WorldWideScience

Sample records for scaling laws

  1. Scaling laws of Rydberg excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckötter, J.; Freitag, M.; Fröhlich, D.; Aßmann, M.; Bayer, M.; Semina, M. A.; Glazov, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    Rydberg atoms have attracted considerable interest due to their huge interaction among each other and with external fields. They demonstrate characteristic scaling laws in dependence on the principal quantum number n for features such as the magnetic field for level crossing or the electric field of dissociation. Recently, the observation of excitons in highly excited states has allowed studying Rydberg physics in cuprous oxide crystals. Fundamentally different insights may be expected for Rydberg excitons, as the crystal environment and associated symmetry reduction compared to vacuum give not only optical access to many more states within an exciton multiplet but also extend the Hamiltonian for describing the exciton beyond the hydrogen model. Here we study experimentally and theoretically the scaling of several parameters of Rydberg excitons with n , for some of which we indeed find laws different from those of atoms. For others we find identical scaling laws with n , even though their origin may be distinctly different from the atomic case. At zero field the energy splitting of a particular multiplet n scales as n-3 due to crystal-specific terms in the Hamiltonian, e.g., from the valence band structure. From absorption spectra in magnetic field we find for the first crossing of levels with adjacent principal quantum numbers a Br∝n-4 dependence of the resonance field strength, Br, due to the dominant paramagnetic term unlike for atoms for which the diamagnetic contribution is decisive, resulting in a Br∝n-6 dependence. By contrast, the resonance electric field strength shows a scaling as Er∝n-5 as for Rydberg atoms. Also similar to atoms with the exception of hydrogen we observe anticrossings between states belonging to multiplets with different principal quantum numbers at these resonances. The energy splittings at the avoided crossings scale roughly as n-4, again due to crystal specific features in the exciton Hamiltonian. The data also allow us to

  2. Scaling Laws in Human Language

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Zipf's law on word frequency is observed in English, French, Spanish, Italian, and so on, yet it does not hold for Chinese, Japanese or Korean characters. A model for writing process is proposed to explain the above difference, which takes into account the effects of finite vocabulary size. Experiments, simulations and analytical solution agree well with each other. The results show that the frequency distribution follows a power law with exponent being equal to 1, at which the corresponding Zipf's exponent diverges. Actually, the distribution obeys exponential form in the Zipf's plot. Deviating from the Heaps' law, the number of distinct words grows with the text length in three stages: It grows linearly in the beginning, then turns to a logarithmical form, and eventually saturates. This work refines previous understanding about Zipf's law and Heaps' law in language systems.

  3. Scaling laws for coastal overwash morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Eli D.

    2016-12-01

    Overwash is a physical process of coastal sediment transport driven by storm events and is essential to landscape resilience in low-lying barrier environments. This work establishes a comprehensive set of scaling laws for overwash morphology: unifying quantitative descriptions with which to compare overwash features by their morphological attributes across case examples. Such scaling laws also help relate overwash features to other morphodynamic phenomena. Here morphometric data from a physical experiment are compared with data from natural examples of overwash features. The resulting scaling relationships indicate scale invariance spanning several orders of magnitude. Furthermore, these new relationships for overwash morphology align with classic scaling laws for fluvial drainages and alluvial fans.

  4. Ecology. Invariants, scaling laws, and ecological complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, P A

    2000-09-01

    There has been much debate about scaling laws in nature. It is believed that as body size increases the number of individuals in the population decreases. As Marquet explains in his Perspective, an elegant new study in two totally separate stream communities (Schmid et al.) confirms that this scaling law holds across more than 400 species of invertebrates.

  5. Scaling laws predict global microbial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locey, Kenneth J; Lennon, Jay T

    2016-05-24

    Scaling laws underpin unifying theories of biodiversity and are among the most predictively powerful relationships in biology. However, scaling laws developed for plants and animals often go untested or fail to hold for microorganisms. As a result, it is unclear whether scaling laws of biodiversity will span evolutionarily distant domains of life that encompass all modes of metabolism and scales of abundance. Using a global-scale compilation of ∼35,000 sites and ∼5.6⋅10(6) species, including the largest ever inventory of high-throughput molecular data and one of the largest compilations of plant and animal community data, we show similar rates of scaling in commonness and rarity across microorganisms and macroscopic plants and animals. We document a universal dominance scaling law that holds across 30 orders of magnitude, an unprecedented expanse that predicts the abundance of dominant ocean bacteria. In combining this scaling law with the lognormal model of biodiversity, we predict that Earth is home to upward of 1 trillion (10(12)) microbial species. Microbial biodiversity seems greater than ever anticipated yet predictable from the smallest to the largest microbiome.

  6. Neural scaling laws for an uncertain world

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Marc W

    2016-01-01

    The Weber-Fechner law describes the form of psychological space in many behavioral experiments involving perception of one-dimensional physical quantities. If the physical quantity is expressed using multiple neural receptors, then placing receptive fields evenly along a logarithmic scale naturally leads to the psychological Weber-Fechner law. In the visual system, the spacing and width of extrafoveal receptive fields are consistent with logarithmic scaling. Other sets of neural "receptors" appear to show the same qualitative properties, suggesting that this form of neural scaling reflects a solution to a very general problem. This paper argues that these neural scaling laws enable the brain to represent information about the world efficiently without making any assumptions about the statistics of the world. This analysis suggests that the organization of neural scales to represent one-dimensional quantities, including more abstract quantities such as numerosity, time, and allocentric space, should have a uni...

  7. Structural Similitude and Scaling Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitses, George J.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft and spacecraft comprise the class of aerospace structures that require efficiency and wisdom in design, sophistication and accuracy in analysis and numerous and careful experimental evaluations of components and prototype, in order to achieve the necessary system reliability, performance and safety. Preliminary and/or concept design entails the assemblage of system mission requirements, system expected performance and identification of components and their connections as well as of manufacturing and system assembly techniques. This is accomplished through experience based on previous similar designs, and through the possible use of models to simulate the entire system characteristics. Detail design is heavily dependent on information and concepts derived from the previous steps. This information identifies critical design areas which need sophisticated analyses, and design and redesign procedures to achieve the expected component performance. This step may require several independent analysis models, which, in many instances, require component testing. The last step in the design process, before going to production, is the verification of the design. This step necessitates the production of large components and prototypes in order to test component and system analytical predictions and verify strength and performance requirements under the worst loading conditions that the system is expected to encounter in service. Clearly then, full-scale testing is in many cases necessary and always very expensive. In the aircraft industry, in addition to full-scale tests, certification and safety necessitate large component static and dynamic testing. Such tests are extremely difficult, time consuming and definitely absolutely necessary. Clearly, one should not expect that prototype testing will be totally eliminated in the aircraft industry. It is hoped, though, that we can reduce full-scale testing to a minimum. Full-scale large component testing is necessary in

  8. Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Quentin S; Khatun, Suniya; Yosef, Amal; Dyer, Rachel-May

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026) while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029) indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs) to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes). Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.

  9. Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin S Hanley

    Full Text Available Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026 while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029 indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes. Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.

  10. Scaling Laws in Supramolecular Polymer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Donghua; Craig, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    The linear rheological properties of networks formed by adding bis-Pd(II) cross-linkers to poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) solution are examined, and the scaling law relationships between the zero shear viscosity (η0) of the networks versus the concentration of PVP solution (CPVP), the concentration of cross-linkers (CX), and the number density of elastically active chains (vphantom) are experimentally determined. The scaling law relationships are compared to the theoretical expectations of the Sticky Rouse and Sticky Reptation models (Macromolecules 2001, 34, 1058-1068), and both qualitative and quantitative differences are observed. PMID:21765553

  11. Temperature Scaling Law for Quantum Annealing Optimizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albash, Tameem; Martin-Mayor, Victor; Hen, Itay

    2017-09-15

    Physical implementations of quantum annealing unavoidably operate at finite temperatures. We point to a fundamental limitation of fixed finite temperature quantum annealers that prevents them from functioning as competitive scalable optimizers and show that to serve as optimizers annealer temperatures must be appropriately scaled down with problem size. We derive a temperature scaling law dictating that temperature must drop at the very least in a logarithmic manner but also possibly as a power law with problem size. We corroborate our results by experiment and simulations and discuss the implications of these to practical annealers.

  12. Scaling Laws, Eartquakes, Chaos and Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allègre, C. J.; Le Mouel, J.; Narteau, C.

    2011-12-01

    The scaling organization of fracture tectonics (S.O.F.T) model developed by Allegre et al. (1995) is based on an energy splitting combined with a renormalization group approach. This approach is a link between physical approaches, multiblock approaches (like Burridge-Knopoff) and scaling approaches to earthquakes. The basis of this approach was to use scaling transfer mechanism and to compute for each scale the probability of failure. We define a critical point by the convergences of failure probability for different scales. Depending on the different parameter values and the different scaling transfer laws, we compute different cases: some with precursors following by large earthquakes; some without precursor but with a large event; some with aftershocks and some with small number of aftershocks; and some with a pure creep without quakes. those models suggest a trail for predictions, which is the studies of various parameters depending on different scales (electromag with various frequencies or seismic noise of various frequencies).

  13. Scaling laws in sand launch process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Yang, Zhang

    2017-04-01

    As the bond linking the micro research to the macro research in wind-sand flow, the scaling laws on sand mean launch velocity and mean launch angle can be used to calculate the mean velocity and the transport rate, and they also play an important role in understanding saltation. However, universal scaling laws are still absent. In analogy to the fluid flows, the wind-sand flow is divided into three periods based on the way of sand taking off from sand bed, and the hypothesis on the scaling laws in each period is proposed. Then according to the hypothesis we deduce the sand concentration piece-wise function for saltation layer and also the critical shields numbers dividing three periods. The comparisons between the predictions and the experimental observations show that under a lower shields number the vertical mean launch velocity and the mean launch angle scale with the wind shear velocity and the square root of shields number respectively. However, under a higher shields number the vertical mean launch velocity scale with the sand diameter and the mean launch angle is almost constant at 700 or so.

  14. Scaling laws for radial foil bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavara Prasad, Srikanth

    The effects of fluid pressurization, structural deformation of the compliant members and heat generation in foil bearings make the design and analysis of foil bearings very complicated. The complex fluid-structural-thermal interactions in foil bearings also make modeling efforts challenging because these phenomena are governed by highly non-linear partial differential equations. Consequently, comparison of various bearing designs require detailed calculation of the flow fields (velocities, pressures), bump deflections (structural compliance) and heat transfer phenomena (viscous dissipation in the fluid, frictional heating, temperature profile etc.,) resulting in extensive computational effort (time/hardware). To obviate rigorous computations and aid in feasibility assessments of foil bearings of various sizes, NASA developed the "rule of thumb" design guidelines for estimation of journal bearing load capacity. The guidelines are based on extensive experimental data. The goal of the current work is the development of scaling laws for radial foil bearings to establish an analytical "rule of thumb" for bearing clearance and bump stiffness. The use of scale invariant Reynolds equation and experimentally observed NASA "rule of thumb" yield scale factors which can be deduced from first principles. Power-law relationships between: a. Bearing clearance and bearing radius, and b. bump stiffness and bearing radius, are obtained. The clearance and bump stiffness values obtained from scaling laws are used as inputs for Orbit simulation to study various cases. As the clearance of the bearing reaches the dimensions of the material surface roughness, asperity contact breaks the fluid film which results in wear. Similarly, as the rotor diameter increases (requiring larger bearing diameters), the load capacity of the fluid film should increase to prevent dry rubbing. This imposes limits on the size of the rotor diameter and consequently bearing diameter. Therefore, this thesis aims

  15. Paradoxical Interpretations of Urban Scaling Laws

    CERN Document Server

    Cottineau, Clementine; Arcaute, Elsa; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Scaling laws are powerful summaries of the variations of urban attributes with city size. However, the validity of their universal meaning for cities is hampered by the observation that different scaling regimes can be encountered for the same territory, time and attribute, depending on the criteria used to delineate cities. The aim of this paper is to present new insights concerning this variation, coupled with a sensitivity analysis of urban scaling in France, for several socio-economic and infrastructural attributes from data collected exhaustively at the local level. The sensitivity analysis considers different aggregations of local units for which data are given by the Population Census. We produce a large variety of definitions of cities (approximatively 5000) by aggregating local Census units corresponding to the systematic combination of three definitional criteria: density, commuting flows and population cutoffs. We then measure the magnitude of scaling estimations and their sensitivity to city defin...

  16. Scaling laws and dynamics of bubble coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Christopher R.; Kamat, Pritish M.; Thete, Sumeet S.; Munro, James P.; Lister, John R.; Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.

    2017-08-01

    The coalescence of bubbles and drops plays a central role in nature and industry. During coalescence, two bubbles or drops touch and merge into one as the neck connecting them grows from microscopic to macroscopic scales. The hydrodynamic singularity that arises when two bubbles or drops have just touched and the flows that ensue have been studied thoroughly when two drops coalesce in a dynamically passive outer fluid. In this paper, the coalescence of two identical and initially spherical bubbles, which are idealized as voids that are surrounded by an incompressible Newtonian liquid, is analyzed by numerical simulation. This problem has recently been studied (a) experimentally using high-speed imaging and (b) by asymptotic analysis in which the dynamics is analyzed by determining the growth of a hole in the thin liquid sheet separating the two bubbles. In the latter, advantage is taken of the fact that the flow in the thin sheet of nonconstant thickness is governed by a set of one-dimensional, radial extensional flow equations. While these studies agree on the power law scaling of the variation of the minimum neck radius with time, they disagree with respect to the numerical value of the prefactors in the scaling laws. In order to reconcile these differences and also provide insights into the dynamics that are difficult to probe by either of the aforementioned approaches, simulations are used to access both earlier times than has been possible in the experiments and also later times when asymptotic analysis is no longer applicable. Early times and extremely small length scales are attained in the new simulations through the use of a truncated domain approach. Furthermore, it is shown by direct numerical simulations in which the flow within the bubbles is also determined along with the flow exterior to them that idealizing the bubbles as passive voids has virtually no effect on the scaling laws relating minimum neck radius and time.

  17. Scaling Laws in Spatial Network Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Molkenthin, Nora

    2016-01-01

    Geometric constraints impact the formation of a broad range of spatial networks, from amino acid chains folding to proteins structures to rearranging particle aggregates. How the network of interactions dynamically self-organizes in such systems is far from fully understood. Here, we analyze a class of spatial network formation processes by introducing a mapping from geometric to graph-theoretic constraints. Combining stochastic and mean field analyses yields an algebraic scaling law for the extent (graph diameter) of the resulting networks with system size, in contrast to logarithmic scaling known for networks without constraints. Intriguingly, the exponent falls between that of self-avoiding random walks and that of space filling arrangements, consistent with experimentally observed scaling (of the spatial radius of gyration) for protein tertiary structures.

  18. Correlations and scaling laws in human mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang-Wen; Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several path-breaking findings on human mobility patterns point out a novel issue which is of important theoretical significance and great application prospects. The empirical analysis of the data which can reflect the real-world human mobility provides the basic cognition and verification of the theoretical models and predictive results on human mobility. One of the most noticeable findings in previous studies on human mobility is the wide-spread scaling anomalies, e.g. the power-law-like displacement distributions. Understanding the origin of these scaling anomalies is of central importance to this issue and therefore is the focus of our discussion. In this paper, we empirically analyze the real-world human movements which are based on GPS records, and observe rich scaling properties in the temporal-spatial patterns as well as an abnormal transition in the speed-displacement patterns together with an evidence to the real-world traffic jams. In addition, we notice that the displacements at the population level show a significant positive correlation, indicating a cascading-like nature in human movements. Furthermore, our analysis at the individual level finds that the displacement distributions of users with stronger correlations usually are closer to the power law, suggesting a correlation between the positive correlation of the displacement series and the form of an individual's displacement distribution. These empirical findings make connections between the two basic properties of human mobility, the scaling anomalies on displacement distributions and the positive correlations on displacement series, implying the cascading-like dynamics which is exhibited by the positive correlations would cause the emergence of scaling properties on human mobility patterns. Our findings would inspire further researches on mechanisms and predictions of human mobility.

  19. New Empirical Earthquake Source‐Scaling Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Thingbaijam, Kiran Kumar S.

    2017-12-13

    We develop new empirical scaling laws for rupture width W, rupture length L, rupture area A, and average slip D, based on a large database of rupture models. The database incorporates recent earthquake source models in a wide magnitude range (M 5.4–9.2) and events of various faulting styles. We apply general orthogonal regression, instead of ordinary least-squares regression, to account for measurement errors of all variables and to obtain mutually self-consistent relationships. We observe that L grows more rapidly with M compared to W. The fault-aspect ratio (L/W) tends to increase with fault dip, which generally increases from reverse-faulting, to normal-faulting, to strike-slip events. At the same time, subduction-inter-face earthquakes have significantly higher W (hence a larger rupture area A) compared to other faulting regimes. For strike-slip events, the growth of W with M is strongly inhibited, whereas the scaling of L agrees with the L-model behavior (D correlated with L). However, at a regional scale for which seismogenic depth is essentially fixed, the scaling behavior corresponds to the W model (D not correlated with L). Self-similar scaling behavior with M − log A is observed to be consistent for all the cases, except for normal-faulting events. Interestingly, the ratio D/W (a proxy for average stress drop) tends to increase with M, except for shallow crustal reverse-faulting events, suggesting the possibility of scale-dependent stress drop. The observed variations in source-scaling properties for different faulting regimes can be interpreted in terms of geological and seismological factors. We find substantial differences between our new scaling relationships and those of previous studies. Therefore, our study provides critical updates on source-scaling relations needed in seismic–tsunami-hazard analysis and engineering applications.

  20. Scaling laws and the modern city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isalgue, Antonio; Coch, Helena; Serra, Rafael

    2007-08-01

    The inter-relations and the complexity of modern urban spaces are difficult to analyse in a way that allows improving living conditions or help to ascertain optimal decisions for saving energy or improving sustainability. Carefully designed decisions and guidelines might produce unexpected results because of particularities, or complex sets of reactions from residents or economic counterparts. Complexity tends to increase with size, such as when, for instance, services tend to concentrate in large agglomerations, and transportation needs take on critical importance. Complex systems such as living organisms are known to follow approximate relationships as scaling laws between the variables that describe them. Some of these kinds of relationships are tested in relation to modern developed urban spaces, in which it is possible to find a reasonable continuity with the types of scales seen in living organisms, and some preliminary conclusions are drawn.

  1. Autocorrelation and Scaling Laws in Human Mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiang-Wen; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Human mobility patterns deeply affect the dynamics of many social systems. In this paper, we empirically analyze the real-world human movements based on the data set of GPS records, and observe rich scaling properties in the temporal-spatial patterns and the abnormal transition in speed-displacement patterns. More interestingly, we notice that the displacements in group level shows significantly positive autocorrelation, indicating a cascading-like nature in human movements. Furthermore, our analysis in individual level finds that the displacement distributions of the users who have stronger autocorrelation on displacements are more close to the power law form, implying a relationship between the positive autocorrelation of the series of displacements and the form of individual's displacement distribution. These findings show a factor directly relevant to the origin of the scaling properties in human mobility from the empirical analysis.

  2. Scaling Law of Urban Ride Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachet, R.; Sagarra, O.; Santi, P.; Resta, G.; Szell, M.; Strogatz, S. H.; Ratti, C.

    2017-03-01

    Sharing rides could drastically improve the efficiency of car and taxi transportation. Unleashing such potential, however, requires understanding how urban parameters affect the fraction of individual trips that can be shared, a quantity that we call shareability. Using data on millions of taxi trips in New York City, San Francisco, Singapore, and Vienna, we compute the shareability curves for each city, and find that a natural rescaling collapses them onto a single, universal curve. We explain this scaling law theoretically with a simple model that predicts the potential for ride sharing in any city, using a few basic urban quantities and no adjustable parameters. Accurate extrapolations of this type will help planners, transportation companies, and society at large to shape a sustainable path for urban growth.

  3. Scaling Law of Urban Ride Sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Tachet, Remi; Santi, Paolo; Resta, Giovanni; Szell, Michael; Strogatz, Steven; Ratti, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Sharing rides could drastically improve the efficiency of car and taxi transportation. Unleashing such potential, however, requires understanding how urban parameters affect the fraction of individual trips that can be shared, a quantity that we call shareability. Using data on millions of taxi trips in New York City, San Francisco, Singapore, and Vienna, we compute the shareability curves for each city, and find that a natural rescaling collapses them onto a single, universal curve. We explain this scaling law theoretically with a simple model that predicts the potential for ride sharing in any city, using a few basic urban quantities and no adjustable parameters. Accurate extrapolations of this type will help planners, transportation companies, and society at large to shape a sustainable path for urban growth.

  4. Scaling laws in magnetized plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldyrev, Stanislav [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-06-28

    Interactions of plasma motion with magnetic fields occur in nature and in the laboratory in an impressively broad range of scales, from megaparsecs in astrophysical systems to centimeters in fusion devices. The fact that such an enormous array of phenomena can be effectively studied lies in the existence of fundamental scaling laws in plasma turbulence, which allow one to scale the results of analytic and numerical modeling to the sized of galaxies, velocities of supernovae explosions, or magnetic fields in fusion devices. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provides the simplest framework for describing magnetic plasma turbulence. Recently, a number of new features of MHD turbulence have been discovered and an impressive array of thought-provoking phenomenological theories have been put forward. However, these theories have conflicting predictions, and the currently available numerical simulations are not able to resolve the contradictions. MHD turbulence exhibits a variety of regimes unusual in regular hydrodynamic turbulence. Depending on the strength of the guide magnetic field it can be dominated by weakly interacting Alfv\\'en waves or strongly interacting wave packets. At small scales such turbulence is locally anisotropic and imbalanced (cross-helical). In a stark contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, which tends to ``forget'' global constrains and become uniform and isotropic at small scales, MHD turbulence becomes progressively more anisotropic and unbalanced at small scales. Magnetic field plays a fundamental role in turbulent dynamics. Even when such a field is not imposed by external sources, it is self-consistently generated by the magnetic dynamo action. This project aims at a comprehensive study of universal regimes of magnetic plasma turbulence, combining the modern analytic approaches with the state of the art numerical simulations. The proposed study focuses on the three topics: weak MHD turbulence, which is relevant for laboratory devices

  5. Scaling Laws for $e^+ e^-$ Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, J P; Raubenheimer, T O; Wilson, Ian H

    1999-01-01

    Design studies of a future TeV e+e- Linear Collider (TLC) are presently being made by five major laboratories within the framework of a world-wide collaboration. A figure of merit is defined which enables an objective comparison of these different designs. This figure of merit is shown to depend only on a small number of parameters. General scaling laws for the main beam parameters and linac parameters are derived and prove to be very effective when used as guidelines to optimize the linear collider design. By adopting appropriate parameters for beam stability, the figure of merit becomes nearly independent of accelerating gradient and RF frequency of the accelerating structures. In spite of the strong dependence of the wake-fields with frequency, the single bunch emittance preservation during acceleration along the linac is also shown to be independent of the RF frequency when using equivalent trajectory correction schemes. In this situation, beam acceleration using high frequency structures becomes very adv...

  6. Origin of Noncubic Scaling Law in Disordered Granular Packing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Chengjie; Li, Jindong; Kou, Binquan; Cao, Yixin; Li, Zhifeng; Xiao, Xianghui; Fu, Yanan; Xiao, Tiqiao; Hong, Liang; Zhang, Jie; Kob, Walter; Wang, Yujie

    2017-06-01

    Recent diffraction experiments on metallic glasses have unveiled an unexpected non-cubic scaling law between density and average interatomic distance, which lead to the speculations on the presence of fractal glass order. Using X-ray tomography we identify here a similar non-cubic scaling law in disordered granular packing of spherical particles. We find that the scaling law is directly related to the contact neighbors within first nearest neighbor shell, and therefore is closely connected to the phenomenon of jamming. The seemingly universal scaling exponent around 2.5 arises due to the isostatic condition with contact number around 6, and we argue that the exponent should not be universal.

  7. Power-law distributions based on exponential distributions: Latent scaling, spurious Zipf's law, and fractal rabbits

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2013-01-01

    The different between the inverse power function and the negative exponential function is significant. The former suggests a complex distribution, while the latter indicates a simple distribution. However, the association of the power-law distribution with the exponential distribution has been seldom researched. Using mathematical derivation and numerical experiments, I reveal that a power-law distribution can be created through averaging an exponential distribution. For the distributions defined in a 1-dimension space, the scaling exponent is 1; while for those defined in a 2-dimension space, the scaling exponent is 2. The findings of this study are as follows. First, the exponential distributions suggest a hidden scaling, but the scaling exponents suggest a Euclidean dimension. Second, special power-law distributions can be derived from exponential distributions, but they differ from the typical power-law distribution. Third, it is the real power-law distribution that can be related with fractal dimension. ...

  8. Power-Law Distributions Based on Exponential Distributions: Latent Scaling, Spurious Zipf's Law, and Fractal Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-03-01

    The difference between the inverse power function and the negative exponential function is significant. The former suggests a complex distribution, while the latter indicates a simple distribution. However, the association of the power-law distribution with the exponential distribution has been seldom researched. This paper is devoted to exploring the relationships between exponential laws and power laws from the angle of view of urban geography. Using mathematical derivation and numerical experiments, I reveal that a power-law distribution can be created through a semi-moving average process of an exponential distribution. For the distributions defined in a one-dimension space (e.g. Zipf's law), the power exponent is 1; while for those defined in a two-dimension space (e.g. Clark's law), the power exponent is 2. The findings of this study are as follows. First, the exponential distributions suggest a hidden scaling, but the scaling exponents suggest a Euclidean dimension. Second, special power-law distributions can be derived from exponential distributions, but they differ from the typical power-law distributions. Third, it is the real power-law distributions that can be related with fractal dimension. This study discloses an inherent link between simplicity and complexity. In practice, maybe the result presented in this paper can be employed to distinguish the real power laws from spurious power laws (e.g. the fake Zipf distribution).

  9. Scaling laws for a compliant biomimetic swimmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibouin, Florence; Raufaste, Christophe; Bouret, Yann; Argentina, Mederic

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the seminal work of Lord Lighthill in the sixties, we study the motion of inertial aquatic swimmers that propels with undulatory gaits. In 2014, Gazzola et al. have uncovered the law linking the swimming velocity to the kinematics of the swimmer and the fluid properties. At high Reynolds numbers, the velocity appears to be equal to 0.4 Af /(2 π) , where A and f are respectively the amplitude and the frequency of the oscillating fin. We have constructed a compliant biomimetic swimmer, whose muscles have been modeled through a torque distribution thanks to a servomotor. A soft polymeric material mimics the flesh and provides the flexibility. By immersing our robot into a water tunnel, we find and characterize the operating point for which the propulsive force balances the drag. We bring the first experimental proof of the former law and probe large amplitude undulations which exhibits nonlinear effects. All data collapse perfectly onto a single master curve. We investigate the role of the fin flexibility by varying its length and its thickness and we figured out the existence of an efficient swimming regime. We thank the support of CNRS and Université Côte d'Azur.

  10. Ohm's law survives to the atomic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, B; Mahapatra, S; Ryu, H; Lee, S; Fuhrer, A; Reusch, T C G; Thompson, D L; Lee, W C T; Klimeck, G; Hollenberg, L C L; Simmons, M Y

    2012-01-06

    As silicon electronics approaches the atomic scale, interconnects and circuitry become comparable in size to the active device components. Maintaining low electrical resistivity at this scale is challenging because of the presence of confining surfaces and interfaces. We report on the fabrication of wires in silicon--only one atom tall and four atoms wide--with exceptionally low resistivity (~0.3 milliohm-centimeters) and the current-carrying capabilities of copper. By embedding phosphorus atoms within a silicon crystal with an average spacing of less than 1 nanometer, we achieved a diameter-independent resistivity, which demonstrates ohmic scaling to the atomic limit. Atomistic tight-binding calculations confirm the metallicity of these atomic-scale wires, which pave the way for single-atom device architectures for both classical and quantum information processing.

  11. Newton's Third Law on a Scale Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Huntula, Jiradawan

    2009-01-01

    We propose a series of experiments involving balance readings of an object naturally floating or forced to be partially or fully immersed in water contained in a beaker sitting on an electronic scale balance. Students were asked to predict, observe and explain each case. The teacher facilitated the learning by asking probing questions, giving…

  12. Scaling laws and properties of compositional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccianti, Antonella; Albanese, Stefano; Lima, AnnaMaria; Minolfi, Giulia; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-04-01

    Many random processes occur in geochemistry. Accurate predictions of the manner in which elements or chemical species interact each other are needed to construct models able to treat presence of random components. Geochemical variables actually observed are the consequence of several events, some of which may be poorly defined or imperfectly understood. Variables tend to change with time/space but, despite their complexity, may share specific common traits and it is possible to model them stochastically. Description of the frequency distribution of the geochemical abundances has been an important target of research, attracting attention for at least 100 years, starting with CLARKE (1889) and continued by GOLDSCHMIDT (1933) and WEDEPOHL (1955). However, it was AHRENS (1954a,b) who focussed on the effect of skewness distributions, for example the log-normal distribution, regarded by him as a fundamental law of geochemistry. Although modeling of frequency distributions with some probabilistic models (for example Gaussian, log-normal, Pareto) has been well discussed in several fields of application, little attention has been devoted to the features of compositional data. When compositional nature of data is taken into account, the most typical distribution models for compositions are the Dirichlet and the additive logistic normal (or normal on the simplex) (AITCHISON et al. 2003; MATEU-FIGUERAS et al. 2005; MATEU-FIGUERAS and PAWLOWSKY-GLAHN 2008; MATEU-FIGUERAS et al. 2013). As an alternative, because compositional data have to be transformed from simplex space to real space, coordinates obtained by the ilr transformation or by application of the concept of balance can be analyzed by classical methods (EGOZCUE et al. 2003). In this contribution an approach coherent with the properties of compositional information is proposed and used to investigate the shape of the frequency distribution of compositional data. The purpose is to understand data-generation processes

  13. Scaling and power-laws in ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Pablo A; Quiñones, Renato A; Abades, Sebastian; Labra, Fabio; Tognelli, Marcelo; Arim, Matias; Rivadeneira, Marcelo

    2005-05-01

    Scaling relationships (where body size features as the independent variable) and power-law distributions are commonly reported in ecological systems. In this review we analyze scaling relationships related to energy acquisition and transformation and power-laws related to fluctuations in numbers. Our aim is to show how individual level attributes can help to explain and predict patterns at the level of populations that can propagate at upper levels of organization. We review similar relationships also appearing in the analysis of aquatic ecosystems (i.e. the biomass spectra) in the context of ecological invariant relationships (i.e. independent of size) such as the 'energetic equivalence rule' and the 'linear biomass hypothesis'. We also discuss some power-law distributions emerging in the analysis of numbers and fluctuations in ecological attributes as they point to regularities that are yet to be integrated with traditional scaling relationships and which we foresee as an exciting area of future research.

  14. Scaling laws and fluctuations in the statistics of word frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Martin; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we combine statistical analysis of written texts and simple stochastic models to explain the appearance of scaling laws in the statistics of word frequencies. The average vocabulary of an ensemble of fixed-length texts is known to scale sublinearly with the total number of words (Heaps’ law). Analyzing the fluctuations around this average in three large databases (Google-ngram, English Wikipedia, and a collection of scientific articles), we find that the standard deviation scales linearly with the average (Taylor's law), in contrast to the prediction of decaying fluctuations obtained using simple sampling arguments. We explain both scaling laws (Heaps’ and Taylor) by modeling the usage of words using a Poisson process with a fat-tailed distribution of word frequencies (Zipf's law) and topic-dependent frequencies of individual words (as in topic models). Considering topical variations lead to quenched averages, turn the vocabulary size a non-self-averaging quantity, and explain the empirical observations. For the numerous practical applications relying on estimations of vocabulary size, our results show that uncertainties remain large even for long texts. We show how to account for these uncertainties in measurements of lexical richness of texts with different lengths.

  15. Triadic closure dynamics drives scaling laws in social multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter; Thurner, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    Social networks exhibit scaling laws for several structural characteristics, such as degree distribution, scaling of the attachment kernel and clustering coefficients as a function of node degree. A detailed understanding if and how these scaling laws are inter-related is missing so far, let alone whether they can be understood through a common, dynamical principle. We propose a simple model for stationary network formation and show that the three mentioned scaling relations follow as natural consequences of triadic closure. The validity of the model is tested on multiplex data from a well-studied massive multiplayer online game. We find that the three scaling exponents observed in the multiplex data for the friendship, communication and trading networks can simultaneously be explained by the model. These results suggest that triadic closure could be identified as one of the fundamental dynamical principles in social multiplex network formation.

  16. Dynamical scaling laws – A few unanswered questions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dynamical scaling laws – A few unanswered questions. S MAZUMDER. Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay 400 085, India. E-mail: smazu@barc.gov.in. Abstract. When a system with continuous symmetry is quenched instantly to a broken symmetry state, topological defects appear in an ...

  17. Fluctuation Scaling, Taylor’s Law, and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Quentin S.; Khatun, Suniya; Yosef, Amal; Dyer, Rachel-May

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor’s law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor’s law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057±0.026) while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292±0.029) indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor’s law exponents from 1.43±0.12 (Drugs) to 2.094±0081 (Other Crimes). Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation. PMID:25271781

  18. Scale relativity theory and integrative systems biology: 1. Founding principles and scale laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffray, Charles; Nottale, Laurent

    2008-05-01

    In these two companion papers, we provide an overview and a brief history of the multiple roots, current developments and recent advances of integrative systems biology and identify multiscale integration as its grand challenge. Then we introduce the fundamental principles and the successive steps that have been followed in the construction of the scale relativity theory, and discuss how scale laws of increasing complexity can be used to model and understand the behaviour of complex biological systems. In scale relativity theory, the geometry of space is considered to be continuous but non-differentiable, therefore fractal (i.e., explicitly scale-dependent). One writes the equations of motion in such a space as geodesics equations, under the constraint of the principle of relativity of all scales in nature. To this purpose, covariant derivatives are constructed that implement the various effects of the non-differentiable and fractal geometry. In this first review paper, the scale laws that describe the new dependence on resolutions of physical quantities are obtained as solutions of differential equations acting in the scale space. This leads to several possible levels of description for these laws, from the simplest scale invariant laws to generalized laws with variable fractal dimensions. Initial applications of these laws to the study of species evolution, embryogenesis and cell confinement are discussed.

  19. Unified scaling law for earthquakes in Crimea and Northern Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, A. K.; Kossobokov, V. G.

    2016-10-01

    This study continues detailed investigations on the construction of regional charts of the parameters of the generalized Guttenberg-Richter Law, which takes into account the properties of the spatiotemporal seismic energy scaling. We analyzed the parameters of the law in the vicinity of the intersections of morphostructural lineaments in Crimea and Greater Caucasus. It was shown that ignoring the fractal character of the spatial distribution of earthquakes in the southern part of the Russian Federation can lead to significant underestimation of the seismic hazard in the largest cities of the region.

  20. A scaling law for impact-induced melt volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, M.; Rubie, D. C.; Melosh, H. J.; Jacobson, S. A.; Golabek, G. J.; Nimmo, F.; Morbidelli, A.

    2017-09-01

    During the late stages of planetary accretion, protoplanets experience a number of giant impacts and extensive mantle melting. Understanding the melt volume is important because it determines elemental abundances in the planetary core and mantle. Here, we develop a scaling law for melt volume based on giant impact simulations using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) as a function of the total mass, impact angle, impact velocity, and impactor-to-total mass ratio. We find that the law is most sensitive to the impact velocity and angle.

  1. The Origin of Scales and Scaling Laws in Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guszejnov, David; Hopkins, Philip; Grudich, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Star formation is one of the key processes of cosmic evolution as it influences phenomena from the formation of galaxies to the formation of planets, and the development of life. Unfortunately, there is no comprehensive theory of star formation, despite intense effort on both the theoretical and observational sides, due to the large amount of complicated, non-linear physics involved (e.g. MHD, gravity, radiation). A possible approach is to formulate simple, easily testable models that allow us to draw a clear connection between phenomena and physical processes.In the first part of the talk I will focus on the origin of the IMF peak, the characteristic scale of stars. There is debate in the literature about whether the initial conditions of isothermal turbulence could set the IMF peak. Using detailed numerical simulations, I will demonstrate that not to be the case, the initial conditions are "forgotten" through the fragmentation cascade. Additional physics (e.g. feedback) is required to set the IMF peak.In the second part I will use simulated galaxies from the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project to show that most star formation theories are unable to reproduce the near universal IMF peak of the Milky Way.Finally, I will present analytic arguments (supported by simulations) that a large number of observables (e.g. IMF slope) are the consequences of scale-free structure formation and are (to first order) unsuitable for differentiating between star formation theories.

  2. Power Laws, Scale-Free Networks and Genome Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Koonin, Eugene V; Karev, Georgy P

    2006-01-01

    Power Laws, Scale-free Networks and Genome Biology deals with crucial aspects of the theoretical foundations of systems biology, namely power law distributions and scale-free networks which have emerged as the hallmarks of biological organization in the post-genomic era. The chapters in the book not only describe the interesting mathematical properties of biological networks but moves beyond phenomenology, toward models of evolution capable of explaining the emergence of these features. The collection of chapters, contributed by both physicists and biologists, strives to address the problems in this field in a rigorous but not excessively mathematical manner and to represent different viewpoints, which is crucial in this emerging discipline. Each chapter includes, in addition to technical descriptions of properties of biological networks and evolutionary models, a more general and accessible introduction to the respective problems. Most chapters emphasize the potential of theoretical systems biology for disco...

  3. Scaling laws for implicit viscosities in smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierwisch Claas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH is a particle-based method which solves continuum equations such as the Navier-Stokes equations. A periodic fluidic system under homogeneous shear is studied using SPH in the present work. The total pressure of the system and the shear stress contributions from the SPH interaction terms for pressure and viscosity as well as the contribution caused by velocity fluctuations are analyzed. It is found that the pressure and the shear stress contributions obey certain scaling laws depending on physical properties of the system such as compressibility, viscosity and shear rate as well as the spatial resolution. Some of the identified relations resemble scaling laws for the rheology of dense granular flows. These findings render an assessment of the convergence with respect to the spatial resolution of SPH simulations possible. Furthermore, the similarities between numerical SPH particles and physical grains in dense flow provide a deeper understanding of the nature of the SPH method.

  4. Scaling laws for implicit viscosities in smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierwisch, Claas; Polfer, Pit

    2017-06-01

    Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a particle-based method which solves continuum equations such as the Navier-Stokes equations. A periodic fluidic system under homogeneous shear is studied using SPH in the present work. The total pressure of the system and the shear stress contributions from the SPH interaction terms for pressure and viscosity as well as the contribution caused by velocity fluctuations are analyzed. It is found that the pressure and the shear stress contributions obey certain scaling laws depending on physical properties of the system such as compressibility, viscosity and shear rate as well as the spatial resolution. Some of the identified relations resemble scaling laws for the rheology of dense granular flows. These findings render an assessment of the convergence with respect to the spatial resolution of SPH simulations possible. Furthermore, the similarities between numerical SPH particles and physical grains in dense flow provide a deeper understanding of the nature of the SPH method.

  5. Quantum scaling laws in the onset of dynamical delocalization

    OpenAIRE

    Chabé, Julien; Lignier, Hans; L. D. De Souza Cavalcante, Hugo; Delande, Dominique; Szriftgiser, Pascal; Garreau, Jean Claude

    2006-01-01

    4 pages, revtex4; International audience; We study the destruction of dynamical localization, experimentally observed in an atomic realization of the kicked rotor, by a deterministic Hamiltonian perturbation, with a temporal periodicity incommensurate with the principal driving. We show that the destruction is gradual, with well defined scaling laws for the various classical and quantum parameters, in sharp contrast with predictions based on the analogy with Anderson localization.

  6. On Scaling Limits of Power Law Shot-noise Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Baccelli, François; Biswas, Anup

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the scaling limit of a class of shot-noise fields defined on an independently marked stationary Poisson point process and with a power law response function. Under appropriate conditions, it is shown that the shot-noise field can be scaled suitably to have a $\\alpha$-stable limit, intensity of the underlying point process goes to infinity. It is also shown that the finite dimensional distributions of the limiting random field have i.i.d. stable random components. We hence...

  7. Physically-sound scaling laws for snow avalanche impact pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faug, T.; Chanut, B.; Caccamo, P.; Naaim, M.

    2012-04-01

    Estimating the force on obstacles stemming from snow avalanches is a non trivial task in avalanche-flow regimes at low velocity for which inertia does not prevail. In addition to the gravity force -proportional to the weight of the undisturbed incoming flow- that takes place at low velocity, extra forces induced by friction for granular snow avalanches, or by some possible viscosity effects for more fluid-like snow avalanches, should be considered. We discuss here the case of a wall-like obstacle overflowed by a granular snow avalanche. Recent small-scale discrete numerical simulations and laboratory tests with granular flows have allowed developing and validating an analytical model to predict the force on the wall. This model shows that the force is the sum of the inertial force, the gravity force of the undisturbed flow and an additional contribution caused by the presence of a stagnant zone formed upstream of the wall and co-existing with an inertial zone above. The model is used to derive a physically-sound scaling law giving the pressure relative to the typical inertial force of the undisturbed flow as a function of the Froude number. Rheological properties of the granular flowing material such as the typical friction angles of the granular material as well as the restitution coefficient of granules are included in the proposed scaling law. With appropriate values of those rheological properties for flowing granular snow, the scaling law can be used to interpret existing pressure data from full-scale snow avalanches and can be cross-compared to classical approaches used in snow avalanche engineering.

  8. Power-law citation distributions are not scale-free

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golosovsky, Michael

    2017-09-01

    We analyze time evolution of statistical distributions of citations to scientific papers published in the same year. While these distributions seem to follow the power-law dependence we find that they are nonstationary and the exponent of the power-law fit decreases with time and does not come to saturation. We attribute the nonstationarity of citation distributions to different longevity of the low-cited and highly cited papers. By measuring citation trajectories of papers we found that citation careers of the low-cited papers come to saturation after 10-15 years while those of the highly cited papers continue to increase indefinitely: The papers that exceed some citation threshold become runaways. Thus, we show that although citation distribution can look as a power-law dependence, it is not scale free and there is a hidden dynamic scale associated with the onset of runaways. We compare our measurements to our recently developed model of citation dynamics based on copying-redirection-triadic closure and find explanations to our empirical observations.

  9. Heat Release Effects on Scaling Laws for Turbulent Shear Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, Kathleen M.; Dahm, Werner J. A.

    1996-11-01

    Experiments have long suggested apparent differences in the fundamental scaling laws for turbulent shear flows between reacting and nonreacting flows. These differences result from the density changes produced by exothermic reaction, and are here shown to be similar to the changes produced by free-stream density differences in nonreacting flows. Motivated by this, we show that the fundamental scaling laws can be generalized to predict the changes due to heat release. The bilinear dependence of temperature T(ζ) on an appropriately defined conserved scalar ζ allows the density changes to be related to an equivalent nonreacting flow, in which one of the free-stream fluid temperatures is set to a value determined by the adiabatic flame temperature and the overall stoichiometry. This scaling principle is applied to turbulent jet diffusion flames, and leads to a generalized scaling variable d^+ for both reacting and nonreacting flows; it effectively extends the momentum diameter d^* of Thring & Newby (1952) and Ricou & Spalding (1961) to reacting flows. The resulting predicted effects of heat release show good agreement with all available data from momentum-dominated jet flames. (Supported by GRI Contract No. 5093-260-2728.)

  10. Catastrophic Failure and Critical Scaling Laws of Fiber Bundle Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwang Hao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a spring-fiber bundle model used to describe the failure process induced by energy release in heterogeneous materials. The conditions that induce catastrophic failure are determined by geometric conditions and energy equilibrium. It is revealed that the relative rates of deformation of, and damage to the fiber bundle with respect to the boundary controlling displacement ε0 exhibit universal power law behavior near the catastrophic point, with a critical exponent of −1/2. The proportion of the rate of response with respect to acceleration exhibits a linear relationship with increasing displacement in the vicinity of the catastrophic point. This allows for the prediction of catastrophic failure immediately prior to failure by extrapolating the trajectory of this relationship as it asymptotes to zero. Monte Carlo simulations are completed and these two critical scaling laws are confirmed.

  11. Empirical scaling law connecting persistence and severity of global terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianbo; Fang, Peng; Liu, Feiyan

    2017-09-01

    Terrorism and counterterrorism have both been evolving rapidly. From time to time, there have been debates on whether the new terrorism is evolutionary or revolutionary. Such debate often becomes more heated after major terrorist activities, such as the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 and the November 13, 2015 coordinated Paris terror attack. Using country-wide terrorism data since 1970, we show that there exist scaling laws governing the continuity and persistence of world-wide terrorism, with the long-term scaling parameter for each country closely related to its yearly global terrorism index. This suggests that the new terrorism is more accurately considered evolutionary. It is further shown that the imbalance in the seesaw of terrorism and counterterrorism is not only responsible for the scaling behavior found here, but also provides new means of quantifying the severity of the global terrorism.

  12. City boundaries and the universality of scaling laws

    CERN Document Server

    Arcaute, Elsa; Ferguson, Peter; Youn, Hyejin; Johansson, Anders; Batty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the universality and robustness of scaling laws for urban systems, according to the work by Bettencourt, Lobo and West among others, using England and Wales as a case study. Initial results employing the demarcations for cities from the European Statistical Commission digress from the expected patterns. We therefore develop a method for producing multiple city definitions based on both morphological and functional characteristics, determined by population density and commuting to work journeys. For each of these realisations of cities, we construct urban attributes by aggregating high resolution census data. The approach produces a set of more than twenty thousand possible definitions of urban systems for England and Wales. We use these as a laboratory to explore the behaviour of the scaling exponent for each configuration. The analysis of a large set of urban indicators for the full range of system realisations shows that the scaling exponent is notably sensitive to boundary change, p...

  13. Universal Scaling Laws in Quantum Theory and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Elizabeth A.; Hurtak, James J.; Hurtak, D. E.

    2013-09-01

    We have developed a hyperdimensional geometry, Dn or Descartes space of dimensionality of n > 4, for our consideration n = 10. This model introduces a formation in terms of the conditions of constants as the space that allows us to calculate a unique set of scaling laws from the lower end scale of the quantum vacuum foam to the current universe. A group theoretical matrix formalism is made for the ten and eleven dimensional model of this space. For the eleven dimensional expressions of this geometry, a fundamental frequency is introduced and utilized as an additional condition on the topology. The constraints on the Dn space are imposed by the relationship of the universal constraints of nature expressed in terms of physical variables. The quantum foam picture can be related to the Fermi-Dirac vacuum model. Consideration is made for the lower limit of a universal size scaling from the Planck length, l = 10-33 cm, temporal component, t = 10-44 sec, density, 1093 gm/cm3 and additional Planck units of quantized variables. The upper limit of rotational frequency in the Dn space is given as 1043 Hz, as conditions or constraints that apply to the early universe which are expressed uniquely in terms of the universal constants, h, Planck's constant, the G, the gravitational constant and c, the velocity of light. We have developed a scaling law for cosmogenesis from the early universe to our present day universe. We plot the physical variables of the ten and eleven dimensional space versus a temporal evolution of these parameters. From this formalism, in order to maintain the compatibility of Einstein's General Relativity with the current model of cosmology, we replace Guth's inflationary model with a matter creation term. Also we have developed a fundamental scaling relationship between the "size scale" of organized matter with their associated fundamental frequency.

  14. Centrifugal fans: Similarity, scaling laws, and fan performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Asad Mohammad

    Centrifugal fans are rotodynamic machines used for moving air continuously against moderate pressures through ventilation and air conditioning systems. There are five major topics presented in this thesis: (1) analysis of the fan scaling laws and consequences of dynamic similarity on modelling; (2) detailed flow visualization studies (in water) covering the flow path starting at the fan blade exit to the evaporator core of an actual HVAC fan scroll-diffuser module; (3) mean velocity and turbulence intensity measurements (flow field studies) at the inlet and outlet of large scale blower; (4) fan installation effects on overall fan performance and evaluation of fan testing methods; (5) two point coherence and spectral measurements conducted on an actual HVAC fan module for flow structure identification of possible aeroacoustic noise sources. A major objective of the study was to identity flow structures within the HVAC module that are responsible for noise and in particular "rumble noise" generation. Possible mechanisms for the generation of flow induced noise in the automotive HVAC fan module are also investigated. It is demonstrated that different modes of HVAC operation represent very different internal flow characteristics. This has implications on both fan HVAC airflow performance and noise characteristics. It is demonstrated from principles of complete dynamic similarity that fan scaling laws require that Reynolds, number matching is a necessary condition for developing scale model fans or fan test facilities. The physical basis for the fan scaling laws derived was established from both pure dimensional analysis and also from the fundamental equations of fluid motion. Fan performance was measured in a three times scale model (large scale blower) in air of an actual forward curved automotive HVAC blower. Different fan testing methods (based on AMCA fan test codes) were compared on the basis of static pressure measurements. Also, the flow through an actual HVAC

  15. Scaling laws in the dynamics of crime growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luiz G. A.; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Mendes, Renio S.

    2013-06-01

    The increasing number of crimes in areas with large concentrations of people have made cities one of the main sources of violence. Understanding characteristics of how crime rate expands and its relations with the cities size goes beyond an academic question, being a central issue for contemporary society. Here, we characterize and analyze quantitative aspects of murders in the period from 1980 to 2009 in Brazilian cities. We find that the distribution of the annual, biannual and triannual logarithmic homicide growth rates exhibit the same functional form for distinct scales, that is, a scale invariant behavior. We also identify asymptotic power-law decay relations between the standard deviations of these three growth rates and the initial size. Further, we discuss similarities with complex organizations.

  16. Scaling laws in the dynamics of crime growth rate

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, Luiz Gustavo de Andrade; Mendes, Renio dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of crimes in areas with large concentrations of people have made cities one of the main source of violence. Understanding characteristics of how crime rate expands and its relations with the cities size goes beyond an academic question, being a central issue for the contemporary society. Here, we characterize and analyze quantitative aspects of murders in the period from 1980 to 2009 in Brazilian cities. We find that the distribution of the annual, biannual and triannual logarithmic homicide growth rates exhibit the same functional form for distinct scales, that is, a scale invariant behaviour. We also identify asymptotic power-law decay relations between the standard deviations of these three growth rates and the initial size. Further, we discuss similarities with complex organizations.

  17. Event-scale power law recession analysis: quantifying methodological uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dralle, David N.; Karst, Nathaniel J.; Charalampous, Kyriakos; Veenstra, Andrew; Thompson, Sally E.

    2017-01-01

    The study of single streamflow recession events is receiving increasing attention following the presentation of novel theoretical explanations for the emergence of power law forms of the recession relationship, and drivers of its variability. Individually characterizing streamflow recessions often involves describing the similarities and differences between model parameters fitted to each recession time series. Significant methodological sensitivity has been identified in the fitting and parameterization of models that describe populations of many recessions, but the dependence of estimated model parameters on methodological choices has not been evaluated for event-by-event forms of analysis. Here, we use daily streamflow data from 16 catchments in northern California and southern Oregon to investigate how combinations of commonly used streamflow recession definitions and fitting techniques impact parameter estimates of a widely used power law recession model. Results are relevant to watersheds that are relatively steep, forested, and rain-dominated. The highly seasonal mediterranean climate of northern California and southern Oregon ensures study catchments explore a wide range of recession behaviors and wetness states, ideal for a sensitivity analysis. In such catchments, we show the following: (i) methodological decisions, including ones that have received little attention in the literature, can impact parameter value estimates and model goodness of fit; (ii) the central tendencies of event-scale recession parameter probability distributions are largely robust to methodological choices, in the sense that differing methods rank catchments similarly according to the medians of these distributions; (iii) recession parameter distributions are method-dependent, but roughly catchment-independent, such that changing the choices made about a particular method affects a given parameter in similar ways across most catchments; and (iv) the observed correlative relationship

  18. Power-law scaling of calling dynamics in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shouwen; Maat, Andries Ter; Gahr, Manfred

    2017-08-21

    Social mammals and birds have a rich repertoire of communication calls. Some call types are uttered rarely but in specific contexts while others are produced in large numbers but are not linked to a specific context. An example for the latter is the "stack" call that zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) utter thousands of times per day in a seemingly erratic manner. We quantified this calling activity of captive zebra finches by using on-bird telemetric microphones that permitted a precise temporal resolution. We separated the calling interactions into the reactive and the self-contained calls. Despite a large dynamic range in the succession of calling events, the temporal distribution of the reactive and the self-contained callings was characterized by a power-law with exponents ranging between 2 and 3, which implies that all calls in that scale have similar dynamic patterns. As birds underwent physiological (water availability) and social (separation from the reproductive partner) changes, their calling dynamics changed. Power-law scaling provided an accurate description of these changes, such that the calling dynamics may inform about an individual's physiological and/or social situations state, even though a single "stack" call has no predetermined meaning.

  19. Earthquake scaling laws for rupture geometry and slip heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.; Mai, P. Martin; Goda, Katsuichiro

    2016-04-01

    We analyze an extensive compilation of finite-fault rupture models to investigate earthquake scaling of source geometry and slip heterogeneity to derive new relationships for seismic and tsunami hazard assessment. Our dataset comprises 158 earthquakes with a total of 316 rupture models selected from the SRCMOD database (http://equake-rc.info/srcmod). We find that fault-length does not saturate with earthquake magnitude, while fault-width reveals inhibited growth due to the finite seismogenic thickness. For strike-slip earthquakes, fault-length grows more rapidly with increasing magnitude compared to events of other faulting types. Interestingly, our derived relationship falls between the L-model and W-model end-members. In contrast, both reverse and normal dip-slip events are more consistent with self-similar scaling of fault-length. However, fault-width scaling relationships for large strike-slip and normal dip-slip events, occurring on steeply dipping faults (δ~90° for strike-slip faults, and δ~60° for normal faults), deviate from self-similarity. Although reverse dip-slip events in general show self-similar scaling, the restricted growth of down-dip fault extent (with upper limit of ~200 km) can be seen for mega-thrust subduction events (M~9.0). Despite this fact, for a given earthquake magnitude, subduction reverse dip-slip events occupy relatively larger rupture area, compared to shallow crustal events. In addition, we characterize slip heterogeneity in terms of its probability distribution and spatial correlation structure to develop a complete stochastic random-field characterization of earthquake slip. We find that truncated exponential law best describes the probability distribution of slip, with observable scale parameters determined by the average and maximum slip. Applying Box-Cox transformation to slip distributions (to create quasi-normal distributed data) supports cube-root transformation, which also implies distinctive non-Gaussian slip

  20. Scaling laws for van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobre, Vivekanand V; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Van der Waals interactions have a fundamental role in biology, physics and chemistry, in particular in the self-assembly and the ensuing function of nanostructured materials. Here we utilize an efficient microscopic method to demonstrate that van der Waals interactions in nanomaterials act at distances greater than typically assumed, and can be characterized by different scaling laws depending on the dimensionality and size of the system. Specifically, we study the behaviour of van der Waals interactions in single-layer and multilayer graphene, fullerenes of varying size, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. As a function of nanostructure size, the van der Waals coefficients follow unusual trends for all of the considered systems, and deviate significantly from the conventionally employed pairwise-additive picture. We propose that the peculiar van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials could be exploited to control their self-assembly.

  1. Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Resolving Scaling Laws of Polyethylene Melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Z. Takahashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-timescale molecular dynamics simulations were performed to estimate the actual physical nature of a united-atom model of polyethylene (PE. Several scaling laws for representative polymer properties are compared to theoretical predictions. Internal structure results indicate a clear departure from theoretical predictions that assume ideal chain statics. Chain motion deviates from predictions that assume ideal motion of short chains. With regard to linear viscoelasticity, the presence or absence of entanglements strongly affects the duration of the theoretical behavior. Overall, the results indicate that Gaussian statics and dynamics are not necessarily established for real atomistic models of PE. Moreover, the actual physical nature should be carefully considered when using atomistic models for applications that expect typical polymer behaviors.

  2. The Physical Origin of Galaxy Morphologies and Scaling Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Matthias; Navarro, Julio F.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a numerical study designed to interpret the origin and evolution of galaxy properties revealed by space- and ground-based imaging and spectroscopical surveys. Our aim is to unravel the physical processes responsible for the development of different galaxy morphologies and for the establishment of scaling laws such as the Tully-Fisher relation for spirals and the Fundamental Plane of ellipticals. In particular, we plan to address the following major topics: (1) The morphology and observability of protogalaxies, and in particular the relationship between primordial galaxies and the z approximately 3 'Ly-break' systems identified in the Hubble Deep Field and in ground-based searches; (2) The origin of the disk and spheroidal components in galaxies, the timing and mode of their assembly, the corresponding evolution in galaxy morphologies and its sensitivity to cosmological parameters; (3) The origin and redshift evolution of the scaling laws that link the mass, luminosity size, stellar content, and metal abundances of galaxies of different morphological types. This investigation will use state-of-the-art N-body/gasdynamical codes to provide a spatially resolved description of the galaxy formation process in hierarchically clustering universes. Coupled with population synthesis techniques. our models can be used to provide synthetic 'observations' that can be compared directly with observations of galaxies both nearby and at cosmologically significant distances. This study will thus provide insight into the nature of protogalaxies and into the formation process of galaxies like our own Milky Way. It will also help us to assess the cosmological significance of these observations within the context of hierarchical theories of galaxy formation and will supply a theoretical context within which current and future observations can be interpreted.

  3. Universal scaling laws for the disintegration of electrified drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Robert T; Sambath, Krishnaraj; Harris, Michael T; Basaran, Osman A

    2013-03-26

    Drops subjected to strong electric fields emit charged jets from their pointed tips. The disintegration of such jets into a spray consisting of charged droplets is common to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, printing and coating processes, and raindrops in thunderclouds. Currently, there exist conflicting theories and measurements on the size and charge of these small electrospray droplets. We use theory and simulation to show that conductivity can be tuned to yield three scaling regimes for droplet radius and charge, a finding missed by previous studies. The amount of charge Q that electrospray droplets carry determines whether they are coulombically stable and charged below the Rayleigh limit of stability (Q(R)) or are unstable and hence prone to further explosions once they are formed. Previous experiments reported droplet charge values ranging from 10% to in excess of (Q(R)). Simulations unequivocally show that electrospray droplets are coulombically stable at the instant they are created and that there exists a universal scaling law for droplet charge, Q = 0.44 (Q(R)).

  4. The nature of the two scaling laws in interfacial fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormo, Arne; Lengliné, Olivier; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2014-05-01

    brittle. When we introduce a gradient to the model we get an interface between a large group of broken fibers, and a large group of surviving fibers. By interpreting the interface between these two groups as a developing fracture front, we can reconstruct the scaling laws found in the laboratory. When we investigate the release of energy in our model, we find that the amount released in each event is distributed as a power-law, similar to the Gutenberg Richter distribution. The exponent of this distribution is dependant on the properties of the system. We thus want to find a connection to the exponent of the Gutenberg Richter distribution, especially the varying exponent found during the hydraulic injection of the deep geothermal reservoirs at Soultz-sous Forêts.

  5. The rank-size scaling law and entropy-maximizing principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2012-02-01

    The rank-size regularity known as Zipf's law is one of the scaling laws and is frequently observed in the natural living world and social institutions. Many scientists have tried to derive the rank-size scaling relation through entropy-maximizing methods, but they have not been entirely successful. By introducing a pivotal constraint condition, I present here a set of new derivations based on the self-similar hierarchy of cities. First, I derive a pair of exponent laws by postulating local entropy maximizing. From the two exponential laws follows a general hierarchical scaling law, which implies the general form of Zipf's law. Second, I derive a special hierarchical scaling law with the exponent equal to 1 by postulating global entropy maximizing, and this implies the pure form of Zipf's law. The rank-size scaling law has proven to be one of the special cases of the hierarchical scaling law, and the derivation suggests a certain scaling range with the first or the last data point as an outlier. The entropy maximization of social systems differs from the notion of entropy increase in thermodynamics. For urban systems, entropy maximizing suggests the greatest equilibrium between equity for parts/individuals and efficiency of the whole.

  6. Steady state and a general scale law of deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Steady state deformation has been characterized based on the experimental results for dilute single-phase aluminium alloys. It was found that although characteristic properties such as flow stress and grain size remained constant with time, a continuous loss of grain boundaries occurred as an essential feature at steady state. A physical model, which takes into account the activity of grain boundary dislocations, was developed to describe the kinetics of steady state deformation. According to this model, the steady state as a function of strain rate and temperature defines the limit of the conventional grain size and strength relationship, i.e., the Hall-Petch relation holds when the grain size is larger than that at the steady state, and an inverse Hall-Petch relation takes over if grain size is smaller than the steady state value. The transition between the two relationships relating grain size and strength is a phenomenon that depends on deformation conditions, rather than an intrinsic property as generally perceived. A general scale law of deformation is established accordingly.

  7. Scaling Laws for Normal Conducting $e^{\\pm}$ Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, J P; Raubenheimer, T O; Wilson, Ian H

    1998-01-01

    Design studies of a future TeV e± Linear Collider (TLC) are presently being made by five major laboratories within the framework of a world-wide collaboration. A figure of merit is defined which enabl es an objective comparison of these different designs. This figure of merit is shown to depend only on a small number of parameters. General scaling laws for the main beam parameters and linac paramet ers are derived and prove to be very effective when used as guidelines to optimize the linear collider design. By adopting appropriate parameters for beam stability, the figure of merit becomes nearly independent of accelerating gradient and RF frequency of the accelerating structures. In spite of the strong dependence of the wake-fields with frequency, the single bunch emittance preservation durin g acceleration along the linac is also shown to be independent of the RF frequency when using equivalent trajectory correction schemes. In this situation, beam acceleration using high frequency struct ures becomes very ...

  8. Scaling laws for e sup + /e sup - linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, J P; Raubenheimer, T O; Wilson, Ian H

    1999-01-01

    Design studies of a future TeV e sup + e sup - Linear Collider (TLC) are presently being made by five major laboratories within the framework of a world-wide collaboration. A figure of merit is defined which enables an objective comparison of these different designs. This figure of merit is shown to depend only on a small number of parameters. General scaling laws for the main beam parameters and linac parameters are derived and prove to be very effective when used as guidelines to optimize the linear collider design. By adopting appropriate parameters for beam stability, the figure of merit becomes nearly independent of accelerating gradient and RF frequency of the accelerating structures. In spite of the strong dependence of the wake fields with frequency, the single-bunch emittance blow-up during acceleration along the linac is also shown to be independent of the RF frequency when using equivalent trajectory correction schemes. In this situation, beam acceleration using high-frequency structures becomes ve...

  9. Extended power-law scaling of air permeabilities measured on a block of tuff

    OpenAIRE

    Siena, M; Guadagnini, A.; Riva, M; S. P. Neuman

    2011-01-01

    We use three methods to identify power law scaling of (natural) log air permeability data collected by Tidwell and Wilson (1999) on the faces of a laboratory-scale block of Topopah Spring tuff: method of moments (M), extended power-law scaling also known as Extended Self-Similarity (ESS) and a generalized version thereof (G-ESS). All three methods focus on qth-order sample structure functions of absolute increments. Most such functions exhibit power-law scaling at best over...

  10. Large eddy simulation of zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer based on different scaling laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wan; Samtaney, Ravi

    2013-11-01

    We present results of large eddy simulation (LES) for a smooth-wall, zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer. We employ the stretched vortex sub-grid-scale model in the simulations augmented by a wall model. Our wall model is based on the virtual-wall model introduced by Chung & Pullin (J. Fluid Mech 2009). An essential component of their wall model is an ODE governing the local wall-normal velocity gradient obtained using inner-scaling ansatz. We test two variants of the wall model based on different similarity laws: one is based on a log-law and the other on a power-law. The specific form of the power law scaling utilized is that proposed by George & Castillo (Appl. Mech. Rev. 1997), dubbed the ``GC Law''. Turbulent inflow conditions are generated by a recycling method, and applying scaling laws corresponding to the two variants of the wall model, and a uniform way to determine the inlet friction velocity. For Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, Reθ , ranging from 104 to 1012 it is found that the velocity profiles generally follow the log law form rather than the power law. For large Reynolds number asymptotic behavior, LES based on different scaling laws the boundary layer thickness and turbulent intensities do not show much difference. Supported by a KAUST funded project on large eddy simulation of turbulent flows. The IBM Blue Gene P Shaheen at KAUST was utilized for the simulations.

  11. Large-scale analysis of Zipf's law in English texts

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno-Sánchez, Isabel; Corral, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a paradigm of quantitative linguistics, Zipf's law for words suffers from three main problems: its formulation is ambiguous, its validity has not been tested rigorously from a statistical point of view, and it has not been confronted to a representatively large number of texts. So, we can summarize the current support of Zipf's law in texts as anecdotic. We try to solve these issues by studying three different versions of Zipf's law and fitting them to all available English texts in the Project Gutenberg database (consisting of more than 30000 texts). To do so we use state-of-the art tools in fitting and goodness-of-fit tests, carefully tailored to the peculiarities of text statistics. Remarkably, one of the three versions of Zipf's law, consisting of a pure power-law form in the complementary cumulative distribution function of word frequencies, is able to fit more than 40% of the texts in the database (at the 0.05 significance level), for the whole domain of frequencies (from 1 to the maximum ...

  12. A Statistical Analysis of the Scaling Laws for the Confinement Time Distinguishing between Core and Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, E.; Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Lupelli, I.; Gaudio, P.

    The H mode of confinement in Tokamaks is characterized by a thin region of high gradients, located at the edge of the plasma and called the Edge Transport Barrier. Even if various theoretical models have been proposed for the interpretation of the edge physics, the main empirical scaling laws of the plasma confinement time are expressed in terms of global plasma parameters and they do not discriminate between the edge and core regions. Moreover all the scaling laws are assumed to be power law monomials. In the present paper, a new methodology is proposed to investigate the validity of both assumptions. The approach is based on Symbolic Regression via Genetic Programming and allows first the extraction of the most statistically reliable models from the available experimental data in the ITPA database. Non linear fitting is then applied to the mathematical expressions found by Symbolic regression. The obtained scaling laws are compared with the traditional scalings in power law form.

  13. On the scaling range of power-laws originated from fluctuation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dariusz, Grech

    2012-01-01

    We extend our previous study of scaling range properties done for detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) \\cite{former_paper} to other techniques of fluctuation analysis (FA). The new technique called Modified Detrended Moving Average Analysis (MDMA) is introduced and its scaling range properties are examined and compared with those of detrended moving average analysis (DMA) and DFA. It is shown that contrary to DFA, DMA and MDMA techniques exhibit power law dependence of the scaling range with respect to the length of the searched signal and with respect to the accuracy $R^2$ of the fit to the considered scaling law imposed by DMA or MDMA schemes. This power law dependence is satisfied for both uncorrelated and autocorrelated data. We find also a simple generalization of this power law relation for series with different level of autocorrelations measured in terms of the Hurst exponent. Basic relations between scaling ranges for different techniques are also discussed. Our findings should be particularly useful ...

  14. Robust scaling laws for energy confinement time, including radiated fraction, in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, the limitations of scalings in power-law form that are obtained from traditional log regression have become increasingly evident in many fields of research. Given the wide gap in operational space between present-day and next-generation devices, robustness of the obtained models in guaranteeing reasonable extrapolability is a major issue. In this paper, a new technique, called symbolic regression, is reviewed, refined, and applied to the ITPA database for extracting scaling laws of the energy-confinement time at different radiated fraction levels. The main advantage of this new methodology is its ability to determine the most appropriate mathematical form of the scaling laws to model the available databases without the restriction of their having to be power laws. In a completely new development, this technique is combined with the concept of geodesic distance on Gaussian manifolds so as to take into account the error bars in the measurements and provide more reliable models. Robust scaling laws, including radiated fractions as regressor, have been found; they are not in power-law form, and are significantly better than the traditional scalings. These scaling laws, including radiated fractions, extrapolate quite differently to ITER, and therefore they require serious consideration. On the other hand, given the limitations of the existing databases, dedicated experimental investigations will have to be carried out to fully understand the impact of radiated fractions on the confinement in metallic machines and in the next generation of devices.

  15. Scaling laws and turbulence closures for stable boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilitinkevich, S.; Esau, I.; Baklanov, A.; Djolov, G.

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents a recently developed theory of non-local turbulence in the stably stratified planetary boundary layers (PBLs): basic theoretical results, new LES code specifically designed for LES of stably stratified flows, and comparison of theoretical predictions with LES and experimental data. The paper includes improved formulations for the PBL depth and resistance laws and outlines an advanced turbulence closure accounting for the transport properties of internal gravity waves.

  16. submitter Unified Scaling Law for flux pinning in practical superconductors: II. Parameter testing, scaling constants, and the Extrapolative Scaling Expression

    CERN Document Server

    Ekin, Jack W; Goodrich, Loren; Splett, Jolene; Bordini, Bernardo; Richter, David

    2016-01-01

    A scaling study of several thousand Nb3Sn critical-current $(I_c)$ measurements is used to derive the Extrapolative Scaling Expression (ESE), a relation that can quickly and accurately extrapolate limited datasets to obtain full three-dimensional dependences of I c on magnetic field (B), temperature (T), and mechanical strain (ε). The relation has the advantage of being easy to implement, and offers significant savings in sample characterization time and a useful tool for magnet design. Thorough data-based analysis of the general parameterization of the Unified Scaling Law (USL) shows the existence of three universal scaling constants for practical Nb3Sn conductors. The study also identifies the scaling parameters that are conductor specific and need to be fitted to each conductor. This investigation includes two new, rare, and very large I c(B,T,ε) datasets (each with nearly a thousand I c measurements spanning magnetic fields from 1 to 16 T, temperatures from ~2.26 to 14 K, and intrinsic strains from –...

  17. Scaling laws and complexity in fire regimes [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald McKenzie; Maureen Kennedy

    2011-01-01

    Use of scaling terminology and concepts in ecology evolved rapidly from rare occurrences in the early 1980s to a central idea by the early 1990s (Allen and Hoekstra 1992; Levin 1992; Peterson and Parker 1998). In landscape ecology, use of "scale" frequently connotes explicitly spatial considerations (Dungan et al. 2002), notably grain and extent. More...

  18. Extended power-law scaling of air permeabilities measured on a block of tuff

    OpenAIRE

    Siena, M; Guadagnini, A.; Riva, M; S. P. Neuman

    2012-01-01

    We use three methods to identify power-law scaling of multi-scale log air permeability data collected by Tidwell and Wilson on the faces of a laboratory-scale block of Topopah Spring tuff: method of moments (M), Extended Self-Similarity (ESS) and a generalized version thereof (G-ESS). All three methods focus on q-th-order sample structure functions of absolute increments. Most such functions exhibit power-law scaling at best over a limited midrange of experimental separatio...

  19. Nonlinear Analysis and Scaling Laws for Noncircular Composite Structures Subjected to Combined Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Results from an analytical study of the response of a built-up, multi-cell noncircular composite structure subjected to combined internal pressure and mechanical loads are presented. Nondimensional parameters and scaling laws based on a first-order shear-deformation plate theory are derived for this noncircular composite structure. The scaling laws are used to design sub-scale structural models for predicting the structural response of a full-scale structure representative of a portion of a blended-wing-body transport aircraft. Because of the complexity of the full-scale structure, some of the similitude conditions are relaxed for the sub-scale structural models. Results from a systematic parametric study are used to determine the effects of relaxing selected similitude conditions on the sensitivity of the effectiveness of using the sub-scale structural model response characteristics for predicting the full-scale structure response characteristics.

  20. Application of Scaling-Law and CFD Modeling to Hydrodynamics of Circulating Biomass Fluidized Bed Gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazda Biglari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two modeling approaches, the scaling-law and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics approaches, are presented in this paper. To save on experimental cost of the pilot plant, the scaling-law approach as a low-computational-cost method was adopted and a small scale column operating under ambient temperature and pressure was built. A series of laboratory tests and computer simulations were carried out to evaluate the hydrodynamic characteristics of a pilot fluidized-bed biomass gasifier. In the small scale column solids were fluidized. The pressure and other hydrodynamic properties were monitored for the validation of the scaling-law application. In addition to the scaling-law modeling method, the CFD approach was presented to simulate the gas-particle system in the small column. 2D CFD models were developed to simulate the hydrodynamic regime. The simulation results were validated with the experimental data from the small column. It was proved that the CFD model was able to accurately predict the hydrodynamics of the small column. The outcomes of this research present both the scaling law with the lower computational cost and the CFD modeling as a more robust method to suit various needs for the design of fluidized-bed gasifiers.

  1. Dynamo Scaling Laws for Uranus and Neptune: The Role of Convective Shell Thickness on Dipolarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Sabine; Yunsheng Tian, Bob

    2017-10-01

    Previous dynamo scaling law studies (Christensen and Aubert, 2006) have demonstrated that the morphology of a planet’s magnetic field is determined by the local Rossby number (Ro_l): a non-dimensional diagnostic variable that quantifies the ratio of inertial forces to Coriolis forces on the average length scale of the flow. Dynamos with Ro_l ~ 0.1 produce multipolar magnetic fields. Scaling studies have also determined the dependence of the local Rossby number on non-dimensional parameters governing the system - specifically the Ekman, Prandtl, magnetic Prandtl and flux-based Rayleigh numbers (Olson and Christensen, 2006). When these scaling laws are applied to the planets, it appears that Uranus and Neptune should have dipole-dominated fields, contrary to observations. However, those scaling laws were derived using the specific convective shell thickness of the Earth’s core. Here we investigate the role of convective shell thickness on dynamo scaling laws. We find that the local Rossby number depends exponentially on the convective shell thickness. Including this new dependence on convective shell thickness, we find that the dynamo scaling laws now predict that Uranus and Neptune reside deeply in the multipolar regime, thereby resolving the previous contradiction with observations.

  2. Maxwell Prize Talk: Scaling Laws for the Dynamical Plasma Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryutov, Livermore, Ca 94550, Usa, D. D.

    2017-10-01

    The scaling and similarity technique is a powerful tool for developing and testing reduced models of complex phenomena, including plasma phenomena. The technique has been successfully used in identifying appropriate simplified models of transport in quasistationary plasmas. In this talk, the similarity and scaling arguments will be applied to highly dynamical systems, in which temporal evolution of the plasma leads to a significant change of plasma dimensions, shapes, densities, and other parameters with respect to initial state. The scaling and similarity techniques for dynamical plasma systems will be presented as a set of case studies of problems from various domains of the plasma physics, beginning with collisonless plasmas, through intermediate collisionalities, to highly collisional plasmas describable by the single-fluid MHD. Basic concepts of the similarity theory will be introduced along the way. Among the results discussed are: self-similarity of Langmuir turbulence driven by a hot electron cloud expanding into a cold background plasma; generation of particle beams in disrupting pinches; interference between collisionless and collisional phenomena in the shock physics; similarity for liner-imploded plasmas; MHD similarities with an emphasis on the effect of small-scale (turbulent) structures on global dynamics. Relations between astrophysical phenomena and scaled laboratory experiments will be discussed.

  3. Coulomb and Nuclear Breakup at Low Energies: Scaling Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on a recent work on the low-energy behavior of the breakup cross section in so far as it has important role in the fusion of weakly bound and halo nuclei at near-barrier energies. We assess the way the nuclear component of this cross section scales with the target mass. In complete accord with previous finding at higher energies we verify that the low energy behavior of the breakup cross section for a given projectile and relative center of mass energy with respect to the Coulomb barrier height scales as the cubic root of the mass number of the target. Surprisingly we find that the Coulomb component of the breakup cross section at these low energies also obeys scaling, but with a linear dependence on the target charge. Our findings are important when planning for experiments involving these exotic nuclei.

  4. A generalized power-law scaling law for a two-phase imbibition in a porous medium

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Dimensionless time is a universal parameter that may be used to predict real field behavior from scaled laboratory experiments in relation to imbibition processes in porous media. Researchers work to nondimensionalize the time has been through the use of parameters that are inherited to the properties of the moving fluids and the porous matrix, which may be applicable to spontaneous imbibition. However, in forced imbibition, the dynamics of the process depends, in addition, on injection velocity. Therefore, we propose the use of scaling velocity in the form of a combination of two velocities, the first of which (the characteristic velocity) is defined by the fluid and the porous medium parameters and the second is the injection velocity, which is a characteristic of the process. A power-law formula is suggested for the scaling velocity such that it may be used as a parameter to nondimensionalize time. This may reduce the complexities in characterizing two-phase imbibition through porous media and works well in both the cases of spontaneous and forced imbibition. The proposed scaling-law is tested against some oil recovery experimental data from the literature. In addition, the governing partial differential equations are nondimensionalized so that the governing dimensionless groups are manifested. An example of a one-dimensional countercurrent imbibition is considered numerically. The calculations are carried out for a wide range of Ca and Da to illustrate their influences on water saturation as well as relative water/oil permeabilities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Scaling Laws for Photoelectron Holography in the Midinfrared Wavelength Regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huismans, Y.; Gijsbertsen, A.; Smolkowska, A. S.; Jungmann, J. H.; Rouzee, A.; Logman, Pswm; Lepine, F.; Cauchy, C.; Zamith, S.; Marchenko, T.; Bakker, J. M.; G. Berden,; Redlich, B.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Ivanov, M. Y.; Yan, T. M.; Bauer, D.; Smirnova, O.; Vrakking, M. J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Midinfrared strong-field laser ionization offers the promise of measuring holograms of atoms and molecules, which contain both spatial and temporal information of the ion and the photoelectron with subfemtosecond temporal and angstrom spatial resolution. We report on the scaling of photoelectron

  6. Scaling laws for photoelectron holography in the midinfrared wavelength regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huismans, Y.; Gijsbertsen, A.; Smolkowska, A S; Jungmann, J H; Rouz??e, A.; Logman, P. S W M; L??pine, F.; Cauchy, C.; Zamith, S; Marchenko, T; Bakker, Joost M.; Berden, G.; Redlich, B; Van Der Meer, A. F G; Ivanov, M Yu; Yan, T. M.; Bauer, D.; Smirnova, O; Vrakking, M. J J

    2012-01-01

    Midinfrared strong-field laser ionization offers the promise of measuring holograms of atoms and molecules, which contain both spatial and temporal information of the ion and the photoelectron with subfemtosecond temporal and angstrom spatial resolution. We report on the scaling of photoelectron

  7. On a Possible Unified Scaling Law for Volcanic Eruption Durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavò, Flavio; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Volcanoes constitute dissipative systems with many degrees of freedom. Their eruptions are the result of complex processes that involve interacting chemical-physical systems. At present, due to the complexity of involved phenomena and to the lack of precise measurements, both analytical and numerical models are unable to simultaneously include the main processes involved in eruptions thus making forecasts of volcanic dynamics rather unreliable. On the other hand, accurate forecasts of some eruption parameters, such as the duration, could be a key factor in natural hazard estimation and mitigation. Analyzing a large database with most of all the known volcanic eruptions, we have determined that the duration of eruptions seems to be described by a universal distribution which characterizes eruption duration dynamics. In particular, this paper presents a plausible global power-law distribution of durations of volcanic eruptions that holds worldwide for different volcanic environments. We also introduce a new, simple and realistic pipe model that can follow the same found empirical distribution. Since the proposed model belongs to the family of the self-organized systems it may support the hypothesis that simple mechanisms can lead naturally to the emergent complexity in volcanic behaviour.

  8. Neuronal long-range temporal correlations and avalanche dynamics are correlated with behavioral scaling laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palva, M.J.; Zhigalov, A.; Hirvonen, J.; Korhonen, O.; Palva, S.; Linkenkaer-Hansen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Scale-free fluctuations are ubiquitous in behavioral performance and neuronal activity. In time scales from seconds to hundreds of seconds, psychophysical dynamics and the amplitude fluctuations of neuronal oscillations are governed by power-law-form longrange temporal correlations (LRTCs). In

  9. A study of flame spread in engineered cardboard fuelbeds: Part II: Scaling law approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittany A. Adam; Nelson K. Akafuah; Mark Finney; Jason Forthofer; Kozo Saito

    2013-01-01

    In this second part of a two part exploration of dynamic behavior observed in wildland fires, time scales differentiating convective and radiative heat transfer is further explored. Scaling laws for the two different types of heat transfer considered: Radiation-driven fire spread, and convection-driven fire spread, which can both occur during wildland fires. A new...

  10. Exact scaling laws for helical three-dimensional two-fluid turbulent plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Andrés, Nahuel; Sahraoui, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    We derive exact scaling laws for a three-dimensional incompressible helical two-fluid plasma, without the assumption of isotropy. For each ideal invariant of the two-fluid model, i.e. the total energy, the electron helicity and the proton helicity, we derive simple scaling laws in terms of two-point increments correlation functions expressed in terms of the velocity field of each species and the magnetic field. These variables are appropriate for comparison with \\textit{in-situ} measurements in the solar wind at different spatial ranges and data from numerical simulations. Finally, with the exact scaling laws and dimensional analysis we predict the magnetic energy and electron helicity spectra for different ranges of scales.

  11. Scaling laws for AC gas breakdown and implications for universality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Amanda M.; Garner, Allen L.

    2017-10-01

    The reduced dependence on secondary electron emission and electrode surface properties makes radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) plasmas advantageous over direct current (DC) plasmas for various applications, such as microthrusters. Theoretical models relating molecular constants to alternating current (AC) breakdown often fail due to incomplete understanding of both the constants and the mechanisms involved. This work derives simple analytic expressions for RF and MW breakdown, demonstrating the transition between these regimes at their high and low frequency limits, respectively. We further show that the limiting expressions for DC, RF, and MW breakdown voltage all have the same universal scaling dependence on pressure and gap distance at high pressure, agreeing with experiment.

  12. Exact Derivation of a Finite-Size Scaling Law and Corrections to Scaling in the Geometric Galton-Watson Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Álvaro; Garcia-Millan, Rosalba; Font-Clos, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    The theory of finite-size scaling explains how the singular behavior of thermodynamic quantities in the critical point of a phase transition emerges when the size of the system becomes infinite. Usually, this theory is presented in a phenomenological way. Here, we exactly demonstrate the existence of a finite-size scaling law for the Galton-Watson branching processes when the number of offsprings of each individual follows either a geometric distribution or a generalized geometric distribution. We also derive the corrections to scaling and the limits of validity of the finite-size scaling law away the critical point. A mapping between branching processes and random walks allows us to establish that these results also hold for the latter case, for which the order parameter turns out to be the probability of hitting a distant boundary. PMID:27584596

  13. Power law scaling in synchronization of brain signals depends on cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Jesse; Velazquez, Jose Luis Perez

    2014-01-01

    As it has several features that optimize information processing, it has been proposed that criticality governs the dynamics of nervous system activity. Indications of such dynamics have been reported for a variety of in vitro and in vivo recordings, ranging from in vitro slice electrophysiology to human functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, there still remains considerable debate as to whether the brain actually operates close to criticality or in another governing state such as stochastic or oscillatory dynamics. A tool used to investigate the criticality of nervous system data is the inspection of power-law distributions. Although the findings are controversial, such power-law scaling has been found in different types of recordings. Here, we studied whether there is a power law scaling in the distribution of the phase synchronization derived from magnetoencephalographic recordings during executive function tasks performed by children with and without autism. Characterizing the brain dynamics that is different between autistic and non-autistic individuals is important in order to find differences that could either aid diagnosis or provide insights as to possible therapeutic interventions in autism. We report in this study that power law scaling in the distributions of a phase synchrony index is not very common and its frequency of occurrence is similar in the control and the autism group. In addition, power law scaling tends to diminish with increased cognitive load (difficulty or engagement in the task). There were indications of changes in the probability distribution functions for the phase synchrony that were associated with a transition from power law scaling to lack of power law (or vice versa), which suggests the presence of phenomenological bifurcations in brain dynamics associated with cognitive load. Hence, brain dynamics may fluctuate between criticality and other regimes depending upon context and behaviors.

  14. Power law scaling in synchronization of brain signals depends on cognitive load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis ePerez Velazquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As it has several features that optimize information processing, it has been proposed that criticality governs the dynamics of nervous system activity. Indications of such dynamics have been reported for a variety of in vitro and in vivo recordings, ranging from in vitro slice electrophysiology to human functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, there still remains considerable debate as to whether the brain actually operates close to criticality or in another governing state such as stochastic or oscillatory dynamics. A tool used to investigate the criticality of nervous system data is the inspection of power-law distributions. Although the findings are controversial, such power-law scaling has been found in different types of recordings. Here, we studied whether there is a power law scaling in the distribution of the phase synchronization derived from magnetoencephalographic recordings during executive function tasks performed by children with and without autism. Characterizing the brain dynamics that is different between autistic and non-autistic individuals is important in order to find differences that could either aid diagnosis or provide insights as to possible therapeutic interventions in autism. We report in this study that power law scaling in the distributions of a phase synchrony index is not very common and its frequency of occurrence is similar in the control and the autism group. In addition, power law scaling tends to diminish with increased cognitive load (difficulty or engagement in the task. There were indications of changes in the probability distribution functions for the phase synchrony that were associated with a transition from power law scaling to lack of power law (or vice versa, which suggests the presence of phenomenological bifurcations in brain dynamics associated with cognitive load. Hence, brain dynamics may fluctuate between criticality and other regimes depending upon context and behaviours.

  15. A Scaling Law for the Snapback in Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Bauer, P; Haverkamp, M; Pieloni, T; Sanfilippo, S; Velev, G

    2005-01-01

    The decay of the sextupole component in the bending dipoles during injection and the subsequent snapback at the start of beam acceleration are issues of common concern for all superconducting colliders built or in construction. Recent studies performed on LHC and Tevatron dipole magnets revealed many similarities in the snapback characteristics. Some are expected, e.g. the effect of operational history. One particular similarity, however, is striking and is the subject of this paper. It appears that there is a simple linear relation between the amount of sextupole drift during the decay and the magnet current (or field) change during the ramp required to resolve the snapback. It is surprising that the linear correlation between snapback amplitude and snapback field holds very well for all magnets of the same family (e.g. Tevatron or LHC dipoles). In this paper we present the data collected to date and discuss a simple theory that explains the scaling found.

  16. Tornado outbreak variability follows Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling and increases dramatically with severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Michael K; Cohen, Joel E

    2016-02-29

    Tornadoes cause loss of life and damage to property each year in the United States and around the world. The largest impacts come from 'outbreaks' consisting of multiple tornadoes closely spaced in time. Here we find an upward trend in the annual mean number of tornadoes per US tornado outbreak for the period 1954-2014. Moreover, the variance of this quantity is increasing more than four times as fast as the mean. The mean and variance of the number of tornadoes per outbreak vary according to Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling (TL), with parameters that are consistent with multiplicative growth. Tornado-related atmospheric proxies show similar power-law scaling and multiplicative growth. Path-length-integrated tornado outbreak intensity also follows TL, but with parameters consistent with sampling variability. The observed TL power-law scaling of outbreak severity means that extreme outbreaks are more frequent than would be expected if mean and variance were independent or linearly related.

  17. A psychometric appraisal of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy using law students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams B

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Adiva Sifris,2 Marty Lynch1 1Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, 2Faculty of Law, Monash University, Frankston, VIC, Australia Background: A growing body of literature indicates that empathic behaviors are positively linked, in several ways, with the professional performance and mental well-being of lawyers and law students. It is therefore important to assess empathy levels among law students using psychometrically sound tools that are suitable for this cohort.Participants and methods: The 20-item Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Health Profession Students Version was adapted for a law context (eg, the word “health care” became “legal”, and the new Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Law Students (JSE-L-S version was completed by 275 students at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. Data were subjected to principal component analysis.Results: Four factors emerged from the principal component analysis (“understanding the client’s perspective”, “responding to clients’ experiences and emotions”, “responding to clients’ cues and behaviors”, and “standing in clients’ shoes”, which accounted for 46.7% of the total variance. The reliability of the factors varied, but the overall 18-item JSE-L-S yielded a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.80. Several patterns among the item loadings were similar to those reported in studies using other versions of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy.Conclusion: The JSE-L-S appears to be a reliable measure of empathy among undergraduate law students, which could help provide insights into law student welfare and future performance as legal practitioners. Additional evaluation of the JSE-L-S is required to disambiguate some of the minor findings explored. Adjustments may improve the psychometric properties. Keywords: empathy, law, student, Jefferson, sympathy

  18. Achievable Rates and Scaling Laws for Cognitive Radio Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devroye Natasha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive radios have the potential to vastly improve communication over wireless channels. We outline recent information theoretic results on the limits of primary and cognitive user communication in single and multiple cognitive user scenarios. We first examine the achievable rate and capacity regions of single user cognitive channels. Results indicate that at medium SNR (0–20 dB, the use of cognition improves rates significantly compared to the currently suggested spectral gap-filling methods of secondary spectrum access. We then study another information theoretic measure, the multiplexing gain. This measure captures the number of point-to-point Gaussian channels contained in a cognitive channel as the SNR tends to infinity. Next, we consider a cognitive network with a single primary user and multiple cognitive users. We show that with single-hop transmission, the sum capacity of the cognitive users scales linearly with the number of users. We further introduce and analyze the primary exclusive radius, inside of which primary receivers are guaranteed a desired outage performance. These results provide guidelines when designing a network with secondary spectrum users.

  19. Scaling laws of turbulence and heating of fast solar wind: the role of density fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, V; Marino, R; Sorriso-Valvo, L; Noullez, A; Bruno, R

    2009-08-07

    Incompressible and isotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in plasmas can be described by an exact relation for the energy flux through the scales. This Yaglom-like scaling law has been recently observed in the solar wind above the solar poles observed by the Ulysses spacecraft, where the turbulence is in an Alfvénic state. An analogous phenomenological scaling law, suitably modified to take into account compressible fluctuations, is observed more frequently in the same data set. Large-scale density fluctuations, despite their low amplitude, thus play a crucial role in the basic scaling properties of turbulence. The turbulent cascade rate in the compressive case can, moreover, supply the energy dissipation needed to account for the local heating of the nonadiabatic solar wind.

  20. Scaling Laws of Turbulence and Heating of Fast SolarWind: The Role of Density Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, V; Sorriso-Valvo, L; Noullez, A; Bruno, R

    2010-01-01

    Incompressible and isotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in plasms can be described by an exact relation for the energy flux through the scales. This Yaglom-like scaling law has been recently observed in the solar wind above the solar poles observed by the Ulysses spacecraft, where the turbulence is in an Alfv\\'enic state. An analogous phenomenological scaling law, suitably modified to take into account compressible fluctuations, is observed more frequently in the same dataset. Large scale density fluctuations, despite their low amplitude, play thus a crucial role in the basic scaling properties of turbulence. The turbulent cascade rate in the compressive case can moreover supply the energy dissipation needed to account for the local heating of the non-adiabatic solar wind.

  1. Uncovering Scaling Laws to Infer Multi-drug Response of Resistant Microbes and Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Kevin B.; Wood, Kris C.; Nishida, Satoshi; Cluzel, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance in bacterial infections and cancers constitutes a major threat to human health. Treatments often include several interacting drugs, but even potent therapies can become ineffective in resistant mutants. Here, we simplify the picture of drug resistance by identifying scaling laws that unify the multidrug responses of drug-sensitive and -resistant cells. On the basis of these scaling relationships, we are able to infer the two-drug response of resistant mutants in previously uns...

  2. Finite-size scaling for the mean spherical model with inverse power law interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brankov, J.G. (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR))

    1989-08-01

    A new analytical technique based on integral transformations with Mittag-Leffler-type kernels is used to derive the finite-size scaling function for the free energy per particle of the mean spherical model with inverse power law asymptotics of the interaction potential. The asymptotic formation of the singularities in the specific heat and magnetic susceptibility at the bulk critical point is studied.

  3. Factor Structure of the Korean Version of Wong and Law's Emotional Intelligence Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Eriko; Saklofske, Donald H.; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Lim, Hyunjung

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the factor structure of a Korean version of the 16-item Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) for a sample of 161 Korean university students. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor model of the WLEIS: (1) self-emotional appraisal, (2) others' emotional appraisal, (3) use of emotion, and (4) regulation…

  4. Scaling laws for file dissemination in P2P networks with random contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Núñez-Queija, R.; Prabhu, B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we obtain the scaling law for the mean broadcast time of a file in a P2P network with an initial population of N nodes. In the model, at Poisson rate lambda a node initiates a contact with another node chosen uniformly at random. This contact is said to be successful if the contacted

  5. Distance to the scaling law: a useful approach for unveiling relationships between crime and urban metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, Luiz G A; Lenzi, Ervin K; Mendes, Renio S

    2013-01-01

    We report on a quantitative analysis of relationships between the number of homicides, population size and other ten urban metrics. By using data from Brazilian cities, we show that well defined average scaling laws with the population size emerge when investigating the relations between population and number of homicides as well as population and urban metrics. We also show that the fluctuations around the scaling laws are log-normally distributed, which enabled us to model these scaling laws by a stochastic-like equation driven by a multiplicative and log-normally distributed noise. Because of the scaling laws, we argue that it is better to employ logarithms in order to describe the number of homicides in function of the urban metrics via regression analysis. In addition to the regression analysis, we propose an approach to correlate crime and urban metrics via the evaluation of the distance between the actual value of the number of homicides (as well as the value of the urban metrics) and the value that is...

  6. Validity of classical scaling laws in laminar channel flow with periodic spacer-like obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfs, Wilko; Lienhard, John H.

    2015-11-01

    Laminar channel flows with periodic obstacles occur in different technical applications involving heat and mass transfer. They are present in membrane technologies such as electro-dialysis or spirally wound membrane modules. For process design, classical scaling laws of heat and mass transfer are typically used. The laws scale the transfer (Sherwood) number, Sh , to the hydrodynamic Reynolds, Re , the fluid specific Schmidt number, Sc , and to some dimensionless geometric parameters, G, in a classical form like Sh = CReα ScβGγ . However, the validity of those classical scaling laws is limited to the region where the concentration boundary layer develops as it is well known that the transfer numbers approach a constant (Reynolds and Schmidt independent) value in the developed region of a laminar channel flow. This study examines numerically the validity of the scaling laws if the channel flow is interrupted periodically by cylindrical obstacles of different size and separation distance. In the developed region, a Schmidt and Reynolds number dependency is found and associated to wall-normal flow induced by the obstacles, for which this dependency varies with obstacle size and separation distance. Funding for WR was provided by the German Academic Exchange Service DAAD.

  7. Testing of Large-Scale ICV Glasses with Hanford LAW Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Matyas, Josef; Smith, Donald E.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Yeager, John D.

    2005-03-01

    Preliminary glass compositions for immobilizing Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) by the in-container vitrification (ICV) process were initially fabricated at crucible- and engineering-scale, including simulants and actual (radioactive) LAW. Glasses were characterized for vapor hydration test (VHT) and product consistency test (PCT) responses and crystallinity (both quenched and slow-cooled samples). Selected glasses were tested for toxicity characteristic leach procedure (TCLP) responses, viscosity, and electrical conductivity. This testing showed that glasses with LAW loading of 20 mass% can be made readily and meet all product constraints by a far margin. Glasses with over 22 mass% Na2O can be made to meet all other product quality and process constraints. Large-scale testing was performed at the AMEC, Geomelt Division facility in Richland. Three tests were conducted using simulated LAW with increasing loadings of 12, 17, and 20 mass% Na2O. Glass samples were taken from the test products in a manner to represent the full expected range of product performance. These samples were characterized for composition, density, crystalline and non-crystalline phase assemblage, and durability using the VHT, PCT, and TCLP tests. The results, presented in this report, show that the AMEC ICV product with meets all waste form requirements with a large margin. These results provide strong evidence that the Hanford LAW can be successfully vitrified by the ICV technology and can meet all the constraints related to product quality. The economic feasibility of the ICV technology can be further enhanced by subsequent optimization.

  8. A New Scaling Law of Resonance in Total Scattering Cross Section in Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Gorur Govinda

    2009-10-01

    Electrical discharges in gases continue to be an active area of research because of industrial applications such as power systems, environmental clean up, laser technology, semiconductor fabrication etc. A fundamental knowledge of electron-gas neutral interaction is indispensable and, the total scattering cross section is one of the quantities that have been measured extensively. The energy dependence of the total cross sections shows peaks or resonance processes that are operative in the collision process. These peaks and the energies at which they occur are shown to satisfy a broad relationship involving the polarizability and the dipole moment of the target particle. Data on 62 target particles belonging to the following species are analyzed. (Eq 1) Rare gas atoms (Eq 2) Di-atomic molecules with combinations of polar, non-polar, attaching, and non-attaching properties Poly-atomic molecules with combinations of polar, non-polar, attaching, and non-attaching properties. Methods of improving the newly identified scaling law and possible application have been identified. 1 INTRODUCTION: Data on electron-neutral interactions are one of the most fundamental in the study of gaseous electronics and an immense literature, both experimental and theoretical, has become available since about the year 1920. [1-5]. In view of the central role which these data play in all facets of gas discharges and plasma science, it is felt that a critical review of available data is timely, mainly for the community of high voltage engineers and industries connected with plasma science in general. The electron-neutral interaction, often referred to as scattering in the scientific literature, is quantified by using the quantity called the total scattering cross section (QT, m^2). In the literature on cross section, total cross section and total scattering cross section are terms used synonymously and we follow the same practice. A definition may be found in reference [1]. This paper concerns

  9. A psychometric appraisal of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy using law students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Sifris, Adiva; Lynch, Marty

    2016-01-01

    Background A growing body of literature indicates that empathic behaviors are positively linked, in several ways, with the professional performance and mental well-being of lawyers and law students. It is therefore important to assess empathy levels among law students using psychometrically sound tools that are suitable for this cohort. Participants and methods The 20-item Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Health Profession Students Version was adapted for a law context (eg, the word “health care” became “legal”), and the new Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Law Students (JSE-L-S) version was completed by 275 students at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. Data were subjected to principal component analysis. Results Four factors emerged from the principal component analysis (“understanding the client’s perspective”, “responding to clients’ experiences and emotions”, “responding to clients’ cues and behaviors”, and “standing in clients’ shoes”), which accounted for 46.7% of the total variance. The reliability of the factors varied, but the overall 18-item JSE-L-S yielded a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.80. Several patterns among the item loadings were similar to those reported in studies using other versions of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy. Conclusion The JSE-L-S appears to be a reliable measure of empathy among undergraduate law students, which could help provide insights into law student welfare and future performance as legal practitioners. Additional evaluation of the JSE-L-S is required to disambiguate some of the minor findings explored. Adjustments may improve the psychometric properties. PMID:27524924

  10. From coastal barriers to mountain belts - commonalities in fundamental geomorphic scaling laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, E.

    2016-12-01

    Overwash is a sediment-transport process essential to the form and resilience of coastal barrier landscapes. Driven by storm events, overwash leaves behind distinctive sedimentary features that, although intensively studied, have lacked unifying quantitative descriptions with which to compare their morphological attributes across documented examples or relate them to other morphodynamic phenomena. Geomorphic scaling laws quantify how measures of shape and size change with respect to another - information that helps to constrain predictions of future change and reconstructions of past environmental conditions. Here, a physical model of erosional and depositional overwash morphology yields intrinsic, allometric scaling laws involving length, width, area, volume, and alongshore spacing. Corroborative comparisons with natural washover morphology indicate scale invariance spanning several orders of magnitude. Several observers of the physical model remarked that the overwashed barrier resembled a dissected linear mountain front with an alluvial apron - an intriguing reimagining of the intended analog. Indeed, that resemblance is reflected quantitatively in these new scaling relationships, which align with canonical scaling laws for terrestrial and marine drainage basins and alluvial fans on Earth and Mars. This finding suggests disparate geomorphic systems that share common allometric properties may be related dynamically, perhaps by an influence more fundamental than characteristic erosion and deposition processes. Such an influence could come from emergent behavior at the intersection of advection and diffusion. Geomorphic behaviors at advection-diffusion transitions (and vice versa), specifically, could be the key to disentangling mechanistic causality from acausality in physical landscape patterns.

  11. Scaling laws of ambush predator 'waiting' behaviour are tuned to a common ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearmouth, Victoria J; McHugh, Matthew J; Humphries, Nicolas E; Naegelen, Aurore; Ahmed, Mohammed Z; Southall, Emily J; Reynolds, Andrew M; Sims, David W

    2014-05-07

    The decisions animals make about how long to wait between activities can determine the success of diverse behaviours such as foraging, group formation or risk avoidance. Remarkably, for diverse animal species, including humans, spontaneous patterns of waiting times show random 'burstiness' that appears scale-invariant across a broad set of scales. However, a general theory linking this phenomenon across the animal kingdom currently lacks an ecological basis. Here, we demonstrate from tracking the activities of 15 sympatric predator species (cephalopods, sharks, skates and teleosts) under natural and controlled conditions that bursty waiting times are an intrinsic spontaneous behaviour well approximated by heavy-tailed (power-law) models over data ranges up to four orders of magnitude. Scaling exponents quantifying ratios of frequent short to rare very long waits are species-specific, being determined by traits such as foraging mode (active versus ambush predation), body size and prey preference. A stochastic-deterministic decision model reproduced the empirical waiting time scaling and species-specific exponents, indicating that apparently complex scaling can emerge from simple decisions. Results indicate temporal power-law scaling is a behavioural 'rule of thumb' that is tuned to species' ecological traits, implying a common pattern may have naturally evolved that optimizes move-wait decisions in less predictable natural environments.

  12. Bubble merger and scaling law of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability with surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Ik; Baek, Seunghyeon

    2017-12-01

    We present a theoretical model to study the effects of surface tension on the growth of single and multiple bubbles in the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The asymptotic solution for a single bubble is obtained and is expressed in terms of the Eötvös number. The bubble merger process is also demonstrated from the model. We find the contrasting effects of surface tension: it reduces the growth of a single bubble, but enhances the mixing rate of multiple bubbles at a late time. The bubble merger of Rayleigh-Taylor instability follows the same scaling law of the growth of mixing zone even when surface tension exists, but the growth coefficient in the scaling law increases with surface tension. A comparison with an experimental result is in good agreement.

  13. A Scaling Law for Predicting Snap-Back in Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Sanfilippo, S; Ambrosio, G; Bauer, P; Haverkamp, M

    2004-01-01

    The decay and snap-back of sextupole in the bending dipoles are issues of common concern, albeit at different levels of criticality, for all superconducting colliders built (Tevatron, HERA, RHIC) or in construction (LHC) to date. The main difficulty is the correction of the relatively large and fast sextupole change during snap-back. Motivated by the above considerations, we have pursued an extended study of sextupole snap-back on two different magnet families, the Tevatron and the LHC bending dipoles, using the same measurement method. We show here that it is possible to generalise the results obtained by using a simple, exponential scaling law. Furthermore, we show that for magnets of the same family the parameters of the scaling law correlate linearly. This finding could be exploited during accelerator operation to produce accurate forecast of the snap-back correction based solely on beam-based measurements.

  14. Scaling laws for Bénard-Marangoni convection using automatic background field generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Andrew; Pershin, Anton; Fantuzzi, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    We consider scaling laws for Bénard-Marangoni convection and, in particular, study the question of obtaining an upper bound on the Nusselt number Nu in terms of the flow's forcing parameter, the Marangoni number Ma . It has recently been proven using the background field method that in the case of infinite Prandtl number, these fundamental quantities are related by the scaling law Nu constructed background profiles have boundary layers at both the upper and lower domain boundaries, which is in contrast to those used in previous work. Analysis will be presented explaining how both boundary layers interact (in the context of the optimization problem associated with the background field method) to improve the Nusselt number bound within the background profile method.

  15. Scaling Laws for the Propulsive Performance of Self-Propelled Three-Dimensional Pitching Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayancik, Fatma; Moored, Keith

    2017-11-01

    Inviscid computational results are presented within a boundary element numerical framework on a self-propelled virtual body combined with a rigid three-dimensional rectangular plate undergoing pitching motions about its leading edge. New scaling laws have been developed for the thrust and power as well as self-propelled speed, efficiency, and cost of transport by incorporating three-dimensional effects for varying aspect ratios. A lifting line theory correction is applied to account for the variation of the circulatory forces due to three-dimensional effects and the alteration of the added mass forces with aspect ratio changes is also considered. The scaling laws show that when accounting for three-dimensional effects, the physics of mean thrust production follows linear theory well, while the power must be modified with nonlinear corrections. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzola, MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533.

  16. Relationships and scaling laws among correlation, fractality, Lyapunov divergence and q-Gaussian distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Ozgur; Tirnakli, Ugur

    2014-04-01

    We numerically introduce the relationships among correlation, fractality, Lyapunov divergence and q-Gaussian distributions. The scaling arguments between the range of the q-Gaussian and correlation, fractality, Lyapunov divergence are obtained for periodic windows (i.e., periods 2, 3 and 5) of the logistic map as chaos threshold is approached. Firstly, we show that the range of the q-Gaussian (g) tends to infinity as the measure of the deviation from the correlation dimension (D=0.5) at the chaos threshold, (this deviation will be denoted by l), approaches to zero. Moreover, we verify that a scaling law of type 1/g∝lτ is evident with the critical exponent τ=0.23±0.01. Similarly, as chaos threshold is approached, the quantity l scales as l∝(, where the exponent is γ=0.84±0.01. Secondly, we also show that the range of the q-Gaussian exhibits a scaling law with the correlation length (1/g∝ξ), Lyapunov divergence (1/g∝λμ) and the distance to the critical box counting fractal dimension (1/g∝() with the same exponent μ≅0.43. Finally, we numerically verify that these three quantities (ξ, λ, D-Dc) scale with the distance to the critical control parameter of the map (i.e., a-ac) in accordance with the universal Huberman-Rudnick scaling law with the same exponent ν=0.448±0.003. All these findings can be considered as a new evidence supporting that the central limit behaviour at the chaos threshold is given by a q-Gaussian.

  17. Model of the Dynamic Construction Process of Texts and Scaling Laws of Words Organization in Language Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Li

    Full Text Available Scaling laws characterize diverse complex systems in a broad range of fields, including physics, biology, finance, and social science. The human language is another example of a complex system of words organization. Studies on written texts have shown that scaling laws characterize the occurrence frequency of words, words rank, and the growth of distinct words with increasing text length. However, these studies have mainly concentrated on the western linguistic systems, and the laws that govern the lexical organization, structure and dynamics of the Chinese language remain not well understood. Here we study a database of Chinese and English language books. We report that three distinct scaling laws characterize words organization in the Chinese language. We find that these scaling laws have different exponents and crossover behaviors compared to English texts, indicating different words organization and dynamics of words in the process of text growth. We propose a stochastic feedback model of words organization and text growth, which successfully accounts for the empirically observed scaling laws with their corresponding scaling exponents and characteristic crossover regimes. Further, by varying key model parameters, we reproduce differences in the organization and scaling laws of words between the Chinese and English language. We also identify functional relationships between model parameters and the empirically observed scaling exponents, thus providing new insights into the words organization and growth dynamics in the Chinese and English language.

  18. Network-state modulation of power-law frequency-scaling in visual cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Boustani, Sami; Marre, Olivier; Béhuret, Sébastien; Baudot, Pierre; Yger, Pierre; Bal, Thierry; Destexhe, Alain; Frégnac, Yves

    2009-09-01

    Various types of neural-based signals, such as EEG, local field potentials and intracellular synaptic potentials, integrate multiple sources of activity distributed across large assemblies. They have in common a power-law frequency-scaling structure at high frequencies, but it is still unclear whether this scaling property is dominated by intrinsic neuronal properties or by network activity. The latter case is particularly interesting because if frequency-scaling reflects the network state it could be used to characterize the functional impact of the connectivity. In intracellularly recorded neurons of cat primary visual cortex in vivo, the power spectral density of V(m) activity displays a power-law structure at high frequencies with a fractional scaling exponent. We show that this exponent is not constant, but depends on the visual statistics used to drive the network. To investigate the determinants of this frequency-scaling, we considered a generic recurrent model of cortex receiving a retinotopically organized external input. Similarly to the in vivo case, our in computo simulations show that the scaling exponent reflects the correlation level imposed in the input. This systematic dependence was also replicated at the single cell level, by controlling independently, in a parametric way, the strength and the temporal decay of the pairwise correlation between presynaptic inputs. This last model was implemented in vitro by imposing the correlation control in artificial presynaptic spike trains through dynamic-clamp techniques. These in vitro manipulations induced a modulation of the scaling exponent, similar to that observed in vivo and predicted in computo. We conclude that the frequency-scaling exponent of the V(m) reflects stimulus-driven correlations in the cortical network activity. Therefore, we propose that the scaling exponent could be used to read-out the "effective" connectivity responsible for the dynamical signature of the population signals measured

  19. Network-state modulation of power-law frequency-scaling in visual cortical neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami El Boustani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Various types of neural-based signals, such as EEG, local field potentials and intracellular synaptic potentials, integrate multiple sources of activity distributed across large assemblies. They have in common a power-law frequency-scaling structure at high frequencies, but it is still unclear whether this scaling property is dominated by intrinsic neuronal properties or by network activity. The latter case is particularly interesting because if frequency-scaling reflects the network state it could be used to characterize the functional impact of the connectivity. In intracellularly recorded neurons of cat primary visual cortex in vivo, the power spectral density of V(m activity displays a power-law structure at high frequencies with a fractional scaling exponent. We show that this exponent is not constant, but depends on the visual statistics used to drive the network. To investigate the determinants of this frequency-scaling, we considered a generic recurrent model of cortex receiving a retinotopically organized external input. Similarly to the in vivo case, our in computo simulations show that the scaling exponent reflects the correlation level imposed in the input. This systematic dependence was also replicated at the single cell level, by controlling independently, in a parametric way, the strength and the temporal decay of the pairwise correlation between presynaptic inputs. This last model was implemented in vitro by imposing the correlation control in artificial presynaptic spike trains through dynamic-clamp techniques. These in vitro manipulations induced a modulation of the scaling exponent, similar to that observed in vivo and predicted in computo. We conclude that the frequency-scaling exponent of the V(m reflects stimulus-driven correlations in the cortical network activity. Therefore, we propose that the scaling exponent could be used to read-out the "effective" connectivity responsible for the dynamical signature of the population

  20. On the Scaling Law for Broadband Shock Noise Intensity in Supersonic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanudula, Max

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model for the scaling of broadband shock noise intensity in supersonic jets was formulated on the basis of linear shock-shear wave interaction. An hypothesis has been postulated that the peak angle of incidence (closer to the critical angle) for the shear wave primarily governs the generation of sound in the interaction process rather than the noise generation contribution from off-peak incident angles. The proposed theory satisfactorily explains the well-known scaling law for the broadband shock -associated noise in supersonic jets.

  1. Extended power-law scaling of self-affine signals exhibiting apparent multifractality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagnini, Alberto; Neuman, Shlomo P.

    2011-07-01

    Many earth and environmental variables appear to scale as multiplicative (multifractal) processes with spatial or temporal increments possessing Gaussian or heavy-tailed distributions. The behavior, characterized by power-law scaling, is typically limited to intermediate ranges of separation scales (lags) considered, in the case of fully developed turbulence, to be dominated by inertia. It has been established empirically that, in numerous cases (e.g. turbulence, diffusion-limited aggregates, natural images, kinetic surface roughening, fluvial turbulence, sand wave dynamics, Martian topography, river morphometry, gravel-bed mobility, barometric pressure, low-energy cosmic rays, cosmic microwave background radiation, metal-insulator transition, irregularities in human heartbeat time series, turbulence in edge magnetized plasma of fusion devices and turbulent boundary layers of the Earth's magnetosphere), this range of lags can be enlarged significantly, at both ends of the spectrum, via a procedure known as Extended Self-Similarity (ESS). We demonstrate numerically that a similar procedure extends the power-law scaling range over which additive (self-affine) signals exhibit apparent multifractality. We conclude that signals appearing to exhibit either standard or extended (such as those listed) multifractal scaling may potentially represent self-affine processes.

  2. Fully determined scaling laws for volumetrically heated convective systems, a tool for assessing habitability of exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilella, Kenny; Kaminski, Edouard

    2017-05-01

    The long-term habitability of a planet rises from its ability to generate and maintain an atmosphere through partial melting and volcanism. This question has been mainly addressed in the framework of plate tectonics, which may be too specific to apply to the wide range of internal dynamics expected for exoplanets, and even to the thermal evolution of the early Earth. Here we propose a more general theoretical approach of convection to build a regime diagram giving the conditions for partial melting to occur, in planetary bodies, as a function of key parameters that can be estimated for exoplanets, their size and internal heating rate. To that aim, we introduce a refined view of the Thermal Boundary Layer (TBL) in a convective system heated from within, that focuses on the temperature and thickness of the TBL at the top of the hottest temperature profiles, along which partial melting shall first occur. This ;Hottest Thermal Boundary Layer; (HotTBL) is first characterized using fully theoretical scaling laws based on the dynamics of thermal boundary layers. These laws are the first ones proposed in the literature that do not rely on empirical determinations of dimensionless constants and that apply to both low Rayleigh and high Rayleigh convective regimes. We show that the scaling laws can be successfully applied to planetary bodies by comparing their predictions to full numerical simulations of the Moon. We then use the scaling laws to build a regime diagram for exoplanets. Combined with estimates of internal heating in exoplanets, the regime diagram predicts that in the habitable zone partial melting occurs in planets younger than the Earth.

  3. Contact area of rough spheres: Large scale simulations and simple scaling laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastewka, Lars, E-mail: lars.pastewka@kit.edu [Institute for Applied Materials & MicroTribology Center muTC, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Engelbert-Arnold-Straße 4, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Robbins, Mark O., E-mail: mr@pha.jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2016-05-30

    We use molecular simulations to study the nonadhesive and adhesive atomic-scale contact of rough spheres with radii ranging from nanometers to micrometers over more than ten orders of magnitude in applied normal load. At the lowest loads, the interfacial mechanics is governed by the contact mechanics of the first asperity that touches. The dependence of contact area on normal force becomes linear at intermediate loads and crosses over to Hertzian at the largest loads. By combining theories for the limiting cases of nominally flat rough surfaces and smooth spheres, we provide parameter-free analytical expressions for contact area over the whole range of loads. Our results establish a range of validity for common approximations that neglect curvature or roughness in modeling objects on scales from atomic force microscope tips to ball bearings.

  4. Scaling laws of diffusion and time intermittency generated by coherent structures in atmospheric turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Paradisi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the time intermittency of turbulent transport associated with the birth-death of self-organized coherent structures in the atmospheric boundary layer. We apply a threshold analysis on the increments of turbulent fluctuations to extract sequences of rapid acceleration events, which is a marker of the transition between self-organized structures.

    The inter-event time distributions show a power-law decay ψ(τ ~ 1/τμ, with a strong dependence of the power-law index μ on the threshold.

    A recently developed method based on the application of event-driven walking rules to generate different diffusion processes is applied to the experimental event sequences. At variance with the power-law index μ estimated from the inter-event time distributions, the diffusion scaling H, defined by ⟨ X2⟩ ~ t2H, is independent from the threshold.

    From the analysis of the diffusion scaling it can also be inferred the presence of different kind of events, i.e. genuinely transition events and spurious events, which all contribute to the diffusion process but over different time scales. The great advantage of event-driven diffusion lies in the ability of separating different regimes of the scaling H. In fact, the greatest H, corresponding to the most anomalous diffusion process, emerges in the long time range, whereas the smallest H can be seen in the short time range if the time resolution of the data is sufficiently accurate.

    The estimated diffusion scaling is also robust under the change of the definition of turbulent fluctuations and, under the assumption of statistically independent events, it corresponds to a self-similar point process with a well-defined power-law index μD ~ 2.1, where D denotes that μD is derived from the diffusion scaling. We argue that

  5. Scaling laws of diffusion and time intermittency generated by coherent structures in atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, P.; Cesari, R.; Donateo, A.; Contini, D.; Allegrini, P.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the time intermittency of turbulent transport associated with the birth-death of self-organized coherent structures in the atmospheric boundary layer. We apply a threshold analysis on the increments of turbulent fluctuations to extract sequences of rapid acceleration events, which is a marker of the transition between self-organized structures. The inter-event time distributions show a power-law decay ψ(τ) ~ 1/τμ, with a strong dependence of the power-law index μ on the threshold. A recently developed method based on the application of event-driven walking rules to generate different diffusion processes is applied to the experimental event sequences. At variance with the power-law index μ estimated from the inter-event time distributions, the diffusion scaling H, defined by ⟨ X2⟩ ~ t2H, is independent from the threshold. From the analysis of the diffusion scaling it can also be inferred the presence of different kind of events, i.e. genuinely transition events and spurious events, which all contribute to the diffusion process but over different time scales. The great advantage of event-driven diffusion lies in the ability of separating different regimes of the scaling H. In fact, the greatest H, corresponding to the most anomalous diffusion process, emerges in the long time range, whereas the smallest H can be seen in the short time range if the time resolution of the data is sufficiently accurate. The estimated diffusion scaling is also robust under the change of the definition of turbulent fluctuations and, under the assumption of statistically independent events, it corresponds to a self-similar point process with a well-defined power-law index μD ~ 2.1, where D denotes that μD is derived from the diffusion scaling. We argue that this renewal point process can be associated to birth and death of coherent structures and to turbulent transport near the ground, where the contribution of turbulent coherent structures becomes dominant.

  6. Does environmental policy affect scaling laws between population and pollution? Evidence from American metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Nicholas Z; Jha, Akshaya

    2017-01-01

    Modern cities are engines of production, innovation, and growth. However, urbanization also increases both local and global pollution from household consumption and firms' production. Do emissions change proportionately to city size or does pollution tend to outpace or lag urbanization? Do emissions scale differently with population versus economic growth or are emissions, population, and economic growth inextricably linked? How are the scaling relationships between emissions, population, and economic growth affected by environmental regulation? This paper examines the link between urbanization, economic growth and pollution using data from Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States between 1999 and 2011. We find that the emissions of local air pollution in these MSAs scale according to a ¾ power law with both population size and gross domestic product (GDP). However, the monetary damages from these local emissions scale linearly with both population and GDP. Counties that have previously been out of attainment with the local air quality standards set by the Clean Air Act show an entirely different relationship: local emissions scale according to the square root of population, while the monetary damages from local air pollution follow a 2/3rds power law with population. Counties out of attainment are subject to more stringent emission controls; we argue based on this that enforcement of the Clean Air Act induces sublinear scaling between emissions, damages, and city size. In contrast, we find that metropolitan GDP scales super-linearly with population in all MSAs regardless of attainment status. Summarizing, our findings suggest that environmental policy limits the adverse effects of urbanization without interfering with the productivity benefits that manifest in cities.

  7. Scale invariance and scaling law of Thomson backscatter spectra by electron moving in laser-magnetic resonance regime

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Yi-Jia; Wan, Feng; Sang, Hai-Bo; Xie, Bai-Song

    2016-01-01

    The Thomson scattering spectra by an electron moving in the laser-magnetic resonance acceleration regime are computed numerically and analytically. The dependence of fundamental frequency on the laser intensity and magnetic resonance parameter is examined carefully. By calculating the emission of a single electron in a circularly polarized plane-wave laser field and constant external magnetic field, the scale invariance of the radiation spectra is evident in terms of harmonic orders. The scaling law of backscattered spectra are exhibited remarkably for the laser intensity as well for the initial axial momentum of the electron when the cyclotron frequency of the electron approaches the laser frequency. The results indicate that the magnetic resonance parameter plays an important role on the strength of emission. And the rich features of scattering spectra found may be applicable to the radiation source tunability.

  8. Growth patterns and scaling laws governing AIDS epidemic in Brazilian cities

    CERN Document Server

    Antonio, F J; Teixeira, J J V; Mendes, R S

    2014-01-01

    Brazil holds approximately 1/3 of population living infected with AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in Central and South Americas, and it was also the first developing country to implement a large-scale control and intervention program against AIDS epidemic. In this scenario, we investigate the temporal evolution and current status of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil. Specifically, we analyze records of annual absolute frequency of cases for more than 5000 cities for the first 33 years of the infection in Brazil. We found that (i) the annual absolute frequencies exhibit a logistic-type growth with an exponential regime in the first few years of the AIDS spreading; (ii) the actual reproduction number decaying as a power law; (iii) the distribution of the annual absolute frequencies among cities decays with a power law behavior; (iv) the annual absolute frequencies and the number of inhabitants have an allometric relationship; (v) the temporal evolution of the annual absolute frequencies have different profi...

  9. Applicability of Macroscopic Wear and Friction Laws on the Atomic Length Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, S J; Feldbauer, G; Bianchi, D; Cihak-Bayr, U; Betz, G; Vernes, A

    2015-07-10

    Using molecular dynamics, we simulate the abrasion process of an atomically rough Fe surface with multiple hard abrasive particles. By quantifying the nanoscopic wear depth in a time-resolved fashion, we show that Barwell's macroscopic wear law can be applied at the atomic scale. We find that in this multiasperity contact system, the Bowden-Tabor term, which describes the friction force as a function of the real nanoscopic contact area, can predict the kinetic friction even when wear is involved. From this the Derjaguin-Amontons-Coulomb friction law can be recovered, since we observe a linear dependence of the contact area on the applied load in accordance with Greenwood-Williamson contact mechanics.

  10. Segmentation of genomic DNA through entropic divergence: Power laws and scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Rajeev K.; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro; Ramaswamy, Ramakrishna; Rao, J. Subba

    2002-05-01

    Genomic DNA is fragmented into segments using the Jensen-Shannon divergence. Use of this criterion results in the fragments being entropically homogeneous to within a predefined level of statistical significance. Application of this procedure is made to complete genomes of organisms from archaebacteria, eubacteria, and eukaryotes. The distribution of fragment lengths in bacterial and primitive eukaryotic DNAs shows two distinct regimes of power-law scaling. The characteristic length separating these two regimes appears to be an intrinsic property of the sequence rather than a finite-size artifact, and is independent of the significance level used in segmenting a given genome. Fragment length distributions obtained in the segmentation of the genomes of more highly evolved eukaryotes do not have such distinct regimes of power-law behavior.

  11. Investigation of the Validity of the Universal Scaling Law on Linear Chains of Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alsawafta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the wide range of variation in the plasmonic characteristics of the metallic nanoparticles arranged in linear arrays, the optical spectra of these arrays provide a powerful platform for spectroscopic studies and biosensing applications. Due to the coupling effect between the interacting nanoparticles, the excited resonance mode is shifted with the interparticle separation. The change in the resonance energy of the coupled mode is expressed by the fractional plasmon shift which would normally follow a universal scaling behavior. Such a universal law has been successfully applied on a system of dimers under parallel polarization. It has been found that the plasmon shift decays exponentially over interparticle spacing. The decay length is independent of both the nanoparticle and dielectric properties of the surrounding medium. In this paper, the discrete dipole approximation (DDA is used to examine the validity of extending the universal scaling law to linear chains of several interacting nanoparticles embedded in various host media for both parallel and perpendicular polarizations. Our calculations reveal that the decay length of both the coupled longitudinal mode (LM and transverse modes (TM is strongly dependent on the refractive index of the surrounding medium nm. The decay constant of the LM is linearly proportional to nm while the corresponding constant of the TM decays exponentially with nm. Upon changing the nanoparticle size, the change in the peak position of the LM decreases exponentially with the interparticle separation and hence, it obeys the universal law. The sensitivity of coupled LM to the nanoparticle size is more pronounced at both smaller nanoparticle sizes and separations. The sensitivity of the coupled TM to the nanoparticle size on the other hand changes linearly with the separation and therefore, the universal law does not apply in the case of the excited TM.

  12. Scaling laws and deformation mechanisms of nanoporous copper under adiabatic uniaxial strain compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuping Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the scaling laws and the related atomistic deformation mechanisms of Cu monocrystal samples containing randomly placed nanovoids under adiabatic uniaxial strain compression. At onset of yielding, plastic deformation is accommodated by dislocations emitted from void surfaces as shear loops. The collapse of voids are observed by continuous emissions of dislocations from void surfaces and their interactions with further plastic deformation. The simulation results also suggest that the effect modulus, the yield stress and the energy aborption density of samples under uniaxial strain are linearly proportional to the relative density ρ. Moreover, the yield stress, the average flow stress and the energy aborption density of samples with the same relative density show a strong dependence on the void diameter d, expressed by exponential relations with decay coefficients much higher than -1/2. The corresponding atomistic mechanisms for scaling laws of the relative density and the void diameter were also presented. The present results should provide insights for understanding deformation mechanisms of nanoporous metals under extreme conditions.

  13. Scaling laws for perturbations in the ocean–atmosphere system following large CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Towles

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scaling relationships are found for perturbations to atmosphere and ocean variables from large transient CO2 emissions. Using the Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir (LOSCAR model (Zeebe et al., 2009; Zeebe, 2012b, we calculate perturbations to atmosphere temperature, total carbon, ocean temperature, total ocean carbon, pH, alkalinity, marine-sediment carbon, and carbon-13 isotope anomalies in the ocean and atmosphere resulting from idealized CO2 emission events. The peak perturbations in the atmosphere and ocean variables are then fit to power law functions of the form of γ DαEβ, where D is the event duration, E is its total carbon emission, and γ is a coefficient. Good power law fits are obtained for most system variables for E up to 50 000 PgC and D up to 100 kyr. Although all of the peak perturbations increase with emission rate E/D, we find no evidence of emission-rate-only scaling, α + β = 0. Instead, our scaling yields α + β ≃ 1 for total ocean and atmosphere carbon and 0 < α + β < 1 for most of the other system variables.

  14. Air-chemistry "turbulence": power-law scaling and statistical regularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-m. Hsu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available With the intent to gain further knowledge on the spectral structures and statistical regularities of surface atmospheric chemistry, the chemical gases (NO, NO2, NOx, CO, SO2, and O3 and aerosol (PM10 measured at 74 air quality monitoring stations over the island of Taiwan are analyzed for the year of 2004 at hourly resolution. They represent a range of surface air quality with a mixed combination of geographic settings, and include urban/rural, coastal/inland, plain/hill, and industrial/agricultural locations. In addition to the well-known semi-diurnal and diurnal oscillations, weekly, and intermediate (20 ~ 30 days peaks are also identified with the continuous wavelet transform (CWT. The spectra indicate power-law scaling regions for the frequencies higher than the diurnal and those lower than the diurnal with the average exponents of −5/3 and −1, respectively. These dual-exponents are corroborated with those with the detrended fluctuation analysis in the corresponding time-lag regions. These exponents are mostly independent of the averages and standard deviations of time series measured at various geographic settings, i.e., the spatial inhomogeneities. In other words, they possess dominant universal structures. After spectral coefficients from the CWT decomposition are grouped according to the spectral bands, and inverted separately, the PDFs of the reconstructed time series for the high-frequency band demonstrate the interesting statistical regularity, −3 power-law scaling for the heavy tails, consistently. Such spectral peaks, dual-exponent structures, and power-law scaling in heavy tails are important structural information, but their relations to turbulence and mesoscale variability require further investigations. This could lead to a better understanding of the processes controlling air quality.

  15. Lateral resolution in focused electron beam-induced deposition: scaling laws for pulsed and static exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkudlarek, Aleksandra [Empa, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Thun (Switzerland); AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Szmyt, Wojciech; Kapusta, Czeslaw [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Utke, Ivo [Empa, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Thun (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    In this work, we review the single-adsorbate time-dependent continuum model for focused electron beam-induced deposition (FEBID). The differential equation for the adsorption rate will be expressed by dimensionless parameters describing the contributions of adsorption, desorption, dissociation, and the surface diffusion of the precursor adsorbates. The contributions are individually presented in order to elucidate their influence during variations in the electron beam exposure time. The findings are condensed into three new scaling laws for pulsed exposure FEBID (or FEB-induced etching) relating the lateral resolution of deposits or etch pits to surface diffusion and electron beam exposure dwell time for a given adsorbate depletion state. (orig.)

  16. Extended scaling and Paschen law for micro-sized radiofrequency plasma breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Uk; Lee, Jimo; Lee, Jae Koo; Yun, Gunsu S.

    2017-03-01

    The single particle motion analysis and particle-in-cell merged with Monte Carlo collision (PIC/MCC) simulations are compared to explain substantial breakdown voltage reduction for helium microwave discharge above a critical frequency corresponding to the transition from the drift-dominant to the diffusion-dominant electron loss regime. The single particle analysis suggests that the transition frequency is proportional to the product of {p}-{m} and {d}-({m+1)} where p is the neutral gas pressure, d is the gap distance, and m is a numerical parameter, which is confirmed by the PIC simulation. In the low-frequency or drift-dominant regime, i.e., γ - {{r}}{{e}}{{g}}{{i}}{{m}}{{e}}, the secondary electron emission induced by ion drift motion is the key parameter for determining the breakdown voltage. The fluid analysis including the secondary emission coefficient, γ , induces the extended Paschen law that implies the breakdown voltage is determined by pd, f/p, γ , and d/R where f is the frequency of the radio or microwave frequency source, and R is the diameter of electrode. The extended Paschen law reproduces the same scaling law for the transition frequency and is confirmed by the independent PIC and fluid simulations.

  17. Engagement in the electoral processes: Scaling laws and the role of political positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, M. C.; Ribeiro, H. V.; Lenzi, E. K.; Picoli, S., Jr.; Mendes, R. S.

    2013-08-01

    We report on a statistical analysis of the engagement in the electoral processes of all Brazilian cities by considering the number of party memberships and the number of candidates for mayor and councillor. By investigating the relationships between the number of party members and the population of voters, we have found that the functional forms of these relationships are well described by sublinear power laws (allometric scaling) surrounded by a multiplicative log-normal noise. We have observed that this pattern is quite similar to those we previously reported for the relationships between the number of candidates (mayor and councillor) and population of voters [Europhys. Lett.EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/0295-5075/96/48001 96, 48001 (2011)], suggesting that similar universal laws may be ruling the engagement in the electoral processes. We also note that the power-law exponents display a clear hierarchy, where the more influential is the political position the smaller is the value of the exponent. We have also investigated the probability distributions of the number of candidates (mayor and councillor), party memberships, and voters. The results indicate that the most influential positions are characterized by distributions with very short tails, while less influential positions display an intermediate power-law decay before showing an exponential-like cutoff. We discuss the possibility that, in addition to the political power of the position, limitations in the number of available seats can also be connected with this changing of behavior. We further believe that our empirical findings point out to an under-representation effect, where the larger the city is, the larger are the obstacles for more individuals to become directly engaged in the electoral process.

  18. Pore scale simulations for the extension of the Darcy-Forchheimer law to shear thinning fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosco, Tiziana; Marchisio, Daniele; Lince, Federica; Boccardo, Gianluca; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-05-01

    Flow of non-Newtonian fluids through porous media at high Reynolds numbers is often encountered in chemical, pharmaceutical and food as well as petroleum and groundwater engineering and in many other industrial applications (1 - 2). In particular, the use of shear thinning polymeric solutions has been recently proposed to improve colloidal stability of micro- and nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (MZVI and NZVI) for groundwater remediation. In all abovementioned applications, it is of paramount importance to correctly predict the pressure drop resulting from non-Newtonian fluid flow through the porous medium. For small Reynolds numbers, usually up to 1, typical of laboratory column tests, the extended Darcy law is known to be applicable also to non Newtonian fluids, provided that all non-Newtonian effects are lumped together into a proper viscosity parameter (1,3). For higher Reynolds numbers (eg. close to the injection wells) non linearities between pressure drop and flow rate arise, and the Darcy-Forchheimer law holds for Newtonian fluids, while for non-Newtonian fluids, it has been demonstrated that, at least for simple rheological models (eg. power law fluids) a generalized Forchheimer law can be applied, even if the determination of the flow parameters (permeability K, inertial coefficient β, and equivalent viscosity) is not straightforward. This work (co-funded by European Union project AQUAREHAB FP7 - Grant Agreement Nr. 226565) aims at proposing an extended formulation of the Darcy-Forchheimer law also for shear-thinning fluids, and validating it against results of pore-scale simulations via computational fluid dynamics (4). Flow simulations were performed using Fluent 12.0 on four different 2D porous domains for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids (Cross, Ellis and Carreau models). The micro-scale flow simulation results are analyzed in terms of 'macroscale' pressure drop between inlet and outlet of the model domain as a function of flow rate. The

  19. Analysis of Scaling Law and Figure of Merit of Fiber-Based Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Teng Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a normalized transmitted signal (NTS of a fiber-based sensor using gold nanorods as the plasmon excitation medium of the evanescent wave. The NTS and the refractive index (RI sensitivity is calculated as a function of the gold aspect ratio (R, the RI of the sensing medium, and a scaling parameter given by the ratio of the fiber length and its diameter. Finally, the optimal value of gold aspect ratio is calculated to be R = (3.0–4.0 for maximum figure of merits (FOMs defined by the ratio of the refractive index sensitivity and the full width at half maximum. The scaling laws and the FOM presented in this paper may serve as the guidelines for optimal designs in fiber-based nanosensors.

  20. Conceptual design based on scale laws and algorithms for sub-critical transmutation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Gu; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    In order to conduct the effective integration of computer-aided conceptual design for integrated nuclear power reactor, not only is a smooth information flow required, but also decision making for both conceptual design and construction process design must be synthesized. In addition to the aboves, the relations between the one step and another step and the methodologies to optimize the decision variables are verified, in this paper especially, that is, scaling laws and scaling criteria. In the respect with the running of the system, the integrated optimization process is proposed in which decisions concerning both conceptual design are simultaneously made. According to the proposed reactor types and power levels, an integrated optimization problems are formulated. This optimization is expressed as a multi-objective optimization problem. The algorithm for solving the problem is also presented. The proposed method is applied to designing a integrated sub-critical reactors. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  1. Universal Scaling Laws for Dense Particle Suspensions in Turbulent Wall-Bounded Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro; Picano, Francesco; Brandt, Luca; Breugem, Wim-Paul

    2016-09-23

    The macroscopic behavior of dense suspensions of neutrally buoyant spheres in turbulent plane channel flow is examined. We show that particles larger than the smallest turbulence scales cause the suspension to deviate from the continuum limit in which its dynamics is well described by an effective suspension viscosity. This deviation is caused by the formation of a particle layer close to the wall with significant slip velocity. By assuming two distinct transport mechanisms in the near-wall layer and the turbulence in the bulk, we define an effective wall location such that the flow in the bulk can still be accurately described by an effective suspension viscosity. We thus propose scaling laws for the mean velocity profile of the suspension flow, together with a master equation able to predict the increase in drag as a function of the particle size and volume fraction.

  2. Scaling Laws for the Field Quality at Injection in the LHC Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Sammut, N

    2004-01-01

    The selection and use of reference magnets as a mean to improve predictability and reproducibility of the operation of the LHC depends on whether few magnets can be found that represent the average behavior of a sector, or, in the limit, of the whole accelerator. The purpose of this note is to show that it is possible to select magnets that represent well, on average, a family in the population of the magnets produced so far. We refer to this property by saying that the behavior of a single magnet can be scaled to be equal to the average of a family of magnets. The procedure used to achieve this equivalence is referred to as the scaling law.

  3. Unification of Small and Large Time Scales for Biological Evolution: Deviations from Power Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Debashish; Stauffer, Dietrich; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2003-02-01

    We develop a unified model that describes both “micro” and “macro” evolutions within a single theoretical framework. The ecosystem is described as a dynamic network; the population dynamics at each node of this network describes the “microevolution” over ecological time scales (i.e., birth, ageing, and natural death of individual organisms), while the appearance of new nodes, the slow changes of the links, and the disappearance of existing nodes accounts for the “macroevolution” over geological time scales (i.e., the origination, evolution, and extinction of species). In contrast to several earlier claims in the literature, we observe strong deviations from power law in the regime of long lifetimes.

  4. Scaling laws for the movement of people between locations in a large city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, G.; Hyman, J. M.; Eubank, S.; Castillo-Chavez, C.

    2003-12-01

    Large scale simulations of the movements of people in a “virtual” city and their analyses are used to generate insights into understanding the dynamic processes that depend on the interactions between people. Models, based on these interactions, can be used in optimizing traffic flow, slowing the spread of infectious diseases, or predicting the change in cell phone usage in a disaster. We analyzed cumulative and aggregated data generated from the simulated movements of 1.6×106 individuals in a computer (pseudo-agent-based) model during a typical day in Portland, Oregon. This city is mapped into a graph with 181 206 nodes representing physical locations such as buildings. Connecting edges model individual’s flow between nodes. Edge weights are constructed from the daily traffic of individuals moving between locations. The number of edges leaving a node (out-degree), the edge weights (out-traffic), and the edge weights per location (total out-traffic) are fitted well by power-law distributions. The power-law distributions also fit subgraphs based on work, school, and social/recreational activities. The resulting weighted graph is a “small world” and has scaling laws consistent with an underlying hierarchical structure. We also explore the time evolution of the largest connected component and the distribution of the component sizes. We observe a strong linear correlation between the out-degree and total out-traffic distributions and significant levels of clustering. We discuss how these network features can be used to characterize social networks and their relationship to dynamic processes.

  5. Scaling Law for Cross-stream Diffusion in Microchannels under Combined Electroosmotic and Pressure Driven Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongjun; Wang, Yi; Pant, Kapil

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of the cross-stream diffusion of an analyte in a rectangular microchannel under combined electroosmotic flow (EOF) and pressure driven flow to investigate the heterogeneous transport behavior and spatially-dependent diffusion scaling law. An analytical model capable of accurately describing 3D steady-state convection-diffusion in microchannels with arbitrary aspect ratios is developed based on the assumption of the thin Electric Double Layer (EDL). The model is verified against high-fidelity numerical simulation in terms of flow velocity and analyte concentration profiles with excellent agreement (parametric analysis is then undertaken to interrogate the effect of the combined flow velocity field on the transport behavior in both the positive pressure gradient (PPG) and negative pressure gradient (NPG) cases. For the first time, the evolution from the spindle-shaped concentration profile in the PPG case, via the stripe-shaped profile (pure EOF), and finally to the butterfly-shaped profile in the PPG case is obtained using the analytical model along with a quantitative depiction of the spatially-dependent diffusion layer thickness and scaling law across a wide range of the parameter space.

  6. Scaling Law for Cross-stream Diffusion in Microchannels under Combined Electroosmotic and Pressure Driven Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongjun; Wang, Yi; Pant, Kapil

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of the cross-stream diffusion of an analyte in a rectangular microchannel under combined electroosmotic flow (EOF) and pressure driven flow to investigate the heterogeneous transport behavior and spatially-dependent diffusion scaling law. An analytical model capable of accurately describing 3D steady-state convection-diffusion in microchannels with arbitrary aspect ratios is developed based on the assumption of the thin Electric Double Layer (EDL). The model is verified against high-fidelity numerical simulation in terms of flow velocity and analyte concentration profiles with excellent agreement (parametric analysis is then undertaken to interrogate the effect of the combined flow velocity field on the transport behavior in both the positive pressure gradient (PPG) and negative pressure gradient (NPG) cases. For the first time, the evolution from the spindle-shaped concentration profile in the PPG case, via the stripe-shaped profile (pure EOF), and finally to the butterfly-shaped profile in the PPG case is obtained using the analytical model along with a quantitative depiction of the spatially-dependent diffusion layer thickness and scaling law across a wide range of the parameter space. PMID:23554584

  7. Allometric Relations and Scaling Laws for the Cardiovascular System of Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Dawson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of the cardiovascular system of mammals is discussed within the framework of governing allometric relations and related scaling laws for mammals. An earlier theory of the writer for resting-state cardiovascular function is reviewed and standard solutions discussed for reciprocal quarter-power relations for heart rate and cardiac output per unit body mass. Variation in the basic cardiac process controlling heart beat is considered and shown to allow alternate governing relations. Results have potential application in explaining deviations from the noted quarter-power relations. The work thus indicates that the cardiovascular systems of all mammals are designed according to the same general theory and, accordingly, that it provides a quantitative means to extrapolate measurements of cardiovascular form and function from small mammals to the human. Various illustrations are included. Work described here also indicates that the basic scaling laws from the theory apply to children and adults, with important applications such as the extrapolation of therapeutic drug dosage requirements from adults to children.

  8. Revisiting the generalized scaling law for adhesion: role of compliance and extension to progressive failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojdehi, Ahmad R; Holmes, Douglas P; Dillard, David A

    2017-10-25

    A generalized scaling law, based on the classical fracture mechanics approach, is developed to predict the bond strength of adhesive systems. The proposed scaling relationship depends on the rate of change of debond area with compliance, rather than the ratio of area to compliance. This distinction can have a profound impact on the expected bond strength of systems, particularly when the failure mechanism changes or the compliance of the load train increases. Based on the classical fracture mechanics approach for rate-independent materials, the load train compliance should not affect the force capacity of the adhesive system, whereas when the area to compliance ratio is used as the scaling parameter, it directly influences the bond strength, making it necessary to distinguish compliance contributions. To verify the scaling relationship, single lap shear tests were performed for a given pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) tape specimens with different bond areas, number of backing layers, and load train compliance. The shear lag model was used to derive closed-form relationships for the system compliance and its derivative with respect to the debond area. Digital image correlation (DIC) is implemented to verify the non-uniform shear stress distribution obtained from the shear lag model in a lap shear geometry. The results obtained from this approach could lead to a better understanding of the relationship between bond strength and the geometry and mechanical properties of adhesive systems.

  9. Scaling regimes of 2d turbulence with power-law stirring: theories versus numerical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzino, A.; Muratore-Ginanneschi, P.; Musacchio, S.

    2009-10-01

    We inquire about the statistical properties of the pair formed by the Navier-Stokes equation for an incompressible velocity field and the advection-diffusion equation for a scalar field transported in the same flow in two dimensions (2d). The system is in a regime of fully developed turbulence stirred by forcing fields with Gaussian statistics, white noise in time and self-similar in space. In this setting and if the stirring is concentrated at small spatial scales, as if due to thermal fluctuations, it is possible to carry out a first-principles ultraviolet renormalization group analysis of the scaling behavior of the model. Kraichnan's phenomenological theory of two-dimensional turbulence upholds the existence of an inertial range characterized by inverse energy transfer at scales larger than the stirring one. For our model Kraichnan's theory, however, implies scaling predictions radically discordant from the renormalization group results. We perform accurate numerical experiments to assess the actual statistical properties of 2d turbulence with power-law stirring. Our results clearly indicate that an adapted version of Kraichnan's theory is consistent with the observed phenomenology. We also provide some theoretical scenarios to account for the discrepancy between renormalization group analysis and the observed phenomenology.

  10. Uncovering Scaling Laws to Infer Multidrug Response of Resistant Microbes and Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Wood

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance in bacterial infections and cancers constitutes a major threat to human health. Treatments often include several interacting drugs, but even potent therapies can become ineffective in resistant mutants. Here, we simplify the picture of drug resistance by identifying scaling laws that unify the multidrug responses of drug-sensitive and -resistant cells. On the basis of these scaling relationships, we are able to infer the two-drug response of resistant mutants in previously unsampled regions of dosage space in clinically relevant microbes such as E. coli, E. faecalis, S. aureus, and S. cerevisiae as well as human non-small-cell lung cancer, melanoma, and breast cancer stem cells. Importantly, we find that scaling relations also apply across evolutionarily close strains. Finally, scaling allows one to rapidly identify new drug combinations and predict potent dosage regimes for targeting resistant mutants without any prior mechanistic knowledge about the specific resistance mechanism.

  11. Uncovering scaling laws to infer multidrug response of resistant microbes and cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kevin B; Wood, Kris C; Nishida, Satoshi; Cluzel, Philippe

    2014-03-27

    Drug resistance in bacterial infections and cancers constitutes a major threat to human health. Treatments often include several interacting drugs, but even potent therapies can become ineffective in resistant mutants. Here, we simplify the picture of drug resistance by identifying scaling laws that unify the multidrug responses of drug-sensitive and -resistant cells. On the basis of these scaling relationships, we are able to infer the two-drug response of resistant mutants in previously unsampled regions of dosage space in clinically relevant microbes such as E. coli, E. faecalis, S. aureus, and S. cerevisiae as well as human non-small-cell lung cancer, melanoma, and breast cancer stem cells. Importantly, we find that scaling relations also apply across evolutionarily close strains. Finally, scaling allows one to rapidly identify new drug combinations and predict potent dosage regimes for targeting resistant mutants without any prior mechanistic knowledge about the specific resistance mechanism. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Scaling laws for gas–liquid flow in swirl vane separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Li; Bai, Bofeng, E-mail: bfbai@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Model for swirl vane separator performance is established with similarity criteria. • Scaling laws are developed to correlate downscale test with prototype separator. • Effects of key similarity criteria on separation performance are studied. • The vital role of droplet size distribution on separation performance is discussed. - Abstract: Laboratory tests on gas–liquid flow in swirl vane separators are usually carried out to help establish an experimental database for separator design and performance improvement. Such model tests are generally performed in the reduced scale and not on the actual working conditions. Though great efficiency is often obtainable in the reduced model, the performance of the full-sized prototype usually cannot be well predicted. To design downscale model tests and apply the experimental results to predict the prototype, a general relationship to correlate them is required. In this paper, the relation of the similitude-criterion concerning the pressure loss is presented by using the dimensionless analysis, and mathematical models for critical droplet diameter, grade efficiency and overall separation efficiency are established by analyzing the features of the droplet trajectory in gas swirling flow field. The essential similarity criteria accounting for pressure loss and separation efficiency are obtained, respectively. On this basis, the scaling laws which enable a comparison between the reduced model and the full-sized prototype under similar conditions are also developed. It is found that the overall separation efficiency is significantly affected by the size distribution of the small droplets, especially when the mean diameter is smaller than the critical droplet diameter.

  13. Extreme robustness of scaling in sample space reducing processes explains Zipf’s law in diffusion on directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown recently that a specific class of path-dependent stochastic processes, which reduce their sample space as they unfold, lead to exact scaling laws in frequency and rank distributions. Such sample space reducing processes offer an alternative new mechanism to understand the emergence of scaling in countless processes. The corresponding power law exponents were shown to be related to noise levels in the process. Here we show that the emergence of scaling is not limited to the simplest SSRPs, but holds for a huge domain of stochastic processes that are characterised by non-uniform prior distributions. We demonstrate mathematically that in the absence of noise the scaling exponents converge to -1 (Zipf’s law) for almost all prior distributions. As a consequence it becomes possible to fully understand targeted diffusion on weighted directed networks and its associated scaling laws in node visit distributions. The presence of cycles can be properly interpreted as playing the same role as noise in SSRPs and, accordingly, determine the scaling exponents. The result that Zipf’s law emerges as a generic feature of diffusion on networks, regardless of its details, and that the exponent of visiting times is related to the amount of cycles in a network could be relevant for a series of applications in traffic-, transport- and supply chain management.

  14. Recurrence and scaling of extreme events with power-law interarrivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, R.; Benson, D. A.; Meerschaert, M. M.; Boyle, D.

    2007-05-01

    Extreme value theory is used to predict the recurrence of extreme geologic events and is a key factor in risk mitigation. Stochastic representation of both annual and partial duration series is typically based on the Poisson process. Maxima, minima, and threshold exceedances are represented by a best-fit probability distribution but are assumed to be separated by fixed or exponentially distributed interarrival times. These models are robust because all steady state renewal processes with finite-mean waiting times converge to the Poisson Process as the timescale grows. Limiting distributions governing the maximum value for a properly normalized set of independent and identically distributed random variables are the Type I, II and III extreme value distributions. Inappropriate use of these classical extreme value models for data with power-law interarrivals results in under- estimation of recurrence intervals. However, heavy-tailed interarrivals have been observed in ephemeral streamflows, storm origins, raindrop release and arrival on the ground, and earthquakes. By evaluating max processes in the context of continuous time random walks, we obtain the probability distribution governing extreme events with power-law interarrivals. These limiting distributions are valid over all time scales.

  15. Temporal scaling law and intrinsic characteristic of laser induced damage on the dielectric coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Jiang, Youen; Wang, Chao; Wei, Hui; Zhang, Peng; Fan, Wei; Li, Xuechun

    2018-01-01

    High power laser is essential for optical manipulation and fabrication. When the laser travels through optics and to the target finally, irreversible damage on the dielectric coating is always accompanied without knowing the law and principle of laser induced damage. Here, an experimental study of laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) Fth of the dielectric coating under different pulse duration t is implemented. We observe that the temporal scaling law of square pulse for high-reflectivity (HR) coating and anti-reflectivity (AR) coating are Fth = 9.53t0.47 and Fth = 6.43t0.28 at 1064 nm, respectively. Moreover, the intrinsic LIDT of HR coating is 62.7 J/cm2 where the coating is just 100% damaged by gradually increasing the fluence densities of a 5ns-duration pulse, which is much higher than the actual LIDT of 18.6 J/cm2. Thus, a more robust and reliable high power laser system will be a reality, even working at very high fluence, if measures are taken to improve the actual LIDT to a considerable level near the intrinsic value.

  16. Growth patterns and scaling laws governing AIDS epidemic in Brazilian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Fernando Jose; de Picoli, Sergio; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Mendes, Renio dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Brazil holds approximately 1/3 of population living infected with AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in Central and South Americas, and it was also the first developing country to implement a large-scale control and intervention program against AIDS epidemic. In this scenario, we investigate the temporal evolution and current status of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil. Specifically, we analyze records of annual absolute frequency of cases for more than 5000 cities for the first 33 years of the infection in Brazil. We found that (i) the annual absolute frequencies exhibit a logistic-type growth with an exponential regime in the first few years of the AIDS spreading; (ii) the actual reproduction number decaying as a power law; (iii) the distribution of the annual absolute frequencies among cities decays with a power law behavior; (iv) the annual absolute frequencies and the number of inhabitants have an allometric relationship; (v) the temporal evolution of the annual absolute frequencies have different profile depending on the average annual absolute frequencies in the cities. These findings yield a general quantitative description of the AIDS infection dynamics in Brazil since the beginning. They also provide clues about the effectiveness of treatment and control programs against the infection, that has had a different impact depending on the number of inhabitants of cities. In this framework, our results give insights into the overall dynamics of AIDS epidemic, which may contribute to select empirically accurate models.

  17. Crossover from exponential to power-law scaling for human mobility pattern in urban, suburban and rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsing; Chen, Ying-Hsing; Lih, Jiann-Shing

    2015-05-01

    Empirical analysis on human mobility has caught extensive attentions due to the accumulated human dynamical data and the advance of data mining technique. But the results of related research still have to further investigate on some issues such as spatial scale. In this paper, we explore human mobility in greater Kaohsiung area by using long-term taxicabs' GPS data. The trip distance in our dataset exhibits exponential decay for short trips and power-law scaling for long trips. We propose an approach to investigate the possible mechanism of the power-law tail. Moreover, we utilize the method of simulation and random relinking trip path to explain the empirical observation. Our results show that the origin of power-law movement distribution may be largely due to the power-law population distribution.

  18. Prediction of scaling physics laws for proton acceleration with extended parameter space of the NIF ARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutwala, Krish; Beg, Farhat; Mariscal, Derek; Wilks, Scott; Ma, Tammy

    2017-10-01

    The Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) laser at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's most energetic short-pulse laser. It comprises four beamlets, each of substantial energy ( 1.5 kJ), extended short-pulse duration (10-30 ps), and large focal spot (>=50% of energy in 150 µm spot). This allows ARC to achieve proton and light ion acceleration via the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) mechanism, but it is yet unknown how proton beam characteristics scale with ARC-regime laser parameters. As theory has also not yet been validated for laser-generated protons at ARC-regime laser parameters, we attempt to formulate the scaling physics of proton beam characteristics as a function of laser energy, intensity, focal spot size, pulse length, target geometry, etc. through a review of relevant proton acceleration experiments from laser facilities across the world. These predicted scaling laws should then guide target design and future diagnostics for desired proton beam experiments on the NIF ARC. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the LLNL LDRD program under tracking code 17-ERD-039.

  19. Phase boundaries of power-law Anderson and Kondo models: A poor man's scaling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mengxing; Chowdhury, Tathagata; Mohammed, Aaron; Ingersent, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    We use the poor man's scaling approach to study the phase boundaries of a pair of quantum impurity models featuring a power-law density of states ρ (ɛ ) ∝|ɛ| r , either vanishing (for r >0 ) or diverging (for r 0 ), we find the phase boundary for (a) 0 1 , where the phases are separated by first-order quantum phase transitions that are accessible only for broken p-h symmetry. For the p-h-symmetric Kondo model with easy-axis or easy-plane anisotropy of the impurity-band spin exchange, the phase boundary and scaling trajectories are obtained for both r >0 and r <0 . Throughout the regime of weak-to-moderate impurity-band coupling in which poor man's scaling is expected to be valid, the approach predicts phase boundaries in excellent qualitative and good quantitative agreement with the nonperturbative numerical renormalization group, while also establishing the functional relations between model parameters along these boundaries.

  20. A scaling law for the dust cloud in RF discharge under microgravity conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukhovitskii, D I; Fortov, V E

    2014-01-01

    We employ the approximation of overlapped scattering potentials of charged dust particles exposed to streaming ions to deduce the "equation of state" for a stationary dust cloud in RF discharge apart from the void--dust boundary. Obtained equation defines the potential of a dust particle as a function of the ion number density, the mass of a carrier gas atom, and the electron temperature. A scaling law that relates the particle number density to the particle radius and electron temperature in different systems is formulated. On the basis of proposed theory, the radius of a cavity around a large particle in the bulk of the cloud is estimated. Calculation results are in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data available in literature.

  1. Validación estructural del Wong-Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS): estudio preliminar en adultos / Structural validation of the Wong-Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS): preliminary study in adults

    OpenAIRE

    César Merino Soto; Manuel Lunahuaná-Rosales; Rabindra Kumar Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN: La medición de la inteligencia emocional ha tenido muchas propuestas en formato de autorreporte. Una de estas es el Wong-Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS), creada para el contexto laboral y que evalúa valoración y expresión de las emociones propias, valoración y reconocimiento de las emociones en otros, regulación de las propias emociones y uso de la emoción para facilitar el desempeño. Hay poca evidencia psicométrica sobre el Wong-Law Emotional Intelligence Scale en habla hi...

  2. Scaling laws for positron production in laser-electron beam collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Tom; Ilderton, Anton; Murphy, Christopher; Marklund, Mattias

    2017-10-01

    Showers of gamma rays and positrons are produced when a multi-GeV electron beam collides with a super-intense laser pulse. All-optical realisation of this geometry, where the electron beam is generated by laser-wakefield acceleration, is currently attracting much experimental interest as a probe of radiation reaction and QED effects. These interactions may be modelled theoretically in the framework of strong-field QED or numerically by large-scale PIC simulation. To complement these, we present analytical scaling laws for the electron beam energy loss, gamma ray spectrum, and the positron yield and energy that are valid in the radiation-reaction-dominated regime. These indicate that by employing the collision of a 2 GeV electron beam with a laser pulse of intensity 5 ×1021Wcm-2 , it is possible to produce 10,000 positrons in a single shot at currently available laser facilities. The authors acknowledge support from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation.

  3. Earthquake Hazard and Risk Assessment Based on Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: State of Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Nekrasova, Anastasia; Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2017-03-01

    The Gujarat state of India is one of the most seismically active intercontinental regions of the world. Historically, it has experienced many damaging earthquakes including the devastating 1819 Rann of Kachchh and 2001 Bhuj earthquakes. The effect of the later one is grossly underestimated by the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP). To assess a more adequate earthquake hazard for the state of Gujarat, we apply Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), which generalizes the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relation taking into account naturally fractal distribution of earthquake loci. USLE has evident implications since any estimate of seismic hazard depends on the size of the territory considered and, therefore, may differ dramatically from the actual one when scaled down to the proportion of the area of interest (e.g. of a city) from the enveloping area of investigation. We cross-compare the seismic hazard maps compiled for the same standard regular grid 0.2° × 0.2° (1) in terms of design ground acceleration based on the neo-deterministic approach, (2) in terms of probabilistic exceedance of peak ground acceleration by GSHAP, and (3) the one resulted from the USLE application. Finally, we present the maps of seismic risks for the state of Gujarat integrating the obtained seismic hazard, population density based on India's Census 2011 data, and a few model assumptions of vulnerability.

  4. Determination of fractional flow reserve (FFR) based on scaling laws: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jerry T.; Molloi, Sabee

    2008-07-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) provides an objective physiological evaluation of stenosis severity. A technique that can measure FFR using only angiographic images would be a valuable tool in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. To perform this, the diseased blood flow can be measured with a first pass distribution analysis and the theoretical normal blood flow can be estimated from the total coronary arterial volume based on scaling laws. A computer simulation of the coronary arterial network was used to gain a better understanding of how hemodynamic conditions and coronary artery disease can affect blood flow, arterial volume and FFR estimation. Changes in coronary arterial flow and volume due to coronary stenosis, aortic pressure and venous pressure were examined to evaluate the potential use of flow and volume for FFR determination. This study showed that FFR can be estimated using arterial volume and a scaling coefficient corrected for aortic pressure. However, variations in venous pressure were found to introduce some error in FFR estimation. A relative form of FFR was introduced and was found to cancel out the influence of pressure on coronary flow, arterial volume and FFR estimation. The use of coronary flow and arterial volume for FFR determination appears promising.

  5. Scaling law and enhancement of lift generation of an insect-size hovering flexible wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-kwon; Shyy, Wei

    2013-08-06

    We report a comprehensive scaling law and novel lift generation mechanisms relevant to the aerodynamic functions of structural flexibility in insect flight. Using a Navier-Stokes equation solver, fully coupled to a structural dynamics solver, we consider the hovering motion of a wing of insect size, in which the dynamics of fluid-structure interaction leads to passive wing rotation. Lift generated on the flexible wing scales with the relative shape deformation parameter, whereas the optimal lift is obtained when the wing deformation synchronizes with the imposed translation, consistent with previously reported observations for fruit flies and honeybees. Systematic comparisons with rigid wings illustrate that the nonlinear response in wing motion results in a greater peak angle compared with a simple harmonic motion, yielding higher lift. Moreover, the compliant wing streamlines its shape via camber deformation to mitigate the nonlinear lift-degrading wing-wake interaction to further enhance lift. These bioinspired aeroelastic mechanisms can be used in the development of flapping wing micro-robots.

  6. Additive scaling law for structural organization of chromatin in chicken erythrocyte nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iashina, E. G.; Velichko, E. V.; Filatov, M. V.; Bouwman, W. G.; Duif, C. P.; Brulet, A.; Grigoriev, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) on nuclei of chicken erythrocytes demonstrates the cubic dependence of the scattering intensity Q-3 in the range of momentum transfer Q ∈10-3-10-2nm-1 . Independent spin-echo SANS measurements give the spin-echo function, which is well described by the exponential law in a range of sizes (3 ×102) -(3 ×104) nm. Both experimental dependences reflect the nature of the structural organization of chromatin in the nucleus of a living cell, which corresponds to the correlation function γ (r )=ln(ξ /r ) for r <ξ , where ξ =(3.69 ±0.07 ) ×103 nm, the size of the nucleus. It has the specific scaling property of the logarithmic fractal γ (r /a )=γ (r )+ln(a ), i.e., the scaling down by a gives an additive constant to the correlation function, which distinguishes it from the mass fractal, which is characterized by multiplicative constant.

  7. Fluid Flow and Heat Transport Computation for Power-Law Scaling Poroperm Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Leary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In applying Darcy’s law to fluid flow in geologic formations, it is generally assumed that flow variations average to an effectively constant formation flow property. This assumption is, however, fundamentally inaccurate for the ambient crust. Well-log, well-core, and well-flow empirics show that crustal flow spatial variations are systematically correlated from mm to km. Translating crustal flow spatial correlation empirics into numerical form for fluid flow/transport simulation requires computations to be performed on a single global mesh that supports long-range spatial correlation flow structures. Global meshes populated by spatially correlated stochastic poroperm distributions can be processed by 3D finite-element solvers. We model wellbore-logged Dm-scale temperature data due to heat advective flow into a well transecting small faults in a Hm-scale sandstone volume. Wellbore-centric thermal transport is described by Peclet number Pe ≡ a0φv0/D (a0 = wellbore radius, v0 = fluid velocity at a0, φ = mean crustal porosity, and D = rock-water thermal diffusivity. The modelling schema is (i 3D global mesh for spatially correlated stochastic poropermeability; (ii ambient percolation flow calibrated by well-core porosity-controlled permeability; (iii advection via fault-like structures calibrated by well-log neutron porosity; (iv flow Pe ~ 0.5 in ambient crust and Pe ~ 5 for fault-borne advection.

  8. The dynamics and scaling laws of planetary dynamos driven by inertial waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, P. A.

    2014-09-01

    Great progress has been made in the numerical simulation of planetary dynamos, though these numerical experiments still operate in a regime very far from the planets. For example, it seems unlikely that viscous forces are at all significant in planetary interiors, yet some of the simulations display a significant dependence on viscosity, and indeed in some of the simulations the dynamo mechanism is itself viscously driven, taking the form of helical Ekman pumping within columnar convection rolls. Given the similarity of the external magnetic fields observed in the terrestrial planets and gas giants, and the extremely small value of the Ekman number in all such cases, it seems natural to suppose that the underlying dynamo mechanism in these planets is simple, robust, independent of viscosity and insensitive to mechanical boundary conditions. A key step to identifying this mechanism is to determine the source of helicity in planetary cores, which itself should be robust, independent of viscosity and insensitive to boundary conditions. In this paper, we explore the possibility that the helicity in the core of the Earth arises from the spontaneous emission of inertial waves, driven by the equatorial heat flux in the outer core. We also ask if a similar mechanism might operate in other planets, and perhaps act to supplement the helicity driven by Ekman pumping in the (viscous) numerical simulations. We demonstrate that such waves do indeed produce the required helicity distribution outside the tangent cylinder. Moreover, we show that these waves inevitably propagate along the axis of the columnar vortices, and indeed they are the very mechanism by which the columnar vortices form in the first place and the means by which the columns subsequently evolve. We also calculate the emf induced by such axially propagating inertial waves and show that, in principle, this emf is sufficient to support a self-sustaining dynamo of the α2 type. Finally, we derive the scaling laws

  9. PRS Scoping Study 1. Scaling Law Estimates for K-Shell Radiation Yields on JUPITER-Class Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-31

    acroe the switch and the swich openang is set degraded below that of the standard desiga TA-ov Wwooletige atlaawn a scaling law rely an and ar limited...than low Z elements (such as aluminum) are dependent on their UV L-sheil radiation; and uncontrolled or poorly understood instabilities may reduce the...10010110 maslain0m/m -wo Sam. asFg 2 wltfrkrO.5IMsfto t u %mdadt *,r5b opv oFV a fc h M~yi 0ecn eKse o~mo t fk tn a;9 M. Comparison of Revised J-Scaling Law

  10. The scaling law of climate change and its relevance to assessing (palaeo)biological responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Wolfgang; Eichenseer, Kilian

    2014-05-01

    It is often argued that current rates of climate change are unprecedented in the geological past. At the same time, the magnitudes of change were often much greater in deep time than they are in history. The most severe global warming in the Phanerozoic, with dramatic consequences for life, probably occurred across the Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary when an increase of tropical water temperatures of 15° C has been observed to occur over a timespan 0.8 myr (Sun et al. 2012), whereas global ocean warming over the last 50 years was 0.35° C (Burrows et al. 2011). When transforming these data into rates of change the P-T rate was roughly 370 times smaller than the current rate. We argue that the smaller rates of change inferred from geological proxy records are due to a scaling effect, that is, rates of climate change generally decrease with timespan of observation. We compiled from the published literature data on measured or inferred temperature changes and the timespans over which these changes were assessed. Our compilation currently comprises 120 values and covers timespans from 20 to 107 years. A log-log plot of timespan versus rate of temperature change depicts a highly significant correlation (r2 = 0.95) of a power-law relationship with an exponent of -0.87. Warming trends show a slightly lower exponent (-0.84) than cooling trends (-0.89) but the explained variance is better for the scaling of warming trends. Importantly, the scaled warming trend across the P-T boundary is higher than the current rates of warming. Similar scaling effects are well explored for sediment accumulation rates (Sadler 1981) and evolutionary rates (Gingerich 1993). These have been interpreted as being due to breaks in sedimentation and periods of stasis or transient reversals, respectively. In case of climate change, transient reversals in general trends are the most likely explanation for the scaling relationship. Even relatively rapid intervals of warming, such as the Pleistocene

  11. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale in a Sample of International College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok-Mun; Wang, Chuang; Zalaquett, Carlos P.; Bodenhorn, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    There is the need for a reliable and valid measure to facilitate emotional intelligence (EI) research on international college students (ICSs). The present study examined the factorial invariance of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS), a trait EI measure, in a sample of 628 ICSs. A web-based survey was developed to facilitate…

  12. Perfectly monodisperse micro-bubble production by novel mechanical means. Scaling laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganan-Calvo, Alfonso M.; Gordillo, Jose M.; Ouarti, Nawel; Prevost, Thomas; Sampedro, Jose L.

    2000-11-01

    A continuous stream of controllable, perfectly homogeneous size micro-bubbles (of the order of some microns and larger) can be produced by a novel, extremely simple mechanical means that we call "Flow Focusing" (e.g. see Ganan-Calvo 1998, Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 80, 285). Using this technique, a capillary gas micro-jet is formed ("focused") by a co-flowing stream of liquid forced through a sub-millimetric orifice. This gas micro-jet undergoes a rapid capillary breakup (e.g. Chandrasekhar 1961 "Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability", p. 541) with a strong frequency "self-locking" effect. In this work we present a theoretical model which predicts the micro-bubble size as a function of the physical and geometrical parameters of the system. A complete experimental study is also provided, and the raw data are collapsed into a universal scaling law given by our theoretical model. This novel micro-fluidics phenomenon may have a wide variety of applications ranging from bio-medicine, pharmaceutical specialities, food industry, and even for the mesoscale micro-templating of micro-engineered materials (i.e. photonic crystals, smart materials, etc.).

  13. Scaling laws and flow structures of double diffusive convection in the finger regime

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yantao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations are conducted for double diffusive convection (DDC) bounded by two parallel plates, with fluid properties similar to the values of seawater. The DDC flow is driven by an unstable salinity difference and stabilized at the same time by a temperature difference. For these conditions the flow can be in the finger regime. We develop scaling laws for three key response parameters of the system: The non-dimensional salinity flux $Nu_S$ mainly depends on the salinity Rayleigh number $Ra_S$, which measures the strength of the salinity difference, and exhibits a very weak dependence on the density ratio $\\Lambda$, which is the ratio of the buoyancy forces induced by two scalar differences. The non-dimensional flow velocity $Re$ and the non-dimensional heat flux $Nu_T$ are dependent on both $Ra_S$ and $\\Lambda$. However, the rescaled Reynolds number $Re\\Lambda^{\\alpha^{\\rm eff}_u}$ and the rescaled convective heat flux $(Nu_T-1)\\Lambda^{\\alpha^{\\rm eff}_T}$ depend only on $Ra_S$. The two exp...

  14. On the role of thermal boundary conditions in dynamo scaling laws

    CERN Document Server

    Oruba, Ludivine

    2016-01-01

    In dynamo power-based scaling laws, the power $P$ injected by buoyancy forces is measured by a so-called flux-based Rayleigh number, denoted as ${\\rm Ra}_Q^*$ (see Christensen and Aubert, 2006). Whereas it is widely accepted that this parameter is measured (as opposite to controlled) in dynamos driven by differential heating, the literature is much less clear concerning its nature in the case of imposed heat flux. We clarify this issue by highlighting that in that case, the ${\\rm Ra}_{Q}^*$ parameter becomes controlled only in the limit of large Nusselt numbers (${\\rm Nu} \\gg 1$). We then address the issue of the robustness of the original relation between $P$ and ${\\rm Ra}_Q^*$ with the geometry and the thermal boundary conditions. We show that in the cartesian geometry, as in the spherical geometry with a central mass distribution, this relation is purely linear, in both differential and fixed-flux heating. However, we show that in the geometry commonly studied by geophysicists (spherical with uniform mass ...

  15. A psychometric appraisal of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy using law students

    OpenAIRE

    Williams B; Sifris A; Lynch M.

    2016-01-01

    Brett Williams,1 Adiva Sifris,2 Marty Lynch1 1Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, 2Faculty of Law, Monash University, Frankston, VIC, Australia Background: A growing body of literature indicates that empathic behaviors are positively linked, in several ways, with the professional performance and mental well-being of lawyers and law students. It is therefore important to assess empathy levels among law students usin...

  16. Questioning the Status Quo: Can Stakeholder Participation Improve Implementation of Small-Scale Mining Laws in Ghana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Osei-Kojo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ghana’s small-scale mining sector faces complex challenges, including environmental degradation and pollution, loss of life and increased health risks, despite several years of implementation of small-scale mining laws. These challenges, generally, are known to have escalated because of illegal small-scale mining, locally known as “galamsey”. Despite the illegal status of this category of miners, this paper examines the extent to which stakeholder participation can improve implementation of mining regulations and also address the marginalization of these miners. This paper about stakeholder participation is timely because news reports in mid-2016 mentioned that the Government of Ghana, despite many years of disengagement, is now planning to engage with galamsey operators, in terms of registration, as part of measures to effectively regulate the activities of small-scale miners. Findings from fieldwork indicate that (1 chiefs are seldom consulted in the granting of mining licenses; (2 illegal miners do not participate in the implementation of small-scale mining laws; and (3 stakeholders, such as officers in district mining offices, feel distant from the implementation process. Against the backdrop of these findings, it remains useful to explore the extent to which effective stakeholder participation could help overcome the status quo—particularly its ramifications for both the implementation of ASM laws and the eradication of other underlying challenges the sector faces.

  17. A MODEL FOR THE NON-UNIVERSAL POWER LAW OF THE SOLAR WIND SUB-ION-SCALE MAGNETIC SPECTRUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L., E-mail: passot@oca.eu, E-mail: sulem@oca.eu [Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)

    2015-10-20

    A phenomenological turbulence model for kinetic Alfvén waves in a magnetized collisionless plasma that is able to reproduce the non-universal power-law spectra observed at the sub-ion scales in the solar wind and the terrestrial magnetosphere is presented. The process of temperature homogenization along distorted magnetic field lines, induced by Landau damping, affects the turbulence transfer time and results in a steepening of the sub-ion power-law spectrum of critically balanced turbulence, whose exponent is sensitive to the ratio between the Alfvén wave period and the nonlinear timescale. Transition from large-scale weak turbulence to smaller scale strong turbulence is captured and nonlocal interactions, relevant in the case of steep spectra, are accounted for.

  18. The Cooling Law and the Search for a Good Temperature Scale, from Newton to Dalton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Ugo

    2011-01-01

    The research on the cooling law began with an article by Newton published in 1701. Later, many studies were performed by other scientists confirming or confuting Newton's law. This paper presents a description and an interpretation of Newton's article, provides a short overview of the research conducted on the topic during the 18th century, and…

  19. EU Environmental and Planning Law Aspects of Large-Scale Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squintani, Lorenzo; Vanheusden, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This book is the second volume in the European Environmental Law Forum (EELF) Book Series. The EELF is a non-profit initiative of environmental law scholars and practitioners from across Europe aiming to support intellectual exchange on the development and implementation of international, European

  20. ROLE OF LAW IN CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES THROUGH NORMATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sutrisno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of law has become an absolute prerequisite that must exist in the dynamics of civil society. It is to achieve justice, certainty, and expediency, so the works of it will not be separated from such a noble mission. On the other side, the law is likely inseparable from the fields of meta-juridical, including economics. The expectations of the interference of law into economy, makes the existence of justice for the business players can be realized through the enacted product legislation. Regulations concerning investments and partnerships have the intent to build self-reliance and empowerment for small industry players so as to compete in the era of economic globalization. Laws employed as the instrument of social change to strengthen the capitalization of small industry and business empowerment through the training and development of small industries, as normatively mandated by law.

  1. Emergence of good conduct, scaling and zipf laws in human behavioral sequences in an online world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Thurner

    Full Text Available We study behavioral action sequences of players in a massive multiplayer online game. In their virtual life players use eight basic actions which allow them to interact with each other. These actions are communication, trade, establishing or breaking friendships and enmities, attack, and punishment. We measure the probabilities for these actions conditional on previous taken and received actions and find a dramatic increase of negative behavior immediately after receiving negative actions. Similarly, positive behavior is intensified by receiving positive actions. We observe a tendency towards antipersistence in communication sequences. Classifying actions as positive (good and negative (bad allows us to define binary 'world lines' of lives of individuals. Positive and negative actions are persistent and occur in clusters, indicated by large scaling exponents α ~ 0.87 of the mean square displacement of the world lines. For all eight action types we find strong signs for high levels of repetitiveness, especially for negative actions. We partition behavioral sequences into segments of length n (behavioral 'words' and 'motifs' and study their statistical properties. We find two approximate power laws in the word ranking distribution, one with an exponent of κ ~ -1 for the ranks up to 100, and another with a lower exponent for higher ranks. The Shannon n-tuple redundancy yields large values and increases in terms of word length, further underscoring the non-trivial statistical properties of behavioral sequences. On the collective, societal level the timeseries of particular actions per day can be understood by a simple mean-reverting log-normal model.

  2. Dynamic evaluation of seismic hazard and risks based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, V. G.; Nekrasova, A.

    2016-12-01

    We continue applying the general concept of seismic risk analysis in a number of seismic regions worldwide by constructing seismic hazard maps based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), i.e. log N(M,L) = A + B•(6 - M) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an seismically prone area of linear dimension L, A characterizes the average annual rate of strong (M = 6) earthquakes, B determines the balance between magnitude ranges, and C estimates the fractal dimension of seismic locus in projection to the Earth surface. The parameters A, B, and C of USLE are used to assess, first, the expected maximum magnitude in a time interval at a seismically prone cell of a uniform grid that cover the region of interest, and then the corresponding expected ground shaking parameters. After a rigorous testing against the available seismic evidences in the past (e.g., the historically reported macro-seismic intensity or paleo data), such a seismic hazard map is used to generate maps of specific earthquake risks for population, cities, and infrastructures. The hazard maps for a given territory change dramatically, when the methodology is applied to a certain size moving time window, e.g. about a decade long for an intermediate-term regional assessment or exponentially increasing intervals for a daily local strong aftershock forecasting. The of dynamical seismic hazard and risks assessment is illustrated by applications to the territory of Greater Caucasus and Crimea and the two-year series of aftershocks of the 11 October 2008 Kurchaloy, Chechnya earthquake which case-history appears to be encouraging for further systematic testing as potential short-term forecasting tool.

  3. Incorrect likelihood methods were used to infer scaling laws of marine predator search behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Andrew M; Freeman, Mervyn P; Breed, Greg A; Jonsen, Ian D

    2012-01-01

    Ecologists are collecting extensive data concerning movements of animals in marine ecosystems. Such data need to be analysed with valid statistical methods to yield meaningful conclusions. We demonstrate methodological issues in two recent studies that reached similar conclusions concerning movements of marine animals (Nature 451:1098; Science 332:1551). The first study analysed vertical movement data to conclude that diverse marine predators (Atlantic cod, basking sharks, bigeye tuna, leatherback turtles and Magellanic penguins) exhibited "Lévy-walk-like behaviour", close to a hypothesised optimal foraging strategy. By reproducing the original results for the bigeye tuna data, we show that the likelihood of tested models was calculated from residuals of regression fits (an incorrect method), rather than from the likelihood equations of the actual probability distributions being tested. This resulted in erroneous Akaike Information Criteria, and the testing of models that do not correspond to valid probability distributions. We demonstrate how this led to overwhelming support for a model that has no biological justification and that is statistically spurious because its probability density function goes negative. Re-analysis of the bigeye tuna data, using standard likelihood methods, overturns the original result and conclusion for that data set. The second study observed Lévy walk movement patterns by mussels. We demonstrate several issues concerning the likelihood calculations (including the aforementioned residuals issue). Re-analysis of the data rejects the original Lévy walk conclusion. We consequently question the claimed existence of scaling laws of the search behaviour of marine predators and mussels, since such conclusions were reached using incorrect methods. We discourage the suggested potential use of "Lévy-like walks" when modelling consequences of fishing and climate change, and caution that any resulting advice to managers of marine ecosystems

  4. Incorrect likelihood methods were used to infer scaling laws of marine predator search behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Edwards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecologists are collecting extensive data concerning movements of animals in marine ecosystems. Such data need to be analysed with valid statistical methods to yield meaningful conclusions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate methodological issues in two recent studies that reached similar conclusions concerning movements of marine animals (Nature 451:1098; Science 332:1551. The first study analysed vertical movement data to conclude that diverse marine predators (Atlantic cod, basking sharks, bigeye tuna, leatherback turtles and Magellanic penguins exhibited "Lévy-walk-like behaviour", close to a hypothesised optimal foraging strategy. By reproducing the original results for the bigeye tuna data, we show that the likelihood of tested models was calculated from residuals of regression fits (an incorrect method, rather than from the likelihood equations of the actual probability distributions being tested. This resulted in erroneous Akaike Information Criteria, and the testing of models that do not correspond to valid probability distributions. We demonstrate how this led to overwhelming support for a model that has no biological justification and that is statistically spurious because its probability density function goes negative. Re-analysis of the bigeye tuna data, using standard likelihood methods, overturns the original result and conclusion for that data set. The second study observed Lévy walk movement patterns by mussels. We demonstrate several issues concerning the likelihood calculations (including the aforementioned residuals issue. Re-analysis of the data rejects the original Lévy walk conclusion. CONCLUSIONS: We consequently question the claimed existence of scaling laws of the search behaviour of marine predators and mussels, since such conclusions were reached using incorrect methods. We discourage the suggested potential use of "Lévy-like walks" when modelling consequences of fishing and climate change, and caution

  5. Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling and the growth-rate theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel E

    2013-09-01

    Taylor's law (TL), a widely verified empirical relationship in ecology, states that the variance of population density is approximately a power-law function of mean density. The growth-rate theorem (GR) states that, in a subdivided population, the rate of change of the overall growth rate is proportional to the variance of the subpopulations' growth rates. We show that continuous-time exponential change implies GR at every time and, asymptotically for large time, TL with power-law exponent 2. We also show why diverse population-dynamic models predict TL in the limit of large time by identifying simple features these models share: If the mean population density and the variance of population density are (exactly or asymptotically) non-constant exponential functions of a parameter (e.g., time), then the variance of density is (exactly or asymptotically) a power-law function of mean density. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Proposed scaling law for intensity evolution in hadron storage rings based on dynamic aperture variation with time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giovannozzi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A scaling law for the time dependence of the dynamic aperture, i.e., the region of phase space where stable motion occurs, has been proposed in previous papers [M. Giovannozzi, W. Scandale, E. Todescoand , Part. Accel. 56, 195 (1996PLACBD0031-2460; M. Giovannozzi, W. Scandale, and E. Todesco, in Proceedings of the 1997 Particle Accelerator Conference, edited by M. Comyn, M. K. Craddock, M. Reiser, and J. Thomson (IEEE Service Center, Piscataway, NJ, 1997, p. 1445; M. Giovannozzi, W. Scandale, and E. Todesco, Phys. Rev. E 57, 3432 (1998PLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.57.3432]. This law, based on the analysis of numerical simulations data, is not entirely phenomenological, but motivated by some fundamental theorems of the theory of dynamical systems and indicates that the dynamic aperture has a logarithmic dependence on time. This result is used in turn as a basis for deriving a scaling law for the intensity evolution in hadron storage rings. This relationship is presented and discussed in detail in this paper. Furthermore, experimental data were compared to the predictions of this law and showed a remarkable agreement.

  7. Validación estructural del Wong-Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS: estudio preliminar en adultos / Structural validation of the Wong-Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS: preliminary study in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Merino Soto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La medición de la inteligencia emocional ha tenido muchas propuestas en formato de autorreporte. Una de estas es el Wong-Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS, creada para el contexto laboral y que evalúa valoración y expresión de las emociones propias, valoración y reconocimiento de las emociones en otros, regulación de las propias emociones y uso de la emoción para facilitar el desempeño. Hay poca evidencia psicométrica sobre el Wong-Law Emotional Intelligence Scale en habla hispana, lo que posiblemente conduce a que sea también poco utilizado en la investigación y práctica profesional. El objetivo del presente estudio es presentar los primeros resultados de la validez de la estructura interna del WLEIS en adultos peruanos. Fueron 120 participantes (72 mujeres entre 17 y 59 años, quienes respondieron al cuestionario mediados por internet. Se analizó la estructura interna mediante metodología de ecuaciones estructurales. Se halló una satisfactoria estructura de 4 factores y elevadas cargas factoriales de los ítems; las correlaciones interfactores fueron altas o moderadamente altas; y la consistencia interna fue buena. Se concluye que los primeros resultados son aceptables para asumir que el modelo de Wong-Law también es aparentemente generalizable. ABSTRACT: The measurement of emotional intelligence has had many proposals in the form of self-report. One of these is the Wong-Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS, created for the job context and which evaluates valuation and the expression of self-emotions; valuation and recognition of emotions in others; regulation of one’s own emotions and the use of emotion to facilitate performance. There is little psychometric evidence regarding the Wong-Law Emotional Intelligence Scale in the Spanish speaking world, which could lead to it also being little used in research and professional practice. The objective of this study is to present the first results of the internal

  8. A scaling law for the local CHF on the external bottom side of a fully submerged reactor vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    A scaling law for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water has been developed from the results of an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model for pool boiling on a downward facing curved heating surface. The scaling law accounts for the effects of the size of the vessel, the level of liquid subcooling, the intrinsic properties of the fluid, and the spatial variation of the local critical heat flux along the heating surface. It is found that for vessels with diameters considerably larger than the characteristic size of the vapor masses, the size effect on the local critical heat flux is limited almost entirely to the effect of subcooling associated with the local liquid head. When the subcooling effect is accounted for separately, the local CHF limit is nearly independent of the vessel size. Based upon the scaling law developed in this work, it is possible to merge, within the experimental uncertainties, all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes under both saturated and subcooled boiling conditions into a single curve. Applications of the scaling law to commercial-size vessels have been made for various system pressures and water levels above the heated vessel. Over the range of conditions explored in this study, the local CHF limit is found to increase by a factor of two or more from the bottom center to the upper edge of the vessel. Meanwhile, the critical heat flux at a given angular position of the heated vessel is also found to increase appreciably with the system pressure and the water level.

  9. The Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, Anastasia; Peresan, Antonella; Magrin, Andrea; Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The parameters of the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE) in the North Eastern part of Italy, namely in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region (FVG) and its surroundings, have been studied. For this purpose, the updated and revised bulletins compiled at the National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics, Centre of Seismological Research (OGS catalogue) has been used. In particular, we considered all magnitude 2.0 or larger earthquakes, which occurred in the time span 1994-2013 and within the territory of homogeneous completeness identified for the OGS data. The USLE parameters A, B and C have been evaluated at each of about 300 seismically active cells of 1/16°×1/16° size. The parameter A corresponds to the logarithmic estimate of seismic activity at magnitude 3.5, normalized to the unit area of 1°×1° and to the unit time of one year. The obtained values of the parameter A range between -0.9 to 0.2; these values correspond to an average occurrence rate for magnitude 3.5 earthquakes that varies in the range from one event in 8 years to one event every 7.5 months. The values of the coefficient of magnitude balance, parameter B, concentrate in the interval from just above 0.5 to 1.0. The fractal dimension of the earthquake epicenter locus, parameter C, spreads from 0.6 to 1.3. The obtained values of A, B, and C have been used to characterize the seismic hazard and risk for the territory under investigation, based on estimates of N(M) at each of the analysed cells. In fact, it has been shown that long-term estimates of the USLE coefficients permit to define seismic hazard maps in rather traditional terms of maximum expected magnitude, macroseismic intensity or other ground shaking parameters that can be derived from the computed magnitudes. Accordingly, preliminary estimates of the seismic hazard for the FVG region have been computed, at the level of 10% exceedance in 50 years, from the corresponding magnitude assessment based on the USLE. The

  10. Large-Scale Analysis of Zipf’s Law in English Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    Despite being a paradigm of quantitative linguistics, Zipf’s law for words suffers from three main problems: its formulation is ambiguous, its validity has not been tested rigorously from a statistical point of view, and it has not been confronted to a representatively large number of texts. So, we can summarize the current support of Zipf’s law in texts as anecdotic. We try to solve these issues by studying three different versions of Zipf’s law and fitting them to all available English texts in the Project Gutenberg database (consisting of more than 30 000 texts). To do so we use state-of-the art tools in fitting and goodness-of-fit tests, carefully tailored to the peculiarities of text statistics. Remarkably, one of the three versions of Zipf’s law, consisting of a pure power-law form in the complementary cumulative distribution function of word frequencies, is able to fit more than 40% of the texts in the database (at the 0.05 significance level), for the whole domain of frequencies (from 1 to the maximum value), and with only one free parameter (the exponent). PMID:26800025

  11. Evidence of Chinese income dynamics and its effects on income scaling law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Yougui; Tao, Xiaobo; Ližbetinová, Lenka

    2017-12-01

    With personal annual income data of 5 consecutive years (1998-2002) from CHIPS, dynamic characteristics of Chinese income are studied, especially two hypotheses of time reversal symmetry and independent growth rate are tested. In high income regions, an increasing trend of the standard deviation of income growth rate is observed, which means independent growth rate hypothesis fails to hold. This empirical finding is designed as a new mechanism and added into Gibrat's model, which yields a distribution with a power-law tail. Our model's simulation result shows that increasing variance of income growth rates for higher income regions is the key ingredient to get the power-law tail.

  12. The application of J integral to measure cohesive laws under large-scale yielding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2016-01-01

    A method is developed to obtain the mode I cohesive law of elastic-plastic materials using a Double Cantilever Beam sandwich specimen loaded with pure bending moments. The approach is based on the validity of the J integral for materials having a non-linear stress-strain relationship without...

  13. Preliminary scaling laws for plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density in the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of bumpy torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied included the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings, the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.

  14. An evaluation of the Indonesian law and policy on small-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To improve this small-scale fishing, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has initiated the adoption of 'International Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries.' It is still in negotiation regarding the main principles that are to be implemented by states in securing the sustainability of small-scale ...

  15. Measuring Black men's police-based discrimination experiences: Development and validation of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Devin; Bowleg, Lisa; Del Río-González, Ana Maria; Tschann, Jeanne M; Agans, Robert P; Malebranche, David J

    2017-04-01

    Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men's perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale. In Study 1, we used thematic analysis on transcripts of individual qualitative interviews with 90 Black men to assess key themes and concepts and develop quantitative items. In Study 2, we used 2 focus groups comprised of 5 Black men each (n = 10), intensive cognitive interviewing with a separate sample of Black men (n = 15), and piloting with another sample of Black men (n = 13) to assess the ecological validity of the quantitative items. For Study 3, we analyzed data from a sample of 633 Black men between the ages of 18 and 65 to test the factor structure of the PLE, as we all as its concurrent validity and convergent/discriminant validity. Qualitative analyses and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a 5-item, 1-factor measure appropriately represented respondents' experiences of police/law enforcement discrimination. As hypothesized, the PLE was positively associated with measures of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Preliminary evidence suggests that the PLE is a reliable and valid measure of Black men's experiences of discrimination with police/law enforcement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Transport coefficients and validity of the Stokes-Einstein relation in metallic melts: From excess entropy scaling laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Ruchi; Mishra, Raj Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Using the pair correlation function obtained via square well (SW) model [Mishra et al., 2015 Chem. Phys. 457 13], we calculate the pair excess entropy of liquid metals and determined the diffusion coefficients via Dzugutov's excess entropy-diffusivity scaling relation. Further, the applicability of the Stokes-Einstein relation for SW potential is validated by comparing the computed shear viscosity coefficients (ηV) of liquid metals with the available experimental data. Reduced ηV of considered systems has been derived and scaled with the excess entropy. We compute isothermal compressibility, surface tension and surface entropy of the investigated liquids by using diffusion coefficient data obtained from excess entropy scaling law. It is found that the computed values are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data. Thus, we demonstrate that the Dzugutov scheme can be applied successfully to SW liquid metals to correlate their microscopic structural functions with their surface and thermodynamic properties.

  17. The application of J integral to measure cohesive laws in materials undergoing large scale yielding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Goutianos, Stergios

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibility of determining cohesive laws by the J-integral approach for materials having non-linear stress-strain behaviour (e.g. polymers and composites) by the use of a DCB sandwich specimen, consisting of stiff elastic beams bonded to the non-linear test material, loaded with pure...... bending moments. For a wide range of parameters of the non-linear material, the plastic unloading during crack extension is small, resulting in J integral values (fracture resistance) that deviate maximum 15% from the work of the cohesive traction. Thus the method can be used to extract the cohesive laws...... directly from experiments without any presumption about their shape. Finally, the DCB sandwich specimen was also analysed using the I integral to quantify the overestimation of the steady-state fracture resistance obtained using the J integral based method....

  18. Evaluating the assumption of power-law late time scaling of breakthrough curves in highly heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    Power-law (PL) distributions are widely adopted to define the late-time scaling of solute breakthrough curves (BTCs) during transport experiments in highly heterogeneous media. However, from a statistical perspective, distinguishing between a PL distribution and another tailed distribution is difficult, particularly when a qualitative assessment based on visual analysis of double-logarithmic plotting is used. This presentation aims to discuss the results from a recent analysis where a suite of statistical tools was applied to evaluate rigorously the scaling of BTCs from experiments that generate tailed distributions typically described as PL at late time. To this end, a set of BTCs from numerical simulations in highly heterogeneous media were generated using a transition probability approach (T-PROGS) coupled to a finite different numerical solver of the flow equation (MODFLOW) and a random walk particle tracking approach for Lagrangian transport (RW3D). The T-PROGS fields assumed randomly distributed hydraulic heterogeneities with long correlation scales creating solute channeling and anomalous transport. For simplicity, transport was simulated as purely advective. This combination of tools generates strongly non-symmetric BTCs visually resembling PL distributions at late time when plotted in double log scales. Unlike other combination of modeling parameters and boundary conditions (e.g. matrix diffusion in fractures), at late time no direct link exists between the mathematical functions describing scaling of these curves and physical parameters controlling transport. The results suggest that the statistical tests fail to describe the majority of curves as PL distributed. Moreover, they suggest that PL or lognormal distributions have the same likelihood to represent parametrically the shape of the tails. It is noticeable that forcing a model to reproduce the tail as PL functions results in a distribution of PL slopes comprised between 1.2 and 4, which are the

  19. Conceptual design for accelerator-driven sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactors using scale laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Gu; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility study on conceptual design methodology for accelerator-driven sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactors has been conducted to optimize the design parameters from the scale laws and validates the reactor performance with the integrated code system. A 1000 MWth sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactor has been scaled and verified through the methodology in this paper, which is referred to Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR). A Pb-Bi target material and a partitioned fuel are the liquid phases, and they are cooled by the circulation of secondary Pb-Bi coolant and by primary sodium coolant, respectively. Overall key design parameters are generated from the scale laws and they are improved and validated by the integrated code system. Integrated Code System (ICS) consists of LAHET, HMCNP, ORIGEN2, and COMMIX codes and some files. Through ICS the target region, the core region, and thermal-hydraulic related regions are analyzed once-through Results of conceptual design are attached in this paper. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  20. From the UV to the static-field limit: rates and scaling laws of intense-field ionization of helium

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Jonathan; Armstrong, G.S.J.; Boca, M.; Taylor, Kenneth; Armstrong, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    We present high-accuracy calculations of ionization rates of helium at UV (195 nm) wavelengths. The data are obtained from full-dimensionality integrations of the helium-laser time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Comparison is made with our previously obtained data at 390 nm and 780 nm. We show that scaling laws introduced by Parker et al extend unmodified from the near-infrared limit into the UV limit. Static-field ionization rates of helium are also obtained, again from time-dependent full-...

  1. On the scaling law of single bunch transverse instability threshold current vs. the chromaticity in electron storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, J

    2002-01-01

    Based on the single bunch transverse instability theory established by Gao (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 416 (1998) 186), it is shown that the functional relation between the instability threshold bunch current and the chromaticity of the machine is I sub t sub h propor to xi sub c sup d , with d approx 1.3 and d approx 2.3 at potential well and microwave instability dominated bunch lengthening regimes, respectively. These scaling laws are confirmed by the experimental results from ESRF.

  2. Scaling-laws of human broadcast communication enable distinction between human, corporate and robot Twitter users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Tavares

    Full Text Available Human behaviour is highly individual by nature, yet statistical structures are emerging which seem to govern the actions of human beings collectively. Here we search for universal statistical laws dictating the timing of human actions in communication decisions. We focus on the distribution of the time interval between messages in human broadcast communication, as documented in Twitter, and study a collection of over 160,000 tweets for three user categories: personal (controlled by one person, managed (typically PR agency controlled and bot-controlled (automated system. To test our hypothesis, we investigate whether it is possible to differentiate between user types based on tweet timing behaviour, independently of the content in messages. For this purpose, we developed a system to process a large amount of tweets for reality mining and implemented two simple probabilistic inference algorithms: 1. a naive Bayes classifier, which distinguishes between two and three account categories with classification performance of 84.6% and 75.8%, respectively and 2. a prediction algorithm to estimate the time of a user's next tweet with an R(2 ≈ 0.7. Our results show that we can reliably distinguish between the three user categories as well as predict the distribution of a user's inter-message time with reasonable accuracy. More importantly, we identify a characteristic power-law decrease in the tail of inter-message time distribution by human users which is different from that obtained for managed and automated accounts. This result is evidence of a universal law that permeates the timing of human decisions in broadcast communication and extends the findings of several previous studies of peer-to-peer communication.

  3. Scaling-laws of human broadcast communication enable distinction between human, corporate and robot Twitter users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Gabriela; Faisal, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Human behaviour is highly individual by nature, yet statistical structures are emerging which seem to govern the actions of human beings collectively. Here we search for universal statistical laws dictating the timing of human actions in communication decisions. We focus on the distribution of the time interval between messages in human broadcast communication, as documented in Twitter, and study a collection of over 160,000 tweets for three user categories: personal (controlled by one person), managed (typically PR agency controlled) and bot-controlled (automated system). To test our hypothesis, we investigate whether it is possible to differentiate between user types based on tweet timing behaviour, independently of the content in messages. For this purpose, we developed a system to process a large amount of tweets for reality mining and implemented two simple probabilistic inference algorithms: 1. a naive Bayes classifier, which distinguishes between two and three account categories with classification performance of 84.6% and 75.8%, respectively and 2. a prediction algorithm to estimate the time of a user's next tweet with an R(2) ≈ 0.7. Our results show that we can reliably distinguish between the three user categories as well as predict the distribution of a user's inter-message time with reasonable accuracy. More importantly, we identify a characteristic power-law decrease in the tail of inter-message time distribution by human users which is different from that obtained for managed and automated accounts. This result is evidence of a universal law that permeates the timing of human decisions in broadcast communication and extends the findings of several previous studies of peer-to-peer communication.

  4. an evaluation of the indonesian law and policy on small-scale fisheries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    national, and international-scale trade in fisheries products. The Indonesian fishing community contributes to the 90 per cent total amount of world fishers, of which half are women (FAO, 2012). To improve this small-scale fishing, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has initiated the adoption of. 'International ...

  5. The application of J integral to measure cohesive laws under large-scale yielding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2016-01-01

    unloading of any material point. This assumption is not met exactly as there is a small where the material unloads. To examine the error of the method, a numerical parameter study is performed for a wide range of material and specimen parameters. The error of the method is below 16% and thus the method can......A method is developed to obtain the mode I cohesive law of elastic-plastic materials using a Double Cantilever Beam sandwich specimen loaded with pure bending moments. The approach is based on the validity of the J integral for materials having a non-linear stress-strain relationship without...

  6. Nonuniversal power law scaling in the probability distribution of scientific citations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, George J; Pressé, Steve; Dill, Ken A

    2010-09-14

    We develop a model for the distribution of scientific citations. The model involves a dual mechanism: in the direct mechanism, the author of a new paper finds an old paper A and cites it. In the indirect mechanism, the author of a new paper finds an old paper A only via the reference list of a newer intermediary paper B, which has previously cited A. By comparison to citation databases, we find that papers having few citations are cited mainly by the direct mechanism. Papers already having many citations ("classics") are cited mainly by the indirect mechanism. The indirect mechanism gives a power-law tail. The "tipping point" at which a paper becomes a classic is about 25 citations for papers published in the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science database in 1981, 31 for Physical Review D papers published from 1975-1994, and 37 for all publications from a list of high h-index chemists assembled in 2007. The power-law exponent is not universal. Individuals who are highly cited have a systematically smaller exponent than individuals who are less cited.

  7. Universal power-law scaling of water diffusion in human brain defines what we see with MRI

    CERN Document Server

    Veraart, Jelle; Novikov, Dmitry S

    2016-01-01

    Development of successful therapies for neurological disorders depends on our ability to diagnose and monitor the progression of underlying pathologies at the cellular level. Physics and physiology limit the resolution of human MRI to millimeters, three orders of magnitude coarser than the cell dimensions of microns. A promising way to access cellular structure is provided by diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI), a modality which exploits the sensitivity of the MRI signal to micron-level Brownian motion of water molecules strongly hindered by cell walls. By analyzing diffusion of water molecules in human subjects, here we demonstrate that biophysical modeling has the potential to break the intrinsic MRI resolution limits. The observation of a universal power-law scaling of the dMRI signal identifies the contribution from water specifically confined inside narrow impermeable axons, validating the overarching assumption behind models of diffusion in neuronal tissue. This scaling behavior establishes dMRI as an in vivo...

  8. Scaling characteristics of one-dimensional fractional diffusion processes in the presence of power-law distributed random noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezhadhaghighi, Mohsen Ghasemi

    2017-08-01

    Here, we present results of numerical simulations and the scaling characteristics of one-dimensional random fluctuations with heavy-tailed probability distribution functions. Assuming that the distribution function of the random fluctuations obeys Lévy statistics with a power-law scaling exponent, we investigate the fractional diffusion equation in the presence of μ -stable Lévy noise. We study the scaling properties of the global width and two-point correlation functions and then compare the analytical and numerical results for the growth exponent β and the roughness exponent α . We also investigate the fractional Fokker-Planck equation for heavy-tailed random fluctuations. We show that the fractional diffusion processes in the presence of μ -stable Lévy noise display special scaling properties in the probability distribution function (PDF). Finally, we numerically study the scaling properties of the heavy-tailed random fluctuations by using the diffusion entropy analysis. This method is based on the evaluation of the Shannon entropy of the PDF generated by the random fluctuations, rather than on the measurement of the global width of the process. We apply the diffusion entropy analysis to extract the growth exponent β and to confirm the validity of our numerical analysis.

  9. Optimal Focusing and Scaling Law for Uniform Photo-Polymerization in a Thick Medium Using a Focused UV Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Teng Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a modeling study of photoinitiated polymerization in a thick polymer-absorbing medium using a focused UV laser. Transient profiles of the initiator concentration at various focusing conditions are analyzed to define the polymerization boundary. Furthermore, we demonstrate the optimal focusing conditions that yield more uniform polymerization over a larger volume than the collimated or non-optimal cases. Too much focusing with the focal length f < f* (an optimal focal length yields a fast process; however, it provides a smaller polymerization volume at a given time than in the optimal focusing case. Finally, a scaling law is derived and shows that f* is inverse proportional to the product of the extinction coefficient and the initiator initial concentration. The scaling law provides useful guidance for the prediction of optimal conditions for photoinitiated polymerization under a focused UV laser irradiation. The focusing technique also provides a novel and unique means for obtaining uniform photo-polymerization within a limited irradiation time.

  10. Parasitism alters three power laws of scaling in a metazoan community: Taylor's law, density-mass allometry, and variance-mass allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrue, Clément; Poulin, Robert; Cohen, Joel E

    2015-02-10

    How do the lifestyles (free-living unparasitized, free-living parasitized, and parasitic) of animal species affect major ecological power-law relationships? We investigated this question in metazoan communities in lakes of Otago, New Zealand. In 13,752 samples comprising 1,037,058 organisms, we found that species of different lifestyles differed in taxonomic distribution and body mass and were well described by three power laws: a spatial Taylor's law (the spatial variance in population density was a power-law function of the spatial mean population density); density-mass allometry (the spatial mean population density was a power-law function of mean body mass); and variance-mass allometry (the spatial variance in population density was a power-law function of mean body mass). To our knowledge, this constitutes the first empirical confirmation of variance-mass allometry for any animal community. We found that the parameter values of all three relationships differed for species with different lifestyles in the same communities. Taylor's law and density-mass allometry accurately predicted the form and parameter values of variance-mass allometry. We conclude that species of different lifestyles in these metazoan communities obeyed the same major ecological power-law relationships but did so with parameters specific to each lifestyle, probably reflecting differences among lifestyles in population dynamics and spatial distribution.

  11. Parasitism alters three power laws of scaling in a metazoan community: Taylor’s law, density-mass allometry, and variance-mass allometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrue, Clément; Poulin, Robert; Cohen, Joel E.

    2015-01-01

    How do the lifestyles (free-living unparasitized, free-living parasitized, and parasitic) of animal species affect major ecological power-law relationships? We investigated this question in metazoan communities in lakes of Otago, New Zealand. In 13,752 samples comprising 1,037,058 organisms, we found that species of different lifestyles differed in taxonomic distribution and body mass and were well described by three power laws: a spatial Taylor’s law (the spatial variance in population density was a power-law function of the spatial mean population density); density-mass allometry (the spatial mean population density was a power-law function of mean body mass); and variance-mass allometry (the spatial variance in population density was a power-law function of mean body mass). To our knowledge, this constitutes the first empirical confirmation of variance-mass allometry for any animal community. We found that the parameter values of all three relationships differed for species with different lifestyles in the same communities. Taylor's law and density-mass allometry accurately predicted the form and parameter values of variance-mass allometry. We conclude that species of different lifestyles in these metazoan communities obeyed the same major ecological power-law relationships but did so with parameters specific to each lifestyle, probably reflecting differences among lifestyles in population dynamics and spatial distribution. PMID:25550506

  12. Scaling law of average failure rate and steady-state rate in rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shengwang; Liu, Chao; Wang, Yingchong; Chang, Fuqing

    2017-06-01

    The evolution properties in the steady stage of a rock specimen are reflective of the damage or weakening growth within and thus are used to determine whether an unstable transition occurs. In this paper, we report the experimental results for rock (granite and marble) specimens tested at room temperature and room humidity under three typical loading modes: quasi-static monotonic loading, brittle creep, and brittle creep relaxation. Deformed rock specimens in current experiments exhibit an apparent steady stage characterized by a nearly constant evolution rate, which dominates the lifetime of the rock specimens. The average failure rate presents a common power-law relationship with the evolution rate in the steady stage, although the exponent is different for different loading modes. The results indicate that a lower ratio of the slope of the secondary stage with respect to the average rate of the entire lifetime implies a more brittle failure.

  13. Random field Ising model in a uniform magnetic field: Ground states, pinned clusters and scaling laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Banerjee, Varsha; Puri, Sanjay

    2017-11-08

    In this paper, we study the random field Ising model (RFIM) in an external magnetic field h . A computationally efficient graph-cut method is used to study ground state (GS) morphologies in this system for three different disorder types: Gaussian, uniform and bimodal. We obtain the critical properties of this system and find that they are independent of the disorder type. We also study GS morphologies via pinned-cluster distributions, which are scale-free at criticality. The spin-spin correlation functions (and structure factors) are characterized by a roughness exponent [Formula: see text]. The corresponding scaling function is universal for all disorder types and independent of h.

  14. An allometric scaling law between gray matter and white matter of cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jihuan [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai, 1882 Yan' an Xilu Road, Shanghai 200051 (China)] e-mail: jhhe@dhu.edu.cn

    2006-02-01

    An allometric scaling relationship between cortical white and gray volumes is derived from a general model that describes brain's remarkable efficiency and prodigious communications between brain areas. The model assumes that (1) a cell's metabolic rate depends upon cell's surface; (2) the overall basal metabolic rates of brain areas depend upon their fractal structures; (3) differential brain areas have same basal metabolic rate at slow wave sleep. The obtained allometric exponent scaling white matter to gray matter is 1.2, which is very much close to Zhang and Sejnowski's observation data.

  15. Energy loss as the origin of a universal scaling law of the elliptic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, Carlota; Pajares, Carlos [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Instituto Galego de Fisica de Altas Enerxias IGFAE, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Braun, Mikhail [Saint Petersburg State University, Department of High-Energy Physics, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    It is shown that the excellent scaling of the elliptic flow found for all centralities, species and energies from RHIC to the LHC for p{sub T} less than the saturation momentum is a consequence of the energy lost by a parton interacting with the color field produced in a nucleus-nucleus collision. In particular, the deduced shape of the scaling curve describes correctly all the data. We discuss the possible extensions to higher p{sub T}, proton-nucleus and proton-proton collisions as well as higher harmonics. (orig.)

  16. Frozen Fractals all Around: Solar flares, Ampere’s Law, and the Search for Units in Scale-Free Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAteer, R. T. James

    2015-08-01

    My soul is spiraling in frozen fractals all around, And one thought crystallizes like an icy blast, I'm never going back, the past is in the past.Elsa, from Disney’s Frozen, characterizes two fundamental aspects of scale-free processes in Nature: fractals are everywhere in space; fractals can be used to probe changes in time. Self-Organized Criticality provides a powerful set of tools to study scale-free processes. It connects spatial fractals (more generically, multifractals) to temporal evolution. The drawback is that this usually results in scale-free, unit-less, indices, which can be difficult to connect to everyday physics. Here, I show a novel method that connects one of the most powerful SOC tools - the wavelet transform modulus maxima approach to calculating multifractality - to one of the most powerful equations in all of physics - Ampere’s law. In doing so I show how the multifractal spectra can be expressed in terms of current density, and how current density can then be used for the prediction of future energy release from such a system.Our physical understanding of the solar magnetic field structure, and hence our ability to predict solar activity, is limited by the type of data currently available. I show that the multifractal spectrum provides a powerful physical connection between the details of photospheric magnetic gradients of current data and the coronal magnetic structure. By decomposing Ampere’s law and comparing it to the wavelet transform modulus maximum method, I show how the scale-free Holder exponent provides a direct measure of current density across all relevant sizes. The prevalence of this current density across various scales is connected to its stability in time, and hence to the ability of the magnetic structure to store and then release energy. Hence (spatial) multifractals inform us of (future) solar activity.Finally I discuss how such an approach can be used in any study of scale-free processes, and highlight the necessary

  17. Making Law: Small‐Scale Trade and Corrupt Exceptions at the Vietnam–China Border

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Endres, Kirsten W

    2014-01-01

    ...‐scale traders at the Vietnam–China border. Whereas bribery is felt by local traders to create better profit opportunities, the corrupt exception likewise pushes them into a de facto illegality where they remain subjected to arbitrary “lawmaking...

  18. Universal scaling laws for dense particle suspensions in turbulent wall-bounded flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simões Costa, P.; Picano, Francesco; Brandt, Luca; Breugem, W.P.

    2016-01-01

    The macroscopic behavior of dense suspensions of neutrally buoyant spheres in turbulent plane channel flow is examined. We show that particles larger than the smallest turbulence scales cause the suspension to deviate from the continuum limit in which its dynamics is well described by an

  19. An enquiry into the method of paired comparison: reliability, scaling, and Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; George L. Peterson

    2009-01-01

    The method of paired comparisons is used to measure individuals' preference orderings of items presented to them as discrete binary choices. This paper reviews the theory and application of the paired comparison method, describes a new computer program available for eliciting the choices, and presents an analysis of methods for scaling paired choice data to...

  20. Comparison between scaling law and nonparametric Bayesian estimate for the recurrence time of strong earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondi, R.

    2009-04-01

    According to the unified scaling theory the probability distribution function of the recurrence time T is a scaled version of a base function and the average value of T can be used as a scale parameter for the distribution. The base function must belong to the scale family of distributions: tested on different catalogues and for different scale levels, for Corral (2005) the (truncated) generalized gamma distribution is the best model, for German (2006) the Weibull distribution. The scaling approach should overcome the difficulty of estimating distribution functions over small areas but theorical limitations and partial instability of the estimated distributions have been pointed out in the literature. Our aim is to analyze the recurrence time of strong earthquakes that occurred in the Italian territory. To satisfy the hypotheses of independence and identical distribution we have evaluated the times between events that occurred in each area of the Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources and then we have gathered them by eight tectonically coherent regions, each of them dominated by a well characterized geodynamic process. To solve problems like: paucity of data, presence of outliers and uncertainty in the choice of the functional expression for the distribution of t, we have followed a nonparametric approach (Rotondi (2009)) in which: (a) the maximum flexibility is obtained by assuming that the probability distribution is a random function belonging to a large function space, distributed as a stochastic process; (b) nonparametric estimation method is robust when the data contain outliers; (c) Bayesian methodology allows to exploit different information sources so that the model fitting may be good also to scarce samples. We have compared the hazard rates evaluated through the parametric and nonparametric approach. References Corral A. (2005). Mixing of rescaled data and Bayesian inference for earthquake recurrence times, Nonlin. Proces. Geophys., 12, 89

  1. Transition from Connected to Fragmented Vegetation across an Environmental Gradient: Scaling Laws in Ecotone Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastner, Michael T; Oborny, Beata; Zimmermann, D K; Pruessner, Gunnar

    2009-07-01

    A change in the environmental conditions across space-for example, altitude or latitude-can cause significant changes in the density of a vegetation type and, consequently, in spatial connectivity. We use spatially explicit simulations to study the transition from connected to fragmented vegetation. A static (gradient percolation) model is compared to dynamic (gradient contact process) models. Connectivity is characterized from the perspective of various species that use this vegetation type for habitat and differ in dispersal or migration range, that is, "step length" across the landscape. The boundary of connected vegetation delineated by a particular step length is termed the " hull edge." We found that for every step length and for every gradient, the hull edge is a fractal with dimension 7/4. The result is the same for different spatial models, suggesting that there are universal laws in ecotone geometry. To demonstrate that the model is applicable to real data, a hull edge of fractal dimension 7/4 is shown on a satellite image of a piñon-juniper woodland on a hillside. We propose to use the hull edge to define the boundary of a vegetation type unambiguously. This offers a new tool for detecting a shift of the boundary due to a climate change.

  2. Temperature dynamics and velocity scaling laws for interchange driven, warm ion plasma filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jeppe Miki Busk; Madsen, Jens; Nielsen, Anders Henry

    2016-01-01

    The influence of electron and ion temperature dynamics on the radial convection of isolated structures in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated by means of numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that the maximum radial velocity of these plasma blobs roughly follows the inertial velocity...... scaling, which is proportional to the ion acoustic speed times the square root of the filament particle density times the sum of the electron and ion temperature perturbations. Only for small blobs the cross field convection does not follow this scaling. The influence of finite Larmor radius effects...... on the cross-field blob convection is shown not to depend strongly on the dynamical ion temperature field. The blob dynamics of constant finite and dynamical ion temperature blobs is similar. When the blob size is on the order of 10 times the ion Larmor radius the blobs stay coherent and decelerate slowly...

  3. Improved Multibody Dynamics for Investigating Energy Dissipation in Train Collisions Based on Scaling Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Shao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate energy dissipation in train collisions. A 1/8 scaled train model, about one-dimensional in longitudinal direction, was used to carry out a scaled train collision test. Corresponding multibody dynamic simulations were conducted using traditional and improved method model (IMM in ADAMS. In IMM, the connection between two adjacent cars was expressed by a nonlinear spring and energy absorbing structures were equivalently represented by separate forces, instead of one force. IMM was able to simulate the motion of each car and displayed the deformation of structures at both ends of the cars. IMM showed larger deformations and energy absorption of structures in moving cars than those in stationary cars. Moreover, the asymmetry in deformation proportion in main energy absorbing structures decreased with increasing collision speed. The asymmetry decreased from 11.69% to 3.60% when the collision speed increased from 10 km/h to 36 km/h.

  4. An Animal-to-Human Scaling Law for Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-28

    smaller bodies and brains, which is in direct opposition to previous studies of the effects of impact loading on birds (23). Mass scaling also implies that...show that the struc- tural characteristics of the skull and other protective structures play an important role in the intensity of the stress waves...trans- mitted to the brain tissue. More specifically, these results show that the peak intracranial pressure decreases with increases of skull

  5. Entropy Stress and Scaling of Vital Organs over Life Span Based on Allometric Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Past theories on total lifetime energy expenditures and entropy generation in biological systems (BS dealt with whole systems, but the recent literature suggests that the total metabolic rate of a BS,q̇body (W is a sum of product of specific metabolic rate q̇k,m (W/kg of organ k of each vital life organ, k {k = brain, heart, kidney and liver, or abbreviated as BHKL, and rest of the organ mass (R} and mass of each organ k (mk. Using this hypothesis, Kleiber’s law on metabolic rate of BS (q̇body for animals of different sizes was validated. In this work, a similar procedure is adopted in estimating total entropy generation rate of whole human body (σ̇body, W/K as a sum of product of specific entropy generation rate for each organ, σ̇k,m (W/{K kg of organ k·} and the organ mass at any given age (t. Further integrating over life span for each organ (tlife, the lifetime specific entropy generated by organ k, σk,m,life (J of organ k/ {K kg organ k} is calculated. Then lifetime entropy generation of unit body mass, σbody,M,life (J/{K kg body mass·} is calculated as a sum of the corresponding values contributed by all vital organs to unit body mass and verified with previously published literature. The higher the σk,m,life , the higher the entropy stress level (which is a measure of energy released by unit organ mass of k as heat and the irreversibility within the organ, resulting in faster degradation of organ and the consequent health problems for the whole BS. In order to estimate σ̇k (W/K of organ k, data on energy release rate (q̇ is needed over lifetime for each organ. While the Adequate Macronutrients Distribution Range (AMDR/Adequate Intake (AI publication can be used in estimating the energy intake of whole body vs. age for the human body, the energy expenditure data is not available at organ level. Hence the σk,m,life was computed using existing allometric laws developed for the metabolism of the organs, the

  6. From the UV to the static-field limit: rates and scaling laws of intense-field ionization of helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J S; Armstrong, G S J; Taylor, K T [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Boca, M [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, 70709 Bucharest (Romania)

    2009-07-14

    We present high-accuracy calculations of ionization rates of helium at UV (195 nm) wavelengths. The data are obtained from full-dimensionality integrations of the helium-laser time-dependent Schroedinger equation. Comparison is made with our previously obtained data at 390 nm and 780 nm. We show that scaling laws introduced by Parker et al extend unmodified from the near-infrared limit into the UV limit. Static-field ionization rates of helium are also obtained, again from time-dependent full-dimensionality integrations of the helium Schroedinger equation. We compare the static-field ionization results with those of Scrinzi et al and Themelis et al, who also treat the full-dimensional helium atom, but with time-independent methods. Good agreement is obtained.

  7. Experimental scaling law for the subcritical transition to turbulence in plane Poiseuille flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoult, Grégoire; Aider, Jean-Luc; Wesfreid, José Eduardo

    2012-02-01

    We present an experimental study of the transition to turbulence in a plane Poiseuille flow. Using a well-controlled perturbation, we analyze the flow by using extensive particle image velocimetry and flow visualization (using laser-induced fluorescence) measurements, and use the deformation of the mean velocity profile as a criterion to characterize the state of the flow. From a large parametric study, four different states are defined, depending on the values of the Reynolds number and the amplitude of the perturbation. We discuss the role of coherent structures, such as hairpin vortices, in the transition. We find that the minimal amplitude of the perturbation triggering transition scales asymptotically as Re(-1).

  8. Entropic force law in the presence of a noncommutative inspired spacetime for a solar system scale

    CERN Document Server

    Mehdipour, S Hamid

    2016-01-01

    We first study some aspects of a physically inspired kind of a noncommutative spherically symmetric spacetime based on the Gaussian-smeared mass distribution for a solar system scale. This leads to the elimination of a singularity appeared in the origin of the spacetime. Afterwards, we investigate some features of Verlinde's scenario in the presence of the mentioned spacetime and derive several quantities such as Unruh-Verlinde temperature, the energy and the entropic force on three different types of holographic screens, namely the static, the stretched horizon and the accelerating surface.

  9. Scaling laws and sum rules for the B-mode polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the microwave background polarization anisotropies is investigated when the stochastic Faraday rate is stationary, random and Markovian. The scaling properties of the polarization power spectra and of their nonlinear combinations are scrutinized as a function of the comoving frequency. It is argued that each frequency channel of a given experiment measuring simultaneously the E-mode and the B-mode spectra can be analyzed in this framework with the aim of testing the physical origin of the polarization in a model-independent perspective.

  10. Variability of three-dimensional sea breeze structure in southern France: observations and evaluation of empirical scaling laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Drobinski

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea-breeze dynamics in southern France is investigated using an airborne Doppler lidar, a meteorological surface station network and radiosoundings, in the framework of the ESCOMPTE experiment conducted during summer 2001 in order to evaluate the role of thermal circulations on pollutant transport and ventilation. The airborne Doppler lidar WIND contributed to three-dimensional (3-D mapping of the sea breeze circulation in an unprecedented way. The data allow access to the onshore and offshore sea breeze extents (xsb, and to the sea breeze depth (zsb and intensity (usb. They also show that the return flow of the sea breeze circulation is very seldom seen in this area due to (i the presence of a systematic non zero background wind, and (ii the 3-D structure of the sea breeze caused by the complex coastline shape and topography. A thorough analysis is conducted on the impact of the two main valleys (Rhône and Durance valleys affecting the sea breeze circulation in the area. Finally, this dataset also allows an evaluation of the existing scaling laws used to derive the sea breeze intensity, depth and horizontal extent. The main results of this study are that (i latitude, cumulative heating and surface friction are key parameters of the sea breeze dynamics; (ii in presence of strong synoptic flow, all scaling laws fail in predicting the sea breeze characteristics (the sea breeze depth, however being the most accurately predicted; and (iii the ratio zsb/usb is approximately constant in the sea breeze flow.

  11. Investigation of scaling laws by critical neutron scattering from beta-brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1969-01-01

    Using a Cu65-Zn β-brass crystal, the critical scattering of neutrons has been studied, both above and below T c. The staggered susceptibilities χ vary as C+(T/Tc-1)-γ and C-(1-T/Tc)-γ ', respectively. It is found that γ=γ' within an accuracy of 3%, in agreement with the scaling hypothesis of static...... critical phenomena; and that C+/C-=5.46±0.05, in excellent agreement with the recent parametric representation theory of Schofield and in fair agreement with the results of series expansions by Essam and Hunter. For fixed q, a flat maximum is observed in the wave-vector-dependent susceptibility χ(q, T...

  12. Critical Exponents, Scaling Law, Universality and Renormalization Group Flow in Strong Coupling QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kei-Ichi

    The critical behavior of strongly coupled QED with a chiral-invariant four-fermion interaction (gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model) is investigated through the unquenched Schwinger-Dyson equation including the fermion loop effect at the one-loop level. It is shown that the critical exponents satisfy the (hyper)scaling relations as in the quenched case. However, the respective critical exponent takes the classical mean-field value, and consequently unquenched QED belongs to the same universality class as the zero-charge model. On the other hand, it is pointed out that quenched QED violates not only universality but also weak universality, due to continuously varying critical exponents. Furthermore, the renormalization group flow of constant renormalized charge is given. All the results are consistent with triviality of QED and the gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the unquenched case.

  13. Regimes of Axisymmetric Flow and Scaling Laws in a Rotating Annulus with Local Convective Forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Wright

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical study of axisymmetric flow in a rotating annulus in which local thermal forcing, via a heated annular ring on the outside of the base and a cooled circular disk in the centre of the top surface, drives convection. This new configuration is a variant of the classical thermally-driven annulus, where uniform heating and cooling are applied through the outer and inner sidewalls respectively. The annulus provides an analogue to a planetary circulation and the new configuration, with its more relaxed vertical thermal boundary conditions, is expected to better emulate vigorous convection in the tropics and polar regions as well as baroclinic instability in the mid-latitude baroclinic zone. Using the Met Office/Oxford Rotating Annulus Laboratory (MORALS code, we have investigated a series of equilibrated, two dimensional axisymmetric flows across a large region of parameter space. These are characterized in terms of their velocity and temperature fields. When rotation is applied several distinct flow regimes may be identified for different rotation rates and strengths of differential heating. These regimes are defined as a function of the ratio of the horizontal Ekman layer thickness to the non-rotating thermal boundary layer thickness and are found to be similar to those identified in previous annulus experiments. Convection without rotation is also considered and the scaling of the heat transport with Rayleigh number is calculated. This is then compared with existing work on the classical annulus as well as horizontal and Rayleigh-Bénard convection. As with previous studies on both rotating and non-rotating convection the system’s behaviour is found to be aspect ratio dependent. This dependence is seen in the scaling of the non-rotating Nusselt number and in transitions between regimes in the rotating case although further investigation is required to fully explain these observations.

  14. Scaling laws for homogeneous turbulent shear flows in a rotating frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speziale, Charles G.; Mhuiris, Nessan Macgiolla

    1988-01-01

    The scaling properties of plane homogeneous turbulent shear flows in a rotating frame are examined mathematically by a direct analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations. It is proved that two such shear flows are dynamically similar if and only if their initial dimensionless energy spectrum E star (k star, 0), initial dimensionless shear rate SK sub 0/epsilon sub 0, initial Reynolds number K squared sub 0/nu epsilon sub 0, and the ration of the rotation rate to the shear rate omega/S are identical. Consequently, if universal equilibrium states exist, at high Reynolds numbers, they will only depend on the single parameter omega/S. The commonly assumed dependence of such equilibrium states on omega/S through the Richardson number Ri=-2(omega/S)(1-2 omega/S) is proven to be inconsistent with the full Navier-Stokes equations and to constitute no more than a weak approximation. To be more specific, Richardson number similarity is shown to only rigorously apply to certain low-order truncations of the Navier-Stokes equations (i.e., to certain second-order closure models) wherein closure is achieved at the second-moment level by assuming that the higher-order moments are a small perturbation of their isotropic states. The physical dependence of rotating turbulent shear flows on omega/S is discussed in detail along with the implications for turbulence modeling.

  15. Scaling laws for the mechanics of loose and cohesive granular materials based on Baxter's sticky hard spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Johan; Löwe, Henning; Tan, Shurun; Tsang, Leung

    2017-09-01

    We have conducted discrete element simulations (pfc3d) of very loose, cohesive, granular assemblies with initial configurations which are drawn from Baxter's sticky hard sphere (SHS) ensemble. The SHS model is employed as a promising auxiliary means to independently control the coordination number z_{c} of cohesive contacts and particle volume fraction ϕ of the initial states. We focus on discerning the role of z_{c} and ϕ for the elastic modulus, failure strength, and the plastic consolidation line under quasistatic, uniaxial compression. We find scaling behavior of the modulus and the strength, which both scale with the cohesive contact density ν_{c}=z_{c}ϕ of the initial state according to a power law. In contrast, the behavior of the plastic consolidation curve is shown to be independent of the initial conditions. Our results show the primary control of the initial contact density on the mechanics of cohesive granular materials for small deformations, which can be conveniently, but not exclusively explored within the SHS-based assembling procedure.

  16. Unified Scaling Law for flux pinning in practical superconductors: III. Minimum datasets, core parameters, and application of the Extrapolative Scaling Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekin, Jack W.; Cheggour, Najib; Goodrich, Loren; Splett, Jolene

    2017-03-01

    In Part 2 of these articles, an extensive analysis of pinning-force curves and raw scaling data was used to derive the Extrapolative Scaling Expression (ESE). This is a parameterization of the Unified Scaling Law (USL) that has the extrapolation capability of fundamental unified scaling, coupled with the application ease of a simple fitting equation. Here in Part 3, the accuracy of the ESE relation to interpolate and extrapolate limited critical-current data to obtain complete I c(B,T,ɛ) datasets is evaluated and compared with present fitting equations. Accuracy is analyzed in terms of root mean square (RMS) error and fractional deviation statistics. Highlights from 92 test cases are condensed and summarized, covering most fitting protocols and proposed parameterizations of the USL. The results show that ESE reliably extrapolates critical currents at fields B, temperatures T, and strains ɛ that are remarkably different from the fitted minimum dataset. Depending on whether the conductor is moderate-J c or high-J c, effective RMS extrapolation errors for ESE are in the range 2-5 A at 12 T, which approaches the I c measurement error (1-2%). The minimum dataset for extrapolating full I c(B,T,ɛ) characteristics is also determined from raw scaling data. It consists of one set of I c(B,ɛ) data at a fixed temperature (e.g., liquid helium temperature), and one set of I c(B,T) data at a fixed strain (e.g., zero applied strain). Error analysis of extrapolations from the minimum dataset with different fitting equations shows that ESE reduces the percentage extrapolation errors at individual data points at high fields, temperatures, and compressive strains down to 1/10th to 1/40th the size of those for extrapolations with present fitting equations. Depending on the conductor, percentage fitting errors for interpolations are also reduced to as little as 1/15th the size. The extrapolation accuracy of the ESE relation offers the prospect of straightforward implementation of

  17. A study of the Nusselt-Rayleigh and Sherwood-Rayleigh scaling laws for water undergoing free-surface natural convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, S. M.; Saylor, J. R.

    2007-11-01

    An experimental study is presented of free-surface natural convection, with a focus on the Nu-Ra relationship. This relationship is typically studied using the traditional Rayleigh-Benard convection setup, where a fluid layer is bounded above and below by solid plates of different temperatures. Power laws of the form Nu = A Ra^n are typically used in these studies to correlate the data, giving exponents that are usually close to n = 1/3. The experimental data obtained in this study yields values of n that do not deviate significantly from 1/3 for 10^7 transfer coefficient for evaporation. The exponent m differed from that obtained by prior researchers. However, the prior research on evaporation that utilizes this scaling law is considerably smaller than for the heat transfer case. The effect of the tank aspect ratio on both scaling laws is also discussed.

  18. Scaling law for voltage-current curve of a superconductor tape with a power-law dependence of electric field on a magnetic-field-dependent sheet current density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Du-Xing

    2017-07-01

    Systematic theoretical study on the voltage (V) vs. current (I) curves of high-Tc superconductor (HTS) thin tapes has not been done till now, although their measurements are frequently used for determining critical current Ic at electric field E ≡ V /lv =Ec =10-4 V/m, lv being the voltage tap distance. On the other hand, it is well recognized that such tapes obey a power-law dependence of local electric field on local sheet current density with a Kim-model critical sheet current density, from which the V vs. I curve may be calculated as a function of current ramp rate R. Such calculations are carried out in the present work with a scaling law deduced, which states that if E/Ec vs. I/Ic is a solution at given apparent power-law exponent na and R/Ec, then this R/Ec multiplied by a constant C leads to another solution with E/Ec and I/Ic multiplied by C and C1/na , respectively. In the help of the scaling law, condition-dependent V vs. I may be studied systematically and completely based on a limited amount of numerical computations and V - I curve measurements may be performed under properly controlled conditions to become a more powerful tool for HTS research.

  19. Testing the Second-Order Factor Structure and Measurement Equivalence of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale across Gender and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Daniel S.; Van Rooy, David L.; Viswesvaran, Chockalingam; Kraus, Eyran

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the measurement equivalence of a second-order factor model of emotional intelligence (EI). Using scores for 921 job applicants obtained during a personnel selection process, measurement equivalence of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) was tested across ethnic (Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics) and gender…

  20. The Measurement Invariance of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) across Three Chinese University Student Groups from Canada and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongwei; Saklofske, Donald H.; Bowden, Stephen C.; Yan, Gonggu; Fung, Tak Shing

    2012-01-01

    The current study assessed the measurement equivalence of the Wong & Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) with three groups of Chinese university students. Two research sessions were conducted--one in Beijing, China with university students (N = 680), and the other in Calgary, Canada where two groups of Chinese students were administered…

  1. Power-Law Scaling of the Impact Crater Size-Frequency Distribution on Pluto: A Preliminary Analysis Based on First Images from New Horizons' Flyby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholkmann F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent (14 th July 2015 flyby of NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft of the dwarf planet Pluto resulted in the first high-resolution images of the geological surface- features of Pluto. Since previous studies showed that the impact crater size-frequency distribution (SFD of different celestial objects of our solar system follows power-laws, the aim of the present analysis was to determine, for the first time, the power-law scaling behavior for Pluto’s crater SFD based on the first images available in mid-September 2015. The analysis was based on a high-resolution image covering parts of Pluto’s re- gions Sputnik Planum , Al-Idrisi Montes and Voyager Terra . 83 impact craters could be identified in these regions and their diameter ( D was determined. The analysis re- vealed that the crater diameter SFD shows a statistically significant power-law scaling ( α = 2.4926±0.3309 in the interval of D values ranging from 3.75±1.14 km to the largest determined D value in this data set of 37.77 km. The value obtained for the scaling coefficient α is similar to the coefficient determined for the power-law scaling of the crater SFDs from the other celestial objects in our solar system. Further analysis of Pluto’s crater SFD is warranted as soon as new images are received from the spacecraft.

  2. Absolute fragmentation cross sections in atom-molecule collisions : Scaling laws for non-statistical fragmentation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Alexander, J. D.; Zhang, Y.; Rousseau, P.; Domaracka, A.; Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Adoui, L.; Huber, B. A.; Schlathölter, T.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present scaling laws for absolute cross sections for non-statistical fragmentation in collisions between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH/PAH+) and hydrogen or helium atoms with kinetic energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 keV. Further, we calculate the total fragmentation cross sections

  3. Mathematical formulation to predict the harmonics of the superconducting Large Hadron Collider magnets. II. Dynamic field changes and scaling laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Sammut

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A superconducting particle accelerator like the LHC (Large Hadron Collider at CERN, can only be controlled well if the effects of the magnetic field multipoles on the beam are compensated. The demands on a control system solely based on beam feedback may be too high for the requirements to be reached at the specified bandwidth and accuracy. Therefore, we designed a suitable field description for the LHC (FIDEL as part of the machine control baseline to act as a feed-forward magnetic field prediction system. FIDEL consists of a physical and empirical parametric field model based on magnetic measurements at warm and in cryogenic conditions. The performance of FIDEL is particularly critical at injection when the field decays, and in the initial part of the acceleration when the field snaps back. These dynamic components are both current and time dependent and are not reproducible from cycle to cycle since they also depend on the magnet powering history. In this paper a qualitative and quantitative description of the dynamic field behavior substantiated by a set of scaling laws is presented.

  4. Early Warning Signals of Financial Crises with Multi-Scale Quantile Regressions of Log-Periodic Power Law Singularities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Zhang

    Full Text Available We augment the existing literature using the Log-Periodic Power Law Singular (LPPLS structures in the log-price dynamics to diagnose financial bubbles by providing three main innovations. First, we introduce the quantile regression to the LPPLS detection problem. This allows us to disentangle (at least partially the genuine LPPLS signal and the a priori unknown complicated residuals. Second, we propose to combine the many quantile regressions with a multi-scale analysis, which aggregates and consolidates the obtained ensembles of scenarios. Third, we define and implement the so-called DS LPPLS Confidence™ and Trust™ indicators that enrich considerably the diagnostic of bubbles. Using a detailed study of the "S&P 500 1987" bubble and presenting analyses of 16 historical bubbles, we show that the quantile regression of LPPLS signals contributes useful early warning signals. The comparison between the constructed signals and the price development in these 16 historical bubbles demonstrates their significant predictive ability around the real critical time when the burst/rally occurs.

  5. Early Warning Signals of Financial Crises with Multi-Scale Quantile Regressions of Log-Periodic Power Law Singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun; Zhang, Qunzhi; Sornette, Didier

    2016-01-01

    We augment the existing literature using the Log-Periodic Power Law Singular (LPPLS) structures in the log-price dynamics to diagnose financial bubbles by providing three main innovations. First, we introduce the quantile regression to the LPPLS detection problem. This allows us to disentangle (at least partially) the genuine LPPLS signal and the a priori unknown complicated residuals. Second, we propose to combine the many quantile regressions with a multi-scale analysis, which aggregates and consolidates the obtained ensembles of scenarios. Third, we define and implement the so-called DS LPPLS Confidence™ and Trust™ indicators that enrich considerably the diagnostic of bubbles. Using a detailed study of the "S&P 500 1987" bubble and presenting analyses of 16 historical bubbles, we show that the quantile regression of LPPLS signals contributes useful early warning signals. The comparison between the constructed signals and the price development in these 16 historical bubbles demonstrates their significant predictive ability around the real critical time when the burst/rally occurs.

  6. A novel scaling law relating the geometrical dimensions of a photocathode radio frequency gun to its radio frequency properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shankar; Pant, K. K.; Krishnagopal, S.

    2011-12-01

    Developing a photocathode RF gun with the desired RF properties of the π-mode, such as field balance (eb) ˜1, resonant frequency fπ = 2856 MHz, and waveguide-to-cavity coupling coefficient βπ ˜1, requires precise tuning of the resonant frequencies of the independent full- and half-cells (ff and fh), and of the waveguide-to-full-cell coupling coefficient (βf). While contemporary electromagnetic codes and precision machining capability have made it possible to design and tune independent cells of a photocathode RF gun for desired RF properties, thereby eliminating the need for tuning, access to such computational resources and quality of machining is not very widespread. Therefore, many such structures require tuning after machining by employing conventional tuning techniques that are iterative in nature. Any procedure that improves understanding of the tuning process and consequently reduces the number of iterations and the associated risks in tuning a photocathode gun would, therefore, be useful. In this paper, we discuss a method devised by us to tune a photocathode RF gun for desired RF properties under operating conditions. We develop and employ a simple scaling law that accounts for inter-dependence between frequency of independent cells and waveguide-to-cavity coupling coefficient, and the effect of brazing clearance for joining of the two cells. The method has been employed to successfully develop multiple 1.6 cell BNL/SLAC/UCLA type S-band photocathode RF guns with the desired RF properties, without the need to tune them by a tiresome cut-and-measure process. Our analysis also provides a physical insight into how the geometrical dimensions affect the RF properties of the photo-cathode RF gun.

  7. Morphological study of polymer surfaces exposed to non-thermal plasma based on contact angle and the use of scaling laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, T., E-mail: tsfelix81@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Cassini, F.A.; Benetoli, L.O.B. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Dotto, M.E.R. [Physics Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Debacher, N.A. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Polymeric surfaces were etched using non-thermal plasma at different intensities. • Polymers of low mechanical hardness reached the saturation level faster. • A mathematical model based on scaling laws was proposed. - Abstract: The experiments presented in this communication have the purpose to elaborate an explanation for the morphological evolution of the growth of polymeric surfaces provided by the treatment of non-thermal plasma. According to the roughness analysis and the model proposed by scaling laws it is possible relate to a predictable or merely random effect. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and poly(etherether)ketone (PEEK) samples were exposed to a non-thermal plasma discharge and the resulting surfaces roughness were analyzed based on the measurements from contact angle, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy coupled with scaling laws analysis which can help to describe and understand the dynamic of formation of a wide variety of rough surfaces. The roughness, R{sub RMS} (RMS- Root Mean Square) values for polymer surface range between 19.8 nm and 110.9 nm. The contact angle and the AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) measurements as a function of the plasma exposure time were in agreement with both polar and dispersive components according to the surface roughness and also with the morphology evaluated described by Wolf-Villain model, with proximate values of α between 0.91{sub (PET)} and 0.88{sub (PEEK)}, β = 0.25{sub (PET)} and z = 3,64{sub (PET)}.

  8. Law without Law

    OpenAIRE

    Sidharth, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a model for spacetime in which there is an ubiquitous background Dark Energy which is the Zero Point Field. This is further modeled in terms of a Weiner process that leads to a Random or Brownian characterization. Nevertheless we are able to recover meaningful physics, very much in the spirit of Wheeler's Law without Law, that is laws emerging from an underpinning of lawlessness.

  9. A J integral based method to measure fracture resistance and cohesive laws in materials exhibiting large scale plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Goutianos, Stergios

    2014-01-01

    A method is developed to extract the fracture resistance and mode I cohesive law of nonlinear elastic-plastic materials using a Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) sandwich specimen loaded with pure bending moments. The method is based on the J integral which is valid for materials having a non-linear s......A method is developed to extract the fracture resistance and mode I cohesive law of nonlinear elastic-plastic materials using a Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) sandwich specimen loaded with pure bending moments. The method is based on the J integral which is valid for materials having a non...

  10. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  11. A global theoretical approach for the plasma of the electrothermal gun: Scaling laws and a 0-d time-dependent model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, E.; Bouquet, S.; Tortel, B. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Courtry (France). Centre d`Etudes de Vaujours-Monovilliers

    1994-12-31

    In this paper a theoretical analysis of the physical processes taking place in the Electrothermal Gun (ET Gun) is presented. In a first step, using the basic conservation equations (energy, mass, charge) integrated over the whole time of the discharge, scaling laws are derived. These laws provide the temperature, the mass, the resistance of the plasma and the current going through it, as functions of the storaged electrical energy. In a second step, a 0D-time-dependent model is presented. This model takes into account the evolution of the complete system consisting in the electrical source, the plasma burner and the motion of the projectile. Special attention is given to the ablation phenomena and a microscopic description which differs from the one used previously by Loeb and Kaplan or Zoler and Cuperman is derived. Finally, comparisons with experiments are given and good agreements are obtained.

  12. Density/area power-law models for separating multi-scale anomalies of ore and toxic elements in stream sediments in Gejiu mineral district, Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q.; Xia, Q.; Li, W.; Zhang, S.; Chen, Z.; Zuo, R.; Wang, W.

    2010-10-01

    This contribution introduces a fractal filtering technique newly developed on the basis of a spectral energy density vs. area power-law model in the context of multifractal theory. It can be used to map anisotropic singularities of geochemical landscapes created from geochemical concentration values in various surface media such as soils, stream sediments, tills and water. A geochemical landscape can be converted into a Fourier domain in which the spectral energy density is plotted against the area (in wave number units), and the relationship between the spectrum energy density (S) and the area (A) enclosed by the above-threshold spectrum energy density can be fitted by power-law models. Mixed geochemical landscape patterns can be fitted with different S-A power-law models in the frequency domain. Fractal filters can be defined according to these different S-A models and used to decompose the geochemical patterns into components with different self-similarities. The fractal filtering method was applied to a geochemical dataset from 7,349 stream sediment samples collected from Gejiu mineral district, which is famous for its word-class tin and copper production. Anomalies in three different scales were decomposed from total values of the trace elements As, Sn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. These anomalies generally correspond to various geological features and geological processes such as sedimentary rocks, intrusions, fault intersections and mineralization.

  13. Density/area power-law models for separating multi-scale anomalies of ore and toxic elements in stream sediments in Gejiu mineral district, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Cheng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution introduces a fractal filtering technique newly developed on the basis of a spectral energy density vs. area power-law model in the context of multifractal theory. It can be used to map anisotropic singularities of geochemical landscapes created from geochemical concentration values in various surface media such as soils, stream sediments, tills and water. A geochemical landscape can be converted into a Fourier domain in which the spectral energy density is plotted against the area (in wave number units, and the relationship between the spectrum energy density (S and the area (A enclosed by the above-threshold spectrum energy density can be fitted by power-law models. Mixed geochemical landscape patterns can be fitted with different S-A power-law models in the frequency domain. Fractal filters can be defined according to these different S-A models and used to decompose the geochemical patterns into components with different self-similarities. The fractal filtering method was applied to a geochemical dataset from 7,349 stream sediment samples collected from Gejiu mineral district, which is famous for its word-class tin and copper production. Anomalies in three different scales were decomposed from total values of the trace elements As, Sn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. These anomalies generally correspond to various geological features and geological processes such as sedimentary rocks, intrusions, fault intersections and mineralization.

  14. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award Talk - Universal Scaling Laws from Cells to Cities; A Physicist's Search for Quantitative, Unified Theories of Biological and Social Structure and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Geoffrey

    2013-04-01

    Many of the most challenging, exciting and profound questions facing science and society, from the origins of life to global sustainability, fall under the banner of ``complex adaptive systems.'' This talk explores how scaling can be used to begin to develop physics-inspired quantitative, predictive, coarse-grained theories for understanding their structure, dynamics and organization based on underlying mathematisable principles. Remarkably, most physiological, organisational and life history phenomena in biology and socio-economic systems scale in a simple and ``universal'' fashion: metabolic rate scales approximately as the 3/4-power of mass over 27 orders of magnitude from complex molecules to the largest organisms. Time-scales (such as lifespans and growth-rates) and sizes (such as genome lengths and RNA densities) scale with exponents which are typically simple multiples of 1/4, suggesting that fundamental constraints underlie much of the generic structure and dynamics of living systems. These scaling laws follow from dynamical and geometrical properties of space-filling, fractal-like, hierarchical branching networks, presumed optimised by natural selection. This leads to a general framework that potentially captures essential features of diverse systems including vasculature, ontogenetic growth, cancer, aging and mortality, sleep, cell size, and DNA nucleotide substitution rates. Cities and companies also scale: wages, profits, patents, crime, disease, pollution, road lengths scale similarly across the globe, reflecting underlying universal social network dynamics which point to general principles of organization transcending their individuality. These have dramatic implications for global sustainability: innovation and wealth creation that fuel social systems, left unchecked, potentially sow the seeds for their inevitable collapse.

  15. Civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is

  16. On Hack's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, Riccardo; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Maritan, Amos; Giacometti, Achille; Tarboton, David G.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    1996-11-01

    Hack's law is reviewed, emphasizing its implications for the elongation of river basins as well as its connections with their fractal characteristics. The relation between Hack's law and the internal structure of river basins is investigated experimentally through digital elevation models. It is found that Hack's exponent, elongation, and some relevant fractal characters are closely related. The self-affine character of basin boundaries is shown to be connected to the power law decay of the probability of total contributing areas at any link and to Hack's law. An explanation for Hack's law is derived from scaling arguments. From the results we suggest that a statistical framework referring to the scaling invariance of the entire basin structure should be used in the interpretation of Hack's law.

  17. Inexpressive Law

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Parisi, Francesco; von Wangenheim, Georg

    2010-01-01

    According to expressive law theories, expression of values is an important function played by the law. Expressive laws affect behavior, not by threatening sanctions or promising rewards, but by changing individual preferences and tastes and, in some cases, by affecting social norms and values. New laws, however, can run against sticky social norms, failing to achieve their expressive effects. By developing a dynamic model, in this paper we show that inexpressive laws (laws whose expressive fu...

  18. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  19. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  20. Modeling of the Critical-Current Behavior of Nb3Sn Subsized Cables Under Transverse Load Using 2D Finite Element Analysis and a Strain Scaling Law

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, T; Takayasu, M; Bordini, B

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms causing the critical-current degradation of ITER-type Nb3Sn Cable-in-Conduit-Conductors have been studied in the past decade. One of the origins of the degradation of the performance is the Lorentz load during magnet operations. The strands within the cable subjected to the transverse loads locally experience larger strains than the ones caused by tensile loads. Results obtained with experiments on full size cables are limited due to their cost and difficulty so, to predict the degradations of a Nb3Sn CICC under transverse loads, empirical laws should be established. Strain scaling laws are available but have never been used to determine the behavior of strands under transverse load. We propose a new method, by which the critical-current behavior of a subsized cable under transverse loads is derived from the critical-current behavior under uni-axial strains. This method is based on the strain state of the Nb3Sn filaments obtained by finite element analysis (FEA). The FEA strain results are used...

  1. A novel modeling to predict the critical current behavior of Nb3Sn PIT strand under transverse load based on a scaling law and Finite Element Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tiening; Takayasu, Makoto; Bordini, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting Nb3Sn Powder-In-Tube (PIT) strands could be used for the superconducting magnets of the next generation Large Hadron Collider. The strands are cabled into the typical flat Rutherford cable configuration. During the assembly of a magnet and its operation the strands experience not only longitudinal but also transverse load due to the pre-compression applied during the assembly and the Lorentz load felt when the magnets are energized. To properly design the magnets and guarantee their safe operation, mechanical load effects on the strand superconducting properties are studied extensively; particularly, many scaling laws based on tensile load experiments have been established to predict the critical current dependence on strain. However, the dependence of the superconducting properties on transverse load has not been extensively studied so far. One of the reasons is that transverse loading experiments are difficult to conduct due to the small diameter of the strand (about 1 mm) and the data curre...

  2. A scaling law for distinct electrocaloric cooling performance in low-dimensional organic, relaxor and anti-ferroelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuping; Huang, Limin; Soh, Ai Kah; Weng, George J; Liu, Shuangyi; Redfern, Simon A T

    2017-09-11

    Electrocaloric (EC) materials show promise in eco-friendly solid-state refrigeration and integrable on-chip thermal management. While direct measurement of EC thin-films still remains challenging, a generic theoretical framework for quantifying the cooling properties of rich EC materials including normal-, relaxor-, organic- and anti-ferroelectrics is imperative for exploiting new flexible and room-temperature cooling alternatives. Here, we present a versatile theory that combines Master equation with Maxwell relations and analytically relates the macroscopic cooling responses in EC materials with the intrinsic diffuseness of phase transitions and correlation characteristics. Under increased electric fields, both EC entropy and adiabatic temperature changes increase quadratically initially, followed by further linear growth and eventual gradual saturation. The upper bound of entropy change (∆Smax) is limited by distinct correlation volumes (V cr ) and transition diffuseness. The linearity between V cr and the transition diffuseness is emphasized, while ∆Smax = 300 kJ/(K.m(3)) is obtained for Pb0.8Ba0.2ZrO3. The ∆Smax in antiferroelectric Pb0.95Zr0.05TiO3, Pb0.8Ba0.2ZrO3 and polymeric ferroelectrics scales proportionally with V cr(-2.2), owing to the one-dimensional structural constraint on lattice-scale depolarization dynamics; whereas ∆Smax in relaxor and normal ferroelectrics scales as ∆Smax ~ V cr(-0.37), which tallies with a dipolar interaction exponent of 2/3 in EC materials and the well-proven fractional dimensionality of 2.5 for ferroelectric domain walls.

  3. Competition law: private law, public law, regulatory or economic law?

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Lleras, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Let’s imagine that we want to establish a new law school in Colombia. How would we classify competition law within its curricular structure? By attempting to answer this apparently harmless question, this article shows the inherent difficulties in trying to classify competition law as private law, public law, regulation or “economic law”. This is due not only because such categories are very imprecise, but also because they depart significantly form our daily experiences with this field of la...

  4. Law Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Tolstopiatenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the origin of the International Law Department were such eminent scientists, diplomats and teachers as V.N. Durdenevsky, S.B. Krylov and F.I. Kozhevnikov. International law studies in USSR and Russia during the second half of the XX century was largely shaped by the lawyers of MGIMO. They had a large influence on the education in the international law in the whole USSR, and since 1990s in Russia and other CIS countries. The prominence of the research of MGIMO international lawyers was due to the close connections with the international practice, involving international negotiations in the United Nations and other international fora, diplomatic conferences and international scientific conferences. This experience is represented in the MGIMO handbooks on international law, which are still in demand. The Faculty of International Law at MGIMO consists of seven departments: Department of International Law, Department of Private International and Comparative Law; Department of European Law; Department of Comparative Constitutional Law; Department of Administrative and Financial Law; Department of Criminal Law, Department Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics. Many Russian lawyers famous at home and abroad work at the Faculty, contributing to domestic and international law studies. In 1947 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR published "International Law" textbook which was the first textbook on the subject in USSR. S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky were the authors and editors of the textbook. First generations of MGIMO students studied international law according to this textbook. All subsequent books on international law, published in the USSR, were based on the approach to the teaching of international law, developed in the textbook by S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky. The first textbook of international law with the stamp of MGIMO, edited by F.I. Kozhevnikov, was published in 1964. This textbook later went through five editions in 1966, 1972

  5. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  6. Achievable DoF and Its User Scaling Law for Opportunistic User Selection in a $K$-transmitter SIMO Interference Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jung Hoon; Love, David J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a $K$-transmitter single-input multiple-output (SIMO) interference channel (IC) where each transmitter has its own user group and serves one of the users in its group. When the number of receive antennas at each user is less than $K$ (i.e., $N_Rscaled as $N\\propto P^{\\alpha (K-N_R)}$ where $P$ is transmit power and $\\alpha$ is the relative path loss of the interfering channel in decibels. This result on the scaling law is extended and shown to be still valid for other user selection schemes such as the minimum interf...

  7. Heat-Transfer Tests of 20-Millimeter Projectiles at a Mach Number of 5 with an Analysis by Unsteady Scaling Laws to Predict Component Temperature Rises after Firing for Various Free-Flight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpi, Robert L.; Gallagher, James G.; Jones, Robert A.

    1961-01-01

    The temperature time history of various components of a 20-millimeter projectile was obtained by transient heating tests in a Mach number 5 blowdown tunnel. An unsteady scaling law is derived and used to predict the temperature time histories after firing in flight at various Mach numbers and altitudes.

  8. EEHG Performance and Scaling Laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, Gregory

    2013-10-09

    This note will calculate the idealized performance of echo-enabled harmonic generation performance (EEHG), explore the parameter settings, and look at constraints determined by incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR) and intrabeam scattering (IBS). Another important effect, time-of-flight variations related to transverse emittance, is included here but without detailed explanation because it has been described previously. The importance of ISR and IBS is that they lead to random energy shifts that lead to temporal shifts after the various beam manipulations required by the EEHG scheme. These effects give competing constraints on the beamline. For chicane magnets which are too compact for a given R56, the magnetic fields will be sufficiently strong that ISR will blur out the complex phase space structure of the echo scheme to the point where the bunching is strongly suppressed. The effect of IBS is more omnipresent, and requires an overall compact beamline. It is particularly challenging for the second pulse in a two-color attosecond beamline, due to the long delay between the first energy modulation and the modulator for the second pulse.

  9. Lindy's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-11-01

    Aging means that as things grow old their remaining expected lifetimes lessen. Either faster or slower, most of the things we encounter in our everyday lives age with time. However, there are things that do quite the opposite - they anti-age: as they grow old their remaining expected lifetimes increase rather than decrease. A quantitative formulation of anti-aging is given by the so-called ;Lindy's Law;. In this paper we explore Lindy's Law and its connections to Pareto's Law, to Zipf's Law, and to socioeconomic inequality.

  10. HMI Data Driven Magnetohydrodynamic Model Predicted Active Region Photospheric Heating Rates: Their Scale Invariant, Flare Like Power Law Distributions, and Their Possible Association With Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael L.; Kwan, Chiman; Ayhan, Bulent; Shang, Eric L.

    2017-01-01

    A data driven, near photospheric, 3 D, non-force free magnetohydrodynamic model predicts time series of the complete current density, and the resistive heating rate Q at the photosphere in neutral line regions (NLRs) of 14 active regions (ARs). The model is driven by time series of the magnetic field B observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite. Spurious Doppler periods due to SDO orbital motion are filtered out of the time series for B in every AR pixel. Errors in B due to these periods can be significant. The number of occurrences N(q) of values of Q > or = q for each AR time series is found to be a scale invariant power law distribution, N(Q) / Q-s, above an AR dependent threshold value of Q, where 0.3952 or = E obeys the same type of distribution, N(E) / E-S, above an AR dependent threshold value of E, with 0.38 < or approx. S < or approx. 0.60, also with little variation among ARs. Within error margins the ranges of s and S are nearly identical. This strong similarity between N(Q) and N(E) suggests a fundamental connection between the process that drives coronal flares and the process that drives photospheric NLR heating rates in ARs. In addition, results suggest it is plausible that spikes in Q, several orders of magnitude above background values, are correlated with times of the subsequent occurrence of M or X flares.

  11. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  12. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from consequ...

  13. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...

  14. Nanoplasmonics beyond Ohm's law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N. Asger; Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren

    2012-01-01

    -of-motion that goes beyond the common local-response approximation and use of Ohm's law as the central constitutive equation. The electron gas is treated within a semi-classical hydrodynamic model with the emergence of a new intrinsic length scale. We briefly review the new governing wave equations and give examples...

  15. Allometric scaling of population variance with mean body size is predicted from Taylor’s law and density-mass allometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel E.; Xu, Meng; Schuster, William S. F.

    2012-01-01

    Two widely tested empirical patterns in ecology are combined here to predict how the variation of population density relates to the average body size of organisms. Taylor’s law (TL) asserts that the variance of the population density of a set of populations is a power-law function of the mean population density. Density–mass allometry (DMA) asserts that the mean population density of a set of populations is a power-law function of the mean individual body mass. Combined, DMA and TL predict that the variance of the population density is a power-law function of mean individual body mass. We call this relationship “variance–mass allometry” (VMA). We confirmed the theoretically predicted power-law form and the theoretically predicted parameters of VMA, using detailed data on individual oak trees (Quercus spp.) of Black Rock Forest, Cornwall, New York. These results connect the variability of population density to the mean body mass of individuals. PMID:23019367

  16. Scales of political action and social movements in education: the case of the Brazilian Black Movement and Law 10.639

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nascimento dos Santos, R.E.; Soeterik, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines social coordination by the Brazilian Black Movement in the area of Brazilian education. It explains how these developments relate to the construction of race-based public education policies in the country. Focus goes to the process of creation and implementation of law 10.639 in

  17. Scales of Political Action and Social Movements in Education: The Case of the Brazilian Black Movement and Law 10.639

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Renato Emerson Nascimento; Soeterik, Inti Maya

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines social coordination by the Brazilian Black Movement in the area of Brazilian education. It explains how these developments relate to the construction of race-based public education policies in the country. Focus goes to the process of creation and implementation of law 10.639 in Brazilian Basic education. Using the concept…

  18. Secrets Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Guamanzara Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the book The Law of Secrets, of the author Juan Carlos Martínez-Villalba Riofrío studying the secrets and how law does protect. To this end, the author has analyzed the general theory of secrecy, secrets and methodology, its overall rating, essential elements and their different legal dimensions, the secret as a subjective right. It also establishes that professional secrecy is protected by constitutional principles such as the right to privacy.

  19. Law in Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Law-Related Education Advisory Council, Cheyenne.

    This document is intended to give students an overview of laws in Wyoming. Subjects covered include civil and criminal law; courts in Wyoming; juvenile law, juvenile court procedure; rights of children; family law; employment law; automobile-related law; laws affecting the schools; and citizenship rights and responsibilities. The laws and courts…

  20. Nuclear Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Admissibility of the action to set aside - possible violation of basic rights - preclusion - forfeiture of action - substantial modification of an installation - effects on the safety level - involvement of the public - violation of procedural rules - omitted interpretation. Guiding principles: It is a matter of substantial modification subject to authorization as defined by the Atomic Energy Law if and when this modification affects the safety level of the installation, unless it is obvious that these effects are insignificant. It cannot make any difference whether these modifications may have a positive or negative effect on the safety level. The provisions governing sect. 4 para. 1 and sect. 6 para. 1 of the AtVfV confer on a third party affected a right under public law to be involved in the licensing procedure as laid down in the Atomic Energy Law, with the result that its violation concedes the party affected a right to claim the annulment of the (partial) licence granted. The issue of licensing capacity under substantive law does not matter. An interpretation omitted by way of action can only be reproved successfully if the substantial modifications may negatively affect the rights of the complaining party, not if the operator takes protective measures which obviously improve the safety level. Arnsberg Administrative Court - 7 K 74/79 - Decision of January 27, 1981.

  1. School Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitt, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The United States Supreme Court upheld a California state law requiring employers to allow a pregnant woman up to four months of unpaid maternity leave if she claims pregnancy as a disability. A bill before Congress addresses parental leave and job protection for parents caring for a new baby or a sick child. (MLH)

  2. Adoption Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Joan Heifetz

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to achieve uniformity in state adoption laws are confronted by a lack of consensus on six major issues: (1) parental consent and interests; (2) children's interests; (3) the nature of the actual adoption transaction; (4) adoptive relationships as substitutes for biological relationships; (5) confidentiality and anonymity; and (6) the…

  3. Safety and risk, a comparison on an international scale with regard to society, law and economy. Sicherheit und Risiko im internationalen Vergleich - gesellschaftlich, rechtlich, wirtschaftlich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compes, P.C. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    More than 130 experts of different nations and different fields of science met to discuss the following subjects: Traffic and transport, labour and employment, products and commodities, energy and environment (safety concepts for fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants, international harmonisation of nuclear technical standards, harmonisation of environmental law in a European context). All contributions are presented in their original language, with abstracts in German, English, and French. (HP).

  4. Why Catholic Universities Should Engage International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, William P.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that Catholic universities should vigorously engage international law for at least three reasons. First, international law is an indispensible dialogue partner for Catholic Social Teaching (CST). Since CST belongs in Catholic higher education, so too does international law. Second, in numerous ways and on a global scale,…

  5. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  6. Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Baseline Control Law: Flight-Test Results for the Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed F/A-18 Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    A model reference nonlinear dynamic inversion control law has been developed to provide a baseline controller for research into simple adaptive elements for advanced flight control laws. This controller has been implemented and tested in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation and in flight. The flight results agree well with the simulation predictions and show good handling qualities throughout the tested flight envelope with some noteworthy deficiencies highlighted both by handling qualities metrics and pilot comments. Many design choices and implementation details reflect the requirements placed on the system by the nonlinear flight environment and the desire to keep the system as simple as possible to easily allow the addition of the adaptive elements. The flight-test results and how they compare to the simulation predictions are discussed, along with a discussion about how each element affected pilot opinions. Additionally, aspects of the design that performed better than expected are presented, as well as some simple improvements that will be suggested for follow-on work.

  7. COMERCIAL LAW: EXCEPCIONAL OR SPECIAL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Arcila Salazar, Carlos Andrés; Megabanco Eje Cafetero del Banco de Bogotá S.A.

    2007-01-01

    For those who assert that Commercial Law is an exceptional law, because of the gaps within the commercial law, there is a need to refer to the Civil Law to strictly apply its exceptional elements. For those who understand the commercial law as a special law, legal gaps need to be integrated in first place with the system of formal sources that compose the Commercial Law and the referral to the Civil Law should constitute the ultimate ratio; the former cannot be understood as a source of the l...

  8. Labour's law?

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, Elke J.; Wagner, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A cross section analysis of 23 OECD members shows that there is an 'antagonistic' relationship between the legal protection of investor interests on the one hand and labour interests on the other: the stronger the legal protection of investor rights in a country, the less developed are the individual and collective rights of labour and vice versa. A main cause for a country's position with respect to this trade off is its type of legal system, specifically whether it belongs to the common law...

  9. The origin of allometric scaling laws in biology from genomes to ecosystems: towards a quantitative unifying theory of biological structure and organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Geoffrey B; Brown, James H

    2005-05-01

    Life is the most complex physical phenomenon in the Universe, manifesting an extraordinary diversity of form and function over an enormous scale from the largest animals and plants to the smallest microbes and subcellular units. Despite this many of its most fundamental and complex phenomena scale with size in a surprisingly simple fashion. For example, metabolic rate scales as the 3/4-power of mass over 27 orders of magnitude, from molecular and intracellular levels up to the largest organisms. Similarly, time-scales (such as lifespans and growth rates) and sizes (such as bacterial genome lengths, tree heights and mitochondrial densities) scale with exponents that are typically simple powers of 1/4. The universality and simplicity of these relationships suggest that fundamental universal principles underly much of the coarse-grained generic structure and organisation of living systems. We have proposed a set of principles based on the observation that almost all life is sustained by hierarchical branching networks, which we assume have invariant terminal units, are space-filling and are optimised by the process of natural selection. We show how these general constraints explain quarter power scaling and lead to a quantitative, predictive theory that captures many of the essential features of diverse biological systems. Examples considered include animal circulatory systems, plant vascular systems, growth, mitochondrial densities, and the concept of a universal molecular clock. Temperature considerations, dimensionality and the role of invariants are discussed. Criticisms and controversies associated with this approach are also addressed.

  10. Scale Invariant Power Laws Capture the 3-D Coupling Between Water, Energy and Carbon Budgets Across River Basins of Increasing Horton-Strahler Orders in the Andes-Amazon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, G.; Zapata, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    The Andes-Amazon system exhibits complex interactions and feedbacks between hydrological, ecological, biogeochemical and climatic factors in a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. We aim to understand the coupling existing between water, energy and carbon budgets in the Andes-Amazon system, by performing a systematic study of the system for river basins of increasing Horton-Strahler orders, from the headwaters of the Amazon River basin along the Andes (order ω=1 river sub-basins) to the low-lying larger river sub-basins (order ω=10). To that end, this works introduces a 3-D generalization of the Budyko framework that aims to link the water, energy, and Carbon budgets in river basins. The newly proposed 3-D non-dimensional space is defined by: (1) the ratio between long-term mean values of Actual Evapotranspiration (AET) and Precipitation (P), α=AET/P, representing the water balance; (2) the ratio between AET and Potential Evapotranspiration (PET), β=AET/PET, representing the energy balance; and (3) the ratio between AET and Aboveground Net Primary Productivity, δ=AET/ANPP, representing the carbon budget. We use a 3" Digital Elevation Model (DEM), which allows defining river basins with Horton-Strahler orders from 1 to 10. The long-term water, energy, and carbon budgets are estimated for increasing values of the Horton-Strahler orders during the period 1987-2007. Data sets pertaining to the water balance come from ORE-HYBAM, potential evapotranspiration (PET) from GLEAM (Global Land-surface Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology). Data for the energy budget are from the Surface Radiation Budget (SRB). Data for the Carbon budget (annual mean net primary productivity, ANPP, gross primary productivity, GPP, and respiration rates, Rr, come from AMAZALERT and ORCHEDEE (Organizing Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic EcosystEms), as well as from Flux Tower Data and the LBA project. Our results show that scale invariant power-laws emerge to capture the three 2-D

  11. Anomalous Hall effect in Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4}: Universal scaling law and electron localization below the Verwey transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedrecy, N., E-mail: jedrecy@insp.jussieu.fr; Hamieh, M.; Hebert, C.; Escudier, M.; Becerra, L.; Perriere, J. [Institut des Nano Sciences de Paris, UPMC-Sorbonne Universités, CNRS-UMR7588, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-08-15

    We show that the well-established universal scaling σ{sub xy}{sup AHE} ∼ σ{sub xx}{sup 1.6} between anomalous Hall and longitudinal conductivities in the low conductivity regime (σ{sub xx} < 10{sup 4} Ω{sup −1} cm{sup −1}) transforms into the scaling σ{sub xy}{sup AHE} ∼ σ{sub xx}{sup 2} at the onset of strong electron localization. The crossover between the two relations is observed in magnetite-derived Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} thin films where an insulating/hopping regime follows a bad metal/hopping regime below the Verwey transition temperature T{sub v}. Our results demonstrate that electron localization effects come into play in the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) modifying significantly the scaling exponent. In addition, the thermal evolution of the anomalous Hall resistivity suggests the existence of spin polarons whose size would decrease below T{sub v}.

  12. Privatizing Public Interest Law

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Scott L

    2011-01-01

    Financial and legal constraints on nonprofit public interest organizations have focused attention on possibilities for pursuing public interest goals from within market-driven private practice. In this context, the private public interest law firm has been held out as an alternative site for “doing well” and “doing good,” allowing lawyers to take on large-scale social change litigation that nonprofit groups cannot because of resource limits—and big-firm pro bono programs will not because of b...

  13. Turbulent viscosity and scale laws in turbulent jets with variable density; Viscosite turbulente et lois d`echelles dans les jets turbulents a masse volumique variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietri, L.; Amielh, M.; Anselmet, F.; Fulachier, L. [Institut de Recherche sur les Phinomenes Hors Equilibre Equipe Turbulence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1997-12-31

    Turbulent flows with strong density variations, like helium jets in the ambient air, have specific properties linked with the difference of gas densities. This paper presents some experimental results of turbulence properties inside such flows: the Reynolds tensions and the associated turbulent viscosity, and some characteristics linked with the statistical properties of the different turbulence scales. These last results allows to show the complexity of such flows characterized by the influence of external parameters (Reynolds number, initial density ratio, initial momentum flux) that govern the evolution of these parameters inside the jet from the nozzle up to regions where similarity properties are reached. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  14. Entanglement area law in superfluid 4He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, C. M.; Roy, P.-N.; Melko, R. G.; Maestro, A. Del

    2017-06-01

    Area laws were first discovered by Bekenstein and Hawking, who found that the entropy of a black hole grows proportional to its surface area, and not its volume. Entropy area laws have since become a fundamental part of modern physics, from the holographic principle in quantum gravity to ground-state wavefunctions of quantum matter, where entanglement entropy is generically found to obey area law scaling. As no experiments are currently capable of directly probing the entanglement area law in naturally occurring many-body systems, evidence of its existence is based on studies of simplified qualitative theories. Using new exact microscopic numerical simulations of superfluid 4He, we demonstrate for the first time an area law scaling of entanglement entropy in a real quantum liquid in three dimensions. We validate the fundamental principle that the area law originates from correlations local to the entangling boundary, and present an entanglement equation of state showing how it depends on the density of the superfluid.

  15. The second laws of quantum thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fernando; Horodecki, Michał; Ng, Nelly; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Wehner, Stephanie

    2015-03-17

    The second law of thermodynamics places constraints on state transformations. It applies to systems composed of many particles, however, we are seeing that one can formulate laws of thermodynamics when only a small number of particles are interacting with a heat bath. Is there a second law of thermodynamics in this regime? Here, we find that for processes which are approximately cyclic, the second law for microscopic systems takes on a different form compared to the macroscopic scale, imposing not just one constraint on state transformations, but an entire family of constraints. We find a family of free energies which generalize the traditional one, and show that they can never increase. The ordinary second law relates to one of these, with the remainder imposing additional constraints on thermodynamic transitions. We find three regimes which determine which family of second laws govern state transitions, depending on how cyclic the process is. In one regime one can cause an apparent violation of the usual second law, through a process of embezzling work from a large system which remains arbitrarily close to its original state. These second laws are relevant for small systems, and also apply to individual macroscopic systems interacting via long-range interactions. By making precise the definition of thermal operations, the laws of thermodynamics are unified in this framework, with the first law defining the class of operations, the zeroth law emerging as an equivalence relation between thermal states, and the remaining laws being monotonicity of our generalized free energies.

  16. A Simple Boyle's Law Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Don L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate Boyle's law that provides pressure measurements in a familiar unit (psi) and makes no assumptions concerning atmospheric pressure. Items needed include bathroom scales and a 60-ml syringe, castor oil, disposable 3-ml syringe and needle, modeling clay, pliers, and a wooden block. Commercial devices use a…

  17. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  18. Tenancy Law Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...

  19. Fractal harmonic law and waterproof/dustproof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Hai-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractal harmonic law admits that the friction between the pure water and the moving surface is the minimum when fractal dimensions of water in Angstrom scale are equal to fractal dimensions of the moving surface in micro scale. In the paper, the fractal harmonic law is applied to demonstrate the mechanism of waterproof/ dustproof. The waterproof phenomenon of goose feathers and lotus leaves is illustrated to verify our results and experimental results agree well with our theoretical analysis.

  20. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  1. Maryland Law and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubel, Robert Y.

    This document analyzes the major elements of Maryland school and college law pertaining to governance. While recognizing differences between school and college law in Maryland, this study shows that there are many elements in common between the two. This study will be primarily concerned with civil law rather than criminal law. School personnel or…

  2. Innovations in Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at historical and recent innovations in law. The first article examines the code of laws developed by the ancient Hebrews which influenced Roman law, English law, and the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The second article explores Thomas Jefferson's writing of the…

  3. [Teaching about Family Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of "Focus on Law Studies""contains a special emphasis on teaching about law and the family", in the form of the following three articles: "Teaching Family Law: Growing Pains and All" (Susan Frelich Appleton); "The Family Goes to Court: Including Law in a Sociological Perspective on the Family"…

  4. UNCLOS and International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Romera, Beatriz; Coelho, Nelson F.

    2018-01-01

    here is that of unilateral state practice and that practice has been relying, at least to some extent, on general public international law. This chapter explains how it is important to revisit international law to better understand the relative relevance of the UNCLOS in oceans governance today. Indeed......, treaty law is only one of many sources of the law that governs international relations, the others being customary international law and principles of law. The main conclusion of this chapter is that states may have to wake up to the limitations of the UNCLOS and that this will require understanding...... the relative role of this treaty among other sources of international law....

  5. Law across nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of participants keen to work together to promote research and policy development in such a lively forum." - Professor Steve Saxby PhD, Cert Ed., MBCS Professor of IT Law and Public Policy, Solicitor, Deputy Head of School (Research), Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southampton, Editor...... not only the original themes of Legal, Security and Privacy Issues in IT Law and International Law and Trade but more recently two new conferences on International Public and Private Law. The papers in this volume then represent the contributions to all these fields and reflect the strong desire......-in-Chief, The Computer Law & Security Review - The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice (Elsevier), www.elsevier.com/locate/clsr, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Information Technology Law (Sweet & Maxwell), Director ILAWS - Institute for Law and the Web - School of Law, Southampton University, www...

  6. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  7. [The psychotic, laws and the Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haumonté, M T

    1986-02-01

    We relate some clinical examples of patients who went to hospital as offenders (murders). They were not condemned because they were mentally ill; we tried to demonstrate that article 64 of the French law is inadequate in reference to modern psychological, phenomenological and psycho-analytical discoveries. We relate cases of patients who harshly punished themselves because they were not convicted by the Law. The last observation induces the transition between the Law, as Lacan says, (the fundamental taboo of incest) and the laws put up by our societies.

  8. The case for criminalizing copyright piracy on a commercial scale and the appropriate level of penalties: an assessment of the international standard for criminal enforcement measures and its implementation in Australian and Malaysian copyright laws

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Ainee

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of criminal offences for copyright infringements has a long history under certain national copyright laws, including the laws of Australia and Malaysia. A new stage in the evolution of criminal laws for copyright infringements was, however, reached in the mid-1990s with the introduction of the first international standard for criminal enforcement measures, in the form of Article 61 of the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement (the ‘TRIPS Agreement’)...

  9. Scaling Laws in Galileo: An Educational Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, S.

    2011-01-01

    In his "Two New Sciences" Galileo Galilei deals with the strength of objects, discussing how it changes with size. Our daily life offers many examples of effects due to change of dimensions and sometimes the consequences are unintuitive. This subject is really interesting for secondary school students and it can be presented through simple…

  10. Correlations and scaling laws in human mobility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Xiang-Wen; Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2014-01-01

    .... The empirical analysis of the data which can reflect the real-world human mobility provides the basic cognition and verification of the theoretical models and predictive results on human mobility...

  11. Scaling laws in phytoplankton nutrient uptake affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, Christian; Fiksen, Øyvind; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2016-01-01

    instantaneously. Here we provide empirical evidence that the perfect sink strategy is not common in phytoplankton. Although small cells are indeed favored by a large surface to volume ratio, we show that they are punished by higher relative investment cost in order to fully benefit from the larger surface...

  12. Poultry Houses, WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some aggregated county data, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Poultry Houses dataset current as of 2009. WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some...

  13. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    Electoral Commission s 181(1)(f). 2 Section 181 of the Constitution. 3 Section 181(1)(b) of the Constitution. LAW. OCRACY. ELOPMENT. LAW. DEMOCRACY. & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 20 (2016) ...... Despite its decisions not being binding, and bearing the disparaging term “soft mechanism”, the SAHRC through its ...

  14. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    4 Corder H et al Report on Parliamentary Oversight and Accountability Faculty of Law, University of Cape. Town (1999) ... Development Agency Bill; Ad Hoc Committee on Criminal Law (Forensic Procedures) ...... Limited; Governing Body Foundation; Governors' Alliance; Gun Free Society; Health Systems Trust; Heart and.

  15. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    LAW. OCRACY. ELOPMENT. LAW. DEMOCRACY. & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 21 (2017). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ldd.v21i1.5. ISSN: 2077-4907 ... Furthermore, tourism development often involves training of personnel in a variety of ... a detrimental impact on local communities including, among others, their culture,.

  16. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    Chair in Customary Law, Human Rights and. Indigenous Values, Faculty of Law, University of. Cape Town. The research presented in this article was in part supported by the South. African Research Chairs Initiative of the. Department of Science and Technology and the. National Research Foundation of South Africa.

  17. Emergence of the second law out of reversible dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigenburg, van L.G.; Koning, de W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract If one demystifies entropy the second law of thermodynamics comes out as an emergent property entirely based on the simple dynamic mechanical laws that govern the motion and energies of system parts on a micro-scale. The emergence of the second law is illustrated in this paper through the

  18. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  19. Limit laws for exponential families

    OpenAIRE

    Balkema, August A.; Klüppelberg, Claudia; Resnick, Sidney I.

    1999-01-01

    For a real random variable [math] with distribution function [math] , define ¶ [math] ¶ The distribution [math] generates a natural exponential family of distribution functions [math] , where ¶ [math] ¶ We study the asymptotic behaviour of the distribution functions [math] as [math] increases to [math] . If [math] then [math] pointwise on [math] . It may still be possible to obtain a non-degenerate weak limit law [math] by choosing suitable scaling and centring constants [math] an...

  20. Recent Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petz, Thomas; Sagaert, Vincent; Østergaard, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In this section authors from various European countries report the recent case law in their country on the field of private patrimonial law, that is decisions on the law of property, juridical acts, the law of obligations, contract law and prescription. The European Review of Private Law (ERPL......) started this section in 2003. The section aims to give our readers an overview of what is happening in the most recent European case law. We have asked the national reporters to report the juridical essence of the decisions given by the highest courts in their country. These national reports...... not relate the facts of the decision, nor the personal opinion of the reporter. One can find discussions on the most important decisions of European courts in ERPL’s case note section. The recent case law section gives overviews of decisions published in periods of four months. The period of January...

  1. Harmonizing Tort Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a review of the literature on comparative tort law and economics. It pays special attention to the economics arguments against and in favour of harmonization of tort law in Europe.

  2. Administrative Law Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.

  3. Community Notification Laws

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Speck, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    .... Furthermore, a false sense of security and reductions in incest reporting continue to victimize children, which results in further sex offender laws passed by legislatures without empirical data supporting such laws...

  4. By Law Established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017......An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017...

  5. Liability in Employment Law

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Roman

    2006-01-01

    97 Liability in labour law Summary This diploma paper analyzes liability in labour law with focus on liability for damage. At first the diploma paper introduces conception of liability in general and idea of liability in labour law considering different position of employee and employer in labour relations. The diploma paper then enumerates the types of labour-law liability. The next chapter concentrates on liability for damage. This chapter describes characteristic features of liability for ...

  6. Behavioral Law and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jolls

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral economics has been a growing force in many fields of applied economics, including public economics, labor economics, health economics, and law and economics. This paper describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the end...

  7. Sociological Aesthetics of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer-Lescano, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Aesthetic theory has the potential to develop a sensorium for the rational and arational forces of law. But the aesthetic knowledge of law is underdeveloped. That is why this article proposes a self-reflective sociological aesthetics of law that is capable of acknowledging human and social forces. The article unfolds its argument in three steps: first, it outlines the main approaches in the field of “law and aesthetics”; second, it connects these approaches in legal aesthetics with sociologic...

  8. Responsibility in Labour Law

    OpenAIRE

    Mandíková, Irena

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with responsibility in labour-law relationships. At the beginning, the thesis focuses on defining responsibility in labour law from a general perspective, in particular in the light of its characteristics. This part is followed by a classification of responsibility in terms of individual branches of law. A prevalent part of this thesis examines the most common type of labour-law responsibility, i.e. responsibility for damage. This part describes in detail the individual type...

  9. The tort law industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortmann, J.

    2009-01-01

    Tort law is fast becoming ‘big business’. Hardly a week goes by without some lawyer or other launching a mass claim to redress a perceived injustice. Investors, too, are starting to recognize the commercial potential of tort law. Coinciding with the increasing commercialization of tort law, is

  10. On Teaching Natural Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, David F.

    1978-01-01

    A brief look at Columbia, Harvard, and Notre Dame law schools shows that the American tradition in teaching natural law has not been strong. The value of teaching natural law is discussed, a separate course or seminar is seen as the most effective option, and a selection of available sources for such a course is appended. (JMD)

  11. Environmental law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    Modern Danish environmental law has a strong international dimension due to membership of EU and participation in global and regional agreements. The concept of transnational law that includes EU environmental law that has vertical as well as horizontal effects across jurisdictions binding national...

  12. Education on Environmental Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Guillermo J.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that environmental law, as part of legal science, should be taught at universities; discusses the development of environmental law and its relationship to other sciences; and proposes a framework for studying environmental law as a university course for study. (DC)

  13. LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    LAW, DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT/ VOL 21 (2017) ratified may apply in Kenya. The general rules of international law apply if a norm has achieved the status of jus cogens or erga omnes.2 The Kenyan courts have cautiously created inroads into the application of international customary law so as to uphold. Article 2(6) ...

  14. On Kepler's First Law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This article is about Kepler's first law or the law of ellipses, named after its discoverer and shown by Newton to follow from an inverse square law of force: A planet revolving about the sun moves in an elliptical orbit with the sun at one focus of the ellipse. We present two proofs of this classical result: Newton's proof, from the ...

  15. Water, law, science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryIn a world with water resources severely impacted by technology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end, this paper is an earth scientist's attempt to comprehend essential elements of water law, and to examine their connections to science. Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with a priori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science, observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while in law, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law in Europe and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago by Roman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason. Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the sea were governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that these elements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as private property. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jus gentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast, jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jus gentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in which science plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all. This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, follows their evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit of science inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving water and environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In a technological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of water law. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophical understanding of the relationships between science and law will contribute to their constructively coming together in the service of society.

  16. Human law and computer law comparative perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrandt, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    This book probes the epistemological and hermeneutic implications of data science and artificial intelligence for democracy and the Rule of Law, and the challenges posed by computing technologies traditional legal thinking and the regulation of human affairs.

  17. Approximation of Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    Approximation of laws is an important theme in the philosophy of science. If we can make sense of the idea that two scientific laws are "close" to each other, then we can also analyze such methodological notions as approximate explanation of laws, approximate reduction of theories, approximate empirical success of theories, and approximate truth of laws. Proposals for measuring the distance between quantitative scientific laws were given in Niiniluoto (1982, 1987). In this paper, these definitions are reconsidered as a response to the interesting critical remarks by Liu (1999).

  18. A common law agenda for labour law

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Barry; Spowart-Taylor, Ann

    1999-01-01

    This article assesses the purposes of a re-contractualisation of the employment relationship. It examines in particular the implied duty to act in good faith, and argues that in developing this and other implied terms the judiciary only extends employment protection to further wealth maximisation. It is argued that the common law sees its contribution to labour law as a device for maximising the efficiency of the enterprise and promoting the creation of wealth for the benefit of the national ...

  19. Environmental law. Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepfer, M. (Trier Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Umwelt- und Technikrecht)

    1989-01-01

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST).

  20. Water, law, science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  1. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  2. Dentistry and criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, B S; Khoury, J N

    2017-09-01

    Criminal law in dentistry, as shaped and moulded by the prevailing views of society, defines what is or is not socially acceptable. It applies in both personal and professional contexts with the intended consequence of protecting the public from unacceptable conduct and potential imbalances of power. At its centre, a patient's consent plays a pivotal role in transforming unlawful conduct into lawful conduct. This literature review considers the current law and the trend of utilizing criminal law in addition to non-criminal law alternatives of reprimanding clinicians for failure to achieve consent in the course of dental practice. Dentists must appreciate this change and the prosecuting authority's increasing willingness to resort to criminal law. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  3. The Main Law Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The internal law of a State is the expression of the sovereign will of that Sate; however, thereare some features common to all law systems. The evolution of the society as a whole gave rise tointernational bodies (such as the European Union, through which the signatory countries haveassimilated certain unitary regulations in the internal law system. The origin of this law system is thelaw book of Justinian, during whose time the Roman law was codified. Thus, in the year 528 a. d.Justinian arranged the legal rules of those times in a unitary whole, adapted to the realities of those days.In our country, as per the fundamental law - the Constitution, the treaties and conventions ratified byRomania prevail in case of a conflict between them and the internal legislation regarding the humanrights.

  4. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  5. Rhetoric in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jonas

    The bond between law and rhetoric is as old as the subjects themselves. Especially the ancient works on legal rhetoric afford, however, a too narrow depiction of the interaction between law and rhetoric as a purely instrumental discipline of communication in court. In this paper I challenge...... this narrow understanding of legal rhetoric and outline three distinct frames of understanding the relation between law and rhetoric...

  6. Borders, Violence, Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER DE LUCAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between violence, law and borders by analyzing both the violence at the borders and the violence of the borders. In both cases, the author states that violence exerted by means of law, as well as migratory and asylum policies, threaten the universal human rights of the most vulnerable people and cannot be seen as exercising the legitimate monopoly of force, resulting in the destruction of the Rule of Law.

  7. Ocean, Technology, Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OCEANS, *LEGISLATION, USSR, NATURAL RESOURCES, CONTINENTAL SHELVES, PROTECTION, TRANSLATIONS, PRESERVATION, FISHERIES, REGULATIONS, POLLUTION, OCEAN BOTTOM, INTERNATIONAL LAW , WATERWAYS, CANALS, NORTH SEA, STRAITS, BALTIC SEA.

  8. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds...... resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study...... of comparative criminal law....

  9. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    mineworkers' legal representation imbroglio in Madigiwana. *. This article is based on the research supported in part by the National Research Foundation of South ... circumstances are the principles of separation of powers and the rule of law whereby ..... See Gauteng Gambling Board v MEC for Economic Development,.

  10. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    Revisiting the participation of traditional leaders in municipal councils in South. Africa. MBUZENI MATHENJWA. Associate Professor of Law, University of .... control and management of the affairs of Black people. In terms of ... was that traditional leaders were no longer empowered solely on the basis of their hereditary right,.

  11. SPACE LAW BIBLIOGRAPHY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Only since the end of World War II has there been a serious interest in the problems of law and activities in the upper atmosphere. Scholarly... law reviews which apply--either directly or by analogy--to man’s activities above the surface of the earth. The immediate problem is State sovereignty

  12. Climate Change Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farber, D.A.; Peeters, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together over seventy fifty authors for a comprehensive examination of the emerging global regime of climate change law. Despite the relative youth of climate change law, we can already begin to see the outlines of legal regimes addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation

  13. Haramaya Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Haramaya Law Review (HLR) publishes original scholarly works on any topic relevant to the legal community, including analysis of domestic or international laws and cases, the African Union and other international organizations, challenges and lessons from domestic practice, and original field research.

  14. Haramaya Law Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The Haramaya Law Review (HLR) publishes original scholarly works on any topic relevant to the legal community, including analysis of domestic or international laws and cases, the African Union and other international organizations, challenges and lessons from domestic practice, and original field ...

  15. Pop Goes the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school…

  16. On Kepler's First Law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 5. On Kepler's First Law - The Law of Ellipses. Shailesh A Shirali. General Article Volume 3 Issue 5 May 1998 pp 30-42. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/05/0030-0042 ...

  17. Laws of Network Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M.C. Larrosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The valuation of a social network is an issue that has been addressed based on simplifying approaches. Various value laws have been stipulated, which are largely atheoretical but have been effectively used to estimate the potential economic value of social network-based firms. This review highlights the various contributions used in the recent literature on networks valuation laws.

  18. Revising China's Environmental Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Zhang, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.; Liu, Wenling; Liu, J.

    2013-01-01

    China's Environmental Protection Law (EPL) is the main national environmental legislative framework. Yet the environmental legal system is incomplete, and implementation and enforcement of environmental laws have shown major shortcomings (1–3). A controversial attempt to revise the EPL could have

  19. Law, Democracy & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolution and implementation of democracy, good governance practices, human rights and socio-economic development are critical issues facing South Africa and Africa as a whole. Law interacts with this process in ways that may promote or inhibit it. Law, Democracy & Development addresses this interaction. Our aim ...

  20. Business Law, Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex; Werlauff, Erik

    be the book within your reach. We call it “Our Corporate Bible”. In an easily comprehendible way we address some of the most essential issues of business law, and provide guidelines and clarity for understanding and proper application of the legal provisions that govern business law in Europe....

  1. Teaching Information Technology Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  2. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and

  3. Benford's Law in Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Benford's law predicts the occurrence of the -th digit of numbers in datasets originating from various sources all over the world, ranging from financial data to atomic spectra. It is intriguing that although many features of Benford's law have been proven, it is still not fully understood mathematically. In this paper we ...

  4. Oromia Law Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Oromia Law Journal covers articles, book reviews, legislative and case comments related to legal, economic, political and social issues arising in relation to Oromia, Ethiopian, and other related International Laws. As such, the journal has two audiences-primary and secondary. The primary ones are legal professionals ...

  5. Model(ing) Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin

    The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was the first and most celebrated of a wave of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) built in the 1990s designed to advance liberalism through international criminal law. Model(ing) Justice examines the case law of the ICTY...

  6. Archives: Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 20 of 20 ... Archives: Mizan Law Review. Journal Home > Archives: Mizan Law Review. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 20 of 20 Items. 2017. Vol 11, No 1 ...

  7. Social Studies: Law Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  8. [Law 6/84: "an inappropriate law"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroco, L E

    1994-01-01

    The intervention of Dr. Luis Elmano Barroco was evaluated at a meeting on March 19, 1994, on the topic of the state of abortion after 10 years of the new abortion law. Some aspects of the law of 1984 are characterized as inappropriate and inadequate because of the experience of the maternity ward of Dr. Alfredo da Costa. It was expected that in the wake of the publication of the law, official health care institutions would provide services for termination of pregnancy in accordance with legal indications. However, a survey carried out by the Association for Family Planning in July 1993 revealed that more than 50% of hospitals did not perform abortions because of the inexistence of specialized services or lack of resources or on grounds of conscientious objection. Even a revision of the abortion law does not take into consideration the fact that before 12 weeks of gestation it is difficult to precisely confirm grave lesions or the physical and psychological state of health of the pregnant woman which could be potentially life threatening. It was not taken into account either that it is impossible to diagnose definitively chromosomal aberrations, severe diseases, and fetal malformation before the 16th week. The law did not contemplate the prevailing socioeconomical conditions either that lead to clandestine abortion with high morbidity and mortality from cervical lesions, uterine perforation, infections, sepsis, and salpingitis. Prenatal diagnosis for eugenic abortion can be carried out by cytogenetic analysis of the amniotic fluid and ecography, but such diagnosis probably amounts to only 30-40% of risk cases in the whole country. A recent study by the Johns Hopkins University indicated that the chance of survival of a child born before 24 weeks is nil, therefore the limit of induced abortion should be extended to the 24th week to facilitate diagnosis of possible genetic abnormalities.

  9. The incorporation of public international law into municipal law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monism and dualism represent two different approaches towards the relationship between public international law and municipal law. While the former views public international law and municipal law as a single legal system, the latter regards these two areas of law as separate and distinct legal systems that exist ...

  10. Placebo and criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerden, Jan C

    2004-01-01

    This article considers issues concerning cases where the use of placebo is lawful or is not lawful under aspects of German criminal law. It will differentiate between cases of individual therapy and cases of supervised experiments within the scope of medical tests. Thereby, it reveals that a medication of placebo with regard to an individual patient seems to be lawful if there is no alternative possibility of a better treatment using a chemically effective medicine and if the limits of presumed consent are complied with. On the other hand, in the context of the supervised experiment, the assignment of a patient to a group treated with placebo is only lawful if the patient has been fully informed about the possibilities of a treatment and if the patient has given consent to it.

  11. Growth laws in cancer: implications for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorina, P; Deisboeck, T S; Gabriele, P; Guiot, C

    2007-09-01

    Comparing the conventional Gompertz tumor growth law (GL) with the "Universal" law (UL), which has recently been proposed and applied to cancer, we have investigated the implications of the growth laws for various radiotherapy regimens. According to the GL, the surviving tumor cell fraction could be reduced ad libitum, independent of the initial tumor mass, simply by increasing the number of treatments. In contrast, if tumor growth dynamics follows the Universal scaling law, there is a lower limit of the surviving fraction that cannot be reduced further regardless of the total number of treatments. This finding can explain the so-called tumor size effect and re-emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis because it implies that radiotherapy may be successful provided that the tumor mass at treatment onset is rather small. Taken together with our previous work, the implications of these findings include revisiting standard radiotherapy regimens and treatment protocols overall.

  12. Law, Democracy & Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Julia Sloth-Nielsen (Professor and Dean of Law, University of the Western Cape) Nico Steytler (Professor of Law and Director, Community Law Centre, University of the Western Cape) Tobias van Reenen (Professor of Law, University of the Western Cape) Riekie Wandrag (Associate Professor of Law, University of the ...

  13. The Practice of Transnational Law

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Contents :"The new law merchant and the global market place" by Klaus Peter Berger, "The CENTRAL enquiry on the use of transnational law in international contract law and arbitration", "The UNIDROIT principles and transnational law" by Michael Joachim Bonell, "Examples for the practical application of transnational law", "The questionnaire and results of the CENTRAL enquiry"

  14. Teaching American Law to French Law Students--in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Allen

    1978-01-01

    Described is the history and academic activity of the program, offered in English, to French law students, at the Center for the Study of English and American Law. The program includes instruction in law, along with English language instruction. (JMD)

  15. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross......-border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law....

  16. Russian Law and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fishman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Faculty of Law of the University of Helsinki is committed to diverse and internationally collaborative approaches to studying various legal systems in the context of comparative law, and UHLS and the Law Faculty of the National Research University, Higher School of Economics have developed an ongoing program to undertake this effort. The original annual conference series on the Development of Russian Law was launched in 2008 as an initiative to further knowledge and critical thinking about Russian law during its period of transition and modernization. The conference is held annually and brings together legal practitioners and scholars from Russia, Finland and elsewhere to discuss important matters of Russian law, legal reform, and legal practice. Prior years’ Conference themes have included discussions of legal reforms, the justice system, the Russian legal profession, human rights, civil and business law, legal policy, rule-of-law and market economy.This year’s program was designed to attract law faculty, scholars from different disciplines, and also practicing lawyers, to address a wide range of topics grouped around the general theme of how the phenomenon and challenges of globalization affect Russian legal system development. The call for papers included: (i Relationships between Russian domestic and international law, (ii The impacts of international legal institutions on the development of Russian law(s, (iii Globalization in the field of business law, (iv Global law & Russian legal theory, (v Regional models of legal cooperation and Russia’s participation, (vi Transnational legal problems in areas such as constitutionalism and rule-of-law, (vii Theoretical and applied implications of the concept of global transplants, and (viii A global human rights agenda, including Russia’s place in this agenda.This was a very ambitious and multi-faceted undertaking. Through a process of careful evaluation, the Conference organizers produced

  17. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  18. Gauging Newton's law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wheeler, James T

    2007-01-01

    .... Applying this principle to Newton's law with the simplest measurement theory leads to Lagrangian mechanics, while use of conformal measurement theory leads to Hamiltonian mechanics.PACS Nos.: 45.20.Jj, 11.25.Hf, 45.10...

  19. Teaching Criminal Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sandy

    1989-01-01

    Presents learning activities and resources for teaching senior level criminal law courses. Topics covered include arrest, search and seizure, bail, trial procedures, sentencing, and prisons. Objective is to encourage students to address societal issues. (LS)

  20. Environmental and energy law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makuch, Karen E; Pereira, Ricardo, Dr

    2012-01-01

    "Environmental & Energy Law attempts to bridge the knowledge gap between legal developments designed to achieve environmental and/or energy-related objectives and the practical, scientific and technical...

  1. The "Natural Law Tradition."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnis, John

    1986-01-01

    A discussion of natural law outlines some of the theory and tradition surrounding it and examines its relationship to the social science and legal curriculum and to the teaching of jurisprudence. (MSE)

  2. European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Teichmann, Christoph

    This fully updated new edition provides the best-known practical overview of the law regarding companies, business activities, and capital markets in Europe, at both the European Union (EU) and Member State levels. It incorporates analysis of recent developments including the impact of global......; - a company’s freedom to incorporate in a jurisdiction not its own; - competition among the legal forms of different Member States; and - safeguarding of employee involvement in cross-border transactions. With respect to national law, the laws of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain...... initiatives in such aspects of the corporate environment as regulation of financial institutions and non-financial reporting obligations with a view to sustainability and other social responsibility concerns. The authors, all leading experts in European corporate law, describe current and emerging trends...

  3. Local equilibrium hypothesis and Taylor’s dissipation law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Susumu [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-8531 (Japan); Vassilicos, J C, E-mail: goto@me.es.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: j.c.vassilicos@imperial.ac.jp [Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    To qualitatively investigate the validity of Kolmogorov local equilibrium hypothesis and the Taylor dissipation law, we conduct direct numerical simulations of the three-dimensional turbulent Kolmogorov flow. Since strong scale-by-scale (i.e. Richardson-type) energy cascade events occur quasi-periodically, the kinetic energy of the turbulence and its dissipation rate evolve quasi-periodically too. In this unsteady turbulence driven by a steady force, instantaneous values of the dissipation rate obey the scaling recently discovered in wind tunnel experiments (Vassilicos 2015 Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 47 95–114) instead of the Taylor dissipation law. The Taylor dissipation law does not hold because the local equilibrium hypothesis does not hold in a relatively low wave-number range. The breakdown of this hypothesis is caused by the finite time needed for the energy at such large scales to reach the dissipative scale by the scale-by-scale energy cascade. (paper)

  4. Euthanasia and criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Pletková, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    71 8. Summary- Euthanasia and criminal law Euthanasia is often regarded as a controversial topic that is being discussed all around the world. The legislative rules differ among the countries to various extent. The scope of this work is to offer a summary of legal regulations in euthanasia, particulary in the area of criminal law and a several examples of these regulations in Europe, USA and Australia. In the first chapter, the term of euthanasia is defined which is necessary for the purpose ...

  5. Constitutionalization of Peruvian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Landa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutionalizaton of Law’s different areas is a phenomenon gradually more ingrained in our cultural and legal framework. Maybe the best demonstration is the increasingly prominent role of the Constitutional Court (TC – Constitution’s Supreme Interpreter – in defining and redefining concepts, rights and legal principles touching a range of subjects, from TaxLaw to Human Rights. This is relevant to understand the Law and its current effects whether it is valued positively or negatively.

  6. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  7. The Constructal Law of ``Designedness'' in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, Adrian

    2008-08-01

    The laws of classical thermodynamics refer to systems as black boxes, without configuration. Nature is different: it has "designedness" everywhere and at all scales (pattern, configuration, rhythm). The generation of configuration is a phenomenon of all physics, and it is covered by the constructal law: for a finite-size flow system to persist in time (to live) it must evolve such that it provides easier access to its currents. The constructal law is predictive across the board, in inanimate, animate and human flow systems. Examples are the scaling laws of all river basins, the speeds and frequencies of all kinds of animal locomotion, and the zipfian distribution of hierarchical city sizes and numbers on the globe. The constructal law accounts for the numerous and often contradictory ad-hoc statements of self-optimization, e.g. minimization and maximization of entropy generation, minimization and maximization of flow resistance, minimization of time and cost, maximization of utility, and the axiom of uniform stresses in animal bones and botanical trees.

  8. Power-law versus log-law in wall-bounded turbulence: A large-eddy simulation perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, W.

    2014-01-29

    The debate whether the mean streamwise velocity in wall-bounded turbulent flows obeys a log-law or a power-law scaling originated over two decades ago, and continues to ferment in recent years. As experiments and direct numerical simulation can not provide sufficient clues, in this study we present an insight into this debate from a large-eddy simulation (LES) viewpoint. The LES organically combines state-of-the-art models (the stretched-vortex model and inflow rescaling method) with a virtual-wall model derived under different scaling law assumptions (the log-law or the power-law by George and Castillo [“Zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer,” Appl. Mech. Rev.50, 689 (1997)]). Comparison of LES results for Re θ ranging from 105 to 1011 for zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer flows are carried out for the mean streamwise velocity, its gradient and its scaled gradient. Our results provide strong evidence that for both sets of modeling assumption (log law or power law), the turbulence gravitates naturally towards the log-law scaling at extremely large Reynolds numbers.

  9. Natural Law And Civil Law in John Locke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hessmann Dalaqua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the relationship between natural law and civil law in John Locke’s philosophy. Although renowned scholars have claimed that such a relationship is deductive, this paper will try to show a different interpretation and argue that the relationship between civil law and natural law is one of determination. Far from being a mere deduction of an immutable natural law, civil law plays a determinative role in natural law. As we shall see, this interpretation highlights something that Locke held in high regard: the deliberative character of natural law. Citizens’ deliberation in the legislature to some extent creates natural law. Citizens are thus free to determine the law, and participating in such a determination is crucial to their political liberty. In this sense, as we shall explain, Locke’s political liberty is akin to republicanism.

  10. Ethics and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Katherine; Jiwani, Bashir; Steele, Duncan

    2017-12-01

    Health care providers' interpretation of law can have intended and unintended effects on health care delivery in Canada. At times, health care providers encounter situations where they perceive the law to conflict with their sense of what is most ethically justified. In many cases, these health care providers feel especially torn because they assume that the legal requirements must dictate the decision, and cannot be explored or questioned. We challenge this assumption: the law is not as cut-and-dried as some assume; therefore, its significance to health care decisions should be carefully considered. Within a systematic ethics process, legal considerations can be a source of values and information and can create opportunities for further dialogue. This approach is justified because it appropriately reflects the relationship of the law to ethics. This way of thinking about the law and ethics also avoids potentially harmful consequences of legalistic approaches to decision-making, such as breakdowns in communication, adversarial relationships, and a reduction of ethically complex decisions to simple rule following.

  11. International Space Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lits

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the modern day technologies that drive our global society are highly dependent on the use of outer space. For example, daily activities such as sending emails, making phone calls and carrying out bank transactions cannot be done unless satellite technologies are involved. When you catch a plane, the air traffic control is dependent on GPS. Even natural disaster management is dependent on satellite imaging. Taking into account the importance of this, it becomes increasingly necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of international law as it is the only sphere of law that reaches beyond the physical boundaries of the Earth, goes deep into space and provides protection for today’s society. With new steps being taken to exploit further the potentials of outer space, and with increasing talk of new space missions and new discoveries, current international space law is being placed under scrutiny, for it should be remembered that the major international legal documents in this field were adopted in the middle of the 20th century, and thus there are fears that the law may have become obsolete, irrelevant in the face of new challenges in the use of outer space. This paper delivers an analysis of existing international space law and attempts to raise several crucial issues pertinent in the area.

  12. Towards a European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII.

  13. Taylor Law in Wind Energy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Calif

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Taylor power law (or temporal fluctuation scaling, is a scaling relationship of the form σ ~  (Pλ where !! is the standard deviation and hPi the mean value of a sample of a time series has been observed for power output data sampled at 5 min and 1 s and from five wind farms and a single wind turbine, located at different places. Furthermore, an analogy with the turbulence field is performed, consequently allowing the establishment of a scaling relationship between the turbulent production IP and the mean value (P.

  14. Statistical analyses support power law distributions found in neuronal avalanches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Klaus

    Full Text Available The size distribution of neuronal avalanches in cortical networks has been reported to follow a power law distribution with exponent close to -1.5, which is a reflection of long-range spatial correlations in spontaneous neuronal activity. However, identifying power law scaling in empirical data can be difficult and sometimes controversial. In the present study, we tested the power law hypothesis for neuronal avalanches by using more stringent statistical analyses. In particular, we performed the following steps: (i analysis of finite-size scaling to identify scale-free dynamics in neuronal avalanches, (ii model parameter estimation to determine the specific exponent of the power law, and (iii comparison of the power law to alternative model distributions. Consistent with critical state dynamics, avalanche size distributions exhibited robust scaling behavior in which the maximum avalanche size was limited only by the spatial extent of sampling ("finite size" effect. This scale-free dynamics suggests the power law as a model for the distribution of avalanche sizes. Using both the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic and a maximum likelihood approach, we found the slope to be close to -1.5, which is in line with previous reports. Finally, the power law model for neuronal avalanches was compared to the exponential and to various heavy-tail distributions based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance and by using a log-likelihood ratio test. Both the power law distribution without and with exponential cut-off provided significantly better fits to the cluster size distributions in neuronal avalanches than the exponential, the lognormal and the gamma distribution. In summary, our findings strongly support the power law scaling in neuronal avalanches, providing further evidence for critical state dynamics in superficial layers of cortex.

  15. Labour Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ole

    9. Inventions by Employees Chapter 10. Settlement of Disputes Part II. Collective Labour Relations Chapter 1. Trade Union Freedom Chapter 2. Trade Unions and Employers’ Associations Chapter 3. Institutionalised Relations between Employers and Employees Chapter 4. Collective Bargaining Chapter 5......Table of Contents: The Author List of Abbreviations General Introduction Chapter 1. General Background Chapter 2. Definitions and Notions Chapter 3. Historical Background Chapter 4. Role of Government Institutions in the Shaping and Administration of Labour and Industrial Relations Policy Chapter 5....... Sources of Labour Law Chapter 6. International Private Labour Law – Conflicts of Law Selected Bibliography Part I. The Individual Employment Relation Chapter 1. Definitions and Concepts Chapter 2. Rights and Duties of the Parties during Employment Chapter 3. Working Time, Annual Holidays, Public Holidays...

  16. The trespasses of property law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify a limit to the appropriate application of property law to the use and storage of bodily material. I argue here that property law ought to be limited to protecting 'contingent rights' and that recent cases where property rights have been recognised in semen represent the application of property law beyond this limit. I also suggest how the law ought to develop in order to avoid the overextensive use of property law.

  17. Hardship in Bulgarian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya TSONEVA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the legal treatment of hardship(change of circumstances in Bulgarian law trying to show where it stands in comparison with other legislations (Germany, England, USA and international legal instruments (Unidroit Principles on International Commercial Contracts and Principles of European Contract Law. An overall picture of the different approaches to hardship is concisely presented. Hardship prerequisites and effects are analyzed with a stress on specific problems identified in some recent Bulgarian court decisions. Attention is drawn to certain. concepts and reasoning in other legal systems that may be helpful to Bulgarian theory and practice when dealing with hardship cases.

  18. Continuing the search for a fundamental law of mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, B.A.; Grahn, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Olshansky, S.J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    For 170 years, scientists have attempted to explain why consistent temporal patterns of death are observed among individuals within populations. Historical efforts to identify a {open_quotes}law of mortality{close_quotes} from these patterns ended in 1935 when it was declared that such a law did not exist. These empirical tests for a law of mortality were constructed using mortality curves based on all causes of death. We predicted that patterns of mortality consistent with the historical concept of a law would be revealed if mortality curves for species were constructed using only senescent causes of death. Using data on senescent mortality for laboratory animals and humans, we demonstrate that patterns of mortality overlap when compared on a biologically comparable time scale. These results are consistent with the existence of a law of mortality following sexual maturity as asserted by Benjamin Gompertz and Raymond Pearl. The societal, medical, and research implications of such a law are discussed.

  19. Continuing the search for a fundamental law of mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, B.A.; Grahn, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Olshansky, S.J. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States)

    1996-03-01

    for 170 years, scientists have attempted to explain why consistent temporal patterns of death are observed among individuals within populations. Historical efforts to identify a `law of mortality` from these patterns ended in 1935 when it was declared that such a law did not exist. These empirical tests for a law of mortality were constructed using mortality curves based on all causes of death. We predicted patterns of mortality consistent with the historical concept of a law would be revealed if mortality curves for species were constructed using only senescent causes of death. Using data on senescent mortality for laboratory animals and humans, we demonstrate patterns of mortality overlap when compared on a biologically comparable time scale. The results are consistent with the existence of a law of mortality following sexual maturity. The societal, medical, and research implications of such a law are discussed.

  20. Conjuring the universe the origins of the laws of nature

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The marvellous complexity of the Universe emerges from several deep laws and a handful of fundamental constants that fix its shape, scale, and destiny. There is a deep structure to the world which at the same time is simple, elegant, and beautiful. Where did these laws and these constants come from? And why are the laws so fruitful when written in the language of mathematics? Peter Atkins considers the minimum effort needed to equip the Universe with its laws and its constants. He explores the origin of the conservation of energy, of electromagnetism, of classical and quantum mechanics, and of thermodynamics, showing how all these laws spring from deep symmetries. The revolutionary result is a short but immensely rich weaving together of the fundamental ideas of physics. With his characteristic wit, erudition, and economy, Atkins sketches out how the laws of Nature can spring from very little. Or arguably from nothing at all.

  1. Regulating Listed Companies: Between Company Law and Financial Market Law in Danish Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nis Jul

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law.......The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law....

  2. Free movement of companies under company law, tax law and EU law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neville, Mette; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2001-01-01

    Free movement of companies whereby they either transfers their de facto head office or their registered office from one member state to another is regulated by both company law, tax law and EU law. The interplay between these areas of law are analysed to determine whether such transfers are posible....

  3. Ranking Visualizations of Correlation Using Weber's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Lane; Yang, Fumeng; Franconeri, Steven; Chang, Remco

    2014-12-01

    Despite years of research yielding systems and guidelines to aid visualization design, practitioners still face the challenge of identifying the best visualization for a given dataset and task. One promising approach to circumvent this problem is to leverage perceptual laws to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of a visualization design. Following previously established methodologies, we conduct a large scale (n=1687) crowdsourced experiment to investigate whether the perception of correlation in nine commonly used visualizations can be modeled using Weber's law. The results of this experiment contribute to our understanding of information visualization by establishing that: (1) for all tested visualizations, the precision of correlation judgment could be modeled by Weber's law, (2) correlation judgment precision showed striking variation between negatively and positively correlated data, and (3) Weber models provide a concise means to quantify, compare, and rank the perceptual precision afforded by a visualization.

  4. Evidence, temperature, and the laws of thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieland, Veronica J

    2014-01-01

    A primary purpose of statistical analysis in genetics is the measurement of the strength of evidence for or against hypotheses. As with any type of measurement, a properly calibrated measurement scale is necessary if we want to be able to meaningfully compare degrees of evidence across genetic data sets, across different types of genetic studies and/or across distinct experimental modalities. In previous papers in this journal and elsewhere, my colleagues and I have argued that geneticists ought to care about the scale on which statistical evidence is measured, and we have proposed the Kelvin temperature scale as a template for a context-independent measurement scale for statistical evidence. Moreover, we have claimed that, mathematically speaking, evidence and temperature may be one and the same thing. On first blush, this might seem absurd. Temperature is a property of systems following certain laws of nature (in particular, the 1st and 2nd Law of Thermodynamics) involving very physical quantities (e.g., energy) and processes (e.g., mechanical work). But what do the laws of thermodynamics have to do with statistical systems? Here I address that question. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...

  6. Setting the Law Straight:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enabulele_&_ Bazuaye

    other State or international organisation can claim protection over such a national for events that occurred within the territory of the State.1 Indeed it is now a rule of practical relevance, following the notable case of Jurisdiction of the Courts of Danzig,. 2 that a State could confer international law benefits on individuals by ...

  7. Panarchy and the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Ruhl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Panarchy theory focuses on improving theories of change in natural and social systems to improve the design of policy responses. Its central thesis is that successfully working with the dynamic forces of complex adaptive natural and social systems demands an active adaptive management regime that eschews optimization approaches that seek stability. This is a new approach to resources management, and yet no new theory of how to do things in environmental and natural resources management, particularly one challenging entrenched ways of doing things and the interests aligned around them, is likely to gain traction in practice if it cannot gain traction in the form of endorsement and implementation through specific laws and regulations. At some point, that bridge must be crossed or the enterprise of putting panarchy theory into panarchy practice will stall. Any effort to operationalize panarchy theory through law thus comes up against the mission of law to provide social stability and the nature of law itself as a complex adaptive system. To state the problem in another way, putting panarchy theory into practice will require adaptively managing the complex adaptive legal system to adaptively manage other complex adaptive natural and social systems, all in a way that maintains some level of social order. Panarchy theorists have yet to develop an agenda for doing so. It is time for lawyers to join the team.

  8. Family Law Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-11

    void ab initio: those which are knowingly bigamous, and those which are "incestuous" (i.e., within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity and...fourth degree of consanguinity ; marriages between parties having a lawful spouse living. § 42.0101. Also, under Samoan custom, women do not marry men

  9. Confidentiality and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealander, Karen A.; Schwiebert, Valerie L.; Oren, Thomas A.; Weekley, Jean L.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces issues surrounding confidentiality in the schools, and the laws that govern and protect students, teachers, and school counselors. Maintains that although impossible for school counselors to be fully aware of all legal principles affecting their work, it is essential that they continually seek to stay abreast of changes in legal and…

  10. Essentials of WTO law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prévost, Denise; Van den Bossche, Peter

    2016-01-01

    At a time when developments in WTO law have made this field increasingly complex, this concise and non-technical introduction provides a timely and carefully considered overview of the substantive rules and institutional arrangements of the WTO. Illustrative examples clarify important issues of the

  11. | Yilma | Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Likewise, the applicability of patent laws to the digital environment and the patentability of software-related inventions are contentious. This article briefly deals with these issues. Also addressed in this article are issues relating to Ethiopias roles in the global Internet governance ecosystem, and the extent to which Ethiopian ...

  12. Law and Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe; Tamm, Ditlev

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to the field of law and literature in Denmark and a legal and literary reading of one of the Western world’s first crime stories, The Pastor of Vejlbye, written by the Danish writer, Steen Steensen Blicher, in 1829. This is a story that is based on a true case...

  13. Constitutionalization of environmental law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Huerta Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how Environmental Law can take intoconsideration some of fundamental rights study categories, by a constitutional point of view, particularly the right to a balanced and appropriate environment recognized in article 2, paragraph 22 of the 1993 Peruvian Constitution in order to develop policies oriented to implementation of constitutional legal status for environment rights and property.

  14. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  15. Competition Law in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Raj; Cynthia Lian; Wen-Ly Chin

    2015-01-01

    There is still some way for Malaysia to go and the lack of merger control (for the foreseeable future) remains a significant shortcoming in the Malaysian competition law regime at this stage. Anand Raj, Cynthia Lian, & Wen-Ly Chin (Shearn Delamore & Co., Kuala Lumpur)

  16. Reforming Ethiopia's Expropriation Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muradu_Abdo

    The state is trying to meet these rising demands through two main routes. The first is through invoking .... population, and they have registered recent economic growth that has enhanced the demand for land which .... investors.16 For example, the predecessor of the Expropriation Proclamation, that is, the expropriation law ...

  17. Does Divorce Law Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Mariotti, Marco; Manzini, Paola; Fella, Giulio

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we derive an explicit model of negotiations between spouses when utility is (partially) transferable only in case of separation. We show that inefficient separation may occur in equilibrium even under consensual divorce law. This provides theoretical support for the view that changes in social norms rather than in legislation may be responsible for increasing divorce rates.

  18. Charles's Law- -The Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgin, CB

    1989-01-01

    Errors in the teaching of the concepts of Charles's Law are traced back through history to a major French physics text published in 1816. Relevant original sources are quoted and remedies are suggested. Five major criticisms are summarized. (Author/CW)

  19. Laws of emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Laws of Emotion is an accessible new book that reviews much of the insightful new research on emotions conducted over the last ten years. It expands on the theory of emotions introduced in Nico Frijda's earlier work, and addresses a number of unanswered, basic problems on emotion theory. The

  20. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  1. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure...

  2. Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review publishes peer reviewed scholarly articles that identify, examine, explore and analyze legal and related principles, stipulations and concepts based on research findings. Mizan's articles aim at interpretation, description, exploration and diagnosis towards the solution of problems (or legal issues) ...

  3. Reforming Ethiopia's Expropriation Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muradu_Abdo

    Reforming Ethiopia's Expropriation Law. Muradu Abdo ♧. Abstract. Ethiopia is increasingly using expropriation as the single most important device to take land particularly from small landholders to supply it to corporate farmers and industrialists with a declared intention of boosting economic growth. This is happening in the ...

  4. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 14, Gases, The Gas Laws, and Absolute Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to gases, gas laws, and absolute temperature. The topics are concerned with the kinetic theory of gases, thermometric scales, Charles' law, ideal gases, Boyle's law, absolute zero, and gas pressures. The…

  5. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  6. Is Law science? | Roos | Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question this contribution sets out to address is whether or not law can be regarded as a science. This notion is readily accepted by many, yet it is submitted that a proper theoretical justification for such an assumption is usually missing. The traditional primary sources of law, South African case law and legislation, ...

  7. Harmonising the Fragmented Law of Transport Through Soft Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G.M. Smeele (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis contribution raises the question of whether it is possible to bridge the divide between the various unimodal regimes and to develop a general law of transport. It explores also the role that soft law, such as in the form of a project to draw up Principles of Transport Contract Law,

  8. Vermont Law School's Unique Master of Studies in Environmental Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suagee, Dean B.

    2003-01-01

    Vermont Law School offers a 1-year master of studies in environmental law for which the only prerequisite is a bachelor's degree. A fellowship program waives tuition and provides stipends for American Indians taking the program. Courses on federal Indian law complement the program. The Native community at nearby Dartmouth College provides social…

  9. The Interplay between international law and labour law in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the interplay between labour law and international law in the context of the diplomatic employment relationship. The overriding effect of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 as supreme law to protect the labour rights of employees is weighed against the effect of various binding ...

  10. International health law : an emerging field of public international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This article discusses the nature and scope of international health law as an emerging field of public international law. It is argued that the protection of health reflects a pressing social need that should now be spoken of in the vocabulary of international law. Furthermore, there is an urgent

  11. Systematic harmonic power laws inter-relating multiple fundamental constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakeres, Donald; Buckhanan, Wayne; Andrianarijaona, Vola

    2017-01-01

    Power laws and harmonic systems are ubiquitous in physics. We hypothesize that 2, π, the electron, Bohr radius, Rydberg constant, neutron, fine structure constant, Higgs boson, top quark, kaons, pions, muon, Tau, W, and Z when scaled in a common single unit are all inter-related by systematic harmonic powers laws. This implies that if the power law is known it is possible to derive a fundamental constant's scale in the absence of any direct experimental data of that constant. This is true for the case of the hydrogen constants. We created a power law search engine computer program that randomly generated possible positive or negative powers searching when the product of logical groups of constants equals 1, confirming they are physically valid. For 2, π, and the hydrogen constants the search engine found Planck's constant, Coulomb's energy law, and the kinetic energy law. The product of ratios defined by two constants each was the standard general format. The search engine found systematic resonant power laws based on partial harmonic fraction powers of the neutron for all of the constants with products near 1, within their known experimental precision, when utilized with appropriate hydrogen constants. We conclude that multiple fundamental constants are inter-related within a harmonic power law system.

  12. Psychoanalysis and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Morris N

    The paper discusses Freud's view of the law as the implementation of collective violence on the individual violator. I focus on the implications of the link between the superego (as the source of moral judgment) and the aggressive drive and suggest that we need to be ever vigilant regarding the danger of employing the law as a disguised means of taking pleasure in collective violence. The paper also discusses Freud's conception of personal responsibility, according to which we are responsible for all our behavior, including unconsciously motivated behavior (such as slips and dreams). However, the kind of responsibility Freud has in mind is not the moral responsibility of blameworthiness or praiseworthiness, but rather responsibility in the sense that, whether or not acknowledged, all our behavior reflects our personal desires and motives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat...... food law does not address the grey area directly. Whereas the responsibility for the prevention or mitigation of food safety risks rests, in principle, with food operators, the main responsibility for the avoidance of non-safety health threats is placed with consumers, who are expected to make informed...... and rational dietary choices on the basis of the food information provided on food labels or generally available in society. In recent years, the EU legislative has shown increased commitment to further empower consumers in pace with the advancement of modern manufacturing and advertising techniques...

  14. Bayes and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes' theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law.

  15. [Euthanasia in Muslim law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud

    2007-09-01

    If a physician accepts to conduct an act of euthanasia or assisted suicide, would it be possible for him to be charged with homicide or even, is patient consent or motivation of the physician, susceptible to change the nature of the criminal act? Since the 1990s, a transformation has occurred in the way of dealing with these questions and figures from the world of philosophy, ethics and law can now be found in favor of euthanasia and assisted suicide. In certain countries, legislation has even been modified to follow this pattern. In consequence, besides the philosophical and ethical dimensions of this issue, it has become necessary to reexamine, even to revise, the notion of responsibility concerning euthanasia in Muslim law from new bases constituted by the doctrine of the Ulemas.

  16. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU......This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat...... food law does not address the grey area directly. Whereas the responsibility for the prevention or mitigation of food safety risks rests, in principle, with food operators, the main responsibility for the avoidance of non-safety health threats is placed with consumers, who are expected to make informed...

  17. Community Notification Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Defense, or the U.S. Government ABSTRACT Speck, Michael Booth; M.S.; Department of Criminal Justice; College of Arts , Humanities, and Social Sciences...Department of Criminal Justice; College of Arts , Humanities, and Social Sciences; North Dakota State University; December 2007. Community Notification Laws...be applied to pedophiles with a long history of sexual offending and should occur concurrently with other treatment therapies ( psychoanalysis and

  18. Ethics and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés

    2007-04-01

    Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

  19. Behavioral Law & Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Nieborak

    2012-01-01

    Issues concerning the regulation aspects of financial markets are not simple. One of the reasons for this is that a great number of detailed factors have an effect, for example, the trust of the consumers of financial services or their behavior. The paper analyses the most important of them, and issues related to them, from a legal point of view, with the main objective of presenting the basic assumptions of the behavioral Law & Economics theorem. Dynamic development of financial markets and ...

  20. Criminal Law Study Guide (Revision)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the Naval Justice School Lawyer Course in Military Criminal Law is to prepare Military attorneys to develop competent legal analyses and Solutions to substantive criminal law problems...

  1. Turning around Newton's Second Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.

  2. The one scale that rules them all

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Jennifer

    2017-05-01

    There are very real constraints on how large a complex organism can grow. This is the essence of all modern-day scaling laws, and the subject of Geoffrey West's provocative new book Scale: the Universal Laws of Life and Death in Organisms, Cities and Companies

  3. Practical Law in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melinda, Ed.

    This book was written for teachers and students as a New Mexico supplement to "Street Law: A Course in Practical Law" (West Publishing Company, 1980), a text used in many high school law classes. The book may also be used as a teacher and student resource for civics, government, and other courses in the high school curriculum, or lay…

  4. Immigration Law & the American Dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrini, Michelle, Ed.; Parins, Claire, Ed.; Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine is designed to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on immigration law and the American Dream. It includes 11 articles: (1) "U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization" (P. Martin; S. Martin)…

  5. Interzones of Law and Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    and sources of authority. On the basis of a historical-conceptual understanding of law according to which law, social structure and metaphysical presumptions are inescapably intertwined, the dissertation derives from the binding provisions of law certain essential features of social order. More precisely...

  6. THE PROPERTIES OF THE STAR-FORMING INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM AT z = 0.8-2.2 FROM HiZELS: STAR FORMATION AND CLUMP SCALING LAWS IN GAS-RICH, TURBULENT DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Theuns, T. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Sobral, D. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Best, P. N. [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH19 3HJ (United Kingdom); Geach, J. E., E-mail: a.m.swinbank@dur.ac.uk [Department of Physics, McGill University, Ernest Rutherford Building, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2012-12-01

    We present adaptive optics assisted integral field spectroscopy of nine H{alpha}-selected galaxies at z = 0.84-2.23 drawn from the HiZELS narrowband survey. Our observations map the kinematics of these star-forming galaxies on {approx}kpc scales. We demonstrate that within the interstellar medium of these galaxies, the velocity dispersion of the star-forming gas ({sigma}) follows a scaling relation {sigma}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sup 1/n} {sub SFR} + constant (where {Sigma}{sub SFR} is the star formation surface density and the constant includes the stellar surface density). Assuming the disks are marginally stable (Toomre Q = 1), this follows from the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation ({Sigma}{sub SFR} = A{Sigma} {sup n} {sub gas}), and we derive best-fit parameters of n = 1.34 {+-} 0.15 and A = 3.4{sup +2.5} {sub -1.6} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}, consistent with the local relation, and implying cold molecular gas masses of M {sub gas} = 10{sup 9-10} M {sub Sun} and molecular gas fractions of M {sub gas}/(M {sub gas} + M {sub *}) = 0.3 {+-} 0.1, with a range of 10%-75%. We also identify 11 {approx}kpc-scale star-forming regions (clumps) within our sample and show that their sizes are comparable to the wavelength of the fastest growing mode. The luminosities and velocity dispersions of these clumps follow the same scaling relations as local H II regions, although their star formation densities are a factor {approx}15 {+-} 5 Multiplication-Sign higher than typically found locally. We discuss how the clump properties are related to the disk, and show that their high masses and luminosities are a consequence of the high disk surface density.

  7. Internationalization of law globalization, international law and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dias Varella, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an overview of how international law is today constructed through diverse macro and microprocesses that expand its traditional subjects and sources, with the attribution of sovereign capacity and power to the international plane (moving the international toward the national). Simultaneously, national laws approximate laws of other nations (moving among nations or moving the national toward the international) and new sources of legal norms emerge, independent of states and international organisations. This expansion occurs in many subject areas, with specific structures: commercial, environmental, human rights, humanitarian, financial, criminal and labor law contribute to the formation of post national law with different modes of functioning, different actors and different sources of law that should be understood as a new complexity of law.

  8. An Economics-Based Second Law Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Lienhard

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Second Law efficiency is a useful parameter for characterizing the energy requirements of a system in relation to the limits of performance prescribed by the Laws of Thermodynamics. However, since energy costs typically represent less than 50% of the overall cost of product for many large-scale plants (and, in particular, for desalination plants, it is useful to have a parameter that can characterize both energetic and economic effects. In this paper, an economics-based Second Law efficiency is defined by analogy to the exergetic Second Law efficiency and is applied to several desalination systems. It is defined as the ratio of the minimum cost of producing a product divided by the actual cost of production. The minimum cost of producing the product is equal to the cost of the primary source of energy times the minimum amount of energy required, as governed by the Second Law. The analogy is used to show that thermodynamic irreversibilities can be assigned costs and compared directly to non-energetic costs, such as capital expenses, labor and other operating costs. The economics-based Second Law efficiency identifies costly sources of irreversibility and places these irreversibilities in context with the overall system costs. These principles are illustrated through three case studies. First, a simple analysis of multistage flash and multiple effect distillation systems is performed using available data. Second, a complete energetic and economic model of a reverse osmosis plant is developed to show how economic costs are influenced by energetics. Third, a complete energetic and economic model of a solar powered direct contact membrane distillation system is developed to illustrate the true costs associated with so-called free energy sources.

  9. The Fractal Universe: From the Planck to the Hubble Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Sidharth, B. G.

    1999-01-01

    We examine the fractal structure of the physical universe from the large scale to the smallest scale, including the phenomenon of fractal scaling. This is explained in terms of a stochastic underpinning for the laws of physics. A picture in pleasing agreement with experiment and observation at all scales emerges, very much in the spirit of Wheeler's "Law Without Law". It is argued that our depiction of the universe is akin to a broad brush delineation of a jagged coastline, the Compton wavele...

  10. Visiting Power Laws in Cyber-Physical Networking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-physical networking systems (CPNSs are made up of various physical systems that are heterogeneous in nature. Therefore, exploring universalities in CPNSs for either data or systems is desired in its fundamental theory. This paper is in the aspect of data, aiming at addressing that power laws may yet be a universality of data in CPNSs. The contributions of this paper are in triple folds. First, we provide a short tutorial about power laws. Then, we address the power laws related to some physical systems. Finally, we discuss that power-law-type data may be governed by stochastically differential equations of fractional order. As a side product, we present the point of view that the upper bound of data flow at large-time scaling and the small one also follows power laws.

  11. Development and validation of the Family Law DOORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Jennifer E; Wells, Yvonne; Lee, Jamie

    2016-11-01

    When former spouses experience distress and dispute following separation, risks to well-being and to safety are heightened for all family members. Reliable family-wide risk screening is essential. The Family Law DOORS (Detection of Overall Risk Screen) is a 3-part screening framework to assist identification, evaluation, and response to safety and well-being risks in separated families. Uniquely, the Family Law DOORS screens for victimization and perpetration risks and appraises infant and child developmental risk. The Family Law DOORS self-report screening tool is the subject of this report. Internal scale reliability and concurrent and external criterion validity for the Family Law DOORS were estimated with a community sample of 660 separated parents, including 181 mother-father pairs. Overall psychometric properties are strong and demonstrate good potential for the Family Law DOORS to support early risk detection for separating families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. In search of late time evolution self-similar scaling laws of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov hydrodynamic instabilities - recent theorical advance and NIF Discovery-Science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvarts, Dov

    2017-10-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities, and the mixing that they cause, are of crucial importance in describing many phenomena, from very large scales such as stellar explosions (supernovae) to very small scales, such as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. Such mixing causes the ejection of stellar core material in supernovae, and impedes attempts at ICF ignition. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) occurs at an accelerated interface between two fluids with the lower density accelerating the higher density fluid. The Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability occurs when a shock wave passes an interface between the two fluids of different density. In the RTI, buoyancy causes ``bubbles'' of the light fluid to rise through (penetrate) the denser fluid, while ``spikes'' of the heavy fluid sink through (penetrate) the lighter fluid. With realistic multi-mode initial conditions, in the deep nonlinear regime, the mixing zone width, H, and its internal structure, progress through an inverse cascade of spatial scales, reaching an asymptotic self-similar evolution: hRT =αRT Agt2 for RT and hRM =αRM tθ for RM. While this characteristic behavior has been known for years, the self-similar parameters αRT and θRM and their dependence on dimensionality and density ratio have continued to be intensively studied and a relatively wide distribution of those values have emerged. This talk will describe recent theoretical advances in the description of this turbulent mixing evolution that sheds light on the spread in αRT and θRM. Results of new and specially designed experiments, done by scientists from several laboratories, were performed recently using NIF, the only facility that is powerful enough to reach the self-similar regime, for quantitative testing of this theoretical advance, will be presented.

  13. Russian Contract Law for Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shirvindt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The book by Maria Efremova, Svetlana Yakovleva and Jane Henderson aims to serve as a short introduction to Russian contract law for a foreign lawyer. Assuming that the target readership are mainly English lawyers the book’s second aim, expressly stated by the authors (pp. i, 1, is to make lawyers from common law countries familiar with codified law, with Russian law being just an example. The book covers most of the general law of obligations as well as some questions of formation and invalidity of contracts that belong to the general part of the Civil Сode, with this preceded by a brief introduction into the Russian law dealing with its history, federal structure and state agencies of Russia, its court system, sources of law and legal profession.

  14. Challenges imposed by International Environmental Law to Classical International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Augusto Cárdenas Castañeda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of international environmental law has produced important challenges to the very foundations of public international law. Traditional concepts such as state sovereignty, subjects of international law, and the early perspectives of national security are being transformed. The needs of the contemporary international society differ from the ones of the Wesphalian conception, situations which clearly explains the raise of alternative views for the understanding of the current dynamics of international law, where concepts like res communis, common concerns and simply “commons” take a privileged place in the study of international law. The foregoing has been strengthened by the international development of the so called erga ommnes obligations, label which is being used by international environmental law as the perfect explanation of its own existence. This academic article presents and studies the abovementioned concepts trying to compare what international law used to be before the emergence of international environmental law and what it is and what it should be in order to attend the developments and challenges imposed by the contemporary international society, particularly by international environmental law, a new fi eld of the corpus juris of public international law.

  15. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  16. The Delinquencies of Juvenile Law: A Natural Law Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Washington

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a substantive analysis tracing the legal, philosophical, social, historical, jurisprudence and political backgrounds of juvenile law, which is an outgrowth of the so-calledProgressive movement - a popular social and political movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. I also trace how this socio-political cause célèbre became a fixture in Americanculture and society due to existential child labor abuses which progressive intellectuals used as a pretext to codify juvenile law in federal law and in statutory law in all 50 states by 1925. Moreover the dubious social science and Machiavellian political efforts that created the juvenile justice system out of whole cloth has done much more harm to the Constitution and to the children it was mandated to protect than any of the Progressive ideas initially envisioned rooted in Positive Law (separation of law and morals. Finally, I present am impassioned argument for congressional repeal of all juvenile case law and statutes because they are rooted in Positive Law, contrary to Natural Law (integration of law and morals, the original intent of the constitutional Framers and are therefore patently unconstitutional.

  17. Post Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2016-01-01

    The value of developing hybrid international criminal procedure (ICP) is that it is arguably inclusive (representing two major legal traditions) and distinct from any domestic system, thus creating a separate, sui generis realm for international criminal law (ICL) jurists to meet. Since its...... addresses the practice of hybridity in ICP, drawing examples from the construction and evolution of hybrid procedure at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), to argue that the hybridity practiced by international criminal tribunals renders them ‘post rule of law’ institutions...

  18. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  19. Spatiality of environmental law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse; Hvingel, Line

    2015-01-01

    will determine the interplay between geographic data and technology in the fields of environmental legislation, environmental policy and environmental management. This article examines the legal regulation of spatial information as established by the inspire directive, on one hand, and on the other hand......, examines legal regulation as spatial information. It aims to deepen the understanding of spatiality as a core element of environmental law, and to connect it to the basic concept of representation used in giscience. It concludes that the future path for e-Government demands a shift in legal paradigm, from...

  20. Epilepsy and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2008-05-01

    Epilepsy can define who one is rather than the diagnosis one has. It may be considered under the rubric of disability with legislative protection against discrimination. Those seeking remedy should investigate alternative dispute resolution in preference to litigation. Many areas of the life of a person with epilepsy deserve examination when considering epilepsy and law. Just some of these include: duty of care; informed consent; driving; research; social interactions; insurance; recreational pursuits; employment; and privacy. This article examines the legal implications and ramifications of these selected topics, acknowledging that the limited scope of the article has only exposed the tip of the iceberg to encourage further exploration.

  1. Invariant Laws of Thermodynamics and Validity of Hasenöhrl Mass-Energy Equivalence Formula m = (4/3) E/c2 at Photonic, Electrodynamic, and Cosmic Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrab, Siavash

    2017-01-01

    According to a scale-invariant statistical theory of fields electromagnetic photon mass is given as mem , k =√{ hk /c3 } . Since electromagnetic energy of photon is identified as amu =√{ hkc } , all baryonic matter is composed of light (photons) Eem = Nmem , kc2 =Mem , kc2 [ Joule ] or equivalently Mem , kc2 / 8338 [ kcal ] = Namu =Ma [ kg ] where 8338 is De Pretto number. Besides particle electromagnetic energy one requires potential energy associated with Poincaré stress for particle stability leading to rest enthalpy \\hcirco =\\ucirco +po \\vcirc =\\ucirco +\\ucirco / 3 = (4 / 3)mem , kc2 in accordance with Hasenöhrl. The 4/3 problem of electrodynamics (T. H. Boyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1982) is also related to Poincaré stress thus the potential energy po \\vcirc =\\ucirco / 3 . Hence, the factor 4/3 is identified as Poisson polytropic index b =cp /cv and total particle rest mass will be composed of electromagnetic and gravitational parts mo =mem +mgr = (3 / 4) Eo /c2 + (1 / 4) Eo /c2 . At cosmological scale, respectively 3/4 and 1/4 of the total mass of closed universe will be electromagnetic (dark energy) and gravitational (dark matter) in nature as was emphasized by Pauli (Theory of Relativity, Dover, 1958). Also, Poincaré-Lorentz dynamic versus Einstein kinematic theory of relativity will be discussed.

  2. DELIBERATING THE RULE OF LAW AND CONSTITUTIONAL SUPREMACY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE FACTUAL DIMENSION OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koos Malan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Positive law is two-dimensional: it has a justice (or ideal dimension (and requisite and a factual (or real dimension (and requisite. Both are essential. Hence positive law lapses when either of the two is absent. In terms of the factual requisite, law remains in place as actual norms of law (unlike mere norm-formulations, provided that a minimum degree of effectiveness is maintained; that is to say, only as long as the subjects of the law consistently and voluntarily act in accordance with such norm/s, and provided further that deviant conduct is remedied by effective coercive measures. "Norm/s" that lose the factual dimension lapse into mere norm-formulations and no longer qualify as positive law. Thus viewed, a realistic grasp of the content of law is co-dependent on actual conduct, regardless of what the norm-formulations purport positive law to entail, because the norm-formulations may have lost track of the actual state of the law. Grasping the actual content of law, including constitutional law, therefore requires not only analysing the norm-formulations of the formally recognised sources of the law, but more specifically social and political observation which may reveal the following: (1\tactual behaviour that closely corresponds with a legal norm-formulation, in which case the formulations reliably happen to reflect (and by implication to describe the actual state of law; or (2\tconduct that regularly deviates from the norm-formulations (usus by the deviators who deem themselves legally bound to act as they are acting (opinio iuris, in which case new (substituting law has in fact come into being, without such substituting law being reflected in a new (amended norm-formulation; or (3\tlarge-scale but inconsistent and irregular deviant conduct where the deviators do not consider themselves legally bound to act in the various deviant ways, combined with haphazard enforcement, thus allowing deviators to get away with their transgressions

  3. Is Benford’s Law a Universal Behavioral Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia B. Villas-Boas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the question and present evidence as to whether or not Benford’s exponential first significant digit (FSD law reflects a fundamental principle behind the complex and nondeterministic nature of large-scale physical and behavioral systems. As a behavioral example, we focus on the FSD distribution of Australian micro income data and use information theoretic entropy methods to investigate the degree that corresponding empirical income distributions are consistent with Benford’s law.

  4. Environmental law. 2. rev. ed.; Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyerholt, Ulrich

    2007-07-01

    The author of the book under consideration describes the environment law in a well readable and systematic form. By means of this book the reader is to be able to understand and arrange environmental-legal questions. The book consists of the following sections: (a) Denotation of the environment law; (b) Fundamentals of the legal order and the application of law; (c) Environmental constitutional law; (d) Principles of the environment law; (e) Instruments in the environment law; (f) Environmental private law; (g) Environmental criminal law; (h) Legal protection questions in the public environment law; (i) Environmental European right; (j) Environmental international law; (k) Pollution control law; (l) Water legislation; (m)Soil conservation law; (n) Recycling law and waste management law; (o) Nature conservation law; (p) Law of hazardous materials.

  5. Mexican renewable electricity law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C. [Institute of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Edificio 12 Bernardo Quintana, Piso 3, Cubiculo 319, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  6. Generalized Kirchhoff law

    CERN Document Server

    Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Brucoli, Giovanni; Sakat, Emilie; Marquier, François

    2016-01-01

    Thermal emission can be conveniently described using Kirchhoff law which states that the emissivity is equal to the absorptivity for isothermal bodies. For a finite size system, absorptivity is replaced by an absorption cross section. Here, we study the link between thermal emission and absorption by a finite size object which is not isothermal. We define a local absorption rate for a given incident plane wave and we prove that it is equal to the local emissivity rate. Hence, Kirchhoff law can be extended to anisothermal media. A practical consequence is the possibility of analysing thermal radiation by a variety of non-equilibrium systems such as microwave radiation in geophysical remote sensing or X-UV radiation by plasmas. This result provides a theoretical framework to analyse thermal emission by hot electrons in quantum wells, tunnel junctions or graphene. It paves the way to the design of a new generation of incandescent emitters made of subwavelength hot emitters coupled to cold antennas. The antennas ...

  7. A constitutive law for degrading bioresorbable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samami, Hassan; Pan, Jingzhe

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a constitutive law that predicts the changes in elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio and ultimate tensile strength of bioresorbable polymers due to biodegradation. During biodegradation, long polymer chains are cleaved by hydrolysis reaction. For semi-crystalline polymers, the chain scissions also lead to crystallisation. Treating each scission as a cavity and each new crystal as a solid inclusion, a degrading semi-crystalline polymer can be modelled as a continuum solid containing randomly distributed cavities and crystal inclusions. The effective elastic properties of a degrading polymer are calculated using existing theories for such solid and the tensile strength of the degrading polymer is predicted using scaling relations that were developed for porous materials. The theoretical model for elastic properties and the scaling law for strength form a complete constitutive relation for the degrading polymers. It is shown that the constitutive law can capture the trend of the experimental data in the literature for a range of biodegradable polymers fairly well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. JUDICIAL PRECEDENT, A LAW SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The role awarded to judge varies from one legal system to another. In the Anglo-Saxon legal systems, there is not a self-standing legislative body, so the judge is the one who creates the law; his mission consists in solving a specific case, given the existing judicial precedents; if he cannot find an appropriate rule of law, he has to develop one and to apply it. In the continental system, creation of law is the mission of the legislature, so the creative role of jurisprudence still raises controversy. Evolving under the influence of Roman law, the continental law systems differ from the Anglo-Saxon by: the continuous receiving of Corpus iuris civilis; the tendency to abstraction, leading to the creation of a rational law; the rule of law, with the consequence of blurring the role of jurisprudence. Underlining the creative force of jurisprudence, Vladimir Hanga wrote: "The law remains in its essence abstract, but the appreciation of the jurisprudence makes it alive, as the judge, understanding the law, taking into account the interests of parties and taking inspiration from equity, ensures the ultimate purpose of the law: suum cuique tribuere”.

  9. Law Enforcement Proxies Matter for the Law and Finance Nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Toci; Iraj Hashi

    2013-01-01

    The paper employs various measures of law enforcement to provide new evidence on the importance of legal institutions for different dimensions of financial development in transition economies. It offers a critical assessment of law enforcement measures employed in recent studies by showing that some proxies for law enforcement in the credit market may not be appropriate. Hence, care should be taken in how the quality of institutions is measured and the context which it represents. An original...

  10. Interdisciplinary Success Of Law And Economy: Economic Analysis Of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Barković

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis of law defines as an application of economic theory and economic methods in studies of forming, structure, process and influence of the law and legal institution. Although many comment that it is the question of a new scientific discipline or contemporary intellectual movement, the economic analysis of law reaches even the classics of economic thought Adam Smith and David Hume but the real recognition of the analysis was the publishing of the famous article of Ronald Coase (1960 “Problem of Public Expense” . Here he discusses how the incentives for damage reduction and various negativities come from the allocation of property rights. The aim of this work is to present an economic analysis of law as an interdisciplinary success of two great fields – law and economy, i.e. to present the way on which economy helps to understand law in a new way. Realizing it, the economy uses mathematically precise theories (e.g. price theory, game theory etc. and empirically firm methods (statistics and econometrically to analyse the impact of prices, i.e. of sanctions on behaviour. The article shows basic economic analyses of law which especially cite the contract law and balance law.

  11. The Influence of Byzantine Law on Serbian Mediaeval Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan Šarkić

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Serbian law had being developed from the early 13th century under the direct influence of Byzantine law. Serbian lawyers adopted the Byzantine law in the form of translation of Byzantine legal compilations. The first of them was Nomokanon of Saint Sava of 1219 which contained ecclesiastical rules together with canonist’s glosses, a translation of part of Justinian’s Novels and the whole of the Procheiron of Basil I. In 1349-1354 Serbian lawyers created a special Codex Tripartitus, codifying both Serbian and Byzantine law. The Russian scholar T. Florinsky noticed this in 1888, pointing out that in the oldest manuscripts Dušan’s Code is always accompanied by two other compilations of Byzantine law: the abbreviated Syntagma of Matheas Blastar and the so-called Justinian’s Law. Beside the translations of Byzantine legal miscellanies, Serbian lawyers adopted a great number of the institutes of Roman law. However, Serbian lawyers were not educated in Bologna, so that Roman law was adopted in an indirect way, i.e. through Greek (Byzantine translations, not from original Latin texts. Dušan’s Code as the most important legal source of mediaeval Serbian law borrowed about 60 articles directly from the Basilica: articles 171 and 172 are the most important of them.

  12. Beyond the Hubble's Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nilton Penha Silva

    2017-01-01

      Based on the Universe's scale factor introduced by Silva [1], we derive an expression for the receding velocities of arbitrary astronomical objects, which increase linearly up to the lookback distance of 2.1 × 10^sup 3...

  13. Energy laws in human travel behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölbl, Robert; Helbing, Dirk

    2003-05-01

    We show that energy concepts can contribute to the understanding of human travel behaviour. First, the average journey times for different modes of transport are inversely proportional to the energy consumption rates measured for the respective human physical activities. Second, when daily travel-time distributions for different modes of transport such as walking, cycling, bus or car travel are appropriately scaled, they turn out to have a universal functional relationship. This corresponds to a canonical-like energy distribution with exceptions for short trips, which can be theoretically explained. Combined, this points to a law of constant average energy consumption for the physical activity of daily travel. Applying these natural laws could help to improve long-term urban and transport planning.

  14. Wavelets, vibrations and scalings

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Yves

    1997-01-01

    Physicists and mathematicians are intensely studying fractal sets of fractal curves. Mandelbrot advocated modeling of real-life signals by fractal or multifractal functions. One example is fractional Brownian motion, where large-scale behavior is related to a corresponding infrared divergence. Self-similarities and scaling laws play a key role in this new area. There is a widely accepted belief that wavelet analysis should provide the best available tool to unveil such scaling laws. And orthonormal wavelet bases are the only existing bases which are structurally invariant through dyadic dilations. This book discusses the relevance of wavelet analysis to problems in which self-similarities are important. Among the conclusions drawn are the following: 1) A weak form of self-similarity can be given a simple characterization through size estimates on wavelet coefficients, and 2) Wavelet bases can be tuned in order to provide a sharper characterization of this self-similarity. A pioneer of the wavelet "saga", Meye...

  15. Power Law Inflation with Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Xianghui

    2012-01-01

    We generalize Ringstr\\"om's global future causal stability results (Ringstr\\"om 2009) for certain expanding cosmological solutions of the Einstein-scalar field equations to solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell-scalar field system. In particular, after noting that the power law inflationary spacetimes $(M^{n+1}, \\hat{g}, \\hat{\\phi})$ considered by Ringstr\\"om in Ringstr\\"om (2009) are solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell-scalar field system (with exponential potential) as well as of the Einstein-scalar field system (with the same exponential potential), we consider (nonlinear) perturbations of initial data sets of these spacetimes which include electromagnetic perturbations as well as gravitational and scalar perturbations. We show that if (as in Ringstr\\"om, 2009) we focus on pairs of relatively scaled open sets $U_{R_0} \\subset U_{4R_0}$ on an initial slice of $(M^{n+1}, \\hat{g})$, and if we choose a set of perturbed data which on $ U_{4R_0}$ is sufficiently close to that of $(M^{n+1}, \\hat{g},\\hat{\\phi},\\hat{A}=0...

  16. Statistical laws for career longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander; Jung, Woo-Sung; Yang, Jae-Suk; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2009-03-01

    Career length distinguishes successful long tenures from unsuccessful short stints, and partially reflects the contributions of an employee to the goals of the employer. In some professions, there are well-defined metrics that quantify career longevity, prowess, and productivity, which together contribute to the overall success rating for an individual employee. In this talk, I motivate a stochastic model for career development that relies on two key ingredients, random progress within the career and random stopping times terminating the career. This model is exactly solvable, predicting the probability density function (pdf) of career longevity, characterized by two parameters, α and xc. The parameter α quantifies the power-law scaling of the pdf, which is terminated by an exponential cutoff after a crossover value xc, representing the mean career lifetime. We test the model with the large quantity of empirical data available for several professional sports leagues, American baseball, Korean baseball, American basketball, and English soccer, finding excellent agreement with the model's predictions. In all, the generality of the model suggests that there may be common stochastic forces that underly progress, success, and longevity in various professions.

  17. Interzones of Law and Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    The dissertation analyzes a contemporary battlefield of law, the field of EU social rights, from a political-philosophical point of view. It is the conviction of the dissertation that law is deeply and inescapably conceptually connected with fundamental features of social order. The interrelations...... between the two do not merely concern the rights and obligations explicitly laid down in the law, but fundamental presumptions regarding the nature of human beings, overall purposes of social order, hierarchical and dynamic features of society and the possibility at all of regulation, its logics...... and sources of authority. On the basis of a historical-conceptual understanding of law according to which law, social structure and metaphysical presumptions are inescapably intertwined, the dissertation derives from the binding provisions of law certain essential features of social order. More precisely...

  18. Globalization, Inequality & International Economic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Garcia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available International law in general, and international economic law in particular, to the extent that either has focused on the issue of inequality, has done so in terms of inequality between states. Largely overlooked has been the topic of inequality within states and how international law has influenced that reality. From the perspective of international economic law, the inequality issue is closely entwined with the topics of colonialism and post-colonialism, the proper meaning of development, and globalization. While international economic law has undoubtedly contributed to the rise of inequality, it is now vital that the subject of international economic law be examined for how it may contribute to the lessening of inequality. To do so will require a shift in the way that we think, in order to address inequality as a problem of an emerging global market society, and how best to regulate that society and its institutions.

  19. Interzones of Law and Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    between the two do not merely concern the rights and obligations explicitly laid down in the law, but fundamental presumptions regarding the nature of human beings, overall purposes of social order, hierarchical and dynamic features of society and the possibility at all of regulation, its logics......The dissertation analyzes a contemporary battlefield of law, the field of EU social rights, from a political-philosophical point of view. It is the conviction of the dissertation that law is deeply and inescapably conceptually connected with fundamental features of social order. The interrelations...... and sources of authority. On the basis of a historical-conceptual understanding of law according to which law, social structure and metaphysical presumptions are inescapably intertwined, the dissertation derives from the binding provisions of law certain essential features of social order. More precisely...

  20. Feminism, law, and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, K H

    1996-03-01

    Feminist legal theory provides a healthy skepticism toward legal doctrine and insists that we reexamine even formally gender-neutral rules to uncover problematic assumptions behind them. The article first outlines feminist legal theory from the perspectives of liberal, cultural, and radical feminism. Examples of how each theory influences legal practice, case law, and legislation are highlighted. Each perspective is then applied to a contemporary bioethical issue, egg donation. Following a brief discussion of the common themes shared by feminist jurisprudence, the article incorporates a narrative reflecting on the integration of the common feminist themes in the context of the passage of the Maryland Health Care Decisions Act. The article concludes that gender does matter and that an understanding of feminist legal theory and practice will enrich the analysis of contemporary bioethical issues.

  1. Law and Intergenerational Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Israel; Lowenstein, Ariela; Biggs, Simon

    2017-03-01

    In any aging society, the sociolegal construction of intergenerational relationships is of great importance. This study conducts an international comparison of a specific judicial issue: whether active labor unions have the legal right to strike for the purpose of improving the benefits given to nonactive workers (specifically, pensioners). A comparative case law methodology was used. The texts of three different Supreme Court cases-in the United States, Canada, and Israel-were analyzed and compared. Despite the different legal outcomes, all three court rulings reflect a disregard of known and relevant social gerontology theories of intergenerational relationships. Social gerontological theories can play an important role in both understanding and shaping judicial policies and assisting the courts in choosing their sociojudicial narratives.

  2. International Criminal Law & Its Paradoxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2017-01-01

    This article challenges international criminal tribunals' (ICTs) capacity to perform the socially constitutive work of transitional justice. Highlighting paradigmatic ICT jurisprudence, it shows both the "progress" and "justice" constructs central to the work and legitimacy of international...... criminal law are unrealizable under current ICT practice. This is due to international criminal law's foundational, legitimizing basis in natural law, rather than political liberalism. The article calls for a revision of ICT institutional accountability structures....

  3. International Law and Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    an armed attack or actions pursuant to a Chapter VII, Article 42, mandate. 72. See, e.g., HANS KELSEN , COLLECTIVE SECURITY UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW...88 (1957) (Vol. 49, US Naval War College International Law Studies); see also Hans Kelsen , Collective Secu- rity and Collective Self-Defense under the...championed by such epic figures as Hans Morgenthau and George Kennan, is that international law is "epiphenomenal" ( [that is,] stupid). The classical

  4. Divorce laws and fertility decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Bellido, Héctor; Marcén, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of divorce law reforms on fertility. By modifying the value of marriage, the introduction of divorce law reforms may impact fertility decisions. To identify the effects of those reforms on fertility, we use a quasi-experiment exploiting the legislative history of divorce liberalization across Europe. Results suggest that divorce law reforms have a negative and permanent effect on fertility. Divorce reforms decreased the Total Fertility Rate by about 0.2. The mag...

  5. Corporate Mobility and Company Law

    OpenAIRE

    Ferran, Eilís

    2016-01-01

    Globalisation has given commercial parties more freedom to choose the company law system that best suits their private needs. The growing range of techniques to facilitate choice between systems of company law reshapes the mandatory/enabling debate in countries where corporate mobility is a relatively new business phenomenon and where the past focus has mostly been on degrees of flexibility within domestic law. This article examines relocations, both out of and into the UK, as a source of lea...

  6. Virginia Principals and School Law

    OpenAIRE

    Brabrand, Scott Sorensen

    2003-01-01

    Virginia Principals and School Law Scott S. Brabrand (ABSTRACT) This study sought to determine Virginia Public School principalsâ knowledge of school law as it related to the type, length/quantity, and recency of law preparation they received. Other variables measured included how their level of knowledge was associated with their length of administrative experience and with their description of the school community in which they worked. An on-line survey instrument wa...

  7. Criminal law in the Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikov, G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Old Testament criminal law, especially its moralizing attitude to state and private violence, crime and punishment, can be ranked among the most important sources of Medieval and Modern jurisprudence. The article analyses basic cultural preconditions of the formation and evolution of Judeo-Christian legal theory, peculiarities of criminological thinking in Judaism and Christianity, causes and effects of the fundamental ties between religion and law in traditional societies, and possible convergence of Mosaic and Modern criminal law.

  8. Practical concepts in Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan, zarrokh

    2008-01-01

    A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. Contract law is based on the Latin phrase pacta sunt servanda (literally, promises must be kept) [1]. Breach of a contract is recognised by the law and remedies can be provided. Almost everyone makes contracts everyday. Sometimes written contracts are required, e.g., when buying a house [2]. However the vast majority of contracts can be and are made orally, like buying a law text book,...

  9. The law of international organisations

    CERN Document Server

    White, Nigel D

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a concise account of the principles and norms of international law applicable to the main-type of international organisation - the inter-governmental organisation (IGO). That law consists of principles and rules found in the founding documents of IGOs along with applicable principles and rules of international law. The book also identifies and analyses the law produced by IGOs, applied by them and, occasionally, enforced by them. There is a concentration upon the United Nations, as the paradigmatic IGO, not only upon the UN organisation headquartered in New York, but on other IGOs in the UN system (the specialised agencies such as the World Health Organisation).

  10. European Law in the Making:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    the legal service of the High Authority from early on promoted a ‘constitutional’ interpretation of European law, but where the member state, as well as most legal experts, still considered European law a subset of international law. How did the Court of Justice of the ECSC manoeuvre between...... on European law in the making.......Traditionally, the Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) has mainly been considered the somewhat dull predecessor to the more famous Court of Justice of the European Communities, which in 1963-64 ‘constitutionalised’ the Treaties of Rome with the seminal judgments of Van...

  11. Simulating the Law: Experiential "Teachniques" in the Modern Law Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Yvonne; Higgins, Noelle

    2010-01-01

    The concept of arguing aspects of legal scenarios in order to facilitate student learning within the law curriculum originated in the vocational Inns of Court in fourteenth-century England. Nowadays, simulations of court proceedings, such as moot courts and mock trials, are widely employed as educational tools in law modules in third-level…

  12. MUSLIM PERSONAL LAW AND THE MEANING OF "LAW" IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Two percent of the total population of South Africa consists of Muslims2 who follow a practice which may be referred to as Muslim personal law. Although section 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa3 recognises religious freedom and makes provision for the future recognition of other personal law systems, ...

  13. Distinguishing Between Private Law and Social-Security Law in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dmillard

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/pelj.v14i4.9. ISSN 1727-3781. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN PRIVATE LAW AND SOCIAL-SECURITY LAW IN. DEDUCTING SOCIAL GRANTS FROM CLAIMS FOR LOSS OF SUPPORT. 2011 VOLUME 14 No 4. Author: L Steynberg and D Millard ...

  14. Ohm's Law, Kirchoff's Law and the Drunkard's Walk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. Ohm's Law, Kirchoff's Law and the Drunkard's Walk Related Electrical Networks. Rahul Roy. General Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 36-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Ohm's Law, Kirchoff's Law and the Drunkard's Walk The Drunkard's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 12. Ohm's Law, Kirchoff's Law and the Drunkard's Walk The Drunkard's Walk. Rahul Roy. General Article Volume 2 Issue 12 December 1997 pp 33-38. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Distinguishing Between Private Law and Social-Security Law in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dmillard

    relevant, as in the facts of the two conflicting decisions under discussion. With this theoretical background of the applicable principles of private law and social- security law in mind, the next paragraph takes a look at the two conflicting decisions in Makhuvela v Road Accident Fund. 47 and Road Accident Fund v Timis. 48. 3.

  17. Ogba Philosophy of Human Positive Law UA Dike Introduction Laws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    findings were based on them. Introduction. Laws which regulate the society are very important social instruments and as such must be placed in its proper place to fulfill its ends; they must not only have positive foundations but sound ethical ground (Iwe, 1978). Ogba philosophy of law is inspired as such and founded on the ...

  18. Distinguishing Between Private Law and Social-Security Law in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article attempts to highlight the potential danger in applying private-law principles to social-security law in deciding whether or not social grants should be deducted from awards for damages. Typically, this issue comes to the fore where a damage-causing event, such as death, sets into motion a system that provides for ...

  19. Book Review: Aboriginal Customary Law: A Source of Common Law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Aboriginal Customary Law: A Source of Common Law Title to Land. Book Author: U Secher. (2014 Hart Publishing Oxford and Portland Oregon) ISBN 978-1-84946-553-3. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  20. The fractal harmonic law and its application to swimming suit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Hai-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing friction force between a swimming suit and water is the key factor to design swimming suits. Water continuum mechanics forbids discontinuous fluids, but in angstrom scale water is indeed discontinuous. Swimming suit is smooth on large scale, but it is discontinuous when the scale becomes smaller. If fractal dimensions of swimming suit and water are the same, a minimum of friction force is predicted, which means fractal harmonization. In the paper, fractal harmonic law is introduced to design a swimsuit whose surface fractal dimensions on a macroscopic scale should be equal to or closed to the water's fractal dimensions on an Angstrom scale. Various possible microstructures of fabric are analyzed and a method to obtain perfect fractal structure of fabric is proposed by spraying nanofibers to its surface. The fractal harmonic law can be used to design a moving surface with a minimal friction.