-01
The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-...
Lichten, William
2004-01-01
The law of intelligence is presented in test independent form. Mental abilities, physical brain size, and infant motor capacity follow the same law of growth from birth to adolescence. Mental growth is independent of race, "SES" or the Flynn effect. The vitality of the mental age scale calls for a reexamination of Wechsler's deviation IQ. This…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... blind reviewed and edited for quality. They represent the contributions of leading academics, early career researchers and others from an increasing number of countries, universities and institutions around the world. They set a benchmark for discussion of the current issues arising in the subject area...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zasowski, G.; Majewski, S. R.; Indebetouw, R.
2009-01-01
We combine near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey) and mid-infrared (Spitzer-IRAC) photometry to characterize the IR extinction law (1.2-8 μm) over nearly 150 deg. of contiguous Milky Way midplane longitude. The relative extinctions in five passbands across these wavelength and longitude ranges are derived by calculating color excess ratios for G and K giant red clump stars in contiguous midplane regions and deriving the wavelength dependence of extinction in each one. Strong, monotonic variations in the extinction law shape are found as a function of angle from the Galactic center, symmetric on either side of it. These longitudinal variations persist even when dense interstellar regions, known a priori to have a shallower extinction curve, are removed. The increasingly steep extinction curves toward the outer Galaxy indicate a steady decrease in the absolute-to-selective extinction ratio (R V ) and in the mean dust grain size at greater Galactocentric angles. We note an increasing strength of the 8 μm extinction inflection at high Galactocentric angles and, using theoretical dust models, show that this behavior is consistent with the trend in R V . Along several lines of sight where the solution is most feasible, A λ /A K s as a function of Galactic radius (R GC ) is estimated and shown to have a Galactic radial dependence. Our analyses suggest that the observed relationship between extinction curve shape and Galactic longitude is due to an intrinsic dependence of the extinction law on Galactocentric radius.
Recent publications on environmental law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lohse, S.
1991-01-01
The bibliography contains references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1999-01-01
This paper gives and analyses three examples of case law: decision rejecting application to close down Tomari nuclear power plant (Japan); judgement by the Supreme Administrative Court on the closing of Barsebaeck (Sweden); litigation relating to the Department of Energy's obligations under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to accept spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (United States). (A.L.B.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2015-01-01
This section treats of the two following case laws: Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission denying requests from petitioners to suspend final reactor licensing decisions pending the issuance of a final determination of reasonable assurance of permanent disposal of spent fuel
Marson, James; Ferris, Katy
2016-01-01
Marson & Ferris provide a thorough account of the subject for students. Essential topics are introduced by exploring current and pertinent examples and the relevance of the law in a business environment is considered throughout. This pack includes a supplement which considers the effects of the Consumer Rights Act 2015.
Nuclear Energy Law and Arbo Law/Safety Law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eijnde, J.G. van den
1986-01-01
The legal aspects of radiation protection in the Netherlands are described. Radiation protection is regulated mainly in the Nuclear Energy Law. The Arbo Law also has some sections about radiation protection. The interaction between both laws is discussed. (Auth.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Doranda Maracineanu
2009-06-01
Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, J.M. da.
1979-01-01
Facts concerning the application of atomic energy are presented and those aspects which should be under tutelage, the nature and guilt of the nuclear offenses and the agent's peril are presented. The need of a specific chapter in criminal law with adequate legislation concerning the principles of atomic energy is inferred. The basis for the future elaboration this legislation are fixed. (A.L.S.L.) [pt
Miller, Christopher J.
2011-01-01
A model reference nonlinear dynamic inversion control law has been developed to provide a baseline controller for research into simple adaptive elements for advanced flight control laws. This controller has been implemented and tested in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation and in flight. The flight results agree well with the simulation predictions and show good handling qualities throughout the tested flight envelope with some noteworthy deficiencies highlighted both by handling qualities metrics and pilot comments. Many design choices and implementation details reflect the requirements placed on the system by the nonlinear flight environment and the desire to keep the system as simple as possible to easily allow the addition of the adaptive elements. The flight-test results and how they compare to the simulation predictions are discussed, along with a discussion about how each element affected pilot opinions. Additionally, aspects of the design that performed better than expected are presented, as well as some simple improvements that will be suggested for follow-on work.
Van Gorder, Robert A
2013-04-01
We provide a formulation of the local induction approximation (LIA) for the motion of a vortex filament in the Cartesian reference frame (the extrinsic coordinate system) which allows for scaling of the reference coordinate. For general monotone scalings of the reference coordinate, we derive an equation for the planar solution to the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation governing the LIA. We proceed to solve this equation perturbatively in small amplitude through an application of multiple-scales analysis, which allows for accurate computation of the period of the planar vortex filament. The perturbation result is shown to agree strongly with numerical simulations, and we also relate this solution back to the solution obtained in the arclength reference frame (the intrinsic coordinate system). Finally, we discuss nonmonotone coordinate scalings and their application for finding self-intersections of vortex filaments. These self-intersecting vortex filaments are likely unstable and collapse into other structures or dissipate completely.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
2007-01-01
...), human rights, rules of engagement, emergency essential civilians supporting military operations, contingency contractor personnel, foreign and deployment, criminal law, environmental law, fiscal law...
Holman, Luke; Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob
2016-08-01
Raia et al. propose that the evolution of the shape and complexity of animal ornaments (e.g., deer antlers) can be explained by interspecific variation in body size and is not influenced by sexual selection. They claim to show that ornament complexity is related to body size by an 0.25-power law and argue that this finding precludes a role for sexual selection in the evolution of ornament complexity. However, their study does not test alternative hypotheses and mismeasures antler shape allometry by omitting much of the published data. We show that an index of sexual selection (sexual size dimorphism) is positively correlated with size-corrected antler complexity and that the allometric slope of complexity is substantially greater than 0.25, contra Raia et al. We conclude that sexual selection and physical constraints both affect the evolution of antler shape.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bringuier, P.
2009-01-01
The object of this report is to present the evolution of the nuclear law during the period from 2006 to 2008, period that was characterized in France by a real rewriting from the implementation of a control authority. The prescriptive backing of nuclear activities has been deeply changed by numerous texts. In this first part are presented: (1) the institutional aspects, (2) openness and public information, (7) radioactive wastes and (9) liability and insurance. In a next publication will be treated: (3) safety and radiation protection; (4) nuclear matter, inspection, physical protection; (5) transports; (6) trade, non-proliferation; (8) radiological accidents. (N.C.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2016-01-01
This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal dismissing an appeal related to an environmental assessment of a project to refurbish and extend the life of an Ontario nuclear power plant; 2 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod of 28 December 2015 concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository (2015); 3 - United States: Commission authorises issuance of construction permit for the Shine Medical Isotope Facility in Janesville, Wisconsin; 4 - United States: Commission authorises issuance of combined licences for the South Texas Project site in Matagorda County, Texas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2012-01-01
This section gathers the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Judicial review of Darlington new nuclear power plant project; Appeal decision upholding criminal convictions related to attempt to export nuclear-related dual-use items to Iran: Her Majesty the Queen V. Yadegari; 2 - European Commission: Greenland cases; 3 - France: Chernobyl accident - decision of dismissal of the Court of Appeal of Paris; 4 - Slovak Republic: Aarhus Convention compliance update; 5 - United States: Judgement of a US court of appeals upholding the NRC's dismissal of challenges to the renewal of the operating licence for Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; reexamination of the project of high-level waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Jedrecy
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We show that the well-established universal scaling σxyAHE ∼ σxx1.6 between anomalous Hall and longitudinal conductivities in the low conductivity regime (σxx < 104 Ω−1 cm−1 transforms into the scaling σxyAHE ∼ σxx2 at the onset of strong electron localization. The crossover between the two relations is observed in magnetite-derived ZnxFe3-xO4 thin films where an insulating/hopping regime follows a bad metal/hopping regime below the Verwey transition temperature Tv. Our results demonstrate that electron localization effects come into play in the anomalous Hall effect (AHE modifying significantly the scaling exponent. In addition, the thermal evolution of the anomalous Hall resistivity suggests the existence of spin polarons whose size would decrease below Tv.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
2002-01-01
Several judgements are carried: Supreme Administrative Court Judgement rejecting an application to prevent construction of a new nuclear power plant (Finland); judgement of the Council of State specifying the law applicable to storage facilities for depleted uranium (France); Supreme Court Decision overturning for foreign spent fuel (Russian federation); Court of Appeal Judgement on government decision to allow the start up of a MOX fuel plant ( United Kingdom); judgement on lawfulness of authorizations granted by the Environment Agency: Marchiori v. the Environment Agency; (U.K.); Kennedy v. Southern California Edison Co. (U.S.A); Judgement concerning Ireland ' s application to prevent operation of BNFL ' s MOX facility at Sellafield: Ireland v. United Kingdom; At the European Court of Human Rights Balmer-Schafroth and others have complained v. Switzerland. Parliamentary decision rescinding the shutdown date for Barseback - 2 (Sweden); Decision of the International trade Commission regarding imposition of countervailing and anti-dumping duties on imports of low enriched uranium from the European Union, Yucca Mountain site recommendation (USA). (N.C.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiesbauer, Bruno
1978-01-01
This book is the first attempt of a comprehensive compilation of national Austrian Nuclear Law (Nuclear Liability Act; Radiation protection Act, Radiation Protection Ordinance, Security Control Act, Act on the uses of Nuclear Energy - Zwentendorf Nuclear Power Plant) and the most important international agreements to which Austria is a party. Furthermore, the book contains the most important Nuclear Liability Conventions to which Austria is not yet a party, but which are applicable in neighbouring; the Paris Convention served as a model for the national Nuclear Liability Act and may be used for its interpretation. The author has translated a number of international instruments into German, such as the Expose des Motifs of the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2014-01-01
This section of the Bulletin brings together the texts of the following case laws: Canada: - Judgment of the Federal Court of Canada sending back to a joint review panel for reconsideration the environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario. France : - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 358882); - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 362001). Slovak Republic: - Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; - Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. United States: - Initial Decision of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Ruling in Favour of Nuclear Innovation North America, LLC (NINA) Regarding Foreign Ownership, Control or Domination
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jedrecy, N., E-mail: jedrecy@insp.jussieu.fr; Hamieh, M.; Hebert, C.; Escudier, M.; Becerra, L.; Perriere, J. [Institut des Nano Sciences de Paris, UPMC-Sorbonne Universités, CNRS-UMR7588, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)
2016-08-15
We show that the well-established universal scaling σ{sub xy}{sup AHE} ∼ σ{sub xx}{sup 1.6} between anomalous Hall and longitudinal conductivities in the low conductivity regime (σ{sub xx} < 10{sup 4} Ω{sup −1} cm{sup −1}) transforms into the scaling σ{sub xy}{sup AHE} ∼ σ{sub xx}{sup 2} at the onset of strong electron localization. The crossover between the two relations is observed in magnetite-derived Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} thin films where an insulating/hopping regime follows a bad metal/hopping regime below the Verwey transition temperature T{sub v}. Our results demonstrate that electron localization effects come into play in the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) modifying significantly the scaling exponent. In addition, the thermal evolution of the anomalous Hall resistivity suggests the existence of spin polarons whose size would decrease below T{sub v}.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2017-01-01
This section treats of the following case laws (United States): 1 - Virginia Uranium, Inc. v. Warren, 848 F.3d 590 (4. Cir. 2017): In the United States District Court for the Western District of Virginia, the plaintiffs, a collection of uranium mining companies and owners of land containing uranium deposits, challenged a Commonwealth of Virginia moratorium on conventional uranium mining. The plaintiffs alleged that the state moratorium was preempted by federal law under the Supremacy Clause of the US Constitution.; 2 - United States v. Energy Solutions, Inc.; Rockwell Holdco, Inc.; Andrews County; Holdings, Inc.; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC. (D. Del. June 21, 2017): In 2016, the United States, acting through the US Department of Justice, commenced an action in United States District Court in Delaware seeking to enjoin the acquisition of Waste Control Specialists, LLC (WCS) and its parent company by Energy Solutions, Inc., and its parent. WCS and Energy Solutions are competitors in the market for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) produced by commercial generators of such material. The United States alleged that the proposed acquisition was unlawful. 3 - Cooper v. Tokyo Electric Power Company, No. 15-56426 (9. Cir. 2017): The plaintiffs are US Navy service members who were deployed off the Japanese coast as part of the US effort to provide earthquake relief after the 9.0 earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan on 11 March 2011. Plaintiffs sued alleging 'that TEPCO was negligent in operating the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and in reporting the extent of the radiation leak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cadiz, Luis Felipe S.; Bezerra, Mario Augusto [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Lima, Fernando Roberto A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PB), Recife, PB (Brazil)
2017-07-01
The present work develops and analyzes the main parameters of a test section for natural convection in case of a failure of the pumping system as much as the loss of coolant in refrigeration accidents. For this realization, a combination of laws of basic similarity and an innovative scale methodology, known as Fractional Scaling Analysis (FSA), was developed. The depressurizing is analyzed when a rupture occurs in one of the primary system piping of the AP1000 nuclear reactor. This reactor is developed by Westinghouse Electric Co., which is a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) with an electric power equal to 1000MW. Such a reactor is provided with a passive safety system that promotes considerable improvements in the safety, reliability, protection and reduction of costs of a nuclear power plant. The FSA is based on two concepts: fractional scale and hierarchy. It is used to provide experimental data that generate quantitative evaluation criteria as well as operational parameters in thermal and hydraulic processes of nuclear power plants. The results were analyzed with the use of computational codes. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pietri, L.; Amielh, M.; Anselmet, F.; Fulachier, L. [Institut de Recherche sur les Phinomenes Hors Equilibre Equipe Turbulence, 13 - Marseille (France)
1997-12-31
Turbulent flows with strong density variations, like helium jets in the ambient air, have specific properties linked with the difference of gas densities. This paper presents some experimental results of turbulence properties inside such flows: the Reynolds tensions and the associated turbulent viscosity, and some characteristics linked with the statistical properties of the different turbulence scales. These last results allows to show the complexity of such flows characterized by the influence of external parameters (Reynolds number, initial density ratio, initial momentum flux) that govern the evolution of these parameters inside the jet from the nozzle up to regions where similarity properties are reached. (J.S.) 12 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
2009-01-01
Different case law are presented in this part: By decision dated 17 july 2009, the Ontario Court of Appeal (Canada) has ruled on the scope of solicitor-client privilege and the protections that may be afforded to privileged investigations reports. The decision reaffirms the canadian court system view of the importance of the protection of solicitor-client privilege to the administration of justice; For United states here is a judgment of a U.S. court of Appeals on the design basis threat security rule (2009), this case concerns a challenge to the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission (N.R.C.) revised design basis threat rule, which was adopted in 2007 (nuclear bulletin law no. 80). The petitioners public citizen, Inc., San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace and the State of New York filed a lawsuit in the U.S. court of appeals for the Ninth circuit alleging that the N.R.C. acted arbitrarily and capriciously and in violation of law by refusing to include the treat of air attacks in its final revised design basis rule. On the 24. july 2009, a panel of three ninth circuit judges rules 2-1 that the N.R.C. acted reasonably in not including an air treat in its design basis rule. Secondly, judgment of a U.S. court of appeals on consideration of the environmental impact of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities (2009), this case concerns the scope of the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission environmental analysis during its review of applications to re-licence commercial nuclear power plants. New Jersey urged the N.R.C. to consider the environmental impact of an airborne terrorist attack on the power plant, arguing that such analysis was required by the national environmental policy act (N.E.P.A.). On 31. march 2009, a panel of three circuit judges declined to follow the ninth circuit opinion and affirmed NRC decision 3-0 ruling that NRC was not required to consider terrorism in its N.E.P.A. analysis because NRC re-licensing would not be a reasonably close cause of terrorism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
2011-01-01
This chapter gathers three case laws, one concerning France and the two others concerning the United States. France - Decision of the Administrative Court in Strasbourg on the permanent shutdown of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant: On 9 March 2011, the administrative court in Strasbourg confirmed the government's rejection to immediately close the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, the first unit of which started operation on 1 January 1978. The court rejected the motion of the 'Association trinationale de protection nucleaire' (ATPN) filed against the decision of the Minister of Economy, Industry and Employment to refuse the final shutdown of the plant. The group, which brings together associations as well as French, German and Swiss municipalities, had taken legal action in December 2008. United States - Case law 1 - Judgment of a US Court of Appeals on public access to sensitive security information and consideration of the environmental impacts of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities: This case concerns 1) the public's right to access classified and sensitive security information relied upon by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its environmental review; and 2) the sufficiency of the NRC's environmental review of the impacts of terrorist attacks for a proposed Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). In 2003, the NRC ruled that the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) did not require the NRC to consider the impacts of terrorist attacks in its environmental review for the proposed ISFSI at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant. ' NEPA mandates that all federal agencies must prepare a detailed statement on the environment impacts before undertaking a major federal action that significantly affects the human environment. In 2004, the San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace, a group of individuals who live near the Diablo Canyon Power Plant, filed a petition in the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit challenging the NRC's 2003 decision. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2013-01-01
This section reports on 7 case laws from 4 countries: - France: Conseil d'Etat decision, 28 June 2013, refusing to suspend operation of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant; - Slovak Republic: New developments including the Supreme Court's judgment in a matter involving Greenpeace Slovakia's claims regarding the Mochovce nuclear power plant; New developments in the matter involving Greenpeace's demands for information under the Freedom of Information Act; - Switzerland: Judgment of the Federal Supreme Court in the matter of the Departement federal de l'environnement, des transports, de l'energie et de la communication (DETEC) against Ursula Balmer-Schafroth and others on consideration of admissibility of a request to withdraw the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant; - United States: Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit granting petition for writ of mandamus ordering US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to resume Yucca Mountain licensing; Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit invalidating two Vermont statutes as preempted by the Atomic Energy Act; Judgment of the NRC on transferring Shieldalloy site to New Jersey's jurisdiction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2014-01-01
This section treats of the following case laws sorted by country: 1 - Germany: Federal Administrative Court confirms the judgments of the Higher Administrative Court of the Land Hesse: The shutdown of nuclear power plant Biblis blocks A and B based on a 'moratorium' imposed by the Government was unlawful; List of lawsuits in the nuclear field. 2 - Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. 3 - United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission resuming the licensing process for the Department of Energy's construction authorisation application for the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository; Judgment of the Licensing Board in favour of Shaw AREVA MOX Services regarding the material control and accounting system at the proposed MOX Facility; Dismissal by US District Court Judge of lawsuit brought by US military personnel against Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in connection with the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
2000-01-01
This article reviews the judgements and law decisions concerning nuclear activities throughout the world during the end of 1999 and the first semester 2000. In Belgium a judgement has allowed the return of nuclear waste from France. In France the Council of State confirmed the repeal of an authorization order of an installation dedicated to the storage of uranium sesquioxide, on the basis of an insufficient risk analysis. In France too, the criminal chamber of the French Supreme Court ruled that the production in excess of that authorized in the licence can be compared to carrying out operations without a licence. In Japan the Fukui district court rejected a lawsuit filed by local residents calling for the permanent closure, on safety grounds, of the Monju reactor. In the Netherlands, the Council of State ruled that the Dutch government had no legal basis for limiting in time the operating licence of the Borssele plant. In Usa a district court has rejected a request to ban MOX fuel shipment. (A.C.)
Recent publications on environmental law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lohse, S.
1988-01-01
The bibliography contains 1235 references to publications covering the following subject fields: general environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (HP) [de
Recent publications on environmental law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lohse, S.
1989-01-01
The bibliography contains 1160 references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig./HP) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2015-01-01
This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal overturning a decision to send back for reconsideration an environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario; 2 - France: Council of State decision, 28 November 2014, Federation 'Reseau sortir du nucleaire' (Nuclear Phase-Out network) and others vs. Electricite de France (EDF), Request No. 367013 for the annulment of: - The resolution of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) dated 4 July 2011 specifying additional regulations for Electricite de France (EDF) designed to strengthen the reactor basemat of reactor No. 1 in the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, and - The resolution of ASN dated 19 December 2012 approving the start of work on reinforcing the reactor basemat in accordance with the dossier submitted by EDF; 3 - Germany: Judgment of the European Court of Justice on the nuclear fuel tax; 4 - India: Judgment of the High Court of Kerala in a public interest litigation challenging the constitutional validity of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010; 5 - Japan - District court decisions on lawsuits related to the restart of Sendai NPP and Takahama NPP; 6 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository; Certain provisions of the Regulation of the Minister of Health of 18 February 2011 on the conditions for safe use of ionising radiation for all types of medical exposure have been declared unconstitutional by a judgment pronounced by the Constitutional Tribunal; 7 - Slovak Republic: Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martinez Romera, Beatriz; Coelho, Nelson F.
2018-01-01
, treaty law is only one of many sources of the law that governs international relations, the others being customary international law and principles of law. The main conclusion of this chapter is that states may have to wake up to the limitations of the UNCLOS and that this will require understanding...... the relative role of this treaty among other sources of international law....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, Hiroshi
2013-01-01
The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)
Holko, David A.
1982-01-01
Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…
The second laws of quantum thermodynamics.
Brandão, Fernando; Horodecki, Michał; Ng, Nelly; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Wehner, Stephanie
2015-03-17
The second law of thermodynamics places constraints on state transformations. It applies to systems composed of many particles, however, we are seeing that one can formulate laws of thermodynamics when only a small number of particles are interacting with a heat bath. Is there a second law of thermodynamics in this regime? Here, we find that for processes which are approximately cyclic, the second law for microscopic systems takes on a different form compared to the macroscopic scale, imposing not just one constraint on state transformations, but an entire family of constraints. We find a family of free energies which generalize the traditional one, and show that they can never increase. The ordinary second law relates to one of these, with the remainder imposing additional constraints on thermodynamic transitions. We find three regimes which determine which family of second laws govern state transitions, depending on how cyclic the process is. In one regime one can cause an apparent violation of the usual second law, through a process of embezzling work from a large system which remains arbitrarily close to its original state. These second laws are relevant for small systems, and also apply to individual macroscopic systems interacting via long-range interactions. By making precise the definition of thermal operations, the laws of thermodynamics are unified in this framework, with the first law defining the class of operations, the zeroth law emerging as an equivalence relation between thermal states, and the remaining laws being monotonicity of our generalized free energies.
Magnetron injection gun scaling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawson, W.
1988-01-01
Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Edlund, Hans Henrik
2003-01-01
Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
2008-01-01
The first point concerns the judgement of the federal Administration Court on the standing of third parties regarding attacks at interim storage facilities (2008). In its judgement handed down on 10. april 2008, the german Federal Administrative Court overrules a decision of a Higher Regional Administrative Court and declares that residents in the vicinity of an interim storage facility may challenge the licence for that facility on the grounds that the necessary protection has not been provided against disruptive action or other interference by third parties. The second point concerns the judgement of the European Court of justice of a member State to fulfill obligations under directive 96/29 EURATOM (2007): the united kingdom imposed to intervene only if a situation of radioactive contamination results from a present or past activity for the exercise of which a licence was granted. The national legislation does not oblige the authorities to take measures in circumstances in which radioactive contamination results from a past practice which was not the subject of a such licence. The United Kingdom Government admitted the validity of the Commission claims adding that further legislation to transpose that article (article 53) into national laws is in the process of being drawn up. The third point is relative to judgement of the US court of Appeals on licensing of the L.E.S. uranium enrichment facility (2007), on appeal to the Federal Court of Appeals for the district of Columbia, the joint petitioners objected to the Nuclear regulatory Commission (NRC) issuing to the Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. (L.E.S.) Uranium enrichment Facility in New Mexico on several grounds: the NRC violated the Atomic Energy Act by supplementing the environmental impact statement after hearing closed; the NRC violated the National Environmental Policy Act by insufficiently analysing the environmental impact of depleted uranium waste from the L.E.S. facility; the NRC violated the Atomic
Hesselink, M.W.
2015-01-01
This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will
Noll, Ellis; Koehlinger, Mervin; Kowalski, Ludwik; Swackhamer, Gregg
1998-01-01
Describes the use of a computer-linked camera to demonstrate Coulomb's law. Suggests a way of reducing the difficulties in presenting Coulomb's law by teaching the inverse square law of gravity and the inverse square law of electricity in the same unit. (AIM)
Berman, Howard R.
1985-01-01
The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…
Tsindeliani, Imeda A.
2016-01-01
The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
of participants keen to work together to promote research and policy development in such a lively forum." - Professor Steve Saxby PhD, Cert Ed., MBCS Professor of IT Law and Public Policy, Solicitor, Deputy Head of School (Research), Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southampton, Editor...... not only the original themes of Legal, Security and Privacy Issues in IT Law and International Law and Trade but more recently two new conferences on International Public and Private Law. The papers in this volume then represent the contributions to all these fields and reflect the strong desire......-in-Chief, The Computer Law & Security Review - The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice (Elsevier), www.elsevier.com/locate/clsr, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Information Technology Law (Sweet & Maxwell), Director ILAWS - Institute for Law and the Web - School of Law, Southampton University, www...
International Investment Law and EU Law
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
regional economic integration agreements, International Competition Law, International Investment Regulation, International Monetary Law, International Intellectual Property Protection and International Tax Law. In addition to the regular annual volumes, EYIEL Special Issues routinely address specific...... current topics in International Economic Law. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty entails sweeping changes with respect to foreign investment regulation. Most prominently, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) now contains in its Article 207 an explicit competence...... for the regulation of foreign direct investment as part of the Common Commercial Policy (CCP) chapter. With this new competence, the EU will become an important actor in the field of international investment politics and law. The new empowerment in the field of international investment law prompts a multitude...
Scaling laws for simple heavy ion targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gula, W.P.; Magelssen, G.R.
1981-01-01
We have examined the behavior of single shell DT gas filled spherical targets irradiated by a constant power heavy ion beam pulse. For targets in which the ion range is less than the shell thickness, our computational results suggest that the target can be divided into three regions: (1) the absorber (100 to 400 eV for the energies we have considered), (2) the cold pusher (a few eV), and (3) the DT gas fuel. We have examined the pusher collapse time, velocity, and maximum kinetic energy variations as functions of the various target parameters and ion beam energy. The results are expressed in analytic terms and verified by computer simulation
Electrohydrodynamics and dielectrophoresis in microsystems: scaling laws
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castellanos, A [Dpto. Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de FIsica, Universidad de Sevilla, Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Ramos, A [Dpto. Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de FIsica, Universidad de Sevilla, Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Gonzalez, A [Dpto. Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de FIsica, Universidad de Sevilla, Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Green, N G [Bioelectronics Research Centre, Dept. Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Morgan, H [Bioelectronics Research Centre, Dept. Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LT (United Kingdom)
2003-10-21
The movement and behaviour of particles suspended in aqueous solutions subjected to non-uniform ac electric fields is examined. The ac electric fields induce movement of polarizable particles, a phenomenon known as dielectrophoresis. The high strength electric fields that are often used in separation systems can give rise to fluid motion, which in turn results in a viscous drag on the particle. The electric field generates heat, leading to volume forces in the liquid. Gradients in conductivity and permittivity give rise to electrothermal forces and gradients in mass density to buoyancy. In addition, non-uniform ac electric fields produce forces on the induced charges in the diffuse double layer on the electrodes. This causes a steady fluid motion termed ac electro-osmosis. The effects of Brownian motion are also discussed in this context. The orders of magnitude of the various forces experienced by a particle in a model microelectrode system are estimated. The results are discussed in relation to experiments and the relative influence of each type of force is described.
Electrohydrodynamics and dielectrophoresis in microsystems: scaling laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castellanos, A; Ramos, A; Gonzalez, A; Green, N G; Morgan, H
2003-01-01
The movement and behaviour of particles suspended in aqueous solutions subjected to non-uniform ac electric fields is examined. The ac electric fields induce movement of polarizable particles, a phenomenon known as dielectrophoresis. The high strength electric fields that are often used in separation systems can give rise to fluid motion, which in turn results in a viscous drag on the particle. The electric field generates heat, leading to volume forces in the liquid. Gradients in conductivity and permittivity give rise to electrothermal forces and gradients in mass density to buoyancy. In addition, non-uniform ac electric fields produce forces on the induced charges in the diffuse double layer on the electrodes. This causes a steady fluid motion termed ac electro-osmosis. The effects of Brownian motion are also discussed in this context. The orders of magnitude of the various forces experienced by a particle in a model microelectrode system are estimated. The results are discussed in relation to experiments and the relative influence of each type of force is described
Scaling Laws in Galileo: An Educational Proposal
Straulino, S.
2011-01-01
In his "Two New Sciences" Galileo Galilei deals with the strength of objects, discussing how it changes with size. Our daily life offers many examples of effects due to change of dimensions and sometimes the consequences are unintuitive. This subject is really interesting for secondary school students and it can be presented through simple…
New Empirical Earthquake Source‐Scaling Laws
Thingbaijam, Kiran Kumar S.; Mai, Paul Martin; Goda, Katsuichiro
2017-01-01
.4–9.2) and events of various faulting styles. We apply general orthogonal regression, instead of ordinary least-squares regression, to account for measurement errors of all variables and to obtain mutually self-consistent relationships. We observe that L grows more
Scaling laws for inertial confinement fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brueckner, K.A.
1978-01-01
The fusion yield due to a spherically expanding burning front in a compressed fuel pellet is obtained. The pellet gain and beam energy for a laser system and an ion or electron beam driven system are compared. The results suggest an interesting possibility for heavy-ion fusion with driver parameters far below those usually considered
Scaling laws in phytoplankton nutrient uptake affinity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindemann, Christian; Fiksen, Øyvind; Andersen, Ken Haste
2016-01-01
instantaneously. Here we provide empirical evidence that the perfect sink strategy is not common in phytoplankton. Although small cells are indeed favored by a large surface to volume ratio, we show that they are punished by higher relative investment cost in order to fully benefit from the larger surface...
Scaling Laws for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks
2009-09-01
planned and the size of communication networks that are fundamentally understood. On the one hand, wireline networks (like the Internet) have grown from...Franceschetti, Marco D. Migliore, and Paolo Minero . The capacity of wireless networks: Information-theoretic and physical limits. In Proceedings of the...Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing, September 2007. [12] Massimo Franceschetti, Marco D. Migliore, and Paolo Minero . The
MacLeod, Rebecca Frances
2012-01-01
Jersey law, and within it Jersey property law, has received little academic attention. This thesis seeks to examine, and provide a systematic account of, the Jersey law of property. Specific aspects of substantive law are explored. From these, general observations about the nature and structure of property law are made. Unsurprisingly, given the small size of the island, Jersey has a relatively limited amount of indigenous legal material to offer, much of it in French. Inevitab...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Ruth
The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....
Europeanisation of private law and English law
Beale, Hugh
2003-01-01
To what extent is English Private Law being affected by the United Kingdom’s membership of the European Union? I think we can try to answer this at three levels: (i) The United Kingdom’s compliance with EU legislation; (ii) the influence of European ideas on English Private Law; (iii) the attitude in England towards greater harmonisation or possible unification of European Private Law
NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Poultry Houses dataset current as of 2009. WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some...
LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT
African Journals Online (AJOL)
HP27975994114
head of traditional central government, the headman was the head of the ward, and the family head exercised leadership at family level.13 Accordingly, the nature of traditional governance in South Africa was that of an unspecialised legal system where the king or chief was creator of laws, the executor of laws and the judge ...
Emergence of the second law out of reversible dynamics
Willigenburg, van L.G.; Koning, de W.L.
2009-01-01
Abstract If one demystifies entropy the second law of thermodynamics comes out as an emergent property entirely based on the simple dynamic mechanical laws that govern the motion and energies of system parts on a micro-scale. The emergence of the second law is illustrated in this paper through the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.N. Bakhrakh
2006-03-01
Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.
Limit laws for exponential families
Balkema, August A.; Klüppelberg, Claudia; Resnick, Sidney I.
1999-01-01
For a real random variable [math] with distribution function [math] , define ¶ [math] ¶ The distribution [math] generates a natural exponential family of distribution functions [math] , where ¶ [math] ¶ We study the asymptotic behaviour of the distribution functions [math] as [math] increases to [math] . If [math] then [math] pointwise on [math] . It may still be possible to obtain a non-degenerate weak limit law [math] by choosing suitable scaling and centring constants [math] an...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petz, Thomas; Sagaert, Vincent; Østergaard, Kim
2004-01-01
In this section authors from various European countries report the recent case law in their country on the field of private patrimonial law, that is decisions on the law of property, juridical acts, the law of obligations, contract law and prescription. The European Review of Private Law (ERPL......) started this section in 2003. The section aims to give our readers an overview of what is happening in the most recent European case law. We have asked the national reporters to report the juridical essence of the decisions given by the highest courts in their country. These national reports...... not relate the facts of the decision, nor the personal opinion of the reporter. One can find discussions on the most important decisions of European courts in ERPL’s case note section. The recent case law section gives overviews of decisions published in periods of four months. The period of January...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christoffersen, Lisbet
2017-01-01
An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017......An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017...
Update on Law-Related Education, 1997
1997-01-01
Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Speck, Michael B
2007-01-01
.... Furthermore, a false sense of security and reductions in incest reporting continue to victimize children, which results in further sex offender laws passed by legislatures without empirical data supporting such laws...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2003-01-01
The nuclear law was analyzed during a workshop. The main aspects were: the law of population to access to information on nuclear energy and the relationship between the Regulator Organism and the nuclear power plants managers
Health care law versus constitutional law.
Hall, Mark A
2013-04-01
National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.
Approaching comparative company law
Donald, David C.
2008-01-01
This paper identifies some common errors that occur in comparative law, offers some guidelines to help avoid such errors, and provides a framework for entering into studies of the company laws of three major jurisdictions. The first section illustrates why a conscious approach to comparative company law is useful. Part I discusses some of the problems that can arise in comparative law and offers a few points of caution that can be useful for practical, theoretical and legislative comparative ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szmodis Jenő
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The article introduces the problem of autonomy of law. The paper examines the medieval origins of legal positivism from a historical approach, sketching the main theories concerning the emergence of law, and phrasing some preliminary consideration for a historical and philosophical view of the problem of the birth of law. As a result of reasoning the article suggests some legal historical and human ethological ideas relating to the phenomena of crystallization of the law.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
HP27975994114
is still on the increase.8 It is forecast that the world will face a 40 per cent .... the legal context entails.27 Renowned property law scholars, like Underkuffler, argue ..... operation of law.53 The classic examples of Roman law res publicae were ...
Terra, B.J.M.; Wattel, P.J.
2008-01-01
This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC
Klijnsma, J.
2015-01-01
This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is
Transnational Constitutional Law
Zumbansen, P (Peer); K.I. Bhatt (Kinnari)
2018-01-01
textabstractThis chapter provides an overview of the emerging field of transnational constitutional law (TCL). Whilst questions of constitutional law are typically discussed in the context of a specific domestic legal setting, a salient strategy of TCL is to understand constitutional law and its
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Basse, Ellen Margrethe
Modern Danish environmental law has a strong international dimension due to membership of EU and participation in global and regional agreements. The concept of transnational law that includes EU environmental law that has vertical as well as horizontal effects across jurisdictions binding national...
Unjust enrichment in business law
Vydrová, Zuzana
2016-01-01
This thesis analyses the concept of unjust enrichment under the business law. First of all the thesis explains the term of business law. Business law is a complex of legal rules concerning the contractual relationships between entrepreneurs arising from their business activities. Business law is a comprehensive field of law which extends into many other fields of law, both private and public law. Equally the regulation of unjust enrichment within the business law expands into many other laws ...
Narasimhan, T. N.
2008-01-01
SummaryIn a world with water resources severely impacted by technology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end, this paper is an earth scientist's attempt to comprehend essential elements of water law, and to examine their connections to science. Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with a priori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science, observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while in law, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law in Europe and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago by Roman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason. Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the sea were governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that these elements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as private property. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jus gentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast, jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jus gentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in which science plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all. This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, follows their evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit of science inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving water and environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In a technological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of water law. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophical understanding of the relationships between science and law will contribute to their constructively coming together in the service of society.
LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT
African Journals Online (AJOL)
HP27975994114
to health care services dovetails with the international law approach to assessing compliance with the ..... with extended opening hours) are well distributed across the city.40 Availability of .... often constitutes a de facto denial of access to care.
Human law and computer law comparative perspectives
Hildebrandt, Mireille
2014-01-01
This book probes the epistemological and hermeneutic implications of data science and artificial intelligence for democracy and the Rule of Law, and the challenges posed by computing technologies traditional legal thinking and the regulation of human affairs.
A common law agenda for labour law
Hough, Barry; Spowart-Taylor, Ann
1999-01-01
This article assesses the purposes of a re-contractualisation of the employment relationship. It examines in particular the implied duty to act in good faith, and argues that in developing this and other implied terms the judiciary only extends employment protection to further wealth maximisation. It is argued that the common law sees its contribution to labour law as a device for maximising the efficiency of the enterprise and promoting the creation of wealth for the benefit of the national ...
Sulania, Indra; Agarwal, Dinesh C; Kumar, Manish; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Pravin
2016-07-27
We report the formation of self-organized nano-dots on the surface of InP(100) upon irradiating it with a 500 keV Ar(4+) ion beam. The irradiation was carried out at an angle of 25° with respect to the normal at the surface with 5 different fluences ranging from 1.0 × 10(15) to 1.0 × 10(17) ions per cm(2). The morphology of the ion-irradiated surfaces was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the formation of the nano-dots on the irradiated surfaces was confirmed. The average size of the nano-dots varied from 44 ± 14 nm to 94 ± 26 nm with increasing ion fluence. As a function of the ion fluence, the variation in the average size of the nano-dots has a great correlation with the surface roughness, which changes drastically up to the ion fluence of 1.0 × 10(16) ions per cm(2) and attains almost a saturation level for further irradiation. The roughness and the growth exponent values deduced from the scaling laws suggest that the kinetic sputtering and the large surface diffusion steps of the atoms are the primary reasons for the formation of the self-organized nanodots on the surface. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) studies show that the surface stoichiometry changes with the ion fluence. With irradiation, the surface becomes more indium (In)-rich owing to the preferential sputtering of the phosphorus atoms (P) and the pure metallic In nano-dots evolve at the highest ion fluence. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the sample irradiated with the highest fluence showed the absence of the nanostructuring beneath the surface. The surface morphological changes at this medium energy ion irradiation are discussed in correlation with the low and high energy experiments to shed more light on the mechanism of the well separated nano-dot formation.
Straight scaling FFAG beam line
Lagrange, J.-B.; Planche, T.; Yamakawa, E.; Uesugi, T.; Ishi, Y.; Kuriyama, Y.; Qin, B.; Okabe, K.; Mori, Y.
2012-11-01
Fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerators are recently subject to a strong revival. They are usually designed in a circular shape; however, it would be an asset to guide particles with no overall bend in this type of accelerator. An analytical development of a straight FFAG cell which keeps zero-chromaticity is presented here. A magnetic field law is thus obtained, called "straight scaling law", and an experiment has been conducted to confirm this zero-chromatic law. A straight scaling FFAG prototype has been designed and manufactured, and horizontal phase advances of two different energies are measured. Results are analyzed to clarify the straight scaling law.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narasimhan, T.N.
2007-10-17
In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.
International Treaties Tax Law in Brazilian Law
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milena Zampieri Sellmann
2016-06-01
Full Text Available International agreements are the primary source of obligations internationally, whi- ch generate reflections in national law. They have been extremely used in tax harvest because they avoid double taxation and reduce tax burden in international trade. They are formal sources of tax law, which the legislature is expressly recognized in Article 96 of the National Tax Code to set the “tax legislation” expression. Article 98 of the Code determines the supremacy of international tax agreements over national law. Against the odds, international tax agreements do not revoke or modify the national legislation, just limit the effectiveness of national law incompatible with them, with supra-legal hierarchy and infra-constitution. They are above national law, either after or before it is created, and are below the Federal Constitution, so agreements incompatible with it should not be approved by Congress and, if so, they will be subject to declaration of unconstitutionality by the Supreme Court. It is a reporting case the international agreement’s unconstitutio- nality after it is celebrated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Besnik Murati
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.
Khoury, B S; Khoury, J N
2017-09-01
Criminal law in dentistry, as shaped and moulded by the prevailing views of society, defines what is or is not socially acceptable. It applies in both personal and professional contexts with the intended consequence of protecting the public from unacceptable conduct and potential imbalances of power. At its centre, a patient's consent plays a pivotal role in transforming unlawful conduct into lawful conduct. This literature review considers the current law and the trend of utilizing criminal law in addition to non-criminal law alternatives of reprimanding clinicians for failure to achieve consent in the course of dental practice. Dentists must appreciate this change and the prosecuting authority's increasing willingness to resort to criminal law. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.
Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Visser, Matt
2013-01-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified. (paper)
Transnational Constitutional Law
Zumbansen, P (Peer); Bhatt, Kinnari
2018-01-01
textabstractThis chapter provides an overview of the emerging field of transnational constitutional law (TCL). Whilst questions of constitutional law are typically discussed in the context of a specific domestic legal setting, a salient strategy of TCL is to understand constitutional law and its values by placing them ‘in context’ with existing and evolving cultural norms and political, social and economic discourses and struggles. Drawing on socio-legal investigations into the relationships ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1996-01-01
The information about the Russian Federation law dealing with population radiation safety signed by the President in January 1996 is given. The law is based on a new strategy of radiation protection including the mean efficient dose from all ionizing radiation sources as the main factor for evaluation of the safe level for the population. The norms stated in the law will become valid from January 1, 2000
Viral V. Acharya; Ramin P. Baghai; Krishnamurthy V. Subramanian
2013-01-01
Can stringent labor laws be efficient? Possibly, if they provide firms with a commitment device to not punish short-run failures and thereby incentivize the pursuit of value-maximizing innovative activities. In this paper, we provide empirical evidence that strong labor laws indeed appear to have an ex ante positive incentive effect by encouraging the innovative pursuits of firms and their employees. Using patents and citations as proxies for innovation and a time-varying index of labor laws,...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gabrielsen, Jonas
The bond between law and rhetoric is as old as the subjects themselves. Especially the ancient works on legal rhetoric afford, however, a too narrow depiction of the interaction between law and rhetoric as a purely instrumental discipline of communication in court. In this paper I challenge...... this narrow understanding of legal rhetoric and outline three distinct frames of understanding the relation between law and rhetoric...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerre, Henrik Jøker
2005-01-01
of the concept of enjoyment is instructive, and looking at it more closely makes it possible to spell out why obedience in itself does not suffice for a moral existence. Subjecting ourselves to the prescriptions of positive law might actually function as a way of escaping the insatiable demands of the moral law....... In this case, the positive law not only sustains our enjoyment (by securing basic liberties), but also comes to function as an object of enjoyment itself....
SCHWARTZ, Alan
2010-01-01
This lecture was delivered on 17 March 2010. Alan Schwartz, Sterling Professor of Law; Professor of Management, Yale University This Lecture argues that much of the contract law in the cases (the US, the UK and Canada) and in the codes (Europe and Latin America) is unnecessary. To say that a law is unnecessary is to say that it does not perform a useful social function. The argument below thus sets out the functions that contract laws today are thought to serve, and then shows that many of...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salzwedel, J.
1982-01-01
In this omnibus, ten members of the working group for environmental law attempt to present the respective fields of environmental law in a consistent context, and to show the autonomy of each subject-matter as well as their interdependence and interrelationships. In the long run, the complexity of basic facts of natural science, technology and that of practical execution will require subject-specific penetration and application. Relationships between systems have to be realized to an increasing extent. Structures of law and administration have to be harmonized, and statements on the environmental impact of projects have to be made possible on the whole. Fundamental issues of environmental law are dealt with in the chapters entitled 'Concept and levels of applications of environmental law' and 'Environmental law in general'. The international, supranational and constitutional conditions given in advance of any environmental legislation increasingly gaining in importance are presented in the chapter on 'International environmental law', 'Basics of European Law' and on 'Constitutional Fundamentals'. The necessity of interdisciplinary cooperation becomes evident in those contributions concerning individual fields of environmental law. (orig./HSCH) [de
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
This volume, the third in the series, contains the proceedings of the conference 'Law before Gratian' and covers a wide range of topics from individual and local studies to broader reflections on the status and function of law in medieval European societies before the scholastic legal 'revolution......' of the later twelfth century. Seeking to broaden our view of what constituted law in this period, the articles examine these earlier developments in their own right and provide new insights into the variety and complexity of early and high medieval approaches to law and jurisprudence. Contributors...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
2007-01-01
... & SOFAs, legal assistance, combating terrorism, domestic operations, noncombatant evacuation operations, special operations, civil affairs, air, sea, and space law, detainee operations, reserve...
Movsesyan, Arsen A.
2015-01-01
The purpose of this article is to tell briefly about the newly discovered fundamental Laws of Sociodynamics, which are the driving force of the evolution of society and the determining factor of world historic process. Based on the principle of symmetry of the laws of nature the relationship between the Laws of Thermodynamics and Sociodynamics is shown, due to which the fifth Law of Thermodynamics has been formulated. In doing so the objectivity of the concept of «spirituality» has been subst...
LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT
African Journals Online (AJOL)
HP27975994114
of customary law, affect the positioning, operation and influence of traditional justice systems. ... communities of East Africa.11 In non-centralised communities, the people were as critical to ..... Other elements which make traditional justice systems the preferred option include ..... are in attendance as friends of the court.
School Law Update...Preventive School Law.
Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.
A wide variety of contemporary legal issues are addressed in the 15 separate papers that make up this volume. The introductory chapter by William C. Bednar, Jr. provides a broad-based rationale for "Preventive School Law." Chapters 2 and 3, both by Gerald A. Caplan, review "Current Issues in Reduction-in-Force" and "First Amendment Claims by…
LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT
African Journals Online (AJOL)
HP27975994114
2016-06-02
Jun 2, 2016 ... section 20(1)(a) of the Electoral Commission Act 51 of 1996 after counsel ... in the 2016 national municipal elections scheduled for 3 August 2016, .... of South African law 9 ed (Cape Town: Juta and Company Ltd 2007) 93.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carlson, Kerstin
The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was the first and most celebrated of a wave of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) built in the 1990s designed to advance liberalism through international criminal law. Model(ing) Justice examines the case law of the ICTY...
Desmoulin-Canselier, Sonia; Lacour, Stéphanie
Law and nanotechnology form a vast subject. The aim here will be to examine them from the societal standpoint of nanoethics, if necessary without due reference to the work that has been undertaken. For while law differs from ethics, as we shall attempt to explain throughout this reflection, it must also be studied in its relationship with social realities.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Items 1 - 21 of 21 ... Archives: Mizan Law Review. Journal Home > Archives: Mizan Law Review. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 21 of 21 Items. 2017. Vol 11, No 2 ...
Mofsky, James S.
1976-01-01
On the premise that corporate counsel must be an able diagnostician before he can focus on highly specialized and interrelated issues of business law, the author suggests an approach to corporate law curriculum in which the basic course balances the quality and quantity of material designed to create the needed sensitivity. (JT)
de Kogel, C.H.; Schrama, W.M.; Smit, M.
2014-01-01
The relationship between the brain and human behaviour is receiving increasing attention in legal practice. Much has already been published about the role of neuroscience in criminal law, but surprisingly little is known about its role in civil law. In this contribution, the relevance of
Teaching Information Technology Law
Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.
2009-01-01
In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…
Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Velde, van der M.; Szajkowska, A.; Verbruggen, R.
2008-01-01
This handbook analyses and explains the institutional, substantive and procedural elements of EU food law, taking the General Food Law as a focus point. Principles are discussed as well as specific rules addressing food as a product, the processes related to food and communication about food through
Meulen, van der B.M.J.
2014-01-01
The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The Oromia Law Journal covers articles, book reviews, legislative and case comments related to legal, economic, political and social issues arising in relation to Oromia, Ethiopian, and other related International Laws. As such, the journal has two audiences-primary and secondary. The primary ones are legal professionals ...
Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn
2015-01-01
This innovative textbook takes a broad approach to EU climate law and presents all available legal instruments to combat climate change, ranging from greenhouse gas emissions trading to the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency mechanisms. After providing a definition of climate law,
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Beijing has begun work on laws and regulations to guarantee the smooth operation of the 2008 Olympics One of the major tasks for Beijing as host of the 2008 Olympic Games is to establish regulations and laws to govern the preparations for and conduct of the Games. Thus, on April 10 the Olympic Legislation Coordinating
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The current information age requires intellectual property laws to catch up with and proactively regulate unfolding technological realities. The dynamic advances in the domain of the Internet have thus necessitated corresponding changes in Ethiopias intellectual property legal regime including copyright laws in relation with ...
Letwin, Alita Zurav
1983-01-01
Course outlines and timelines for a junior high school elective, "Youth and the Law," and a senior high school elective, "Criminal and Civil Law," are provided. A sample brochure about a supplementary television series for the junior high course is also included. (SR)
Social Studies: Law Education.
Curriculum Review, 1979
1979-01-01
Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)