WorldWideScience

Sample records for scales measuring effectiveness

  1. Laboratory-scale measurements of effective relative permeability for layered sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butts, M.G.; Korsgaard, S.

    1996-12-31

    Predictions of the impact of remediation or the extent of contamination resulting from spills of gasoline, solvents and other petroleum products, must often be made in complex geological environments. Such problems can be treated by introducing the concept of effective parameters that incorporate the effects of soil layering or other heterogeneities into a large-scale flow description. Studies that derive effective multiphase parameters are few, and approximations are required to treat the non-linear multiphase flow equations. The purpose of this study is to measure effective relative permeabilities for well-defined multi-layered soils at the laboratory scale. Relative permeabilities were determined for homogeneous and layered, unconsolidated sands using the method of Jones and Roszelle (1978). The experimental data show that endpoint relative permeabilities are important in defining the shape of the relative permeability curves, but these cannot be predicted by estimation methods base on capillary pressure data. The most significant feature of the measured effective relative permeability curves is that the entrapped (residual) oil saturation is significantly larger than the residual saturation of the individual layers. This observation agrees with previous theoretical predictions of large-scale entrapment Butts, 1993 and (1995). Enhanced entrapment in heterogeneous soils has several important implications for spill remediation, for example, the reduced efficiency of direct recovery. (au) 17 refs.

  2. Scale Effect Analysis of Urban Compactness Measurement Index Based On Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei

    2017-05-01

    Scale effect is one of the basic aspects of urban compactness. This paper takes the use of urban construction land as the breakthrough point, continuity degree and Gini coefficient as the indexes to analyse the scale effect of grid from the calculation through the different scales grid analysis of urban construction land extracted by ERDAS and ARCGIS respectively. The result showed that the selected indicators quantitively indicate the features of research area land, different scale effects of two indexes, big difference in continuity degree influenced by scale, and slight impact on Gini coefficient influenced by scale.

  3. Measuring the effectiveness of infrastructure-level detection of large-scale botnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eidenbenz, Stephan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zeng, Yuanyuan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shin, Kang G [UNIV OF MICHIGAN

    2010-12-16

    Botnets are one of the most serious security threats to the Internet and its end users. In recent years, utilizing P2P as a Command and Control (C&C) protocol has gained popularity due to its decentralized nature that can help hide the hotmaster's identity. Most bot detection approaches targeting P2P botnets either rely on behavior monitoring or traffic flow and packet analysis, requiring fine-grained information collected locally. This requirement limits the scale of detection. In this paper, we consider detection of P2P botnets at a high-level - the infrastructure level - by exploiting their structural properties from a graph analysis perspective. Using three different P2P overlay structures, we measure the effectiveness of detecting each structure at various locations (the Autonomous System (AS), the Point of Presence (PoP), and the router rendezvous) in the Internet infrastructure.

  4. Atlantic Salmon Scale Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scales are collected annually from smolt trapping operations in Maine as wellas other sampling opportunities (e.g. marine surveys, fishery sampling etc.). Scale...

  5. Effect of Measured Wellhead Parameters and Well Scaling on the Computed Downhole Conditions in Cerro Prieto Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, K.P.; Miller, C.W.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1980-12-16

    This paper is devoted to the discussion of the wellbore model and its describing equations, comparison between the computed and measured pressures and the effect of measured wellhead parameters on the downhole pressures in the well. Finally a wellbore model with multiple inside diameters is discussed and the effect of well scaling on the bottom hole pressures is studied.

  6. Effect of measured wellhead parameters and well scaling on the computed downhole conditions in Cerro Prieto wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, K.P.; Miller, C.W.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1980-12-01

    Computing bottomhole pressures from the measured wellhead data by using a wellbore model is discussed. The wellbore model and its describing equations, comparison between the computed and measured pressures and the effect of measured wellhead parameters on the downhole pressures in the well are discussed. Finally a wellbore model with multiple inside diameters is discussed and the effect of well scaling on the bottom hole pressures is studied.

  7. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the benefits and threats of diversity scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, J.; van der Zee, K.I.; Otten, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more

  8. Measuring employee perception on the effects of cultural diversity at work: development of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, Joep; van der Zee, Karen; Otten, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Benefits and Threats of Diversity Scale (BTDS), an instrument which measures how employees perceive the effects of cultural diversity in the workplace. By analyzing employees’ perceptions, organizations may be able to communicate more

  9. Cumulative Instructional Time and Relative Effectiveness Conclusions: Extending Research on Response Intervals, Learning, and Measurement Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Michelle P; Skinner, Christopher H; Forbes, Bethany E; McCurdy, Merilee; Coleman, Mari Beth; Davis, Kristie; Gettelfinger, Maripat

    2016-03-01

    Adapted alternating treatments designs were used to evaluate three computer-based flashcard reading interventions (1-s, 3-s, or 5-s response intervals) across two students with disabilities. When learning was plotted with cumulative instructional sessions on the horizontal axis, the session-series graphs suggest that the interventions were similarly effective. When the same data were plotted as a function of cumulative instructional seconds, time-series graphs suggest that the 1-s intervention caused the most rapid learning for one student. Discussion focuses on applied implications of comparative effectiveness studies and why measures of cumulative instructional time are needed to identify the most effective intervention(s).Comparative effectiveness studies may not identify the intervention which causes the most rapid learning.Session-series repeated measures are not the same as time-series repeated measures.Measuring the time students spend in each intervention (i.e., cumulative instructional seconds) allows practitioners to identify interventions that enhance learning most rapidly.Student time spent working under interventions is critical for drawing applied conclusions.

  10. Stereotyping Effects on Cities: Measurement Scales for City's Warmth and Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana ZAIŢ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the endeavor of analyzing urban development perspectives, the current paper aims to find out how warmth and competence stereotypes would operate in the case of a city, predicting its future, as a direct consequence of people's positive or negative feelings and actions. Results of such analyses would be of strategic importance, knowing that various aspects of urban development (from tourism to business, well-being, active population growth and talents retention depend on people’s decisions to visit that city, to invest, to work, to study, to settle down there, or to simply spread positive opinions about it. Therefore, relying on the well-known SCM -stereotype content model, the paper adapts previous warmth and competence scales, and develops a customized research instrument for analyzing connections between people's perceptions and the mental labels attached to a specific city. Considering warmth and competence dimensions, as well as the other variables of interest such as status, cooperation and competition, we use an exploratory procedure for item selection followed by a Q-sorting analysis for scale content validation. The paper adds to the literature in two main ways. It firstly advances an integrative view that connects the theories from social psychology, communication and branding with those from urban development. Secondly, it offers a content validated measurement instrument, as a necessary departure point for future analyses meant to identify challenges and to predict the potential for development of smart and sustainable cities.

  11. Scaling Measurements of the Effect of Surface Slant on Perceived Lightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C. Madigan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The light reflected from an object depends on its reflectance, the illumination, and the pose of the object within the scene. An observer is called lightness constant if the perceived reflectance (lightness of achromatic objects stays the same despite variation in object-extrinsic factors such as illumination and pose. Here, we used a dissimilarity scaling task to measure lightness constancy as the intensity of the illuminant and the slant of test surfaces were varied. Across two experiments, we had observers rate the dissimilarity of flat grayscale test stimulus pairs. The test stimuli were real illuminated surfaces, not computer simulations. Each test stimulus was seen in its own illuminated chamber, with the two chambers viewed side by side. We varied test surface reflectance, chamber illumination intensity, and the slant of the test in relation to the single light source in each chamber. Data were analyzed using nonmetric multidimensional scaling. The data were well-described by a one-dimensional perceptual representation. This representation was consistent across observers, revealed partial lightness constancy with respect to a change in illumination intensity, and no lightness constancy with respect to changes in surface slant. An additional experiment using a matching procedure and the same stimulus set, however, revealed moderate constancy with respect to changes in surface slant. The difference in results between the two methods is interesting, but not understood.

  12. Scaling measurements of the effect of surface slant on perceived lightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Sean C.; Brainard, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The light reflected from an object depends on its reflectance, the illumination, and the pose of the object within the scene. An observer is called lightness constant if the perceived reflectance (lightness) of achromatic objects stays the same despite variation in object-extrinsic factors such as illumination and pose. Here, we used a dissimilarity scaling task to measure lightness constancy as the intensity of the illuminant and the slant of test surfaces were varied. Across two experiments, we had observers rate the dissimilarity of flat grayscale test stimulus pairs. The test stimuli were real illuminated surfaces, not computer simulations. Each test stimulus was seen in its own illuminated chamber, with the two chambers viewed side by side. We varied test surface reflectance, chamber illumination intensity, and the slant of the test in relation to the single light source in each chamber. Data were analyzed using nonmetric multidimensional scaling. The data were well-described by a one-dimensional perceptual representation. This representation was consistent across observers, revealed partial lightness constancy with respect to a change in illumination intensity, and no lightness constancy with respect to changes in surface slant. An additional experiment using a matching procedure and the same stimulus set, however, revealed moderate constancy with respect to changes in surface slant. The difference in results between the two methods is interesting, but not understood. PMID:25165517

  13. Comparing Treatment Effect Measurements in Narcolepsy: The Sustained Attention to Response Task, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Astrid; van Schie, Mojca K M; Lammers, Gert Jan; Dauvilliers, Yves; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mayer, Geert; Bassetti, Claudio L; Ding, Claire-Li; Lehert, Philippe; van Dijk, J Gert

    2015-07-01

    To validate the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) as a treatment effect measure in narcolepsy, and to compare the SART with the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Validation of treatment effect measurements within a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Ninety-five patients with narcolepsy with or without cataplexy. The RCT comprised a double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter trial comparing the effects of 8-w treatments with pitolisant (BF2.649), modafinil, or placebo (NCT01067222). MWT, ESS, and SART were administered at baseline and after an 8-w treatment period. The severity of excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy was also assessed using the Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI-C). The SART, MWT, and ESS all had good reliability, obtained for the SART and MWT using two to three sessions in 1 day. The ability to distinguish responders from nonresponders, classified using the CGI-C score, was high for all measures, with a high performance for the SART (r = 0.61) and the ESS (r = 0.54). The Sustained Attention to Response Task is a valid and easy-to-administer measure to assess treatment effects in narcolepsy, enhanced by combining it with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Mechanical measurements of heterogeneity and length scale effects in PEG-based hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Brian G.; Shapiro, Jenna M.; DelRio, Frank W.; Cook, Robert F.; Oyen, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal-probe spherical indentation load-relaxation experiments with a probe radius of 3 μm are conducted on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel materials to quantify their steady-state mechanical properties and time-dependent transport properties via a single experiment. PEG-based hydrogels are shown to be heterogeneous in both morphology and mechanical stiffness at this scale; a linear-harmonic interpolation of hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin and Boussinesq flat-punch indentation models was used to describe the steady-state response of the hydrogels and determine upper and lower bounds for indentation moduli. Analysis of the transient load-relaxation response during displacement-controlled hold periods provides a means of extracting two time constants τ1 and τ2, where τ1 and τ2 are assigned to the viscoelastic and poroelastic properties, respectively. Large τ2 values at small indentation depths provide evidence of a non-equilibrium state characterized by a phenomenon that restricts poroelastic fluid flow through the material; for larger indentations, the variability in τ2 values decreases and pore sizes estimated from τ2 via indentation approach those measured via macroscopic swelling experiments. The contact probe methodology developed here provides a means of assessing hydrogel heterogeneity, including time-dependent mechanical and transport properties, and has potential implications in hydrogel biomedical and engineering applications. PMID:26255839

  15. Validity of a scale measuring beliefs regarding the "positive" effects of punishing children: a study of Mexican mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Verdugo, V; Frías-Armenta, M; Romero, M; Muñoz, A

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses the influence that "beliefs concerning the corrective effects of punishment" have on child punishment and abuse in a Mexican population. One hundred and five mothers responded to a questionnaire measuring these beliefs, and their responses were contrasted with the report those mothers gave regarding the physical punishment they inflict upon their children. A scale consisting of six items registering beliefs was developed and administered. The reliability (internal consistency) of the scale was assessed, and its validity was tested by using a factor analytic structural equations model which produced high factorial loadings from a "beliefs" factor to the scale's items. This was interpreted as a confirmation of construct validity. An indication of predictive validity was found in a high, significant structural correlation between the beliefs factor and a "corrective punishment" factor, measured by a series of related items. Mothers reported as abusing their children produced higher scores on the "beliefs" scale as compared to "control" mothers. The direct, significant effect of parent's beliefs on the punishment of children explains much about the child maltreatment problem in the studied society.

  16. Monitoring great ape and elephant abundance at large spatial scales: measuring effectiveness of a conservation landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Stokes

    Full Text Available Protected areas are fundamental to biodiversity conservation, but there is growing recognition of the need to extend beyond protected areas to meet the ecological requirements of species at larger scales. Landscape-scale conservation requires an evaluation of management impact on biodiversity under different land-use strategies; this is challenging and there exist few empirical studies. In a conservation landscape in northern Republic of Congo we demonstrate the application of a large-scale monitoring program designed to evaluate the impact of conservation interventions on three globally threatened species: western gorillas, chimpanzees and forest elephants, under three land-use types: integral protection, commercial logging, and community-based natural resource management. We applied distance-sampling methods to examine species abundance across different land-use types under varying degrees of management and human disturbance. We found no clear trends in abundance between land-use types. However, units with interventions designed to reduce poaching and protect habitats--irrespective of land-use type--harboured all three species at consistently higher abundance than a neighbouring logging concession undergoing no wildlife management. We applied Generalized-Additive Models to evaluate a priori predictions of species response to different landscape processes. Our results indicate that, given adequate protection from poaching, elephants and gorillas can profit from herbaceous vegetation in recently logged forests and maintain access to ecologically important resources located outside of protected areas. However, proximity to the single integrally protected area in the landscape maintained an overriding positive influence on elephant abundance, and logging roads--even subject to anti-poaching controls--were exploited by elephant poachers and had a major negative influence on elephant distribution. Chimpanzees show a clear preference for unlogged or

  17. Monitoring great ape and elephant abundance at large spatial scales: measuring effectiveness of a conservation landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Emma J; Strindberg, Samantha; Bakabana, Parfait C; Elkan, Paul W; Iyenguet, Fortuné C; Madzoké, Bola; Malanda, Guy Aimé F; Mowawa, Brice S; Moukoumbou, Calixte; Ouakabadio, Franck K; Rainey, Hugo J

    2010-04-23

    Protected areas are fundamental to biodiversity conservation, but there is growing recognition of the need to extend beyond protected areas to meet the ecological requirements of species at larger scales. Landscape-scale conservation requires an evaluation of management impact on biodiversity under different land-use strategies; this is challenging and there exist few empirical studies. In a conservation landscape in northern Republic of Congo we demonstrate the application of a large-scale monitoring program designed to evaluate the impact of conservation interventions on three globally threatened species: western gorillas, chimpanzees and forest elephants, under three land-use types: integral protection, commercial logging, and community-based natural resource management. We applied distance-sampling methods to examine species abundance across different land-use types under varying degrees of management and human disturbance. We found no clear trends in abundance between land-use types. However, units with interventions designed to reduce poaching and protect habitats--irrespective of land-use type--harboured all three species at consistently higher abundance than a neighbouring logging concession undergoing no wildlife management. We applied Generalized-Additive Models to evaluate a priori predictions of species response to different landscape processes. Our results indicate that, given adequate protection from poaching, elephants and gorillas can profit from herbaceous vegetation in recently logged forests and maintain access to ecologically important resources located outside of protected areas. However, proximity to the single integrally protected area in the landscape maintained an overriding positive influence on elephant abundance, and logging roads--even subject to anti-poaching controls--were exploited by elephant poachers and had a major negative influence on elephant distribution. Chimpanzees show a clear preference for unlogged or more mature forests

  18. Technical Note: A comparison of model and empirical measures of catchment-scale effective energy and mass transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rasmussen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent work suggests that a coupled effective energy and mass transfer (EEMT term, which includes the energy associated with effective precipitation and primary production, may serve as a robust prediction parameter of critical zone structure and function. However, the models used to estimate EEMT have been solely based on long-term climatological data with little validation using direct empirical measures of energy, water, and carbon balances. Here we compare catchment-scale EEMT estimates generated using two distinct approaches: (1 EEMT modeled using the established methodology based on estimates of monthly effective precipitation and net primary production derived from climatological data, and (2 empirical catchment-scale EEMT estimated using data from 86 catchments of the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX and MOD17A3 annual net primary production (NPP product derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. Results indicated positive and significant linear correspondence (R2 = 0.75; P −2 yr−1. Modeled EEMT values were consistently greater than empirical measures of EEMT. Empirical catchment estimates of the energy associated with effective precipitation (EPPT were calculated using a mass balance approach that accounts for water losses to quick surface runoff not accounted for in the climatologically modeled EPPT. Similarly, local controls on primary production such as solar radiation and nutrient limitation were not explicitly included in the climatologically based estimates of energy associated with primary production (EBIO, whereas these were captured in the remotely sensed MODIS NPP data. These differences likely explain the greater estimate of modeled EEMT relative to the empirical measures. There was significant positive correlation between catchment aridity and the fraction of EEMT partitioned into EBIO (FBIO, with an increase in FBIO as a fraction of the total as aridity increases and percentage of

  19. Dysarthria Impact Profile: Development of a Scale to Measure Psychosocial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Margaret; Peach, Richard K.; Miller, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Background: The psychosocial impact of acquired dysarthria on the speaker is well recognized. To date, speech-and-language therapists have no instrument available to measure this construct. This has implications for outcome measurement and for planning intervention. This paper describes the Dysarthria Impact Profile (DIP), an instrument that has…

  20. Measuring Scaling Effects in Small Two-Stroke Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-20

    stream are isolated from the cooling air flow. Exhaust 69 gases exit the engine through a fiberglass insulated pipe that passes through a sealed port...of the entrance to the exhaust pipe. The exhaust pipes were wrapped with fiberglass insulation to minimize thermal losses prior to measuring...inside insulated enclosure ................................................... 67 Figure 30: Engine cooling system

  1. The influence of profiled ceilings on sports hall acoustics : Ground effect predictions and scale model measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattez, Y.C.M.; Tenpierik, M.J.; Nijs, L.

    2018-01-01

    Over the last few years, reverberation times and sound pressure levels have been measured in many sports halls. Most of these halls, for instance those made from stony materials, perform as predicted. However, sports halls constructed with profiled perforated steel roof panels have an unexpected

  2. THE EFFECT OF THE SCALES MEDIA USAGE TOWARD MASTERY OF THE WEIGHT MEASURING CONCEPT FOR STUDENT WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etika Nur Cahyani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A student with intellectual disability who has low level of intelligence and adaptive skills, a weak and abstract thinking needs a special approach of learning. The concept of weight measuring on student with intellectual disability is an abstract concept. Mastering concept of weight happens on student with intellectual disability is that if there is an object which seems to be larger or more is definitely heavier. This concept implies on the learning approaches used by educators in instilling the concept of weight measurement correctly. Therefore, before students start to study about the concept of actual weight need to be bridged with the real concept of scales and weighing process to ascertain the nature of the weight of an object. The goal of this research was to describe the effect of the scales mediausage toward mastery of the weight measuring concept on student with intellectual disability in the class VII. The research design used in this study was Single Subject Research (SSR with models A-B-A and using the unit of measuring scores. The results showed that there was the effect of the media on the mastery of weight scales concept. It was stated in the calculation of the overlap percentage between phases of baseline-1 to 0% of the intervention phase. This calculation stated that interventions have an impact on increasing the target behavior because the overlap percentages were below 90%.   Peserta didik tunagrahita adalah anak yang memiliki keterbatasan taraf kecerdasan dan keterampilan adaptif. Karakteristik tunagrahita yang lemah dalam berpikir abstrak perlu suatu pendekatan pembelajaran. Konsep pengukuran berat pada siswa tunagrahita merupakan suatu konsep abstrak. Penguasaan konsep berat yang terjadi pada siswa tunagrahita bahwa benda yang kelihatan lebih besar atau lebih banyak pasti lebih berat. Konsep yang terjadi demikian berimplikasi pada pendekatan pembelajaran yang digunakan pendidik dalam menanamkan konsep pengukuran berat

  3. Rating scales and Rasch measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessments with ratings in ordered categories have become ubiquitous in health, biological and social sciences. Ratings are used when a measuring instrument of the kind found in the natural sciences is not available to assess some property in terms of degree - for example, greater or smaller, better or worse, or stronger or weaker. The handling of ratings has ranged from the very elementary to the highly sophisticated. In an elementary form, and assumed in classical test theory, the ratings are scored with successive integers and treated as measurements; in a sophisticated form, and used in modern test theory, the ratings are characterized by probabilistic response models with parameters for persons and the rating categories. Within modern test theory, two paradigms, similar in many details but incompatible on crucial points, have emerged. For the purposes of this article, these are termed the statistical modeling and experimental measurement paradigms. Rather than reviewing a compendium of available methods and models for analyzing ratings in detail, the article focuses on the incompatible differences between these two paradigms, with implications for choice of model and inferences. It shows that the differences have implications for different roles for substantive researchers and psychometricians in designing instruments with rating scales. To illustrate these differences, an example is provided.

  4. Measurement equivalence of the brief comprehensive effects of alcohol scale in a multiethnic sample of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Lindsay S; Wang, Yijie; Kim, Su Yeong; Zamboanga, Byron L

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the measurement equivalence of the Brief Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol scale (B-CEOA; Ham et al., 2005)--a measure that assesses alcohol outcome expectancies (AOE) and expectancy evaluations-across ethnic groups and genders among multiethnic college student samples. Undergraduates provided self-report data in two multisite studies (Study 1: N = 1,536, 75.5% women, Mage = 19.6 years old, 56.4% European American, 9.8% African American, 7.6% Asian American, and 26.2% Hispanic/Latino American; Study 2: N = 7,767, 72.6% women, Mage = 19.8 years old, 63.3% European American, 7.9% African American, 14.3% Asian American, and 14.5% Hispanic/Latino American). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a positive and negative 4-factor model. Positive and negative AOE and expectancy evaluations were positively associated with hazardous alcohol use. Measurement equivalence of the B-CEOA across ethnicities and genders was largely supported. This study provides support for the utility of the B-CEOA in college students of different ethnicities and genders in assessment and prevention. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Measuring the subjective: revisiting the psychometric properties of three rating scales that assess the acute effects of hallucinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouso, José Carlos; Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo José; Gandy, Sam; Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel Ángel

    2016-09-01

    In the present study we explored the psychometric properties of three widely used questionnaires to assess the subjective effects of hallucinogens: the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS), the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI). These three questionnaires were administered to a sample of 158 subjects (100 men) after taking ayahuasca, a hallucinogen whose main active component is N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). A confirmatory factorial study was conducted to check the adjustment of previous data obtained via theoretical proposals. When this was not possible, we used an exploratory factor analysis without restrictions, based on tetrachoric and polychoric matrices and correlations. Our results sparsely match the theoretical proposals of the authors, perhaps because previous studies have not always employed psychometric methods appropriate to the data obtained. However, these data should be considered preliminary, pending larger samples to confirm or reject the proposed structures obtained. It is crucial that instruments of sufficiently precise measurement are utilized to make sense of the information obtained in the study of the subjective effects of psychedelic drugs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The Mini-IPIP Scales: Tiny-Yet-Effective Measures of the Big Five Factors of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, M. Brent; Oswald, Frederick L.; Baird, Brendan M.; Lucas, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    The Mini-IPIP, a 20-item short form of the 50-item International Personality Item Pool-Five-Factor Model measure (Goldberg, 1999), was developed and validated across five studies. The Mini-IPIP scales, with four items per Big Five trait, had consistent and acceptable internal consistencies across five studies (= at or well above 0.60), similar…

  7. Internationalization Measures in Large Scale Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeding, Emanuel; Smith, Nancy

    2017-04-01

    Internationalization measures in Large Scale Research Projects Large scale research projects (LSRP) often serve as flagships used by universities or research institutions to demonstrate their performance and capability to stakeholders and other interested parties. As the global competition among universities for the recruitment of the brightest brains has increased, effective internationalization measures have become hot topics for universities and LSRP alike. Nevertheless, most projects and universities are challenged with little experience on how to conduct these measures and make internationalization an cost efficient and useful activity. Furthermore, those undertakings permanently have to be justified with the Project PIs as important, valuable tools to improve the capacity of the project and the research location. There are a variety of measures, suited to support universities in international recruitment. These include e.g. institutional partnerships, research marketing, a welcome culture, support for science mobility and an effective alumni strategy. These activities, although often conducted by different university entities, are interlocked and can be very powerful measures if interfaced in an effective way. On this poster we display a number of internationalization measures for various target groups, identify interfaces between project management, university administration, researchers and international partners to work together, exchange information and improve processes in order to be able to recruit, support and keep the brightest heads to your project.

  8. Integrating Local Scale Drainage Measures in Meso Scale Catchment Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hellmers

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a methodology to optimize the integration of local scale drainage measures in catchment modelling. The methodology enables to zoom into the processes (physically, spatially and temporally where detailed physical based computation is required and to zoom out where lumped conceptualized approaches are applied. It allows the definition of parameters and computation procedures on different spatial and temporal scales. Three methods are developed to integrate features of local scale drainage measures in catchment modelling: (1 different types of local drainage measures are spatially integrated in catchment modelling by a data mapping; (2 interlinked drainage features between data objects are enabled on the meso, local and micro scale; (3 a method for modelling multiple interlinked layers on the micro scale is developed. For the computation of flow routing on the meso scale, the results of the local scale measures are aggregated according to their contributing inlet in the network structure. The implementation of the methods is realized in a semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model. The implemented micro scale approach is validated with a laboratory physical model to confirm the credibility of the model. A study of a river catchment of 88 km2 illustrated the applicability of the model on the regional scale.

  9. The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Assessment Tool for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol expectancy (AEs) research has enhanced our understanding of how anticipated alcohol effects confer risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, extant AE measures have limitations within 1 or more of the following areas: assessing a comprehensive range of effects, specifying the hypothetical number of drinks consumed,…

  10. The QT Scale: A Weight Scale Measuring the QTc Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couderc, Jean-Philippe; Beshaw, Connor; Niu, Xiaodan; Serrano-Finetti, Ernesto; Casas, Oscar; Pallas-Areny, Ramon; Rosero, Spencer; Zareba, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Despite the strong evidence of the clinical utility of QTc prolongation as a surrogate marker of cardiac risk, QTc measurement is not part of clinical routine either in hospital or in physician offices. We evaluated a novel device ("the QT scale") to measure heart rate (HR) and QTc interval. The QT scale is a weight scale embedding an ECG acquisition system with four limb sensors (feet and hands: lead I, II, and III). We evaluated the reliability of QT scale in healthy subjects (cohort 1) and cardiac patients (cohorts 2 and 3) considering a learning (cohort 2) and two validation cohorts. The QT scale and the standard 12-lead recorder were compared using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in cohorts 2 and 3. Absolute value of heart rate and QTc intervals between manual and automatic measurements using ECGs from the QT scale and a clinical device were compared in cohort 1. We enrolled 16 subjects in cohort 1 (8 w, 8 m; 32 ± 8 vs 34 ± 10 years, P = 0.7), 51 patients in cohort 2 (13 w, 38 m; 61 ± 16 vs 58 ± 18 years, P = 0.6), and 13 AF patients in cohort 3 (4 w, 9 m; 63 ± 10 vs 64 ± 10 years, P = 0.9). Similar automatic heart rate and QTc were delivered by the scale and the clinical device in cohort 1: paired difference in RR and QTc were -7 ± 34 milliseconds (P = 0.37) and 3.4 ± 28.6 milliseconds (P = 0.64), respectively. The measurement of stability was slightly lower in ECG from the QT scale than from the clinical device (ICC: 91% vs 80%) in cohort 3. The "QT scale device" delivers valid heart rate and QTc interval measurements. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Effects of scale-like pit and mulching measures on soil moisture of dryland jujube orchard in North Shaanxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Chen; Zhao, Xi-Ning; Gao, Xiao-Ding; Wang, Jia-Wen; Shi, Yin-Guang

    2014-08-01

    Soil moisture is a key factor affecting jujube growth in the semiarid Northern Shaanxi Province. The impacts of different engineering and mulching measures on soil moisture were investigated via in situ measurements in a typical dryland jujube orchard. The results showed that the mean soil moistures (0-180 cm) of scale-like pit + branch mulching, scale-like scale + straw mulching, and soil moisture of scale-like pit with no mulching were increased by 14.2%, 9.4%, and 4.8% than control, respectively. Different measures, especially for the scale-like pit + branch mulching, significantly increased the soil moisture in the soil surface (0-20 cm) and the main root zone layer (20-100 cm) during the jujube growth stage. Individual precipitation events had great impacts on soil moisture in the 0-100 cm, while its effect on soil moisture in deep layers was not apparent. There was no significant difference among the soil moistures in different soil depths of scale-like pit with no mulching when compared with the control under high, medium, and low soil humidity conditions. This study indicated that using the clipped jujube branches as mulching could both save materials cost and achieve the goal of reserving more water in dryland jujube orchard in north Shaanxi Province.

  12. Scale effects in necking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacGillivray H.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Geometrically similar specimens spanning a scale range of 100:1 are tested quasi-statically to failure. Images of neck development are acquired using optical means for large specimens, and in-situ scanning electron microscope testing for small specimens, to examine the dependence of neck geometry on a broad range of specimen sizes. Size effects typically arise when the smallest specimen dimension is on the order of a microstructural length (e.g. grain size, dislocation mean free path, etc., or in the presence of significant plastic strain gradients, which increase the density of geometrically necessary dislocations. This study was carried out for the purpose of investigating scale dependence in models used for predicting dynamic deformation and damage to very high strains for ballistic impact applications, such as the Goldthorpe path-dependent failure model, which includes temperature and strain-rate dependence but does not account for specimen size or a dependence on microstructural lengths. Although the experiments show that neck geometry does not exhibit a clear dependence on specimen size across the range of length scales tested, the statistical variation due to microstructural variations was found to increase monotonically with decreasing size, becoming significant for the smallest (0.35 mm diameter size, allowing a limit to be identified for reliable model calibration.

  13. Investigation of a laser Doppler velocimeter system to measure the flow field of a large scale V/STOL aircraft in ground effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalay, A. D.; Brashears, M. R.; Jordan, A. J.; Shrider, K. R.; Vought, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the flow field around a 70 percent scale V/STOL aircraft model in ground effect is described. The velocity measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter at an outdoor test pad. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and results of the velocity surveys are discussed. The distribution of vertical velocity in the fan jet and fountain, the radial velocity in the wall jet and the horizontal velocity along the aircraft underside are presented for different engine rpms and aircraft heights above ground. The study shows that it is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to measure the flow field generated by a large scale V/STOL aircraft operating in ground effect.

  14. Multi-scale biomedical systems: measurement challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R.

    2016-11-01

    Multi-scale biomedical systems are those that represent interactions in materials, sensors, and systems from a holistic perspective. It is possible to view such multi-scale activity using measurement of spatial scale or time scale, though in this paper only the former is considered. The biomedical application paradigm comprises interactions that range from quantum biological phenomena at scales of 10-12 for one individual to epidemiological studies of disease spread in populations that in a pandemic lead to measurement at a scale of 10+7. It is clear that there are measurement challenges at either end of this spatial scale, but those challenges that relate to the use of new technologies that deal with big data and health service delivery at the point of care are also considered. The measurement challenges lead to the use, in many cases, of model-based measurement and the adoption of virtual engineering. It is these measurement challenges that will be uncovered in this paper.

  15. Linking the Grain Scale to Experimental Measurements and Other Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Tracy

    2017-06-01

    A number of physical processes occur at the scale of grains that can have a profound influence on the behavior of materials under shock loading. Examples include inelastic deformation, pore collapse, fracture, friction, and internal wave reflections. In some cases such as the initiation of energetics and brittle fracture, these processes can have first order effects on the behavior of materials: the emergent behavior from the grain scale is the dominant one. In other cases, many aspects of the bulk behavior can be described by a continuum description, but some details of the behavior are missed by continuum descriptions. The multi-scale model paradigm envisions flow of information from smaller scales (atomic, dislocation, etc.) to the grain or mesoscale and the up to the continuum scale. A significant challenge in this approach is the need to validate each step. For the grain scale, diagnosing behavior is challenging because of the small spatial and temporal scales involved. Spatially resolved diagnostics have begun to shed light on these processes, and, more recently, advanced light sources have started to be used to probe behavior at the grain scale. In this talk, I will discuss some interesting phenomena that occur at the grain scale in shock loading, experimental approaches to probe the grain scale, and efforts to link the grain scale to smaller and larger scales. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE.

  16. Effect of micro-scale wind on the measurement of airborne pollen concentrations using volumetric methods on a building rooftop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kenji; Kawashima, Shigeto; Fujita, Toshio; Nakamura, Kimihito; Clot, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    Evaluating airborne pollen concentrations is important for the understanding of the spatiotemporal dispersion of pollen grains. Using two identical pollen monitors in parallel, we performed two experiments in order to study the influences of a) the physical characteristics (orientation) of the air inlet and b) the presence of obstacles in proximity to the monitors on airborne pollen concentration data. The first experiment consisted of an evaluation of airborne pollen concentrations using two different types of orifices; 1) a vertically oriented inlet and 2) a wind vane intake, both attached to the same type of automatic pollen sampler. The second experiment investigated the relationship between vertical wind speed and horizontal wind direction around an obstacle with the goal of studying the impact of micro-scale wind on pollen sampling efficiency. The results of the two experiments suggest that the wind path near an obstacle might be redirected in a vertical direction before or after the wind flows over the obstacle, which causes measurement errors of airborne pollen concentrations that are proportional to the vertical wind speed, especially when a vertically oriented inlet is used.

  17. Investigation of a laser Doppler velocimeter system to measure the flow field around a large scale V/STOL aircraft in ground effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalay, A. D.; Brashears, M. R.; Jordan, A. J.; Shrider, K. R.; Vought, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    The flow field measured around a hovering 70 percent scale vertical takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft model is described. The velocity measurements were conducted with a ground based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation and experimental tests of the velocity surveys are discussed. The distribution of vertical velocity in the fan jet and fountain; the radial velocity in the wall jet and the horizontal velocity along the aircraft underside are presented for different engine rpms and aircraft height above ground. Results show that it is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to measure the flow field generated by a large scale V/STOL aircraft operating in ground effect.

  18. Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Hovde

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to both systematic and turbulent induced vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic or "quasi isotropic" in the sense that their exponents are the same in all directions. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is scaling but anisotropic. In this paper, we show how such turbulence can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags.

    We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 aircraft near the top of the troposphere following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that over wide ranges of scale, the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k-5/3. In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component. There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations; for scales less than ≈40 km (on average the wind fluctuations lead the pressure and altitude, whereas for larger scales, the pressure fluctuations leads the wind. At the same transition scale, there is a break in the wind spectrum which we argue is caused by the aircraft starting to accurately follow isobars at the larger scales. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have low coherencies and phases and there are no apparent scale breaks, reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory that is causally linked to the scale breaks in the wind measurements.

    Using spectra and structure functions for the wind, we then estimate their exponents (β, H at small (5/3, 1/3 and large scales (2

  19. Eddy-correlation measurements of benthic fluxes under complex flow conditions: Effects of coordinate transformations and averaging time scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorke, Andreas; McGinnis, Daniel F.; Maeck, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    hours of continuous eddy-correlation measurements of sediment oxygen fluxes in an impounded river, we demonstrate that rotation of measured current velocities into streamline coordinates can be a crucial and necessary step in data processing under complex flow conditions in non-flat environments...

  20. Cost and time-effective method for multi-scale measures of rugosity, fractal dimension, and vector dispersion from coral reef 3D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a method to construct and analyse 3D models of underwater scenes using a single cost-effective camera on a standard laptop with (a) free or low-cost software, (b) no computer programming ability, and (c) minimal man hours for both filming and analysis. This study focuses on four key structural complexity metrics: point-to-point distances, linear rugosity (R), fractal dimension (D), and vector dispersion (1/k). We present the first assessment of accuracy and precision of structure-from-motion (SfM) 3D models from an uncalibrated GoPro™ camera at a small scale (4 m2) and show that they can provide meaningful, ecologically relevant results. Models had root mean square errors of 1.48 cm in X-Y and 1.35 in Z, and accuracies of 86.8% (R), 99.6% (D at scales 30–60 cm), 93.6% (D at scales 1–5 cm), and 86.9 (1/k). Values of R were compared to in-situ chain-and-tape measurements, while values of D and 1/k were compared with ground truths from 3D printed objects modelled underwater. All metrics varied less than 3% between independently rendered models. We thereby improve and rigorously validate a tool for ecologists to non-invasively quantify coral reef structural complexity with a variety of multi-scale metrics. PMID:28406937

  1. Cost and time-effective method for multi-scale measures of rugosity, fractal dimension, and vector dispersion from coral reef 3D models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G C Young

    Full Text Available We present a method to construct and analyse 3D models of underwater scenes using a single cost-effective camera on a standard laptop with (a free or low-cost software, (b no computer programming ability, and (c minimal man hours for both filming and analysis. This study focuses on four key structural complexity metrics: point-to-point distances, linear rugosity (R, fractal dimension (D, and vector dispersion (1/k. We present the first assessment of accuracy and precision of structure-from-motion (SfM 3D models from an uncalibrated GoPro™ camera at a small scale (4 m2 and show that they can provide meaningful, ecologically relevant results. Models had root mean square errors of 1.48 cm in X-Y and 1.35 in Z, and accuracies of 86.8% (R, 99.6% (D at scales 30-60 cm, 93.6% (D at scales 1-5 cm, and 86.9 (1/k. Values of R were compared to in-situ chain-and-tape measurements, while values of D and 1/k were compared with ground truths from 3D printed objects modelled underwater. All metrics varied less than 3% between independently rendered models. We thereby improve and rigorously validate a tool for ecologists to non-invasively quantify coral reef structural complexity with a variety of multi-scale metrics.

  2. Improvement of psychometric properties of a scale measuring inpatient satisfaction with care: a better response rate and a reduction of the ceiling effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombrail Pierre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to solve two problems of an already validated scale measuring inpatient opinion on care: 1 a high non-response rate for some items due to the "not applicable" response option and 2 a skewed score distribution with high ceiling effect. Methods The EQS-H scale ("échelle de qualité des soins en hospitalisation" comprised 26 items and 2 sub-scales of 13 items each, 'quality of medical information' (MI and 'relationships with staff and daily routine' (RS. Three studies were conducted: a first mono-centre study (n = 552, response rate = 83.4%, self-completion of the scale the day before discharge to construct a shorter version of the scale without the items with high non-response rate and maintaining those useful to ensure good internal validity (construct, convergent and divergent and reliability; a second mono-centre study (n = 1246, response rate = 77.9%, self-completion of the scale before discharge to confirm psychometric properties of the new version; a third multi-centre national study (n = 886, response rate 41.7%, self-completion at home 15 days after discharge to test a new response pattern in order to reduce ceiling effect. Results Six items having a non-response rate >20% were deleted, increasing rates of exhaustive response to all items from 15% to 48%. Factorial analysis supported the evidence for removing 4 more items to ensure good internal validity and reliability of the new version. These good results (initial variance explained: 43%; Cronbach's α: 0.80 (MI and 0.81 (RS were confirmed by the second study. The new response format produced a normalisation of the 2 scores with a large decrease in ceiling effect (25% to 4% for MI subscale and 61% to 8% for RS. Psychometric properties of the final version were excellent: the 2 subscales (8 items each explained 66% of the variance in principal component analysis, Cronbach's α were respectively 0.92 (MI and 0.93 (RS. Conclusion The new version of

  3. Optimal scaling for early life stress measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zvinchuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early life stress is associated with high risk for both negative psychological and physical health outcomes. However, many of the stressful life events inventories that have been used in epidemiological research have not been validated or checked for reliability or consistency. The aim of our study is to use optimal scaling and correspondence analysis that employ categorical principal components analysis (CATPCA algorithm to consider the internal structure and the geometry of the space of variables obtained through the questions measuring early life stress. This approach was chosen because it allows quantification of categorical (both nominal and ordinal scales and reduction of initial number of variables with interval quantification of the resulting dimensions. METHODS: A questionnaire for measuring early life stress was applied to the participants of the Ukrainian component of European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood at the age of three and seven years. CATPCA algorithm was used to elaborate a tool for estimating related integral quantified characteristics.RESULTS: Application of quantification and dimension reduction techniques to the categorical variables measuring stress in three- and seven-year-old children resulted in two dimensions. The first dimension that accounts for a major part of initial variance and is associated with all the collected variables can be interpreted as the overall measure of stress. The second dimension accounts for smaller but still considerable part of variance and can be related to child’s attachment to mother and acquiring new experience as the route of development.CONCLUSIONS: Application of optimal scaling to the empirical data of early life stress measurement resulted in construction of two integral indicators – first measuring overall stress and second contrasting security related to child’s attachment to mother and new experiences – consistent across age groups of three and

  4. Scale dependence of cirrus horizontal heterogeneity effects on TOA measurements - Part I: MODIS brightness temperatures in the thermal infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchez, Thomas; Platnick, Steven; Meyer, Kerry; Cornet, Céline; Szczap, Frédéric; Várnai, Tamás

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a study on the impact of cirrus cloud heterogeneities on MODIS simulated thermal infrared (TIR) brightness temperatures (BTs) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) as a function of spatial resolution from 50 m to 10 km. A realistic 3-D cirrus field is generated by the 3DCLOUD model (average optical thickness of 1.4, cloud-top and base altitudes at 10 and 12 km, respectively, consisting of aggregate column crystals of Deff = 20 µm), and 3-D thermal infrared radiative transfer (RT) is simulated with the 3DMCPOL code. According to previous studies, differences between 3-D BT computed from a heterogenous pixel and 1-D RT computed from a homogeneous pixel are considered dependent at nadir on two effects: (i) the optical thickness horizontal heterogeneity leading to the plane-parallel homogeneous bias (PPHB) and the (ii) horizontal radiative transport (HRT) leading to the independent pixel approximation error (IPAE). A single but realistic cirrus case is simulated and, as expected, the PPHB mainly impacts the low-spatial-resolution results (above ˜ 250 m) with averaged values of up to 5-7 K, while the IPAE mainly impacts the high-spatial-resolution results (below ˜ 250 m) with average values of up to 1-2 K. A sensitivity study has been performed in order to extend these results to various cirrus optical thicknesses and heterogeneities by sampling the cirrus in several ranges of parameters. For four optical thickness classes and four optical heterogeneity classes, we have found that, for nadir observations, the spatial resolution at which the combination of PPHB and HRT effects is the smallest, falls between 100 and 250 m. These spatial resolutions thus appear to be the best choice to retrieve cirrus optical properties with the smallest cloud heterogeneity-related total bias in the thermal infrared. For off-nadir observations, the average total effect is increased and the minimum is shifted to coarser spatial resolutions.

  5. Scale dependence of cirrus horizontal heterogeneity effects on TOA measurements – Part I: MODIS brightness temperatures in the thermal infrared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fauchez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the impact of cirrus cloud heterogeneities on MODIS simulated thermal infrared (TIR brightness temperatures (BTs at the top of the atmosphere (TOA as a function of spatial resolution from 50 m to 10 km. A realistic 3-D cirrus field is generated by the 3DCLOUD model (average optical thickness of 1.4, cloud-top and base altitudes at 10 and 12 km, respectively, consisting of aggregate column crystals of Deff = 20 µm, and 3-D thermal infrared radiative transfer (RT is simulated with the 3DMCPOL code. According to previous studies, differences between 3-D BT computed from a heterogenous pixel and 1-D RT computed from a homogeneous pixel are considered dependent at nadir on two effects: (i the optical thickness horizontal heterogeneity leading to the plane-parallel homogeneous bias (PPHB and the (ii horizontal radiative transport (HRT leading to the independent pixel approximation error (IPAE. A single but realistic cirrus case is simulated and, as expected, the PPHB mainly impacts the low-spatial-resolution results (above ∼ 250 m with averaged values of up to 5–7 K, while the IPAE mainly impacts the high-spatial-resolution results (below ∼ 250 m with average values of up to 1–2 K. A sensitivity study has been performed in order to extend these results to various cirrus optical thicknesses and heterogeneities by sampling the cirrus in several ranges of parameters. For four optical thickness classes and four optical heterogeneity classes, we have found that, for nadir observations, the spatial resolution at which the combination of PPHB and HRT effects is the smallest, falls between 100 and 250 m. These spatial resolutions thus appear to be the best choice to retrieve cirrus optical properties with the smallest cloud heterogeneity-related total bias in the thermal infrared. For off-nadir observations, the average total effect is increased and the minimum is shifted to coarser spatial

  6. Scale Dependence of Cirrus Horizontal Heterogeneity Effects on TOA Measurements. Part I; MODIS Brightness Temperatures in the Thermal Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchez, Thomas; Platnick, Steven; Meyer, Kerry; Cornet, Celine; Szczap, Frederic; Varnai, Tamas

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the impact of cirrus cloud heterogeneities on MODIS simulated thermal infrared (TIR) brightness temperatures (BTs) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) as a function of spatial resolution from 50 meters to 10 kilometers. A realistic 3-D (three-dimensional) cirrus field is generated by the 3DCLOUD model (average optical thickness of 1.4, cloudtop and base altitudes at 10 and 12 kilometers, respectively, consisting of aggregate column crystals of D (sub eff) equals 20 microns), and 3-D thermal infrared radiative transfer (RT) is simulated with the 3DMCPOL (3-D Monte Carlo Polarized) code. According to previous studies, differences between 3-D BT computed from a heterogenous pixel and 1-D (one-dimensional) RT computed from a homogeneous pixel are considered dependent at nadir on two effects: (i) the optical thickness horizontal heterogeneity leading to the plane-parallel homogeneous bias (PPHB); and the (ii) horizontal radiative transport (HRT) leading to the independent pixel approximation error (IPAE). A single but realistic cirrus case is simulated and, as expected, the PPHB mainly impacts the low-spatial resolution results (above approximately 250 meters), with averaged values of up to 5-7 K (thousand), while the IPAE mainly impacts the high-spatial resolution results (below approximately 250 meters) with average values of up to 1-2 K (thousand). A sensitivity study has been performed in order to extend these results to various cirrus optical thicknesses and heterogeneities by sampling the cirrus in several ranges of parameters. For four optical thickness classes and four optical heterogeneity classes, we have found that, for nadir observations, the spatial resolution at which the combination of PPHB and HRT effects is the smallest, falls between 100 and 250 meters. These spatial resolutions thus appear to be the best choice to retrieve cirrus optical properties with the smallest cloud heterogeneity-related total bias in the thermal

  7. Assessing the effect of snow/water obstructions on the measurement of tree seedlings in a large-scale temperate forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; J.A. Westfall; K. Zhu; D.J. Johnson

    2013-01-01

    National-scale forest inventories have endeavoured to include holistic measurements of forest health inclusive of attributes such as downed dead wood and tree regeneration that occur in the forest understory. Inventories may require year-round measurement of inventory plots with some of these measurements being affected by seasonal obstructions (e.g. snowpacks and...

  8. Well-being measurement and the WHO health policy Health 2010: systematic review of measurement scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Jutta; Bain, Paul A; Kubzansky, Laura D; Stein, Claudia

    2015-08-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) contributes to health and mental health. It is a major objective of the new World Health Organization health policy framework, 'Health 2020'. Various approaches to defining and measuring well-being exist. We aimed to identify, map and analyse the contents of self-reported well-being measurement scales for use with individuals more than 15 years of age to help researchers and politicians choose appropriate measurement tools. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed for studies published between 2007 and 2012, with additional hand-searching, to identify empirical studies that investigated well-being using a measurement scale. For each eligible study, we identified the measurement tool and reviewed its components, number of items, administration time, validity, reliability, responsiveness and sensitivity. The literature review identified 60 unique measurement scales. Measurement scales were either multidimensional (n = 33) or unidimensional (n = 14) and assessed multiple domains. The most frequently encountered domains were affects (39 scales), social relations (17 scales), life satisfaction (13 scales), physical health (13 scales), meaning/achievement (9 scales) and spirituality (6 scales). The scales included between 1 and 100 items; the administration time varied from 1 to 15 min. Well-being is a higher order construct. Measures seldom reported testing for gender or cultural sensitivity. The content and format of scales varied considerably. Effective monitoring and comparison of SWB over time and across geographic regions will require further work to refine definitions of SWB. We recommend concurrent evaluation of at least three self-reported SWB measurement scales, including evaluation for gender or cultural sensitivity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Measuring Online Dialogic Conversations: A Scale Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara; Murtarelli, Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The scope of this paper is to develop and test a measurement scale for assessing the quality of dialogic conversations among companies and digital publics in social media. It is argued that dialogic conversations are the drivers of dialogic engagement and the result of dialogic...... interactivity. Dialogic conversations are defined as sequences of communicative actions and counteractions taken by social actors for different purposes based on specific linguistic choices and characterised by diverse communicative approaches and the role played by the involved parties. Design...

  10. Developing a new apathy measurement scale: Dimensional Apathy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovic, Ratko; Abrahams, Sharon

    2014-11-30

    Apathy is both a symptom and syndrome prevalent in neurodegenerative disease, including motor system disorders, that affects motivation to display goal directed functions. Levy and Dubois (2006) suggested three apathetic subtypes, Cognitive, Emotional-affective and Auto-activation, all with discrete neural correlates and functional impairments. The aim of this study was to create a new apathy measure; the Dimensional Apathy Scale (DAS), which assesses apathetic subtypes and is suitable for use in patient groups with motor dysfunction. 311 healthy participants (mean=37.4, S.D.=15.0) completed a 45-item questionnaire. Horn's parallel analysis of principal factors and Exploratory Factor Analysis resulted in 4 factors (Executive, Emotional, Cognitive Initiation and Behavioural Initiation) that account for 28.9% of the total variance. Twenty four items were subsequently extracted to form 3 subscales--Executive, Emotional and Behavioural/Cognitive Initiation. The subscale items show good internal consistency reliability. A weak to moderate relationship was found with depression using Becks Depression Inventory II. The DAS is a well-constructed method for assessing multidimensional apathy suitable for application to investigate this syndrome in different disease pathologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Scaling Effect In Trade Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, M.; Lin, X.; Rushforth, R.; Ruddell, B. L.; Reimer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Scaling is an important issue in the physical sciences. Economic trade is increasingly of interest to the scientific community due to the natural resources (e.g. water, carbon, nutrients, etc.) embodied in traded commodities. Trade refers to the spatial and temporal redistribution of commodities, and is typically measured annually between countries. However, commodity exchange networks occur at many different scales, though data availability at finer temporal and spatial resolution is rare. Exchange networks may prove an important adaptation measure to cope with future climate and economic shocks. As such, it is essential to understand how commodity exchange networks scale, so that we can understand opportunities and roadblocks to the spatial and temporal redistribution of goods and services. To this end, we present an empirical analysis of trade systems across three spatial scales: global, sub-national in the United States, and county-scale in the United States. We compare and contrast the network properties, the self-sufficiency ratio, and performance of the gravity model of trade for these three exchange systems.

  12. Solar cycle changes in the geo-effectiveness of small-scale solar wind turbulence measured by Wind and ACE at 1 AU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-scale structure of the solar wind in the ecliptic at 1 AU undergoes significant evolution with the phase of the solar cycle. Wind spacecraft measurements during 1995 to 1998 and ACE spacecraft measurements during 1997 to 2005 were used to characterise the evolution of small-scale (~1 min to 2 h fluctuations in the solar wind speed vsw, magnetic energy density B2, and solar wind ε parameter, in the context of large-scale (~1 day to years variations. The large-scale variation in ε most resembled large-scale variations in B2. The probability density of large fluctuations in ε and B2 both had strong minima during 1995, a familiar signature of solar minimum. Generalized Structure Function (GSF analysis was used to estimate inertial range scaling exponents aGSF and their evolution throughout 1995 to 2005. For the entire data set, the weighted average scaling exponent for small-scale fluctuations in vsw was aGSF=0.284±0.001, a value characteristic of intermittent MHD turbulence (>1/4, whereas the scaling exponents for corresponding fluctuations in B2 and ε were aGSF=0.395±0.001 and 0.334±0.001, respectively. These values are between the range expected for Gaussian fluctuations (1/2 and Kolmogorov turbulence (1/3. However, the scaling exponent for ε changed from a Gaussian-Kolmogorov value of 0.373±0.005 during 1997 (end of solar minimum to an MHD turbulence value of 0.247±0.004 during 2003 (recurrent fast streams. Changes in the characteristics of solar wind turbulence may be reproducible from one solar cycle to the next.

  13. Development of a scale to measure individuals’ ratings of peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The evolving concept of peace-building and the interplay between peace and health is examined in many venues, including at the World Health Assembly. However, without a metric to determine effectiveness of intervention programs all efforts are prone to subjective assessment. This paper develops a psychometric index that lays the foundation for measuring community peace stemming from intervention programs. Methods After developing a working definition of ‘peace’ and delineating a Peace Evaluation Across Cultures and Environments (PEACE) scale with seven constructs comprised of 71 items, a beta version of the index was pilot-tested. Two hundred and fifty subjects in three sites in the U.S. were studied using a five-point Likert scale to evaluate the psychometric functioning of the PEACE scale. Known groups validation was performed using the SOS-10. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed on 20 subjects. Results The preliminary data demonstrated that the scale has acceptable psychometric properties for measuring an individual’s level of peacefulness. The study also provides reliability and validity data for the scale. The data demonstrated internal consistency, correlation between data and psychological well-being, and test-retest reliability. Conclusions The PEACE scale may serve as a novel assessment tool in the health sector and be valuable in monitoring and evaluating the peace-building impact of health initiatives in conflict-affected regions. PMID:25298781

  14. Development of a scale to measure individuals' ratings of peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Howard; Ahn, Roy; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Blais, Mark; Nelson, Brett D; Burke, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    The evolving concept of peace-building and the interplay between peace and health is examined in many venues, including at the World Health Assembly. However, without a metric to determine effectiveness of intervention programs all efforts are prone to subjective assessment. This paper develops a psychometric index that lays the foundation for measuring community peace stemming from intervention programs. After developing a working definition of 'peace' and delineating a Peace Evaluation Across Cultures and Environments (PEACE) scale with seven constructs comprised of 71 items, a beta version of the index was pilot-tested. Two hundred and fifty subjects in three sites in the U.S. were studied using a five-point Likert scale to evaluate the psychometric functioning of the PEACE scale. Known groups validation was performed using the SOS-10. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed on 20 subjects. The preliminary data demonstrated that the scale has acceptable psychometric properties for measuring an individual's level of peacefulness. The study also provides reliability and validity data for the scale. The data demonstrated internal consistency, correlation between data and psychological well-being, and test-retest reliability. The PEACE scale may serve as a novel assessment tool in the health sector and be valuable in monitoring and evaluating the peace-building impact of health initiatives in conflict-affected regions.

  15. Measurement and Modelling of Scaling Minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villafafila Garcia, Ada

    2005-01-01

    -liquid equilibrium of sulphate scaling minerals (SrSO4, BaSO4, CaSO4 and CaSO4•2H2O) at temperatures up to 300ºC and pressures up to 1000 bar is described in chapter 4. Results for the binary systems (M2+, )-H2O; the ternary systems (Na+, M2+, )-H2O, and (Na+, M2+, Cl-)-H2O; and the quaternary systems (Na+, M2+)(Cl...... to 1000 bar. The solubility of CO2 in pure water, and the solubility of CO2 in solutions of different salts (NaCl and Na2SO4) have also been correlated. Results for the binary systems MCO3-H2O, and CO2-H2O; the ternary systems MCO3-CO2-H2O, CO2-NaCl-H2O, and CO2-Na2SO4-H2O; and the quaternary system CO2....... Chapter 2 is focused on thermodynamics of the systems studied and on the calculation of vapour-liquid, solid-liquid, and speciation equilibria. The effects of both temperature and pressure on the solubility are addressed, and explanation of the model calculations is also given. Chapter 3 presents...

  16. The effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on stomatal conductance estimated from 11 years of scaled sap flux measurements at Duke FACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Eric J; Oren, Ram; Bell, David M; Clark, James S; McCarthy, Heather R; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Domec, Jean-Christophe

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we employ a network of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) monitoring sap flux density to estimate leaf-specific transpiration (E(L)) and stomatal conductance (G(S)) in Pinus taeda (L.) and Liquidambar styraciflua L. exposed to +200 ppm atmospheric CO(2) levels (eCO(2)) and nitrogen fertilization. Scaling half-hourly measurements from hundreds of sensors over 11 years, we found that P. taeda in eCO(2) intermittently (49% of monthly values) decreased stomatal conductance (G(S)) relative to the control, with a mean reduction of 13% in both total E(L) and mean daytime G(S). This intermittent response was related to changes in a hydraulic allometry index (A(H)), defined as sapwood area per unit leaf area per unit canopy height, which decreased a mean of 15% with eCO(2) over the course of the study, due mostly to a mean 19% increase in leaf area (A(L)). In contrast, L. styraciflua showed a consistent (76% of monthly values) reduction in G(S) with eCO(2) with a total reduction of 32% E(L), 31% G(S) and 23% A(H) (due to increased A(L) per sapwood area). For L. styraciflua, like P. taeda, the relationship between A(H) and G(S) at reference conditions suggested a decrease in G(S) across the range of A(H). Our findings suggest an indirect structural effect of eCO(2) on G(S) in P. taeda and a direct leaf level effect in L. styraciflua. In the initial year of fertilization, P. taeda in both CO(2) treatments, as well as L. styraciflua in eCO(2), exhibited higher G(S) with N(F) than expected from shifts in A(H), suggesting a transient direct effect on G(S). Whether treatment effects on mean leaf-specific G(S) are direct or indirect, this paper highlights that long-term treatment effects on G(S) are generally reflected in A(H) as well.

  17. The Ambivalent Ageism Scale: Developing and Validating a Scale to Measure Benevolent and Hostile Ageism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Lindsey A; Chasteen, Alison L; Remedios, Jessica

    2017-04-01

    Much like sexism, ageism is a multifaceted prejudice; it involves benevolent and hostile attitudes toward older adults. There are many scales designed to measure hostile ageism, yet none dedicated to measuring benevolent ageism. In the current studies, we developed and validated a 13-item measure: the Ambivalent Ageism Scale (AAS). We employed four stages of scale development and validation. In Stage 1, we created 41 benevolent ageist items adapted from existing ageism measures. In Stages 2 and 3, we further refined the pool of items through additional testing and factor analysis and retained nine items loading strongly on two factors related to benevolent ageism: cognitive assistance/physical protection and unwanted help. In order to enable researchers to contrast benevolent and hostile attitudes, we then added four hostile ageist items. In Stage 4, we assessed the test-retest reliability of the 13-item scale. The AAS had good test-retest reliability (r = .80) and good internal consistency (α = .91). As predicted, the benevolent and hostile ageism subscales differentially predicted attitudes toward older adults: higher scores on the hostile subscale predicted lower competence and warmth ratings, whereas higher scores on the benevolent subscale predicted higher warmth perceptions. The AAS is a useful tool for researchers to assess hostile and benevolent ageism. This measure serves as an important first step in designing interventions to reduce the harmful effects of both hostile and benevolent ageism.

  18. Towards Large-scale Inconsistency Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Thimm, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the problem of inconsistency measurement on large knowledge bases by considering stream-based inconsistency measurement, i.e., we investigate inconsistency measures that cannot consider a knowledge base as a whole but process it within a stream. For that, we present, first, a novel inconsistency measure that is apt to be applied to the streaming case and, second, stream-based approximations for the new and some existing inconsistency measures. We conduct an extensive empirical ...

  19. Measurements of pore-scale flow through apertures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojnicki, Kirsten [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Pore-scale aperture effects on flow in pore networks was studied in the laboratory to provide a parameterization for use in transport models. Four cases were considered: regular and irregular pillar/pore alignment with and without an aperture. The velocity field of each case was measured and simulated, providing quantitatively comparable results. Two aperture effect parameterizations were considered: permeability and transmission. Permeability values varied by an order of magnitude between the cases with and without apertures. However, transmission did not correlate with permeability. Despite having much greater permeability the regular aperture case permitted less transmission than the regular case. Moreover, both irregular cases had greater transmission than the regular cases, a difference not supported by the permeabilities. Overall, these findings suggest that pore-scale aperture effects on flow though a pore-network may not be adequately captured by properties such as permeability for applications that are interested in determining particle transport volume and timing.

  20. An Integrated Scale for Measuring an Organizational Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothibabu, C.; Farooq, Ayesha; Pradhan, Bibhuti Bhusan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an integrated measurement scale for an organizational learning system by capturing the learning enablers, learning results and performance outcome in an organization. Design/methodology/approach: A new measurement scale was developed by integrating and modifying two existing scales, identified…

  1. A Scale to Measure Attitude Toward Smoking Marihuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Raymond J.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the construction and validity of a scale to measure student attitudes toward marihuana. The scale could be used as a means to select the best presentation for drug education in schools. (KH)

  2. [A new scale for measuring the psycho-physical effects of work-related stress in a perspective of methods integration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Alessandra; Girardi, D; Dal Corso, Laura; De Carlo, N A; Sarto, F; Marcuzzo, G; Vianello, L; Magosso, D; Bartolucci, G B

    2012-01-01

    This study fits into a perspective of integrated work-related stress assessment, in response to the need to limit the common method variance and the role played by individual variables in subjective measures. The goal of this study was to check the metric properties of a new scale of mental and physical strain developed for the evaluation of stress symptoms by the physician and to detect the antecedents of psycho-physical symptoms, in terms of both individual and work characteristics, through an integrated approach. The study was conducted on 409 workers involved in health surveillance activities, to whom the new scale and a subjective assessment tool were administered. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the scale is a reliable tool for hetero-evaluation of psycho-physical symptoms attributable to stress at work. Moreover, specific individual characteristics, such as the presence of prior health disorders and the female gender, and organizational features, such as the pathological work/life conflict and the workload, were found to be risk factors in relation to psychological and physical strain. Age, consumption of alcoholic beverages between meals, relationships with colleagues, and the characteristics of the workplace were instead found to be important protective factors. The adoption of an integrated approach made it possible to improve and study in depth the ways of work-related stress assessment, highlighting the pivotal role of the occupational health physician making the evaluation.

  3. Measuring AT Usability with the Modified System Usability Scale (SUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Emma L

    2017-01-01

    The modified System Usability Scale (SUS) is a widely used generic measure of product usability. This study concerns the usability of mobile shower commodes using correlations between the SUS and AT device-specific measures. Results suggest the modified SUS, and corresponding adjective-anchored rating scale, are appropriate for measuring MSC usability, and have potential for use with other AT devices.

  4. Strategies for Measuring Wind Erosion for Regional Scale Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, F.; Visser, S.; Karssenberg, D.J.; Slingerland, E.; Erpul, G.; Ziadat, F.; Stroosnijder, L. Prof.dr.ir.

    2012-01-01

    Windblown sediment transport is mostly measured at field or plot scale due to the high spatial variability over the study area. Regional scale measurements are often limited to measurements of the change in the elevation providing information on net erosion or deposition. For the calibration and

  5. Large scale structure statistics: Finite volume effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, S.; Bouchet, F. R.; Schaeffer, R.

    1994-01-01

    We study finite volume effects on the count probability distribution function PN(l) and the averaged Q-body correlations Xi-barQ (2 less than or = Q less than or equal 5). These statistics are computed for cubic cells, of size l. We use as an example the case of the matter distribution of a cold dark matter (CDM) universe involving approximately 3 x 105 particles. The main effect of the finiteness of the sampled volume is to induce an abrupt cut-off on the function PN(l) at large N. This clear signature makes an analysis of the consequences easy, and one can envisage a correction procedure. As a matter of fact, we demonstrate how an unfair sample can strongly affect the estimates of the functions Xi-barQ for Q greater than or = 3 (and decrease the measured zero of the two-body correlation function). We propose a method to correct for this are fact, or at least to evaluate the corresponding errors. We show that the correlations are systematically underestimated by direct measurements. We find that, once corrected, the statistical properties of the CDM universe appear compatible with the scaling relation SQ identically equals Xi-bar2 exp Q-1 = constant with respect to scale, in the non-linear regime; it was not the case with direct measurments. However, we note a deviation from scaling at scales close to the correlation length. It is probably due to the transition between the highly non-linear regime and the weakly correlated regime, where the functions SQ also seem to present a plateau. We apply the same procedure to simulations with hot dark matter (HDM) and white noise initial conditions, with similar results. Our method thus provides the first accurate measurement of the normalized skewness, S3, and the normalized kurtosis, S4, for three typical models of large scale structure formation in an expanding universe.

  6. Small-scale electricity generating facilities from natural gas : a measure to mitigate the greenhouse effect; Microgeneracion de energia con gas natural: una medida efectiva para mitigar el cambio climatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, A. M.

    2002-07-01

    The forthcoming liberalization of the gas and electricity markets in Europe, in conjunction with the increase of the global energy consumption in the near future are enabling the development of natural gas alternatives to traditional large-scale centralized power plants. They emerged from research suggesting that the use of small-scale electricity generating facilities dispersed throughout the electrical network, provides the electricity system with measurable technical, economic and environmental benefits. In this sense, the distributed generation powered by cogeneration systems offers the biggest measure to mitigate the greenhouse effect due to the carbon dioxide. (Author)

  7. Applying a process based erosion model to assess off-site effects of soil erosion from the regional scale to the measure level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindewolf, Marcus; Arevalo, Annika; Saathoff, Ulfert; Käpermann, Philipp; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Since soil erosion is one of the most important issues of global soil degradation, great effort was put into the application of erosion models for the assessment and prevention of on-site damages. Beside the primary impact of soil loss in decreasing soil fertility, erosion can cause significant impacts if transported sediments are entering downslope ecosystems, settlements, infrastructure or traffic routes. These off-site damages can be very costly, affect a lot of people and contaminate water-resources. The analysis of these problems is intensified by the requirements of new legislation, such as the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), providing new challenges for planning authorities in order to combat off-site damage. Hence there is strong public and scientific interest in understanding the processes of sediment as well as particle attached nutrient and pollutant transport. Predicting the frequency, magnitude and extent of off-site impacts of water erosion is a necessary precondition for adequate risk assessments and mitigation measures. Process based models are increasingly used for the simulation of soil erosion. Regarding the requirements of the WFD, these models need to deliver comparable estimates from the regional scale to the level of mitigation measures. This study aims on the application of the process based model EROSION 3D for off-site risk assessment on different scales for the German federal state of Saxony using available geo data, data base applications and GIS-routines. Following issues were investigated: - Where are the expected sediment deposition areas? - Which settlements, infrastructures and traffic routes are affected by sediment fluxes? - Which river sections are affected by sediment inputs? - Which river sections are affected by nutrient and heavy metal inputs? The model results identify the Saxon loess belt as highly endangered by off-site damages although hotspots can be found in the northern flatlands and the southern mountain range as

  8. Scale Effects in Moral Relevance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jonas; Rybak, Andrej

    2017-03-01

    Research on moral judgment often employs bipolar rating scales to assess whether the difference between two contrasted options is judged to be morally relevant. We give an account of how different numbers of response options provided on such scales (odd vs. even) change the meaning of the test question by communicating different implicit presuppositions. We demonstrate experimentally that these changes can qualitatively affect the moral relevance judgments that subjects express in response to a given judgment problem. Several alternative explanations in terms of trivial measurement distortion are tested and refuted, and we present suggestive evidence as to what kind of factors might be prone to scale effects. The findings underscore that expressed moral judgments are constructed ad hoc and do not necessarily reflect the content of underlying stable moral commitments. We discuss implications for theories and methodology in moral psychology and in judgment and decision-making research more generally.

  9. USAGE OF DISSIMILARITY MEASURES AND MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCALING FOR LARGE SCALE SOLAR DATA ANALYSIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — USAGE OF DISSIMILARITY MEASURES AND MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCALING FOR LARGE SCALE SOLAR DATA ANALYSIS Juan M Banda, Rafal Anrgyk ABSTRACT: This work describes the...

  10. Rating scales measuring the severity of psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, S D; Rothschild, A J; Flint, A J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Unipolar psychotic depression (PD) is a severe and debilitating syndrome, which requires intensive monitoring. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the rating scales used to assess illness severity in PD. METHOD: Selective review of publications reporting results...... on non-self-rated, symptom-based rating scales utilized to measure symptom severity in PD. The clinical and psychometric validity of the identified rating scales was reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 14 rating scales meeting the predefined criteria were included in the review. These scales grouped...... into the following categories: (i) rating scales predominantly covering depressive symptoms, (ii) rating scales predominantly covering psychotic symptoms, (iii) rating scales covering delusions, and (iv) rating scales covering PD. For the vast majority of the scales, the clinical and psychometric validity had...

  11. Development of The Harmony Restoration Measurement Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this process an individual's world is divided into Enodcosmos (Mind/Body), Mesocosmos (significant others) and Exocosmos (ancestor, spirits, God, gods). This study presents an effort to generate items to measure the cosmos of an individual in Nigeria (Igbo). Using a sample of 346 Nigerian subjects comprising normals ...

  12. Family Adjustment Measure: Scale Construction and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daire, Andrew P.; Dominguez, Vanessa N.; Carlson, Ryan G.; Case-Pease, Jenene

    2014-01-01

    We administered the Family Adjustment Measure to 368 parents of children with special needs to identify positive adjustment. We randomly split the sample to conduct exploratory factor analysis ("n" = 194) and confirmatory factor analysis ("n" = 174). Results indicated four possible subscales and that explain 51% of the variance.

  13. Scales for the Measurement of Innovativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, H. Thomas; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Reports the results of the development of a self-report measure of innovativeness, and discusses the utility of such an instrument in human communication research as well as related issues such as validity, reliability and association with social desirability. (MH)

  14. Measuring Mathematics Anxiety: Psychometric Analysis of a Bidimensional Affective Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Haiyan; Wang, LihShing; Pan, Wei; Frey, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a theoretically and methodologically sound bidimensional affective scale measuring mathematics anxiety with high psychometric quality. The psychometric properties of a 14-item Mathematics Anxiety Scale-Revised (MAS-R) adapted from Betz's (1978) 10-item Mathematics Anxiety Scale were empirically analyzed on a…

  15. Measuring the experience of hospitality : Scale development and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijls-Hoekstra, Ruth; Groen, Brenda H.; Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper identifies what customers experience as hospitality and subsequently presents a novel and compact assessment scale for measuring customers’ experience of hospitality at any kind of service organization. The Experience of Hospitality Scale (EH-Scale) takes a broader perspective compared to

  16. Development of a Scale to Measure Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, John R.; Knapper, Christopher; Lamon, Patrick; Egnatoff, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Primary objective: to develop a scale to measure students' disposition to engage in lifelong learning. Research design, methods and procedures: using items that reflected the components of lifelong learning, we constructed a 14-item scale that was completed by 309 university and vocational college students, who also completed a measure of deep and…

  17. SPATIAL SCALES AND MEASUREMENT OF HOUSING VALUES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    2011-12-02

    Dec 2, 2011 ... spatial scales within cities for investigation affects the measurement and interpretation of housing values. That is distinct spatial scales of investigation within the cities yield different measures of housing values through the use of neighbourhood, location and physical attributes of houses to determine house.

  18. Deconstructing European Poverty Measures: What Relative and Absolute Scales Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhauser, Richard V.

    2009-01-01

    Forster and d'Ercole (2009) outline the dominant method of conceptualization and operationalization of European poverty measures that informed the EU in its development of the questionnaire for the European Union--Survey of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). They do so in the context of their explanation of how the Organization for Economic…

  19. Scaling effect and its impact on wavelength-scale microlenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myun-Sik; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Voelkel, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    We revisit the scaling laws in micro-optical systems to highlight new phenomena arising beyond a conventional optical regime, especially when the size of the system approaches to the operational wavelength. Our goal is to visualize the impact of the scaling effect in the micrometer-sized domain. First, we will show where the conventional optical regime fades away and unexpected responses arise. We will show this by using a ball-lens as an example. Second, we discuss the scaling effect in the Fresnel number of lens systems. Moving toward wavelength-scale microlenses, a specific value of Fresnel numbers leads to a giant focal shift with strong focal power. Our study will give comprehensive insights into the birth of unanticipated phenomena in miniaturized optical systems.

  20. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test Instrumentation for Acoustic and Pressure Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Counter, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) is a 5% scale model test of the Ares I vehicle, launch pad and support structures conducted at MSFC to verify acoustic and ignition environments and evaluate water suppression systems Test design considerations 5% measurements must be scaled to full scale requiring high frequency measurements Users had different frequencies of interest Acoustics: 200 - 2,000 Hz full scale equals 4,000 - 40,000 Hz model scale Ignition Transient: 0 - 100 Hz full scale equals 0 - 2,000 Hz model scale Environment exposure Weather exposure: heat, humidity, thunderstorms, rain, cold and snow Test environments: Plume impingement heat and pressure, and water deluge impingement Several types of sensors were used to measure the environments Different instrument mounts were used according to the location and exposure to the environment This presentation addresses the observed effects of the selected sensors and mount design on the acoustic and pressure measurements

  1. Measuring marketing effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, J; Michaelis, T

    1987-09-01

    The most frequent question about the marketing function in hospitals today is, What are we getting for our money? To answer this, marketing directors must convince the board first of the need for marketing, then of marketing's effectiveness. To measure marketing effectiveness, some basic needs are a staff, equipment, cooperation between departments, utilization data, and a research budget. Some steps to be followed include developing a marketing data base--consisting of demographic projections, demand projections, and market share--testing a marketing strategy through experimentation, documenting the expected results and measurement techniques, and calculating the expected return on investments. In dealing with those "impossible-to-measure" cases, such as a physician who is not advertising but finds that a competitor is, a decision tree can help determine whether to advertise and how much to spend by indicating what the return on investment might be.

  2. Generation of an Interval Metric Scale to Measure Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohana Yusoff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses issues of scales in measuring attitude, demonstrates how a metric scale can be generated based on three main features, and presents results from a repeated measurement survey to verify the generated scale. The design of the generated metric scale is introduced and named Ruler and Option (RO. The population for repeated measurement survey was 1,870 bachelor students from a public university. Two sets of questionnaire (identical items, one with 7-point Likert scale and another with RO scale, were distributed to a sample of 595 bachelor students chosen using stratified random sampling method. Data were analyzed descriptively using SPSS version 20 and structural equation modeling using AMOS version 21. Results showed that data from RO scale performed better than data from 7-point Likert scale in terms of number of items per construct, factor loadings, squared multiple correlations, higher ratio of degrees of freedom to number of parameters, and higher reliability coefficients. In terms of validity coefficients, measurement models from both data sets attained almost the same level of discriminant and construct validity. Further studies are recommended to elicit the strength and weakness of RO scale to identify the situations where it is most suitable.

  3. Organizational Health and Higher Education: Concept and Measurement Scale Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingele, William E.; Lyden, Julie A.; Vaughan, Beverly J.

    2001-01-01

    A scale to measure higher education institutions' organizational health was developed and tested using 198 survey responses. Scale dimensions include communication adequacy, participation/involvement, commitment/loyalty, morale, external reputation, ethics, performance recognition, goal alignment, leadership, development, and resource use.…

  4. Cavitation erosion size scale effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. V.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Size scaling in cavitation erosion is a major problem confronting the design engineers of modern high speed machinery. An overview and erosion data analysis presented in this paper indicate that the size scale exponent n in the erosion rate relationship as a function of the size or diameter can vary from 1.7 to 4.9 depending on the type of device used. There is, however, a general agreement as to the values of n if the correlations are made with constant cavitation number.

  5. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick David [US Geological Survey, Storrs, CT (United States); Singha, Kamini [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haggerty, Roy [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Binley, Andrew [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom); Lane, John W. [US Geological Survey, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2014-11-25

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3

  6. Measurement of returns to scale in radial DEA models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivonozhko, V. E.; Lychev, A. V.; Førsund, F. R.

    2017-01-01

    A general approach is proposed in order to measure returns to scale and scale elasticity at projections points in the radial data envelopment analysis (DEA) models. In the first stage, a relative interior point belonging to the optimal face is found using a special, elaborated method. In previous work it was proved that any relative interior point of a face has the same returns to scale as any other interior point of this face. In the second stage, we propose to determine the returns to scale at the relative interior point found in the first stage.

  7. Effects of gender difference and birth order on perceived parenting styles, measured by the EMBU scale, in Japanese two-sibling subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, T; Uehara, T; Kadowaki, M; Tang, S W; Takahashi, S

    2000-02-01

    The relationship between Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppforstran (EMBU) scaling and gender, birth order and parents' gender was previously investigated in a large volunteer sample; significant interactions among the variables were found. In the present study, 730 Japanese volunteers with one sibling were used as subjects in order to control the number of siblings: the effect of gender of subjects and siblings and birth order on the perceived parenting style was examined. Based on gender and birth orders, 730 subjects were grouped into the following categories: (i) male with a younger brother; (ii) male with a younger sister; (iii) male with an older brother; (iv) male with an older sister; (v) female with a younger brother; (vi) female with a younger sister; (vii) female with an older brother; and (viii) female with an older sister. One-way ANOVA was performed with each EMBU subscale used as a dependent variable and these eight groups as independent variables. The scores for rejection and emotional warmth of father were influenced significantly by the pattern of siblings (P<0.006 and P<0.0012, respectively), and scores for emotional warmth of mother were influenced significantly by the pattern of siblings (P<0.0012). The elder male children strongly experienced parenting style as more rejecting than others, and female children (elder sisters with brother, or younger sisters with sister) recognized parenting style as more caring and demonstrated more warmth than others. The results confirmed a significant interaction of gender of subjects and siblings and birth order of perceived parental rearing behavior.

  8. Interpreting large-scale redshift-space distortion measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samushia, L.; Percival, W. J.; Raccanelli, A.

    2012-03-01

    The simplest theory describing large-scale redshift-space distortions (RSD), based on linear theory and distant galaxies, depends on the growth of cosmological structure, suggesting that strong tests of general relativity can be constructed from galaxy surveys. As data sets become larger and the expected constraints more precise, the extent to which the RSD follow the simple theory needs to be assessed in order that we do not introduce systematic errors into the tests by introducing inaccurate simplifying assumptions. We study the impact of the sample geometry, non-linear processes and biases induced by our lack of understanding of the radial galaxy distribution on RSD measurements. Using Large Suite of Dark Matter Simulations of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) luminous red galaxy data, these effects are shown to be important at the level of 20 per cent. Including them, we can accurately model the recovered clustering in these mock catalogues on scales 30-200 h-1 Mpc. Applying this analysis to robustly measure parameters describing the growth history of the Universe from the SDSS-II data gives f(z= 0.25)σ8(z= 0.25) = 0.3512 ± 0.0583 and f(z= 0.37)σ8(z= 0.37) = 0.4602 ± 0.0378 when no prior is imposed on the growth rate, and the background geometry is assumed to follow a Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)+Type Ia supernova priors. The standard WMAP constrained ΛCDM model with general relativity predicts f(z= 0.25)σ8(z= 0.25) = 0.4260 ± 0.0141 and f(z= 0.37)σ8(z= 0.37) = 0.4367 ± 0.0136, which is fully consistent with these measurements.

  9. Dalhousie dyspnea scales: construct and content validity of pictorial scales for measuring dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pianosi Paul T

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because there are no child-friendly, validated, self-report measures of dyspnea or breathlessness, we developed, and provided initial validation, of three, 7-item, pictorial scales depicting three sub-constructs of dyspnea: throat closing, chest tightness, and effort. Methods We developed the three scales (Throat closing, Chest tightness, and Effort using focus groups with 25 children. Subsequently, seventy-nine children (29 children with asthma, 30 children with cystic fibrosis. and 20 children who were healthy aged 6 to 18 years rated each picture in each series, using a 0–10 scale. In addition, each child placed each picture in each series on a 100-cm long Visual Analogue Scale, with the anchors "not at all" and "a lot". Results Children aged eight years or older rated the scales in the correct order 75% to 98% correctly, but children less than 8 years of age performed unreliably. The mean distance between each consecutive item in each pictorial scale was equal. Conclusion Preliminary results revealed that children aged 8 to 18 years understood and used these three scales measuring throat closing, chest tightness, and effort appropriately. The scales appear to accurately measure the construct of breathlessness, at least at an interval level. Additional research applying these scales to clinical situations is warranted.

  10. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Tim; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-01-16

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3

  11. Statistical measures of Planck scale signal correlations in interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Craig J. [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kwon, Ohkyung [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-22

    A model-independent statistical framework is presented to interpret data from systems where the mean time derivative of positional cross correlation between world lines, a measure of spreading in a quantum geometrical wave function, is measured with a precision smaller than the Planck time. The framework provides a general way to constrain possible departures from perfect independence of classical world lines, associated with Planck scale bounds on positional information. A parametrized candidate set of possible correlation functions is shown to be consistent with the known causal structure of the classical geometry measured by an apparatus, and the holographic scaling of information suggested by gravity. Frequency-domain power spectra are derived that can be compared with interferometer data. As a result, simple projections of sensitivity for specific experimental set-ups suggests that measurements will directly yield constraints on a universal time derivative of the correlation function, and thereby confirm or rule out a class of Planck scale departures from classical geometry.

  12. Anomalous scaling of stochastic processes and the Moses effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijian; Bassler, Kevin E; McCauley, Joseph L; Gunaratne, Gemunu H

    2017-04-01

    The state of a stochastic process evolving over a time t is typically assumed to lie on a normal distribution whose width scales like t^{1/2}. However, processes in which the probability distribution is not normal and the scaling exponent differs from 1/2 are known. The search for possible origins of such "anomalous" scaling and approaches to quantify them are the motivations for the work reported here. In processes with stationary increments, where the stochastic process is time-independent, autocorrelations between increments and infinite variance of increments can cause anomalous scaling. These sources have been referred to as the Joseph effect and the Noah effect, respectively. If the increments are nonstationary, then scaling of increments with t can also lead to anomalous scaling, a mechanism we refer to as the Moses effect. Scaling exponents quantifying the three effects are defined and related to the Hurst exponent that characterizes the overall scaling of the stochastic process. Methods of time series analysis that enable accurate independent measurement of each exponent are presented. Simple stochastic processes are used to illustrate each effect. Intraday financial time series data are analyzed, revealing that their anomalous scaling is due only to the Moses effect. In the context of financial market data, we reiterate that the Joseph exponent, not the Hurst exponent, is the appropriate measure to test the efficient market hypothesis.

  13. Anomalous scaling of stochastic processes and the Moses effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijian; Bassler, Kevin E.; McCauley, Joseph L.; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

    2017-04-01

    The state of a stochastic process evolving over a time t is typically assumed to lie on a normal distribution whose width scales like t1/2. However, processes in which the probability distribution is not normal and the scaling exponent differs from 1/2 are known. The search for possible origins of such "anomalous" scaling and approaches to quantify them are the motivations for the work reported here. In processes with stationary increments, where the stochastic process is time-independent, autocorrelations between increments and infinite variance of increments can cause anomalous scaling. These sources have been referred to as the Joseph effect and the Noah effect, respectively. If the increments are nonstationary, then scaling of increments with t can also lead to anomalous scaling, a mechanism we refer to as the Moses effect. Scaling exponents quantifying the three effects are defined and related to the Hurst exponent that characterizes the overall scaling of the stochastic process. Methods of time series analysis that enable accurate independent measurement of each exponent are presented. Simple stochastic processes are used to illustrate each effect. Intraday financial time series data are analyzed, revealing that their anomalous scaling is due only to the Moses effect. In the context of financial market data, we reiterate that the Joseph exponent, not the Hurst exponent, is the appropriate measure to test the efficient market hypothesis.

  14. A tool for cost-effectiveness analysis of field scale sediment-bound phosphorus mitigation measures and application to analysis of spatial and temporal targeting in the Lunan Water catchment, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinten, Andy; Sample, James; Ibiyemi, Adekunle; Abdul-Salam, Yakubu; Stutter, Marc

    2017-05-15

    The cost-effectiveness of six edge-of-field measures for mitigating diffuse pollution from sediment bound phosphorus (P) runoff from temperate arable farmland is analysed at catchment/field scales. These measures were: buffer strips, permanent grassland in the lowest 7% of arable fields, dry detention bunds, wetlands, and temporary barriers such as sediment fences. Baseline field P export was estimated using export coefficients (low risk crops) or a modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (high risk crops). The impact of measures was estimated using simple equations. Costs were estimated from gross margin losses or local data on grants. We used a net cost:benefit (NCB) factor to normalise the costs and impacts of each measure over time. Costs minimisation for target impact was done using PuLP, a linear programming module for Python, across 1634 riparian and non-riparian fields in the Lunan Water, a mixed arable catchment in Eastern Scotland. With all measures in place, average cost-effectiveness increases from £9 to £48/kg P as target P mitigation increases from 500 to 2500kg P across the catchment. Costs increase significantly when the measures available are restricted only to those currently eligible for government grants (buffers, bunds and wetlands). The assumed orientation of the average field slope makes a strong difference to the potential for storage of water by bunds and overall cost-effectiveness, but the non-funded measures can substitute for the extra expense incurred by bunds, where the slope orientation is not suitable. Economic discounting over time of impacts and costs of measures favours those measures, such as sediment fences, which are strongly targeted both spatially and temporally. This tool could be a useful guide for dialogue with land users about the potential fields to target for mitigation to achieve catchment targets. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of the scale for measuring fear from obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoiljković Danica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity represents cumulation of adipose tissue to the extent that it decreases physical activity and psychosocial well-being, and Body Mass Index is > 30. In obese males adipose tissue makes 20% or more of the total body weight, while this percentage in females is 25%. According to epidemiological data more than half of the adult population of Serbia (54% has a problem with obesity or pre-obesity. Objective: The aim of this study was creation of a questionnaire which will measure fear of obesity reliably and accurately. Materials and Methods: The study involved the students of medicine and pharmacy from all years at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac. They were offered to express their level of agreement with the statements from the survey (21 in total using a Likert scale, which provided seven answers. After collecting the data, a statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 18. Results: Within the first reliability analysis, a correlation matrix was constructed, which was used to assess whether any of the questions should be eliminated. The value of Cronbach's alpha was 0.871. After the exploratory factor analysis, five factors were revealed: fear, social effects, avoiding meals, eating habits and diet. Conclusion: The questionnaire created in this study measures fear from obesity with satisfactory reliability, but further studies are necessary to test its validity.

  16. Whole animal measurements of shear and adhesive forces in adult tree frogs: insights into underlying mechanisms of adhesion obtained from studying the effects of size and scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, W Jon P; Oines, Christine; Smith, Joanna M

    2006-11-01

    This allometric study of adhesion in 15 Trinidadian tree frog species investigates how relationships between length, area and mass limit the ability of adult frog species of different sizes to adhere to inclined and overhanging surfaces. Our experiments show that hylid frogs possess an area-based wet adhesive system in which larger species are lighter than expected from isometry and adhere better than expected from their toe pad area. However, in spite of these adaptations, larger species adhere less well than smaller species. In addition to these adhesive forces, tree frogs also generate significant shear forces that scale with mass, suggesting that they are frictional forces. Toe pads detach by peeling and frogs have strategies to prevent peeling from taking place while they are adhering to surfaces, including orienting themselves head-up on slopes. The scaling of tree frog adhesion is also used to distinguish between different models for adhesion, including classic formulae for capillarity and Stefan adhesion. These classic equations grossly overestimate the adhesive forces that tree frogs produce. More promising are peeling models, designed to predict the pull-off forces of adhesive tape. However, more work is required before we can qualitatively and quantitatively describe the adhesive mechanism of tree frogs.

  17. Outcome Rating Scale and Session Rating Scale in Psychological Practice: Clinical Utility of Ultra-Brief Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alistair; Hemsley, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The validity and reliability of the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS) were evaluated against existing longer measures, including the Outcome Questionnaire-45, Working Alliance Inventory, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Quality of Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and General Self-efficacy Scale. The measures…

  18. Faraday rotation measures in 20 AGN jets at parsec scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko Evgeniya V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present multi wavelength parsec-scale Faraday rotation measure properties of twenty active galactic nuclei, observed with the Very Long Baseline Array simultaneously at 1.4, 1.6, 2.2, 2.4, 4.6, 5.0, 8.1, 8.4 and 15.4 GHz in the full polarization mode. For the observed sources we construct Faraday rotation measure and Faraday-corrected linear polarization maps. Direction of electrical field in the optically thick core regions confirms bimodal distribution. No significant changes of a Faraday rotation measure transverse to the jet direction are found in any of the observed sources. We propose a new magnetic field spatial geometry reconstruction method based on core shift measurements. This technique is applied to the quasar 1004+141. Results indicate an existence of a large scale poloidal magnetic field in the jet of 1004+141.

  19. Measurement in Sensory Modulation: The Sensory Processing Scale Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lucy J.; Sullivan, Jillian C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Sensory modulation issues have a significant impact on participation in daily life. Moreover, understanding phenotypic variation in sensory modulation dysfunction is crucial for research related to defining homogeneous groups and for clinical work in guiding treatment planning. We thus evaluated the new Sensory Processing Scale (SPS) Assessment. METHOD. Research included item development, behavioral scoring system development, test administration, and item analyses to evaluate reliability and validity across sensory domains. RESULTS. Items with adequate reliability (internal reliability >.4) and discriminant validity (p sensory modulation (scale reliability >.90; discrimination between group effect sizes >1.00). This scale has the potential to aid in differential diagnosis of sensory modulation issues. PMID:25184464

  20. Observer bias in randomized clinical trials with measurement scale outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Emanuelsson, Frida

    2013-01-01

    conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials with both blinded and nonblinded assessment of the same measurement scale outcome. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, HighWire Press and Google Scholar for relevant studies. Two...

  1. An attitude scale for measuring language attitudes at South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factor-analytic results are subjected to an item analysis, which allows for the construction of an attitude scale that can be usefully employed to measure the attitudes of L1 African-language students towards the use of African languages as Languages of Learning and Teaching (LOLT) at South African tertiary institutions.

  2. Measuring wildland fire leadership: the crewmember perceived leadership scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis L. Waldron; David P. Schary; Bradley J. Cardinal

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to develop and test a scale used to measure leadership in wildland firefighting using two samples of USA wildland firefighters. The first collection of data occurred in the spring and early summer and consisted of an online survey. The second set of data was collected towards late summer and early fall (autumn). The second set of...

  3. Attitudinal scale measures in Euclidean geometry: what do they ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to look at the two forms of validation, i.e. face validity and construct validity, of an attitudinal scale measuring learners' attitude towards Euclidean geometry. The article teases out elements involved in face and construct validation and then engages in a discourse to highlight and investigate ...

  4. The Satisfaction with Life Scale: : Measurement invariance across immigrant groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponizovsky, Y.; Dimitrova, R.; Schachner, M.K.; Van de Schoot, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined measurement invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) across three immigrant groups, namely, immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel, Turkish-Bulgarians, and Turkish-Germans. The results demonstrate

  5. The Satisfaction With Life Scale : Measurement invariance across immigrant groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponizovsky, Y.; Dimitrova, R.; Schachner, M.; van de Schoot, R.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined measurement invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) across three immigrant groups, namely, immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel, Turkish-Bulgarians, and Turkish-Germans. The results demonstrate

  6. Interpretation for scales of measurement linking with abstract algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Jitsuki; Morishita, Shigeru; Ishigooka, Jun

    2014-01-01

    THE STEVENS CLASSIFICATION OF LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT INVOLVES FOUR TYPES OF SCALE: "Nominal", "Ordinal", "Interval" and "Ratio". This classification has been used widely in medical fields and has accomplished an important role in composition and interpretation of scale. With this classification, levels of measurements appear organized and validated. However, a group theory-like systematization beckons as an alternative because of its logical consistency and unexceptional applicability in the natural sciences but which may offer great advantages in clinical medicine. According to this viewpoint, the Stevens classification is reformulated within an abstract algebra-like scheme; 'Abelian modulo additive group' for "Ordinal scale" accompanied with 'zero', 'Abelian additive group' for "Interval scale", and 'field' for "Ratio scale". Furthermore, a vector-like display arranges a mixture of schemes describing the assessment of patient states. With this vector-like notation, data-mining and data-set combination is possible on a higher abstract structure level based upon a hierarchical-cluster form. Using simple examples, we show that operations acting on the corresponding mixed schemes of this display allow for a sophisticated means of classifying, updating, monitoring, and prognosis, where better data mining/data usage and efficacy is expected.

  7. Measuring dietary restraint status: Comparisons between the Dietary Intent Scale and the Restraint Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Boyce

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of young women’s self-reported dietary restraint status is complex. Compared to Herman and Polivy’s commonly utilized Restraint Scale (RS, Stice’s Dietary Intent Scale (DIS is less understood. Because the DIS is becoming a popular research tool, it is important to understand how this scale compares to more traditional measures of restraint. We conducted two correlational studies (Study 1 N = 110; Study 2 N = 216 to ascertain the similarities and the differences between the DIS and - as a comparison measure - the well-researched RS. We explored how the two scales were related to several body image variables (e.g., thin-ideal internalization; with a range of self-regulatory variables (e.g., dispositional self-control; with observed food intake during a taste test; and with 18-month weight change (Study 2 only. Participants were female University students and were not selected for dieting or disordered eating. Unlike RS scores, DIS scores were not significantly correlated with the majority of variables tapping into unsuccessful self-regulation. However, our data also highlighted similarities between the two restraint scales (e.g., association with 18-month weight-loss and demonstrated that not only were participants’ DIS scores un-related to unsuccessful self-regulatory variables, neither were they related to the variables tapping into successful self-regulation.

  8. Measuring Biological Parameters in Rivers: Relevance of the Spatial Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romani, A. M.

    2009-07-01

    The analyses of biological parameters in river ecosystems have been traditionally used as indicative of water quality with the advantage over chemical or physical analyses that they integrate the effects of punctual as well as long term effects. However, analyses of biological parameters (such as biomass and metabolism) performed at different spatial scales (from the microbial communities to the whole river) inform about different key processes. At the finer scale, microbial interactions and the structure of the microbial community (biofilm microbial biomass, three dimensional structure, and relevance of polysaccharide matrix) can be detected. At the reach scale, the different stream bed substrate (sediment, rocks, and particulate organic matter accumulation) are shown to play differential and specific roles on the processing of organic and inorganic materials in the flowing water. (Author)

  9. Impact of measurement uncertainties on universal scaling of MHD turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoberidze, G.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.; Dunlop, M. W.

    2012-10-01

    Quantifying the scaling of fluctuations in the solar wind is central to testing predictions of turbulence theories. We study spectral features of Alfvénic turbulence in fast solar wind. We propose a general, instrument-independent method to estimate the uncertainty in velocity fluctuations obtained by in situ satellite observations in the solar wind. We show that when the measurement uncertainties of the velocity fluctuations are taken into account the less energetic Elsasser spectrum obeys a unique power law scaling throughout the inertial range as prevailing theories of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence predict. Moreover, in the solar wind interval analysed, the two Elsasser spectra are observed to have the same scaling exponent γ = -1.54 throughout the inertial range.

  10. OMI-measured SO2 in a large-scale national energy industrial base and its effect on the capital city of Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinxiang; Mo, Jingyue; Li, Jixiang; Ling, Zaili; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaodong; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Gao, Hong; Shen, Yanjie; Ma, Jianmin

    2017-10-01

    Although considerable efforts have been made to improve air quality in Urumqi city, the capital of Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwestern China and one of the ten cities with worst air quality in China, this city is still experiencing heavy air pollution during the wintertime. The satellite remote sensing of air quality using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measured data discerned an increasing trend of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) columns of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Midong national petrochemical and coal chemical industry base from 2005 to 2016, located in the northeast of Urumqi. The increasing trend of OMI columnar SO2 in this area is in contrast to the widespread decreases in SO2 emissions in eastern and southern China. This is mainly induced by rapid development in the energy industry in this region over the past decade under the national strategy for energy industry expansion and relocation to northwestern China. We observed a significant correlation of OMI columnar SO2 between this energy industrial base and Urumqi city in winter (R = 0.504, p energy industrial base exacerbated the air quality in Urumqi city. The Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry (WRF-Chem) modeling confirms that the occurrence of heavy smog in this capital city during the wintertime was attributed primarily to strong emissions of air contaminants from the energy industrial base under favorable winds. A numerical case study with and without taking the Midong Industry Base into consideration revealed that this industry base contributed 38% to the SO2 level in Urumqi city, offsetting the considerable efforts made by the local government to improve air quality in this city.

  11. [Measuring job satisfaction: development of a multidimensional scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraci, Palmira; Valenti, Giusy

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been done on the topic ofjob satisfaction, as regards the Italian research, the construction of specific psychometric instruments is lacking. The present paper is aimed to develop a scale to measure job satisfaction referring to our cultural context. Participants were 222 workers (36.5% males, 63.5% females) with an average age of 38.39 years (SD = 10.91). The formulated items were selected from a large item pool on the basis of the evaluation by a group of expert judges, and the item analysis procedure. In order to establish test validity, the following instruments were also administered: Occupational Stress Indicator, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Beck Depression Inventory. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses highlighted a 6-factor structure. Those factors were responsible for 51.30% of the total variance. Reliability analyses indicated satisfying internal consistency (ranging from alpha = .73 to alpha = .86). Construct validity was supported by results obtained calculating correlations with the theoretically associated variables. Our findings suggest promising psychometric properties for the presented measure. The instrument could be used in specific programs developed to promote well-being conditions in work settings.

  12. Strain measurements in thermally grown alumina scales using ruby fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veal, B.W.; Natesan, K.; Koshelev, I.; Grimsditch, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Renusch, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]/[Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States); Hou, P.Y. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We have measured strains in alumina scales thermally grown on Fe-Cr- Al alloys by exploiting the strain dependence of the ruby luminescence line. Measurements were done on Fe-5Cr-28Al and Fe-18Cr-10Al (at.%, bal. Fe) oxidized between 300-1300 C with periodic cycling to room temperature. Significantly different levels of strain buildup were observed in scales on these alloys. Results on similar alloys containing a dilute reactive element (Zr or Hf) are also presented. We observe that scales on alloys containing a reactive element (RE) can support higher strains than scales on RE-free alloys. With the luminescence technique, strain relief associated with spallation thresholds is readily observed. In early stage oxidation, the evolution of transition phases is monitored using Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies. The fluorescence technique also provides a sensitive probe of early stage formation of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. It appears that, in presence of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the {alpha}-alumina phase can form at anomalously low temperatures.

  13. Large-scale CO2 measurement campaigns in Danish schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Toftum, Jørn; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    In two large measurement campaigns performed in 2009 and 2014 more than 1500 spot measurements of CO2 were made by pupils in Danish primary school classes. In 2009 56% of the measurements exceeded the recommended value of 1000 ppm CO2. This percentage had increased to 60% in 2014. Changing...... the behaviour of the pupils had a positive effect, as the proportion of classrooms exceeding 1000 ppm CO2 in separate measurement (students outside and airing in the break preceding the measurement lesson in which the measurement was made) was 39%. The principle of ventilation had a substantial impact...

  14. Development of a visual analogue scale to measure curriculum outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Diana K

    2008-05-01

    All facets of nursing education are more often being held accountable for outcomes, yet measures that accurately capture those outcomes may not be available. This article describes the development of instruments to measure the two outcomes of communication and critical thinking for the culminating assignment in master's programs. Visual analogue scales are adaptable instruments that capture subjective phenomena, permit quantification of those phenomena, and produce at least interval-level data. These instruments have been used for several years to help evaluate outcomes in master's programs and have consistently produced evidence of reliability and validity.

  15. Cosmological constraints from large-scale structure growth rate measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Anatoly; Farooq, Omer; Ratra, Bharat

    2014-07-01

    We compile a list of 14 independent measurements of a large-scale structure growth rate between redshifts 0.067≤z≤0.8 and use this to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving general-relativistic dark energy cosmologies. With the assumption that gravity is well modeled by general relativity, we discover that growth-rate data provide restrictive cosmological parameter constraints. In combination with type Ia supernova apparent magnitude versus redshift data and Hubble parameter measurements, the growth rate data are consistent with the standard spatially flat ΛCDM model, as well as with mildly evolving dark energy density cosmological models.

  16. A large-scale study of a measure against soil gas radon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, E.R.; de Meijer, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a large-scale study (50 single family houses with a crawl space) on the effectiveness of using a foil on the crawl space floor in combination with a Sub-Foil Air Removal (SFAR) system as a measure for reducing indoor radon concentrations. Radon measurements in both

  17. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    imprecise when compared to quantitative measures. Document development  Plan completed  Research completed  Draft complete  Draft peer -reviewed... tutoring resources and internship placements Additional Information: The “young veterans” were interviewed about the proposed intervention. Two concerns

  18. Inlet Turbulence and Length Scale Measurements in a Large Scale Transonic Turbine Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Douglas; Flegel, Ashlie; Giel, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Constant temperature hotwire anemometry data were acquired to determine the inlet turbulence conditions of a transonic turbine blade linear cascade. Flow conditions and angles were investigated that corresponded to the take-off and cruise conditions of the Variable Speed Power Turbine (VSPT) project and to an Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) scaled rotor blade tip section. Mean and turbulent flowfield measurements including intensity, length scale, turbulence decay, and power spectra were determined for high and low turbulence intensity flows at various Reynolds numbers and spanwise locations. The experimental data will be useful for establishing the inlet boundary conditions needed to validate turbulence models in CFD codes.

  19. An absolute scale for measuring the utility of money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of the utility of money is essential in the insurance industry, for prioritising public spending schemes and for the evaluation of decisions on protection systems in high-hazard industries. Up to this time, however, there has been no universally agreed measure for the utility of money, with many utility functions being in common use. In this paper, we shall derive a single family of utility functions, which have risk-aversion as the only free parameter. The fact that they return a utility of zero at their low, reference datum, either the utility of no money or of one unit of money, irrespective of the value of risk-aversion used, qualifies them to be regarded as absolute scales for the utility of money. Evidence of validation for the concept will be offered based on inferential measurements of risk-aversion, using diverse measurement data.

  20. Measuring and tuning energy efficiency on large scale high performance computing platforms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laros, James H., III

    2011-08-01

    Recognition of the importance of power in the field of High Performance Computing, whether it be as an obstacle, expense or design consideration, has never been greater and more pervasive. While research has been conducted on many related aspects, there is a stark absence of work focused on large scale High Performance Computing. Part of the reason is the lack of measurement capability currently available on small or large platforms. Typically, research is conducted using coarse methods of measurement such as inserting a power meter between the power source and the platform, or fine grained measurements using custom instrumented boards (with obvious limitations in scale). To collect the measurements necessary to analyze real scientific computing applications at large scale, an in-situ measurement capability must exist on a large scale capability class platform. In response to this challenge, we exploit the unique power measurement capabilities of the Cray XT architecture to gain an understanding of power use and the effects of tuning. We apply these capabilities at the operating system level by deterministically halting cores when idle. At the application level, we gain an understanding of the power requirements of a range of important DOE/NNSA production scientific computing applications running at large scale (thousands of nodes), while simultaneously collecting current and voltage measurements on the hosting nodes. We examine the effects of both CPU and network bandwidth tuning and demonstrate energy savings opportunities of up to 39% with little or no impact on run-time performance. Capturing scale effects in our experimental results was key. Our results provide strong evidence that next generation large-scale platforms should not only approach CPU frequency scaling differently, but could also benefit from the capability to tune other platform components, such as the network, to achieve energy efficient performance.

  1. Measurement of the calorimetric energy scale in MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartnell, Jeffrey J. [St. John' s College, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. A neutrino beam is created at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois and fired down through the Earth. Measurements of the energy spectra and composition of the neutrino beam are made both at the source using the Near detector and 735 km away at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota using the Far detector. By comparing the spectrum and flavour composition of the neutrino beam between the two detectors neutrino oscillations can be observed. Such a comparison depends on the accuracy of the relative calorimetric energy scale. This thesis details a precise measurement of the calorimetric energy scale of the MINOS Far detector and Calibration detector using stopping muons with a new ''track window'' technique. These measurements are used to perform the relative calibration between the two detectors. This calibration has been accomplished to 1.7% in data and to significantly better than 2% in the Monte Carlo simulation, thus achieving the MINOS relative calibration target of 2%. A number of cross-checks have been performed to ensure the robustness of the calorimetric energy scale measurements. At the Calibration detector the test-beam energy between run periods is found to be consistent with the detector response to better than 2% after the relative calibration is applied. The muon energy loss in the MINOS detectors determined from Bethe-Bloch predictions, data and Monte Carlo are compared and understood. To estimate the systematic error on the measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters caused by a relative miscalibration a study is performed. A 2% relative miscalibration is shown to cause a 0.6% bias in the values of Δm2 and sin2(2θ).

  2. Gender Differences in Validity Scales of Personality Measuring Instruments in Psychiatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindik, Joško; Tremac, Ana Pavelić; Kovačević, Dražen

    2015-06-01

    The main goal of the study was to determine gender differences in validity scales of personality measuring instruments, among the psychiatric patients. Additional goals are to find the differences among male and female psychiatric patients, in relation to their age group, education level and type of psychiatric diagnosis. A total of 331 male and 331 female participants (psychiatric patients) are examined, classified by the categories of diagnosis, as following: Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-F29), Mood (affective) disorders (F30-F39); Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders neurotic, (F40-F48) and Disorders of adult personality and behavior (F60-F69). Four control scales are applied: Lie Scale (MMPIL or L scale), Scale of bizarre and confusing thinking (MMPIF or F scale) K scale of Defensiveness (MMPIK), together with Bias-scale in Plutchik's Emotion Profile Index (EPI). Three-factorial MANOVA was used in the analysis of the main effects, while non-parametric tests in the analysis of differences for each independent variable. Results reflect characteristic statistically significant gender differences in validity scales of personality measuring instruments, in most of the independent variables (the main effects are found for the level of education and age group). These results were interpreted within the theoretical framework of simulation and dissimulation.

  3. Criterion validation of a stress measure: the Stress Overload Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhan, James H; Urizar, Guido G; Clark, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Validating stress scales poses problems beyond those of other psychological measures. Here, 3 studies were conducted to address those problems and assess the criterion validity of scores from a new theory-derived measure, the Stress Overload Scale (SOS; Amirkhan, 2012). In Study 1, the SOS was tested for its ability to predict postsemester illness in a sample of college students (n = 127). Even with precautions to minimize criterion contamination, scores were found to predict health problems in the month following a final exam on all of 5 different criteria. In Study 2, a community sample (n = 231) was used to test the SOS' ability to differentiate people in stressful circumstances from those in more relaxed contexts. SOS scores demonstrated excellent sensitivity (96%) and specificity (100%) in this general population application. In Study 3, the SOS was tested for its ability to differentiate salivary cortisol responses to a laboratory stressor in a group of pregnant women (n = 40). High scores were found to be associated with a blunted cortisol response, which is indicative of HPA-axis overload and typical of persons suffering chronic stress and stress-related pathology. Across all 3 studies, despite variations in the stressor, criterion, population, and methods, SOS scores emerged as valid indicators of stress. However, each study also introduced new problems that beg additional corrective steps in future stress-scale validity tests. These strategies, and the SOS' utility as a research and diagnostic tool in varied applications and populations, are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Scaling Effects on Materials Tribology: From Macro to Micro Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Pantcho; Chromik, Richard R.

    2017-01-01

    The tribological study of materials inherently involves the interaction of surface asperities at the micro to nanoscopic length scales. This is the case for large scale engineering applications with sliding contacts, where the real area of contact is made up of small contacting asperities that make up only a fraction of the apparent area of contact. This is why researchers have sought to create idealized experiments of single asperity contacts in the field of nanotribology. At the same time, small scale engineering structures known as micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) have been developed, where the apparent area of contact approaches the length scale of the asperities, meaning the real area of contact for these devices may be only a few asperities. This is essentially the field of microtribology, where the contact size and/or forces involved have pushed the nature of the interaction between two surfaces towards the regime where the scale of the interaction approaches that of the natural length scale of the features on the surface. This paper provides a review of microtribology with the purpose to understand how tribological processes are different at the smaller length scales compared to macrotribology. Studies of the interfacial phenomena at the macroscopic length scales (e.g., using in situ tribometry) will be discussed and correlated with new findings and methodologies at the micro-length scale. PMID:28772909

  5. Scaling Effects on Materials Tribology: From Macro to Micro Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Pantcho; Chromik, Richard R

    2017-05-18

    The tribological study of materials inherently involves the interaction of surface asperities at the micro to nanoscopic length scales. This is the case for large scale engineering applications with sliding contacts, where the real area of contact is made up of small contacting asperities that make up only a fraction of the apparent area of contact. This is why researchers have sought to create idealized experiments of single asperity contacts in the field of nanotribology. At the same time, small scale engineering structures known as micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) have been developed, where the apparent area of contact approaches the length scale of the asperities, meaning the real area of contact for these devices may be only a few asperities. This is essentially the field of microtribology, where the contact size and/or forces involved have pushed the nature of the interaction between two surfaces towards the regime where the scale of the interaction approaches that of the natural length scale of the features on the surface. This paper provides a review of microtribology with the purpose to understand how tribological processes are different at the smaller length scales compared to macrotribology. Studies of the interfacial phenomena at the macroscopic length scales (e.g., using in situ tribometry) will be discussed and correlated with new findings and methodologies at the micro-length scale.

  6. Concordance of In-Home "Smart" Scale Measurement with Body Weight Measured In-Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn M; Wing, Rena R

    2016-06-01

    Newer "smart" scales that transmit participants' body weights directly to data collection centers offer the opportunity to simplify weight assessment in weight management research; however, little data exist on the concordance of these data compared to weights measured at in-person assessments. We compared the weights of 58 participants (mean±SD BMI = 31.6±4.8, age = 52.1±9.7 years, 86.2% White, 65.5% Female) measured by study staff at an in-person assessment visit to weights measured on the same day at home using BodyTrace "smart" scales. These measures occurred after 3 months of an internet-based weight management intervention. Weight (mean±SD) measured at the 3-month in-person assessment visit was 81.5±14.7kg compared to 80.4±14.5kg measured on the same day using in-home body weight scales; mean bias =1.1±0.8kg, 95% limits of agreement = -0.5 to 2.6. Two outliers in the data suggest that there may be greater variability between measurements for participants weighing above 110 kg. Results suggest good concordance between the measurements and support the use of the BodyTrace smart scale in weight management research. Future trials using BodyTrace scales for outcome assessment should clearly define protocols for measurement and associated instructions to participants (e.g., instruct individuals to weigh at the same time of day, similarly clothed). Finally, measure concordance should be investigated in a group of individuals weighing more than 110kg.

  7. Effectively Measuring Student Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Z. Posner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With a worldwide sample of students (N = 77, 387, this paper reviews and analyses the psychometric properties of the Student Leadership Practices Inventory [1]. Modest to strong internal reliability coefficients are found across a number of different dimensions. Predictive validity of the instrument is supported, with the instrument being able to differentiate between effective and ineffective leaders using both self-reported and observer (constituent data. Few significant differences are found on the basis of respondent gender, ethnicity, nationality, or institutional level (high school versus college. Implications for developing student leaders and future research are offered.

  8. Small Scale Turbulence Measurements in Shallow Florida Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanak, Manhar R.; Holappa, Ken

    1997-11-01

    Small scale oceanic turbulence measurements, made during winter in 18m deep waters off the east coast of Florida using two shear probes mounted on board an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), are described. The measurements were made over a substantial region as the AUV dived to a depth of 9m while moving forward at 1m/s. The velocity spectra from the probes, which were mounted in close proximity of each other and which measured the two cross-stream velocity components, agree well with each other and with the Nasmyth spectrum. Dissipation rates in the range ɛ = O (10-8 - 10-9) W/kg were measured. Analysis shows that the gathered data are of high quality and suggests that the use of a small AUV, whose self noise is well isolated from the measurement platform, promises to be an inexpensive, practical way of making a four-dimensional survey of significant regions of the ocean. The statistics of homogeneous turbulence, based on current measurements, will be discussed.

  9. Biogenic Emission Inventories: Scaling Local Biogenic Measurements to Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, B.; Pressley, S.; Westberg, H.; Guenther, A.

    2002-12-01

    Biogenic Hydrocarbons, such as isoprene, are important trace gas species that are naturally emitted by vegetation and that affect the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Biogenic emissions are regulated by many environmental variables; the most important variables are thought to be temperature and light. Long-term isoprene flux measurements are useful for verifying existing canopy models and exploring other correlations between isoprene fluxes and environmental parameters. Biogenic Emission Models, such as BEIS (Biogenic Emission Inventory System) rely on above canopy environmental parameters and below canopy scaling factors to estimate canopy scale biogenic hydrocarbon fluxes. Other models, which are more complex, are coupled micrometeorological and physiological modules that provide feedback mechanisms present in a canopy environment. These types of models can predict biogenic emissions well, however, the required input is extensive, and for regional applications, they can be cumbersome. This paper presents analyses based on long-term isoprene flux measurements that have been collected since 1999 at the AmeriFlux site located at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) as part of the Program for Research on Oxidants: PHotochemistry, Emissions, and Transport (PROPHET). The goals of this research were to explore a potential relationship between the surface energy budget (primarily sensible heat flux) and isoprene emissions. Our hypothesis is that the surface energy flux is a better model parameter for isoprene emissions at the canopy scale than temperature and light levels, and the link to the surface energy budget will provide a significant improvement in isoprene emission models. Preliminary results indicate a significant correlation between daily isoprene emissions and sensible heat fluxes for a predominantly aspen/oak stand located in northern Michigan. Since surface energy budgets are an integral part of mesoscale meteorological models, this

  10. Back to the basics: Birmingham, Alabama, measurement and scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, L.R.; Lockwood, C.M.; Handley, N.

    2005-01-01

    Back to the Basics: Birmingham, Alabama is the fourth in a series of workshops that focus on teaching foundational map reading and spatial differentiation skills. It is the second published exercise from the Back to the Basics series developed by the Wetland Education through Maps and Aerial Photography (WETMAAP) Program (see Journal of Geography 103, 5: 226-230). Like its predecessor, the current exercise is modified from the Birmingham Back to the Basics workshop offered during the annual National Council for Geographic Education meeting. The focus of this exercise is on scale and measurement, foundational skills for spatial thinking and analysis. ?? 2005 National Council for Geographic Education.

  11. Methodological problems in the measurement of pain: a comparison between the verbal rating scale and the visual analogue scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnhaus, E E; Adler, R

    1975-12-01

    The effect of analgesics on pathological pain in a double-blind, complete cross-over design was assessed by means of two rating scales, a verbal rating scale (VRS) and visual analogue scale (VAS). The VRS is widely used, but has several disadvantages as compared to the VAS. The results obtained by means of the VRS showed higher F-ratios (analysis of variance and Kruskall-Wallis H-test) than those obtained by means of the VAS. The VRS, which transfers a continuous feeling into a digital system, seems to augment artificially the measurement of effects produced by analgesics, and the VAS seems to assess more closely what a patient actually experiences with respect to change in pain intensities. The correlation between the two scales was highly significant (r = 0.81, P less than 0.001). The calculated regression line (y=-29.6 + 0.55-x) was not similar to the line of identity and showed much lower values for the VAS, supporting our interpretation. The distribution of the variances of the values obtained by means of both scales was not homogenous. This indicates that the homogeneity of the distribution of variances should always be checked and a Kruskall-Wallis H-test used, if they are inhomogenously distributed.

  12. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS as outcome measure for hormone treatment? A validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnitker Jörg

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The Menopause Rating Scale is a health-related Quality of Life scale developed in the early 1990s and step-by-step validated since then. No methodologically detailed work on the utility of the scale to assess health-related changes after treatment was published before. Method We analysed an open, uncontrolled post-marketing study with over 9000 women with pre- and post-treatment data of the MRS scale to critically evaluate the capacity of the scale to measure the health-related effects of hormone treatment independent from the severity of complaints at baseline. Results The improvement of complaints during treatment relative to the baseline score was 36% in average. Patients with little/no complaints before therapy improved by 11%, those with mild complaints at entry by 32%, with moderate by 44%, and with severe symptoms by 55% – compared with the baseline score. We showed that the distribution of complaints in women before therapy returned to norm values after 6 months of hormone treatment. We also provided weak evidence that the MRS results may well predict the assessment of the treating physician. Limitations of the study, however, may have lead to overestimating the utility of the MRS scale as outcome measure. Conclusion The MRS scale showed some evidence for its ability to measure treatment effects on quality of life across the full range of severity of complaints in aging women. This however needs confirmation in other and better-designed clinical/outcome studies.

  13. Performance Measurement and Analysis of Large-Scale Parallel Applications on Leadership Computing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wylie, Brian J. N.; Markus Geimer; Felix Wolf

    2008-01-01

    Developers of applications with large-scale computing requirements are currently presented with a variety of high-performance systems optimised for message-passing, however, effectively exploiting the available computing resources remains a major challenge. In addition to fundamental application scalability characteristics, application and system peculiarities often only manifest at extreme scales, requiring highly scalable performance measurement and analysis tools that are convenient to inc...

  14. Large-scale free surface measurement for the analysis of ship waves in a towing tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomit, Guillaume; Chatellier, Ludovic; Calluaud, Damien; David, Laurent; Fréchou, Didier; Boucheron, Romuald; Perelman, Olivier; Hubert, Christian

    2015-10-01

    This paper is presenting an optical method for free surface measurement of a stationary flow suitable for large-scale experiments in a large towing tank. The new measurement device is based on the projection of laser beams on the surface of the fluid and on the use of a stereoscopic system. The principle of the method is to detect the impact of the laser beams on the air/water interface in order to determine the height of the surface by triangulation for a given number of positions. This method is applied to the measurement of the stationary wave field around a ship model at 1/10th scale. The paper also emphasizes that for low Froude numbers, (( F L = U/√( gL), where U is the ship velocity and L the ship length), the effects of the scale on the flow characteristics are limited. These scale effects are studied by comparison with measurements taken in a smaller towing tank around the same ship model at scale 1/77.5. The free surface and the velocity field near the hull at the two scales are compared.

  15. Measuring large-scale social networks with high resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Sekara, Vedran; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Cuttone, Andrea; Madsen, Mette My; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years-the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics) for a densely connected population of 1000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. The paper is concluded with early results from data analysis, illustrating the importance of multi-channel high-resolution approach to data collection.

  16. Measuring large-scale social networks with high resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Stopczynski

    Full Text Available This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years-the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics for a densely connected population of 1000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. The paper is concluded with early results from data analysis, illustrating the importance of multi-channel high-resolution approach to data collection.

  17. Large scale intender test program to measure sub gouge displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Been, Ken; Lopez, Juan [Golder Associates Inc, Houston, TX (United States); Sancio, Rodolfo [MMI Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The production of submarine pipelines in an offshore environment covered with ice is very challenging. Several precautions must be taken such as burying the pipelines to protect them from ice movement caused by gouging. The estimation of the subgouge displacements is a key factor in pipeline design for ice gouged environments. This paper investigated a method to measure subgouge displacements. An experimental program was implemented in an open field to produce large scale idealized gouges on engineered soil beds (sand and clay). The horizontal force required to produce the gouge, the subgouge displacements in the soil and the strain imposed by these displacements were monitored on a buried model pipeline. The results showed that for a given keel, the gouge depth was inversely proportional to undrained shear strength in clay. The subgouge displacements measured did not show a relationship with the gouge depth, width or soil density in sand and clay tests.

  18. Measuring lateral saturated soil hydraulic conductivity at different spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Prima, Simone; Marrosu, Roberto; Pirastru, Mario; Niedda, Marcello

    2017-04-01

    Among the soil hydraulic properties, saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, Ks, is particularly important since it controls many hydrological processes. Knowledge of this soil property allows estimation of dynamic indicators of the soil's ability to transmit water down to the root zone. Such dynamic indicators are valuable tools to quantify land degradation and developing 'best management' land use practice (Castellini et al., 2016; Iovino et al., 2016). In hillslopes, lateral saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, Ks,l, is a key factor since it controls subsurface flow. However, Ks,l data collected by point-scale measurements, including infiltrations tests, could be unusable for interpreting field hydrological processes and particularly subsurface flow in hillslopes. Therefore, they are generally not representative of subsurface processes at hillslope-scale due mainly to soil heterogeneities and the unknown total extent and connectivity of macropore network in the porous medium. On the other hand, large scale Ks,l measurements, which allow to average soil heterogeneities, are difficult and costly, thus remain rare. Reliable Ks,l values should be measured on a soil volume similar to the representative elementary volume (REV) in order to incorporate the natural heterogeneity of the soil. However, the REV may be considered site-specific since it is expected to increase for soils with macropores (Brooks et al., 2004). In this study, laboratory and in-situ Ks,l values are compared in order to detect the dependency Ks,l from the spatial scale of investigation. The research was carried out at a hillslope located in the Baratz Lake watershed, in northwest Sardinia, Italy, characterized by degraded vegetation (grassland established after fire or clearing of the maquis). The experimental area is about 60 m long, with an extent of approximately 2000 m2, and a mean slope of 30%. The soil depth is about 35 to 45 cm. The parent material is a very dense grayish, altered

  19. From Morisky to Hill-bone; self-reports scales for measuring adherence to medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culig, Josip; Leppée, Marcel

    2014-03-01

    There are a number of approaches to studying medication-taking behavior. Self-report measures have the benefits of being cheap, easy to administer, non-intrusive, and able to provide information on attitudes and beliefs about medication. Potential limitations to self-report are that the ability to understand the items, and willingness to disclose information, can affect response accuracy and, thus, questionnaire validity. A computerized systematic search of the PubMed databases identified articles on scales for medication adherence measuring using the MeSH terms medication adherence, compliance, and persistence combined with the terms questionnaire self-report. Adherence scales have identified mostly in the last few years (2005-2012). One of the main sources has been article (Lavsa et. al) which evaluated literature describing medication adherence surveys/scales to gauge patient behaviors at the point of care. Articles were included if they evaluated or reviewed self-reported adherence medication scale applicable to chronic diseases and with a good coefficient of internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha (alpha)). Articles that contained data about self-report medication adherence scales use were included. A total of about one hundred articles were identified. Of those articles, 20% (20 of 100) were included in the review because of their relevance to the article topic. This article describes various self-report scales by which to monitor medication adherence, their advantages and disadvantages, and discusses the effectiveness of their application at different chronic diseases. There are many self-report scales for measuring medication adherence and their derivatives (or subscales). Due to the different nature of the diseases, there is no gold-standard scale for measuring medication adherence. It can be nevertheless concluded that the nearest to gold-standard is the Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ) scale by Morisky et.al. but we found better

  20. Seebeck effect at the atomic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eui-Sup; Cho, Sanghee; Lyeo, Ho-Ki; Kim, Yong-Hyun

    2014-04-04

    The atomic variations of electronic wave functions at the surface and electron scattering near a defect have been detected unprecedentedly by tracing thermoelectric voltages given a temperature bias [Cho et al., Nat. Mater. 12, 913 (2013)]. Because thermoelectricity, or the Seebeck effect, is associated with heat-induced electron diffusion, how the thermoelectric signal is related to the atomic-scale wave functions and what the role of the temperature is at such a length scale remain very unclear. Here we show that coherent electron and heat transport through a pointlike contact produces an atomic Seebeck effect, which is described by the mesoscopic Seebeck coefficient multiplied by an effective temperature drop at the interface. The mesoscopic Seebeck coefficient is approximately proportional to the logarithmic energy derivative of local density of states at the Fermi energy. We deduced that the effective temperature drop at the tip-sample junction could vary at a subangstrom scale depending on atom-to-atom interaction at the interface. A computer-based simulation method of thermoelectric images is proposed, and a point defect in graphene was identified by comparing experiment and the simulation of thermoelectric imaging.

  1. The Aggression-Submission-Conventionalism Scale: Testing a New Three Factor Measure of Authoritarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip T. Dunwoody

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Altemeyer’s (1981 Right-Wing Authoritarianism scale is the most popular authoritarianism measure today. However, the use of a unidimensional scale to measure a three factor construct and an apparent tautology between items and predictive criteria have garnered criticism. Revisions take one of two main approaches: either they simplify the construct to be unidimensional and create new items or they retain Altemeyer’s three factor theory and alter Altemeyer‘s original items to produce a three factor scale. We combine these two approaches by retaining Altemeyer’s three factor theory while creating new items. Our new measure, the Aggression-Submission-Conventionalism (ASC scale, allows for a test of Altemeyer’s theory divorced of the original items. The ASC scale was designed to maximize discriminant validity while creating less tautological and more politically and religiously neutral items. A total of 649 participants in three convenience samples from the United States completed surveys showing the ASC scale to have good reliability and validity. The ASC scale was found to have similar predictive validity to other three factor scales but superior discriminant validity. Most importantly, we found a clear contribution of all three factors in predicting ethnocentrism, political intolerance, and anti-democratic attitudes. Authoritarian aggression emerged as the most important and consistent predictor with submission and conventionalism effects dependent upon the criterion. The ASC subscales all added unique variance above current unidimensional measures, with aggression consistently adding the most variance. Our findings support Altemeyer’s three factor theory and show that unidimensional measures fail to capture the nuances of our ASC scale.

  2. Measurement of narcolepsy symptoms: The Narcolepsy Severity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Beziat, Severine; Pesenti, Carole; Lopez, Regis; Barateau, Lucie; Carlander, Bertrand; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Morin, Charles M; Billiard, Michel; Jaussent, Isabelle

    2017-04-04

    To validate the Narcolepsy Severity Scale (NSS), a brief clinical instrument to evaluate the severity and consequences of symptoms in patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1). A 15-item scale to assess the frequency and severity of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and disrupted nighttime sleep was developed and validated by sleep experts with patients' feedback. Seventy untreated and 146 treated adult patients with NT1 were evaluated and completed the NSS in a single reference sleep center. The NSS psychometric properties, score changes with treatment, and convergent validity with other clinical parameters were assessed. The NSS showed good psychometric properties with significant item-total score correlations. The factor analysis indicated a 3-factor solution with good reliability, expressed by satisfactory Cronbach α values. The NSS total score temporal stability was good. Significant NSS score differences were observed between untreated and treated patients (dependent sample, 41 patients before and after sleep therapy; independent sample, 29 drug-free and 105 treated patients). Scores were lower in the treated populations (10-point difference between groups), without ceiling effect. Significant correlations were found among NSS total score and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Mean Sleep Latency Test), depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life. The NSS can be considered a reliable and valid clinical tool for the quantification of narcolepsy symptoms to monitor and optimize narcolepsy management. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Plate-scale measurement of interseismic strain from Sentinel-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R. J.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Hatton, E. L.; Hooper, A. J.; Wright, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    The measurement of interseismic crustal deformation at high spatial resolution, with high accuracy and over large geographical areas is critical both for furthering our understanding of the mechanics of continental deformation and for improving forecasts of earthquake hazard, but to-date has been hampered by the limitations of current geodetic datasets. However, the launch of the European Space Agency's new pair of Sentinel-1 radar satellites, with a regular 24 day minimum revisit interval over global tectonic belts, is set to overcome these limitations, enabling global, high-resolution, high-accuracy measurements of crustal velocities from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). Here we make the first demonstration of Sentinel-1's ability to measure interseismic deformation at the tectonic-plate scale. We use the first 2 years of data from the Sentinel-1 mission to measure crustal velocity for a 400,000 km2 area of Turkey, including the majority of the Anatolian microplate and most of the onshore North and East Anatolian Faults (NAF and EAF). We map the westwards motion of Anatolia relative to Eurasia, and the associated strain accumulation along the NAF and EAF, at high spatial resolution. We also use these results as an opportunity to assess the future capability of Sentinel-1 for measuring interseismic deformation. We analyse how the accuracy of our crustal velocity measurements have increased over the last 2 years, and show that this agrees well with theoretical estimates of the temporal evolution of our measurement uncertainties. We use this to predict that for the 100 km lengthscales important for measuring interseismic deformation, uncertainty on InSAR line-of-sight velocities will reach 2 mm/yr within the next year, which is equivalent accuracy to past InSAR studies for this region, and will then rapidly surpass the accuracy that has been possible with previous InSAR datasets. Finally, based on these results, we estimate global detection

  4. Gambling accessibility: a scale to measure gambler preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan M; Thomas, Anna C; Kyrios, Michael; Bates, Glen; Meredyth, Denise

    2011-03-01

    Geographic closeness of gambling venues is not the only aspect of accessibility likely to affect gambling frequency. Perceived accessibility of gambling venues may include other features such as convenience (e.g., opening hours) or "atmosphere". The aim of the current study was to develop a multidimensional measure of gamblers' perceptions of accessibility, and present evidence for its reliability and validity. We surveyed 303 gamblers with 43 items developed to measure different dimensions of accessibility. Factor analysis of the items produced a two factor solution. The first, Social Accessibility related to the level at which gambling venues were enjoyed because they were social places, provided varying entertainment options and had a pleasant atmosphere. The second factor, Accessible Retreat related to the degree to which venues were enjoyed because they were geographically and temporally available and provided a familiar and anonymous retreat with few interruptions or distractions. Both factors, developed as reliable subscales of the new Gambling Access Scale, demonstrated construct validity through their correlations with other gambling-related measures. Social Accessibility was moderately related to gambling frequency and amount spent, but not to problem gambling, while, as hypothesised, Accessible Retreat was associated with stronger urges to gamble and gambling problems.

  5. Scaling beta-delayed neutron measurements to large detector areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanto, F.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2017-08-01

    We explore the performance of a cargo screening system that consists of two large-sized composite scintillation detectors and a high-energy neutron interrogation source by modeling and simulation. The goal of the system is to measure β-delayed neutron emission from an illicit special nuclear material by use of active interrogation. This task is challenging because the β-delayed neutron yield is small in comparison with the yield of the prompt fission secondary products, β-delayed neutrons are emitted with relatively low energies, and high neutron and gamma backgrounds are typically present. Detectors used to measure delayed neutron emission must exhibit high intrinsic efficiency and cover a large solid angle, which also makes them sensitive to background neutron radiation. We present a case study where we attempt to detect the presence of 5 kg-scale quantities of 235U in a standard air-filled cargo container using 14 MeV neutrons as a probe. We find that by using a total measurement time of ˜11.6 s and a dose equivalent of ˜1.7 mrem, the presence of 235U can be detected with false positive and false negative probabilities that are both no larger than 0.1%.

  6. Upscaling hydraulic conductivity from measurement-scale to model-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnink, Jan; Stafleu, Jan; Maljers, Densie; Schokker, Jeroen

    2013-04-01

    The Geological Survey of the Netherlands systematically produces both shallow (uncertainty of the model results to be calculated. One of the parameters that is subsequently assigned to the voxels in the GeoTOP model, is hydraulic conductivity (both horizontal and vertical). Hydraulic conductivities are measured on samples taken from high-quality drillings, which are subjected to falling head hydraulic conductivity tests. Samples are taken for all combinations of lithostratigraphy, facies and lithology that are present in the GeoTOP model. The volume of the samples is orders of magnitude smaller than the volume of a voxel in the GeoTOP model. Apart from that, the heterogeneity that occurs within a voxel is not accounted for in the GeoTOP model, since every voxel gets a single lithology that is deemed representative for the entire voxel To account for both the difference in volume and the within-voxel heterogeneity, an upscaling procedure is developed to produce up-scaled hydraulic conductivities for each GeoTOP voxel. A very fine 3D grid of 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.05 m is created that covers the GeoTOP voxel size (100 x 100 x 0.5 m) plus half of the dimensions of the GeoTOP voxel to counteract undesired edge-effects. It is assumed that the scale of the samples is comparable to the voxel size of this fine grid. For each lithostratigraphy and facies combination the spatial correlation structure (variogram) of the lithological classes is used to create 50 equiprobable distributions of lithology for the fine grid with sequential indicator simulation. Then, for each of the lithology realizations, a hydraulic conductivity is assigned to the simulated lithology class, using Sequential Gaussian Simulation, again with the appropriate variogram This results in 50 3D models of hydraulic conductivities on the fine grid. For each of these hydraulic conductivity models, a hydraulic head difference of 1m between top and bottom of the model is used to calculate the flux at the bottom of the

  7. Multidimensional Scaling of the TAT and the Measurement of Achievement Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestewig, Richard E.; Paradise, Carol A.

    1977-01-01

    Achievement motivation was successfully measured among male and female college students by having the students rate eight Thematic Apperception Test cards for similarity and scaling the results in two dimensions: number of persons and degree of strong affect. The Rorschach Inkblot Test was not effective in determining need for achievement. (CTM)

  8. Measuring and aligning accelerator components to the nanometre scale

    CERN Document Server

    Catalán Lasheras, N; Modena, M

    2014-01-01

    First tests have shown that the precision and accuracy required for linear colliders and other future accelerators of 10 micrometers is costly and lengthy with a process based on independent fiducializations of single components. Indeed, the systematic and random errors at each step add up during the process with the final accuracy of each component center well above the target. A new EC-funded training network named PACMAN (a study on Particle Accelerator Components Metrology and Alignment to the Nanometer scale) will propose and develop an alternative solution integrating all the alignment steps and a large number of technologies at the same time and location, in order to gain the required precision and accuracy. The network composed of seven industrial partners and nine universities and research centers will be based at CERN where ten doctoral students will explore the technology limitations of metrology. They will develop new techniques to measure magnetic and microwave fields, optical and non-contact sen...

  9. EUV mask reflectivity measurements with micron-scale spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Rekawa, S.B.; Kemp, C.D.; Barty, A.; Anderson, E.H.; Kearney, Patrick; Han, Hakseung

    2008-05-26

    The effort to produce defect-free mask blanks for EUV lithography relies on increasing the detection sensitivity of advanced mask inspection tools, operating at several wavelengths. We describe the unique measurement capabilities of a prototype actinic (EUV wavelength) microscope that is capable of detecting small defects and reflectivity changes that occur on the scale of microns to nanometers. Types of defects: (a) Buried Substrate Defects: particles & pits (causes amplitude and/or phase variations); (b) Surface Contamination (reduces reflectivity and (possibly) contrast); (c) Damage from Inspection and Use (reduces the reflectivity of the multilayer coating). This paper presents an overview of several topics where scanning actinic inspection makes a unique contribution to EUVL research. We describe the role of actinic scanning inspection in four cases: defect repair studies; observations of laser damage; after scanning electron microscopy; and native and programmed defects.

  10. EUV mask reflectivity measurements with micro-scale spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Kemp, Charles D.; Barty, Anton; Anderson, Erik; Kearney, Patrick; Han, Hakseung

    2008-02-01

    The effort to produce defect-free mask blanks for EUV lithography relies on increasing the detection sensitivity of advanced mask inspection tools, operating at several wavelengths. They describe the unique measurement capabilities of a prototype actinic (EUV) wavelength microscope that is capable of detecting small defects and reflectivity changes that occur on the scale of microns to nanometers. The defects present in EUV masks can appear in many well-known forms: as particles that cause amplitude or phase variations in the reflected field; as surface contamination that reduces reflectivity and contrast; and as damage from inspection and use that reduces the reflectivity of the multilayer coating. This paper presents an overview of several topics where scanning actinic inspection makes a unique contribution to EUVL research. They describe the role of actinic scanning inspection in defect repair studies, observations of laser damage, actinic inspection following scanning electron microscopy, and the detection of both native and programmed defects.

  11. Note: Measurement system for the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases in a laboratory scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The radiative forcing of the greenhouse gases has been studied being based on computational simulations or the observation of the real atmosphere meteorologically. In order to know the greenhouse effect more deeply and to study it from various viewpoints, the study on it in a laboratory scale is important. We have developed a direct measurement system for the infrared back radiation from the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. The system configuration is similar with that of the practical earth-atmosphere-space system. Using this system, the back radiation from the CO2 gas was directly measured in a laboratory scale, which roughly coincides with meteorologically predicted value.

  12. The Effects of Various Configurations of Likert, Ordered Categorical, or Rating Scale Data on the Ordinal Logistic Regression Pseudo R-Squared Measure of Fit: The Case of the Cummulative Logit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbo, Bruno D.; Ochieng, Charles O.

    Many measures found in educational research are ordered categorical response variables that are empirical realizations of an underlying normally distributed variate. These ordered categorical variables are commonly referred to as Likert or rating scale data. Regression models are commonly fit using these ordered categorical variables as the…

  13. The Effective Planck Mass and the Scale of Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2015-01-01

    Observable quantities in cosmology are dimensionless, and therefore independent of the units in which they are measured. This is true of all physical quantities associated with the primordial perturbations that source cosmic microwave background anisotropies such as their amplitude and spectral properties. However, if one were to try and infer an absolute energy scale for inflation-- a priori, one of the more immediate corollaries of detecting primordial tensor modes-- one necessarily makes reference to a particular choice of units, the natural choice for which is Planck units. In this note, we discuss various aspects of how inferring the energy scale of inflation is complicated by the fact that the effective strength of gravity as seen by inflationary quanta necessarily differs from that seen by gravitational experiments at presently accessible scales. The uncertainty in the former relative to the latter has to do with the unknown spectrum of universally coupled particles between laboratory scales and the pu...

  14. Modelling of rate effects at multiple scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, R.R.; Simone, A.; Sluys, L. J.

    2008-01-01

    , the length scale in the meso-model and the macro-model can be coupled. In this fashion, a bridging of length scales can be established. A computational analysis of  a Split Hopkinson bar test at medium and high impact load is carried out at macro-scale and meso-scale including information from  the micro-scale....

  15. The effective field theory of cosmological large scale structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, John Joseph M. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Hertzberg, Mark P. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2012-09-20

    Large scale structure surveys will likely become the next leading cosmological probe. In our universe, matter perturbations are large on short distances and small at long scales, i.e. strongly coupled in the UV and weakly coupled in the IR. To make precise analytical predictions on large scales, we develop an effective field theory formulated in terms of an IR effective fluid characterized by several parameters, such as speed of sound and viscosity. These parameters, determined by the UV physics described by the Boltzmann equation, are measured from N-body simulations. We find that the speed of sound of the effective fluid is c2s ≈ 10–6c2 and that the viscosity contributions are of the same order. The fluid describes all the relevant physics at long scales k and permits a manifestly convergent perturbative expansion in the size of the matter perturbations δ(k) for all the observables. As an example, we calculate the correction to the power spectrum at order δ(k)4. As a result, the predictions of the effective field theory are found to be in much better agreement with observation than standard cosmological perturbation theory, already reaching percent precision at this order up to a relatively short scale k ≃ 0.24h Mpc–1.

  16. Building scale in community impact investing through nonfinancial performance measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Thornley, Ben; Dailey, Colby

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of nonfinancial performance is becoming increasingly important in the community impact investing industry, where individuals and institutions actively deploy capital in low-income domestic markets for both financial and social returns. Quality data ensure that the creation of jobs, construction of community facilities, financing of affordable housing, and other benefits that characterize the sector are delivered cost-effectively and transparently. This paper discusses the limi...

  17. Ozone Flux Measurement and Modelling on Leaf/Shoot and Canopy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Gerosa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative study of the ozone effects on agricultural and forest vegetation requires the knowledge of the pollutant dose absorbed by plants via leaf stomata, i.e. the stomatal flux. Nevertheless, the toxicologically effective dose can differ from the stomatal flux because a pool of scavenging and detoxification processes reduce the amount of pollutant responsible of the expression of the harmful effects. The measurement of the stomatal flux is not immediate and the quantification of the effective dose is still troublesome. The paper examines the conceptual aspects of ozone flux measurement and modelling in agricultural and ecological research. The ozone flux paradigm is conceptualized into a toxicological frame and faced at two different scales: leaf/shoot and canopy scales. Leaf and shoot scale flux measurements require gas-exchange enclosure techniques, while canopy scale flux measurements need a micrometeorological approach including techniques such as eddy covariance and the aerodynamical gradient. At both scales, not all the measured ozone flux is stomatal flux. In fact, a not negligible amount of ozone is destroyed on external plant surfaces, like leaf cuticles, or by gas phase reaction with biogenic volatile compounds. The stomatal portion of flux can be calculated from concurrent measurements of water vapour fluxes at both scales. Canopy level flux measurements require very fast sensors and the fulfilment of many conditions to ensure that the measurements made above the canopy really reflect the canopy fluxes (constant flux hypothesis. Again, adjustments are necessary in order to correct for air density fluctuations and sensor-surface alignment break. As far as regards flux modelling, at leaf level the stomatal flux is simply obtained by multiplying the ozone concentration on the leaf with the stomatal conductance predicted by means of physiological models fed by meteorological parameter. At canopy level the stomatal flux is

  18. Ozone Flux Measurement and Modelling on Leaf/Shoot and Canopy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Grünhage

    Full Text Available The quantitative study of the ozone effects on agricultural and forest vegetation requires the knowledge of the pollutant dose absorbed by plants via leaf stomata, i.e. the stomatal flux. Nevertheless, the toxicologically effective dose can differ from the stomatal flux because a pool of scavenging and detoxification processes reduce the amount of pollutant responsible of the expression of the harmful effects. The measurement of the stomatal flux is not immediate and the quantification of the effective dose is still troublesome. The paper examines the conceptual aspects of ozone flux measurement and modelling in agricultural and ecological research. The ozone flux paradigm is conceptualized into a toxicological frame and faced at two different scales: leaf/shoot and canopy scales. Leaf and shoot scale flux measurements require gas-exchange enclosure techniques, while canopy scale flux measurements need a micrometeorological approach including techniques such as eddy covariance and the aerodynamical gradient. At both scales, not all the measured ozone flux is stomatal flux. In fact, a not negligible amount of ozone is destroyed on external plant surfaces, like leaf cuticles, or by gas phase reaction with biogenic volatile compounds. The stomatal portion of flux can be calculated from concurrent measurements of water vapour fluxes at both scales. Canopy level flux measurements require very fast sensors and the fulfilment of many conditions to ensure that the measurements made above the canopy really reflect the canopy fluxes (constant flux hypothesis. Again, adjustments are necessary in order to correct for air density fluctuations and sensor-surface alignment break. As far as regards flux modelling, at leaf level the stomatal flux is simply obtained by multiplying the ozone concentration on the leaf with the stomatal conductance predicted by means of physiological models fed by meteorological parameter. At canopy level the stomatal flux is

  19. Spatial scaling of the binocular capture effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Avesh; Anderson, Coleman S; Saladin, James J

    2009-03-01

    Binocular "capture" occurs when the perceived visual direction of a monocular stimulus is displaced in the direction of the cyclopean visual direction of nearby binocular targets. This effect increases with the vertical separation of broadband monocular stimuli. The present study investigated whether the "capture" effect exhibits a systematic relationship with the spatial frequency composition of monocular lines and vertical separation. Subjects judged the horizontal misalignment of 66 arc min vertical spatial frequency ribbons that were temporally interleaved with a random dot depth edge (3.2 degrees) for 108 ms. Spatial frequency ribbons were constructed from horizontal cosine gratings windowed by a 4 arc min vertical Gaussian envelope. The bottom half of the depth edge was presented with zero relative disparity, whereas the top half was presented with 10 arc min of crossed or uncrossed relative disparity. Four vertical separations (8, 16, 30, and 60 arc min) and three ribbon spatial frequencies (1, 4, and 8 cpd) were tested. The horizontal ribbon offset corresponding to 50% performance was calculated for each combination of depth condition, ribbon spatial frequency, and vertical separation. The magnitude of the "capture" effect was consistently larger for higher spatial frequency ribbons and decreased with decreasing vertical separation. When vertical separation was expressed as multiples of spatial periods of the respective ribbon spatial frequency, the magnitude of effect was significantly larger for separations greater than about one spatial period. The systematic scaling of the "capture" effect with spatial frequency and vertical separation is strongly suggestive of the operation of multiple spatial scale mechanisms; similar to those advocated for the processing of relative positional acuity with increasing vertical separation of monocular targets.

  20. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Tests Instrumentation for Acoustic and Pressure Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Counter, Douglas D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) was a development test performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) East Test Area (ETA) Test Stand 116. The test article included a 5% scale Ares I vehicle model and tower mounted on the Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 200 instruments located throughout the test article. There were four primary ASMAT instrument suites: ignition overpressure (IOP), lift-off acoustics (LOA), ground acoustics (GA), and spatial correlation (SC). Each instrumentation suite incorporated different sensor models which were selected based upon measurement requirements. These requirements included the type of measurement, exposure to the environment, instrumentation check-outs and data acquisition. The sensors were attached to the test article using different mounts and brackets dependent upon the location of the sensor. This presentation addresses the observed effect of the sensors and mounts on the acoustic and pressure measurements.

  1. Can stormwater control measures restore altered urban flow regimes at the catchment scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congying; Fletcher, Tim D.; Duncan, Hugh P.; Burns, Matthew J.

    2017-06-01

    Over the last 20-30 years, there has been an evolution in urban stormwater management towards the use of stormwater control measures (SCMs) at or near the source of the runoff. These approaches aim to protect or restore natural elements of the flow regime. However, evidence of the success of such approaches is to date limited. We reviewed attempts to both model and monitor the catchment-scale hydrological consequences of SCMs. While many catchment-scale studies on the hydrologic effects of SCMs are based on computer simulation, these modeling approaches are limited by many uncertainties. The few existing monitoring studies provide early indications of the potential of SCMs to deliver more natural flow regimes, but many questions remain. There is an urgent need for properly monitored studies that aim to assess the hydrologic effects of SCMs at the catchment scale. In future monitoring studies, these hydrologic effects need to be characterized using appropriate flow metrics at a range of scales (from site scale to catchment scale), and changes to flow metrics by SCMs need to be assessed using robust statistical methods. Such studies will give confidence to stormwater and river managers of the feasibility and benefits of "low impact" approaches to stormwater management.

  2. Time and space scales for measuring urban growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available After the last two centuries of intense and unprecedented urbanization, we need a clear understanding of the ongoing trends of urban growth for a better insight of their possible future. Two main processes are analysed : first, the inter-urban concentration of population, with its consequence of a relative decline of the smallest towns ; second, urban sprawl, including a shift of population density in the central part of cities towards their peripheries. Using recent data on population and employment in French urban functional areas, we show that the spatial and temporal framework in which urban growth is computed may considerably alter the results and their consecutive interpretation. When the city is defined as a continuously built-up area (the French agglomération, the measurement of concentration of urban population does not give the same result than when using as a definition the spatial scale of functional urban areas (the French aires urbaines. Similarly, the analyse of the spatial redistribution of population between urban centres, close and outer suburbs are reconsidered under trends of a longer duration has been given very different results, according to the way of defining cities and spaces.

  3. Vertical comb drive actuator for the measurement of piezoelectric coefficients in small-scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, J.; Muniz-Piniella, A.; Stewart, M.; Shean, T. A. V.; Weaver, P. M.; Cain, M. G.

    2013-03-01

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vertical levitation comb drive actuator has been created for the measurement of piezoelectric coefficients in thin/thick films or piezoelectrically active micro-scale components of other MEMS devices. The device exerts a dynamic force of 33 μN at an applied voltage of 100 V. The charge developed on the piezoelectric test device is measured using a charge sensitive pre-amplifier and lock-in technique, enabling measurements down to 1×10-5 pC. The system was tested with ten different piezoelectric samples with coefficients in the range 70-1375 pC N-1 and showed a good correlation (r = 0.9997) to measurements performed with macroscopic applied stresses, and piezoelectric impedance resonance techniques. The measurement of the direct piezoelectric effect in micro- and nano-scale piezo-materials has been made possible using MEMS processing technology. This new application of a MEMS metrology device has been developed and fully characterized in order to accurately evaluate the functional properties of piezoelectric materials at the scale required in micro- to nano-scale applications.

  4. Landscape Scale Hydrologic Performance Measures for the South Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. A.; Kotun, K.; Engel, V.

    2008-05-01

    divided by levees to form five compartments or Water Conservation Areas. By 1965 all of the natural surface water inflows to Everglades National Park were replaced by managed flows, and much of the wet season runoff from the upstream Everglades was retained to meet expanding urban and agricultural water supply needs. All of these changes have dramatically altered the rainfall-runoff relationship in the Everglades and lead to Congressional directions to restore more natural hydrologic conditions in the watershed. While all of the scientists involved in the restoration program agree that the focus should be on restoring the defining hydrologic characteristics of the pre-drainage Everglades (restoring marsh sheetflow and connectivity, the generalized flow and water depth patterns that sustained key animal and plant communities, as well as the historic linkages between freshwater and estuarine systems) there is a lack of information on the pre-drainage conditions to fully inform our selection of performance measures, needed to track restoration success. Our current suite of ecological and hydrological performance measures tends to focus on depths and durations of flooding, rates of marsh drydowns, and flow volumes and velocities in discrete habitat units or indicator regions within the current compartmentalized watershed. A more recent approach is to expand these performance measures to include larger-scale hydrologic patterns that would be present in an uncompartmentalized system such as regional flow directions, hydrologic head gradients, and the seasonal timing, and duration of flows to the estuaries.

  5. Differentiating causes for erosion at the catchment scale: do soil conservation measures mitigate weather dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barneveld, Robert; Greipsland, Inga

    2016-04-01

    The efficacy of most measures to control soil loss is well established at the field or plot scale. Less well documented are the changes in hydrological behaviour and sediment production at the scale of the (small) catchment. In Norway, incentives to reduce tillage have been in place for over decades. However, even long time (20 years) discharge monitoring of a series of small catchments does not show a clear effect of the application of conservation measures. This research hypothesizes that the effect of weather conditions for a 4.2 km2 catchment in southeastern Norway outweighs the effect of conservation measures in the time series on runoff and sediment load. To test this, it was assumed that trends and changes in soil loss E over time are the product of an agromic index C, precipitation P and rainfall erosivity R. The values of C were calculated based on extensive farm records, covering every tillage operation for every field in the catchment for the period of investigation. Runoff and sediment load records were used to parameterise and test different correlative models. In order to quantify the effect of topography on the degree to which conservations measures reduce soil loss at catchment level, a spatially distributed connectivity index was calculated and multiplied with C. Calculations were carried out for a 10 year period, in monthly time steps. The following statistical models proved the most promising to correlate sediment load to precipitation and agronomic practice. Et=a \\cdot Ptb \\cdot Pt-1c \\cdot Ctd Et=a \\cdot Rtb \\cdot Pt-1c \\cdot Ctd where Pt-1c, the precipition in the prior month, is a proxy indicator for antecedent moisture conditions. The results show that precipitation dynamics outweigh the effect of soil conservation measures for this typical agricultural catchment. It also shows that the inclusion of a hydrological connectivity index improves the quantification of the effect of soil conservation measures on the catchment scale.

  6. Investigation of scale effects in the TRF determined by VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Daniel; Heinkelmann, Robert; Schuh, Harald

    2017-04-01

    The improvement of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) is of great significance for Earth sciences and one of the major tasks in geodesy. The translation, rotation and the scale-factor, as well as their linear rates, are solved in a 14-parameter transformation between individual frames of each space geodetic technique and the combined frame. In ITRF2008, as well as in the current release ITRF2014, the scale-factor is provided by Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) in equal shares. Since VLBI measures extremely precise group delays that are transformed to baseline lengths by the velocity of light, a natural constant, VLBI is the most suitable method for providing the scale. The aim of the current work is to identify possible shortcomings in the VLBI scale contribution to ITRF2008. For developing recommendations for an enhanced estimation, scale effects in the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF) determined with VLBI are considered in detail and compared to ITRF2008. In contrast to station coordinates, where the scale is defined by a geocentric position vector, pointing from the origin of the reference frame to the station, baselines are not related to the origin. They are describing the absolute scale independently from the datum. The more accurate a baseline length, and consequently the scale, is estimated by VLBI, the better the scale contribution to the ITRF. Considering time series of baseline length between different stations, a non-linear periodic signal can clearly be recognized, caused by seasonal effects at observation sites. Modeling these seasonal effects and subtracting them from the original data enhances the repeatability of single baselines significantly. Other effects influencing the scale strongly, are jumps in the time series of baseline length, mainly evoked by major earthquakes. Co- and post-seismic effects can be identified in the data, having a non-linear character likewise. Modeling the non

  7. Resolving meso-scale seabed variability using reflection measurements from an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Charles W; Nielsen, Peter L; Dettmer, Jan; Dosso, Stan

    2012-02-01

    Seabed geoacoustic variability is driven by geological processes that occur over a wide spectrum of space-time scales. While the acoustics community has some understanding of horizontal fine-scale geoacoustic variability, less than O(10(0)) m, and large-scale variability, greater than O(10(3)) m, there is a paucity of data resolving the geoacoustic meso-scale O(10(0)-10(3)) m. Measurements of the meso-scale along an ostensibly "benign" portion of the outer shelf reveal three classes of variability. The first class was expected and is due to horizontal variability of layer thicknesses: this was the only class that could be directly tied to seismic reflection data. The second class is due to rapid changes in layer properties and/or boundaries, occurring over scales of meters to hundreds of meters. The third class was observed as rapid variations of the angle/frequency dependent reflection coefficient within a single observation and is suggestive of variability at scales of meter or less. Though generally assumed to be negligible in acoustic modeling, the second and third classes are indicative of strong horizontal geoacoustic variability within a given layer. The observations give early insight into possible effects of horizontal geoacoustic variability on long-range acoustic propagation and reverberation. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  8. Quantitative Measurement of Sociometric Relationships through Multidimensional Scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollweg, C. Lewis; And Others

    An analysis of group social relationships through an interpersonal perception point of view is presented. Each member of a group is asked to make a judgment concerning the social distance between each pair of members in the group. The Carroll and Chang scaling model, called Individual Differences Scaling (INDSCAL), which assumes that individuals…

  9. Measuring Adaptation in Ministers' Families: The Modified Family Adaptation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, Diane L.; Henry, Carolyn S.

    A modification of the Family Adaptation Scale of Antonovsky and Sourani (1988), was developed for assessing the adaptation of ministers' families. A sample of 317 individuals (ministers, spouses, and children aged 8 to 18) from 135 protestant ministers' families was used to test the scale. The self-report questionnaire was tested for internal…

  10. Effective Rating Scale Development for Speaking Tests: Performance Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…

  11. Subjective Narcosis Assessment Scale: measuring the subjective experience of nitrogen narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Charles H; Meintjes, W A J

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of subjective experiences and objective measures of neuropsychological performance during hyperbaric exposure has received less attention in the literature, in part due to the shortage of available and appropriately standardized measures. This study aimed to describe the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Subjective High Assessment Scale when used in the hyperbaric context, by exploring internal reliability, factor structure, associations with psychological variables and simple cognitive delayed recall, and the effect of task focus on the recall of subjective experience. Seventy qualified divers completed dry hyperbaric chamber dives to 607.95 kPa, and completed ratings of their subjective experiences. Some also completed a delayed recall task and psychological measures prior to their dives. The scale displayed good internal consistency, with four meaningful factors emerging. It showed some significant but small associations with trait anxiety and transient mood states, and a small to moderate correlation with recall performance. There was no significant effect of task focus on self-report of subjective experiences. The modified scale, renamed the Subjective Narcosis Assessment Scale here, has useful psychometric properties, and promising potential for future use.

  12. Scaling thermal effects in radial flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspeth, R. T.; Guenther, R. B.; Roley, K. L.; McDougal, W. G.

    To adequately evaluate the environmental impact of siting nuclear waste repositories in basalt aquicludes, it is essential to know the effects on parameter identification algorithms of thermal gradients that exist in these basaltic aquicludes. Temperatures of approximately 60°C and pressures of approximately 150 atm can be expected at potential repository sites located at depths of approximately 1000 m. The phenomenon of over-recovery has been observed in some pumping tests conducted at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation located in the Pasco Basin adjacent to the Columbia River in the state of Washington, USA. This over-recovery phenomenon may possibly be due to variations in the fluid density caused by thermal gradients. To assess the potential effects of these thermal gradients on indirect parameter identification algorithms, a systematic scaling of the governing field equations is required in order to obtain dimensionless equations based on the principle of similarity. The constitutive relationships for the specific weight of the fluid and for the porosity of the aquiclude are shown to be exponentially dependent on the pressure gradient. The dynamic pressure is converted to the piezometric head and the flow equation for the piezometric head is then scaled in radial coordinates. Order-of-magnitude estimates are made for all variables in unsteady flow for a typical well test in a basaltic aquiclude. Retaining all nonlinear terms, the parametric dependency of the flow equation on the classical dimensionless thermal and hydraulic parameters is demonstrated. These classical parameters include the Batchelor, Fourier, Froude, Grashof, and Reynolds Numbers associated with thermal flows. The flow equation is linearized from order-of-magnitude estimates based on these classical parameters for application in parameter identification algorithms.

  13. Measurement of $k_T$ splitting scales in $W \\to l\

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bittner, Bernhard; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Colas, Jacques; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dinut, Florin; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dressnandt, Nandor; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edson, William; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fowler, Andrew; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Göpfert, Thomas; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kenyon, Mike; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koenig, Sebastian; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madar, Romain; Madaras, Ronald; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molfetas, Angelos; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Möser, Nicolas; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Müller, Thomas; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raas, Marcel; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Michele; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-01-01

    A measurement of splitting scales, as defined by the $k_T$ clustering algorithm, is presented for final states containing a W boson produced in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The measurement is based on the full 2010 data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb$^{-1}$ which was collected using the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Cluster splitting scales are measured in events containing W bosons decaying to electrons or muons. The measurement comprises the four hardest splitting scales in a $k_T$ cluster sequence of the hadronic activity accompanying the W boson, and ratios of these splitting scales. Backgrounds such as multi-jet and top-quark-pair production are subtracted and the results are corrected for detector effects. Predictions from various Monte Carlo event generators at particle level are compared to the data. Overall, reasonable agreement is found with all generators, but larger deviations between the predictions and the data are ...

  14. Belief into Action Scale: A Comprehensive and Sensitive Measure of Religious Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Koenig

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a new measure of religious commitment, the Belief into Action (BIAC scale. This measure was designed to be a comprehensive and sensitive measure of religious involvement that could discriminate individuals across the religious spectrum, and avoid the problem of ceiling effects that have haunted the study of highly-religious populations. Many scales assess religious beliefs, where assent to belief is often widespread, subjective, and a superficial assessment of religious commitment. While people may say they believe, what does that mean in terms of action? This 10-item scale seeks to convert simple belief into action, where action is assessed in terms of what individuals say is most important in their lives, how they spend their time, and where they put their financial resources. We summarize here the psychometric characteristics of the BIAC in two very different populations: stressed female caregivers in Southern California and North Carolina, and college students attending three universities in Mainland China. We conclude that the BIAC is a sensitive, reliable, and valid measure of religious commitment in these two samples, and encourage research in other population groups using this scale to determine its psychometric properties more generally.

  15. A new multi-scale measure for analysing animal movement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postlethwaite, Claire M; Brown, Pieta; Dennis, Todd E

    2013-01-21

    We present a new measure for analysing animal movement data, which we term a 'Multi-Scale Straightness Index' (MSSI). The measure is a generalisation of the 'Straightness Index', the ratio of the beeline distance between the start and end of a track to the total distance travelled. In our new measure, the Straightness Index is computed repeatedly for track segments at all possible temporal scales. The MSSI offers advantages over the standard Straightness Index, and other simple measures of track tortuosity (such as Sinuosity and Fractal Dimension), because it provides multiple characterisations of straightness, rather than just a single summary measure. Thus, comparisons can be made among different segments of trajectories and changes in behaviour can be inferred, both over time and at different temporal granularities. The measure also has an important advantage over several recent and increasingly popular methods for detecting behavioural changes in time-series locational data (e.g., state-space models and positional entropy methods), in that it is extremely simple to compute. Here, we demonstrate use of the MSSI on both synthetic and real animal-movement trajectories. We show how behavioural changes can be inferred within individual tracks and how behaviour varies across spatio-temporal scales. Our aim is to present a useful tool for researchers requiring a computationally simple but effective means of analysing the movement patterns of animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Navigation Signal Disturbances by Multipath Propagation - Scaled Measurements with a Universal Channel Sounder Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geise, Robert; Neubauer, Bjoern; Zimmer, Georg

    2015-11-01

    The performance of navigation systems is always reduced by unwanted multipath propagation. This is especially of practical importance for airborne navigation systems like the instrument landing system (ILS) or the VHF omni directional radio range (VOR). Nevertheless, the quantitative analysis of corresponding, potentially harmful multipath propagation disturbances is very difficult due to the large parameter space. Experimentally difficulties arise due to very expensive, real scale measurement campaigns and numerical simulation techniques still have shortcomings which are briefly discussed. In this contribution a new universal approach is introduced on how to measure very flexibly multipath propagation effects for arbitrary navigation systems using a channel sounder architecture in a scaled measurement environment. Two relevant scenarios of multipath propagation and the impact on navigation signals are presented. The first describes disturbances of the ILS due to large taxiing aircraft. The other example shows the influence of rotating wind turbines on the VOR.

  17. PRELIMINARY DEVELOPMENT OF A SCALE TO MEASURE LEADERSHIP POTENTIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sookjeong; Kim, Hyeyoung; Park, Soyeun; Lee, Soojung; Yu, Jihyun

    2015-08-01

    Based on the assumption that leadership can be developed and college students possess leadership potential before becoming adult leaders, a Leadership Potential Scale was developed for Korean college students. Factors of leadership were extracted and preliminary items were developed through a literature review and semi-structured interviews. The items were assessed by experts for face validity, and the 12 factors and 78 items of the Leadership Potential Scale were derived from a factor analysis of data from 305 college students. The results of a subsequent study (N = 320) indicate the scale is ready to be further validated in a known-groups design.

  18. Developmental Scales Versus Observational Measures for Deaf-Blind Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebold, Martin H.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A study involving 24 deaf-blind children (6 years to 13 years old) was conducted to determine the relationship between standardized tests and developmental scales, and systematic behavior observation ratings. (SBH)

  19. Temporal integration of loudness measured using categorical loudness scaling and matching procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Valente, Daniel L.; Joshi, Suyash N.; Jesteadt, Walt

    2011-01-01

    Temporal integration of loudness of 1 kHz tones with 5 and 200 ms durations was assessed in four subjects using two loudness measurement procedures: categorical loudness scaling (CLS) and loudness matching. CLS provides a reliable and efficient procedure for collecting data on the temporal integration of loudness and previously reported nonmonotonic behavior observed at mid-sound pressure level levels is replicated with this procedure. Stimuli that are assigned to the same category are effect...

  20. Investigating measurement equivalence of visual analogue scales and Likert-type scales in Internet-based personality questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Tim; Dantlgraber, Michael; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2017-01-27

    Visual analogue scales (VASs) have shown superior measurement qualities in comparison to traditional Likert-type response scales in previous studies. The present study expands the comparison of response scales to properties of Internet-based personality scales in a within-subjects design. A sample of 879 participants filled out an online questionnaire measuring Conscientiousness, Excitement Seeking, and Narcissism. The questionnaire contained all instruments in both answer scale versions in a counterbalanced design. Results show comparable reliabilities, means, and SDs for the VAS versions of the original scales, in comparison to Likert-type scales. To assess the validity of the measurements, age and gender were used as criteria, because all three constructs have shown non-zero correlations with age and gender in previous research. Both response scales showed a high overlap and the proposed relationships with age and gender. The associations were largely identical, with the exception of an increase in explained variance when predicting age from the VAS version of Excitement Seeking (B10 =1318.95, ΔR (2) =.025). VASs showed similar properties to Likert-type response scales in most cases.

  1. Low-Q scaling, duality, and the EMC effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Arrington; R. Ent; C. E. Keppel; J. Mammei; I. Niculescu

    2003-07-01

    High energy lepton scattering has been the primary tool for mapping out the quark distributions of nucleons and nuclei. Data on the proton and deuteron have shown that there is a fundamental connection between the low and high energy regimes, referred to as quark-hadron duality. We present the results of similar studies to more carefully examine scaling, duality, and in particular the EMC effect in nuclei. We extract nuclear modifications to the structure function in the resonance region, and for the first time demonstrate that nuclear effects in the resonance region are identical to those measured in deep inelastic scattering.

  2. Atomic-scale friction : thermal effects and capillary condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jinesh, Kochupurackal Balakrishna Pillai

    2006-01-01

    This work entitled as "Atomic-scale friction: thermal effects and capillary condensation" is a study on the fundamental aspects of the origin of friction from the atomic-scale. We study two realistic aspects of atomic-scale friction, namely the effect of temperature and the effect of relative

  3. Measuring Accurate Body Parameters of Dressed Humans with Large-Scale Motion Using a Kinect Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidan Du

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact human body measurement plays an important role in surveillance, physical healthcare, on-line business and virtual fitting. Current methods for measuring the human body without physical contact usually cannot handle humans wearing clothes, which limits their applicability in public environments. In this paper, we propose an effective solution that can measure accurate parameters of the human body with large-scale motion from a Kinect sensor, assuming that the people are wearing clothes. Because motion can drive clothes attached to the human body loosely or tightly, we adopt a space-time analysis to mine the information across the posture variations. Using this information, we recover the human body, regardless of the effect of clothes, and measure the human body parameters accurately. Experimental results show that our system can perform more accurate parameter estimation on the human body than state-of-the-art methods.

  4. Measuring ethnic identity in the Ethnic Identity Scale and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eunju

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the newly developed ethnic identity measures of the Ethnic Identity Scale (EIS) and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R) from psychometric and theoretical perspectives. Survey data from 289 counseling students in California were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analyses supported three correlated factors of the EIS (exploration, resolution, and affirmation) and two correlated factors of the MEIM-R (exploration, commitment) for both European American and minority students. Consistent with the theories of Erikson's and Marcia's identity development, the EIS and the MEIM-R nicely depicted (a) Marcia's 4 (2 × 2) identity statuses of diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, and achievement and (b) the hierarchy of identity statuses in relation to subjective well-being as an indicator of adjustment, especially for minority students. Additionally, European American and minority students revealed differences as to the salience and importance of ethnic identity. Recommendations for using the EIS and the MEIM-R are provided.

  5. Data replicating the factor structure and reliability of commonly used measures of resilience: The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Resilience Scale, and Scale of Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madewell, A N; Ponce-Garcia, E; Martin, S E

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled "Assessing Resilience in Emerging Adulthood: The Resilience Scale (RS), Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), and Scale of Protective Factors (SPF)" (Madewell and Ponce-Garcia, 2016) [1]. The data were collected from a sample of 451 college students from three universities located in the Southwestern region of the United States: 374 from a large public university and 67 from two smaller regional universities. The data from the three universities did not significantly differ in terms of demographics. The data represent participant responses on six measurements to include the Resilience Scale-25 (RS-25), Resilience Scale-14 (RS-14), Connor Davidson Resilience Scale-25 (CD-RISC-25), Connor Davidson Resilience Scale-10 (CD-RISC-10), Scale of Protective Factors-24 (SPF-24), and the Life Stressor Checklist Revised (LSC-R).

  6. Data replicating the factor structure and reliability of commonly used measures of resilience: The Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, Resilience Scale, and Scale of Protective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Madewell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled “Assessing Resilience in Emerging Adulthood: The Resilience Scale (RS, Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, and Scale of Protective Factors (SPF” (Madewell and Ponce-Garcia, 2016 [1]. The data were collected from a sample of 451 college students from three universities located in the Southwestern region of the United States: 374 from a large public university and 67 from two smaller regional universities. The data from the three universities did not significantly differ in terms of demographics. The data represent participant responses on six measurements to include the Resilience Scale-25 (RS-25, Resilience Scale-14 (RS-14, Connor Davidson Resilience Scale-25 (CD-RISC-25, Connor Davidson Resilience Scale-10 (CD-RISC-10, Scale of Protective Factors-24 (SPF-24, and the Life Stressor Checklist Revised (LSC-R.

  7. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scalemeasuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  8. Developing the University of the Philippines Loneliness Assessment Scale: A Cross-Cultural Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharayil, Davis Porinchu

    2012-01-01

    As the existing scales to measure loneliness are almost all Western and there is no single scale developed cross-culturally for this purpose, this study is designed to develop a reliable and valid scale to measure the experience of loneliness of individuals from individualistic or collectivistic cultures. There are three samples for this study…

  9. Measuring economies of scale at the city market level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdmanis, Vivian G

    2010-01-01

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) techniques have been applied to the assessing efficiency and productivity among individual hospitals. In this article, we employ DEA to address whether economies of scale exist among hospital markets by first assessing individual hospitals operating in 2005 in the State of Florida and then by comparing hospital markets' efficiency relative to each other. The interest in hospital markets stems from issues relating to mergers among hospitals or the reallocation of services (inputs) among hospitals in a market area, particularly as occupancy rates and reimbursements are tending to fall. Facing more competition and stringent financial conditions, hospitals would benefit from decreasing costs by exploiting economies of scale.

  10. A new faces scale in pain measurement: a test of bias from current mood, trait affectivity, and scale range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Grebner, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Faces pain rating scales used among children have been criticized to confound affective states with pain when smiling faces are included. This experimental study is an attempt to examine the possible confounding of affective states with pain when smiling faces are used as part of a faces scale. The meaning of the faces was tested to depend on current mood, current pain, trait affectivity, and inclusion versus exclusion of smiling faces. Sixty-four participants made 6,720 two-categorical pain judgments on faces with different mouth curvature. In multilevel regression analysis, current level of pain and negative trait affectivity biased faces' meaning only when the smiling faces were excluded from the scale. In adults, the new full range faces pain scale including a midpoint neutral face and smiling faces was more robust than the restricted scale. The faces scale that was tested in this study is not applicable for patient measurement but it is an interesting tool for psychological research.

  11. Measurements of N2O emissions at the landscape scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schelde, Kirsten; Cellier, P.; Bertolini, T.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural land are variable at the landscape scale due to variability in land use, management, soil type, and topography. A field experiment was carried out in a typical mixed farming landscape near Bjerringbro, Denmark, to investigate the main sources of variation...

  12. Continuous phosphorus measurements reveal catchment-scale transport processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, Y. van der; Rozemeijer, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    A small fraction of the nutrients used for agriculture is transported by rivers and artificial drainage networks to downstream waters. In lakes and coastal seas such as the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Mexico these nutrients cause large-scale algal blooms and hypoxia and thus are a major

  13. Scaling properties of net information measures for bound states of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using dimensional analyses, the scaling properties of the Heisenberg uncertainty relationship as well as the various information theoretical uncertainty-like relationships are derived for the bound states corresponding to the superposition of the power potential of the form () = + $^{n_{i}}, where , , ,  ...

  14. Measuring Impulsivity in Daily Life: The Momentary Impulsivity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, Rachel L.; Carpenter, Ryan W.; Brown, Whitney C.; Solhan, Marika B.; Jahng, Seungmin; Wood, Phillip K.; Trull, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is a core feature of many psychiatric disorders. Traditionally, impulsivity has been assessed using retrospective questionnaires or laboratory tasks. Both approaches neglect intraindividual variability in impulsivity and do not capture impulsivity as it occurs in real-world settings. The goal of the current study was to provide a method for assessing impulsivity in daily life that provides both between-individual and within-individual information. Participants with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 67) or a depressive disorder (DD; n = 38) carried an electronic diary for 28 days and responded to 9 impulsivity items up to 6 times per day. Item distributions and iterative exploratory factor analysis (EFA) results were examined to select the items that best captured momentary impulsivity. A brief 4-item scale was created that can be used for the assessment of momentary impulsivity. Model fit was good for both within- and between-individual EFA. As expected, the BPD group showed significantly higher scores on our Momentary Impulsivity Scale than the DD group, and the resulting scale was moderately correlated with common trait impulsivity scales. PMID:24274047

  15. Scaling Methods to Measure Psychopathology in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian C.; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathology prior to the last four decades was generally viewed as a set of problems and disorders that did not occur in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). That notion now seems very antiquated. In no small part, a revolutionary development of scales worldwide has occurred for the assessment of emotional problems in persons with ID.…

  16. Statistical Analysis of Instantaneous Frequency Scaling Factor as Derived from Optical Disdrometer Measurements at VW Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Michael; Nessel, James; Tarasenko, Nicholas; Lane, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Since October 2015, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) have collaboratively operated an RF terrestrial link in Albuquerque, New Mexico to characterize atmospheric propagation phenomena at 72 and 84 GHz. The WV-band Terrestrial Link Experiment (WTLE) consists of coherent transmitters at each frequency on the crest of the Sandia Mountains and a corresponding pair of receivers in south Albuquerque. The beacon receivers provide a direct measurement of the link attenuation, while concurrent weather instrumentation provides a measurement of the atmospheric conditions.Among the available weather instruments is an optical disdrometer which yields an optical measurement of rain rate, as well as droplet size and velocity distributions (DSD, DVD). In particular, the DSD can be used to derive an instantaneous scaling factor (ISF) by which the measured data at one frequency can be scaled to another for example, scaling the 72 GHz to an expected 84 GHz timeseries. Given the availability of both the DSD prediction and the directly observed 84 GHz attenuation, WTLE is thus uniquely able assess DSD-derived instantaneous frequency scaling at the VW-bands. Previous work along these lines has investigated the DSD-derived ISF at Ka and Q-band (20 GHz to 40 GHz) using a satellite beacon receiver experiment in Milan, Italy [1-3]. This work will expand the investigation to terrestrial links in the VW-bands, where the frequency scaling factor is lower and where the link is also much more sensitive to attenuation by rain, clouds, and other atmospheric effects.

  17. Measuring generalised expectancies for negative mood regulation in China: The Chinese language Negative Mood Regulation scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guofang; Mearns, Jack; Yang, Xiaohui; Han, Peng; Catanzaro, Salvatore J

    2017-08-06

    Negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE) represent people's confidence that they can alleviate their negative affect or induce a positive emotional state through thought or action. NMRE predict coping behaviour and mood outcomes for individuals under stress. Since 1990, much research documents the reliability and validity of the English language Negative Mood Regulation (NMR) scale as a measure of NMRE. The current research reports two studies developing a Chinese language translation of the NMR (NMR-C) scale that goes beyond literal translation to be a culturally sensitive measure of NMRE in China. In Study 1, 713 college students from both a major city and a rural setting in China were surveyed. Data support the resulting 32-item NMR-C's reliability (alpha = .88) and validity. The NMR-C showed both direct and indirect links to depression and anxiety; coping mediated the indirect effect. In Study 2, 331 prison police officers in three Chinese provinces participated. NMRE buffered the effect of high role pressure, moderating the relationship between prison police role stress and job engagement. Results of the two studies support the reliability and validity of the Chinese language NMR scale and parallel results found with measures of NMRE in the West and in other Asian countries. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. The development and validation of a scale measuring teacher autonomous behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Arnoud; Verboon, Peter; Klaeijsen, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    In the current study a multi-dimensional scale that measures teacher autonomous behaviour is presented. The scale is applicable across the following educational sectors: primary education, secondary education and vocational education. Based on an elaborate literature study, four theoretically

  19. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir; Semones, Edward; Ewert, Michael; Broyan, James; Walker, Steven

    2017-09-01

    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  20. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadori Amir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  1. Measuring Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion in Healthy Adults and with Respiratory Disease: New Pictorial Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Pianosi, Paolo T; Zhang, Zhen; Hernandez, Paul; Huebner, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Background Dyspnea or perceived exertion during exercise is most commonly measured using Borg or visual analog scales, created for use in adults. In contrast, pictorial scales have been promoted for children due to skepticism concerning applicability of the said scales in pediatrics. We sought to validate our newly created, pictorial Dalhousie Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion Scales in adult populations and compare ratings with the Borg scale. Methods Dyspnea and perceived exertion ratings obta...

  2. Development of a Scale Measuring Discursive Responsible Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Voegtlin Christian

    2012-01-01

    The paper advances the conceptual understanding of responsible leadership and develops an empirical scale of discursive responsible leadership. The concept of responsible leadership presented here draws on deliberative practices and discursive conflict resolution combining the macro view of the business firm as a political actor with the micro view of leadership. Ideal responsible leadership conduct thereby goes beyond the dyadic leader–follower interaction to include all stakeholders. The pa...

  3. Aerosol Health Effects from Molecular to Global Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Ueda, Kayo; Pozzer, Andrea; Lammel, Gerhard; Kampf, Christopher J; Fushimi, Akihiro; Enami, Shinichi; Arangio, Andrea M; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Fujitani, Yuji; Furuyama, Akiko; Lakey, Pascale S J; Lelieveld, Jos; Lucas, Kurt; Morino, Yu; Pöschl, Ulrich; Takahama, Satoshi; Takami, Akinori; Tong, Haijie; Weber, Bettina; Yoshino, Ayako; Sato, Kei

    2017-12-05

    Poor air quality is globally the largest environmental health risk. Epidemiological studies have uncovered clear relationships of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter (PM) with adverse health outcomes, including mortality by cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Studies of health impacts by aerosols are highly multidisciplinary with a broad range of scales in space and time. We assess recent advances and future challenges regarding aerosol effects on health from molecular to global scales through epidemiological studies, field measurements, health-related properties of PM, and multiphase interactions of oxidants and PM upon respiratory deposition. Global modeling combined with epidemiological exposure-response functions indicates that ambient air pollution causes more than four million premature deaths per year. Epidemiological studies usually refer to PM mass concentrations, but some health effects may relate to specific constituents such as bioaerosols, polycyclic aromatic compounds, and transition metals. Various analytical techniques and cellular and molecular assays are applied to assess the redox activity of PM and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Multiphase chemical interactions of lung antioxidants with atmospheric pollutants are crucial to the mechanistic and molecular understanding of oxidative stress upon respiratory deposition. The role of distinct PM components in health impacts and mortality needs to be clarified by integrated research on various spatiotemporal scales for better evaluation and mitigation of aerosol effects on public health in the Anthropocene.

  4. Dysfunctional Consumer Behavior: Proposition of a Measurement Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Lara Marcondes Machado de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the development of a scale that can identify customers that are more prone to behave in a dysfunctional manner. Dysfunctional Consumer Behavior can negatively influence the organization profits, since this kind of consumer can generate monetary losses, such as fixing damaged pr operty. Several hypotheses are proposed based on consumer characteristics that could foster dysfunctional behavior. For this, we used an hybrid methodology, combining Churchill’s (1979 with C - OAR - SE (2002. In order to develop the scale, scenarios with dy sfunctional behaviors where constructed. Respondents were asked to rate the appropriateness of each behavior and answers a group of questions based on the hypothesis developed. The data was collected over the Internet (Amazon Turk and the statistical meth ods used for the scale development were cluster and discriminant analysis. The results showed evidence that it is possible to distinguish consumers through a discriminant function using interpersonal influence, such as aggressiveness, self - exposure, moral flexibility and machiavellianism; and personality aspects, such as dissatisfaction and acceptance.

  5. Large-scale structure and gravitational waves. III. Tidal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Fabian; Pajer, Enrico; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2014-04-01

    The leading locally observable effect of a long-wavelength metric perturbation corresponds to a tidal field. We derive the tidal field induced by scalar, vector, and tensor perturbations, and use second-order perturbation theory to calculate the effect on the locally measured small-scale density fluctuations. For subhorizon scalar perturbations, we recover the standard perturbation theory result (F2 kernel). For tensor modes of wavenumber kL, we find that effects persist for kLτ ≫1, i.e. even long after the gravitational wave has entered the horizon and redshifted away ("fossil effect"). We then use these results, combined with the "ruler perturbations" of F. Schmidt and D. Jeong [Phys. Rev. D 86, 083527 (2012)], to predict the observed distortion of the small-scale matter correlation function induced by a long-wavelength tensor mode. We also estimate the observed signal in the B mode of the cosmic shear from a gravitational wave background, including both tidal (intrinsic alignment) and projection (lensing) effects. The nonvanishing tidal effect in the kLτ≫1 limit significantly increases the intrinsic alignment contribution to shear B modes, especially at low redshifts z≲2.

  6. The IPV-GBM scale: a new scale to measure intimate partner violence among gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the creation of a new scale to measure intimate partner violence (IPV) among gay and bisexual men. Seven focus group discussions were held with gay and bisexual men, focusing on defining intimate partner violence: 30 forms of IPV were identified. A venue-recruited sample of 912 gay and bisexual men was surveyed, examining definitional understanding and recent experiences of each of the 30 forms of IPV. Participants were also asked questions from the CDC definition of intimate partner violence and the short-form of the Conflicts Tactics Scale (CTS2S). Factor analysis of responses to the definitional questions was used to create the IPV-GBM scale, and the prevalence of intimate partner violence was compared with that identified by the CDC and CTS2S measures of intimate partner violence. A 23-item scale, with 5 unique domains, was created, with strong internal reliability (Cronbach Alpha >.90). The IPV-GBM scale mirrored both the CDC and CTS2S definitions of intimate partner violence, but contained additional domains such as controlling violence, monitoring behaviors, emotional violence, and HIV-related violence. The new scale identified a significantly higher prevalence of IPV than either of the more commonly used measures. The results presented here provide encouraging evidence for a new, more accurate measure of intimate partner violence among gay and bisexual men in the U.S.

  7. The IPV-GBM scale: a new scale to measure intimate partner violence among gay and bisexual men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Stephenson

    Full Text Available The paper describes the creation of a new scale to measure intimate partner violence (IPV among gay and bisexual men.Seven focus group discussions were held with gay and bisexual men, focusing on defining intimate partner violence: 30 forms of IPV were identified. A venue-recruited sample of 912 gay and bisexual men was surveyed, examining definitional understanding and recent experiences of each of the 30 forms of IPV. Participants were also asked questions from the CDC definition of intimate partner violence and the short-form of the Conflicts Tactics Scale (CTS2S. Factor analysis of responses to the definitional questions was used to create the IPV-GBM scale, and the prevalence of intimate partner violence was compared with that identified by the CDC and CTS2S measures of intimate partner violence.A 23-item scale, with 5 unique domains, was created, with strong internal reliability (Cronbach Alpha >.90. The IPV-GBM scale mirrored both the CDC and CTS2S definitions of intimate partner violence, but contained additional domains such as controlling violence, monitoring behaviors, emotional violence, and HIV-related violence. The new scale identified a significantly higher prevalence of IPV than either of the more commonly used measures.The results presented here provide encouraging evidence for a new, more accurate measure of intimate partner violence among gay and bisexual men in the U.S.

  8. Scale factor correction for Gaussian beam truncation in second moment beam radius measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Lucas R.; Dragone, Rocco V.; MacGregor, Andrew D.

    2017-04-01

    Charged-couple devices (CCD) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors, in conjunction with the second moment radius analysis method, are effective tools for determining the radius of a laser beam. However, the second moment method heavily weights sensor noise, which must be dealt with using a thresholding algorithm and a software aperture. While these noise reduction methods lower the random error due to noise, they simultaneously generate systematic error by truncating the Gaussian beam's edges. A scale factor that is invariant to beam ellipticity and corrects for the truncation of the Gaussian beam due to thresholding and the software aperture has been derived. In particular, simulations showed an order of magnitude reduction in measured beam radius error when using the scale factor-irrespective of beam ellipticity-and further testing with real beam data demonstrated that radii corrected by the scale factor are independent of the noise reduction parameters. Thus, through use of the scale factor, the accuracy of beam radius measurements made with a CCD or CMOS sensor and the second moment are significantly improved.

  9. Measuring Numeracy in a Community College Context: Assessing the Reliability of the Subjective Numeracy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate S. Wolfe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, our goals were to assess the suitability of the Subjective Numeracy Scale (SNS, developed for health-care use, in a new context with predominantly minority students at a South Bronx community college and to identify any race/ ethnicity, gender, and ESL enrollment effects. The scale assesses perceptions of quantitative reasoning skills and preferences for data presentation. This scale was given to a convenience sample of students in behavioral sciences classes. Results show that the SNS scale was reliable with our sample using the full thirteen-question scale or the shorter eight-item version. Gender, race/ ethnicity, and English as a Second Language (ESL are related to perceptions of QR/QL. This study may help researchers see the SNS as a reliable instrument across samples and as a way to measure numeracy. The results of the multivariate analyses raise questions for future research about cultural differences for numerical presentation among these ethnic groups and our international student population.

  10. Evo-SETI SCALE to measure Life on Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    that the GBM exponential may be regarded as the geometric locus of all the peaks of a one-parameter (i.e. the peak time p) family of b-lognormals. Since b-lognormals are pdf-s, the area under each of them always equals 1 (normalization condition) and so, going from left to right on the time axis, the b-lognormals become more and more ;peaky;, and so they last less and less in time. This is precisely what happened in human history: civilizations that lasted millennia (like Ancient Greece and Rome) lasted just centuries (like the Italian Renaissance and Portuguese, Spanish, French, British and USA Empires) but they were more and more advanced in the ;level of civilization;. This ;level of civilization; is what physicists call ENTROPY. Also, in refs. Maccone [3] and [4], this author proved that, for all GBMs, the (Shannon) Entropy of the b-lognormals in his Peak-Locus Theorem grows LINEARLY in time. The Molecular Clock, well known to geneticists since 50 years, shows that the DNA base-substitutions occur LINEARLY in time since they are neutral with respect to Darwinian selection. In simple words: DNA evolved by obeying the laws of quantum physics only (microscopic laws) and not by obeying assumed ;Darwinian selection laws; (macroscopic laws). This is Kimura's neutral theory of molecular evolution. The conclusion is that the Molecular Clock and the b-lognormal Entropy are the same thing. At last, we reach the new, original result justifying the publication of this paper. On exoplanets, molecular evolution is proceeding at about the same rate as it did proceed on Earth: rather independently of the physical conditions of the exoplanet, if the DNA had the possibility to evolve in water initially. Thus, Evo-Entropy, i.e. the (Shannon) Entropy of the generic b-lognormal of the Peak-Locus Theorem, provides the Evo-SETI SCALE to measure the evolution of life on exoplanets.

  11. Numerical measurements of scaling relations in two-dimensional conformal fluid turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westernacher-Schneider, John Ryan; Lehner, Luis

    2017-08-01

    We present measurements of relativistic scaling relations in (2+1)-dimensional conformal fluid turbulence from direct numerical simulations, in the weakly compressible regime. These relations were analytically derived previously in [1] for a relativistic fluid; this work is a continuation of that study, providing further analytical insights together with numerical experiments to test the scaling relations and extract other important features characterizing the turbulent behavior. We first explicitly demonstrate that the non-relativistic limit of these scaling relations reduce to known results from the statistical theory of incompressible Navier-Stokes turbulence. In simulations of the inverse-cascade range, we find the relevant relativistic scaling relation is satisfied to a high degree of ac-curacy. We observe that the non-relativistic versions of this scaling relation underperform the relativistic one in both an absolute and relative sense, with a progressive degradation as the rms Mach number increases from 0.14 to 0.19. In the direct-cascade range, the two relevant relativistic scaling relations are satisfied with a lower degree of accuracy in a simulation with rms Mach number 0.11. We elucidate the poorer agreement with further simulations of an incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid. Finally, as has been observed in the incompressible Navier-Stokes case, we show that the energy spectrum in the inverse-cascade of the conformal fluid exhibits k -2 scaling rather than the Kolmogorov/Kraichnan expectation of k -5/3, and that it is not necessarily associated with compressive effects. We comment on the implications for a recent calculation of the fractal dimension of a turbulent (3 + 1)-dimensional AdS black brane.

  12. Mach Probe Measurements in a Large-Scale Helicon Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, M. W.; Kelly, R. F.; Fisher, D. M.; Gilmore, M.; Dwyer, R. H.

    2017-10-01

    A new six-tipped Mach probe, that utilizes a fused-quartz insulator, has been developed and initially tested in the HelCat dual-source plasma device at the University of New Mexico. The new design allows for relatively long duration measurements of parallel and perpendicular flows that suffer less from thermal changes in conductivity and surface build-up seen in previous alumina-insulated designs. Mach probe measurement will be presented in comparison with ongoing laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements, previous Mach probe measurements, ExB flow estimates derived from Langmuir probes, and fast-frame CCD camera images, in an effort to better understand previous anomalous ion flow in HelCat. Additionally, Mach probe-LIF comparisons will provide an experimentally obtained Mach probe calibration constant, K, to validate sheath-derived estimates for the weakly magnetized case. Supported by U.S. National Science Foundation Award 1500423.

  13. Turbulent velocity and concentration measurements in a macro-scale multi-inlet vortex nanoprecipitation reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenping; Fox, Rodney; Hill, James; Olsen, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP) is a technique to produce monodisperse functional nanoparticles. Microscale multi-inlet vortex reactors (MIVR) have been effectively applied to FNP due to their ability to provide rapid mixing and flexibility of inlet flow conditions. A scaled-up MIVR could potentially generate large quantities of functional nanoparticles, giving FNP wider applicability in industry. In the presented research, the turbulent velocity field inside a scaled-up, macroscale MIVR is measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Within the reactor, velocity is measured using both two-dimensional and stereoscopic PIV at two Reynolds numbers (3500 and 8750) based on the flow at each inlet. Data have been collected at numerous locations in the inlet channels, the reaction chamber, and the reactor outlet. Mean velocity and Reynolds stresses have been obtained based on 5000 instantaneous velocity realizations at each measurement location. The turbulent mixing process has also been investigated with passive scalar planar laser-induced fluorescence and simultaneous PIV/PLIF. Velocity and concentration results are compared to results from previous experiments in a microscale MIVR. Scaled profiles of turbulent quantities are similar to those previously found in the microscale MIVR.

  14. Measuring health workers' motivation composition: validation of a scale based on Self-Determination Theory in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Julia; Souares, Aurélia; Tiendrebéogo, Justin; Houlfort, Nathalie; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Somda, Serge M A; De Allegri, Manuela

    2017-05-22

    Although motivation of health workers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has become a topic of increasing interest by policy makers and researchers in recent years, many aspects are not well understood to date. This is partly due to a lack of appropriate measurement instruments. This article presents evidence on the construct validity of a psychometric scale developed to measure motivation composition, i.e., the extent to which motivation of different origin within and outside of a person contributes to their overall work motivation. It is theoretically grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT). We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1142 nurses in 522 government health facilities in 24 districts of Burkina Faso. We assessed the scale's validity in a confirmatory factor analysis framework, investigating whether the scale measures what it was intended to measure (content, structural, and convergent/discriminant validity) and whether it does so equally well across health worker subgroups (measurement invariance). Our results show that the scale measures a slightly modified version of the SDT continuum of motivation well. Measurements were overall comparable between subgroups, but results indicate that caution is warranted if a comparison of motivation scores between groups is the focus of analysis. The scale is a valuable addition to the repository of measurement tools for health worker motivation in LMICs. We expect it to prove useful in the quest for a more comprehensive understanding of motivation as well as of the effects and potential side effects of interventions intended to enhance motivation.

  15. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattula, Deepthi; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Sarkar, Rajiv; Jiang, Victoria; S, Mahasampath Gowri; Henry, Ankita; Deosaran, Jordanna Devi; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India. A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales-Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL), the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI) and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting. The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%). Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%. There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities.

  16. Scaling effects in the static large deflection response of graphite-epoxy composite beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Scaling effects in the large deflection response of graphite-epoxy composite beams was investigated. Eight different scale model beams ranging from 1/6 to full-scale were subjected to an eccentric axial compressive load to promote large bending deformations and failures. Beams having laminate stacking sequences including unidirectional, angle ply, cross ply, and quasi-isotropic were tested to examine a wide variety of composite response and failure modes. The model beams were loaded under scaled test conditions until catastrophic failure. Data acquired included load, end displacement, and strain measurements, and qualitative failure measurements. The experimental data is compared to a large rotation beam analysis and a finite element model analysis. Results from the tests indicate that the beam response becomes nonlinear. Failure modes are consistent between scale models within a laminate family, however, a significant scale effect is observed in strength of the scaled beams.

  17. A Note on Measurement Scales and Statistical Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Rob R.; Oosterloo, Sebie J.

    2008-01-01

    In elementary books on applied statistics (e.g., Siegel, 1988; Agresti, 1990) and books on research methodology in psychology and personality assessment (e.g., Aiken, 1999), it is often suggested that the choice of a statistical test and the choice of statistical operations should be determined by the level of measurement of the data. Although…

  18. Longitudinal measurement invariance of the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurs, D.P. de; Fokkema, M.; Groot, M.H. de; Keijser, J. de; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    In mental health care, both clinical and scientific decisions are based on within-subject comparisons of test scores on the same self-report questionnaire at different points in time. To establish the validity of test score comparisons over time, longitudinal measurement invariance should be

  19. Development of semantic differential scale for measurement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to meet the need for a reliable and valid instrument for measurement of Senior School Students' Interest in Agricultural Science. Using stratified random sampling, 13 (out of 45) Senior Schools were selected from Federal, Model and Public Senior Secondary Schools in Owerri and Ahiazu Local ...

  20. Image scale measurement with correlation filters in a volume holographic optical correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianxiang; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2013-08-01

    A search engine containing various target images or different part of a large scene area is of great use for many applications, including object detection, biometric recognition, and image registration. The input image captured in realtime is compared with all the template images in the search engine. A volume holographic correlator is one type of these search engines. It performs thousands of comparisons among the images at a super high speed, with the correlation task accomplishing mainly in optics. However, the inputted target image always contains scale variation to the filtering template images. At the time, the correlation values cannot properly reflect the similarity of the images. It is essential to estimate and eliminate the scale variation of the inputted target image. There are three domains for performing the scale measurement, as spatial, spectral and time domains. Most methods dealing with the scale factor are based on the spatial or the spectral domains. In this paper, a method with the time domain is proposed to measure the scale factor of the input image. It is called a time-sequential scaled method. The method utilizes the relationship between the scale variation and the correlation value of two images. It sends a few artificially scaled input images to compare with the template images. The correlation value increases and decreases with the increasing of the scale factor at the intervals of 0.8~1 and 1~1.2, respectively. The original scale of the input image can be measured by estimating the largest correlation value through correlating the artificially scaled input image with the template images. The measurement range for the scale can be 0.8~4.8. Scale factor beyond 1.2 is measured by scaling the input image at the factor of 1/2, 1/3 and 1/4, correlating the artificially scaled input image with the template images, and estimating the new corresponding scale factor inside 0.8~1.2.

  1. A Measure of EFL Public Speaking Class Anxiety: Scale Development and Preliminary Validation and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaikhong, Kriangkrai; Usaha, Siriluck

    2012-01-01

    The present study contributes to developing a Public Speaking Class Anxiety Scale (PSCAS) to measure anxiety in the EFL public speaking class in the Thai context. Items were adopted from previous scales: Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) by Horwitz et al. (1986); Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) and Personal…

  2. Developing a Scale to Measure Reader Self-Perception for EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adunyarittigun, Dumrong

    2015-01-01

    The development of a scale for measuring self-perception for readers of English as a foreign language is discussed in this paper. The scale was developed from the four dimensions of self-efficacy theory proposed by Bandura (1977a): progress, observational comparison, social feedback and physiological states. A 36 item scale was developed to…

  3. Scaling issues in multi-criteria evaluation of combinations of measures for integrated river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    In integrated river basin management, measures for reaching the environmental objectives can be evaluated at different scales, and according to multiple criteria of different nature (e.g. ecological, economic, social). Decision makers, including responsible authorities and stakeholders, follow different interests regarding criteria and scales. With a bottom up approach, the multi criteria assessment could produce a different outcome than with a top down approach. The first assigns more power to the local community, which is a common principle of IWRM. On the other hand, the development of an overall catchment strategy could potentially make use of synergetic effects of the measures, which fulfils the cost efficiency requirement at the basin scale but compromises local interests. Within a joint research project for the 5500 km2 Werra river basin in central Germany, measures have been planned to reach environmental objectives of the European Water Framework directive (WFD) regarding ecological continuity and nutrient loads. The main criteria for the evaluation of the measures were costs of implementation, reduction of nutrients, ecological benefit and social acceptance. The multi-criteria evaluation of the catchment strategies showed compensation between positive and negative performance of criteria within the catchment, which in the end reduced the discriminative power of the different strategies. Furthermore, benefit criteria are partially computed for the whole basin only. Both ecological continuity and nutrient load show upstream-downstream effects in opposite direction. The principles of "polluter pays" and "overall cost efficiency" can be followed for the reduction of nutrient losses when financial compensations between upstream and downstream users are made, similar to concepts of emission trading.

  4. A Measure of Team Resilience: Developing the Resilience at Work Team Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Kathryn; Boyd, Carolyn M

    2017-11-06

    This study develops, and initial evaluates, a new measure of team-based resilience for use in research and practice. We conducted preliminary analyses, based on a cross-sectional sample of 344 employees nested within 31 teams. Seven dimensions were identified through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The measure had high reliability and significant discrimination to indicate the presence of a unique team-based aspect of resilience that contributed to higher work engagement and higher self-rated team performance, over and above the effects of individual resilience. Multilevel analyses showed that team, but not individual, resilience predicted self-rated team performance. Practice implications include a need to focus on collective as well as individual behaviours in resilience-building. The measure provides a diagnostic instrument for teams and a scale to evaluate organisational interventions and research the relationship of resilience to other constructs.

  5. Improving the coastal record of tsunamis in the ESI-07 scale: Tsunami Environmental Effects Scale (TEE-16 scale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lario, J.; Bardaji, T.; Silva, P.G.; Zazo, C.; Goy, J.L.

    2016-07-01

    This paper discusses possibilities to improve the Environmental Seismic Intensity Scale (ESI-07 scale), a scale based on the effects of earthquakes in the environment. This scale comprises twelve intensity degrees and considers primary and secondary effects, one of them the occurrence of tsunamis. Terminology and physical tsunami parameters corresponding to different intensity levels are often misleading and confusing. The present work proposes: i) a revised and updated catalogue of environmental and geological effects of tsunamis, gathering all the available information on Tsunami Environmental Effects (TEEs) produced by recent earthquake-tsunamis; ii) a specific intensity scale (TEE-16) for the effects of tsunamis in the natural environment at coastal areas. The proposed scale could be used in future tsunami events and, in historic and paleo-tsunami studies. The new TEE- 16 scale incorporates the size specific parameters already considered in the ESI-07 scale, such as wave height, run-up and inland extension of inundation, and a comprehensive and more accurate terminology that covers all the different intensity levels identifiable in the geological record (intensities VI-XII). The TEE-16 scale integrates the description and quantification of the potential sedimentary and erosional features (beach scours, transported boulders and classical tsunamites) derived from different tsunami events at diverse coastal environments (e.g. beaches, estuaries, rocky cliffs,). This new approach represents an innovative advance in relation to the tsunami descriptions provided by the ESI-07 scale, and allows the full application of the proposed scale in paleoseismological studies. The analysis of the revised and updated tsunami environmental damage suggests that local intensities recorded in coastal areas do not correlate well with the TEE-16 intensity (normally higher), but shows a good correlation with the earthquake magnitude (Mw). Tsunamis generated by earthquakes can then be

  6. Measuring engagement in nurses: the psychometric properties of the Persian version of Utrecht Work Engagement Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabinia, Mansour; Mahmoudi, Sara; Dolatshahi, Mojtaba; Abyaz, Mohamad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Considering the overall tendency in psychology, researchers in the field of work and organizational psychology have become progressively interested in employees' effective and optimistic experiments at work such as work engagement. This study was conducted to investigate 2 main purposes: assessing the psychometric properties of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and finding any association between work engagement and burnout in nurses. Methods: The present methodological study was conducted in 2015 and included 248 females and 34 males with 6 months to 30 years of job experience. After the translation process, face and content validity were calculated by qualitative and quantitative methods. Moreover, content validation ratio, scale-level content validity index and item-level content validity index were measured for this scale. Construct validity was determined by factor analysis. Moreover, internal consistency and stability reliability were assessed. Factor analysis, test-retest, Cronbach's alpha, and association analysis were used as statistical methods. Results: Face and content validity were acceptable. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a new 3- factor model. In this new model, some items from the construct model of the original version were dislocated with the same 17 items. The new model was confirmed by divergent Copenhagen Burnout Inventory as the Persian version of UWES. Internal consistency reliability for the total scale and the subscales was 0.76 to 0.89. Results from Pearson correlation test indicated a high degree of test-retest reliability (r = 0. 89). ICC was also 0.91. Engagement was negatively related to burnout and overtime per month, whereas it was positively related with age and job experiment. Conclusion: The Persian 3- factor model of Utrecht Work Engagement Scale is a valid and reliable instrument to measure work engagement in Iranian nurses as well as in other medical professionals.

  7. The Family Affluence Scale as a Measure of National Wealth: Validation of an Adolescent Self-Report Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, William; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Currie, Candace; Zambon, Alessio

    2006-01-01

    One explanation for a lack of consistency in SES-health associations in youth is that parent-based income and occupation measures are inadequate. The Family Affluence Scale (FAS), a four-item measure of family wealth, has been developed in the WHO Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study as an alternative measure. The aim of this paper is to…

  8. Electron-Scale Measurements of Magnetic Reconnection in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Phan, T. D.; Chen, L.-J.; Moore, T. E.; Ergun, R. E.; Eastwood, J. P.; Gershman, D. J.; Cassak, P. A.; Argall, M. R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental physical process in plasmas whereby stored magnetic energy is converted into heat and kinetic energy of charged particles. Reconnection occurs in many astrophysical plasma environments and in laboratory plasmas. Using measurements with very high time resolution, NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has found direct evidence for electron demagnetization and acceleration at sites along the sunward boundary of Earth's magnetosphere where the interplanetary magnetic field reconnects with the terrestrial magnetic field. We have (i) observed the conversion of magnetic energy to particle energy; (ii) measured the electric field and current, which together cause the dissipation of magnetic energy; and (iii) identified the electron population that carries the current as a result of demagnetization and acceleration within the reconnection diffusion/dissipation region.

  9. Development, validation, and performance of a scale to measure community mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippman, Sheri A; Neilands, Torsten B; Leslie, Hannah H; Maman, Suzanne; MacPhail, Catherine; Twine, Rhian; Peacock, Dean; Kahn, Kathleen; Pettifor, Audrey

    2016-05-01

    Community mobilization approaches (CMAs) are increasingly becoming key components of health programming. However, CMAs have been ill defined and poorly evaluated, largely due to the lack of measurement tools to assess mobilization processes and impact. We developed the Community Mobilization Measure (CMM), composed of a set of scales to measure mobilization domains hypothesized to operate at the community-level. The six domains include: shared concerns, critical consciousness, leadership, collective action, social cohesion, and organizations and networks. We also included the domain of social control to explore synergies with the related construct of collective efficacy. A survey instrument was developed and pilot tested, then revised and administered to 1181 young people, aged 18-35, in a community-based survey in rural South Africa. Item response modeling and exploratory factor analyses were conducted to assess model fit, dimensionality, reliability, and validity. Results indicate the seven-dimensional model, with linked domains but no higher order construct, fit the data best. Internal consistency reliability of the factors was strong, with ρ values ranging from 0.81 to 0.93. Six of seven scales were sufficiently correlated to represent linked concepts that comprise community mobilization; social control was less related to the other components. At the village level, CMM sub-scales were correlated with other metrics of village social capital and integrity, providing initial evidence of higher-level validity, however additional evaluation of the measure at the community-level is needed. This is the first effort to develop and validate a comprehensive measure for community mobilization. The CMM was designed as an evaluation tool for health programming and should facilitate a more nuanced understanding of mechanisms of change associated with CM, ultimately making mobilizing approaches more effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance Measurement and Analysis of Large-Scale Parallel Applications on Leadership Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J.N. Wylie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Developers of applications with large-scale computing requirements are currently presented with a variety of high-performance systems optimised for message-passing, however, effectively exploiting the available computing resources remains a major challenge. In addition to fundamental application scalability characteristics, application and system peculiarities often only manifest at extreme scales, requiring highly scalable performance measurement and analysis tools that are convenient to incorporate in application development and tuning activities. We present our experiences with a multigrid solver benchmark and state-of-the-art real-world applications for numerical weather prediction and computational fluid dynamics, on three quite different multi-thousand-processor supercomputer systems – Cray XT3/4, MareNostrum & Blue Gene/L – using the newly-developed SCALASCA toolset to quantify and isolate a range of significant performance issues.

  11. Accuracy of rainfall measurement for scales of hydrological interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Wood

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The dense network of 49 raingauges over the 135 km2 Brue catchment in Somerset, England is used to examine the accuracy of rainfall estimates obtained from raingauges and from weather radar. Methods for data quality control and classification of precipitation types are first described. A super-dense network comprising eight gauges within a 2 km grid square is employed to obtain a 'true value' of rainfall against which the 2 km radar grid and a single 'typical gauge' estimate can be compared. Accuracy is assessed as a function of rainfall intensity, for different periods of time-integration (15 minutes, 1 hour and 1 day and for two 8-gauge networks in areas of low and high relief. In a similar way, the catchment gauge network is used to provide the 'true catchment rainfall' and the accuracy of a radar estimate (an area-weighted average of radar pixel values and a single 'typical gauge' estimate of catchment rainfall evaluated as a function of rainfall intensity. A single gauge gives a standard error of estimate for rainfall in a 2 km square and over the catchment of 33% and 65% respectively, at rain rates of 4 mm in 15 minutes. Radar data at 2 km resolution give corresponding errors of 50% and 55%. This illustrates the benefit of using radar when estimating catchment scale rainfall. A companion paper (Wood et al., 2000 considers the accuracy of rainfall estimates obtained using raingauge and radar in combination. Keywords: rainfall, accuracy, raingauge, radar

  12. Plasma scale-length effects on electron energy spectra in high-irradiance laser plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culfa, O; Tallents, G J; Rossall, A K; Wagenaars, E; Ridgers, C P; Murphy, C D; Dance, R J; Gray, R J; McKenna, P; Brown, C D R; James, S F; Hoarty, D J; Booth, N; Robinson, A P L; Lancaster, K L; Pikuz, S A; Faenov, A Ya; Kampfer, T; Schulze, K S; Uschmann, I; Woolsey, N C

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of an electron spectrometer used to characterize fast electrons generated by ultraintense (10^{20}Wcm^{-2}) laser interaction with a preformed plasma of scale length measured by shadowgraphy is presented. The effects of fringing magnetic fields on the electron spectral measurements and the accuracy of density scale-length measurements are evaluated. 2D EPOCH PIC code simulations are found to be in agreement with measurements of the electron energy spectra showing that laser filamentation in plasma preformed by a prepulse is important with longer plasma scale lengths (>8 μm).

  13. Distributor– Retailer Interface in Pharmaceutical Supply Chain: Service Quality Measurement Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Babapour, Jafar; peiravian, farzad

    2016-01-01

    In the current competitive market, service quality management is the key to the survival and success of businesses. SERVQUAL is a popular service quality measurement scale (SQMS) that has served as a basis for subsequent research on service quality; it has been used for testing different aspects of service quality in a market. The purpose of our study is, therefore, to develop a service quality measurement scale (SQMS) for the distributor–retailer interface of Pharm supply chains (PSC) in Iran. A survey was performed to collect data from pharmacies located in Tehran. A valid and reliable questionnaire delivered to pharmacies, and 400 pharmacies were intended to participate in our survey. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to develop an SQMS in this study. Sufficient sampling was undertaken to do CFA. Consistent with other service quality studies, this Res developed an SQMS with five dimensions and 20 items for PSC, and contributes to mangers to regularly measure service quality. This is an initial study to develop a framework for measuring service quality in Iranian PCS. The framework can be used effectively to achieve competitive advantage at the distributor–retailer interface. PMID:28243297

  14. Distributor- Retailer Interface in Pharmaceutical Supply Chain: Service Quality Measurement Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Babapour, Jafar; Peiravian, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    In the current competitive market, service quality management is the key to the survival and success of businesses. SERVQUAL is a popular service quality measurement scale (SQMS) that has served as a basis for subsequent research on service quality; it has been used for testing different aspects of service quality in a market. The purpose of our study is, therefore, to develop a service quality measurement scale (SQMS) for the distributor-retailer interface of Pharm supply chains (PSC) in Iran. A survey was performed to collect data from pharmacies located in Tehran. A valid and reliable questionnaire delivered to pharmacies, and 400 pharmacies were intended to participate in our survey. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to develop an SQMS in this study. Sufficient sampling was undertaken to do CFA. Consistent with other service quality studies, this Res developed an SQMS with five dimensions and 20 items for PSC, and contributes to mangers to regularly measure service quality. This is an initial study to develop a framework for measuring service quality in Iranian PCS. The framework can be used effectively to achieve competitive advantage at the distributor-retailer interface.

  15. Correlation of experimentally measured atomic scale properties of EUV photoresist to modeling performance: an exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Yudhishthir; Chandonait, Jonathan; Melvin, Lawrence S.; Marokkey, Sajan; Yan, Qiliang; Grzeskowiak, Steven; Painter, Benjamin; Denbeaux, Gregory

    2017-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography at 13.5 nm stands at the crossroads of next generation patterning technology for high volume manufacturing of integrated circuits. Photo resist models that form the part of overall pattern transform model for lithography play a vital role in supporting this effort. The physics and chemistry of these resists must be understood to enable the construction of accurate models for EUV Optical Proximity Correction (OPC). In this study, we explore the possibility of improving EUV photo-resist models by directly correlating the parameters obtained from experimentally measured atomic scale physical properties; namely, the effect of interaction of EUV photons with photo acid generators in standard chemically amplified EUV photoresist, and associated electron energy loss events. Atomic scale physical properties will be inferred from the measurements carried out in Electron Resist Interaction Chamber (ERIC). This study will use measured physical parameters to establish a relationship with lithographically important properties, such as line edge roughness and CD variation. The data gathered from these measurements is used to construct OPC models of the resist.

  16. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) and Subsequent Bias in Group Comparisons using a Composite Measurement Scale: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, Alexandra; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Coste, Joel

    To determine the conditions in which the estimation of a difference between groups for a construct evaluated using a composite measurement scale is biased if the presence of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) is not taken into account. Datasets were generated using the Partial Credit Model to simulate 642 realistic scenarios. The effect of seven factors on the bias on the estimated difference between groups was evaluated using ANOVA: sample size, true difference between groups, number of items in the scale, proportion of items showing DIF, DIF-size for these items, position of these items location parameters along the latent trait, and uniform/non-uniform DIF. For uniform DIF, only the DIF-size and the proportion of items showing DIF (and their interaction term) had meaningful effects. The effect of non-uniform DIF was negligible. The measurement bias resulting from DIF was quantified in various realistic conditions of composite measurement scale use.

  17. Measurement error causes scale-dependent threshold erosion of biological signals in animal movement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Sims, David W; Hays, Graeme C

    2007-03-01

    Recent advances in telemetry technology have created a wealth of tracking data available for many animal species moving over spatial scales from tens of meters to tens of thousands of kilometers. Increasingly, such data sets are being used for quantitative movement analyses aimed at extracting fundamental biological signals such as optimal searching behavior and scale-dependent foraging decisions. We show here that the location error inherent in various tracking technologies reduces the ability to detect patterns of behavior within movements. Our analyses endeavored to set out a series of initial ground rules for ecologists to help ensure that sampling noise is not misinterpreted as a real biological signal. We simulated animal movement tracks using specialized random walks known as Lévy flights at three spatial scales of investigation: 100-km, 10-km, and 1-km maximum daily step lengths. The locations generated in the simulations were then blurred using known error distributions associated with commonly applied tracking methods: the Global Positioning System (GPS), Argos polar-orbiting satellites, and light-level geolocation. Deviations from the idealized Lévy flight pattern were assessed for each track after incrementing levels of location error were applied at each spatial scale, with additional assessments of the effect of error on scale-dependent movement patterns measured using fractal mean dimension and first-passage time (FPT) analyses. The accuracy of parameter estimation (Lévy mu, fractal mean D, and variance in FPT) declined precipitously at threshold errors relative to each spatial scale. At 100-km maximum daily step lengths, error standard deviations of > or = 10 km seriously eroded the biological patterns evident in the simulated tracks, with analogous thresholds at the 10-km and 1-km scales (error SD > or = 1.3 km and 0.07 km, respectively). Temporal subsampling of the simulated tracks maintained some elements of the biological signals depending on

  18. The development of a scale to measure medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning: the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte; Sheard, Charlotte; Davies, Susie

    2002-02-01

    There is little research identifying medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning. This pilot study outlines the development of a new scale to measure attitudes towards communication skills learning. First- and second-year medical students (n = 490) completed the 26-item Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) and 39 students completed the CSAS on a second occasion. Factor analysis was conducted to determine the factors underpinning the scale. The internal consistency of the subscales was determined using alpha coefficients. The test-retest reliability of the individual scale items were determined using weighted kappa coefficients and the test-retest reliability of the subscales were established using intraclass correlation coefficients. Maximum likelihood extraction with direct oblimin rotation resulted in a 2-factor scale with 13 items on each subscale. Factor I represented positive attitudes towards communication skills learning and factor II represented negative attitudes. Subscale I had an internal consistency of alpha=0.873 and an intraclass correlation of 0.646 (P attitude subscales (n=8, 61.5%) possessed moderate test-retest reliability. The development of a new and reliable scale to identify medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning will enable researchers to explore the relationships between medical students' attitudes and their demographic and education-related characteristics. Further work is needed to validate this scale among a broader population of medical students.

  19. Measuring Large-Scale Social Networks with High Resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Sekara, Vedran; Sapiezynski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    , telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics) for a densely connected population of 1 000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation...... and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles....... The paper is concluded with early results from data analysis, illustrating the importance of multi-channel high-resolution approach to data collection....

  20. A Unidimensional Instrument for Measuring Internal Marketing Concept in the Higher Education Sector: IM-11 Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Suleyman Murat; Kara, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Although the existing internal marketing (IM) scales include various scale items to measure employee motivation, they fall short of incorporating the needs and expectations of service sector employees. Hence, the purpose of this study is to present a practical instrument designed to measure the IM construct in the higher education sector.…

  1. New Well-Being Measures: Short Scales to Assess Flourishing and Positive and Negative Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Wirtz, Derrick; Tov, William; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Choi, Dong-won; Oishi, Shigehiro; Biswas-Diener, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Measures of well-being were created to assess psychological flourishing and feelings--positive feelings, negative feelings, and the difference between the two. The scales were evaluated in a sample of 689 college students from six locations. The Flourishing Scale is a brief 8-item summary measure of the respondent's self-perceived success in…

  2. Women's Liberation Scale (WLS): A Measure of Attitudes Toward Positions Advocated by Women's Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Carlos

    The Women's Liberation Scale (WLS) is a 14-item, Likert-type scale designed to measure attitudes toward positions advocated by women's groups. The WLS and its four-alternative response schema is presented, along with descriptive statistics of scores based on male and female college samples. Reliability and validity measures are reported, and the…

  3. A Measure for the Reliability of a Rating Scale Based on Longitudinal Clinical Trial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenen, Annouschka; Alonso, Ariel; Molenberghs, Geert

    2007-01-01

    A new measure for reliability of a rating scale is introduced, based on the classical definition of reliability, as the ratio of the true score variance and the total variance. Clinical trial data can be employed to estimate the reliability of the scale in use, whenever repeated measurements are taken. The reliability is estimated from the…

  4. The development of a reliable and valid scale to measure aesthetic pleasure in design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijlevens, J.; Thurgood, C.; Hekkert, P.P.M.; Leder, H.; Whitfield, T.W.A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of consistency regarding the scales used to measure aesthetic pleasure. They are often chosen ad hoc or derived from other research fields but never validated for design. Moreover, those scales often do not measure aesthetic pleasure in isolation, but instead include its determinants

  5. Cultural consensus modeling to measure transactional sex in Swaziland: Scale building and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Dunkle, Kristin L; Cooper, Hannah L F; Windle, Michael; Hadley, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Transactional sex is associated with increased risk of HIV and gender based violence in southern Africa and around the world. However the typical quantitative operationalization, "the exchange of gifts or money for sex," can be at odds with a wide array of relationship types and motivations described in qualitative explorations. To build on the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative research streams, we used cultural consensus models to identify distinct models of transactional sex in Swaziland. The process allowed us to build and validate emic scales of transactional sex, while identifying key informants for qualitative interviews within each model to contextualize women's experiences and risk perceptions. We used logistic and multinomial logistic regression models to measure associations with condom use and social status outcomes. Fieldwork was conducted between November 2013 and December 2014 in the Hhohho and Manzini regions. We identified three distinct models of transactional sex in Swaziland based on 124 Swazi women's emic valuation of what they hoped to receive in exchange for sex with their partners. In a clinic-based survey (n = 406), consensus model scales were more sensitive to condom use than the etic definition. Model consonance had distinct effects on social status for the three different models. Transactional sex is better measured as an emic spectrum of expectations within a relationship, rather than an etic binary relationship type. Cultural consensus models allowed us to blend qualitative and quantitative approaches to create an emicly valid quantitative scale grounded in qualitative context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Forest evapotranspiration: measurements and modeling at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; J-C. Domec; Devendra Amatya

    2016-01-01

    Compared with traditional engineering hydrology, forest hydrology has a relatively long history of studying the effects of vegetation in regulating streamflow through evapotranspiration (Hewlett, 1982; Swank and Crossley, 1988; Andreassian, 2004; Brown et al., 2005; Amatya et al., 2011, 2015, 2016; Sun et al., 2011b; Vose et al., 2011). It is estimated that more than...

  7. The City MISS: development of a scale to measure stigma of perinatal mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    D. Moore; Ayers, S; Drey, N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to develop and validate a scale to measure perceived stigma for perinatal mental illness in women. \\ud \\ud Background: Stigma is one of the most frequently cited barriers to seeking treatment and many women with perinatal mental illness fail to get the treatment they need. However, there is no psychometric scale that measures how women may experience the unique aspects of perinatal mental illness stigma.\\ud \\ud Method: A draft scale of 30 items was developed from a...

  8. The Effect of Scale Tailoring for Cross-Cultural Application on Scale Reliability and Construct Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.; Ketterer, John J.

    2002-01-01

    Findings for high school students in Mexico (n=3,153 and n=400) administered a career decision making self-efficacy scale show that tailoring the scale with the best etic and emic items neither improved recovery of the factor-structure nor reduced the effects of the extreme-response style variable. (SLD)

  9. Measuring Subjective Happiness by Newly Developed Scale in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abachizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Happiness as one of the main positive health indicators has drawn more attention in recent years among policy makers and health system managers. There are few studies performed to measure happiness in population-based settings in Iran. In response to this need, our study tends to assess Iranians subjective happiness in Tehran, Capital city of Iran.Materials and Methods: Present study was conducted in Tehran, Capital of Iran, with more than 7 Million populations in January 2013, using a two-step approach. In first step c conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness was developed. In the second phase of study, a survey recruiting 700 participants was conducted. Stratified cluster sampling method was employed. Participants were recruited from all the 22 municipal divisions of Tehran as strata, proportional to the population size and its gender and age distribution. Happiness was measure by a 40-item questionnaire with scores ranged among 40 to 200.Results: Conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness based on reviewed documents and consensus building process was the product of first step. At second step, from a pool of 700 persons, 696 (97% agreed to participate and filled out the questionnaire completely.  The mean of happiness score was 143.9 (95% confidence interval, 142.5 to 145.4. The results show that the happiness score of jobless people (135.1, 95%CI: 128.1-142.0 and widowed singles (126.6, 95%CI: 113.0-140.2 were significantly lower than other corresponding groups. There was no significant association between gender, age group, educational level as determinants and happiness.Conclusion: Happiness level of Tehranians is somewhat higher than the moderate level. This finding is consistent with findings of other conducted studies in country. However, it is not consistent with some of international reports of happiness, For instance, Happy Planet Index. Due to inadequate information, it is necessary to conduct more research to

  10. Estimation and Control with Relative Measurements: Algorithms and Scaling Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    AIAA-2002-4491. [20] R. G. Bill and W. F. Herrnkind. Drag reduction by formation movement in spiny lobsters. Science, vol. 193, no. 4258: 1146–1148...133] G. Lafferriere, A. Williams , J. S. Caughman and J. J. P. Veerman. Decen- tralized control of vehicle formations. Systems & Control Letters, vol. 54...Chaos, Solitons, and Fractals , vol. 11: 1621–1660, 2000. [166] A. J. Rivas-Guerra and M. P. Mignolet. Local/global effects of mistuning on the

  11. Neural assembly models derived through nano-scale measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hongyou; Branda, Catherine; Schiek, Richard Louis; Warrender, Christina E.; Forsythe, James Chris

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments of a three-year project focused on developing technical capabilities for measuring and modeling neuronal processes at the nanoscale. It was successfully demonstrated that nanoprobes could be engineered that were biocompatible, and could be biofunctionalized, that responded within the range of voltages typically associated with a neuronal action potential. Furthermore, the Xyce parallel circuit simulator was employed and models incorporated for simulating the ion channel and cable properties of neuronal membranes. The ultimate objective of the project had been to employ nanoprobes in vivo, with the nematode C elegans, and derive a simulation based on the resulting data. Techniques were developed allowing the nanoprobes to be injected into the nematode and the neuronal response recorded. To the authors's knowledge, this is the first occasion in which nanoparticles have been successfully employed as probes for recording neuronal response in an in vivo animal experimental protocol.

  12. Freezing Tolerance of Bulb Scales of Lily Cultivars : Effects of Freezing and Storage Duration and Partial Dehydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnier, Frans J.M.; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Tuyl, Jaap M. van

    1997-01-01

    Effects of freezing duration, previous storage duration of bulbs at -2 °C, and partial dehydration of scales on freezing tolerance of lily (Lilium hybrids) scales were studied for a series of cultivars. Freezing tolerance of scales was estimated by measuring ion leakage and recording scale bulblet

  13. Effect of wettability on scale-up of multiphase flow from core-scale to reservoir fine-grid-scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.C.; Mani, V.; Mohanty, K.K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Typical field simulation grid-blocks are internally heterogeneous. The objective of this work is to study how the wettability of the rock affects its scale-up of multiphase flow properties from core-scale to fine-grid reservoir simulation scale ({approximately} 10{prime} x 10{prime} x 5{prime}). Reservoir models need another level of upscaling to coarse-grid simulation scale, which is not addressed here. Heterogeneity is modeled here as a correlated random field parameterized in terms of its variance and two-point variogram. Variogram models of both finite (spherical) and infinite (fractal) correlation length are included as special cases. Local core-scale porosity, permeability, capillary pressure function, relative permeability functions, and initial water saturation are assumed to be correlated. Water injection is simulated and effective flow properties and flow equations are calculated. For strongly water-wet media, capillarity has a stabilizing/homogenizing effect on multiphase flow. For small variance in permeability, and for small correlation length, effective relative permeability can be described by capillary equilibrium models. At higher variance and moderate correlation length, the average flow can be described by a dynamic relative permeability. As the oil wettability increases, the capillary stabilizing effect decreases and the deviation from this average flow increases. For fractal fields with large variance in permeability, effective relative permeability is not adequate in describing the flow.

  14. Spatiotemporal Scaling Effect on Rainfall Network Design Using Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Wei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Because of high variation in mountainous areas, rainfall data at different spatiotemporal scales may yield potential uncertainty for network design. However, few studies focus on the scaling effect on both the spatial and the temporal scale. By calculating the maximum joint entropy of hourly typhoon events, monthly, six dry and wet months and annual rainfall between 1992 and 2012 for 1-, 3-, and 5-km grids, the relocated candidate rain gauges in the National Taiwan University Experimental Forest of Central Taiwan are prioritized. The results show: (1 the network exhibits different locations for first prioritized candidate rain gauges for different spatiotemporal scales; (2 the effect of spatial scales is insignificant compared to temporal scales; and (3 a smaller number and a lower percentage of required stations (PRS reach stable joint entropy for a long duration at finer spatial scale. Prioritized candidate rain gauges provide key reference points for adjusting the network to capture more accurate information and minimize redundancy.

  15. Nano-scale effects in electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, J.; Schiøtz, Jakob; Liu, Ping

    2004-01-01

    We report combined scanning tunneling microscopy and electrochemical reactivity measurements on individual palladium nanoparticles supported on a gold surface. It is shown that the catalytic activity towards electrochemical proton reduction is enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude...

  16. The implementation leadership scale (ILS): development of a brief measure of unit level implementation leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In healthcare and allied healthcare settings, leadership that supports effective implementation of evidenced-based practices (EBPs) is a critical concern. However, there are no empirically validated measures to assess implementation leadership. This paper describes the development, factor structure, and initial reliability and convergent and discriminant validity of a very brief measure of implementation leadership: the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS). Methods Participants were 459 mental health clinicians working in 93 different outpatient mental health programs in Southern California, USA. Initial item development was supported as part of a two United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) studies focused on developing implementation leadership training and implementation measure development. Clinician work group/team-level data were randomly assigned to be utilized for an exploratory factor analysis (n = 229; k = 46 teams) or for a confirmatory factor analysis (n = 230; k = 47 teams). The confirmatory factor analysis controlled for the multilevel, nested data structure. Reliability and validity analyses were then conducted with the full sample. Results The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 12-item scale with four subscales representing proactive leadership, knowledgeable leadership, supportive leadership, and perseverant leadership. Confirmatory factor analysis supported an a priori higher order factor structure with subscales contributing to a single higher order implementation leadership factor. The scale demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity. Conclusions The ILS is a brief and efficient measure of unit level leadership for EBP implementation. The availability of the ILS will allow researchers to assess strategic leadership for implementation in order to advance understanding of leadership as a predictor of organizational context for implementation

  17. The Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS): development of a brief measure of unit level implementation leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Ehrhart, Mark G; Farahnak, Lauren R

    2014-04-14

    In healthcare and allied healthcare settings, leadership that supports effective implementation of evidenced-based practices (EBPs) is a critical concern. However, there are no empirically validated measures to assess implementation leadership. This paper describes the development, factor structure, and initial reliability and convergent and discriminant validity of a very brief measure of implementation leadership: the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS). Participants were 459 mental health clinicians working in 93 different outpatient mental health programs in Southern California, USA. Initial item development was supported as part of a two United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) studies focused on developing implementation leadership training and implementation measure development. Clinician work group/team-level data were randomly assigned to be utilized for an exploratory factor analysis (n = 229; k = 46 teams) or for a confirmatory factor analysis (n = 230; k = 47 teams). The confirmatory factor analysis controlled for the multilevel, nested data structure. Reliability and validity analyses were then conducted with the full sample. The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 12-item scale with four subscales representing proactive leadership, knowledgeable leadership, supportive leadership, and perseverant leadership. Confirmatory factor analysis supported an a priori higher order factor structure with subscales contributing to a single higher order implementation leadership factor. The scale demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity. The ILS is a brief and efficient measure of unit level leadership for EBP implementation. The availability of the ILS will allow researchers to assess strategic leadership for implementation in order to advance understanding of leadership as a predictor of organizational context for implementation. The ILS also holds promise as a tool for

  18. Soil Moisture at Intermediate Scales: Linking Cosmic Ray Measurements with the Hydrologic Model mHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrön, M.; Zacharias, S.; Samaniego, L. E.; Dietrich, P.

    2013-12-01

    Measuring soil moisture with Cosmic Ray Sensors (CRS) is an emerging field of research, because the mesoscale footprint (~0.3 km^2) is of great interest for land surface models that usually work at resolutions ranging between point measurements (e.g. TDR) and remote sensing data. We run Cosmic Ray Sensors in the small catchment "Schäfertal" (1.4 km^2) in the lower Harz Mountains, central Germany. Simultaneously, the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM) [Samaniego et al. 2010] is set up for the small catchment scale for the first time. We aim (1) to find crucial spots in the field with high variability of soil moisture in order to effectively place the static sensors with the support of the model, (2) to improve soil moisture calibration and evaluation in mHM with the support of the intermediate-scale soil moisture information from the CRS. The novel key of this approach is the synergy of mesoscale soil moisture measurements and the parameterization of the hydrologic model. This work prepares upcoming projects with mobile Cosmic Ray Sensors on a rover, which have a great potential to enlarge the measurement area up to scales of remote sensing footprints. References: Samaniego, L., Kumar, R., & Attinger, S. (2010). Multiscale parameter regionalization of a grid-based hydrologic model at the mesoscale. Water Resources Research, 46(5), 1-25. doi:10.1029/2008WR007327 Zreda, M., Shuttleworth, W. J., Zeng, X., Zweck, C., Desilets, D., Franz, T., & Rosolem, R. (2012). COSMOS: the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16(11), 4079-4099. doi:10.5194/hess-16-4079-2012

  19. Measuring science or religion? A measurement analysis of the National Science Foundation sponsored science literacy scale 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, J Micah

    2014-10-01

    High scientific literacy is widely considered a public good. Methods of assessing public scientific knowledge or literacy are equally important. In an effort to measure lay scientific literacy in the United States, the National Science Foundation (NSF) science literacy scale has been a part of the last three waves of the General Social Survey. However, there has been debate over the validity of some survey items as indicators of science knowledge. While many researchers treat the NSF science scale as measuring a single dimension, previous work (Bann and Schwerin, 2004; Miller, 1998, 2004) suggests a bidimensional structure. This paper hypothesizes and tests a new measurement model for the NSF science knowledge scale and finds that two items about evolution and the big bang are more measures of a religious belief dimension termed "Young Earth Worldview" than they are measures of scientific knowledge. Results are replicated in seven samples. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Ion-scale turbulence in MAST: anomalous transport, subcritical transitions, and comparison to BES measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, F.; Highcock, E. G.; Field, A. R.; Roach, C. M.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Parra, F. I.; Dorland, W.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the effect of varying the ion temperature gradient (ITG) and toroidal equilibrium scale sheared flow on ion-scale turbulence in the outer core of MAST by means of local gyrokinetic simulations. We show that nonlinear simulations reproduce the experimental ion heat flux and that the experimentally measured values of the ITG and the flow shear lie close to the turbulence threshold. We demonstrate that the system is subcritical in the presence of flow shear, i.e., the system is formally stable to small perturbations, but transitions to a turbulent state given a large enough initial perturbation. We propose that the transition to subcritical turbulence occurs via an intermediate state dominated by low number of coherent long-lived structures, close to threshold, which increase in number as the system is taken away from the threshold into the more strongly turbulent regime, until they fill the domain and a more conventional turbulence emerges. We show that the properties of turbulence are effectively functions of the distance to threshold, as quantified by the ion heat flux. We make quantitative comparisons of correlation lengths, times, and amplitudes between our simulations and experimental measurements using the MAST BES diagnostic. We find reasonable agreement of the correlation properties, most notably of the correlation time, for which significant discrepancies were found in previous numerical studies of MAST turbulence.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A SCALE FOR MEASURING CUSTOMER-BASED BRAND EQUITY

    OpenAIRE

    Rajh, Edo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the research reported here was to develop a scale for measuring customer-based brand equity. Keller’s framework of customer-based brand equity was used asa basis for developing a measurement scale, and thus four dimensions for measuring brand equity were used: brand awareness, and strength, favourability, and uniqueness of brand associations. Three studies were conducted in order to purify the initial set of items and to assess reliability, dimensionality, and the convergent, d...

  2. Automatic Three-Dimensional Measurement of Large-Scale Structure Based on Vision Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaokun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All relevant key techniques involved in photogrammetric vision metrology for fully automatic 3D measurement of large-scale structure are studied. A new kind of coded target consisting of circular retroreflective discs is designed, and corresponding detection and recognition algorithms based on blob detection and clustering are presented. Then a three-stage strategy starting with view clustering is proposed to achieve automatic network orientation. As for matching of noncoded targets, the concept of matching path is proposed, and matches for each noncoded target are found by determination of the optimal matching path, based on a novel voting strategy, among all possible ones. Experiments on a fixed keel of airship have been conducted to verify the effectiveness and measuring accuracy of the proposed methods.

  3. Automatic Three-Dimensional Measurement of Large-Scale Structure Based on Vision Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhaokun; Guan, Banglei; Zhang, Xiaohu; Li, Daokui; Yu, Qifeng

    2014-01-01

    All relevant key techniques involved in photogrammetric vision metrology for fully automatic 3D measurement of large-scale structure are studied. A new kind of coded target consisting of circular retroreflective discs is designed, and corresponding detection and recognition algorithms based on blob detection and clustering are presented. Then a three-stage strategy starting with view clustering is proposed to achieve automatic network orientation. As for matching of noncoded targets, the concept of matching path is proposed, and matches for each noncoded target are found by determination of the optimal matching path, based on a novel voting strategy, among all possible ones. Experiments on a fixed keel of airship have been conducted to verify the effectiveness and measuring accuracy of the proposed methods. PMID:24701143

  4. Full Scale Measurements of the Hydro-Elastic Response of Large Container Ships for Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    and slender bow and stern sections) and their normal cargo loading condition, container ships are typically operated in a still-water hogging condition (tension in deck and compression in the bottom structure). The wave-induced bending moment is added to the still-water bending moment, which, together...... frequency with the waves. Together with the relatively high design speed and often pronounced bow flare this makes large container ship more sensitive to slamming and, consequently, the effects of wave-induced hull girder vibrations. From full scale strain measurements of individual, measured hull girder......, but, in addition to ship size, speed and bow flare angle are also believed to be important factors contributing to the hull girder vibrations. The hull girder vibrational response is found to be dominated by the 2-node vertical bending mode. No torsional vibrations are found but torsion may, however...

  5. Improving modified tardieu scale assessment using inertial measurement unit with visual biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoyoung Choi; Jonghyun Kim

    2016-08-01

    Reliable spasticity assessment is important to provide appropriate intervention for spasticity. Modified Tardieu scale (MTS) assessment is simple and convenient enough to be used in clinical environment, but has poor or moderate reliability due to irregular passive stretch velocity and goniometric measurement. We proposed a novel inertial measurement unit (IMU)-based MTS assessment with gyroscope-based visual biofeedback to improve the reliability of MTS by providing regular passive stretch velocity. With five children with cerebral palsy and two raters, the IMU-based MTS assessment was compared with conventional MTS assessment. The results showed that the proposed one has good test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities (ICC > .08) while the conventional MTS has poor or moderate reliability. Moreover, it was shown that the proposed visual biofeedback is effective enough to provide regular passive stretch velocity.

  6. Flow Signal Characteristics of Small Scale Electromagnetic Flowmeter in Low Conductivity Fluid Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ki Won; Jung, Sung Soo [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In order to scrutinize the fluid conductivity effects on the electromagnetic flowmeter(EMF) characteristics, a small scale EMF was designed and fabricated. The measuring tube has a 3 mmⅹ4 mm rectangular cross-section, 9 mm length, and a 2 mmⅹ3 mm plate electrode and a ϕ 1.5 mm point electrode. The design parameters, such as the magnetizing frequency and the number of coil turns, and the diameter were optimized. The EMF was tested with a gravimetric calibrator and showed good linearity in the range of 0 to 1.17ⅹ10{sup -5} m{sup 3}/s. The fluid conductivity was varied between 3 and 11μS/ cm , and the magnitude of the flow signal was proportional to the fluid conductivity and the wetted area of the electrode. The design information and the test results provide flow measurement techniques for very low flowrate.

  7. Establishing score equivalence of the Functional Independence Measure motor scale and the Barthel Index, utilising the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Rasch measurement theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, Birgit; O'Connor, Rory J; Stucki, Gerold; Tennant, Alan

    2017-05-16

    Two widely used outcome measures to assess functioning in neurological rehabilitation are the Functional Independence Measure (FIM™) and the Barthel Index. The current study aims to establish the equivalence of the total score of the FIM™ motor scale and the Barthel Index through the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and Rasch measurement theory. Secondary analysis of a large sample of patients with stroke, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis, undergoing rehabilitation was conducted. All patients were assessed at the same time on both the FIM™ and the Barthel Index. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Linking Rules were used to establish conceptual coherency between the 2 scales, and the Rasch measurement model to establish an exchange of the total scores. Using the FIM™ motor scale, items from both scales linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health d4 Mobility or d5 Self-care chapters. Their co-calibration satisfied the assumptions of the Rasch model for each of 3 diagnostic groups. A ceiling effect was observed for the Barthel Index when contrasted against the FIM™ motor scale. Having a Rasch interval metric to transform scores between the FIM™ motor scale and Barthel Index is valuable for monitoring functioning, meta-analysis, quality audits and hospital benchmarking.

  8. Measurement of effectiveness for training simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteling, J.E.; Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Kallen, V.L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses experimental designs, measures, and measurement methods for determining the effectiveness of training simulators. First, we describe experimental designs in which training effects of training simulators are compared to those of conventional training. Next, the most

  9. Combined scale effects for effective brazing at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartout D.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern joining technology, the focus is on effective brazing and soldering of temperature sensitive materials. Here, as well as in diffusion welding processes the needed thermal energy is externally realized in the joint zone. This produces a heating of the whole joining parts, since in laminar joining the thermal energy is transported in interior by thermal conduction. An excess of critical temperatures or tolerable impact periods in wide parts of materials and respectively components is often not avoidable. This leads to thermal damages. In this point of view nanotechnology shows promising possibilities as scale effects and their resulting thermophysical effects such as melting temperature reduction and high diffusion rates can be used for providing a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis at room temperature. After ignition by an external energy source a self-propagating exothermic reaction is started. By producing a multilayer system with alternately arranged nanoscaled layers of e.g. Al and Ni the resulting thin foil can be used as heat source for melting the braze or solder material within the joining zone without any external preheating. Due to the high process velocities up to 30 m/s and the local heat input significant thermal influences on the joined parts are not detectable.

  10. Development and evaluation of the "BRISK Scale," a brief observational measure of risk communication competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Paul K J; Joekes, Katherine; Mills, Greg; Gutheil, Caitlin; Smith, Kahsi; Cochran, Nancy E; Elwyn, Glyn

    2016-12-01

    To develop and evaluate a brief observational measure of clinical risk communication competence. A 4-item checklist-type measure, the BRISK (Brief Risk Information Skill) Scale, was developed by selecting and refining items from a more comprehensive measure of clinical risk communication competence. Six volunteer raters received brief training on the measure and then used the BRISK Scale to evaluate 52 video-recorded encounters between 2nd-year medical students and standardized patients conducted as part of an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) involving a risk communication task. Internal consistency reliability, inter-rater reliability, and criterion validity were assessed. Raters reported no difficulties using the BRISK Scale; scores across all raters and subjects ranged from 0 to 16 with a mean score of 6.49 (SD=3.17). The BRISK Scale showed good internal consistency reliability (α=0.64), and inter-rater reliability at the scale level (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC)=0.79 for consistency, and 0.75 for absolute agreement) and individual-item level (ICC range: 0.62-.91). Novice raters' BRISK Scale scores were highly correlated (r=0.84, pCommunication Content measure, a more comprehensive measure of risk communication competence. The BRISK Scale is a promising new brief observational measure of clinical risk communication competence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Length Scale of the Spin Seebeck Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehlberger, Andreas; Ritzmann, Ulrike; Hinzke, Denise; Guo, Er-Jia; Cramer, Joel; Jakob, Gerhard; Onbasli, Mehmet C; Kim, Dong Hun; Ross, Caroline A; Jungfleisch, Matthias B; Hillebrands, Burkard; Nowak, Ulrich; Kläui, Mathias

    2015-08-28

    We investigate the origin of the spin Seebeck effect in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) samples for film thicknesses from 20 nm to 50  μm at room temperature and 50 K. Our results reveal a characteristic increase of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect amplitude with the thickness of the insulating ferrimagnetic YIG, which levels off at a critical thickness that increases with decreasing temperature. The observed behavior cannot be explained as an interface effect or by variations of the material parameters. Comparison to numerical simulations of thermal magnonic spin currents yields qualitative agreement for the thickness dependence resulting from the finite magnon propagation length. This allows us to trace the origin of the observed signals to genuine bulk magnonic spin currents due to the spin Seebeck effect ruling out an interface origin and allowing us to gauge the reach of thermally excited magnons in this system for different temperatures. At low temperature, even quantitative agreement with the simulations is found.

  12. Measuring the impact of multiple sclerosis: Enhancing the measurement performance of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) using Rasch Measurement Theory (RMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleanthous, Sophie; Cano, Stefan; Kinter, Elizabeth; Marquis, Patrick; Petrillo, Jennifer; You, Xiaojun; Wakeford, Craig; Sabatella, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Study objectives were to evaluate the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) and explore an optimized scoring structure based on empirical post-hoc analyses of data from the Phase III ADVANCE clinical trial. ADVANCE MSIS-29 data from six time-points were analyzed in a sample of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Rasch Measurement Theory (RMT) analysis was undertaken to examine three broad areas: sample-to-scale targeting, measurement scale properties, and sample measurement validity. Interpretation of results led to an alternative MSIS-29 scoring structure, further evaluated alongside responsiveness of the original and revised scales at Week 48. RMT analysis provided mixed evidence for Physical and Psychological Impact scales that were sub-optimally targeted at the lower functioning end of the scales. Their conceptual basis could also stand to improve based on item fit results. The revised MSIS-29 rescored scales improved but did not resolve the measurement scale properties and targeting of the MSIS-29. In two out of three revised scales, responsiveness analysis indicated strengthened ability to detect change. The revised MSIS-29 provides an initial evidence-based improved patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument for evaluating the impact of MS. Revised scoring improves conceptual clarity and interpretation of scores by refining scale structure to include Symptoms, Psychological Impact, and General Limitations. ADVANCE (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00906399).

  13. Development of Scales for Measuring Specific Elements of the Services Marketing Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Rajh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to develop scales that might be used for measuring specific elements of services marketing mix, including service delivery process, physical environment, and employees. Psychometric characteristics of initial set of items were analyzed by assessment of reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and dimensionality of initial set of items. Cronbach alpha coeficients, explorative and confrimative factor analysis were employed. Results indicated that developed measurement scales had satisfactory psychometric characteristics. Measurement scales had very good reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and unidimensionality.

  14. Quantum-limited measurement of space-time curvature with scaling beyond the conventional Heisenberg limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, S. P.; Ralph, T. C.

    2017-10-01

    We study the problem of estimating the phase shift due to the general relativistic time dilation in the interference of photons using a nonlinear Mach-Zender interferometer setup. By introducing two nonlinear Kerr materials, one in the bottom and one in the top arm, we can measure the nonlinear phase ϕNL produced by the space-time curvature and achieve a scaling of the standard deviation with photon number (N ) of 1 /Nβ where β >1 , which exceeds the conventional Heisenberg limit of a linear interferometer (1 /N ). The nonlinear phase shift is an effect that is amplified by the intensity of the probe field. In a regime of high photon number, this effect can dominate over the linear phase shift.

  15. Van Allen Probe Measurements of the Scale Sizes and Detailed Properties of EMIC Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, L. W.; Bonnell, J. W.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.

    2016-12-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are able to resonate with MeV electrons and cause precipitation loss of radiation belt electrons. EMIC waves can provide a strong source of electron pitch angle diffusion, but the waves are often quite localized - thus the spatial extents of these waves can have a large effect on their overall scattering efficiency. Using measurements from the dual Van Allen Probes, we characterize the spatial and temporal extents of EMIC wave active regions and how these depend on local time, radial distance, and wave properties (e.g. amplitude, frequency). Analysis of the detailed wave properties is also performed; we estimate the active region and coherence scales of EMIC waves and examine nonlinear features and parallel electric fields present in some events. These investigations help determine the nature of EMIC wave-particle interactions and support more accurate quantification of their effects on the outer radiation belt.

  16. Development of a simple measurement scale to evaluate the severity of non-specific low back pain for industrial ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Kumashiro, Mashaharu

    2010-06-01

    This study developed an assessment scale that hierarchically classifies degrees of low back pain severity. This assessment scale consists of two subscales: 1) pain intensity; 2) pain interference. First, the assessment scale devised by the authors was used to administer a self-administered questionnaire to 773 male workers in the car manufacturing industry. Subsequently, the validity of the measurement items was examined and some of them were revised. Next, the corrected low back pain scale was used in a self-administered questionnaire, the subjects of which were 5053 ordinary workers. The hierarchical validity between the measurement items was checked based on the results of Mokken Scale analysis. Finally, a low back pain assessment scale consisting of seven items was perfected. Quantitative assessment is made possible by scoring the items and low back pain severity can be classified into four hierarchical levels: none; mild; moderate; severe. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The use of this scale devised by the authors allows a more detailed assessment of the degree of risk factor effect and also should prove useful both in selecting remedial measures for occupational low back pain and evaluating their efficacy.

  17. Conceptual Design and Demonstration of Space Scale for Measuring Mass in Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youn-Kyu; Lee, Joo-Hee; Choi, Gi-Hyuk; Choi, Ik-Hyeon

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a new idea for developing a space scale for measuring mass in a microgravity environment was proposed by using the inertial force properties of an object to measure its mass. The space scale detected the momentum change of the specimen and reference masses by using a load-cell sensor as the force transducer based on Newton's laws of motion. In addition, the space scale calculated the specimen mass by comparing the inertial forces of the specimen and reference masses in the same acceleration field. By using this concept, a space scale with a capacity of 3 kg based on the law of momentum conservation was implemented and demonstrated under microgravity conditions onboard International Space Station (ISS) with an accuracy of ±1 g. By the performance analysis on the space scale, it was verified that an instrument with a compact size could be implemented and be quickly measured with a reasonable accuracy under microgravity conditions.

  18. Testing the {rho}* scaling of thermal transport models: predicted and measured temperatures in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor dimensionless scaling experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Scott, S.D. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Dorland, W. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

    1997-04-01

    Theoretical predictions of ion and electron thermal diffusivities are tested by comparing calculated and measured temperatures in low (L) mode plasmas from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [D. J. Grove and D. M. Meade, Nucl. Fusion 25 , 1167 (1985)] nondimensional scaling experiments. The DIII-D [J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8 , 441 (1985)] L-mode {rho}* scalings, the transport models of Rebut-Lallia-Watkins (RLW), Boucher`s modification of RLW, and the Institute for Fusion Studies-Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (IFS-PPPL) model for transport due to ion temperature gradient modes are tested. The predictions use the measured densities in order to include the effects of density profile shape variations on the transport models. The uncertainties in the measured and predicted temperatures are discussed. The predictions based on the DIII- D scalings are within the measurement uncertainties. All the theoretical models predict a more favorable {rho}* dependence for the ion temperatures than is seen. Preliminary estimates indicate that sheared ow stabilization is important for some discharges, and that inclusion of its effects may bring the predictions of the IFS-PPPL model into agreement with the experiments.

  19. Development and evaluation of the "BRISK Scale," a brief observational measure of risk communication competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, P.K.; Joekes, K.; Mills, G.; Gutheil, C.; Smith, K.; Cochran, N.E.; Elwyn, G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop and evaluate a brief observational measure of clinical risk communication competence. METHODS: A 4-item checklist-type measure, the BRISK (Brief Risk Information Skill) Scale, was developed by selecting and refining items from a more comprehensive measure of clinical risk

  20. Runoff and sediment generation on bench -terraced hillsides: measurements and up-scaling of a field-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.I.J.M.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vertessy, R.A.; Ruijter, J.

    2006-01-01

    Despite widespread bench-terracing, stream sediment yields from agricultural hillsides in upland West Java remain high. We studied the causes of this lack of effect by combining measurements at different spatial scales using an erosion process model. Event runoff and sediment yield from two 4-ha

  1. Development and psychometric evaluation of scales to measure professional confidence in manual medicine: a Rasch measurement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecimovich, Mark D; Styles, Irene; Volet, Simone E

    2014-06-04

    Health professionals in athletic training, chiropractic, osteopathy, and physiotherapy fields, require high-level knowledge and skills in their assessment and management of patients. This is important when communicating with patients and applying a range of manual procedures. Prior to embarking on professional practice, it is imperative to acquire optimal situation-specific levels of self-confidence for a beginner practitioner in these areas. In order to foster this professional self-confidence within the higher education context, it is necessary to have valid and reliable scales that can measure and track levels and how they change. This study reports on the development and psychometric analysis of two new scales, Patient Communication Confidence Scale (PCCS) and the Clinical Skills Confidence Scale (CSCS), to measure confidence in these two areas for students in manual medicine programs. The Rasch measurement model was used to guide the development of the scales and establish their psychometric properties. The responses to 269 returned questionnaires over two occasions were submitted to psychometric analysis, with various aspects of the scales examined including: item thresholds; item fit; Differential Item Functioning; targeting; item locations; item dependencies; and reliability. To provide further evidence of validity, scores were correlated with two existing valid scales. Analyses showed that the scales provided valid and reliable measures of confidence for this sample of persons. High Person Separation Indices (0.96 for PCCS; 0.93 for SCSC) provided statistical evidence of reliability, meaning the scales are able to discriminate amongst persons with different levels of confidence. For the PCCS, item categories were operating as required, and for the CSCS only two items' thresholds were slightly disordered. Three tests of fit revealed good fit to the model (indicating the internal consistency of both scales) and results of the correlations with two existing

  2. Development of the Community Impact Scale Measuring Community Organization Perceptions of Partnership Benefits and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Tejaswinhi; Meenan, Chelsea E.; Drogin, Elizabeth; DePrince, Anne P.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometric properties of the Community Impact Scale (CIS), a measure of benefits and costs of community-university partnerships across a range of outcomes as perceived by community partners. Scale development was carried out in two phases: (a) item generation, through which the research team, in close…

  3. Scale issues in soil hydrology related to measurement and simulation: A case study in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    State variables, such as soil water content (SWC), are typically measured or inferred at very small scales while being simulated at larger scales relevant to spatial management or hillslope areas. Thus there is an implicit spatial disparity that is often ignored. Surface runoff, on the other hand, ...

  4. Development and Validation of Two Scales to Measure Elaboration and Behaviors Associated with Stewardship in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezeau, Susan Lynn; Powell, Robert B.; Stern, Marc J.; Moore, D. DeWayne; Wright, Brett A.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation examines the development of two scales that measure elaboration and behaviors associated with stewardship in children. The scales were developed using confirmatory factor analysis to investigate their construct validity, reliability, and psychometric properties. Results suggest that a second-order factor model structure provides…

  5. Measuring Teaching Ability with the Rasch Model by Scaling a Series of Product and Performance Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Judy R.; Lang, William Steve

    2004-01-01

    Rasch measurement can provide a much needed solution to scaling teacher ability. Typically, decisions about teacher ability are based on dichotomously scored certification tests focused on knowledge of content or pedagogy. This paper presents early developmental work of a partial credit teacher ability scale of 42 tasks (performances and…

  6. The Resilience Scale for Adults: Construct Validity and Measurement in a Belgian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjemdal, Odin; Friborg, Oddgeir; Braun, Stephanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Fossion, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) was developed and has been extensively validated in Norwegian samples. The purpose of this study was to explore the construct validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults in a French-speaking Belgian sample and test measurement invariance between the Belgian and a Norwegian sample. A Belgian student sample (N =…

  7. Can Stereotype Threat Be Measured? A Validation of the Social Identities and Attitudes Scale (SIAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picho, Katherine; Brown, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    This study reported the development and validation of the Social Identities and Attitudes Scale (SIAS), a stereotype threat susceptibility measure. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses conducted with college students indicate that the scale possesses strong psychometric properties. The SIAS explained 65% of the variance in the items…

  8. Measurement of Stigma in People with HIV: A Reexamination of the HIV Stigma Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Solomon, Sondra E.; Miller, Carol; Forehand, Rex

    2007-01-01

    Stigma associated with HIV infection can unfavorably impact the lives and behavior of people living with HIV/AIDS. The HIV Stigma Scale was designed to measure the perception of stigma by those who are HIV infected. Reanalysis of the psychometric properties of this scale was conducted in a new sample of 157 individuals living with HIV/AIDS in…

  9. The Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale: A Measurement System for Global Variables in Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    The Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) is a measurement system for applying numbers to global variables in two-dimensional art (drawing and painting). While it was originally developed for use with the single-picture assessment ("Draw a person picking an apple from a tree" [PPAT]), researchers can also apply many of the 14 scales of the…

  10. Validity Evidence for the Security Scale as a Measure of Perceived Attachment Security in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the validity of a self-report measure of children's perceived attachment security (the Kerns Security Scale) was tested using adolescents. With regards to predictive validity, the Security Scale was significantly associated with (1) observed mother-adolescent interactions during conflict and (2) parent- and teacher-rated social…

  11. Development and Initial Validation of a Scale Measuring the Beliefs of Educators Regarding Response to Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jose M.; Dedrick, Robert F.; Stockslager, Kevin M.; March, Amanda L.; Hines, Constance V.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2015-01-01

    This article presents information on the development and initial validation of the 16-item Response to Intervention (RTI) Beliefs Scale. The scale is designed to measure the extent to which educators working in schools hold beliefs consistent with the tenets of RTI. The authors administered the instrument to 2,430 educators in 62 elementary…

  12. Validation Of Naval Platform Electromagnetic Tools Via Model And Full-Scale Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaff, Jasper; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2004-01-01

    Reliable EMC predictions are very important in the design of a naval platform's topside. Currently, EMC predictions of a Navy ship are verified by scale model and full-scale measurements. In the near future, the validation of software tools leads to an increased confidence in EMC predictions and

  13. The Measurement of Psychological Maltreatment: Early Data on the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barbara; Becker-Lausen, Evvie

    1995-01-01

    The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, a self-report measure yielding a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, was administered to 1,198 college students and 17 subjects with Multiple Personality Disorder. Results revealed the scale's strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…

  14. Automated Micro Hall Effect measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann; Lin, Rong

    2014-01-01

    With increasing complexity of processes and variety of materials used for semiconductor devices, stringent control of the electronic properties is becoming ever more relevant. Collinear micro four-point probe (M4PP) based measurement systems have become high-end metrology methods for characteriza...

  15. Precision of single-engage micro Hall effect measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann; Hansen, Ole; Kjær, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Recently a novel microscale Hall effect measurement technique has been developed to extract sheet resistance (RS), Hall sheet carrier density (NHS) and Hall mobility (μH) from collinear micro 4-point probe measurements in the vicinity of an insulating boundary [1]. The technique measures in less......]. In this study we calculate the measurement error on RS, NHS and μH resulting from electrode position errors, probe placement, sample size and Hall signal magnitude. We show the relationship between measurement precision and electrode pitch, which is important when down-scaling the micro 4-point probe to fit...

  16. Quality of Life Scale: A Measure of Function for People with Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Of Life Scale A Measure Of Function For People With Pain 0 Non-functioning 1 2 3 4 ... the week Active on weekends 9 10 Normal Quality of Life Work/volunteer/be active eight hours daily Take ...

  17. Scale and construal: how larger measurement units shrink length estimates and expand mental horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Sam J; Trope, Yaacov

    2011-02-01

    Scale can vary by requiring a different number of units to measure the same target. But what are the consequences of using fewer, larger units? We draw on past psychophysical research that shows how using fewer units reduces clutter in measurement, translating to shorter length estimates. Additionally, we propose that larger scale is associated with targets further from a person's immediate experience (i.e., psychologically distant) and higher order mental representation. Evidence from Study 1 indicates that framing a target as further away causes it to be estimated as shorter because people use larger units to measure it compared to when the same target is framed as nearby. Two subsequent studies suggest that direct manipulation of larger (versus smaller) measurement scale produces not only shorter length estimates, but also more distal timing judgments (Study 2) and abstract mental representation (Study 3). Implications for scale and level of mental construal are discussed.

  18. Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Maslow's Concept of Self-Actualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth Melvin; Randolph, Daniel Lee

    1978-01-01

    Designed to measure self-actualization as defined by Abraham Maslow, the Jones Self Actualizing Scale, as assessed in this study, possesses content validity, reliability, and a number of other positive characteristics. (JC)

  19. A preliminary study to measure and develop job satisfaction scale for medical teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Kavita; Srivastava, Kalpana; Singh, Amarjit; Jadav, S L

    2011-07-01

    Job satisfaction of medical teachers has an impact on quality of medical education and patient care. In this background, the study was planned to develop scale and measure job satisfaction status of medical teachers. To generate items pertaining to the scale of job satisfaction, closed-ended and open-ended questionnaires were administered to medical professionals. The job satisfaction questionnaire was developed and rated on Likert type of rating scale. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to ascertain job satisfaction among 245 health science faculty of an autonomous educational institution. Factor loading was calculated and final items with strong factor loading were selected. Data were statistically evaluated. Average job satisfaction score was 53.97 on a scale of 1-100. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient was 0.918 for entire set of items. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction level across different age groups (P 0.0358) showing a U-shaped pattern and fresh entrants versus reemployed faculty (P 0.0188), former showing lower satisfaction. Opportunity for self-development was biggest satisfier, followed by work, opportunity for promotion, and job security. Factors contributing toward job dissatisfaction were poor utilization of skills, poor promotional prospects, inadequate pay and allowances, work conditions, and work atmosphere. Tertiary care teaching hospitals in autonomous educational institutions need to build infrastructure and create opportunities for their medical professional. Job satisfaction of young entrants needs to be raised further by improving their work environment. This will pave the way for effective delivery of health care.

  20. A preliminary study to measure and develop job satisfaction scale for medical teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Bhatnagar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Job satisfaction of medical teachers has an impact on quality of medical education and patient care. In this background, the study was planned to develop scale and measure job satisfaction status of medical teachers. Materials and Methods: To generate items pertaining to the scale of job satisfaction, closed-ended and open-ended questionnaires were administered to medical professionals. The job satisfaction questionnaire was developed and rated on Likert type of rating scale. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to ascertain job satisfaction among 245 health science faculty of an autonomous educational institution. Factor loading was calculated and final items with strong factor loading were selected. Data were statistically evaluated. Results: Average job satisfaction score was 53.97 on a scale of 1-100. The Cronbach′s alpha reliability coefficient was 0.918 for entire set of items. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction level across different age groups (P 0.0358 showing a U-shaped pattern and fresh entrants versus reemployed faculty (P 0.0188, former showing lower satisfaction. Opportunity for self-development was biggest satisfier, followed by work, opportunity for promotion, and job security. Factors contributing toward job dissatisfaction were poor utilization of skills, poor promotional prospects, inadequate pay and allowances, work conditions, and work atmosphere. Conclusion: Tertiary care teaching hospitals in autonomous educational institutions need to build infrastructure and create opportunities for their medical professional. Job satisfaction of young entrants needs to be raised further by improving their work environment. This will pave the way for effective delivery of health care.

  1. Development of a method for reliable power input measurements in conventional and single-use stirred bioreactors at laboratory scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stephan C; Werner, Sören; Jossen, Valentin; Kraume, Matthias; Eibl, Dieter

    2017-05-01

    Power input is an important engineering and scale-up/down criterion in stirred bioreactors. However, reliably measuring power input in laboratory-scale systems is still challenging. Even though torque measurements have proven to be suitable in pilot scale systems, sensor accuracy, resolution, and errors from relatively high levels of friction inside bearings can become limiting factors at smaller scales. An experimental setup for power input measurements was developed in this study by focusing on stainless steel and single-use bioreactors in the single-digit volume range. The friction losses inside the air bearings were effectively reduced to less than 0.5% of the measurement range of the torque meter. A comparison of dimensionless power numbers determined for a reference Rushton turbine stirrer ( N P = 4.17 ± 0.14 for fully turbulent conditions) revealed good agreement with literature data. Hence, the power numbers of several reusable and single-use bioreactors could be determined over a wide range of Reynolds numbers between 100 and >10 4 . Power numbers of between 0.3 and 4.5 (for Re = 10 4 ) were determined for the different systems. The rigid plastic vessels showed similar power characteristics to their reusable counterparts. Thus, it was demonstrated that the torque-based technique can be used to reliably measure power input in stirred reusable and single-use bioreactors at the laboratory scale.

  2. Automatic Measurement in Large-Scale Space with the Laser Theodolite and Vision Guiding Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The multitheodolite intersection measurement is a traditional approach to the coordinate measurement in large-scale space. However, the procedure of manual labeling and aiming results in the low automation level and the low measuring efficiency, and the measurement accuracy is affected easily by the manual aiming error. Based on the traditional theodolite measuring methods, this paper introduces the mechanism of vision measurement principle and presents a novel automatic measurement method for large-scale space and large workpieces (equipment combined with the laser theodolite measuring and vision guiding technologies. The measuring mark is established on the surface of the measured workpiece by the collimating laser which is coaxial with the sight-axis of theodolite, so the cooperation targets or manual marks are no longer needed. With the theoretical model data and the multiresolution visual imaging and tracking technology, it can realize the automatic, quick, and accurate measurement of large workpieces in large-scale space. Meanwhile, the impact of artificial error is reduced and the measuring efficiency is improved. Therefore, this method has significant ramification for the measurement of large workpieces, such as the geometry appearance characteristics measuring of ships, large aircraft, and spacecraft, and deformation monitoring for large building, dams.

  3. The effect of allometric scaling in coral thermal microenvironments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H Ong

    Full Text Available A long-standing interest in marine science is in the degree to which environmental conditions of flow and irradiance, combined with optical, thermal and morphological characteristics of individual coral colonies, affects their sensitivity of thermal microenvironments and susceptibility to stress-induced bleaching within and/or among colonies. The physiological processes in Scleractinian corals tend to scale allometrically as a result of physical and geometric constraints on body size and shape. There is a direct relationship between scaling to thermal stress, thus, the relationship between allometric scaling and rates of heating and cooling in coral microenvironments is a subject of great interest. The primary aim of this study was to develop an approximation that predicts coral thermal microenvironments as a function of colony morphology (shape and size, light or irradiance, and flow velocity or regime. To do so, we provided intuitive interpretation of their energy budgets for both massive and branching colonies, and then quantified the heat-size exponent (b* and allometric constant (m using logarithmic linear regression. The data demonstrated a positive relationship between thermal rates and changes in irradiance, A/V ratio, and flow, with an interaction where turbulent regime had less influence on overall stress which may serve to ameliorate the effects of temperature rise compared to the laminar regime. These findings indicated that smaller corals have disproportionately higher stress, however they can reach thermal equilibrium quicker. Moreover, excellent agreements between the predicted and simulated microscale temperature values with no significant bias were observed for both the massive and branching colonies, indicating that the numerical approximation should be within the accuracy with which they could be measured. This study may assist in estimating the coral microscale temperature under known conditions of water flow and irradiance

  4. Final Report: Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggerty, Roy [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Day-Lewis, Fred [U.S. Geological Survey, Storrs, CT (United States); Singha, Kamini [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Timothy [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Binley, Andrew [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom); Lane, John [U.S. Geological Survey, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2014-03-20

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3

  5. Measurement of Galaxy Cluster Integrated Comptonization and Mass Scaling Relations with the South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliwanchik, B. R.; et al.

    2015-01-22

    We describe a method for measuring the integrated Comptonization (Y (SZ)) of clusters of galaxies from measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in multiple frequency bands and use this method to characterize a sample of galaxy clusters detected in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to fit a β-model source profile and integrate Y (SZ) within an angular aperture on the sky. In simulated observations of an SPT-like survey that include cosmic microwave background anisotropy, point sources, and atmospheric and instrumental noise at typical SPT-SZ survey levels, we show that we can accurately recover β-model parameters for inputted clusters. We measure Y (SZ) for simulated semi-analytic clusters and find that Y (SZ) is most accurately determined in an angular aperture comparable to the SPT beam size. We demonstrate the utility of this method to measure Y (SZ) and to constrain mass scaling relations using X-ray mass estimates for a sample of 18 galaxy clusters from the SPT-SZ survey. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.'75 radius aperture, we find an intrinsic log-normal scatter of 21% ± 11% in Y (SZ) at a fixed mass. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.3 Mpc projected radius (equivalent to 0.'75 at the survey median redshift z = 0.6), we find a scatter of 26% ± 9%. Prior to this study, the SPT observable found to have the lowest scatter with mass was cluster detection significance. We demonstrate, from both simulations and SPT observed clusters that Y (SZ) measured within an aperture comparable to the SPT beam size is equivalent, in terms of scatter with cluster mass, to SPT cluster detection significance.

  6. The Early Identity Exploration Scale-a measure of initial exploration in breadth during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłym, Maria; Cieciuch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The existing models and measurement instruments concerning identity appear to primarily focus on adolescence and early adulthood, and studies extending identity research to younger stages of life are scarce. There has been a particular lack of instruments measuring the early stages of identity formation, especially the process of exploration, which has been portrayed as a central process during this particular period of life. Our aim is to help fill the gap in the literature and facilitate further studies of the exploration process by providing an appropriate instrument to measure exploration in breadth during early adolescence. As a coherent and mature sense of identity is closely associated with psychosocial well-being, an effective identity exploration scale will enable researchers to assess the predictors of young adolescents' well-being. We propose a model of identity exploration domains based on the literature and considering 12 exploration domains: physical appearance, free time, family, work, boyfriend-girlfriend relationships, own opinion formation, perception of own place in the life cycle, self-reflection, future, future family, outlook on life, and attitude toward rules. The study was conducted on a group of N = 454 adolescents (50% males, M age = 13.04, SD = 0.98). Both reliability and structural validity, as verified by confirmatory factor analysis were satisfactory. The instrument is invariant across gender groups at the scalar level of measurement invariance.

  7. The Early Identity Exploration Scale – a measure of initial exploration in breadth during early adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eKłym

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The existing models and measurement instruments concerning identity appear to primarily focus on adolescence and early adulthood, and studies extending identity research to younger stages of life are scarce. There has been a particular lack of instruments measuring the early stages of identity formation, especially the process of exploration, which has been portrayed as a central process during this particular period of life. Our aim is to help fill the gap in the literature and facilitate further studies of the exploration process by providing an appropriate instrument to measure exploration in breadth during early adolescence. As a coherent and mature sense of identity is closely associated with psychosocial well-being, an effective identity exploration scale will enable researchers to assess the predictors of young adolescents' well-being. We propose a model of identity exploration domains based on the literature and considering twelve exploration domains: physical appearance, free time, family, work, boyfriend-girlfriend relationships, own opinion formation, perception of own place in the life cycle, self-reflection, future, future family, outlook on life, and attitude toward rules. The study was conducted on a group of N = 454 adolescents (50% males, Mage = 13.04, SD = 0.98. Both reliability and structural validity, as verified by confirmatory factor analysis were satisfactory. The instrument is invariant across gender groups at the scalar level of measurement invariance.

  8. [Development and psychometric evaluation of a scale to measure health behaviors of adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun Hee

    2010-12-01

    The purpose was to develop a preliminary scale to measure Korean adolescents' health behaviors through a qualitative approach, to evaluate the scale psychometrically, and to develop a final scale. Participants were 61 adolescents for qualitative interviews and 1,687 adolescents for the psychometric evaluation. Procedure included content analysis of interviews to identify health behavior categories for Korean adolescents, pre-test to confirm that preliminary scale items were understandable, content validity by an expert panel, development of the web-based computer-assisted survey (CAS), and psychometric analysis to determine reliability and validity of the final scale. A final scale was developed for both paper-and-pencil and CAS. It consisted of 14 health behaviors (72 items), including stress and mental health (10), sleep habits (5), dietary habits (12), weight control (4), physical activity (4), hygiene habits (5), tobacco use (5), substance use (2), alcohol consumption (4), safety (4), sexual behavior (9), computer use (3), health screening (4), and posture (1). The scale's strong points are: 1) Two thirds of the final scale items are Likert scale items, enabling calculation of a health behavior score. 2) The scale is appropriate to Korean culture. 3) The scale focuses on concrete health behaviors, not abstract concepts.

  9. Refinement of the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale: Recommendation for a 14-item EBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review and refine Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale structure. METHODS: The study analyzed the impact of removing the item "adult lost weight" and one of two possibly redundant items on Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior using the one-parameter logistic (Rasch model. Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior was analyzed with respect to acceptable adjustment values ranging from 0.7 to 1.3, and to severity scores of the items with theoretically expected gradients. The socioeconomic and food security indicators came from the 2004 National Household Sample Survey, which obtained complete answers to Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale items from 112,665 households. RESULTS: Removing the items "adult reduced amount..." followed by "adult ate less..." did not change the infit of the remaining items, except for "adult lost weight", whose infit increased from 1.21 to 1.56. The internal consistency and item severity scores did not change when "adult ate less" and one of the two redundant items were removed. CONCLUSION: Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale reanalysis reduced the number of scale items from 16 to 14 without changing its internal validity. Its use as a nationwide household food security measure is strongly recommended.

  10. Selecting quantitative water management measures at the river basin scale in a global change context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Corentin; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Caballero, Yvan; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    One of the main challenges in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the European Union is the definition of programme of measures to reach the good status of the European water bodies. In areas where water scarcity is an issue, one of these challenges is the selection of water conservation and capacity expansion measures to ensure minimum environmental in-stream flow requirements. At the same time, the WFD calls for the use of economic analysis to identify the most cost-effective combination of measures at the river basin scale to achieve its objective. With this respect, hydro-economic river basin models, by integrating economics, environmental and hydrological aspects at the river basin scale in a consistent framework, represent a promising approach. This article presents a least-cost river basin optimization model (LCRBOM) that selects the combination of quantitative water management measures to meet environmental flows for future scenarios of agricultural and urban demand taken into account the impact of the climate change. The model has been implemented in a case study on a Mediterranean basin in the south of France, the Orb River basin. The water basin has been identified as in need for quantitative water management measures in order to reach the good status of its water bodies. The LCRBOM has been developed using GAMS, applying Mixed Integer Linear Programming. It is run to select the set of measures that minimizes the total annualized cost of the applied measures, while meeting the demands and minimum in-stream flow constraints. For the economic analysis, the programme of measures is composed of water conservation measures on agricultural and urban water demands. It compares them with measures mobilizing new water resources coming from groundwater, inter-basin transfers and improvement in reservoir operating rules. The total annual cost of each measure is calculated for each demand unit considering operation, maintenance and

  11. Abundance effects on the Cepheid distance scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1988-06-01

    A new investigation is made of the dependence of the period-luminosity (PL) and period-luminosity-color (PLC) relations on the helium (Y) and metal (Z) abundances in classical Cepheids. For consistency in overall approach and in error estimation, theoretical data alone have been used. These data come from stellar evolution, atmosphere, and pulsation theory. Composition dependences have been assigned to all quantities. A major quantitative result is that the PLC relation in B, V magnitudes is at least 5 times more sensitive to chemical composition than is the PL relation. If the PL relation is adopted and the helium abundance is held fixed, a Cepheid with Z = 0.005 should be fainter than one with Z = 0.02 by ≡0.04 mag. Since the slope of the predicted PL relation is independent of chemical composition, the PL relation can be considered to be effectively universal. Theoretical results are also presented for the bolometric PL relation, whose slope and dependence on metal abundance should be roughly applicable to infrared observations of Cepheids.

  12. Measuring Effectiveness in Conflict Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    media. In the early aftermath of the actual war, journalist Krugman described for the New York Times a scenario that characterizes much of the post...accessed June 21, 2009). 136 P. Krugman , “What Went Wrong?” New York Times (April 23, 2004) http://www.nytimes.com/2004/04/23/opinion/23KRUG.html...www.roguelystated.com/2007/07/07/measuring-success-in-iraq-is-the-us- military-using-the-wrong-metrics/ (accessed August 11, 2009). Krugman , P. “What

  13. Measuring and Validating a General Cancer Predisposition Perception Scale: An Adaptation of the Revised-IPQ-Genetic Predisposition Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Wing Tak Lam

    Full Text Available Illness perceptions are linked to individual help-seeking and preventive behaviors. Previous illness perception studies have identified five dimensions of illness-related experience and behaviour. The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R for genetic predisposition (IPQ-R-GP was developed to measure illness perceptions in those genetically-predisposed to blood disease. We adapted the IPQ-R-GP to measure perceptions of generalized cancer predisposition. This paper describes the development and validation of the Cancer Predisposition Perception Scale (CPPS.The draft CPPS scale was first administered to 167 well Hepatitis B carriers and 123 other healthy individuals and the factor structure was examined using Exploratory Factor Analysis. Then the factor structure was confirmed in a second sample comprising 148 healthy controls, 150 smokers and 152 passive smokers using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA.Six-factors comprising 26 items provided optimal fit by eigen and scree-plot methods, accounting for 58.9% of the total variance. CFA indicated good fit of the six-factor model after further excluding three items. The six factors, Emotional representation (5 items, Illness coherence (4 items, Treatment control (3 items, Consequences (5 items, Internal locus of control (2 items and External locus of control (4 items demonstrated adequate-to-good subscale internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.63-0.90. Divergent validity was suggested by low correlations with optimism, self-efficacy, and scales for measuring physical and psychological health symptoms.The CPPS appears to be a valid measure of perceived predisposition to generic cancer risks and can be used to examine cancer-risk-related cognitions in individuals at higher and lower cancer risk.

  14. How to measure training effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Rae, Leslie

    1986-01-01

    Assessing training for effectiveness and value, this book covers the entire process from selecting and planning a training event, to validating and testing its outcome. This new, up-to-date edition includes details of the competence standards from the Training and Development

  15. Stream discharge measurement using a large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Harpold, A. A.; Mostaghimi, Saied; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Brannan, Kevin M.; Dillaha, Theo A.

    2006-01-01

    New technologies have been developed for open-channel discharge measurement due to concerns about costs, accuracy, and safety of traditional methods. One emerging technology is large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV). LSPIV is capable of measuring surface velocity by analyzing recorded images of particles added to the stream surface. LSPIV has several advantages over conventional measurement techniques: LSPIV is safer, potentially automated, and produces real-time measurements. Therefo...

  16. The psychometric properties of an Arabic numeric pain rating scale for measuring osteoarthritis knee pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to translate the numeric rating scale (NRS) into Arabic and to evaluate the test-retest reliability and convergent validity of an Arabic Numeric Pain Rating Scale (ANPRS) for measuring pain in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. The English version of the NRS was translated into Arabic as per the translation process guidelines for patient-rated outcome scales. One hundred twenty-one consecutive patients with OA of the knee who had experienced pain for more than 6 months were asked to report their pain levels on the ANPRS, visual analogue scale (VAS), and verbal rating scale (VRS). A second assessment was performed 48 h after the first to assess test-retest reliability. The test-retest reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1). The convergent validity was assessed using Spearman rank correlation coefficient. In addition, the minimum detectable change (MDC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were also assessed. The repeatability of ANPRS was good to excellent (ICC 0.89). The SEM and MDC were 0.71 and 1.96, respectively. Significant correlations were found with the VAS and VRS scores (p Arabic numeric pain rating scale is a valid and reliable scale for measuring pain levels in OA of the knee. Implications for Rehabilitation The Arabic Numeric Pain Rating Scale (ANPRS) is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring pain in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, with psychometric properties in agreement with other widely used scales. The ANPRS is well correlated with the VAS and NRS scores in patients with OA of the knee. The ANPRS appears to measure pain intensity similar to the VAS, NRS, and VRS and may provide additional advantages to Arab populations, as Arabic numbers are easily understood by this population.

  17. Measuring Early Communication in Spanish Speaking Children: The Communication Complexity Scale in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Erin; Brady, Nancy C.; Esplund, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a great need in the United States to develop presymbolic evaluation tools that are widely available and accurate for individuals that come from a bilingual and/or multicultural setting. The Communication Complexity Scale (CCS) is a measure that evaluates expressive presymbolic communication including gestures, vocalizations and eye gaze. Studying the effectiveness of this tool in a Spanish speaking environment was undertaken to determine the applicability of the CCS with Spanish speaking children. Methods & Procedures: In 2011–2012, researchers from the University of Kansas and Centro Ann Sullivan del Perú (CASP) investigated communication in a cohort of 71 young Spanish speaking children with developmental disabilities and a documented history of self-injurious, stereotyped and aggressive behaviors. Communication was assessed first by parental report with translated versions of the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS), a well-known assessment of early communication, and then eleven months later with the CCS. Hypothesis We hypothesized that the CCS and the CSBS measures would be significantly correlated in this population of Spanish speaking children. Outcomes & Results The CSBS scores from time 1 with a mean participant age of 41 months were determined to have a strong positive relationship to the CCS scores obtained at time 2 with a mean participant age of 52 months. Conclusions & Implications The CCS is strongly correlated to a widely accepted measure of early communication. These findings support the validity of the Spanish version of the CCS and demonstrate its usefulness for children from another culture and for children in a Spanish speaking environment. PMID:26636094

  18. From points to patterns - Transferring point scale groundwater measurements to catchment scale response patterns using time series modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderer, M.; McGlynn, B. L.; van Meerveld, I. H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Detailed groundwater measurements across a catchment can provide information on subsurface stormflow generation and hydrologic connectivity of hillslopes to the stream network. However, groundwater dynamics can be highly variable in space and time, especially in steep headwater catchments. Prediction of groundwater response patterns at non-monitored sites requires transferring point scale information to the catchment scale through analysis of continuous groundwater level time series and their relationships to covariates such as topographic indices or landscape position. We applied time series analysis to a 4 year dataset of continuous groundwater level data for 51 wells distributed across a 20 ha pre-alpine headwater catchment in Switzerland to address the following questions: 1) Is the similarity or difference between the groundwater time series related to landscape position? 2) How does the relationship between groundwater dynamics and landscape position change across long (seasonal) and shorter (event) time scales and varying antecedent wetness conditions? 3) How can time series modeling be used to predict groundwater responses at non-monitored sites? We employed hierarchical clustering of the observed groundwater time series using both dynamic time warping and correlation based distance matrices. Based on the common site characteristics of the members of each cluster, the time series models were transferred to all non-monitored sites. This categorical approach provided maps of spatio-temporal groundwater dynamics across the entire catchment. We further developed a continuous approach based on process-based hydrological modeling and water table dynamic similarity. We suggest that continuous measurements at representative points and subsequent time series analysis can shed light into groundwater dynamics at the landscape scale and provide new insights into space-time patterns of hydrologic connectivity and streamflow generation.

  19. Reference intervals and allometric scaling of echocardiographic measurements in Bengal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scansen, Brian A; Morgan, Kyla L

    2015-12-01

    The Bengal is a relatively new hybrid breed, reported to develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The aim of this study was to determine reference intervals for echocardiographic measurements in Bengal cats. Sixty-six apparently healthy Bengal cats. The study included a retrospective review of echocardiograms from 39 Bengal cats evaluated from March 2004 to June 2012 and reported to be normal by a board-certified cardiologist. An additional 27 cats were enrolled prospectively from June 2012 to June 2013. The effects of sex and body weight on linear cardiac dimensions were evaluated by regression analysis. Reference intervals were determined by the robust method with bootstrapping. Allometric equations scaled to body weight were derived for each echocardiographic variable. Intra- and interobserver variability were evaluated by coefficient of variation from 6 of the prospective studies. Reference intervals were determined from all 66 Bengal cats as no significant differences were observed between the retrospective and prospective data. An effect of sex, separate from body weight, was suggested and unique reference intervals for male and female cats were determined. Body weight was a significant co-variate and 95% prediction intervals for linear dimensions were determined by allometric scaling. Coefficients of variation were less than 10% for 2-dimensional variables and less than 18% for M-mode variables. These data provide reference intervals and weight-based 95% prediction intervals for echocardiographic measurements in the Bengal cat, potentially aiding cardiologists who screen this breed in detecting pathologic variants from normal dimensions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Two-measure approach to breaking scale-invariance in a standard-model extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo I. Guendelman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Weyl's scale-invariance as an additional global symmetry in the standard model of electroweak interactions. A natural consequence is the introduction of general relativity coupled to scalar fields à la Dirac, that includes the Higgs doublet and a singlet σ-field required for implementing global scale-invariance. We introduce a mechanism for ‘spontaneous breaking’ of scale-invariance by introducing a coupling of the σ-field to a new metric-independent measure Φ defined in terms of four scalars ϕi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4. Global scale-invariance is regained by combining it with internal diffeomorphism of these four scalars. We show that once the global scale-invariance is broken, the phenomenon (a generates Newton's gravitational constant GN and (b triggers spontaneous symmetry breaking in the normal manner resulting in masses for the conventional fermions and bosons. In the absence of fine-tuning the scale at which the scale-symmetry breaks can be of order Planck mass. If right-handed neutrinos are also introduced, their absence at present energy scales is attributed to their mass terms tied to the scale where scale-invariance breaks.

  1. Scaling of turbulence spectra measured in strong shear flow near the Earth’s surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Larsen, S. E.; Jørgensen, H. E.; Astrup, P.; Larsén, X. G.

    2017-12-01

    Within the lowest kilometer of the Earth’s atmosphere, in the so-called atmospheric boundary layer, winds are often gusty and turbulent. Nearest to the ground, the turbulence is predominately generated by mechanical wall-bounded wind shear, whereas at higher altitudes turbulent mixing of heat and moisture also play a role. The variance (square of the standard deviation) of the fluctuation around the mean wind speed is a measure of the kinetic energy content of the turbulence. This kinetic energy can be resolved into the spectral distributions, or spectra, as functions of eddy size, wavenumber, or frequency. Spectra are derived from Fourier transforms of wind records as functions of space or time corresponding to wavenumber and frequency spectra, respectively. Atmospheric spectra often exhibit different subranges that can be distinguished and scaled by the physical parameters responsible for: (1) their generation; (2) the cascade of energy across the spectrum from large- to small-scale; and (3) the eventual decay of turbulence into heat owing to viscosity effects on the Kolmogorov microscale, in which the eddy size is only a fraction of a millimeter. This paper addresses atmospheric turbulence spectra in the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer—the so-called surface layer—where the wind shear is strong owing to the nonslip condition at the ground. Theoretical results dating back to Tchen’s early work in 1953 ‘on the spectrum of energy in turbulent shear flow’ led Tchen to predict a shear production subrange with a distinct inverse-linear power law for turbulence in a strongly sheared high-Reynolds number wall-bounded flow, as is encountered in the lowest sheared part of the atmospheric boundary layer, also known as the eddy surface layer. This paper presents observations of spectra measured in a meteorological mast at Høvsøre, Denmark, that support Tchen’s prediction of a shear production subrange following a distinct power law of degree

  2. Large-scale drifts observed on electron temperature measurements on JET plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbaud, Thomas; Alper, Barry; Beausang, Kieran; Beurskens, Marc; Flanagan, Joanne; Kempenaars, Mark; Sirinelli, Antoine; Maslov, Mikhail; Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem; Contributors, JET EFDA

    2012-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2009, electron temperature (Te) measurements of more than 15000 plasmas produced in the Joint European Torus (JET) have been carefully reviewed using the two main diagnostics available over this time period: Michelson interferometer and Thomson scattering systems. Long term stability of JET Te is experimentaly observed by defining the ECE TS ratio as the ratio of central Te measured by Michelson and LIDAR. This paper, based on a careful review of Te measurement from 15 years of JET plasmas, concludes that JET Te exhibits a 15-20% effective uncertainty mostly made of large-scale temporal drifts, and an overall uncertainty of 16-22%. Variations of 18 plasma parameters are checked in another data set, made of a "reference data set" made of ohmic pulses as similar as possible between 1998 and 2009. Time drifts of ECE TS ratios appear to be mostly disconnected from the variations observed on these 18 plasma parameters, except for the very low amplitude variations of the field which are well correl...

  3. 3D profile measurement of large-scale curvature plates using structured light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, EunChang; Kim, ByoungChang; Lee, Hyunho; Han, JongMan

    2008-08-01

    In heavy industry, especially in the shipbuilding process, 3D profile measurement of large-scale hull pieces is needed for fabrication and assembly. Currently, using many kinds of templates made of wood or plastic still do an important role as a standard ruler. We suggest an efficient method of 3D profile measurement to obtain the xyz-coordinates of curvature plates. The measurement system comprises multiple line structured laser sources and performs profile measurement by projecting structured light source on the object surface. The measurement results show that measurement accuracy is within the boundary of accuracy required in the shipbuilding process.

  4. Validation of the Employment Hope Scale: Measuring Psychological Self-Sufficiency among Low-Income Jobseekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Philip Young P.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The Employment Hope scale (EHS) was designed to measure the empowerment-based self-sufficiency (SS) outcome among low-income job-seeking clients. This measure captures the psychological SS dimension as opposed to the more commonly used economic SS in workforce development and employment support practice. The study validates the EHS and…

  5. Measuring Offence-Specific Forgiveness in Marriage: The Marital Offence-Specific Forgiveness Scale (MOFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleari, F. Giorgia; Regalia, Camillo; Fincham, Frank D.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies involving 328 married couples were conducted to validate the Marital Offence-Specific Forgiveness Scale, a new measure assessing offence-specific forgiveness for marital transgressions. The studies examined the dimensionality; internal consistency; and discriminant, concurrent, and predictive validity of the new measure. The final…

  6. LiDAR measurements of full scale wind turbine wake characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Mann, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Full scale wind speed measurements, recorded inside the wake of an operating 2MW/80m wind turbine,has been performed during the spring 2009, as part of the EU-TOPFARM project. Longitudinal wind speeds in wake cross sections are measured with a LiDAR system mounted in the rear of the nacelle. The ...

  7. Impulsivity and the Sexes: Measurement and Structural Invariance of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyders, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Before it is possible to test whether men and women differ in impulsivity, it is necessary to evaluate whether impulsivity measures are invariant across sex. The UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking, with added subscale of positive urgency) is one measure of five…

  8. Investigating the Measurement Properties of the Social Responsiveness Scale in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Szatmari, Peter; Georgiades, Stelios; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Smith, Isabel M.; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Thompson, Ann; Bennett, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement properties of the Social Responsiveness Scale in an accelerated longitudinal sample of 4-year-old preschool children with the complementary approaches of categorical confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Measurement models based on the literature and other hypothesized measurement…

  9. Scale of association: hierarchical linear models and the measurement of ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean M. McMahon; Jeffrey M. Diez

    2007-01-01

    A fundamental challenge to understanding patterns in ecological systems lies in employing methods that can analyse, test and draw inference from measured associations between variables across scales. Hierarchical linear models (HLM) use advanced estimation algorithms to measure regression relationships and variance-covariance parameters in hierarchically structured...

  10. Effects of trade openness and market scale on different regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Renqu; Yang, Zisheng

    2017-04-01

    This paper revisits the relationship between growth, trade openness and market scale. Empirical studies have provided that area develops lopsided problem in China is increasingly serious, while large trade openness and market scale bring about more economic growth. We use a number of data set from province-level’s gross domestic product and socio-economic, as well as statistical methods panel ordinary least squares and instrumental variables estimation techniques to explore the effects of trade openness and regional market scale on the three major economic regions. The results indicate: Firstly, the impact of market scale and trade openness on economic growth is found to be positive. Secondly, the overall regional disparity is owing to the trade openness, market scale and macroeconomic policies. Thirdly, midland and western region should take advantage of regional geographical location and resource to expand exports and narrow the regional difference.

  11. Measurement invariance across Genders on the Childhood Illness Attitude Scales (CIAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorisdottir, Audur S; Villadsen, Anna; LeBouthillier, Daniel M; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Wright, Kristi D; Walker, John R; Feldgaier, Steven; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2017-07-01

    The Childhood Illness Attitude Scales (CIAS) were created as a developmentally appropriate measure for symptoms of health anxiety (HA) in school-aged children. Despite overall sound psychometric properties reported in previous studies, more comprehensive examination of the latent structure and potential response bias in the CIAS is needed. The purpose of the present study was to cross-validate the latent structure of the CIAS across genders and to examine gender-specific variations in CIAS scores. The sample comprised data from 602 Canadian and Danish school-aged children (Mage=10.54, SD=0.99; 52.5% girls). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test 3-, modified 3-, and 4-factor models in both samples. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test factor structure invariance across boys and girls in a combined sample. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) was assessed using test characteristic curves. A modified 3-factor solution (i.e., fears=11 items, help-seeking=6 items, and symptom effects=4 items) provided the best fit to the data (χ(2) (364, N=602)=681.7, pgender-based response bias at the scale level. Results support a revised 3-factor version of the CIAS that can be used with confidence to assess symptoms of HA in school-aged boys and girls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring romantic love: psychometric properties of the infatuation and attachment scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; Muris, Peter; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2013-01-01

    Romantic love is ubiquitous and has major influences on people's lives. Because romantic love consists of infatuation and attachment, researchers need to be able to differentiate between these constructs when examining the behavioral, affective, cognitive, and physiological correlates of this intriguing phenomenon. Existing love questionnaires appear less suitable for measuring the two-dimensional construct of romantic love. We present here the new 20-item Infatuation and Attachment Scales (IAS) questionnaire. In Study 1, exploratory factor analyses in a Dutch-speaking sample (n = 162) revealed a clear-cut two-factor structure, with 10 infatuation and 10 attachment items loading on separate components. This two-factor structure was confirmed in a new Dutch-speaking sample (n = 214, Study 2), and in an English-speaking sample (n = 183, Study 3). In all studies, it was additionally shown that both scales possessed good convergent and discriminant validity, as well as excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability. We argue that the IAS is a widely applicable, psychometrically sound instrument that will be useful in future research exploring the effects of infatuation and attachment on behavior, emotion, cognition, peripheral physiology, and brain functioning.

  13. On the measurement of procrastination: Comparing two scales in six European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frode Svartdal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Procrastination is a common problem, but defining and measuring it has been subject to some debate. This paper summarizes results from students and employees (N = 2893 in Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland and Sweden using the Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS and the Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS (Steel, 2010, both assumed to measure unidimensional and closely related constructs. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA indicated inadequate configural fit for the suggested one-factor model for PPS; however, acceptable fit was observed for a three-factor model corresponding to the three different scales the PPS is based on. Testing measurement invariance over countries and students-employees revealed configural but not strong or strict invariance, indicating that both instruments are somewhat sensitive to cultural differences. We conclude that the PPS and IPS are valid measures of procrastination, and that the PPS may be particularly useful in assessing cultural differences in unnecessary delay.

  14. On the Measurement of Procrastination: Comparing Two Scales in Six European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartdal, Frode; Pfuhl, Gerit; Nordby, Kent; Foschi, Gioel; Klingsieck, Katrin B; Rozental, Alexander; Carlbring, Per; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari; Rębkowska, Kaja

    2016-01-01

    Procrastination is a common problem, but defining and measuring it has been subject to some debate. This paper summarizes results from students and employees (N = 2893) in Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, and Sweden using the Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS) and the Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS; Steel, 2010), both assumed to measure unidimensional and closely related constructs. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated inadequate configural fit for the suggested one-factor model for PPS; however, acceptable fit was observed for a three-factor model corresponding to the three different scales the PPS is based on. Testing measurement invariance over countries and students-employees revealed configural but not strong or strict invariance, indicating that both instruments are somewhat sensitive to cultural differences. We conclude that the PPS and IPS are valid measures of procrastination, and that the PPS may be particularly useful in assessing cultural differences in unnecessary delay.

  15. Measuring ability to enhance and suppress emotional expression: The Flexible Regulation of Emotional Expression (FREE) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Charles L; Bonanno, George A

    2016-08-01

    Flexibility in self-regulatory behaviors has proved to be an important quality for adjusting to stressful life events and requires individuals to have a diverse repertoire of emotion regulation abilities. However, the most commonly used emotion regulation questionnaires assess frequency of behavior rather than ability, with little evidence linking these measures to observable capacity to enact a behavior. The aim of the current investigation was to develop and validate a Flexible Regulation of Emotional Expression (FREE) Scale that measures a person's ability to enhance and suppress displayed emotion across an array of hypothetical contexts. In Studies 1 and 2, a series of confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the FREE Scale consists of 4 first-order factors divided by regulation and emotional valence type that can contribute to 2 higher order factors: expressive enhancement ability and suppression ability. In Study 1, we also compared the FREE Scale to other commonly used emotion regulation measures, which revealed that suppression ability is conceptually distinct from suppression frequency. In Study 3, we compared the FREE Scale with a composite of traditional frequency-based indices of expressive regulation to predict performance in a previously validated emotional modulation paradigm. Participants' enhancement and suppression ability scores on the FREE Scale predicted their corresponding performance on the laboratory task, even when controlling for baseline expressiveness. These studies suggest that the FREE Scale is a valid and flexible measure of expressive regulation ability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. High-K Strategy Scale: A Measure of the High-K Independent Criterion of Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Giosan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at testing whether factors documented in the literature as being indicators of a high-K reproductive strategy have effects on fitness in extant humans. A 26-item High-K Strategy Scale comprising these factors was developed and tested on 250 respondents. Items tapping into health and attractiveness, upward mobility, social capital and risks consideration, were included in the scale. As expected, the scale showed a significant correlation with perceived offspring quality and a weak, but significant association with actual number of children. The scale had a high reliability coefficient (Cronbach's Alpha = .92. Expected correlations were found between the scale and number of medical diagnoses, education, perceived social support, and number of previous marriages, strengthening the scale's construct validity. Implications of the results are discussed.

  17. Wind Loads on Ships and Offshore Structures Determined by Model Tests, CFD and Full-Scale Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Christian

    1998-01-01

    -scale measurements have been carried out as well. The CFD method also offers the possibility of a computational estimate of scale effects related to wind tunnel model testing. An example of such an estimate on the ferry is discussed. This work has been published in more details in Proceedings of BOSS'97, Aage et al......Wind loads on ships and offshore structures have until recently been determined only by model tests, or by statistical methods based on model tests. By the development of Computational Fluid Dynamics or CFD there is now a realistic computational alternative. In principle, both methods should...... be validated systematically against full-scale measurements, but due to the great practical difficulties involved, this is almost never done. In this investigation, wind loads on a seagoing ferry and on a semisubmersible platform have been determined by model tests and by CFD. On the ferry, full...

  18. Adaptation of a scale to measure coping strategies in informal primary caregivers of psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Santiago, F J; Marván, M L; Lagunes-Córdoba, R

    2017-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Informal caregivers of psychiatric patients are vulnerable to many disturbances associated with the stress related to their activity. Caregivers who show a coping style focused on problem-solving report less psychological distress, and this approach positively influences the recovery process of the psychiatric patient. There are some questionnaires to measure coping styles in caregivers of psychiatric patients, but most of them do not have the minimum psychometric properties that a scale must fulfil. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The authors present an adapted and validated scale for measuring both active and passive coping strategies used by informal caregivers to face daily stressful situations with psychiatric patients. The study is an example of how scales can be adapted to small samples (n coping styles of informal caregivers are related to recovery process of psychiatric patients. Background The recovery process of a psychiatric patient is related to his primary informal caregiver's style of coping with stress. There is insufficient literature on validations of instruments that measure coping styles in this population. Objective To adapt and validate a scale to measure coping strategies in primary informal caregivers. Method The adapted scale was based on the Extreme Coping Scale of López-Vázquez and Marván. Items from that scale were adapted for application to informal caregivers. The scale was administered to 122 primary informal caregivers of patients from two psychiatric institutions in Mexico. Psychometric analyses were performed to determine the scale's properties. Results The scale was composed of 20 items (six less than in the original scale) and two factors: (i) active coping (Cronbach's alpha = .837) and (ii) passive coping (Cronbach's alpha = .718). Discussion The findings are discussed in the light of the importance of studying the relationship between coping styles and the well-being of both

  19. Spatially Resolved Sub-Doppler Overtone Gain Measurements in a Small Scale Supersonic HF Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wisniewski, Charles

    2003-01-01

    .... Results show that reactant mixing mechanisms such as turbulence and large-scale vortex structures have a large effect on the gain averaged over a vertical profile while kinetic rate mechanisms...

  20. Effects of the synoptic scale variability on the thermohaline circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Taboada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effect of the synoptic scale variability is analyzed using a simple atmosphere-ocean coupled model. This high frequency variability has been taken into account in the model adding white gaussian noise in variables related to zonal and meridional temperature differences. Results show that synoptic scale frequency variability on longitudinal heating contrast between land and sea can produce a collapse of thermohaline circulation when a threshold of noise is overcome. This result is significant because if synoptic scale variability in the next century increases due to the climatic change an increment of the probability of this collapse could be produced.

  1. Optimal Scaling of Interaction Effects in Generalized Linear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rosmalen, Joost; Koning, Alex J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Multiplicative interaction models, such as Goodman's (1981) RC(M) association models, can be a useful tool for analyzing the content of interaction effects. However, most models for interaction effects are suitable only for data sets with two or three predictor variables. Here, we discuss an optimal scaling model for analyzing the content of…

  2. Development of new psychometric instruments to measure appearance distress during adolescence: the Adolescent Appearance Distress Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Timothy P.; Bailey, Chantelle; Griffiths, Catrin; Lawson, Victoria; Williamson, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Measures of adolescent appearance distress have focused on weight and body shape, excluding other aspects of appearance. The absence of a psychometrically sound, general measure of appearance distress has limited evaluation of interventions and curtailed investigation of psychological processes in adolescent appearance adjustment. This paper describes the development of scales assessing adolescent appearance distress to address this dearth of appropriate measures, validated through cross-sect...

  3. Development of new psychometric instruments to measure appearance distress during adolescence: The adolescent appearance distress scales

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, T; Bailey, C.; Griffiths, C; Lawson, V; Williamson, H.

    2014-01-01

    Measures of adolescent appearance distress have focused on weight and body shape, excluding other aspects of appearance. The absence of a psychometrically sound, general measure of appearance distress has limited evaluation of interventions and curtailed investigation of psychological processes in adolescent appearance adjustment. This paper describes the development of scales assessing adolescent appearance distress to address this dearth of appropriate measures, validated through cross-sect...

  4. The brief family relationship scale: a brief measure of the relationship dimension in family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Allen, James; Henry, David

    2014-02-01

    The Relationship dimension of the Family Environment Scale, which consists of the Cohesion, Expressiveness, and Conflict subscales, measures a person's perception of the quality of his or her family relationship functioning. This study investigates an adaptation of the Relationship dimension of the Family Environment Scale for Alaska Native youth. The authors tested the adapted measure, the Brief Family Relationship Scale, for psychometric properties and internal structure with 284 12- to 18-year-old predominately Yup'ik Eskimo Alaska Native adolescents from rural, remote communities. This non-Western cultural group is hypothesized to display higher levels of collectivism traditionally organized around an extended kinship family structure. Results demonstrate a subset of the adapted items function satisfactorily, a three-response alternative format provided meaningful information, and the subscale's underlying structure is best described through three distinct first-order factors, organized under one higher order factor. Convergent and discriminant validity of the Brief Family Relationship Scale was assessed through correlational analysis.

  5. Measuring Problematic Mobile Phone Use: Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties of the PUMP Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Merlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and assess the psychometric properties of an English language measure of problematic mobile phone use. Participants were recruited from a university campus, health science center, and other public locations. The sample included 244 individuals (68.4% female aged 18–75. Results supported a unidimensional factor structure for the 20-item self-report Problematic Use of Mobile Phones (PUMP Scale. Internal consistency was excellent (α=0.94. Strong correlations (r=.76, P<.001 were found between the PUMP Scale and an existing scale of cellular phone dependency that was validated in Asia, as well as items assessing frequency and intensity of mobile phone use. Results provide preliminary support for the use of the PUMP Scale to measure problematic use of mobile phones.

  6. Assessment of the confiability and factorial structure of three scales measuring chronic procrastination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Argumedo Bustinza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the confiability and factorial structure of three scales measuring chronic procrastination: Scale of General Procrastination (EPG. Lay. 1986. Adult Procrastinatio Inventory (lPA. McCown & Johnson as cited in Ferrari. Johnson & McCown. 1995 and the Scale of Procrastination in Decision-Making (PTF. Mann. 1982. The sample included 514 adults between 20 and 65 years of age from Lima. The three scales showed high levels of intemal consistency and factorial analysis showed three factors for EPG and IPA and one factor for PTD A second degree factorial analysis suggested the presence of only one factor based on the grouping of items of the EPG and IPA scales The study did not find theoretically relevant dlfferences in chronic procrastination according to gender, age or education level. However,with respect to socioeconomic status. there were higher levels of chronic procrastmation in the poorest sector

  7. The Affective Slider: A Digital Self-Assessment Scale for the Measurement of Human Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betella, Alberto; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2016-01-01

    Self-assessment methods are broadly employed in emotion research for the collection of subjective affective ratings. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM), a pictorial scale developed in the eighties for the measurement of pleasure, arousal, and dominance, is still among the most popular self-reporting tools, despite having been conceived upon design principles which are today obsolete. By leveraging on state-of-the-art user interfaces and metacommunicative pictorial representations, we developed the Affective Slider (AS), a digital self-reporting tool composed of two slider controls for the quick assessment of pleasure and arousal. To empirically validate the AS, we conducted a systematic comparison between AS and SAM in a task involving the emotional assessment of a series of images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), a database composed of pictures representing a wide range of semantic categories often used as a benchmark in psychological studies. Our results show that the AS is equivalent to SAM in the self-assessment of pleasure and arousal, with two added advantages: the AS does not require written instructions and it can be easily reproduced in latest-generation digital devices, including smartphones and tablets. Moreover, we compared new and normative IAPS ratings and found a general drop in reported arousal of pictorial stimuli. Not only do our results demonstrate that legacy scales for the self-report of affect can be replaced with new measurement tools developed in accordance to modern design principles, but also that standardized sets of stimuli which are widely adopted in research on human emotion are not as effective as they were in the past due to a general desensitization towards highly arousing content.

  8. The Positive Thinking Skills Scale: A screening measure for early identification of depressive thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Abir K; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio

    2017-12-01

    Depression is currently considered the second leading cause of disability worldwide. Positive thinking is a cognitive process that helps individuals to deal with problems more effectively, and has been suggested as a useful strategy for coping with adversity, including depression. The Positive Thinking Skills Scale (PTSS) is a reliable and valid measure that captures the frequency of use of positive thinking skills that can help in the early identification of the possibility of developing depressive thoughts. However, no meaningful cutoff score has been established for the PTSS. To establish a cutoff score for the PTSS for early identification of risk for depression. This study used a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to establish a PTSS cutoff score for risk for depression, using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) as the gold standard measure. In a sample of 109 caregivers, the ROC showed that the cutoff score of PTSS that best classify the participants is 13.5. With this PTSS score, 77.8% of the subjects with low CES-D are classify correctly, and 69.6% of the subjects with high CES-D are classify correctly. Since the PTSS score should be integer numbers, functionally the cutoff would be 13. The study showed that a cut off score of 13 is a point at which referral, intervention, or treatment would be recommended. Consequently, this can help in the early identification of depressive symptoms that might develop because of the stress of caregiving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Affective Slider: A Digital Self-Assessment Scale for the Measurement of Human Emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Betella

    Full Text Available Self-assessment methods are broadly employed in emotion research for the collection of subjective affective ratings. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM, a pictorial scale developed in the eighties for the measurement of pleasure, arousal, and dominance, is still among the most popular self-reporting tools, despite having been conceived upon design principles which are today obsolete. By leveraging on state-of-the-art user interfaces and metacommunicative pictorial representations, we developed the Affective Slider (AS, a digital self-reporting tool composed of two slider controls for the quick assessment of pleasure and arousal. To empirically validate the AS, we conducted a systematic comparison between AS and SAM in a task involving the emotional assessment of a series of images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS, a database composed of pictures representing a wide range of semantic categories often used as a benchmark in psychological studies. Our results show that the AS is equivalent to SAM in the self-assessment of pleasure and arousal, with two added advantages: the AS does not require written instructions and it can be easily reproduced in latest-generation digital devices, including smartphones and tablets. Moreover, we compared new and normative IAPS ratings and found a general drop in reported arousal of pictorial stimuli. Not only do our results demonstrate that legacy scales for the self-report of affect can be replaced with new measurement tools developed in accordance to modern design principles, but also that standardized sets of stimuli which are widely adopted in research on human emotion are not as effective as they were in the past due to a general desensitization towards highly arousing content.

  10. Pediatric pain measurement using a visual analogue scale: a comparison of two teaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Brenda J; Cohen, Daniel M; Harbeck-Weber, Cynthia; Powers, Jean D; Smith, Gary A

    2003-04-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the validity of the visual analogue scale (VAS) for young children and to compare a newly developed method of teaching children to use a VAS with one used in our previous studies. It was hypothesized that the new method would increase the number of children who understand the VAS and correctly mark their responses on the VAS line. The association between child's age and ability to understand the VAS was also evaluated. One hundred-six children with a laceration requiring sutures and receiving a lidocaine injection for local anesthesia participated in the study. They ranged in age from 5 to 14 years. Two outcome measures were used to assess the baseline and lidocaine injection pain: a 5-point Likert scale and a VAS. A calibration study was used to determine whether the subjects were able to use the VAS to make proportional judgments about their perceptions. Teaching method had no effect on the number of subjects who could correctly mark their responses on the VAS line, nor did it significantly increase the number of subjects who could understand the concept of the VAS. Subjects who were able to understand the VAS were significantly older (mean = 9.8 years, SD = 2.8) than those who did not (mean = 8.2 years, SD = 2.5). Overall, only about one third of the subjects were able to correctly mark the VAS and understand the concept of the VAS. Other measures of pain that are better understood by young children may be more valid indicators of pain than the VAS.

  11. Modifications to a Laboratory-Scale Confined Laser Ignition Chamber for Pressure Measurements to 70 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    ARL-MR-0964 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Modifications to a Laboratory-Scale Confined Laser Ignition Chamber for...US Army Research Laboratory Modifications to a Laboratory-Scale Confined Laser Ignition Chamber for Pressure Measurements to 70 MPa by...that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if

  12. Measuring reliability and validity of Persian version of spirituality scale among elderly Iranian population

    OpenAIRE

    Hallaj Zahra; Rafiey Hasan; Momtaz Yadollah Abolfathi; Teimori Robab; Haroni Qholamreza Qaed Amini; Sahaf Robab

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to measure the validity and reliability of Persian version of spirituality scale among elderly Iranian people. Methods: Based on the international quality of life assessment (IQOLA) project approach, Persian version of the spirituality scale was prepared. Data on 200 elderly people (over 60 years old) were entered into SPSS software. Results: The findings of the descriptive results of the current study showed that there was no correlation between the demog...

  13. Development of a measurement scale of strategic consensus on pedagogic teams

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Puente-Palacios; Tamara Puente

    2013-01-01

    Strategic consensus is a group process that can be described as the agreement among team members on strategic matters for success at work. The psychometric evidences of the validity of an assessment scale measuring strategic consensus in pedagogic teams are analyzed. Participants were 140 school teachers in Quito (Ecuador). Statistical analyses of the applied scale containing 14 items revealed a uni-dimensional factor structure explaining 49.7% of the variance. The internal consistency of the...

  14. An environmental preference scale: a proposal to measure the relationships between individuals and their environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Miranda, Martha Patricia; Laboratorio de Ciencia Cognitiva, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, México; De La Garza González, Arturo; Laboratorio de Ciencia Cognitiva, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey; López Ramírez, Ernesto Octavio; Laboratorio de Ciencia Cognitiva, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey; Morales Martínez, Guadalupe Elizabeth; Laboratorio de Ciencia Cognitiva, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to measure and compare environmental preference on 59 biology students and 75 psychology students from a Mexican public university. Participants were shown 60 images of natural and urban environments, they were required to indicate the degree of relationship experienced with that environment, using a 7-point Likert scale. The results showed an internal consistency of 0.94 and a single-factor structure for the scale factor of nature dimension and three others related ...

  15. Improving wildlife habitat model performance: Sensitivity to the scale and detail of vegetation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lance Jay, Jr.

    Monitoring the impacts of resource use and landscape change on wildlife habitat over large areas is a daunting assignment. Forest land managers could benefit from linking the frequent decisions of resource use (timber harvesting) with a system of wildlife habitat accounting, but to date these tools are not widely available. I examined aspects of wildlife habitat modeling that: (in Chapter 2) could potentially lead to the establishment of wildlife habitat accounting within a resource decision support tool, (in Chapter 3) improve our theoretical understanding and methods to interpret the accuracy of wildlife habitat models, (in Chapter 4) explore the effects of vegetation classification systems on wildlife habitat model results, and (in Chapter 5) show that forest structural estimates from satellite imagery can improve potential habitat distribution models (GAP) for forest bird species. The majority of the analyses in this dissertation were done using a forest resource inventory developed by the State of Michigan (IFMAP). Paired with field vegetation and bird samples from sites across the lower peninsula of Michigan, we compared the relative accuracy of wildlife habitat relationship models built with plot-scale vegetation samples and stand-scale forest inventory maps. Recursive partitioning trees were used to build wildlife habitat models for 30 bird species. The habitat distribution maps from the Michigan Gap Analysis (MIGAP) were used as a baseline for comparison of model accuracy results. Both the plot and stand-scale measurements achieved high accuracy and there were few large differences between plot and stand-scale models for any individual species. Where the plot and stand-scale models were different, they tended to be species associated with mixed habitats. This may be evidence that scale of vegetation measurement has a larger influence on species associated with edges and ecotones. Habitat models that were built solely with land cover data were less accurate

  16. [A new scale for measuring return-to-work motivation of mentally ill employees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poersch, M

    2007-03-01

    A new scale "motivation for return to work" has been constructed to measure depressive patients' motivation to start working again in a stepwise process. The scale showed in 46 patients of a first case management (CM) sample with depressive employees a good correlation with the final social status of the CM. Only the motivated patients were successful returning to work and could be, separated clearly from the most demotivated one. Second, the scale correlated with the duration of sick leave and third showed an inverse correlation with the complete time of CM, suggesting that a successful stepwise return to work requires time. These first results need further examination.

  17. Direct Measurement of Anisotropic and Asymmetric Wave Vector Spectrum in Ion-scale Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, O. W.; Narita, Y.; Escoubet, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    This analysis represents the first time that a simultaneous measurement of parallel and perpendicular spectral indices at both inertial and kinetic scales has been made directly in wave vector space, using a single interval of solar wind plasma. An interferometric wave vector analysis method is applied to four-point magnetometer data from the Cluster spacecraft to study for the first time the anisotropic and axially asymmetric energy spectrum directly in the three-dimensional wave vector space in the solar wind on spatial scales for the fluid picture (at about 6000 km) down to the ion kinetic regime (at about 400 km) without invoking Taylor’s frozen-in flow hypothesis. At fluid scales, the spectral index is found to transition from -2 along the large-scale magnetic field direction to a spectral index approaching -5/3 in the perpendicular direction. The wave number for the spectral break between ion inertial and kinetic scales occurs at larger scales in the parallel projection, compared to the perpendicular. At ion kinetic scales, the spectrum in the parallel direction is difficult to measure, while the two perpendicular directions are also anisotropic and vary between -8/3 and -11/3. This suggests that a single anisotropic process where symmetry is broken in a single direction cannot account for the results.

  18. Outcome measurement in functional somatic syndromes: SF-36 summary scores and some scales were not valid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Andreas; Oernboel, Eva; Licht, Rasmus W; Sharpe, Michael; Fink, Per

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to test the validity of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scales and summaries in patients with severe functional somatic syndromes (FSS), such as fibromyalgia and irritable bowel syndrome. One hundred twenty patients with severe FSS enrolled in a randomized controlled trial filled in the SF-36 questionnaire. We tested for data quality, central scaling assumptions, and agreement with the conceptual model. Most SF-36 scales were found to be valid; however, three scales (role physical, role emotional, and general health) did not satisfy predefined criteria for construct validity, internal consistency, or targeting to the sample. The correlations between SF-36 scales differed considerably from those reported in the general population. As a consequence, the SF-36 summaries, physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS), did not accurately reflect their underlying scales and were negatively correlated (r=-0.46, 95% CI [-0.60 to -0.31]). Although the SF-36 is a valuable instrument to assess perceived health in patients with severe FSS, there are problems with some of the scales and with the scoring procedure of the summaries. The SF-36 PCS may, therefore, not accurately measure the physical health status of these patients. Alternative summary measures are needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Language Measurement Equivalence of the Ethnic Identity Scale With Mexican American Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Knight, George P; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2011-12-01

    The current study considers methodological challenges in developmental research with linguistically diverse samples of young adolescents. By empirically examining the cross-language measurement equivalence of a measure assessing three components of ethnic identity development (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) among Mexican American adolescents, the study both assesses the cross-language measurement equivalence of a common measure of ethnic identity and provides an appropriate conceptual and analytical model for researchers needing to evaluate measurement scales translated into multiple languages. Participants are 678 Mexican-origin early adolescents and their mothers. Measures of exploration and resolution achieve the highest levels of equivalence across language versions. The measure of affirmation achieves high levels of equivalence. Results highlight potential ways to correct for any problems of nonequivalence across language versions of the affirmation measure. Suggestions are made for how researchers working with linguistically diverse samples can use the highlighted techniques to evaluate their own translated measures.

  20. Development of a scale to measure adherence to self-monitoring of blood glucose with latent variable measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J A; Schnoll, R A; Gipson, M T

    1998-07-01

    Adherence to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is problematic for many people with diabetes. Self-reports of adherence have been found to be unreliable, and existing paper-and-pencil measures have limitations. This study developed a brief measure of SMBG adherence with good psychometric properties and a useful factor structure that can be used in research and in practice. A total of 216 adults with diabetes responded to 30 items rated on a 9-point Likert scale that asked about blood monitoring habits. In part I of the study, items were evaluated and retained based on their psychometric properties. The sample was divided into exploratory and confirmatory halves. Using the exploratory half, items with acceptable psychometric properties were subjected to a principal components analysis. In part II of the study, structural equation modeling was used to confirm the component solution with the entire sample. Structural modeling was also used to test the relationship between these components. It was hypothesized that the scale would produce four correlated factors. Principal components analysis suggested a two-component solution, and confirmatory factor analysis confirmed this solution. The first factor measures the degree to which patients rely on others to help them test and thus was named "social influence." The second component measures the degree to which patients use physical symptoms of blood glucose levels to help them test and thus was named "physical influence." Results of the structural model show that the components are correlated and make up the higher-order latent variable adherence. The resulting 15-item scale provides a short, reliable way to assess patient adherence to SMBG. Despite the existence of several aspects of adherence, this study indicates that the construct consists of only two components. This scale is an improvement on previous measures of adherence because of its good psychometric properties, its interpretable factor structure, and its

  1. Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility in Gambling Industry: Multi-Items Stakeholder Based Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ming Luo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Macau gambling companies included Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR information in their annual reports and websites as a marketing tool. Responsible Gambling (RG had been a recurring issue in Macau’s chief executive report since 2007 and in many of the major gambling operators’ annual report. The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement scale on CSR activities in Macau. Items on the measurement scale were based on qualitative research with data collected from employees in Macau’s gambling industry and academic literature. First and Second Order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were used to verify the reliability and validity of the measurement scale. The results of this study were satisfactory and were supported by empirical evidence. This study provided recommendations to gambling stakeholders, including practitioners, government officers, customers and shareholders, and implications to promote CSR practice in Macau gambling industry.

  2. Measurement of costs and scales for outcome evaluation in health economic studies of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodel, Richard; Jönsson, Bengt; Reese, Jens Peter; Winter, Yaroslav; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Holloway, Robert; Sampaio, Cristina; Růžička, Evžen; Hawthorne, Graeme; Oertel, Wolfgang; Poewe, Werner; Stebbins, Glenn; Rascol, Oliver; Goetz, Christopher G; Schrag, Anette

    2014-02-01

    Health economic studies in Parkinson's disease (PD) have become increasingly common in recent years. Because several methodologies and instruments have been used to assess cost and outcomes in PD, the Movement Disorder Society (MDS) commissioned a Task Force to assess their properties and make recommendations regarding their use. A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the use of those instruments in PD and to determine which should be selected for this review. We assessed approaches to evaluate cost of illness (COI), cost effectiveness, and cost utilities, which include the use of direct (standard gamble, time trade-off. and visual analogue scales) and indirect instruments to measure health status and utilities. No validated instruments/models were identified for the evaluation of COI or cost-effectiveness in patients with PD; therefore, no instruments in this group are recommended. Among utility instruments, only a few of these outcome instruments have been used in the PD population, and only limited psychometric data are available for these instruments with respect to PD. Because psychometric data for further utility instruments in conditions other than PD already exist, the standard gamble and time trade-off methods and the EQ-5D (a European quality-of-life health states instrument) and Health Utility Index instruments met the criteria for scales that are "recommended (with limitations)," but only the EQ-5D has been assessed in detail in PD patients. The MDS Task Force recommends further study of these instruments in the PD population to establish core psychometric properties. For the assessment of COI, the Task Force considers the development of a COI instrument specifically for PD, like that available for Alzheimer's disease. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Universal happiness? Cross-cultural measurement invariance of scales assessing positive mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieda, Angela; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Schönfeld, Pia; Brailovskaia, Julia; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Research into positive aspects of the psyche is growing as psychologists learn more about the protective role of positive processes in the development and course of mental disorders, and about their substantial role in promoting mental health. With increasing globalization, there is strong interest in studies examining positive constructs across cultures. To obtain valid cross-cultural comparisons, measurement invariance for the scales assessing positive constructs has to be established. The current study aims to assess the cross-cultural measurement invariance of questionnaires for 6 positive constructs: Social Support (Fydrich, Sommer, Tydecks, & Brähler, 2009), Happiness (Subjective Happiness Scale; Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999), Life Satisfaction (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), Positive Mental Health Scale (Lukat, Margraf, Lutz, van der Veld, & Becker, 2016), Optimism (revised Life Orientation Test [LOT-R]; Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994) and Resilience (Schumacher, Leppert, Gunzelmann, Strauss, & Brähler, 2004). Participants included German (n = 4,453), Russian (n = 3,806), and Chinese (n = 12,524) university students. Confirmatory factor analyses and measurement invariance testing demonstrated at least partial strong measurement invariance for all scales except the LOT-R and Subjective Happiness Scale. The latent mean comparisons of the constructs indicated differences between national groups. Potential methodological and cultural explanations for the intergroup differences are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Laue-DIC: a new method for improved stress field measurements at the micrometer scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, J; Castelnau, O; Bornert, M; Zhang, F G; Hofmann, F; Korsunsky, A M; Faurie, D; Le Bourlot, C; Micha, J S; Robach, O; Ulrich, O

    2015-07-01

    A better understanding of the effective mechanical behavior of polycrystalline materials requires an accurate knowledge of the behavior at a scale smaller than the grain size. The X-ray Laue microdiffraction technique available at beamline BM32 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is ideally suited for probing elastic strains (and associated stresses) in deformed polycrystalline materials with a spatial resolution smaller than a micrometer. However, the standard technique used to evaluate local stresses from the distortion of Laue patterns lacks accuracy for many micromechanical applications, mostly due to (i) the fitting of Laue spots by analytical functions, and (ii) the necessary comparison of the measured pattern with the theoretical one from an unstrained reference specimen. In the present paper, a new method for the analysis of Laue images is presented. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique, which is essentially insensitive to the shape of Laue spots, is applied to measure the relative distortion of Laue patterns acquired at two different positions on the specimen. The new method is tested on an in situ deformed Si single-crystal, for which the prescribed stress distribution has been calculated by finite-element analysis. It is shown that the new Laue-DIC method allows determination of local stresses with a strain resolution of the order of 10(-5).

  5. Velocity measurements in the wake of laboratory-scale vertical axis turbines and rotating circular cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Daniel; Dabiri, John

    2014-11-01

    We present experimental data to compare the wake characteristics of a laboratory-scale vertical-axis turbine with that of a rotating circular cylinder. The cylinder is constructed to have the same diameter and height as the turbine in order to provide a comparison that is independent of the tunnel boundary conditions. Both the turbine and cylinder are motor-driven to tip-speed ratios based on previous experiments. An analysis of the effect of the motor-driven flow is also presented. These measurements are relevant for exploring the complex structure of the vertical axis turbine wake relative to the canonical wake of a circular cylinder. 2D particle image velocimetry is used to measure the velocity field in a two-dimensional plane normal to the axis of rotation. This velocity field is then used to compare time-averaged streamwise velocity, phase-averaged vorticity, and the velocity power spectrum in the wake of the two configurations. The results give insight into the extent to which solid cylinders could be used as a simplified model of the flow around vertical axis turbines in computational simulations, especially for turbine array optimization.

  6. Development of a Scale to Measure Death Perspectives: Overcoming and Participating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Eric; Hayslip, Bert; Caballero, Daniela M; Jenkins, Sharon Rae

    2015-01-01

    Kastenbaum and Aisenberg have suggested that persons can cope with the impact of death and dying by altering their understanding of what each means to them as well as by changing their behavioral responses to such experiences. The present study's purpose was to develop a reliable and valid measure to assess an individual's particular death perspective based on Kastenbaum and Aisenberg's distinctions between overcomers and participators. The Death Perspective Scale developed here assessed the extent to which individuals utilize either an overcoming or participating approach to (a) assigning meaning to dying and death and (b) behaviorally responding to death-related experiences. Based upon the data collected from 168 adults varying by age and gender, findings suggested that both overcoming and participating could be reliably assessed, correlated with measures of death anxiety and death attitudes, and varied reliably (p death and dying and were less accepting in this respect, while participators reported fewer death-related fears and were more accepting. Women and older adults were more participating, while men and younger adults were more overcoming, though such effects varied depending upon whether meaning versus response to death was considered. The consistency between the present findings and the predictions Kastenbaum and Aisenberg suggests that while person's orientations to death and dying seem to transcend sociocultural change, empirically based efforts to better understand how our death system impacts persons need to move forward.

  7. Reynolds number effects on scale energy balance in wall turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Longmire, Ellen K.; Marusic, Ivan; Casciola, Carlo M.; Piva, Renzo

    2012-01-01

    The scale energy budget utilizes a modified version of the classical Kolmogorov equation of wall turbulence to develop an evolution equation for the second order structure function [R. J. Hill, "Exact second-order structure-function relationships," J. Fluid Mech. 468, 317 (2002)]. This methodology allows for the simultaneous characterization of the energy cascade and spatial fluxes in turbulent shear flows across the entire physical domain as well as the range of scales. The present study utilizes this methodology to characterize the effects of Reynolds number on the balance of energy fluxes in turbulent channel flows. Direct numerical simulation data in the range Reτ = 300-934 are compared to previously published results at Reτ = 180 [N. Marati, C. M. Casciola, and R. Piva, "Energy cascade and spatial fluxes in wall turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 521, 191 (2004)]. The present results show no Reynolds number effects in the terms of the scale energy budget in either the viscous sublayer or buffer regions of the channel. In the logarithmic layer, the transfer of energy across scales clearly varies with Reynolds number, while the production of turbulent kinetic energy is not dependent on Reynolds number. An envelope of inverse energy cascade is quantified in the buffer region within which energy is transferred from small to larger scales. This envelope is observed in the range 6 < y+ < 37, where all scales except the smallest scales display characteristics of an inverse energy cascade. The cross-over scale lc+, which indicates the transition between production dominated and scale transfer dominated regimes, increases with Reynolds number, implying a larger range of transfer dominated scales, before the dominant mechanism switches to production. At higher Reynolds numbers, two distinct regimes of lc+ as a function of wall-normal location are observed, which was not captured at Reτ = 180. The variations of lc+ match the trends of the shear scale, which is a

  8. Prevalence of dental fear and its causes using three measurement scales among children in New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Singh Rajwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a great need for identifying fearful children, who often present problems in patient management, thus affecting the quality of dental care rendered to them. This study is unique in the way that dental fear was assessed through three fear scales as research has suggested the use of more than one scale because each scale has its own restrictions and is open to criticism. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate dental fear and anxiety (DFA among children aged 3–14 years using three fear measurement scales. Methods: The study was conducted on children (3–14 years who visited the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry at Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, New Delhi. The DFA levels were measured using three fear measurement scales, i.e., facial image scale (FIS, dental fear scale (DFS, and children's fear survey schedule-dental subscale (CFSS-DS. The dental behavior was estimated using the Frankl's behavior rating scale (FBRS. Results: The prevalence of dental fear according to FIS was 14.3%, according to DFS was 22.6%, and according to CFSS-DS was 7.4%. In assessment of the behavior of children in the clinics through FBRS, it was observed that he maximum number of respondents (69.8% showed Frankl's Rating 3 i.e. positive. In the DFS and CFSS-DS, the factor which caused most fear was “feeling the needle injected” and “injections,” respectively. Conclusion: Assessment of dental fear is an extremely useful tool for the dental practitioner, who can use it to customize the behavioral treatment and management for child patients.

  9. Stroke Social Network Scale: development and psychometric evaluation of a new patient-reported measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Sarah; Hilari, Katerina

    2013-09-01

    To describe the development and psychometric evaluation of a new patient-reported measure that assesses a person's social network in the first six months post stroke. Although it is known that the social networks of those with stroke and aphasia are vulnerable to change, there is currently no social network scale that has been validated for this population. Repeated measures psychometric study, evaluating internal consistency, construct validity, and responsiveness to change of the Stroke Social Network Scale. Participants were interviewed two weeks, three months and six months following a first stroke. Stroke Social Network Scale; Medical Outcomes Studies (MOS) Social Support Survey; National Institute of Health Stroke Scale; Stroke and Aphasia Quality of Life Scale-39g; Frenchay Aphasia Screening Test. 87 participants were recruited, of whom 71 were followed up at six months. Factor analysis was used with the Stroke Social Network Scale to derive five subdomains: satisfaction; children; relatives; friends; and groups, which explained 63% of variance. There was good evidence for the scale's internal consistency (α = 0.85); acceptability; and convergent (r = 0.34; r = 0.53) and discriminant validity (r = -0.10; r = -0.19). It differentiated between those with high versus low perceived social support (p = 0.01). Moderate changes from two weeks to six months supported responsiveness (d = 0.32; standardised response mean (SRM) = 0.46), with the friends factor, as expected, showing more change than the children's factor (friends factor: d = 0.46; SRM = 0.50; children's factor: d = 0.06; SRM = 0.19). The Stroke Social Network Scale is a new measure that demonstrates good internal consistency, validity and responsiveness to change.

  10. Measuring reliability and validity of a newly developed stress instrument: Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Stress Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tso-Ying; Chen, Hsing-Hsia; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Li, Hui-Ling; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2013-09-01

    To assess the reliability and validity of a developed instrument entitled Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Stress Scale. Distress, clinical anxiety and depression are evident in patients with cancer, leading to poor psychosocial and quality-of-life outcomes. Instrument development study with norm-referenced measurements. Content validity was determined by expert review. Cronbach's α was used to assess internal consistency reliability and product-moment correlations were conducted. Exploratory factor analysis measured validity of items using varimax rotation method. Criterion-related validity testing used the Perceived Stress Scale and the convergent validity test of construct validity used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A total of 125 women pathologically diagnosed with breast cancer were interviewed on the day prior to initial breast surgery. After testing, the Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Stress Scale consisted of four main factors with 17 items with acceptable reliability and good validity, and its length and time to complete the questionnaire were appropriate. Internal consistency reliability of the scale was shown by Cronbach's α = 0·84, the criterion validity of Perceived Stress Scale-10 was r = 0·46 (p validity of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-14 was r = 0·57 (p validity to measure stress in newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer. The Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Stress Scale can provide healthcare workers with an instrument to better identify stress levels in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients and provide valuable information when defining psychosocial care interventions. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. A permutation test to analyse systematic bias and random measurement errors of medical devices via boosting location and scale models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Andreas; Schmid, Matthias; Pfahlberg, Annette; Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf

    2017-06-01

    Measurement errors of medico-technical devices can be separated into systematic bias and random error. We propose a new method to address both simultaneously via generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) in combination with permutation tests. More precisely, we extend a recently proposed boosting algorithm for GAMLSS to provide a test procedure to analyse potential device effects on the measurements. We carried out a large-scale simulation study to provide empirical evidence that our method is able to identify possible sources of systematic bias as well as random error under different conditions. Finally, we apply our approach to compare measurements of skin pigmentation from two different devices in an epidemiological study.

  12. Nursing workload measurement scales in Intensive Care Units. Correlation between NAS and NEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Martínez Lareo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The high costs of intensive care and the importance of patient safety and quality of care highlight the need to develop instrument to measure, as precisely as possible, nursing workload and staffing levels in intensive care. To assess the ideal staff number, we need instruments to measure the real nursing workload. The aim of this research is to compare two nursing workload measurement scales in Intensive Care Units, the Nursing Activities Score (NAS and Nine Equivalents of Nurse Manpower Use Score (NEMS. We also want to assess the staffing needs of our ICU. A descriptive correlational study will be performed in a mixed medical ICU. The sample will be composed of of a minimum of 70 patients. Data regarding individual patients and unit global workload will be recorded, measured both with the NEMS and NAS scales. The required nursing staff will be calculated according to the measured workload. Nursing staffing needs using both scales will be calculated and compared to the actual staff. A descriptive analysis of the variables will be performed, and the existing correlation between both scales will be assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. A Student-t test will be performed to determine the differences between the calculated staffing requirements and the actual nursing staff. All data analyses will be done using a statistical software.

  13. The reliability of a severity rating scale to measure stuttering in an unfamiliar language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Laura; Wilson, Linda; Copley, Anna; Hewat, Sally; Lim, Valerie

    2014-06-01

    With increasing multiculturalism, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are likely to work with stuttering clients from linguistic backgrounds that differ from their own. No research to date has estimated SLPs' reliability when measuring severity of stuttering in an unfamiliar language. Therefore, this study was undertaken to estimate the reliability of SLPs' use of a 9-point severity rating (SR) scale, to measure severity of stuttering in a language that was different from their own. Twenty-six Australian SLPs rated 20 speech samples (10 Australian English [AE] and 10 Mandarin) of adults who stutter using a 9-point SR scale on two separate occasions. Judges showed poor agreement when using the scale to measure stuttering in Mandarin samples. Results also indicated that 50% of individual judges were unable to reliably measure the severity of stuttering in AE. The results highlight the need for (a) SLPs to develop intra- and inter-judge agreement when using the 9-point SR scale to measure severity of stuttering in their native language (in this case AE) and in unfamiliar languages; and (b) research into the development and evaluation of practice and/or training packages to assist SLPs to do so.

  14. Measuring satiety with pictures compared to visual analogue scales. An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoul, Bastien C; Schuring, Ewoud A H; Symersky, Tomas; Mela, David J; Masclee, Ad A M; Peters, Harry P F

    2012-02-01

    Visual analogue scales (VAS) are a standard tool used to measure subjective appetite. To explore a potentially more intuitive and precise alternative, we developed a method based on pictures and assessed its performance characteristics vs. VAS. The objective was to compare the capacity of the two methods to discriminate appetite ratings between interventions. Both methods were applied within a previously published trial in which 16 healthy adults received standardised meals followed by three different ileal infusions in a balanced crossover design. At regular intervals volunteers indicated how many units of individually pictured food portions (for 10 different items) they would like to eat, and also scored six VAS. Methods were compared over different timeframes and assessed for their sensitivity to intervention effects. Pictures were more sensitive than VAS in differentiating intervention effects; however, further refinement and validation would be needed for pictures to become a standardised and accepted alternative to VAS for this type of research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Introducing a new scale for the measurement of moral disengagement in peace and conflict research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Eckstein Jackson

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available As part of his Social Cognitive Theory, Albert Bandura (e.g. 1986 introduces a process called moral disengagement. Eight different mechanisms are described through which behavior can be disengaged from moral self-control, thus enabling inhumane conduct without negative consequences for the person's self. These mechanisms will be briefly reviewed and the development of a new scale for measuring moral disengagement will be described. An existing measurement of moral disengagement developed by Grussendorf et al. (2002 and McAlister (2000, 2001 will be introduced and criticized. The necessity for the construction of a new scale, its development, psychometric properties and possible weaknesses will be discussed. As a related but conceptually different construct militarism-pacifism is introduced and first results regarding the relationship between the newly developed scale and the militarism-pacifism scale from Cohrs et al. (2002 are reported. First applications of the scale in two different studies will be outlined mainly in reference to properties of the new scale. Finally, critical questions about the construct will be raised and proposals for further research will be given.

  16. Automated effect-specific mammographic pattern measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundahl, Jakob; Loog, Marco; Pettersen, Paola

    2008-01-01

    , such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We compare results using this approach to using standard density measures. We show that the proposed method can quantify both age related effects and effects caused by HRT. Age effects are significantly detected by our method where standard methodologies fail...

  17. Family impact of assistive technology scale: development of a measurement scale for parents of children with complex communication needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delarosa, Elizabeth; Horner, Stephanie; Eisenberg, Casey; Ball, Laura; Renzoni, Anne Marie; Ryan, Stephen E

    2012-09-01

    Young people use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems to meet their everyday communication needs. However, the successful integration of an AAC system into a child's life requires strong commitment and continuous support from parents and other family members. This article describes the development and evaluation of the Family Impact of Assistive Technology Scale for AAC Systems - a parent-report questionnaire intended to detect the impact of AAC systems on the lives of children with complex communication needs and their families. The study involved 179 parents and clinical experts to test the content and face validities of the questionnaire, demonstrate its internal reliability and stability over time, and estimate its convergent construct validity when compared to a standardized measure of family impact.

  18. Measuring HIV felt stigma: a culturally adapted scale targeting PLWHA in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Julio Cesar; Puig, Marieva; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Morales, Marangelie; Asencio, Gloria; Sala, Ana Cecilia; Castro, Eida; Santori, Carmen Vélez; Santiago, Lydia; Zorrilla, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to culturally adapt and validate a scale to measure HIV-related felt stigma in a group of People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Puerto Rico. The researchers conducted a two-phase cross-sectional study with 216 participants (60, first phase; 156, second phase). The first phase consisted of the cultural adaptation of the scale; the second evaluated its psychometric properties. After conducting a factor analysis, a 17-item scale, the HIV Felt-Stigma Scale (HFSS), resulted. Participants completed the Puerto Rico Comprehensive Center for the Study of Health Disparities Socio-demographic Questionnaire, the HFSS, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Sexual Abuse dimension of the History of Abuse Questionnaire; the case managers completed the Case Manager Stigma Guide with subjects. The HFSS measures four dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes. The alpha and Pearson correlation coefficients (0.91 and 0.68, respectively) indicated satisfactory validity and reliability; the scale suggested adequate convergent validity. The HFSS is a culturally sensitive instrument that fills the existing gap in the measurement of felt stigma in Spanish-speaking PLWHA. PMID:20665283

  19. Design and development of a scale measuring fear of complications in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily P; Crawford, John R; Gold, Ann E

    2005-01-01

    There are many determinants of glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. Patients with type 1 diabetes and poor glycaemic control have been reported as being more likely to have a greater fear of hypoglycaemia. The relationship between fear of diabetes-related complications and glycaemic control is unclear, and therefore a brief measure of fear of diabetes complications was developed. A questionnaire was designed, comprising items relating to general fears, specific fears (e.g. blindness, kidney problems, heart disease), lifestyle fears, fear of hypoglycaemia and weight gain. The questionnaire was piloted on 147 outpatients with type 1 diabetes, along with other measures such as the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, the Coping with Health, Injuries and Problems Scale and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Factor analysis was carried out on the 30 items and, after rotation, 15 emerged as loading heavily on the first factor. Factor analysis was rerun on these 15 items and the first factor accounted for 56% of the total variance. This factor remained invariant when the scale was split randomly and by age and gender. The reliability of the scale (alpha) was 0.94. The scale did not correlate with any demographic variables but did with measures of negative affectivity (HADS anxiety = 0.34, p Depression = 0.24, p related to the presence of complications and general negative affectivity but which is a uniquely diabetes-related emotion. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The LoG characteristic scale: a consistent measurement of lung nodule size in CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diciotti, Stefano; Lombardo, Simone; Coppini, Giuseppe; Grassi, Luca; Falchini, Massimo; Mascalchi, Mario

    2010-02-01

    Nodule growth as observed in computed tomography (CT) scans acquired at different times is the primary feature to malignancy of indeterminate small lung nodules. In this paper, we propose the estimation of nodule size through a scale-space representation which needs no segmentation and has high intra- and inter-operator reproducibility. Lung nodules usually appear in CT images as blob-like patterns and can be analyzed in the scale-space by Laplacian of Gaussian ( LoG ) kernels. For each nodular pattern the LoG scale-space signature was computed and the related characteristic scale adopted as measurement of nodule size. Both in vitro and in vivo validation of LoG characteristic scale were carried out. In vitro validation was done by 40 nondeformable phantoms and 10 deformable phantoms. A close relationship between the characteristic scale and the equivalent diameter, i.e., the diameter of the sphere having the same volume of nodules, (Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.99) and, for nodules undergoing little deformations (obtained at constant volume), small variability of the characteristic scale was observed. The in vivo validation was performed on low and standard-dose CT scans collected from the ITALUNG screening trial (86 nodules) and from the LIDC public data set (89 solid nodules and 40 part-solid nodules or ground-glass opacities). The Pearson correlation coefficient between characteristic scale and equivalent diameter was 0.83-0.93 for ITALUNG and 0.68-0.83 for LIDC data set. Intra- and inter-operator reproducibility of characteristic scale was excellent: on a set of 40 lung nodules of ITALUNG data, two radiologists produced identical results in repeated measurements. The scan-rescan variability of the characteristic scale was also investigated on 86 two-year-stable solid lung nodules (each one observed, on average, in four CT scans) identified in the ITALUNG screening trial: a coefficient of repeatability of about 0.9 mm was observed. Experimental

  1. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar; John I. Blake; William T. Crolly

    2012-01-01

    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuel beds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for...

  2. Measuring Alcohol Marketing Engagement: The Development and Psychometric Properties of the Alcohol Marketing Engagement Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela; Morse, David T; Hood, Kristina; Walker, Courtney

    Ample evidence exists in support of the influence of media, both traditional and electronic, on perceptions and engagement with alcohol marketing. We describe the development, calibration, and evidence for technical quality and utility for a new measure, the Alcohol Marketing Engagement Scale. Using two samples of college undergraduates (n1 = 199, n2 = 732), we collected field test responses to a total of 13 items. Initial support for scale validity is presented via correlations with attributes previously shown to be related to alcohol engagement. While the joint map of estimated scale locations of items and respondents indicates the need for further scale development, the results of the present analyses are promising. Implications for use in research are discussed.

  3. Development of scales to measure psychosocial care needs of children with seizures and their parents. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J; Dunn, D; Huster, G; Rose, D

    1998-06-01

    There is little research and no self-report assessment instruments available to guide nurses in the provision of psychosocial care to children with seizures and their families. Information on the development of two instruments, Report of Psychosocial Care Scale and Child Report of Psycyhosocial Care Scale, and their use in a research study to measure psychosocial care of children with new-onset seizures and their parents are presented in three parts. This first article describes development and initial testing of their psychometric properties. The second article, Part 2, "Psychosocial Care Needs of Parents of Children with New-Onset Seizures," describes results from the use of the parent scale with mothers and fathers of children with new-onset seizures. The third article, Part 3, "Psychosocial Care Needs of Children with New-Onset Seizures," reports findings from the use of the child scale with children ages 8-14 years with new-onset seizures.

  4. How measurement uncertainties impact upon the observed scaling properties of MHD turbulence in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, B.; Gogoberidze, G.; Chapman, S. C.; Dunlop, M.

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying the scaling exponents of fluctuations in the solar wind is central to testing predictions of turbulence theories. We study spectral features of Alfvenic turbulence in fast solar wind. We propose a general, instrument independent method (Gogoberidze et al, MNRAS, 2012) to estimate the uncertainty in velocity fluctuations obtained by in-situ satellite observations in the solar wind. We show that when the measurement uncertainties of the velocity fluctuations are taken into account the less energetic Elsasser spectrum obeys a unique power law scaling throughout the inertial range as prevailing theories of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence predict. Moreover, in the solar wind interval analyzed, the two Elsasser spectra are observed to have the same scaling exponent ~1:54 throughout the inertial range. This highlights the importance of understanding uncertainty estimates and how they affect observed scaling in the PSD when using the solar wind as a laboratory to test predictions of theories of turbulence.

  5. Developing a measurement tool of the effectiveness of the physical education teachers' teaching and learning process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nyak Amir; Saifuddin

    2017-01-01

    ... their effectiveness in the teaching and learning processes. The purpose of this study is to develop a tool to measure the effectiveness of the physical education teachers' teaching and learning processes as a scoring scale...

  6. Veff Scaling of Te and ne Measurements During Local Helicity Injection on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.; Rodriguez Sanchez, C.

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the electron confinement of local helicity injection (LHI) is critical in order to evaluate its scalability as a startup technique to MA-class devices. Electron confinement in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment is investigated using multi-point Thomson scattering (TS). The Pegasus TS system utilizes a set of high-throughput transmission gratings and intensified CCDs to measure Te and ne profiles. Previous TS measurements indicated peaked Te profiles 120 eV in outboard injector discharges characterized by strong inductive drive and low LHI drive. Injectors designed to have dominant non-inductive drive have recently been installed in the divertor region of Pegasus to understand the relationship between effective drive voltage, Veff, and plasma performance. At low Veff and reduced plasma current, Ip 60 kA, TS measurements reveal a flat Te profile 50 eV, with a peaked ne profile 1 ×1019 m-3, resulting in a slightly peaked pe profile. As current drive is increased, the Te profiles become hollow with a core Te 50 eV and an edge Te 120 -150 eV. These hollow profiles appear after the start of the Ip flattop and are sustained until the discharge terminates. The ne profiles drop in magnitude to < 1 ×1019 m-3 but remain somewhat peaked. Initial results suggest a weak scaling between input power and core Te. Additional studies are planned to identify the mechanisms behind the anomalous profile features. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  7. Measuring Change with Multiple Visual Analogue Scales: Application to Tense Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Vautier, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Although the visual analogue scale (VAS) may be useful for measuring change on subjective and potentially transient phenomena, there is concern about the reliability and construct validity of the associated measurement variables. The present study reports evidence for tau-equivalence of change scores associated with VASs designed for assessing tense arousal with synonymous indicators. This psychometric property allows an estimation of the truescore structure of the cro...

  8. Longitudinal and Sex Measurement Invariance of the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Orri, M.; Rouquette, A.; Pingault, J. B.; Barry, C; Herba, C.; Côté, S. M.; Berthoz, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS) is a personality instrument based on six evolutionary-related brain systems that are at the foundation of human emotions and behaviors: SEEKING, CARING, PLAYFULNESS, FEAR, ANGER, and SADNESS. We sought to assess for the short and long versions of the ANPS: (a) the longitudinal measurement invariance and long-term (4-year) stability and (b) the sex measurement invariance. Using data from a Canadian cohort (N = 518), we used single-group conf...

  9. Stroke Social Network Scale: development and psychometric evaluation of a new patient-reported measure

    OpenAIRE

    Northcott, S.; Hilari, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and psychometric evaluation of a new patient-reported measure which assesses a person’s social network in the first six months post stroke. Although it is known that the social networks of those with stroke and aphasia are vulnerable to change, there is currently no social network scale that has been validated for this population.\\ud \\ud Design and Setting: Repeated measures psychometric study, evaluating internal consistency, construct validity, and res...

  10. The PMA Scale: A Measure of Physicians' Motivation to Adopt Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatz, Maximilian H M; Sonnenschein, Tim; Blankart, Carl Rudolf

    2017-04-01

    Studies have often stated that individual-level determinants are important drivers for the adoption of medical devices. Empirical evidence supporting this claim is, however, scarce. At the individual level, physicians' adoption motivation was often considered important in the context of adoption decisions, but a clear notion of its dimensions and corresponding measurement scales is not available. To develop and subsequently validate a scale to measure the motivation to adopt medical devices of hospital-based physicians. The development and validation of the physician-motivation-adoption (PMA) scale were based on a literature search, internal expert meetings, a pilot study with physicians, and a three-stage online survey. The data collected in the online survey were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and the PMA scale was revised according to the results. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test the results from the EFA in the third stage. Reliability and validity tests and subgroup analyses were also conducted. Overall, 457 questionnaires were completed by medical personnel of the National Health Service England. The EFA favored a six-factor solution to appropriately describe physicians' motivation. The CFA confirmed the results from the EFA. Our tests indicated good reliability and validity of the PMA scale. This is the first reliable and valid scale to measure physicians' adoption motivation. Future adoption studies assessing the individual level should include the PMA scale to obtain more information about the role of physicians' motivation in the broader adoption context. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of Karolinska Exhaustion Scale: psychometric properties of a measure of exhaustion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboonchi, Fredrik; Perski, Aleksander; Grossi, Giorgio

    2013-12-01

    The syndrome of exhaustion is currently a medical diagnosis in Sweden. The description of the syndrome largely corresponds to the suggested core component of burnout, that is exhaustion. Karolinska Exhaustion Scale (KES) has been constructed to provide specific assessment of exhaustion in clinical and research settings. The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of this scale in its original and revised versions by examining the factorial structure and measures of convergent and discriminant validity. Data gathered from two independent samples (n1 = 358 & n2 = 403) consisting of patients diagnosed with 'reaction to severe stress, and adjustment disorder' were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. The study's instruments were Karolinska Exhaustion Scale and Shirom Melam Burnout Measure. Correlation analyses were employed to follow up the established factorial structure of the scale. The study was ethically approved by Karolinska Institute regional ethic committee. The findings demonstrated adequate fit of the data to the measurement model provided by the revised version of KES Limitations: The main limitation of the present study is the lack of a gold standard of exhaustion for direct comparison with KES. (KES-26) and partially supported convergent validity and discriminant validity of the scale. The demonstrated psychometric properties of KES-26 indicate sound construct validity for this scale encouraging use of this scale in assessment of exhaustion. The factorial structure of KES-26 may also be used to provide information concerning possible different clinical profiles. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. Measuring exclusive breastfeeding social support: Scale development and validation in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Godfred O; Martin, Stephanie L; Collins, Shalean M; Natamba, Barnabas K; Young, Sera L

    2018-01-22

    The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for 6 months and continued breastfeeding for at least 2 years. Social support has been widely recognized to influence breastfeeding practices. However, existing scales do not measure exclusive breastfeeding social support (EBFSS), rather they assess social support for any breastfeeding. Further, they are tailored towards high-income settings. Therefore, our objectives were to develop and validate a tool to measure EBFSS in low-income settings. To develop the scale, local and international breastfeeding experts were consulted on modifications to the Hughes' Breastfeeding Social Support Scale. It was then implemented in an observational cohort in Gulu, Uganda, at 1 (n = 238) and 3 (n = 237) months post-partum (NCT02925429). We performed polychoric and polyserial correlations to remove redundant items and exploratory factor analysis at 1 month post-partum to determine the latent factor structure of EBFSS. We further applied confirmatory factor analysis to assess dimensionality of the scale at 3 months post-partum. We then conducted tests of predictive, convergent, and discriminant validity against EBF, self-efficacy, general social support, and depression. The modification of the Hughes' scale resulted in 18 items, which were reduced to 16 after examining variances and factor loadings. Three dimensions of support emerged: Instrumental, Emotional, and Informational, with alpha coefficients of 0.79, 0.85, and 0.83, respectively. Predictive, convergent, and discriminant validity of the resultant EBFSS scale was supported. The EBFSS scale is valid and reliable for measuring EBFSS in northern Uganda and may be of use in other low-income settings to assess determinants of EBF. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Parental self-efficacy and its measurement - an evaluation of a parental self-efficacy measurement scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purssell, Edward; While, Alison

    2013-05-01

    To field test a parental self-efficacy scale regarding its acceptability and feasibility and to describe parental self-efficacy in a convenience sample of parents with children aged 6 years old or less. Self-care within families is increasingly emphasised in health policy as a means of maximising healthcare resources. This study reports the field testing of a scale designed to measure parental self-efficacy. Cross-sectional survey of parents of children aged 6 years old or less. Subjects were recruited through a parenting internet website (n = 84) and local parenting and community organisations (n = 68) and asked to complete a questionnaire containing the scale. Data collection took place between January and August 2011. The scale, previously validated with an expert panel of professionals, gathered information about parental self-efficacy when administered either directly or through an on-line data collection portal, although there were more missing data when administered via the Internet. Although convenience and self-selecting samples precluded parameter estimation, areas of concern highlighted were difficulties differentiating children with serious illnesses and the use of the Personal Child Health Record. Use of the Internet was widespread, as was use of community pharmacists and nursery staff. Although the primary purpose was not to collect specific data, the data indicated the continuing concern of parents regarding serious illness and where additional investment may be required to meet parental needs and expectations. The previously validated scale can be used to collect information about parental self-efficacy either through a paper questionnaire or the Internet. Although there was slightly more missing data from the Internet version, the ease of its administration makes this an attractive option. Parents generally reported high levels of self-efficacy and satisfaction with services; however, the scale was able to identify areas where further investment

  14. Correlates of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Method Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C.; Oakman, Jonathan M.; Risko, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Investigators of personality assessment are becoming aware that using positively and negatively worded items in questionnaires to prevent acquiescence may negatively impact construct validity. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) has demonstrated a bifactorial structure typically proposed to result from these method effects. Recent work suggests…

  15. Surface charge measurement by the Pockels effect

    CERN Document Server

    Sam, Y L

    2001-01-01

    have been observed by applying both impulse and AC voltages to a needle electrode in direct contact with the BSO. AC surface discharge behaviour of polymeric materials bonded to the BSO has also been investigated. The effect of the surrounding environment has been experimentally examined by placing the cell inside a vacuum chamber. Surface charge measurements have been made at various atmospheric pressures. The effect of an electro-negative gas (Sulphur Hexafluoride) on the surface charge distribution has also been investigated. This thesis is concerned with the design and development of a surface charge measurement system using Pockels effect. The measurement of surface charge is important in determining the electrical performance of high voltage insulation materials. The method proposed allows on-line measurement of charge and can generate two-dimensional images that represent the charge behaviour on the surface of the material under test. The measurement system is optical and uses a Pockels crystal as the ...

  16. Measuring Gratitude in Youth: Assessing the Psychometric Properties of Adult Gratitude Scales in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Jeffrey J.; Fan, Jinyan; Emmons, Robert A.; Bono, Giacomo; Huebner, E. Scott; Watkins, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Before the developmental trajectory, outcomes, and related interventions of gratitude can be accurately and confidently studied among the youth, researchers must ensure that they have psychometrically sound measures of gratitude that are suitable for this population. Thus, considering that no known scales were specifically designed to measure…

  17. The spatial presence experience scale (SPES): A short self-report measure for diverse media settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Wirth, W.; Schramm, H.; Klimmt, C.; Vorderer, P.A.; Gysbers, A.; Böcking, S.; Ravaja, N.; Laari, J.; Saari, T.; Gouveia, F.R.; Sacau, A.

    2016-01-01

    The study of spatial presence is currently receiving increased attention in both media psychology and communication research. The present paper introduces the Spatial Presence Experience Scale (SPES), a short eight-item self-report measure. The SPES is derived from a process model of spatial

  18. Factor structure and measurement invariance of a multidimensional loneliness scale : Comparisons across gender and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, Marlies; Klimstra, T.A.; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Goossens, Luc

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the factor structure of a multidimensional loneliness measure, that is, the Loneliness and Aloneness Scale for Children and Adolescents (LACA). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on a large sample of children and adolescents (N = 9,676) in Belgium. Results indicated

  19. Strategies for measuring flows of reactive nitrogen at the landscape scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theobald, M.R.; Akkal, N.; Bienkowski, J.

    2011-01-01

    .g., hydrological flows) or the interface between two media (e.g., exchange between the soil and the atmosphere). However, the study of flows of Nr at the landscape scale requires a more integrated approach that combines measurement techniques to quantify the flows from one medium to the next. This paper discusses...

  20. Charlotte Attitudes towards Sleep (CATS) Scale: A Validated Measurement Tool for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Hannah; Gaultney, Jane F.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Using a 4-phase study design, the present study developed and tested the Charlotte Attitudes Towards Sleep (CATS) Scale, a measurement tool for assessing sleep attitudes in college students. Participants: Participants were 706 undergraduate students recruited at a southeastern university and on a national recruitment Web site between…

  1. Measuring Kindness at School: Psychometric Properties of a School Kindness Scale for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binfet, John Tyler; Gadermann, Anne M.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sought to create and validate a brief measure to assess students' perceptions of kindness in school. Participants included 1,753 students in Grades 4 to 8 attending public schools in a large school district in southern British Columbia. The School Kindness Scale (SKS) demonstrated a unidimensional factor structure and adequate…

  2. Measuring Cognitive Engagement with Self-Report Scales: Reflections from over 20 Years of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Research spanning 20 years is reviewed as it relates to the measurement of cognitive engagement using self-report scales. The author's research program is at the forefront of the review, although the review is couched within the broader context of the research on motivation and cognitive engagement that began in the early 1990s. The…

  3. Goal Attainment Scaling in paediatric rehabilitation practice : a useful outcome measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, D.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to investigate the use of a 6-point Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) system to measure change over time in interdisciplinary rehabilitation practice for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). GAS is a generic individualized evaluative criterion-referenced instrument. It can

  4. Measuring Public Leadership: Developing Scales for Four Key Public Leadership Roles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, Lars; Knies, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This article on public leadership contributes to the literature by (1) focusing on the ‘public’ aspect of leadership and (2) developing quantitative scales for measuring four public leadership roles. These roles all refer to the extent to which public leaders actively support their employees in

  5. Field-Scale Measurements for Separation of Catchment Discharge into Flow Route Contributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der Y.; Rozemeijer, J.; Rooij, de G.H.; Geer, van F.C.; Broers, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural pollutants in catchments are transported toward the discharging stream through various flow routes such as tube drain flow, groundwater flow, interflow, and overland flow. Direct measurements of flow route contributions are difficult and often impossible. We developed a field-scale

  6. Development of a Scale to Measure Academic Capital in High-Risk College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Christa; Sriram, Rishi

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a psychometric instrument that measures academic capital in college students. Academic capital is a set of social processes that aid students in acquiring the knowledge and support necessary to access and navigate higher education. This study establishes the validity and reliability of the Academic Capital Scale. In addition to…

  7. Measurement Invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale across Gender and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…

  8. Development of an Instrument to Measure Teaching Style in Japan: The Teaching Style Assessment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Fumiko; Conti, Gary J.; Yamauchi, Toyoaki; Iwasaki, Takaaki

    2014-01-01

    Teaching style has been a popular concept for many years. Teaching style refers to the distinct qualities displayed by a teacher that are persistent from situation to situation regardless of the content. The Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS) has been used extensively in the West for measuring teaching style in relationship to the adult…

  9. Measuring Narcissism within Add Health: The Development and Validation of a New Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark S.; Brunell, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the development of a measure of narcissism within the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data set. In Study 1, items were selected from Wave III to form the Add Health Narcissism Scale (AHNS). These were factor analyzed, yielding a single factor comprised of five subscales. We correlated the AHNS and…

  10. The Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS): a useful tool in workplace health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Petra; Andersson, H Ingemar; Ejlertsson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    To present validity data for the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS), an instrument measuring multifaceted work experience from a salutogenic health resource perspective as a contrast to the more common pathogenic risk perspective, by exploring WEMS relationship to established measurements that are positively related to health and work. A salutogenic perspective focuses on finding conditions and resources in life, for example at work, that can enhance the individual's health and strength, instead of those causing illness and weakness. This study was carried out in 2009 at a Swedish hospital with a web-based survey (WEMS) to 770 employees. Different occupational groups at the hospital participated. Additional questionnaires used at the same time were the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS), the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE), and three questions about self-rated health, general well-being, and quality of life. Cronbach's Alpha of WEMS sub-indices were in the interval of 0.85-0.96. Convergent validity and discriminant validity of WEMS and its sub-indices were shown to be satisfying by correlations. In addition, WEMS demonstrated the ability to discriminate between groups. WEMS sub-indices discriminated even better between groups than the total index. The WEMS proved to be a workplace health promotion questionnaire that was able to measure experiences of work from a salutogenic perspective. The WEMS has a potential of being a useful tool in workplace health promotion to enhance positive human capabilities and resources to improve work performance.

  11. Measuring dimensions of intergenerational contact: factor analysis of the Queen's University Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrott, Shannon E; Weaver, Raven H; Bowen, Natasha K; Wang, Ning

    2017-01-27

    Intergenerational contact has been linked to a range of health outcomes, including greater engagement and lower depression. Measures of contact are limited. Informed by Allport's contact theory, the Queen's University Scale consists of items rating contact with elders. We administered the survey to a young adult sample (N = 606) to identify factors that may optimize intervention programming and enhance young persons' health as they age. We conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in the structural equation modeling framework and then confirmatory factor analysis with items pertaining to the general elder population. EFAs did not yield an adequate factor structure. We tested two alternative confirmatory models based on findings from the EFA. Neither a second-order model nor a first-order model allowing double loadings and correlated errors proved adequate. Difficulty finding an adequate factor solution reflects challenges to measuring intergenerational contact with this scale. Items reflect relevant topics but subscale models are limited in interpretability. Knox and colleagues' analyses led them to recommend a brief, global scale, but we did not find empirical support for such a measure. Next steps include development and testing of a reliable, valid scale measuring dimensions of contact as perceived by both youth and elders.

  12. Research Motives of Faculty in Academic STEM: Measurement Invariance of the Research Motivation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemer, Eric D.; Mahoney, Kevin T.; Ball, Jacqueline Hebert

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of the Research Motivation Scale (RMS) in a sample of faculty members (N = 337) in university science departments. It was hypothesized that the RMS would evidence partial measurement invariance across tenure status and noninvariance across gender, given the different sociocultural factors (e.g.,…

  13. Measurement equivalence of the Empowerment Scale for White and Black persons with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Scott B; Huang, Jialin; Zhao, Lei; Sergent, Jessica D; Neuhengen, Jonas

    2014-12-01

    The current study examined the measurement equivalence on a measure of personal empowerment for Black and White consumers of mental health services. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess measurement equivalence of the 28-item Empowerment Scale (Rogers, Chamberlin, Ellison, & Crean, 1997), using data from 1,035 White and 301 Black persons with severe mental illness. Metric invariance of the Empowerment Scale was supported, in that the factor structure and loadings were equivalent across groups. Scalar invariance was violated on 3 items; however, the impact of these items on scale scores was quite small. Finally, subscales of empowerment tended to be more highly intercorrelated for Black than for White respondents. RESULTS generally support the use of Empowerment Scale for ethnic group comparisons. However, subtle differences in the psychometric properties of this measure suggest that Black and White individuals may conceptualize the construct of empowerment in different ways. Specifically, Black respondents had a lower threshold for endorsing some items on the self-esteem and powerlessness dimensions. Further, White respondents viewed the 3 dimensions of empowerment (self-esteem, powerlessness, and activism) as more distinct, whereas these 3 traits were more strongly interrelated for Blacks. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. The Leadership-Culture Dimensional Screening Scale: Measuring Transactional and Transformational Leadership within School Cultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Lorrie C.

    The Leadership-Culture Dimensional Screening Scale (LCDSS) measures the relationship between frontier and settlement school cultures; transactional and transformational leadership styles; and the four work roles (supervisor, administrator, manager, and leader) formed by the intersection of the model's culture and leadership dimensions. This…

  15. Analysis of Rating Scales for the Measurement of Attitudes and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ong Kim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available It is still common today to see questionnaires with Likert Scale items concerning very different variables being used to capture data on aspects as varied as possible that are to be investigated by the research work. This is perfectly alright if each of the questions is to be treated as standing on its own and is not intended to add up to a measure of a single variable. This, however, has the problem of inadequate sampling of items to come to any meaningful measure of persons on that set of multiple variables, with as small a standard error of measurement (SEM as possible. Each variable to be measured is best put on a single rating scale, with items being replicated a sufficient number of times to reduce the SEM. There can be more than one rating scale in one questionnaire, but they should obviously be placed in separate sections, and their analyses done separately. This paper discusses a specific example of the measurement of attitude towards teaching and perceptions of subjects’ own teaching knowledge and skills, and how to measure their changes over time, through the anchoring of item calibrations, using a Rasch model.

  16. The measurement properties of the menorrhagia multi-attribute quality-of-life scale: a psychometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, H; Daniels, J P; Kai, J; Gupta, J K

    2011-11-01

    Menorrhagia, or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB), is a common gynaecological condition. As the aim of treatment is to improve women's wellbeing and quality of life (QoL), it is necessary to have effective ways to measure this. This study investigated the reliability and validity of the menorrhagia multi-attribute scale (MMAS), a menorrhagia-specific QoL instrument. Participants (n = 431) completed the MMAS and a battery of other tests as part of the baseline assessment of the ECLIPSE (Effectiveness and Cost-effectiveness of Levonorgestrel-containing Intrauterine system in Primary care against Standard trEatment for menorrhagia) trial. Analyses of their responses suggest that the MMAS has good measurement properties and is therefore an appropriate condition-specific instrument to measure the outcome of treatment for HMB. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  17. Measuring effectiveness of food quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: effectiveness, food quality management, instrument, quality performance, contextual factors, agri-food production, conceptual model, performance measurement indicators, identification, validation, assessment, quality assurance systems, QA systems, HACCP, Hygiene code, ISO, BRC, GMP, bakery

  18. Effectiveness of 3D Printing in Small Scale Production

    OpenAIRE

    Huttunen, Jani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to estimate the effectiveness of two 3D printing methods (fused deposition modeling and stereolithography) for prototyping and small-scale production at a 3D printing laboratory at Metropolia University of Applied Sciences. The 3D printing technology is currently developing, so not much literature is available yet. That is the reason why before actual production a thorough analysis is needed of the advantages and disadvantages and of the effectiveness of the...

  19. Mapping composition in dust-producing regions: Extending geochemical measurements over large scales with remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollerud, H. J.; Elmore, A. J.; Fantle, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    Dust is a critical, yet understudied, component of geochemical cycles. Dust inputs to the ocean have been deemed especially significant in the iron cycle, for instance, since dust stimulates natural iron fertilization and thus potentially affects climate. Dust may also be important to the cycles of other elements, such as calcium (Ca). To determine the importance of dust relative to other geochemical inputs, some estimate must be made of the mass flux of Ca from dust-producing regions. However, understanding the spatial distribution of Ca within terrain known to generate dust has been problematic. Remote sensing may offer a critical perspective with measurement at landscape scales instead of extrapolation from a few point measurements, allowing for investigation closer to the scale at which dust is produced. This study investigates the elemental geochemistry of surface sediments and the distribution of non-silicate bound Ca in a large playa system (Black Rock Desert) in northwestern Nevada (USA). We used satellite-derived hyperspectral data, field-collected ground spectra, surface sediment samples, and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in our analysis. We collected approximately 50 samples and their spectra from the Black Rock Desert in July/August 2007. We measured the bulk and soluble Ca by ICP-OES and mineralogy by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Assuming all Ca in weak HCl (0.5 N) leaches is derived from calcite, we found that calcite concentrations in a subset of collected samples range from 5 to 15 wt. %. Acid-soluble calcite, which was generally 90 to 100 mol % of the total Ca in sediments (determined by lithium metaborate fusion), correlates well with the relative abundance of calcite determined by XRD analyses. Using hyperspectral measurements of surface reflectance, we found that acid soluble Ca concentration is correlated with the depth of a calcite absorption feature at 2335 nm. We then mapped this depth in satellite hyperspectral data from the Hyperion

  20. Shielding Effectiveness Measurements using a Reverberation Chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Bergsma, J.G.; Bergsma, Hans; van Etten, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Shielding effectiveness measurements have been performed using a reverberation chamber. The reverberation chamber methodology as we1l as the measurement setup is described and some results are given. Samples include glass reinforced plastic panels, aluminum panels with many holes, wire mesh, among

  1. Comparative effectiveness of malaria preventive measures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of malaria and its associated problems in pregnancy can be reduced by the use of different malaria preventive measures. This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of three different malaria preventive measures on populations of parturient in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

  2. High precision micro-scale Hall Effect characterization method using in-line micro four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Ole; Lin, Rong

    2008-01-01

    Accurate characterization of ultra shallow junctions (USJ) is important in order to understand the principles of junction formation and to develop the appropriate implant and annealing technologies. We investigate the capabilities of a new micro-scale Hall effect measurement method where Hall...... effect is measured with collinear micro four-point probes (M4PP). We derive the sensitivity to electrode position errors and describe a position error suppression method to enable rapid reliable Hall effect measurements with just two measurement points. We show with both Monte Carlo simulations...... and experimental measurements, that the repeatability of a micro-scale Hall effect measurement is better than 1 %. We demonstrate the ability to spatially resolve Hall effect on micro-scale by characterization of an USJ with a single laser stripe anneal. The micro sheet resistance variations resulting from...

  3. A Primer on Developing Measures of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Joint Forces Command studies reinforce the utility of assessment tools such as measures of effectiveness. Joint Opera - tions: Insights and Best...Gary King, Robert O. Keohane, and Sidney Verba advise researchers to determine as many “observable implications” of their hypoth- esis as possible...concepts of opera - tional design are not going away. A basic under- standing of measures of effectiveness and how to create them will remain a

  4. The substance use risk profile scale: a scale measuring traits linked to reinforcement-specific substance use profiles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woicik, P.A.; Stewart, S.H.; Pihl, R.O.; Conrod, P.J.

    2009-12-01

    The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) is based on a model of personality risk for substance abuse in which four personality dimensions (hopelessness, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, and sensation seeking) are hypothesized to differentially relate to specific patterns of substance use. The current series of studies is a preliminary exploration of the psychometric properties of the SURPS in two populations (undergraduate and high school students). In study 1, an analysis of the internal structure of two versions of the SURPS shows that the abbreviated version best reflects the 4-factor structure. Concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the SURPS is supported by convergent/divergent relationships between the SURPS subscales and other theoretically relevant personality and drug use criterion measures. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the SURPS is confirmed and evidence is provided for its test-retest reliability and validity with respect to measuring personality vulnerability to reinforcement-specific substance use patterns. In Study 3, the SURPS was administered in a more youthful population to test its sensitivity in identifying younger problematic drinkers. The results from the current series of studies demonstrate support for the reliability and construct validity of the SURPS, and suggest that four personality dimensions may be linked to substance-related behavior through different reinforcement processes. This brief assessment tool may have important implications for clinicians and future research.

  5. Multi-scale measures of rugosity, slope and aspect from benthic stereo image reconstructions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariell Friedman

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates how multi-scale measures of rugosity, slope and aspect can be derived from fine-scale bathymetric reconstructions created from geo-referenced stereo imagery. We generate three-dimensional reconstructions over large spatial scales using data collected by Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs, Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs, manned submersibles and diver-held imaging systems. We propose a new method for calculating rugosity in a Delaunay triangulated surface mesh by projecting areas onto the plane of best fit using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Slope and aspect can be calculated with very little extra effort, and fitting a plane serves to decouple rugosity from slope. We compare the results of the virtual terrain complexity calculations with experimental results using conventional in-situ measurement methods. We show that performing calculations over a digital terrain reconstruction is more flexible, robust and easily repeatable. In addition, the method is non-contact and provides much less environmental impact compared to traditional survey techniques. For diver-based surveys, the time underwater needed to collect rugosity data is significantly reduced and, being a technique based on images, it is possible to use robotic platforms that can operate beyond diver depths. Measurements can be calculated exhaustively at multiple scales for surveys with tens of thousands of images covering thousands of square metres. The technique is demonstrated on data gathered by a diver-rig and an AUV, on small single-transect surveys and on a larger, dense survey that covers over [Formula: see text]. Stereo images provide 3D structure as well as visual appearance, which could potentially feed into automated classification techniques. Our multi-scale rugosity, slope and aspect measures have already been adopted in a number of marine science studies. This paper presents a detailed description of the method and thoroughly validates it

  6. Multi-scale measures of rugosity, slope and aspect from benthic stereo image reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ariell; Pizarro, Oscar; Williams, Stefan B; Johnson-Roberson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how multi-scale measures of rugosity, slope and aspect can be derived from fine-scale bathymetric reconstructions created from geo-referenced stereo imagery. We generate three-dimensional reconstructions over large spatial scales using data collected by Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), manned submersibles and diver-held imaging systems. We propose a new method for calculating rugosity in a Delaunay triangulated surface mesh by projecting areas onto the plane of best fit using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Slope and aspect can be calculated with very little extra effort, and fitting a plane serves to decouple rugosity from slope. We compare the results of the virtual terrain complexity calculations with experimental results using conventional in-situ measurement methods. We show that performing calculations over a digital terrain reconstruction is more flexible, robust and easily repeatable. In addition, the method is non-contact and provides much less environmental impact compared to traditional survey techniques. For diver-based surveys, the time underwater needed to collect rugosity data is significantly reduced and, being a technique based on images, it is possible to use robotic platforms that can operate beyond diver depths. Measurements can be calculated exhaustively at multiple scales for surveys with tens of thousands of images covering thousands of square metres. The technique is demonstrated on data gathered by a diver-rig and an AUV, on small single-transect surveys and on a larger, dense survey that covers over [Formula: see text]. Stereo images provide 3D structure as well as visual appearance, which could potentially feed into automated classification techniques. Our multi-scale rugosity, slope and aspect measures have already been adopted in a number of marine science studies. This paper presents a detailed description of the method and thoroughly validates it against traditional

  7. Micro- and meso-scale effects of forested terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Sogachev, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    The height and rotor diameter of modern wind turbines are so extensive, that the wind conditions they encounter often are well above the surface layer, where traditionally it is assumed that wind direction and turbulent fluxes are constant with respect to height, if the surface is homogenous...... scales are the height of the planetary boundary layer and the Monin-Obukhov length, which both are related to the energy balance of the surface. Examples of important micro- and meso-scale effects of forested terrain are shown using data and model results from recent and ongoing experiments. For micro...

  8. Adaptation and evaluation of the measurement properties of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Rafaela Batista dos Santos; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus

    2016-01-01

    to undertake the cultural adaptation of, and to evaluate the measurement properties of, the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, with outpatient monitoring at a teaching hospital. the process of cultural adaptation was undertaken in accordance with the international literature. The data were obtained from 147 CHD patients, through the application of the sociodemographic/clinical characterization instrument, and of the Brazilian versions of the Morisky Self-Reported Measure of Medication Adherence Scale, the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale. the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of semantic-idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalencies, with high acceptability and practicality. The floor effect was evidenced for the total score and for the domains of the scale studied. The findings evidenced the measure's reliability. The domains of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented significant inverse correlations of moderate to strong magnitude between the scores of the Morisky scale, indicating convergent validity, although correlations with the measure of general self-efficacy were not evidenced. The validity of known groups was supported, as the scale discriminated between "adherents" and "non-adherents" to the medications, as well as to "sufficient dose" and "insufficient dose". the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of reliability and validity in coronary heart disease outpatients.

  9. Effect of Logarithmic and Linear Frequency Scales on Parametric Modelling of Tissue Dielectric Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, Saqib; Porter, Emily; Meaney, Paul M; O'Halloran, Martin

    2017-02-01

    The dielectric properties of biological tissues have been studied widely over the past half-century. These properties are used in a vast array of applications, from determining the safety of wireless telecommunication devices to the design and optimisation of medical devices. The frequency-dependent dielectric properties are represented in closed-form parametric models, such as the Cole-Cole model, for use in numerical simulations which examine the interaction of electromagnetic (EM) fields with the human body. In general, the accuracy of EM simulations depends upon the accuracy of the tissue dielectric models. Typically, dielectric properties are measured using a linear frequency scale; however, use of the logarithmic scale has been suggested historically to be more biologically descriptive. Thus, the aim of this paper is to quantitatively compare the Cole-Cole fitting of broadband tissue dielectric measurements collected with both linear and logarithmic frequency scales. In this way, we can determine if appropriate choice of scale can minimise the fit error and thus reduce the overall error in simulations. Using a well-established fundamental statistical framework, the results of the fitting for both scales are quantified. It is found that commonly used performance metrics, such as the average fractional error, are unable to examine the effect of frequency scale on the fitting results due to the averaging effect that obscures large localised errors. This work demonstrates that the broadband fit for these tissues is quantitatively improved when the given data is measured with a logarithmic frequency scale rather than a linear scale, underscoring the importance of frequency scale selection in accurate wideband dielectric modelling of human tissues.

  10. Surface runoff scale effects in West African watersheds: Modeling and management options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, van de N.C.; Stomph, T.J.; Ridder, de N.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of surface runoff from uniform slopes of different lengths in West Africa have shown that longer slopes tend to have less runoff per unit of length than short slopes. The main reason for this scale effect is that once the rain stops, water on long slopes has more opportunity time to

  11. Development of a new measure for assessing insight: Psychometric properties of the insight orientation scale (IOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Alessio; Craparo, Giuseppe; Giannini, Marco; Loscalzo, Yura; Caretti, Vincenzo; La Barbera, Daniele; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Tani, Franca; Ponti, Lucia; Dewey, Daniel; Schuldberg, David

    2015-12-01

    Given the centrality of insight in promoting change, the relevance of measures for assessing this construct has become increasingly clear. This paper describes a new self-report measure for assessing some of the characteristics of insight, the insight orientation scale (IOS). In study 1, we evaluated the factor structure and the reliability of the scale. In study 2, we analyzed the concurrent and discriminant validity of the scale in patients with different clinical diagnoses. In study 1 participants were 600 individuals (41.1% male, 58.9% female) with a mean age of 33.95 years (SD = 13.04). In study 2 participants were 136 individuals divided into the following groups: 1) schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders (n = 26); 2) substance-related disorders (n = 55); 3) depressive disorders (n = 27); and 4) personality disorders (n = 28). Instruments are the insight orientation scale (IOS) and the Beck cognitive insight scale. The goodness-of-fit indices showed a satisfactory fit of a one factor model. We found also a good internal consistency (α = .77). These findings support the dimensionality of the IOS and suggest that it may be useful as an assessment tool for use in guiding psychotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Play Experience Scale: development and validation of a measure of play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlas, Davin; Jentsch, Florian; Salas, Eduardo; Fiore, Stephen M; Sims, Valerie

    2012-04-01

    A measure of play experience in video games was developed through literature review and two empirical validation studies. Despite the considerable attention given to games in the behavioral sciences, play experience remains empirically underexamined. One reason for this gap is the absence of a scale that measures play experience. In Study 1, the initial Play Experience Scale (PES) was tested through an online validation that featured three different games (N = 203). In Study 2, a revised PES was assessed with a serious game in the laboratory (N = 77). Through principal component analysis of the Study 1 data, the initial 20-item PES was revised, resulting in the 16-item PES-16. Study 2 showed the PES-16 to be a robust instrument with the same patterns of correlations as in Study 1 via (a) internal consistency estimates, (b) correlations with established scales of motivation, (c) distributions of PES-16 scores in different game conditions, and (d) examination of the average variance extracted of the PES and the Intrinsic Motivation Scale. We suggest that the PES is appropriate for use in further validation studies. Additional examinations of the scale are required to determine its applicability to other contexts and its relationship with other constructs. The PES is potentially relevant to human factors undertakings involving video games, including basic research into play, games, and learning; prototype testing; and exploratory learning studies.

  13. Design of a scale for measuring post-surgical complications in third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, P C; Astudillo, P; Manterola, C

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to design a scale for measuring the extent and severity of post-surgical complications in third molar surgery. A multi-stage study using a quantitative methodology and qualitative interview strategy was employed. The degree of importance of signs and symptoms in the evaluation of post-surgical complications was initially observed using a self-report questionnaire administered to maxillofacial surgeons and surgical residents at the International Conference of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons in 2011. Then, using exploratory factor analysis, the items and components of the scale were established, with internal consistency determined using Cronbach's alpha. Finally, a group of experts performed a face validity analysis and provided conceptual definitions for the items and components. Thirty-six signs and symptoms were evaluated by 100 respondents, with the most relevant being 'suppuration' and 'abscess'. Factor analysis of the results identified three factors, defined as 'secondary complication', 'soft tissue infection', and 'osseous involvement' (Cronbach's alpha>0.7). Finally, a preliminary scale was designed comprised of these three components and 10 items. In this way, a preliminary scale for measuring post-surgical complications was designed to standardize the semiological concepts of post-surgical assessment. This scale will be assessed in a future investigation. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reliability and validity of a self-rated analogue scale for global measure of successful aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwee, Xinyi; Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Kua, Ee Heok; Jeste, Dilip V; Kumar, Rajeev; Ng, Tze Pin

    2014-08-01

    Dimension-specific objective measures are criticized for their limited perspective and failure to endorse subjective perceptions by respondents, but the validity and correlates of a subjective global measure of successful aging (SA) are still not well established. We evaluated the reliability and validity of a self-rated analogue scale of global SA in an elderly Singaporean population. Cross-sectional data analysis using a comprehensive questionnaire survey. 489 community-dwelling Singaporeans aged 65 years and over. Self-rated SA on an analogue scale from 1 (least successful) to 10 (most successful) was analyzed for its relationship to criterion-based measures of five specific dimensions (physical health and function, mental well-being, social engagement, psychological well-being, and spirituality/religiosity), as well as outcome measures (life satisfaction and quality of life). Self-rated SA was significantly correlated to measures of specific dimensions (standardized β from 0.11 to 0.39), most strongly with psychological functioning (β = 0.391). The five dimension-specific measures together accounted for 16.7% of the variance in self-rated SA. Self-rated SA best predicted life satisfaction (R(2) = 0.26) more than any dimension-specific measure (R(2) from 0.05 to 0.17). Self-rated SA, vis-à-vis dimension-specific measures, was related to a different set of correlates, and was notably independent of chronological age, sex, education, socioeconomic status, and medical comorbidity, but was significantly related to ethnicity. The self-rated analogue scale is a sensitive global measure of SA encompassing a spectrum of underlying dimensions and subjective perspectives and its validity is well supported in this study. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Contrasting effects of sampling scale on insect herbivores distribution in response to canopy structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico S. Neves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Species diversity of insect herbivores associated to canopy may vary local and geographically responding to distinct factors at different spatial scales. The aim of this study was to investigate how forest canopy structure affects insect herbivore species richness and abundance depending on feeding guilds´ specificities. We tested the hypothesis that habitat structure affects insect herbivore species richness and abundance differently to sap-sucking and chewing herbivore guilds. Two spatial scales were evaluated: inside tree crowns (fine spatial scale and canopy regions (coarse spatial scale. In three sampling sites we measured 120 tree crowns, grouped in five points with four contiguous tree crowns. Insects were sampled by beating method from each crown and data were summed up for analyzing each canopy region. In crowns (fine spatial scale we measured habitat structure: trunk circumference, tree height, canopy depth, number of ramifications and maximum ramification level. In each point, defined as a canopy region (coarse spatial scale, we measured habitat structure using a vertical cylindrical transect: tree species richness, leaf area, sum of strata heights and maximum canopy height. A principal component analysis based on the measured variables for each spatial scale was run to estimate habitat structure parameters. To test the effects of habitat structure upon herbivores, different general linear models were adjusted using the first two principal components as explanatory variables. Sap-sucking insect species richness and all herbivore abundances increased with size of crown at fine spatial scale. On the other hand, chewer species richness and abundance increased with resource quantity at coarse scale. Feeding specialization, resources availability, and agility are discussed as ecological causes of the found pattern.

  16. Dryland degradation: Measurement and effects on ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noojipady, P.; Prince, S. D.; Rishmawi, K.

    2012-12-01

    Land degradation is frequently described as a global crisis, affecting large areas globally and large numbers of people. Nevertheless, the location and severity of degradation globally with a resolution relevant to human activities is unknown. Beyond the direct stress of degradation on human livelihoods, there are important effects on the physical and biological environment. Examples include loss of potential primary production, changes in the surface water and energy balances, erosion, sediment transport and lofting of dust aerosols. Globally , degradation is mainly associated with drylands, such as the US dustbowl of the 1930s and, supposedly, ongoing loss of crop and livestock production in desert margins on all continents. The alarm over loss of land to deserts, particularly early 1980s in the African Sahel, led to the adoption of the term "desertification". Such degradation is said to have two components; a physical environment that reduces productivity; and human land use that exceeds the resilience of the land. Ecological theory suggests that land can exist in multiple stable states with transitions between them. Some experimental evidence suggests that one such state is degradation from which there can be no recovery. Clearly the occurrence of such stable degradation, where land is unable to recover when the physical conditions such as rainfall and human land use are ameliorated, is of theoretical and practical importance. The aim of this work is to contribute to the resolution of two issues: (i) are there significant areas in which land has been degraded by human actions and, (ii), have any of these areas entered a stable degraded state? Detection of the human component necessarily requires control of the physical component of degradation. We have developed a technique to detect areas that are at their potential production and to assess other areas relative to these. Satellite measurements of vegetation indices are used as a surrogate for Net Primary

  17. 3D-SEM Metrology for Coordinate Measurements at the Nanometer Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo

    The present work deals with a study concerning 3D-SEM metrology as a tool for coordinate measurements at the nanometer scale. The relevance of 3D-SEM, based on stereophotogrammetry technique, has been highlighted with respect to the other measuring instruments nowadays available and the main issues....... In the last part of the work, the development and application of two novel multiplestep heights artefacts, intended for 3D-SEM calibration, is addressed. Experimental results of the different step-height values, measured from 3D-SEM reconstructions, are compared with the calibrated ones obtained from...

  18. Reliability and validity of a scale to measure change in persons with compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, P; Black, D W; Gabel, J

    1996-08-30

    A new scale to measure severity and change in persons with compulsive buying is described. Data were gathered during an open-label study in which compulsive buyers were treated with fluvoxamine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The instrument showed good-to-excellent interrater reliability and high internal consistency. Its 10 separate items showed at least moderate correlations with the total score. The instrument was also sensitive to clinical change and correlated highly with other measures of illness severity. We conclude that this new instrument is both reliable and valid in measuring severity and change in persons with compulsive buying.

  19. Highly charged ion impact on uracil: Cross sections measurements and scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, A. N.; Kasthurirangan, S.; Champion, C.; Rivarola, R. D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2014-04-01

    Absolute total ionization cross sections (TCS) of uracil in collisions with highly charge C, O and F ions are measured. The scaling properties of cross sections are obtained as a function of projectile charge state and energy. The measurements are compared with the CDW-EIS, CB1 and CTMC calculations. The absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS) of secondary electron emission from uracil in collisions with bare MeV energy C and O ions are also measured. Large enhancement in forward emission is observed.

  20. Measuring clinical management by physicians and nurses in European hospitals: development and validation of two scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plochg, Thomas; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Botje, Daan; Thompson, Caroline A.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Wagner, Cordula; Mannion, Russell; Lombarts, Kiki; Klazinga, NS; Kringos, DS; Lombarts, MJMH; Plochg, T; Lopez, MA; Secanell, M; Sunol, R; Vallejo, P; Bartels, P; Kristensen, S; Michel, P; Saillour-Glenisson, F; Vlcek, F; Car, M; Jones, S; Klaus, E; Bottaro, S; Garel, P; Saluvan, M; Bruneau, C; Depaigne-Loth, A; Shaw, C; Hammer, A; Ommen, O; Pfaff, H; Groene, O; Botje, D; Wagner, C; Kutaj-Wasikowska, H; Kutryba, B; Escoval, A; Lívio, A; Eiras, M; Franca, M; Leite, I; Almeman, F; Kus, H; Ozturk, K; Mannion, R; Arah, OA; DerSarkissian, M; Thompson, CA; Wang, A; Thompson, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective Clinical management is hypothesized to be critical for hospital management and hospital performance. The aims of this study were to develop and validate professional involvement scales for measuring the level of clinical management by physicians and nurses in European hospitals. Design Testing of validity and reliability of scales derived from a questionnaire of 21 items was developed on the basis of a previous study and expert opinion and administered in a cross-sectional seven-country research project ‘Deepening our Understanding of Quality improvement in Europe’ (DUQuE). Setting and Participants A sample of 3386 leading physicians and nurses working in 188 hospitals located in Czech Republic, France, Germany, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Turkey. Main Outcome Measures Validity and reliability of professional involvement scales and subscales. Results Psychometric analysis yielded four subscales for leading physicians: (i) Administration and budgeting, (ii) Managing medical practice, (iii) Strategic management and (iv) Managing nursing practice. Only the first three factors applied well to the nurses. Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency ranged from 0.74 to 0.86 for the physicians, and from 0.61 to 0.81 for the nurses. Except for the 0.74 correlation between ‘Administration and budgeting’ and ‘Managing medical practice’ among physicians, all inter-scale correlations were management roles’ of physicians and nurses. Conclusions The professional involvement scales appear to yield reliable and valid data in European hospital settings, but the scale ‘Managing medical practice’ for nurses needs further exploration. The measurement instrument can be used for international research on clinical management. PMID:24615595

  1. Sensitivity of the breastfeeding motivational measurement scale: a known group analysis of first time mothers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Stockdale

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding has immense public health value for mothers, babies, and society. But there is an undesirably large gap between the number of new mothers who undertake and persist in breastfeeding compared to what would be a preferred level of accomplishment. This gap is a reflection of the many obstacles, both physical and psychological, that confront new mothers. Previous research has illuminated many of these concerns, but research on this problem is limited in part by the unavailability of a research instrument that can measure the key differences between first-time mothers and experienced mothers, with regard to the challenges they face when breastfeeding and the instructional advice they require. An instrument was designed to measure motivational complexity associated with sustained breast feeding behaviour; the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale. It contains 51 self-report items (7 point Likert scale that cluster into four categories related to perceived value of breast-feeding, confidence to succeed, factors that influence success or failure, and strength of intentions, or goal. However, this scale has not been validated in terms of its sensitivity to profile the motivation of new mothers and experienced mothers. This issue was investigated by having 202 breastfeeding mothers (100 first time mothers fill out the scale. The analysis reported in this paper is a three factor solution consisting of value, midwife support, and expectancies for success that explained the characteristics of first time mothers as a known group. These results support the validity of the BMM scale as a diagnostic tool for research on first time mothers who are learning to breastfeed. Further research studies are required to further test the validity of the scale in additional subgroups.

  2. Sensitivity of the breastfeeding motivational measurement scale: a known group analysis of first time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Janine; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, George; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Keller, John

    2013-01-01

    Breastfeeding has immense public health value for mothers, babies, and society. But there is an undesirably large gap between the number of new mothers who undertake and persist in breastfeeding compared to what would be a preferred level of accomplishment. This gap is a reflection of the many obstacles, both physical and psychological, that confront new mothers. Previous research has illuminated many of these concerns, but research on this problem is limited in part by the unavailability of a research instrument that can measure the key differences between first-time mothers and experienced mothers, with regard to the challenges they face when breastfeeding and the instructional advice they require. An instrument was designed to measure motivational complexity associated with sustained breast feeding behaviour; the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale. It contains 51 self-report items (7 point Likert scale) that cluster into four categories related to perceived value of breast-feeding, confidence to succeed, factors that influence success or failure, and strength of intentions, or goal. However, this scale has not been validated in terms of its sensitivity to profile the motivation of new mothers and experienced mothers. This issue was investigated by having 202 breastfeeding mothers (100 first time mothers) fill out the scale. The analysis reported in this paper is a three factor solution consisting of value, midwife support, and expectancies for success that explained the characteristics of first time mothers as a known group. These results support the validity of the BMM scale as a diagnostic tool for research on first time mothers who are learning to breastfeed. Further research studies are required to further test the validity of the scale in additional subgroups.

  3. Satellite quenching time-scales in clusters from projected phase space measurements matched to simulated orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Kyle A.; Hudson, Michael J.

    2016-12-01

    We measure the star formation quenching efficiency and time-scale in cluster environments. Our method uses N-body simulations to estimate the probability distribution of possible orbits for a sample of observed Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in and around clusters based on their position and velocity offsets from their host cluster. We study the relationship between their star formation rates and their likely orbital histories via a simple model in which star formation is quenched once a delay time after infall has elapsed. Our orbit library method is designed to isolate the environmental effect on the star formation rate due to a galaxy's present-day host cluster from `pre-processing' in previous group hosts. We find that quenching of satellite galaxies of all stellar masses in our sample (109-10^{11.5}M_{⊙}) by massive (> 10^{13} M_{⊙}) clusters is essentially 100 per cent efficient. Our fits show that all galaxies quench on their first infall, approximately at or within a Gyr of their first pericentric passage. There is little variation in the onset of quenching from galaxy-to-galaxy: the spread in this time is at most ˜2 Gyr at fixed M*. Higher mass satellites quench earlier, with very little dependence on host cluster mass in the range probed by our sample.

  4. Anomalous Hall effect scaling in ferromagnetic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Grigoryan, Vahram L.

    2017-10-23

    We propose a scaling law for anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic thin films. Our approach distinguishes multiple scattering sources, namely, bulk impurity, phonon for Hall resistivity, and most importantly the rough surface contribution to longitudinal resistivity. In stark contrast to earlier laws that rely on temperature- and thickness-dependent fitting coefficients, this scaling law fits the recent experimental data excellently with constant parameters that are independent of temperature and film thickness, strongly indicating that this law captures the underlying physical processes. Based on a few data points, this scaling law can even fit all experimental data in full temperature and thickness range. We apply this law to interpret the experimental data for Fe, Co, and Ni and conclude that (i) the phonon-induced skew scattering is unimportant as expected; (ii) contribution from the impurity-induced skew scattering is negative; (iii) the intrinsic (extrinsic) mechanism dominates in Fe (Co), and both the extrinsic and intrinsic contributions are important in Ni.

  5. Statistical Analysis of Instantaneous Frequency Scaling Factor as Derived from Optical Disdrometer Measurements at V/W Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Michael; Nessel, James; Tarasenko, Nicholas; Lane, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Since October 2015, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) have collaboratively operated an RF terrestrial link in Albuquerque, New Mexico to characterize atmospheric propagation phenomena at 72 and 84 GHz. The W/V-band Terrestrial Link Experiment (WTLE) consists of coherent transmitters at each frequency on the crest of the Sandia Mountains and a corresponding pair of receivers in south Albuquerque. The beacon receivers provide a direct measurement of the link attenuation, while concurrent weather instrumentation provides a measurement of the atmospheric conditions. Among the available weather instruments is an optical disdrometer which yields an optical measurement of rain rate, as well as droplet size and velocity distributions (DSD, DVD). In particular, the DSD can be used to derive an instantaneous scaling factor (ISF) by which the measured data at one frequency can be scaled to another - for example, scaling the 72 GHz to an expected 84 GHz timeseries. Given the availability of both the DSD prediction and the directly observed 84 GHz attenuation, WTLE is thus uniquely able assess DSD-derived instantaneous frequency scaling at the V/W-bands. Previous work along these lines has investigated the DSD-derived ISF at Ka and Q-band (20 GHz to 40 GHz) using a satellite beacon receiver experiment in Milan, Italy. This work will expand the investigation to terrestrial links in the V/W-bands, where the frequency scaling factor is lower and where the link is also much more sensitive to attenuation by rain, clouds, and other atmospheric effects.

  6. Land surface model performance using cosmic-ray and point-scale soil moisture measurements for calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Iwema

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available At very high resolution scale (i.e. grid cells of 1 km2, land surface model parameters can be calibrated with eddy-covariance flux data and point-scale soil moisture data. However, measurement scales of eddy-covariance and point-scale data differ substantially. In our study, we investigated the impact of reducing the scale mismatch between surface energy flux and soil moisture observations by replacing point-scale soil moisture data with observations derived from Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensors (CRNSs made at larger spatial scales. Five soil and evapotranspiration parameters of the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES were calibrated against point-scale and Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensor soil moisture data separately. We calibrated the model for 12 sites in the USA representing a range of climatic, soil, and vegetation conditions. The improvement in latent heat flux estimation for the two calibration solutions was assessed by comparison to eddy-covariance flux data and to JULES simulations with default parameter values. Calibrations against the two soil moisture products alone did show an advantage for the cosmic-ray technique. However, further analyses of two-objective calibrations with soil moisture and latent heat flux showed no substantial differences between both calibration strategies. This was mainly caused by the limited effect of calibrating soil parameters on soil moisture dynamics and surface energy fluxes. Other factors that played a role were limited spatial variability in surface fluxes implied by soil moisture spatio-temporal stability, and data quality issues.

  7. Measuring Procrastination: Psychometric Properties of the Norwegian Versions of the Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS) and the Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartdal, Frode

    2017-01-01

    Procrastination has been defined in different ways. Two instruments--the Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS) and the Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS)--focus on a core problem in procrastination--the irrational delay of intended behavior. The present paper examined the psychometric properties of the Norwegian translations of these scales. In…

  8. Investigation of wake interaction using full-scale lidar measurements and large eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Troldborg, Niels

    2016-01-01

    and interpretation of the measurements is performed to overcome either the lack of or the poor calibration of relevant turbine operational sensors, as well as other uncertainties inherent in resolving wakes from full-scale experiments. The numerical work is based on the in-house EllipSys3D computational fluid......In this paper, wake interaction resulting from two stall regulated turbines aligned with the incoming wind is studied experimentally and numerically. The experimental work is based on a full-scale remote sensing campaign involving three nacelle mounted scanning lidars. A thorough analysis...

  9. Measuring charge carrier mobility in photovoltaic devices with micron-scale resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf, A. [Sustainable Energy Technologies Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Dissanayake, D. M. N. M. [Sustainable Energy Technologies Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Eisaman, M. D., E-mail: meisaman@bnl.gov [Sustainable Energy Technologies Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

    2015-03-16

    We present a charge-extraction technique, micron-scale charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage, which enables simultaneous spatially resolved measurements of charge carrier mobility and photocurrent in thin-film photovoltaic devices with micron-scale resolution. An intensity-modulated laser with beam diameter near the optical diffraction limit is scanned over the device, while a linear voltage ramp in reverse bias is applied at each position of illumination. We calculate the majority carrier mobility, photocurrent, and number of photogenerated charge carriers from the resulting current transient. We demonstrate this technique on an organic photovoltaic device, but it is applicable to a wide range of photovoltaic materials.

  10. Alignment of the Measurement Scale Mark during Immersion Hydrometer Calibration Using an Image Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Perez, Luis Manuel; Pedraza-Ortega, Jesus Carlos; Ramos-Arreguin, Juan Manuel; Arriaga, Saul Tovar; Fernandez, Marco Antonio Aceves; Becerra, Luis Omar; Hurtado, Efren Gorrostieta; Vargas-Soto, Jose Emilio

    2013-01-01

    The present work presents an improved method to align the measurement scale mark in an immersion hydrometer calibration system of CENAM, the National Metrology Institute (NMI) of Mexico, The proposed method uses a vision system to align the scale mark of the hydrometer to the surface of the liquid where it is immersed by implementing image processing algorithms. This approach reduces the variability in the apparent mass determination during the hydrostatic weighing in the calibration process, therefore decreasing the relative uncertainty of calibration. PMID:24284770

  11. Modeling Method for Increased Precision and Scope of Directly Measurable Fluxes at a Genome-Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCloskey, Douglas; Young, Jamey D.; Xu, Sibei

    2016-01-01

    -off between increased scope and decreased precision in flux estimations. This work presents a tunable workflow for expanding the scope of MFA to the genome-scale without trade-offs in flux precision. The genome-scale MFA model presented here, iDM2014, accounts for 537 net reactions, which includes the core...... pathways of traditional MFA models and also covers the additional pathways of purine, pyrimidine, isoprenoid, methionine, riboflavin, coenzyme A, and folate, as well as other biosynthetic pathways. When evaluating the iDM2014 using a set of measured intracellular intermediate and cofactor mass isotopomer...

  12. One-loop potential with scale invariance and effective operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilencea, D M

    2016-01-01

    We study quantum corrections to the scalar potential in classically scale invariant theories, using a manifestly scale invariant regularization. To this purpose, the subtraction scale $\\mu$ of the dimensional regularization is generated after spontaneous scale symmetry breaking, from a subtraction function of the fields, $\\mu(\\phi,\\sigma)$. This function is then uniquely determined from general principles showing that it depends on the dilaton only, with $\\mu(\\sigma)\\sim \\sigma$. The result is a scale invariant one-loop potential $U$ for a higgs field $\\phi$ and dilaton $\\sigma$ that contains an additional {\\it finite} quantum correction $\\Delta U(\\phi,\\sigma)$, beyond the Coleman Weinberg term. $\\Delta U$ contains new, non-polynomial effective operators like $\\phi^6/\\sigma^2$ whose quantum origin is explained. A flat direction is maintained at the quantum level, the model has vanishing vacuum energy and the one-loop correction to the mass of $\\phi$ remains small without tuning (of its self-coupling, etc) bey...

  13. A framework to reconcile frequency scaling measurements, from intracellular recordings, local-field potentials, up to EEG and MEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Claude; Gomes, Jean-Marie; Bal, Thierry; Destexhe, Alain

    2017-01-01

    In this viewpoint article, we discuss the electric properties of the medium around neurons, which are important to correctly interpret extracellular potentials or electric field effects in neural tissue. We focus on how these electric properties shape the frequency scaling of brain signals at different scales, such as intracellular recordings, the local field potential (LFP), the electroencephalogram (EEG) or the magnetoencephalogram (MEG). These signals display frequency-scaling properties which are not consistent with resistive media. The medium appears to exert a frequency filtering scaling as 1/f, which is the typical frequency scaling of ionic diffusion. Such a scaling was also found recently by impedance measurements in physiological conditions. Ionic diffusion appears to be the only possible explanation to reconcile these measurements and the frequency-scaling properties found in different brain signals. However, other measurements suggest that the extracellular medium is essentially resistive. To resolve this discrepancy, we show new evidence that metal-electrode measurements can be perturbed by shunt currents going through the surface of the brain. Such a shunt may explain the contradictory measurements, and together with ionic diffusion, provides a framework where all observations can be reconciled. Finally, we propose a method to perform measurements avoiding shunting effects, thus enabling to test the predictions of this framework.

  14. Spike-contrast: A novel time scale independent and multivariate measure of spike train synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciba, Manuel; Isomura, Takuya; Jimbo, Yasuhiko; Bahmer, Andreas; Thielemann, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Synchrony within neuronal networks is thought to be a fundamental feature of neuronal networks. In order to quantify synchrony between spike trains, various synchrony measures were developed. Most of them are time scale dependent and thus require the setting of an appropriate time scale. Recently, alternative methods have been developed, such as the time scale independent SPIKE-distance by Kreuz et al. In this study, a novel time-scale independent spike train synchrony measure called Spike-contrast is proposed. The algorithm is based on the temporal "contrast" (activity vs. non-activity in certain temporal bins) and not only provides a single synchrony value, but also a synchrony curve as a function of the bin size. For most test data sets synchrony values obtained with Spike-contrast are highly correlated with those of the SPIKE-distance (Spearman correlation value of 0.99). Correlation was lower for data containing multiple time scales (Spearman correlation value of 0.89). When analyzing large sets of data, Spike-contrast performed faster. Spike-contrast is compared to the SPIKE-distance algorithm. The test data consisted of artificial spike trains with various levels of synchrony, including Poisson spike trains and bursts, spike trains from simulated neuronal Izhikevich networks, and bursts made of smaller bursts (sub-bursts). The high correlation of Spike-contrast with the established SPIKE-distance for most test data, suggests the suitability of the proposed measure. Both measures are complementary as SPIKE-distance provides a synchrony profile over time, whereas Spike-contrast provides a synchrony curve over bin size. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and Psychometric Properties of a Scale to Measure Hospital Organizational Culture for Cardiovascular Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Brewster, Amanda L; Fosburgh, Heather; Cherlin, Emily J; Curry, Leslie A

    2017-03-01

    Because organizational culture is increasingly understood as fundamental to achieving high performance in hospital and other healthcare settings, the ability to measure this nuanced concept empirically has gained importance. Aside from measures of patient safety culture, no measure of organizational culture has been widely endorsed in the medical literature, limiting replication of previous findings and broader use in interventional studies. We sought to develop and assess the validity and reliability of a scale for assessing organizational culture in the context of hospitals' efforts to reducing 30-day risk-standardized mortality after acute myocardial infarction. The 31-item scale was completed by 147 individuals representing 10 hospitals during August and September 2014. The resulting organizational culture scale demonstrated high level of construct validity and internal consistency. Factor analyses indicated that the 31 items loaded well (loading values 0.48-0.90), supporting distinguishable domains of (1) learning environment, (2) psychological safety, (3) commitment to the organization, (4) senior management support, and (5) time for improvement efforts. Cronbach α coefficients were 0.94 for the scale and ranged from 0.77 to 0.88 for the subscales. The scale displayed reasonable convergent validity and statistically significant variability across hospitals, with hospital identity accounting for 11.3% of variance in culture scores across respondents. We developed and validated a relatively easy-to-administer survey that was able to detect substantial variability in organizational culture across different hospitals and may be useful in measuring hospital culture and evaluating changes in culture over time as part performance improvement efforts. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Measuring floodplain spatial patterns using continuous surface metrics at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray Scown,; Martin Thoms,; DeJager, Nathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between fluvial processes and floodplain ecosystems occur upon a floodplain surface that is often physically complex. Spatial patterns in floodplain topography have only recently been quantified over multiple scales, and discrepancies exist in how floodplain surfaces are perceived to be spatially organised. We measured spatial patterns in floodplain topography for pool 9 of the Upper Mississippi River, USA, using moving window analyses of eight surface metrics applied to a 1 × 1 m2 DEM over multiple scales. The metrics used were Range, SD, Skewness, Kurtosis, CV, SDCURV,Rugosity, and Vol:Area, and window sizes ranged from 10 to 1000 m in radius. Surface metric values were highly variable across the floodplain and revealed a high degree of spatial organisation in floodplain topography. Moran's I correlograms fit to the landscape of each metric at each window size revealed that patchiness existed at nearly all window sizes, but the strength and scale of patchiness changed within window size, suggesting that multiple scales of patchiness and patch structure exist in the topography of this floodplain. Scale thresholds in the spatial patterns were observed, particularly between the 50 and 100 m window sizes for all surface metrics and between the 500 and 750 m window sizes for most metrics. These threshold scales are ~ 15–20% and 150% of the main channel width (1–2% and 10–15% of the floodplain width), respectively. These thresholds may be related to structuring processes operating across distinct scale ranges. By coupling surface metrics, multi-scale analyses, and correlograms, quantifying floodplain topographic complexity is possible in ways that should assist in clarifying how floodplain ecosystems are structured.

  17. Isothermal flow measurement using planar PIV in the 1/4 scaled model of CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Sunghyuk; Sung, Hyung Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Tae [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The local temperature of the moderator is a key parameter in determining the available subcooling. To predict the flow field and local temperature distribution in the calandria, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started the experimental research on moderator circulation as one of a national R and D research programs from 2012. This research program includes the construction of the Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) facility, production of the validation data for self-reliant CFD tools, and development of optical measurement system using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) techniques. Small-scale 1/40 and 1/8 small-scale model tests were performed prior to installation of the main MCT facility to identify the potential problems of the flow visualization and measurement expected in the 1/4 scale MCT facility. In the 1/40 scale test, a flow field was measured with a PIV measurement technique under an iso-thermal state, and the temperature field was visualized using a LIF technique. In this experiment, the key point was to illuminate the region of interest as uniformly as possible since the velocity and temperature fields in the shadow regions were distorted and unphysical. In the 1/8 scale test, the flow patterns from the inlet nozzles to the top region of the tank were investigated using PIV measurement at two different positions of the inlet nozzle. For each position of laser beam exposure the measurement sections were divided to 7 groups to overcome the limitation of the laser power to cover the relatively large test section. The MCT facility is the large-scale facility designed to reproduce the important characteristics of moderator circulation in a CANDU6 calandria under a range of operating conditions. It is reduced in a 1/4 scale and a moderator test vessel is built to the specifications of the CANDU6 reactor design, where a working fluid is sub-cooled water with atmospheric pressure. Previous studies were

  18. Laue-DIC: a new method for improved stress field measurements at the micrometer scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, J., E-mail: johannpetit@u-paris10.fr [LEME, Université Paris Ouest, 50 rue de Sèvres, F-92410 Ville d’Avray (France); Castelnau, O. [PIMM, CNRS, Arts and Métiers ParisTech, 151 Bd de l’Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Bornert, M. [Laboratoire Navier, Université Paris-Est, École des Ponts ParisTech, F-77455 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Zhang, F. G. [PIMM, CNRS, Arts and Métiers ParisTech, 151 Bd de l’Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Hofmann, F.; Korsunsky, A. M. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom); Faurie, D. [LSPM, CNRS, Université Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Le Bourlot, C. [INSA-Lyon, MATEIS CNRS UMR5510, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France); Micha, J. S. [Université Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPrAM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, SPrAM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CRG-IF BM32 at ESRF, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Robach, O.; Ulrich, O. [Université Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPrAM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CRG-IF BM32 at ESRF, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SP2M, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-05-09

    The increment of elastic strain distribution, with a micrometer spatial resolution, is obtained by the correlation of successive Laue images. Application to a bent Si crystal allows evaluation of the accuracy of this new Laue-DIC method, which is about 10{sup −5}. A better understanding of the effective mechanical behavior of polycrystalline materials requires an accurate knowledge of the behavior at a scale smaller than the grain size. The X-ray Laue microdiffraction technique available at beamline BM32 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is ideally suited for probing elastic strains (and associated stresses) in deformed polycrystalline materials with a spatial resolution smaller than a micrometer. However, the standard technique used to evaluate local stresses from the distortion of Laue patterns lacks accuracy for many micromechanical applications, mostly due to (i) the fitting of Laue spots by analytical functions, and (ii) the necessary comparison of the measured pattern with the theoretical one from an unstrained reference specimen. In the present paper, a new method for the analysis of Laue images is presented. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique, which is essentially insensitive to the shape of Laue spots, is applied to measure the relative distortion of Laue patterns acquired at two different positions on the specimen. The new method is tested on an in situ deformed Si single-crystal, for which the prescribed stress distribution has been calculated by finite-element analysis. It is shown that the new Laue-DIC method allows determination of local stresses with a strain resolution of the order of 10{sup −5}.

  19. Measuring and predicting sooting tendencies of oxygenates, alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics on a unified scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Dhrubajyoti D.; St. John, Peter C.; McEnally, Charles S.; Kim, Seonah; Pfefferle, Lisa D.

    2018-04-01

    Databases of sooting indices, based on measuring some aspect of sooting behavior in a standardized combustion environment, are useful in providing information on the comparative sooting tendencies of different fuels or pure compounds. However, newer biofuels have varied chemical structures including both aromatic and oxygenated functional groups, which expands the chemical space of relevant compounds. In this work, we propose a unified sooting tendency database for pure compounds, including both regular and oxygenated hydrocarbons, which is based on combining two disparate databases of yield-based sooting tendency measurements in the literature. Unification of the different databases was made possible by leveraging the greater dynamic range of the color ratio pyrometry soot diagnostic. This unified database contains a substantial number of pure compounds (greater than or equal to 400 total) from multiple categories of hydrocarbons important in modern fuels and establishes the sooting tendencies of aromatic and oxygenated hydrocarbons on the same numeric scale for the first time. Using this unified sooting tendency database, we have developed a predictive model for sooting behavior applicable to a broad range of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons. The model decomposes each compound into single-carbon fragments and assigns a sooting tendency contribution to each fragment based on regression against the unified database. The model's predictive accuracy (as demonstrated by leave-one-out cross-validation) is comparable to a previously developed, more detailed predictive model. The fitted model provides insight into the effects of chemical structure on soot formation, and cases where its predictions fail reveal the presence of more complicated kinetic sooting mechanisms. This work will therefore enable the rational design of low-sooting fuel blends from a wide range of feedstocks and chemical functionalities.

  20. Comparison of numerical and verbal rating scales to measure pain exacerbations in patients with chronic cancer pain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brunelli, Cinzia; Zecca, Ernesto; Martini, Cinzia; Campa, Tiziana; Fagnoni, Elena; Bagnasco, Michela; Lanata, Luigi; Caraceni, Augusto

    2010-01-01

    Numerical rating scales (NRS), and verbal rating scales (VRS) showed to be reliable and valid tools for subjective cancer pain measurement, but no one of them consistently proved to be superior to the other...

  1. The clinical effect of clomipramine in chronic idiopathic pain disorder revisited using the Spielberger State Anxiety Symptom Scale (SSASS) as outcome scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Gormsen, Lise; Loldrup, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have re-analysed our previous double-blind, placebo-controlled clomipramine study, changing the focus from depression to anxiety both in the response analysis and in the classification of minor affective states. METHODS: The Spielberger State Anxiety Symptom Scale (SSASS) including......, the effect size was below 0.40. LIMITATIONS: No attempt has been made to measure the degree of pure neuropathic pain in the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic non-malignant pain, clomipramine is superior to placebo as regards anxiolytic effect measured by Spielberger State Anxiety Symptom Scale...

  2. Statistical Analysis of Instantaneous Frequency Scaling Factor as Derived From Optical Disdrometer Measurements At KQ Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Michael; Nessel, James; Houts, Jacquelynne; Luini, Lorenzo; Riva, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The rain rate data and statistics of a location are often used in conjunction with models to predict rain attenuation. However, the true attenuation is a function not only of rain rate, but also of the drop size distribution (DSD). Generally, models utilize an average drop size distribution (Laws and Parsons or Marshall and Palmer. However, individual rain events may deviate from these models significantly if their DSD is not well approximated by the average. Therefore, characterizing the relationship between the DSD and attenuation is valuable in improving modeled predictions of rain attenuation statistics. The DSD may also be used to derive the instantaneous frequency scaling factor and thus validate frequency scaling models. Since June of 2014, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) have jointly conducted a propagation study in Milan, Italy utilizing the 20 and 40 GHz beacon signals of the Alphasat TDP#5 Aldo Paraboni payload. The Ka- and Q-band beacon receivers provide a direct measurement of the signal attenuation while concurrent weather instrumentation provides measurements of the atmospheric conditions at the receiver. Among these instruments is a Thies Clima Laser Precipitation Monitor (optical disdrometer) which yields droplet size distributions (DSD); this DSD information can be used to derive a scaling factor that scales the measured 20 GHz data to expected 40 GHz attenuation. Given the capability to both predict and directly observe 40 GHz attenuation, this site is uniquely situated to assess and characterize such predictions. Previous work using this data has examined the relationship between the measured drop-size distribution and the measured attenuation of the link]. The focus of this paper now turns to a deeper analysis of the scaling factor, including the prediction error as a function of attenuation level, correlation between the scaling factor and the rain rate, and the temporal variability of the drop size

  3. Measuring the effectiveness of international environmental regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, C.; Sprinz, D.F.

    1999-05-01

    While past research has emphasized the importance of international regimes for international governance, systematic assessments of regime effects are missing. This article derives a standardized measurement concept for the effectiveness of international environmental regimes by developing an operational rational choice calculus to evaluate actual policy simultaneously against a non-regime counterfactual and a collective optimum. Subsequently, the empirical feasibility of the measurement instrument is demonstrated by way of two international treaties regulating transboundary air pollution in Europe. The results demonstrate that the regimes indeed show positive effects - but fall substantially short of the collective optima. (orig.)

  4. Large scale obscuration and related climate effects open literature bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.A.; Geitgey, J.; Behl, Y.K.; Zak, B.D.

    1994-05-01

    Large scale obscuration and related climate effects of nuclear detonations first became a matter of concern in connection with the so-called ``Nuclear Winter Controversy`` in the early 1980`s. Since then, the world has changed. Nevertheless, concern remains about the atmospheric effects of nuclear detonations, but the source of concern has shifted. Now it focuses less on global, and more on regional effects and their resulting impacts on the performance of electro-optical and other defense-related systems. This bibliography reflects the modified interest.

  5. Planck-scale effects on WIMP dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane M Boucenna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There exists a widely known conjecture that gravitational effects violate global symmetries. We study the effect of global-symmetry violating higher-dimension operators induced by Planck-scale physics on the properties of WIMP dark matter. Using an effective description, we show that the lifetime of the WIMP dark matter candidate can satisfy cosmological bounds under reasonable assumptions regarding the strength of the dimension-five operators. On the other hand, the indirect WIMP dark matter detection signal is significantly enhanced due to new decay channels.

  6. Heat Release Effects on Scaling Laws for Turbulent Shear Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, Kathleen M.; Dahm, Werner J. A.

    1996-11-01

    Experiments have long suggested apparent differences in the fundamental scaling laws for turbulent shear flows between reacting and nonreacting flows. These differences result from the density changes produced by exothermic reaction, and are here shown to be similar to the changes produced by free-stream density differences in nonreacting flows. Motivated by this, we show that the fundamental scaling laws can be generalized to predict the changes due to heat release. The bilinear dependence of temperature T(ζ) on an appropriately defined conserved scalar ζ allows the density changes to be related to an equivalent nonreacting flow, in which one of the free-stream fluid temperatures is set to a value determined by the adiabatic flame temperature and the overall stoichiometry. This scaling principle is applied to turbulent jet diffusion flames, and leads to a generalized scaling variable d^+ for both reacting and nonreacting flows; it effectively extends the momentum diameter d^* of Thring & Newby (1952) and Ricou & Spalding (1961) to reacting flows. The resulting predicted effects of heat release show good agreement with all available data from momentum-dominated jet flames. (Supported by GRI Contract No. 5093-260-2728.)

  7. Surface Rupture Effects on Earthquake Moment-Area Scaling Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yingdi; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Miyakoshi, Ken; Irikura, Kojiro

    2017-09-01

    Empirical earthquake scaling relations play a central role in fundamental studies of earthquake physics and in current practice of earthquake hazard assessment, and are being refined by advances in earthquake source analysis. A scaling relation between seismic moment ( M 0) and rupture area ( A) currently in use for ground motion prediction in Japan features a transition regime of the form M 0- A 2, between the well-recognized small (self-similar) and very large (W-model) earthquake regimes, which has counter-intuitive attributes and uncertain theoretical underpinnings. Here, we investigate the mechanical origin of this transition regime via earthquake cycle simulations, analytical dislocation models and numerical crack models on strike-slip faults. We find that, even if stress drop is assumed constant, the properties of the transition regime are controlled by surface rupture effects, comprising an effective rupture elongation along-dip due to a mirror effect and systematic changes of the shape factor relating slip to stress drop. Based on this physical insight, we propose a simplified formula to account for these effects in M 0- A scaling relations for strike-slip earthquakes.

  8. The Applied Mindfulness Process Scale (AMPS): A process measure for evaluating mindfulness-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Michael J; Black, David S; Garland, Eric L

    2016-04-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) include the application of meditation and mind-body practices used to promote mindful awareness in daily life. Operationalizing the construct of mindfulness is important in order to determine mechanisms of therapeutic change elicited by mindfulness practice. In addition to existing state and trait measures of mindfulness, process measures are needed to assess the ways in which individuals apply mindfulness in the context of their practice. This report details three independent studies (qualitative interview, N = 8; scale validation, N = 134; and replication study, N = 180) and the mixed qualitative-quantitative methodology used to develop and validate the Applied Mindfulness Process Scale (AMPS), a 15-item process measure designed to quantify how mindfulness practitioners actively use mindfulness to remediate psychological suffering in their daily lives. In Study 1, cognitive interviewing yielded a readily comprehensible and accessible scale of 15 items. In Study 2, exploratory factor analysis derived a potential three-factor solution: decentering, positive emotion regulation, and negative emotion regulation. In Study 3, confirmatory factor analysis verified better model fit with the three-factor structure over the one-factor structure. AMPS functions as a measure to quantify the application of mindfulness and processes of change in the context of MBIs and general mindfulness practice.

  9. A simple indentation device for measuring micrometer-scale tissue stiffness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levental, I; Levental, K R; Janmey, P A [Institute for Medicine and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Klein, E A; Assoian, R [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Miller, R T [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, Louis Stokes VAMC, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wells, R G, E-mail: janmey@mail.med.upenn.ed [Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2010-05-19

    Mechanical properties of cells and extracellular matrices are critical determinants of function in contexts including oncogenic transformation, neuronal synapse formation, hepatic fibrosis and stem cell differentiation. The size and heterogeneity of biological specimens and the importance of measuring their mechanical properties under conditions that resemble their environments in vivo present a challenge for quantitative measurement. Centimeter-scale tissue samples can be measured by commercial instruments, whereas properties at the subcellular (nm) scale are accessible by atomic force microscopy, optical trapping, or magnetic bead microrheometry; however many tissues are heterogeneous on a length scale between micrometers and millimeters which is not accessible to most current instrumentation. The device described here combines two commercially available technologies, a micronewton resolution force probe and a micromanipulator for probing soft biological samples at sub-millimeter spatial resolution. Several applications of the device are described. These include the first measurement of the stiffness of an intact, isolated mouse glomerulus, quantification of the inner wall stiffness of healthy and diseased mouse aortas, and evaluation of the lateral heterogeneity in the stiffness of mouse mammary glands and rat livers with correlation of this heterogeneity with malignant or fibrotic pathology as evaluated by histology.

  10. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale in Portuguese adults: from classical measurement theory to Rasch model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargento, Paulo; Perea, Victoria; Ladera, Valentina; Lopes, Paulo; Oliveira, Jorge

    2015-05-01

    The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is a largely wide used scale for sleepiness assessment. Measurement properties are studied in a sample of Portuguese adults, using different statistical procedures. The sample consisted of 222 Portuguese adults (97 men and 125 women) with a mean age of 42 years old (SD = 12.5), 46 of which had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) confirmed by polysomnography. The participants were assessed with the ESS, which was tested through a quantitative analysis based on the classical measurement theory (CMT) or the Rasch model (RM) conventions. A principal component factor analysis was performed according to the CMT, revealing a single factor explaining 39.92% of the total variance of the scale. Internal consistency measured by Cronbach's α coefficient was of .77. The mean of inter-item correlation was of .31 (.05  .47), whereas the item-total correlations were considered good (.46  .73). The ESS total score for OSA patients was significantly higher than healthy participants (p measure for assessing sleepiness in Portuguese adults.

  11. A simple indentation device for measuring micrometer-scale tissue stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levental, I.; Levental, K. R.; Klein, E. A.; Assoian, R.; Miller, R. T.; Wells, R. G.; Janmey, P. A.

    2010-05-01

    Mechanical properties of cells and extracellular matrices are critical determinants of function in contexts including oncogenic transformation, neuronal synapse formation, hepatic fibrosis and stem cell differentiation. The size and heterogeneity of biological specimens and the importance of measuring their mechanical properties under conditions that resemble their environments in vivo present a challenge for quantitative measurement. Centimeter-scale tissue samples can be measured by commercial instruments, whereas properties at the subcellular (nm) scale are accessible by atomic force microscopy, optical trapping, or magnetic bead microrheometry; however many tissues are heterogeneous on a length scale between micrometers and millimeters which is not accessible to most current instrumentation. The device described here combines two commercially available technologies, a micronewton resolution force probe and a micromanipulator for probing soft biological samples at sub-millimeter spatial resolution. Several applications of the device are described. These include the first measurement of the stiffness of an intact, isolated mouse glomerulus, quantification of the inner wall stiffness of healthy and diseased mouse aortas, and evaluation of the lateral heterogeneity in the stiffness of mouse mammary glands and rat livers with correlation of this heterogeneity with malignant or fibrotic pathology as evaluated by histology.

  12. A new method of rapid power measurement for MW-scale high-current particle beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongjian; Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Zhimin; Xie, Yahong; Liu, Sheng; Liang, Lizheng; Jiang, Caichao; Sheng, Peng; Yu, Ling

    2015-09-01

    MW-scale high current particle beams are widely applied for plasma heating in the magnetic confinement fusion devices, in which beam power is an important indicator for efficient heating. Generally, power measurement of MW-scale high current particle beam adopts water flow calorimetry (WFC). Limited by the principles of WFC, the beam power given by WFC is an averaged value. In this article a new method of beam power for MW-scale high-current particle beams is introduced: (1) the temperature data of thermocouples embedded in the beam stopping elements were obtained using high data acquire system, (2) the surface heat flux of the beam stopping elements are calculated using heat transfer, (3) the relationships between positions and heat flux were acquired using numerical simulation, (4) the real-time power deposited on the beam stopping elements can be calculated using surface integral. The principle of measurement was described in detail and applied to the EAST neutral beam injector for demonstration. The result is compared with that measured by WFC. Comparison of the results shows good accuracy and applicability of this measuring method.

  13. Residence time distribution measurements in a pilot-scale poison tank using radiotracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H J; Goswami, Sunil; Samantray, J S; Sharma, V K; Maheshwari, N K

    2015-09-01

    Various types of systems are used to control the reactivity and shutting down of a nuclear reactor during emergency and routine shutdown operations. Injection of boron solution (borated water) into the core of a reactor is one of the commonly used methods during emergency operation. A pilot-scale poison tank was designed and fabricated to simulate injection of boron poison into the core of a reactor along with coolant water. In order to design a full-scale poison tank, it was desired to characterize flow of liquid from the tank. Residence time distribution (RTD) measurement and analysis was adopted to characterize the flow dynamics. Radiotracer technique was applied to measure RTD of aqueous phase in the tank using Bromine-82 as a radiotracer. RTD measurements were carried out with two different modes of operation of the tank and at different flow rates. In Mode-1, the radiotracer was instantaneously injected at the inlet and monitored at the outlet, whereas in Mode-2, the tank was filled with radiotracer and its concentration was measured at the outlet. From the measured RTD curves, mean residence times (MRTs), dead volume and fraction of liquid pumped in with time were determined. The treated RTD curves were modeled using suitable mathematical models. An axial dispersion model with high degree of backmixing was found suitable to describe flow when operated in Mode-1, whereas a tanks-in-series model with backmixing was found suitable to describe flow of the poison in the tank when operated in Mode-2. The results were utilized to scale-up and design a full-scale poison tank for a nuclear reactor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Testing measurement invariance of the Learning Programme Management and Evaluation scale across academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maelekanyo C. Mulaudzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Measurement invariance is one of the most precarious aspects of the scale development process without which the interpretation of research findings on population subgroups may be ambiguous and even invalid. Besides tests for validity and reliability, measurement invariance represents the hallmark for psychometric compliance of a new measuring instrument and provides the basis for inference of research findings across a range of relevant population sub-groups.Research purpose: This study tested the measurement invariance of a Learning Programme Management and Evaluation (LPME scale across levels of academic achievement.Motivation for the study: It is important for any researcher involved in new scale development to ensure that the measurement instrument and its underlying constructs have proper structural alignment and that they both have the same level of meaning and significance across comparable heterogeneous groups.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional survey design was used, and data were obtained from 369 participants who were selected from three public sector organisations using a probabilistic simple random sampling technique. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences and Analysis of Moment Structures software (versions 21.0.0 were used to analyse the data.Main findings: The findings show that all the four invariance models tested have achieved acceptable goodness-of-fit indices. Furthermore, the findings show that the factorial structure of the LPME scale and the meaning of its underlying constructs are invariant across different levels of academic achievement for human resource development (HRD practitioners and learners or apprentices involved in occupational learning programmes.Practical implications: The findings of this study suggest practical implications for HRD scholars as they are enabled to make informed decisional balance comparisons involving educational

  15. [Assessing and measuring language development in the child. The Reynell Scales in a Dutch language area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaerlaekens, A

    1995-01-01

    This article deals with the recent adaptation of the Reynell Developmental Language Scales to the Dutch language. The existing language tests for the Dutch language are reviewed and the need to adapt a test for young children, measuring both receptive and expressive language development, is argued. The adaptation of the original Reynell Developmental Language Scales to the Dutch language is described. An extensive standardisation was carried out with 1,288 Dutch-speaking children, carefully selected geographically and according to socio-economic status. The psychodiagnostic results of the standardisation are discussed. As a result there are now norms for children between 2 and 5 years, both for receptive and expressive language development. The adaptation of the original Reynell Scales to Dutch functions under the new name RTOS (Reynell Taalontwikkelingsschalen).

  16. Measuring self-monitoring ability and propensity: a two-dimensional Chinese scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F; Zhang, Y

    1998-12-01

    Self-monitoring characterizes individual differences in a person's ability and propensity to regulate self-presentation (M. Snyder, 1974, 1979). On the basis of this idea and existing scale items (R. D. Lennox & R. N. Wolfe, 1984; M. Snyder, 1974), a 23-item 2-dimensional Chinese Self-Monitoring Scale was devised with subscales measuring the Ability and the Propensity to regulate self-presentation according to situational cues. The two subscales displayed different correlational patterns with the Psychoticism, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Lie subscales of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ; S. B. G. Eysenck & H. J. Eysenck, 1975). The new scale, with stable factor structure and satisfactory internal consistency, may discriminate among self-presentational styles beyond the prototypes of high and low self-monitoring.

  17. Implications of construction method and spatial scale on measures of the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strominger, Julie; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2016-04-28

    Research surrounding the built environment (BE) and health has resulted in inconsistent findings. Experts have identified the need to examine methodological choices, such as development and testing of BE indices at varying spatial scales. We sought to examine the impact of construction method and spatial scale on seven measures of the BE using data collected at two time points. The Children's Environmental Health Initiative conducted parcel-level assessments of 57 BE variables in Durham, NC (parcel N = 30,319). Based on a priori defined variable groupings, we constructed seven mutually exclusive BE domains (housing damage, property disorder, territoriality, vacancy, public nuisances, crime, and tenancy). Domain-based indices were developed according to four different index construction methods that differentially account for number of parcels and parcel area. Indices were constructed at the census block level and two alternative spatial scales that better depict the larger neighborhood context experienced by local residents: the primary adjacency community and secondary adjacency community. Spearman's rank correlation was used to assess if indices and relationships among indices were preserved across methods. Territoriality, public nuisances, and tenancy were weakly to moderately preserved across methods at the block level while all other indices were well preserved. Except for the relationships between public nuisances and crime or tenancy, and crime and housing damage or territoriality, relationships among indices were poorly preserved across methods. The number of indices affected by construction method increased as spatial scale increased, while the impact of construction method on relationships among indices varied according to spatial scale. We found that the impact of construction method on BE measures was index and spatial scale specific. Operationalizing and developing BE measures using alternative methods at varying spatial scales before connecting to

  18. Fermion number violating effects in low scale leptogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Eijima

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The existence of baryon asymmetry and dark matter in the Universe may be related to CP-violating reactions of three heavy neutral leptons (HNLs with masses well below the Fermi scale. The dynamical description of the lepton asymmetry generation, which is the key ingredient of baryogenesis and of dark matter production, is quite complicated due to the presence of many different relaxation time scales and the necessity to include quantum-mechanical coherent effects in HNL oscillations. We derive kinetic equations accounting for fermion number violating effects missed so far and identify one of the domains of HNL masses that can potentially lead to large lepton asymmetry generation boosting the sterile neutrino dark matter production.

  19. Kilometer-scale Kaiser effect identified in Krafla volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimisson, Elías Rafn; Einarsson, Páll; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís.

    2015-10-01

    The Krafla rifting episode in 1975-1984, consisted of around 20 inflation-deflation events within the Krafla caldera, where magma accumulated during inflation periods and was intruded into the transecting fissure swarm during brief periods of deflation. We reanalyze geodetic and seismic data from the rifting episode and perform a time-dependent inversion of a leveling time series for a spherical point source in an elastic half-space. Using the volume change as a proxy for stress shows that during inflation periods the seismicity rate remains low until the maximum inflation of previous cycles is exceeded thus exhibiting the Kaiser effect. Our observations demonstrate that this phenomenon, commonly observed in small-scale experiments, is also produced in kilometer-scale volcanic deformation. This behavior sheds new light on the relationship between deformation and seismicity of a deforming volcano. As a consequence of the Kaiser effect, a volcano may inflate rapidly without significant changes in seismicity rate.

  20. Measuring Scale Economies in a Heterogeneous Industry: The Case of European Settlement Institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cayseele, P.J.G.; Wuyts, C.

    2006-01-01

    We examine whether the European settlement institutions are technically efficient. This is done by means of estimating a translog cost function, and investigating whether scale economies are fully exploited. Since the sample is quite heterogeneous, fixed effects regression is introduced. From the

  1. Vertical Sampling Scales for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Measurements from Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Hemingway

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The lowest portion of the Earth’s atmosphere, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL, plays an important role in the formation of weather events. Simple meteorological measurements collected from within the ABL, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind velocity, are key to understanding the exchange of energy within this region, but conventional surveillance techniques such as towers, radar, weather balloons, and satellites do not provide adequate spatial and/or temporal coverage for monitoring weather events. Small unmanned aircraft, or aerial, systems (sUAS provide a versatile, dynamic platform for atmospheric sensing that can provide higher spatio-temporal sampling frequencies than available through most satellite sensing methods. They are also able to sense portions of the atmosphere that cannot be measured from ground-based radar, weather stations, or weather balloons and have the potential to fill gaps in atmospheric sampling. However, research on the vertical sampling scales for collecting atmospheric measurements from sUAS and the variabilities of these scales across atmospheric phenomena (e.g., temperature and humidity is needed. The objective of this study is to use variogram analysis, a common geostatistical technique, to determine optimal spatial sampling scales for two atmospheric variables (temperature and relative humidity captured from sUAS. Results show that vertical sampling scales of approximately 3 m for temperature and 1.5–2 m for relative humidity were sufficient to capture the spatial structure of these phenomena under the conditions tested. Future work is needed to model these scales across the entire ABL as well as under variable conditions.

  2. Maximizing measurement efficiency of behavior rating scales using Item Response Theory: An example with the Social Skills Improvement System - Teacher Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Christopher J; DiPerna, James C; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2016-04-01

    Measurement efficiency is an important consideration when developing behavior rating scales for use in research and practice. Although most published scales have been developed within a Classical Test Theory (CTT) framework, Item Response Theory (IRT) offers several advantages for developing scales that maximize measurement efficiency. The current study provides an example of using IRT to maximize rating scale efficiency with the Social Skills Improvement System - Teacher Rating Scale (SSIS - TRS), a measure of student social skills frequently used in practice and research. Based on IRT analyses, 27 items from the Social Skills subscales and 14 items from the Problem Behavior subscales of the SSIS - TRS were identified as maximally efficient. In addition to maintaining similar content coverage to the published version, these sets of maximally efficient items demonstrated similar psychometric properties to the published SSIS - TRS. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A measurement of the LPM effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, S.R. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Inst. for Particle Physics; Anthony, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Becker-Szendy, R. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [and others

    1993-11-01

    We have performed an experiment to measure accurately the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect in the production of 5 to 500 MeV photons due to bremsstrahlung of 8 and 25 GeV electron beams traversing thin (2 to 6% X₀) targets of varying densities. Our measurements confirm that the LPM effect exists and that the Migdal calculations are accurate. We see that, for thin targets, LPM suppression disappears leaving a Bethe-Heitler spectrum, as predicted by theory. For intermediate target thicknesses, we lack an acceptable theory, but have measured energy spectra for targets of differing thickness. We have also measured the production rate of 500 keV to 5 MeV photons at the same electron energies, to study dielectric suppression. We see qualitative agreement with the theory of Ter-Mikaelian; more work is needed before we can make quantitative comparisons.

  4. Measuring attention using flash-lag effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioiri, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Ken; Oshida, Hiroki; Matsubara, Kazuya; Yaguchi, Hirohisa

    2010-08-13

    We investigated the effect of attention on the flash-lag effect (FLE) in order to determine whether the FLE can be used to estimate the effect of visual attention. The FLE is the effect that a flash aligned with a moving object is perceived to lag the moving object, and several studies have shown that attention reduces its magnitude. We measured the FLE as a function of the number or speed of moving objects. The results showed that the effect of cueing, which we attributed the effect of attention, on the FLE increased monotonically with the number or the speed of the objects. This suggests that the amount of attention can be estimated by measuring the FLE, assuming that more amount of attention is required for a larger number or faster speed of objects to attend. On the basis of this presumption, we attempted to measure the spatial spread of visual attention by FLE measurements. The estimated spatial spreads were similar to those estimated by other experimental methods.

  5. On the effects of scale for ecosystem services mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Grêt-Regamey

    Full Text Available Ecosystems provide life-sustaining services upon which human civilization depends, but their degradation largely continues unabated. Spatially explicit information on ecosystem services (ES provision is required to better guide decision making, particularly for mountain systems, which are characterized by vertical gradients and isolation with high topographic complexity, making them particularly sensitive to global change. But while spatially explicit ES quantification and valuation allows the identification of areas of abundant or limited supply of and demand for ES, the accuracy and usefulness of the information varies considerably depending on the scale and methods used. Using four case studies from mountainous regions in Europe and the U.S., we quantify information gains and losses when mapping five ES - carbon sequestration, flood regulation, agricultural production, timber harvest, and scenic beauty - at coarse and fine resolution (250 m vs. 25 m in Europe and 300 m vs. 30 m in the U.S.. We analyze the effects of scale on ES estimates and their spatial pattern and show how these effects are related to different ES, terrain structure and model properties. ES estimates differ substantially between the fine and coarse resolution analyses in all case studies and across all services. This scale effect is not equally strong for all ES. We show that spatially explicit information about non-clustered, isolated ES tends to be lost at coarse resolution and against expectation, mainly in less rugged terrain, which calls for finer resolution assessments in such contexts. The effect of terrain ruggedness is also related to model properties such as dependency on land use-land cover data. We close with recommendations for mapping ES to make the resulting maps more comparable, and suggest a four-step approach to address the issue of scale when mapping ES that can deliver information to support ES-based decision making with greater accuracy and reliability.

  6. On the effects of scale for ecosystem services mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grêt-Regamey, Adrienne; Weibel, Bettina; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Ferrari, Marika; Geneletti, Davide; Klug, Hermann; Schirpke, Uta; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems provide life-sustaining services upon which human civilization depends, but their degradation largely continues unabated. Spatially explicit information on ecosystem services (ES) provision is required to better guide decision making, particularly for mountain systems, which are characterized by vertical gradients and isolation with high topographic complexity, making them particularly sensitive to global change. But while spatially explicit ES quantification and valuation allows the identification of areas of abundant or limited supply of and demand for ES, the accuracy and usefulness of the information varies considerably depending on the scale and methods used. Using four case studies from mountainous regions in Europe and the U.S., we quantify information gains and losses when mapping five ES - carbon sequestration, flood regulation, agricultural production, timber harvest, and scenic beauty - at coarse and fine resolution (250 m vs. 25 m in Europe and 300 m vs. 30 m in the U.S.). We analyze the effects of scale on ES estimates and their spatial pattern and show how these effects are related to different ES, terrain structure and model properties. ES estimates differ substantially between the fine and coarse resolution analyses in all case studies and across all services. This scale effect is not equally strong for all ES. We show that spatially explicit information about non-clustered, isolated ES tends to be lost at coarse resolution and against expectation, mainly in less rugged terrain, which calls for finer resolution assessments in such contexts. The effect of terrain ruggedness is also related to model properties such as dependency on land use-land cover data. We close with recommendations for mapping ES to make the resulting maps more comparable, and suggest a four-step approach to address the issue of scale when mapping ES that can deliver information to support ES-based decision making with greater accuracy and reliability.

  7. Validity and reliability of a scale to measure genital body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Ruth E; Kane-Low, Lisa; Miller, Janis M; Sampselle, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Women's body image dissatisfaction extends to body parts usually hidden from view--their genitals. Ability to measure genital body image is limited by lack of valid and reliable questionnaires. We subjected a previously developed questionnaire, the Genital Self Image Scale (GSIS) to psychometric testing using a variety of methods. Five experts determined the content validity of the scale. Then using four participant groups, factor analysis was performed to determine construct validity and to identify factors. Further construct validity was established using the contrasting groups approach. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability was determined. Twenty one of 29 items were considered content valid. Two items were added based on expert suggestions. Factor analysis was undertaken resulting in four factors, identified as Genital Confidence, Appeal, Function, and Comfort. The revised scale (GSIS-20) included 20 items explaining 59.4% of the variance. Women indicating an interest in genital cosmetic surgery exhibited significantly lower scores on the GSIS-20 than those who did not. The final 20 item scale exhibited internal reliability across all sample groups as well as test-retest reliability. The GSIS-20 provides a measure of genital body image demonstrating reliability and validity across several populations of women.

  8. Using Rasch measurement theory to assess three depression scales among adults with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Elizabeth Reisinger; Engelhard, George; Thompson, Nancy J

    2012-07-01

    People with chronic conditions, such as epilepsy, are at a high risk for depression; however depression is often under-recognized and undertreated. Depression scales, including one specific to people with epilepsy, have been used for screening in this population, although none have been assessed with Rasch measurement theory. This study used Rasch analyses in order to evaluate and compare the psychometric properties of the modified Beck Depression Inventory, the Patient Health Questionnaire, and the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy in a sample of people with epilepsy and depression who participated in an intervention designed to reduce depressive symptoms. A secondary purpose was to assess item functioning across time. The sample includes 44 participants in the Project UPLIFT program who completed the assessments before and after taking part in the intervention. Results of the Rasch analysis indicate that the three depression scales functioned as intended. There was good overall targeting between the items and the sample, acceptable model-data fit, and good reliability of separation for persons, items, and time. The participants experienced a significant decrease in depressive symptoms from pretest to posttest. This study illustrates the value of using model-based measurement with the Rasch model to combine items across the three depression scales. It also demonstrates an approach for analyzing and evaluating the results of small scale intervention programs, such as the UPLIFT program. Copyright © 2012 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychometric analysis of export market orientation measurement scale in Croatian SME exporters’ context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Miočević

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Market orientation is a vital construct of the marketing concept. Although different conceptualization approaches to market orientation have been discussed by literature so far, a common denominator is its interdependence with business performance. Increasing globalization trends affect both the markets’ convergence and competition. Consequently, focusing on market orientation within an international context is of utmost importance. Export market orientation (EMO is relatively new concept, which puts market orientation into the international context. Since export is a dominant international entry strategy in the Croatian economy which comprises mostly SMEs, it is crucial to investigate the importance of the EMO in the Croatian SME context. Determining an appropriate measurement scale of the EMO to be applied in various national research contexts leading to generalization represents a challenge for marketing academicians. The paper aims to find out whether the EMO construct and measurement scale can be applied within the Croatian SME context. The authors have used the exploratory and the confirmatory factor analysis to determine the psychometric properties of the EMO scale. The results of psychometric assessment of the EMO scale confirm its dimensionability, reliability, validity and applicability in the Croatian SME context. Results clearly indicate the necessity of pursuing EMO activities in order to achieve a high level of export performance.