WorldWideScience

Sample records for scales crossing disciplines

  1. Comprehensive Cross-Training among STEM Disciplines in Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, J. A.; Dutrow, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    more precisely identify the mineralogy of the cuttings. Based on this data with depth, they were asked to predict an approximate temperature range and calculate various fluid parameters for these conditions. The second research project was completed individually, each student covered aspects of heat transport and geologic materials on a specific geothermal field of their choice, created a poster, and gave a brief oral presentation of the poster similar to what is done at scientific meetings. This not only helped students develop communication skills it also provide the class and the instructors information on the breath and diversity of geothermal projects already underway throughout the world and helped to improve critical thinking skills. Continued integration of our research and graduate training programs in Geology and Geophysics, Petroleum Engineering, and Mathematics will occur in 2012-2013. The Petroleum Engineering course will be offered in the fall semester of 2012 and the Mathematics class in the spring semester of 2013. Providing this three semester sequence of courses across the STEM disciplines promotes comprehensive cross-training among disciplines and provides a template for future directions of teaching sustainability across the disciplines.

  2. Enabling Cross-Discipline Collaboration Via a Functional Data Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, D. M.; Wilson, A.; Baltzer, T.

    2016-12-01

    disparate data sources and communities. This presentation will demonstrate the utility of the Functional Data Model and how it can be used to facilitate cross-discipline collaboration.

  3. Stewarding the Discipline with Cross-Boundary Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Hal A.

    2016-01-01

    Proposals to prepare disciplinary stewards and optimize the conditions for collective stewardship can be framed in two ways. The dominant frame emphasizes disciplinary caretaking and lends comparatively less attention to reform and transformation. A second frame is grounded in the social ecology of particular disciplines, their fast-changing…

  4. Biophysical landscape interactions: Bridging disciplines and scale with connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; Baartman, Jantiene; Robinson, David

    2017-04-01

    concepts of biophysical landscape interactions are needed to evaluate soil water availability in relation to the stability of natural vegetation, especially in the perspective of soil threats, population growth, climate change, and global water scarcity. An integrated concept can only be established by bridging the gap between several disciplines, but needs to be appealing to those disciplines at the same time. As evidence suggests interdisciplinary work is more challenging to get funded [6]. The key aspect of the connectivity concept is that it can create pathways for feedbacks which are so often missing in soil and water models. Connectivity could thus play an important role in bridging disciplines and scales. [1] Schwilch G, Bernet L. Fleskens L, Giannakis E, Leventon J, Marañón T, Mills J, Short C, Stolte J, van Delden H, Verzandvoort S. 2016. Operationalizing ecosystem services for the mitigation of soil threats: A proposed framework. Ecological Indicators 67: 586-597,doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.03.016 [2] Pelletier JD, DeLong SB, Orem CA, Becerra P, Compton K, Gressett K, Lyons-Baral J, McGuire LA, Molaro JL, Spinler JCCF. 2012. How do vegetation bands form in dry lands? Insights from numerical modeling and field studies in southern Nevada, USA. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 117: F04026,doi:10.1029/2012JF002465 [3] Liu J, Dietz T, Carpenter SR, Alberti M, Folke C, Moran E, ..., Ostrom E. 2007. Complexity of coupled human and natural systems. Science 317.5844: 1513-1516,doi:10.1126/science.1144004 [4] Cook BJ, Hauer FR. 2007. Effects of hydrologic connectivity on water chemistry, soils, and vegetation structure and function in an intermontane depressional wetland landscape. Wetlands 27.3: 719-738,doi:10.1672/0277-5212(2007)27 [5] Roth K. 2008. Scaling of water flow through porous media and soils. European journal of soil science, 59(1), 125-130, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.2007.00986.x [6] Bromham, L, Dinnage R, Hua X. 2016. Interdisciplinary research

  5. Virus Dynamics and Evolution: Bridging Scales and Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Poss

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Viruses have attracted the interest of researchers from multiple disciplines and have nucleated many productive and innovative collaborations. In part, this is because viruses so intimately associate with their hosts that decoupling host and virus biology is difficult, and virus-host interactions occur at multiple scales, from within cells to populations, each of which is intrinsically complex. As a consequence, ecologists, population biologists, evolutionary biologists, and researchers from quantitative fields, including mathematics, statistics, physics and computer science, make significant contributions to the field of virology. Our understanding of virus dynamics and evolution has substantially benefited from these multidisciplinary efforts. It is now common to see advanced phylogenetic reconstruction methods used to determine the origins of emergent viruses, to estimate the effect of natural selection on virus populations, and to assess virus population dynamics. Mathematical and statistical models that elucidate complex virus and host interactions in time and space at the molecular and population level are appearing more regularly in virology and biomedical journals. Massive quantities of data now available due to technological innovation in imaging, increased disease surveillance efforts, and novel approaches to determine social contact structure are changing approaches to study the dynamics and evolution of viral infections in heterogeneous environments. The next decade presents exciting new opportunities and challenges for the expanding field of researchers investigating dynamics of viral infections that will lead to innovation and new insight on virus interactions in both individual hosts and in populations. The compilation of articles in this Special Issue on “Virus Dynamics and Evolution” is comprised of reviews and primary research, summarized below, that provide new perspectives on virus interactions with host organisms through

  6. Educating students to cross boundaries between disciplines and cultures and between theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, K.P.J.; Bush, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and analyse the didactic model of a university course, which concerns an applied academic consultancy project and which focuses on skills related to crossing boundaries between disciplines and cultures, and between theory and practice.

  7. Scale and Cross-Scale Dynamics: Governance and Information in a Multilevel World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Cash

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The empirical evidence in the papers in this special issue identifies pervasive and difficult cross-scale and cross-level interactions in managing the environment. The complexity of these interactions and the fact that both scholarship and management have only recently begun to address this complexity have provided the impetus for us to present one synthesis of scale and cross-scale dynamics. In doing so, we draw from multiple cases, multiple disciplines, and multiple perspectives. In this synthesis paper, and in the accompanying cases, we hypothesize that the dynamics of cross-scale and cross-level interactions are affected by the interplay between institutions at multiple levels and scales. We suggest that the advent of co-management structures and conscious boundary management that includes knowledge co-production, mediation, translation, and negotiation across scale-related boundaries may facilitate solutions to complex problems that decision makers have historically been unable to solve.

  8. Diamond Quantum Nanoemitters: Cross Discipline Research on Hyperbolic Optical Systems for Control of Quantum Nanoemitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    mechanical resonators using a single quantum emitter in diamond. The work was a collaboration with the Department of Physics at University of California...AFRL-AFOSR-CL-TR-2017-0006 Diamond Quantum Nanoemitters 150113 Jeronimo Maze PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE Final Report 05/05/2017...COVERED (From - To) 01 Mar 2015 to 31 Aug 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cross Discipline Research on Hyperbolic Optical Systems for Control of Quantum

  9. Cross-scale analysis of fire regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Falk; Carol Miller; Donald McKenzie; Anne E. Black

    2007-01-01

    Cross-scale spatial and temporal perspectives are important for studying contagious landscape disturbances such as fire, which are controlled by myriad processes operating at different scales. We examine fire regimes in forests of western North America, focusing on how observed patterns of fire frequency change across spatial scales. To quantify changes in fire...

  10. Energy efficiency as an example of cross-discipline collaboration in chemical engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Hemptinne, J.-C; Ferrasse, J.-H.; Górak, A.

    2017-01-01

    (industrials, mostly market-driven, or academic), or in terms of discipline. The role of professional societies as the European Federation for Chemical Engineers (EFCE) is stressed as a promotor of collaboration between disciplines.Finally, once willingness for collaboration is identified, the final question...

  11. Transdisciplinary Application of Cross-Scale Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cross-scale resilience model was developed in ecology to explain the emergence of resilience from the distribution of ecological functions within and across scales, and as a tool to assess resilience. We propose that the model and the underlyingdiscontinuity hypothesis are re...

  12. Transdisciplinary Application of Cross-Scale Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana M. Sundstrom

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The cross-scale resilience model was developed in ecology to explain the emergence of resilience from the distribution of ecological functions within and across scales, and as a tool to assess resilience. We propose that the model and the underlying discontinuity hypothesis are relevant to other complex adaptive systems, and can be used to identify and track changes in system parameters related to resilience. We explain the theory behind the cross-scale resilience model, review the cases where it has been applied to non-ecological systems, and discuss some examples of social-ecological, archaeological/ anthropological, and economic systems where a cross-scale resilience analysis could add a quantitative dimension to our current understanding of system dynamics and resilience. We argue that the scaling and diversity parameters suitable for a resilience analysis of ecological systems are appropriate for a broad suite of systems where non-normative quantitative assessments of resilience are desired. Our planet is currently characterized by fast environmental and social change, and the cross-scale resilience model has the potential to quantify resilience across many types of complex adaptive systems.

  13. Unifying the concept of consciousness across the disciplines: A concept-based, cross-cultural approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter N.

    The majority of studies concerning consciousness have examined and modeled the concept of consciousness in terms of particular lines of inquiry, a process that has circumscribed the general applicability of any results from such approaches. The purpose of this dissertation was to study consciousness from a concept-based, cross-cultural approach and to attempt to unify the concept across the cultures examined. The 4 cultures are the academic disciplines of philosophy, physics, psychology, and anthropology. Consciousness was examined in terms of how the concept is framed and where the major limitations in each line of inquiry occur. The rationale for examining consciousness as a concept across 4 cultures was to determine whether there was any common component in each line's framing that could be used to unify the concept. The study found that experience itself was the primary unifying factor in each field's framing and that experience was treated as a nonreducible property within each line of inquiry. By taking experience itself (but not subjective experience) as a fundamental property, each culture's concept of consciousness becomes tractable. As such, this dissertation argues that experience should be taken as a fundamental property of the concept. The significance of this analysis is that by taking experience as a fundamental property, it becomes possible to unify the concept across the 4 cultures. This unification is presented as a unity thesis, which is a theory arguing for unification of the concept based on the fundamental of experience. Following this theoretical examination, this paper discusses several key implications of the unity thesis, including implications of the unity thesis for the current status of altered states of consciousness and for the so-called hard and easy problems associated with the concept (at least within Occidental ontology). It is argued that the so-called hard problem does not exist when experience is taken as a fundamental property

  14. A Disciplined Architectural Approach to Scaling Data Analysis for Massive, Scientific Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, D. J.; Braverman, A. J.; Cinquini, L.; Turmon, M.; Lee, H.; Law, E.

    2014-12-01

    Data collections across remote sensing and ground-based instruments in astronomy, Earth science, and planetary science are outpacing scientists' ability to analyze them. Furthermore, the distribution, structure, and heterogeneity of the measurements themselves pose challenges that limit the scalability of data analysis using traditional approaches. Methods for developing science data processing pipelines, distribution of scientific datasets, and performing analysis will require innovative approaches that integrate cyber-infrastructure, algorithms, and data into more systematic approaches that can more efficiently compute and reduce data, particularly distributed data. This requires the integration of computer science, machine learning, statistics and domain expertise to identify scalable architectures for data analysis. The size of data returned from Earth Science observing satellites and the magnitude of data from climate model output, is predicted to grow into the tens of petabytes challenging current data analysis paradigms. This same kind of growth is present in astronomy and planetary science data. One of the major challenges in data science and related disciplines defining new approaches to scaling systems and analysis in order to increase scientific productivity and yield. Specific needs include: 1) identification of optimized system architectures for analyzing massive, distributed data sets; 2) algorithms for systematic analysis of massive data sets in distributed environments; and 3) the development of software infrastructures that are capable of performing massive, distributed data analysis across a comprehensive data science framework. NASA/JPL has begun an initiative in data science to address these challenges. Our goal is to evaluate how scientific productivity can be improved through optimized architectural topologies that identify how to deploy and manage the access, distribution, computation, and reduction of massive, distributed data, while

  15. Seamless cross-scale modeling with SCHISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinglong J.; Ye, Fei; Stanev, Emil V.; Grashorn, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    We present a new 3D unstructured-grid model (SCHISM) which is an upgrade from an existing model (SELFE). The new advection scheme for the momentum equation includes an iterative smoother to reduce excess mass produced by higher-order kriging method, and a new viscosity formulation is shown to work robustly for generic unstructured grids and effectively filter out spurious modes without introducing excessive dissipation. A new higher-order implicit advection scheme for transport (TVD2) is proposed to effectively handle a wide range of Courant numbers as commonly found in typical cross-scale applications. The addition of quadrangular elements into the model, together with a recently proposed, highly flexible vertical grid system (Zhang et al., A new vertical coordinate system for a 3D unstructured-grid model. Ocean Model. 85, 2015), leads to model polymorphism that unifies 1D/2DH/2DV/3D cells in a single model grid. Results from several test cases demonstrate the model's good performance in the eddying regime, which presents greater challenges for unstructured-grid models and represents the last missing link for our cross-scale model. The model can thus be used to simulate cross-scale processes in a seamless fashion (i.e. from deep ocean into shallow depths).

  16. Crossing the line from physical discipline to child abuse: how much is too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, E E; Richey, C A

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to better differentiate physical discipline, corporal punishment, and physical child abuse based on samples drawn from the United States. The American literature was examined to differentiate these three constructs, first on such dimensions as severity, intention, and child effects; and second on key contextual or environmental factors empirically associated with higher rates of violent behavior in families. Third, normative data on parental spanking frequencies were summarized to better operationalize patterns of physical discipline among abusive and nonabusive parents. Five articles that met selection criteria revealed that abusive parents spanked their children more often than did nonabusive parents. Aggregated data from nonabusive parents were used to compute a continuum or "normal range" of daily spanking frequencies from 0 to 5.73 (M = 2.5) times in 24 hours. While further research is needed to address spanking intensity, severity, and context, results of the research suggest that "relative exposure" to spanking may be an additional risk marker for abuse when considered with other known indicators or risk factors.

  17. Cross-flow Ultrafiltration Scaling Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M

    2006-04-10

    One legacy of the nuclear age is radioactive waste and it must be stabilized to be stored in a safe manner. An important part of the stabilization process is the separation of radioactive solids from the liquid wastes by cross-flow ultrafiltration. The performance of this technology with the wastes to be treated was unknown and, therefore, had to be obtained. However, before beginning a filter study the question of experimental scale had to be addressed. Of course, carrying out experiments using full-size equipment is always ideal, but rarely practical when dealing with plant size processes. Flow loops that will handle millions of liters of slurries, which are either highly caustic or acidic, with flow rates of 10,000 lpm make full-scale tests prohibitively expensive. Moreover, when the slurries happen to be radioactive such work is also very dangerous. All of these considerations lend themselves to investigations at smaller scales and in many situations can be treated with computational analyses. Unfortunately, as scale is reduced it becomes harder to provide prototypic results and the two and three phase multi-component mixtures challenge accurate computational results. To obtain accurate and representative filter results the use of two scales were chosen: (1) Small-scale--would allow the testing with actual radioactive waste samples and compare results with simulated wastes that were not radioactive. For this scale the feed tank held 6 liters of waste and it had a single cross-flow filter tube 0.61 m long. (2) Pilot-scale--would be restricted to use simulated non-radioactive wastes. At this larger scale the feed tank held 120 liters of waste and the filter unit was prototypic to the planned plant facility in pore size (0.1 micron), length (2.29 m), diameter (0.0127 m inside and 0.0159 m outside diameter), and being multi-tubed. The small-scale apparatus is convenient, easy to use, and can test both radioactive and non-radioactive wastes; therefore, there is a

  18. Team health, an assessment approach to engage first year students in cross-cultural and cross-discipline teams towards more effective team-working

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Egea

    Full Text Available Specialists who work in a globalised environment, need to work in teams, if they are to be continuously effective. The challenge for IT educators is to design and implement inter-cultural teamwork practices into their curriculum. Investigating this challenge, this case study describes Team Health, an assessment approach designed to skill students to be more effective in team working in cross-cultural and cross-discipline teams. The educational context is teamwork practice within a first year introductory web design course. Framed by Saunders\\'s virtual team lifecycle model (relationship building and team processes and Hofstede\\'s cultural dimensions (communication and working cross-culturally, the assessment approach utilises reflective and iterative strategies to support team working. At three points in the semester, students complete a survey on these four concepts, identify team strengths and weaknesses from the results of the surveys and work towards addressing one team weakness. The final assessment activity requires students to reflect on team working for the semester. Key attributes for effective team working are identified from the three surveys and the final reflective summaries. This paper compares course outcomes such as team cohesion and student grades to the previous course offering and shows that with the introduction of Team Health, the more complex student cohorts under this study achieve equally well. It is concluded that the guided reflective practices underpinning Team Health can prepare students for first year approaches to teamwork, and thereby provide starting points for working in future global teams where members are both culturally diverse and from different discipline areas.

  19. The East River, Colorado Community Watershed: Hydrogeochemical Studies Spanning Scales and Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K. H.

    2016-12-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and its collaborating institutions are establishing a so-called "Community Watershed" in the headwaters of the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado (USA) designed to quantify processes impacting the ability of mountainous systems to retain and release water, nutrients, carbon, and metals. The East River Community Watershed spans a wide range of scales from hillslope to catena to catchment, with surface water and groundwater linking these geomorphic compartments. Research is highly multi-disciplinary involving a diverse collection of hydrologists, plant ecologists, geochemists, geomorphologists, microbiologists, and climate scientists pursuing both mechanistic and synoptic studies. Studies are focused on assessing the impact of climate perturbations, such as early snowmelt, on coupled ecohydrological and biogeochemical processes as they relate to both water availability and water quality. Data collection activities and monitoring infrastructure are emplaced within the catchment in such a way as to assess the aggregate impact of fine scale processes on catchment scale behavior. Monitoring occurs over diversity of time scales from minutes to months to years, with observational data being used to populate and constrain reactive transport models describing water and nutrient flows across the aforementioned scales of enquiry. Strong infrastructural investments in both data and monitoring networks include dispersed stream gaging, spatially distributed stream water sampling, meteorological station networks, elevation dependent fluxes of carbon and water, and remote sensing datasets, designed to establish baseline data required to assess the impacts of both natural and simulated climate perturbations (e.g. snowmelt manipulation).

  20. Cross-discipline investigation of the relationship between academic performance and online resource access by distance education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Crampton

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Educational technology implementation often owes more to the technical proficiency of the teaching staff and/or the capacity of the institution than to a student outcome-centred design process. Creation of online resources takes considerable time and involves significant cost to both the institution, for devices and platforms, and to students for devices and Internet connectivity charges. Here, we present a cross-discipline investigation of student engagement with a range of simple resources. Our aim was to determining if the provision of such resources had an impact on student academic performance regardless of the students’ level of academic proficiency. This research focused on students studying first-year introductory subjects at a distance (off campus from two different faculties, Arts and Science. Analysis of the web access data from the learning management system (Sakai demonstrated that students who accessed the most resources in terms of diversity and percentage of available resources achieved higher grades. We postulate that the resources prompted students to spend more “time-on-task” and facilitate more active styles of learning. We suggest, however, that students need to be made aware of the value of the resources and how they are best used to enhance academic performance.

  1. Sustainable Land Use in Mountain Regions Under Global Change: Synthesis Across Scales and Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Huber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mountain regions provide essential ecosystem goods and services (EGS for both mountain dwellers and people living outside these areas. Global change endangers the capacity of mountain ecosystems to provide key services. The Mountland project focused on three case study regions in the Swiss Alps and aimed to propose land-use practices and alternative policy solutions to ensure the provision of key EGS under climate and land-use changes. We summarized and synthesized the results of the project and provide insights into the ecological, socioeconomic, and political processes relevant for analyzing global change impacts on a European mountain region. In Mountland, an integrative approach was applied, combining methods from economics and the political and natural sciences to analyze ecosystem functioning from a holistic human-environment system perspective. In general, surveys, experiments, and model results revealed that climate and socioeconomic changes are likely to increase the vulnerability of the EGS analyzed. We regard the following key characteristics of coupled human-environment systems as central to our case study areas in mountain regions: thresholds, heterogeneity, trade-offs, and feedback. Our results suggest that the institutional framework should be strengthened in a way that better addresses these characteristics, allowing for (1 more integrative approaches, (2 a more network-oriented management and steering of political processes that integrate local stakeholders, and (3 enhanced capacity building to decrease the identified vulnerability as central elements in the policy process. Further, to maintain and support the future provision of EGS in mountain regions, policy making should also focus on project-oriented, cross-sectoral policies and spatial planning as a coordination instrument for land use in general.

  2. Cross Correlation Between SSTA and WSA at Different Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Congcong; Wang, Yunhua

    2014-11-01

    Cross correlation between SSTA (sea surface temperature anomaly) and WSA (wind speed anomaly) at different spatial scale is presented in this paper. Satellites data of AMSR-E SST and QuikSCAT wind speed are used to study ocean-atmosphere covariation at different regions, such as Kuroshio Current, Agulhas Current System, Gulf Stream and Brazil Malvinas Current, where mesoscale eddies widely exist accompanying with remarkable air-sea interaction. All these regions present similar features that cross correlation coefficient increases at first and then decreases with the increasing spatial scales of SSTA and WSA. In the case of small spatial scales, the SSTA and WSA are both highly random, which results in low cross correlation. However, for mesoscale cross correlation coefficient presents a robust positive correlation. The phenomenon of robust positive correlation depends on two main reasons. Firstly, thermal effect of ocean reactor on atmosphere causes positive correlation. Secondly, reduced random signals lead cross coefficient to increase. However, when the spatial scale of SSTA and WSA increases to a critical scale, the correlation coefficient starts to decrease. We can draw a conclusion that cross coefficient between SSTA and WSA is relate to spatial scale and cross coefficient reach maximal value at mesoscale.

  3. Discipline Admonished

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2016-01-01

    the discipline. Today, most stocktakers argue, International Relations has moved beyond great debate — the very symbol of the discipline — and is undergoing fragmentation. For some scholars, fragmentation is caused by the lack of any great structuring debate and a proliferation of less-than-great theories......The International Relations discipline has recently witnessed a wave of stocktakings and they surprisingly often follow the narrative that the discipline once revolved around all-encompassing great debates, which, either neatly or claustrophobically depending on the stocktaker, organized....... To others, fragmentation is a result of the divisive great debates themselves. When stocktakers portray fragmentation as novelty, however, they neglect the prominent historical record of this fragmentation narrative. By rereading stocktaking exercises from the 1940s to today, this article argues...

  4. Transdisciplinary application of the cross-scale resilience model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, Shana M.; Angeler, David G.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Garcia, Jorge H.; Allen, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    The cross-scale resilience model was developed in ecology to explain the emergence of resilience from the distribution of ecological functions within and across scales, and as a tool to assess resilience. We propose that the model and the underlying discontinuity hypothesis are relevant to other complex adaptive systems, and can be used to identify and track changes in system parameters related to resilience. We explain the theory behind the cross-scale resilience model, review the cases where it has been applied to non-ecological systems, and discuss some examples of social-ecological, archaeological/ anthropological, and economic systems where a cross-scale resilience analysis could add a quantitative dimension to our current understanding of system dynamics and resilience. We argue that the scaling and diversity parameters suitable for a resilience analysis of ecological systems are appropriate for a broad suite of systems where non-normative quantitative assessments of resilience are desired. Our planet is currently characterized by fast environmental and social change, and the cross-scale resilience model has the potential to quantify resilience across many types of complex adaptive systems.

  5. Discontinuities, cross-scale patterns, and the organization of ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kirsty L.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Barichievy, Chris; Eason, Tarsha; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Graham, Nicholas A.J.; Granholm, Dean; Knutson, Melinda; Nelson, R. John; Nystrom, Magnus; Stow, Craig A.; Sandstrom, Shana M.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological structures and processes occur at specific spatiotemporal scales, and interactions that occur across multiple scales mediate scale-specific (e.g., individual, community, local, or regional) responses to disturbance. Despite the importance of scale, explicitly incorporating a multi-scale perspective into research and management actions remains a challenge. The discontinuity hypothesis provides a fertile avenue for addressing this problem by linking measureable proxies to inherent scales of structure within ecosystems. Here we outline the conceptual framework underlying discontinuities and review the evidence supporting the discontinuity hypothesis in ecological systems. Next we explore the utility of this approach for understanding cross-scale patterns and the organization of ecosystems by describing recent advances for examining nonlinear responses to disturbance and phenomena such as extinctions, invasions, and resilience. To stimulate new research, we present methods for performing discontinuity analysis, detail outstanding knowledge gaps, and discuss potential approaches for addressing these gaps.

  6. Cross-scale interactions affect tree growth and intrinsic water ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. We investigated the potential of cross-scale interactions to affect the outcome of density reduction in a large-scale silvicultural experiment. 2. We measured tree growth and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) based on stable carbon isotopes (13C) to investigate the impacts of thinning across a range of progressively finer spatial scales: site, stand, hillslope position, and neighborhood position. In particular, we focused on the influence of thinning beyond the boundaries of thinned stands to include impacts on downslope and neighboring stands across sites varying in soil moisture. 3. Trees at the wet site responded to thinning with increased growth when compared with trees at the dry site. Additionally, trees in thinned stands at the dry site responded with increased iWUE while trees in thinned stands at the wet site showed no difference in iWUE compared to unthinned stands. 4. We hypothesized that water is not the primary limiting factor for growth at our sites, but that thinning released other resources, such as growing space or nutrients to drive the growth response. At progressively finer spatial scales we found that the responses of trees was not driven by hillslope location (i.e., downslope of thinning) but to changes in local neighborhood tree density. 5. The results of this study demonstrated that water can be viewed as an “agent” that allows us to investigate cross-scale interactions as it links coarse to finer spatial scales and vice ver

  7. Dividing Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2012-01-01

    the periphery of the network—security studies and international political economy in particular—but communication is also divided along the lines of geography and policy/theory. The article concludes that divisions notwithstanding, IR communication remains centered around American, general, and theoretical IR...... than 20,000 articles published in 59 IR journals to construct a network among IR journals and finds a discipline with a center consisting of pedigreed IR journals, albeit closely related to political science. Divisions are identifiable as specialty areas that form clusters of specialized journals along...

  8. Cross-validating a bidimensional mathematics anxiety scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiyan Bai

    2011-03-01

    The psychometric properties of a 14-item bidimensional Mathematics Anxiety Scale-Revised (MAS-R) were empirically cross-validated with two independent samples consisting of 647 secondary school students. An exploratory factor analysis on the scale yielded strong construct validity with a clear two-factor structure. The results from a confirmatory factor analysis indicated an excellent model-fit (χ(2) = 98.32, df = 62; normed fit index = .92, comparative fit index = .97; root mean square error of approximation = .04). The internal consistency (.85), test-retest reliability (.71), interfactor correlation (.26, p mathematics anxiety. Math anxiety, as measured by MAS-R, correlated negatively with student achievement scores (r = -.38), suggesting that MAS-R may be a useful tool for classroom teachers and other educational personnel tasked with identifying students at risk of reduced math achievement because of anxiety.

  9. Transcending the discipline

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The international U&U seminar invites PhD work which addresses the discipline of urbanism, and encourages contributions that highlight its trans-disciplinary nature. Urbanism is grounded in various practices, discourses and realities with respect to the city. The seminar will focus on multiple approaches – from historic enquiry to project-led analysis – and cover a wide range of spaces and scales - from territories to neighborhoods, from landscapes to cityscapes. The seminar seeks contributio...

  10. Developing and validating a cross-national cumulative scale measuring attitudes toward illegal immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, C.G.; Higler, L.E.A.; Woelders, S.; Ommundsen, R.; Pernice, R.

    2013-01-01

    The article reports the results of a Mokken Scale Procedure (MSP) developing a hierarchical cross-national scale gauging attitudes toward illegal immigration, and a subsequent qualitative cross-national assessment of this scale. Responses to a 20-item Likert-type-scale were collected in two national

  11. Cross-Scale Interactions and the Distribution-Abundance Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Earl E.; Davis, Christopher J.; Skelly, David K.; Relyea, Rick A.; Benard, Michael F.; McCauley, Shannon J.

    2014-01-01

    Positive interspecific relationships between local abundance and extent of regional distribution are among the most ubiquitous patterns in ecology. Although multiple hypotheses have been proposed, the mechanisms underlying distribution-abundance (d-a) relationships remain poorly understood. We examined the intra- and interspecific distribution-abundance relationships for a metacommunity of 13 amphibian species sampled for 15 consecutive years. Mean density of larvae in occupied ponds was positively related to number of ponds occupied by species; employing the fraction of ponds uniquely available to each species this same relationship sharply decelerates. The latter relationship suggested that more abundant species inhabited most available habitats annually, whereas rarer species were dispersal limited. We inferred the mechanisms responsible for this pattern based on the dynamics of one species, Pseudacris triseriata, which transitioned between a rare, narrowly distributed species to a common, widely distributed species and then back again. Both transitions were presaged by marked changes in mean local densities driven by climatic effects on habitat quality. We identified threshold densities separating these population regime shifts that differed with landscape configuration. Our data suggest that these transitions were caused by strong cross-scale interactions between local resource/niche processes and larger scale metapopulation processes. The patterns we observed have relevance for understanding the mechanisms of interspecific d-a relationships and critical thresholds associated with habitat fragmentation. PMID:24875899

  12. Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minority Graduate Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Disciplines: A Cross Institutional Analysis of their Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Tanya

    Considering the importance of a diverse science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) research workforce for our country's future, it is troubling that many underrepresented racial minority (URM) students start graduate STEM programs, but do not finish. However, some institutional contexts better position students for degree completion than others. The purpose of this study was to uncover the academic and social experiences, power dynamics, and programmatic/institutional structures URM students face within their graduate STEM programs that hinder or support degree progression. Using a critical socialization framework applied in a cross-comparative qualitative study, I focused on how issues of race, ethnicity, and underrepresentation within the educational contexts shape students' experiences. Data was collected from focus group interviews involving 53 URM graduate students pursuing STEM disciplines across three institution types -- a Predominately White Institution, a Hispanic-Serving Institution, and a Historically Black University. Results demonstrate that when students' relationships with faculty advisors were characterized by benign neglect, students felt lost, wasted time and energy making avoidable mistakes, had less positive views of their experiences, and had more difficulty progressing through classes or research, which could cause them to delay time to degree completion or to leave with a master's degree. Conversely, faculty empowered students when they helped them navigate difficult processes/milestones with regular check-ins, but also allowed students room to make decisions and solve problems independently. Further, faculty set the tone for the overall interactional culture and helping behavior in the classroom and lab contexts; where faculty modeled collaboration and concern for students, peers were likely to do the same. International peers sometimes excluded domestic students both socially and academically, which had a negative affect on

  13. Cross-scale feedbacks and scale mismatches as influences on cultural services and the resilience of protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Kristine; De Vos, Alta; Cumming, Graeme S; Moore, Christine; Biggs, Duan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are a central strategy for achieving global conservation goals, but their continued existence depends heavily on maintaining sufficient social and political support to outweigh economic interests or other motives for land conversion. Thus, the resilience of protected areas can be considered a function of their perceived benefits to society. Nature-based tourism (NBT), a cultural ecosystem service, provides a key source of income to protected areas, facilitating a sustainable solution to conservation. The ability of tourism to generate income depends, however, on both the scales at which this cultural service is provided and the scales at which tourists respond to services on offer. This observation raises a set of location-, context-, and scale-related questions that need to be confronted before we can understand and value cultural service provision appropriately. We combine elements of resilience analysis with a systems ecology framework and apply this to NBT in protected areas to investigate cross-scale interactions and scale mismatches. We postulate that cross-scale effects can either have a positive effect on protected area resilience or lead to scale mismatches, depending on their interactions with cross-scale feedbacks. To demonstrate this, we compare spatial scales and nested levels of institutions to develop a typology of scale mismatches for common scenarios in NBT. In our new typology, the severity of a scale mismatch is expressed as the ratio of spatial scale to institutional level, producing 25 possible outcomes with differing consequences for system resilience. We predict that greater differences between interacting scales and levels, and greater magnitudes of cross-scale interactions, will lead to greater magnitudes of scale mismatch. Achieving a better understanding of feedbacks and mismatches, and finding ways of aligning spatial and institutional scales, will be critical for strengthening the resilience of protected areas that

  14. Writing for the Discipline in the Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, Olivier; Grimes, Susan; Rolls, Alistair

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the issue of students' writing skills in the discipline of Engineering and beyond. It is the result of a discussion between three academics from different discipline backgrounds: Teaching and Learning, the Humanities and Engineering. We start with a review of the strategies commonly used to address problems in students'…

  15. Cross Cultural Validation Of Perceived Workfamily Facilitation Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work family interface contains four unique factors based on studies from western countries. However, some of these studies have questioned the cross cultural adoption of psychological concept, and called for a re-validation prior to adoption. The main purpose of this study is to re-validate the four factor structure that ...

  16. Developing the University of the Philippines Loneliness Assessment Scale: A Cross-Cultural Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharayil, Davis Porinchu

    2012-01-01

    As the existing scales to measure loneliness are almost all Western and there is no single scale developed cross-culturally for this purpose, this study is designed to develop a reliable and valid scale to measure the experience of loneliness of individuals from individualistic or collectivistic cultures. There are three samples for this study…

  17. Energy scaling, crab crossing and the pair problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1988-12-01

    Making reasonable assumptions, the luminosities of linear colliders are calculated for center-of-mass energies of 10 GeV, 100 GeV and 1 TeV. A calculation is also mode for a 1/2 TeV collider that could be upgraded to 1 TeV later. The improvements possible using ''crab-like'' crossing are also given. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. The Political Economy of Cross-Scale Networks in Resource Co-Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Neil Adger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate linkages between stakeholders in resource management that occur at different spatial and institutional levels and identify the winners and losers in such interactions. So-called cross-scale interactions emerge because of the benefits to individual stakeholder groups in undertaking them or the high costs of not undertaking them. Hence there are uneven gains from cross-scale interactions that are themselves an integral part of social-ecological system governance. The political economy framework outlined here suggests that the determinants of the emergence of cross-scale interactions are the exercise of relative power between stakeholders and their costs of accessing and creating linkages. Cross-scale interactions by powerful stakeholders have the potential to undermine trust in resource management arrangements. If government regulators, for example, mobilize information and resources from cross-level interactions to reinforce their authority, this often disempowers other stakeholders such as resource users. Offsetting such impacts, some cross-scale interactions can be empowering for local level user groups in creating social and political capital. These issues are illustrated with observations on resource management in a marine protected area in Tobago in the Caribbean. The case study demonstrates that the structure of the cross-scale interplay, in terms of relative winners and losers, determines its contribution to the resilience of social-ecological systems.

  19. Cross Validated Temperament Scale Validities Computed Using Profile Similarity Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-27

    The Challenge and Opportunity of the Inverted U. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 61-76. Hogan, R. (2005). In defense of personality ...27 April 2017 at the 32nd Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology , Orlando, FL Disclaimer: All...14. ABSTRACT Personality and temperament scales are used in employment settings to predict performance because they are valid and have

  20. CROSS-CULTURAL ADAPTATION AND VALIDATION EVIDENCE OF THE PERINATAL GRIEF SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Gisele Ferreira; Montigny, Francine de; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to carry out cross-cultural adaptation and validation of evidence Perinatal Grief Scale into Portuguese of Brazil and French of Canada languages. Method: a methodological study involving application of Perinatal Grief Scale from the set of cross-cultural adaptation procedures. The population was all women that had stillbirth in the year 2013 residents in the municipal district of Maringa-Brazil and participants of the Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche en Intervention Famil...

  1. DISCIPLINE OR CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bulent Tarman

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this literature review are twofold. Firstly, it explains discipline and causes of students’ misbehavior and classroom management. In this sense, this review focuses on discipline in the conflict of the educational platform elements; and related the philosophic literature. Secondly, this review draws a conclusion by summarizing the opinions and influencing of discipline upon school environment and students’ learning. In this regard, this study discusses two models for dealing w...

  2. A Brazilian Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation of the modified JOA scale for myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratali, Raphael R; Smith, Justin S; Motta, Rodrigo L N; Martins, Samuel M; Motta, Marcel M; Rocha, Ricardo D; Herrero, Carlos Fernando P S

    2017-02-01

    To develop a version of the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population. The well-established process of forward-backward translation was employed along with cross-cultural adaptation. Three bilingual translators (English and native Portuguese) performed the forward translation of the mJOA scale from English to Portuguese based on iterative discussions used to reach a consensus translation. The translated version of the mJOA scale was then back-translated into English by a native English-speaking translator unaware of the concepts involved with the mJOA scale. The original mJOA scale and the back-translated version were compared by a native North American neurosurgeon, and as they were considered equivalent, the final version of the mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted was defined. To facilitate global and cross-cultural comparisons of the severity of cervical myelopathy, this study presents a version of the mJOA scale that was translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population.

  3. Cross-Cultural Scaling Studies in the Development of Probabilistic Teaching Performance Criteria Anchored to Utility and Time Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Mark G.; And Others

    Previous cross-cultural scaling studies are incorporated into a training and performance model of the classroom teaching job of the college professor. The model, based on German and American data, describes and sets a norm for the improvement of classroom performance. Eight teaching performance factors and a set of seven continua (six predictors…

  4. Effects of input uncertainty on cross-scale crop modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waha, Katharina; Huth, Neil; Carberry, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The quality of data on climate, soils and agricultural management in the tropics is in general low or data is scarce leading to uncertainty in process-based modeling of cropping systems. Process-based crop models are common tools for simulating crop yields and crop production in climate change impact studies, studies on mitigation and adaptation options or food security studies. Crop modelers are concerned about input data accuracy as this, together with an adequate representation of plant physiology processes and choice of model parameters, are the key factors for a reliable simulation. For example, assuming an error in measurements of air temperature, radiation and precipitation of ± 0.2°C, ± 2 % and ± 3 % respectively, Fodor & Kovacs (2005) estimate that this translates into an uncertainty of 5-7 % in yield and biomass simulations. In our study we seek to answer the following questions: (1) are there important uncertainties in the spatial variability of simulated crop yields on the grid-cell level displayed on maps, (2) are there important uncertainties in the temporal variability of simulated crop yields on the aggregated, national level displayed in time-series, and (3) how does the accuracy of different soil, climate and management information influence the simulated crop yields in two crop models designed for use at different spatial scales? The study will help to determine whether more detailed information improves the simulations and to advise model users on the uncertainty related to input data. We analyse the performance of the point-scale crop model APSIM (Keating et al., 2003) and the global scale crop model LPJmL (Bondeau et al., 2007) with different climate information (monthly and daily) and soil conditions (global soil map and African soil map) under different agricultural management (uniform and variable sowing dates) for the low-input maize-growing areas in Burkina Faso/West Africa. We test the models' response to different levels of input

  5. Cross-Validation and Extension of the MMPI-A IMM Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Sandra; McCumber, Stacey; Dahlstrom, W. Grant

    1999-01-01

    Cross-validated the IMM scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescents (MMPI-A), a measure of ego level, with 151 college students. Means and standard deviations were obtained on IMM scale from the MMPI-A and another MMPI version for males and females. (SLD)

  6. Robustness and cross-cultural equivalence of the Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bücker, J.J.L.E.; Furrer, O.F.G.; Peeters Weem, T.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    - PURPOSE - The purpose of this paper is to assess the cross-cultural equivalence of the four-dimensional 20-item Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS) and the two-dimensional 12-item cultural intelligence (CQ) short scale. Furthermore, the study elaborates on the results by discussing the differences

  7. Fostering Self-Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, George G.; Duquette, Jeffrey F.

    2008-01-01

    From its inception, a primary goal of public education has been to develop self-discipline among students, best seen as them exhibiting socially and morally responsible behavior. This goal coincides with another important educational imperative, as well as an alternative meaning of the term "discipline": to correct misbehavior to create and…

  8. DISCIPLINE OR CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Tarman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this literature review are twofold. Firstly, it explains discipline and causes of students’ misbehavior and classroom management. In this sense, this review focuses on discipline in the conflict of the educational platform elements; and related the philosophic literature. Secondly, this review draws a conclusion by summarizing the opinions and influencing of discipline upon school environment and students’ learning. In this regard, this study discusses two models for dealing with classroom discipline: psychoanalytic method and behavior modification. Although two models apply different methods for dealing with classroom discipline, this study suggests that, to create a successful classroom management, educators should use both of them instead of applying only the one.

  9. The Effect of Scale Tailoring for Cross-Cultural Application on Scale Reliability and Construct Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.; Ketterer, John J.

    2002-01-01

    Findings for high school students in Mexico (n=3,153 and n=400) administered a career decision making self-efficacy scale show that tailoring the scale with the best etic and emic items neither improved recovery of the factor-structure nor reduced the effects of the extreme-response style variable. (SLD)

  10. A Unified Multi-scale Model for Cross-Scale Evaluation and Integration of Hydrological and Biogeochemical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Yang, X.; Bailey, V. L.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Hinkle, C.

    2013-12-01

    Mathematical representations of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in soil, plant, aquatic, and atmospheric systems vary with scale. Process-rich models are typically used to describe hydrological and biogeochemical processes at the pore and small scales, while empirical, correlation approaches are often used at the watershed and regional scales. A major challenge for multi-scale modeling is that water flow, biogeochemical processes, and reactive transport are described using different physical laws and/or expressions at the different scales. For example, the flow is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations at the pore-scale in soils, by the Darcy law in soil columns and aquifer, and by the Navier-Stokes equations again in open water bodies (ponds, lake, river) and atmosphere surface layer. This research explores whether the physical laws at the different scales and in different physical domains can be unified to form a unified multi-scale model (UMSM) to systematically investigate the cross-scale, cross-domain behavior of fundamental processes at different scales. This presentation will discuss our research on the concept, mathematical equations, and numerical execution of the UMSM. Three-dimensional, multi-scale hydrological processes at the Disney Wilderness Preservation (DWP) site, Florida will be used as an example for demonstrating the application of the UMSM. In this research, the UMSM was used to simulate hydrological processes in rooting zones at the pore and small scales including water migration in soils under saturated and unsaturated conditions, root-induced hydrological redistribution, and role of rooting zone biogeochemical properties (e.g., root exudates and microbial mucilage) on water storage and wetting/draining. The small scale simulation results were used to estimate effective water retention properties in soil columns that were superimposed on the bulk soil water retention properties at the DWP site. The UMSM parameterized from smaller

  11. A cross-scale constrained dynamic programming algorithm for stereo matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sipei; Da, Feipeng; Yu, Jian; Huang, Yuan; Gai, Shaoyan

    2017-06-01

    Stereo matching is an important and hot research topic in computer vision. In order to solve the well-known streaking effects of dynamic programming, and reduce the mismatch points on edges, discontinuous and textureless regions, we propose a cross-scale constrained dynamic programming algorithm for stereo matching. The algorithm involves both image pyramid model and Gaussian scale space to operate a coarse-to-fine dynamic programming on multi-scale cost volumes. For the purpose of improving the disparity accuracy in textureless region, a cross-scale regularized constraint is added to ensure the cost consistency, the computational burden is reduced by using the disparity estimation from lower scale operation to seed the search on the larger image. Both synthetic and real scene experimental results show our algorithm can effectively reduce the mismatch in textureless regions.

  12. Assessment of the cross-national validity of an End-anchored 9-point hedonic product liking scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuckelaer, A. de; Zeeman, M.; Trijp, J.C.M. van

    2015-01-01

    An end-anchored 9-point hedonic product liking (PL) scale is an easy-to-apply instrument to examine consumers’ PL. Because 9-point hedonic PL scales are also popular in cross-national research, strong demands are put on its cross-national equivalence, that is, the absence of cross-national scoring

  13. Assessment of the cross-national validity of an End-anchored 9-point hedonic product liking scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuckelaer, de A.; Zeeman, M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An end-anchored 9-point hedonic product liking (PL) scale is an easy-to-apply instrument to examine consumers’ PL. Because 9-point hedonic PL scales are also popular in cross-national research, strong demands are put on its cross-national equivalence, that is, the absence of cross-national

  14. A New Scaling Law of Resonance in Total Scattering Cross Section in Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Gorur Govinda

    2009-10-01

    Electrical discharges in gases continue to be an active area of research because of industrial applications such as power systems, environmental clean up, laser technology, semiconductor fabrication etc. A fundamental knowledge of electron-gas neutral interaction is indispensable and, the total scattering cross section is one of the quantities that have been measured extensively. The energy dependence of the total cross sections shows peaks or resonance processes that are operative in the collision process. These peaks and the energies at which they occur are shown to satisfy a broad relationship involving the polarizability and the dipole moment of the target particle. Data on 62 target particles belonging to the following species are analyzed. (Eq 1) Rare gas atoms (Eq 2) Di-atomic molecules with combinations of polar, non-polar, attaching, and non-attaching properties Poly-atomic molecules with combinations of polar, non-polar, attaching, and non-attaching properties. Methods of improving the newly identified scaling law and possible application have been identified. 1 INTRODUCTION: Data on electron-neutral interactions are one of the most fundamental in the study of gaseous electronics and an immense literature, both experimental and theoretical, has become available since about the year 1920. [1-5]. In view of the central role which these data play in all facets of gas discharges and plasma science, it is felt that a critical review of available data is timely, mainly for the community of high voltage engineers and industries connected with plasma science in general. The electron-neutral interaction, often referred to as scattering in the scientific literature, is quantified by using the quantity called the total scattering cross section (QT, m^2). In the literature on cross section, total cross section and total scattering cross section are terms used synonymously and we follow the same practice. A definition may be found in reference [1]. This paper concerns

  15. Identifying food-related life style segments by a cross-culturally valid scaling device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1994-01-01

    We present a new view of life style, based on a cognitive perspective, which makes life style specific to certain areas of consumption. The specific area of consumption studied here is food, resulting in a concept of food-related life style. An instrument is developed that can measure food......-related life style in a cross-culturally valid way. To this end, we have col-lected a pool of 202 items, collected data in three countries, and have con-structed scales based on cross-culturally stable patterns. These scales have then been subjected to a number of tests of reliability and vali-dity. We have...

  16. Highly charged ion impact on uracil: Cross sections measurements and scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, A. N.; Kasthurirangan, S.; Champion, C.; Rivarola, R. D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2014-04-01

    Absolute total ionization cross sections (TCS) of uracil in collisions with highly charge C, O and F ions are measured. The scaling properties of cross sections are obtained as a function of projectile charge state and energy. The measurements are compared with the CDW-EIS, CB1 and CTMC calculations. The absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS) of secondary electron emission from uracil in collisions with bare MeV energy C and O ions are also measured. Large enhancement in forward emission is observed.

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity of the German version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, K.; Sprott, H.; Mannion, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In patients with chronic pain, catastrophizing is a significant determinant of self-rated pain intensity and disability. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) was developed to assist with both treatment planning and outcome assessment; to date, no German version has been validated. METHODS: A cross-cultural adaptation of the PCS into German was carried out, strictly according to recommended methods. A questionnaire booklet containing the PCS, visual analogue scales (numeric rating s...

  18. Design and Analysis of a Formation Flying System for the Cross-Scale Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, Stefania; Bastante, Juan C.; Jubineau, Franck

    2007-01-01

    The ESA-funded "Cross-Scale Technology Reference Study has been carried out with the primary aim to identify and analyse a mission concept for the investigation of fundamental space plasma processes that involve dynamical non-linear coupling across multiple length scales. To fulfill this scientific mission goal, a constellation of spacecraft is required, flying in loose formations around the Earth and sampling three characteristic plasma scale distances simultaneously, with at least two satellites per scale: electron kinetic (10 km), ion kinetic (100-2000 km), magnetospheric fluid (3000-15000 km). The key Cross-Scale mission drivers identified are the number of S/C, the space segment configuration, the reference orbit design, the transfer and deployment strategy, the inter-satellite localization and synchronization process and the mission operations. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the mission design and analysis for the Cross-Scale concept and outlines a technically feasible mission architecture for a multi-dimensional investigation of space plasma phenomena. The main effort has been devoted to apply a thorough mission-level trade-off approach and to accomplish an exhaustive analysis, so as to allow the characterization of a wide range of mission requirements and design solutions.

  19. Scaling of triple differential cross-sections for asymmetric (e,2e ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asymmetric (e, 2e) process; triple differential cross-section; scaling; helium ... initial state wave function is not exactly known and those in use do not have an ... Z dependence of the target wave function for (e, 2e) process. Consider the one- parameter variational wave function of helium ground state φi ( r1, r2) = (. Z 3 π ).

  20. Longitudinal Cross-Gender Factorial Invariance of the Academic Motivation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grouzet, Frederick M. E.; Otis, Nancy; Pelletier, Luc G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the measurement and latent construct invariance of the Academic Motivation Scale (Vallerand, Blais, Brier, & Pelletier, 1989; Vallerand et al., 1992, 1993) across both gender and time. An integrative analytical strategy was used to assess in one set of nested models both longitudinal and cross-gender invariance, and…

  1. Diversity And Sustainability Of Small – Scale Farming In Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the diversity and sustainability attributes of crops grown by small – scale farmers in Calabar Urban of Cross River State. It has as its objectives, the identification of the structure of agricultural system in Calabar- Urban, the determination of the types and diversity of crops grown by the farmers, the extent ...

  2. Measuring Statistics Anxiety: Cross-Country Validity of the Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina; Carmona, Jose

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to test the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Vigil-Colet et al.'s Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS), taking into account evidences based on (a) internal structure (factorial structure and cross-country invariance) and (b) relationships to other variables (the statistics anxiety's nomological network).…

  3. Does Vanity Describe Other Cultures? A Cross-Cultural Examination of the Vanity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durvasula, Srinivas; Lysonski, Steven; Watson, John

    2001-01-01

    Data from 475 young adults in China, India, New Zealand, and the United States were used to test the cross-cultural applicability of the Vanity Scale, a measure of concern with physical appearance and achievement. It was found to have similar dimensionality and factor structure, internal consistency, and discriminant validity. (Contains 57…

  4. Discursive barriers and cross-scale forest governance in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb T. Gallemore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Students of social-ecological systems have emphasized the need for effective cross-scale governance. We theorized that discursive barriers, particularly between technical and traditional practices, can act as a barrier to cross-scale collaboration. We analyzed the effects of discursive divides on collaboration on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ policy development in Central Kalimantan, an Indonesian province on the island of Borneo selected in 2010 to pilot subnational REDD+ policy. We argue that the complexities of bridging local land management practices and technical approaches to greenhouse gas emissions reduction and carbon offsetting create barriers to cross-scale collaboration. We tested these hypotheses using an exponential random graph model of collaboration among 36 organizations active in REDD+ policy in the province. We found that discursive divides were associated with a decreased probability of collaboration between organizations and that organizations headquartered outside the province were less likely to collaborate with organizations headquartered in the province. We conclude that bridging discursive communities presents a chicken-and-egg problem for cross-scale governance of social-ecological systems. In precisely the situations where it is most important, when bridging transnational standards with local knowledge and land management practices, it is the most difficult.

  5. Finite Mixture Multilevel Multidimensional Ordinal IRT Models for Large Scale Cross-Cultural Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. de Jong (Martijn); J-B.E.M. Steenkamp (Jan-Benedict)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe present a class of finite mixture multilevel multidimensional ordinal IRT models for large scale cross-cultural research. Our model is proposed for confirmatory research settings. Our prior for item parameters is a mixture distribution to accommodate situations where different groups

  6. Cross-cultural validity of the Individualised Care Scale - a Rasch model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, Riitta; Schmidt, Lee A; Katajisto, Jouko; Berg, Agneta; Idvall, Ewa; Kalafati, Maria; Land, Lucy; Lemonidou, Chryssoula; Välimäki, Maritta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, using Rasch model analysis, the measurement invariance of the item ratings of the Individualised Care Scale. Evidence of reliability is needed in cross-cultural comparative studies. To be used in different cultures and languages, the items must function the same way. A methodological and comparative design. Secondary analysis of data, gathered in 2005-2006 from a cross-cultural survey using the Individualised Care Scale from Finnish, Greek, Swedish and English predischarge hospitalised orthopaedic and trauma patients (n = 1093), was used. The Rasch model, which produces calibrations (item locations and rank) and item fit statistics, was computed using the Winstep program. The rank of average Individualised Care Scale item calibrations (-2·26-1·52) followed a generally similar trend (Infit ≤ 1·3), but slight differences in the item rank by country were found and some item misfit was identified within the same items. There was some variation in the order and location of some Individualised Care Scale items for individual countries, but the overall pattern of item calibration was generally corresponding. The Rasch model provided information about the appropriateness, sensitivity and item function in different cultures providing more in-depth information about the psychometric properties of the Individualised Care Scale instrument. Comparison of the four versions of the Individualised Care Scale - patient revealed general correspondence in the item calibration patterns although slight differences in the rank order of the items were found. Some items showed also a slight misfit. Based on these results, the phrasing and targeting of some items should be considered. The Individualised Care Scale - Patient version can be used in cross-cultural studies for the measurement of patients' perceptions of individualised care. Information obtained with the use of the Individualised Care Scale in clinical nursing practice is important

  7. Cross-cultural evaluation of the modified Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale across disease stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virués-Ortega, Javier; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Micheli, Federico; Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier; Serrano-Dueñas, Marcos; Martínez-Martín, Pablo

    2010-07-30

    This study assessed the psychometric attributes of the modified Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale (mPPRS). In an attempt to improve scale's scaling assumptions and content validity, all types of hallucinations were rated and all items were scored based on intensity. The scale was cross-culturally adapted to four Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, and Paraguay). Acceptability, internal consistency, factor structure, convergent and known-groups validity, and precision (standard error of measurement, SEM) were explored. A total of 388 patients with PD were included in the study (age, 64.5 +/- 10.7 years; 59.8% males; PD duration, 8.2 +/- 4.9 years). The mPPRS was highly usable in terms of missing values generated and scores distribution (total computable scores, 99.7%, ceiling effect, Hoehn and Yahr stage (P scale's content validity and internal consistency. (c) 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  8. The revised Civilian Mississippi Scale for PTSD: reliability, validity, and cross-language stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, F H; Perilla, J L

    1996-04-01

    Examined in two studies the psychometric properties of a revised 30-item version of the civilian form of the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) developed by Keane, Caddell, and Taylor (1988). Study 1, whose sample was composed of 37 bilingual adults who had experienced a variety of traumatic events, was undertaken primarily to examine the linguistic equivalence of a Spanish translation of the scale. High cross-language stability was demonstrated, and both English and Spanish versions showed high internal consistency. Study 2, which used a sample of 404 victims of Hurricane Andrew, provided additional evidence of scale reliability and also showed that the scale correlates in meaningful ways with known traumatic stressors. Together the results indicate that the scale is applicable to different populations and events and constitutes a valid and reliable self-report, measure of PTSD.

  9. Cross-scale impact of climate temporal variability on ecosystem water and carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Athanasios; Fatichi, Simone; Katul, Gabriel G.; Ivanov, Valeriy Y.

    2015-09-01

    While the importance of ecosystem functioning is undisputed in the context of climate change and Earth system modeling, the role of short-scale temporal variability of hydrometeorological forcing (~1 h) on the related ecosystem processes remains to be fully understood. Various impacts of meteorological forcing variability on water and carbon fluxes across a range of scales are explored here using numerical simulations. Synthetic meteorological drivers that highlight dynamic features of the short temporal scale in series of precipitation, temperature, and radiation are constructed. These drivers force a mechanistic ecohydrological model that propagates information content into the dynamics of water and carbon fluxes for an ensemble of representative ecosystems. The focus of the analysis is on a cross-scale effect of the short-scale forcing variability on the modeled evapotranspiration and ecosystem carbon assimilation. Interannual variability of water and carbon fluxes is emphasized in the analysis. The main study inferences are summarized as follows: (a) short-scale variability of meteorological input does affect water and carbon fluxes across a wide range of time scales, spanning from the hourly to the annual and longer scales; (b) different ecosystems respond to the various characteristics of the short-scale variability of the climate forcing in various ways, depending on dominant factors limiting system productivity; (c) whenever short-scale variability of meteorological forcing influences primarily fast processes such as photosynthesis, its impact on the slow-scale variability of water and carbon fluxes is small; and (d) whenever short-scale variability of the meteorological forcing impacts slow processes such as movement and storage of water in the soil, the effects of the variability can propagate to annual and longer time scales.

  10. Cross-flow turbines: progress report on physical and numerical model studies at large laboratory scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnik, Martin; Bachant, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Cross-flow turbines show potential in marine hydrokinetic (MHK) applications. A research focus is on accurately predicting device performance and wake evolution to improve turbine array layouts for maximizing overall power output, i.e., minimizing wake interference, or taking advantage of constructive wake interaction. Experiments were carried with large laboratory-scale cross-flow turbines D O (1 m) using a turbine test bed in a large cross-section tow tank, designed to achieve sufficiently high Reynolds numbers for the results to be Reynolds number independent with respect to turbine performance and wake statistics, such that they can be reliably extrapolated to full scale and used for model validation. Several turbines of varying solidity were employed, including the UNH Reference Vertical Axis Turbine (RVAT) and a 1:6 scale model of the DOE-Sandia Reference Model 2 (RM2) turbine. To improve parameterization in array simulations, an actuator line model (ALM) was developed to provide a computationally feasible method for simulating full turbine arrays inside Navier-Stokes models. Results are presented for the simulation of performance and wake dynamics of cross-flow turbines and compared with experiments and body-fitted mesh, blade-resolving CFD. Supported by NSF-CBET Grant 1150797, Sandia National Laboratories.

  11. The Discipline Controversy Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1996-01-01

    Found that neither the authoritative model nor the liberal (permissive) model offers parents an efficacious model of childrearing. Each polarized model contains an element of truth, but each demonizes the other. Argues that within a responsive and supportive parent-child relationship, prudent use of punishment is a necessary tool in discipline.…

  12. Adopted Children and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Adopted Children & Discipline Page Content Article Body Some parents are ... Updated 11/21/2015 Source Caring for Your School-Age Child: Ages 5 to 12 (Copyright © 2004 American Academy ...

  13. Using Assertive Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Debra A.; And Others

    Assertive Discipline (AD) is a modified version of assertion training skills. It is a systematic combination of verbal assertiveness training combined with teachers using everyday rewards and punishments to positively influence relationships and students' behavior. When using the AD model, the teacher must: (1) clearly convey their rules and…

  14. The compensatory health beliefs scale: psychometric properties of a cross-culturally adapted scale for use in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nooijer, Jascha; Puijk-Hekman, Saskia; van Assema, Patricia

    2009-10-01

    This study assesses the psychometric properties of a measuring scale for compensatory health beliefs (CHBs), culturally adapted for use in the Dutch context. CHBs refer to the idea that people can compensate for unhealthy (mostly pleasant) behaviours with healthy behaviours, e.g. 'It is OK to eat a chocolate bar, because I am going to the gym tonight'. We are critical towards such beliefs as they may also be an excuse to justify unhealthy behaviours. Before such effects can be studied, an appropriate tool to measure CHBs must be developed. We adapted a Canadian scale, consisting of four factors relating to beliefs about substance use, eating/sleeping habits, stress and weight regulation, translating it according to guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation and testing it among 145 Dutch students. Factor analysis showed that the structure was not entirely identical in the Dutch context, and the internal consistency of the four subscales was also low. The overall scale showed a high internal consistency (alpha = 0.78), indicating the existence of an underlying construct, and a high Pearson correlation between the first and second measurements (r = 0.82), showing good stability. We recommend using the overall scale and further studying its reliability among other subgroups as well as its validity.

  15. Development of modern CANDU PHWR cross-section libraries for SCALE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoman, Nathan T., E-mail: nshoman@vols.utk.edu; Skutnik, Steven E., E-mail: sskutnik@utk.edu

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • New ORIGEN libraries for CANDU 28 and 37-element fuel assemblies have been created. • These new reactor data libraries are based on modern ENDF/B-VII.0 cross-section data. • The updated CANDU data libraries show good agreement with radiochemical assay data. • Eu-154 overestimated when using ENDF-VII.0 due to a lower thermal capture cross-section. - Abstract: A new set of SCALE fuel lattice models have been developed for the 28-element and 37-element CANDU fuel assembly designs using modern cross-section data from ENDF-B/VII.0 in order to produce new reactor data libraries for SCALE/ORIGEN depletion analyses. These new libraries are intended to provide users with a convenient means of evaluating depletion of CANDU fuel assemblies using ORIGEN through pre-generated cross sections based on SCALE lattice physics calculations. The performance of the new CANDU ORIGEN libraries in depletion analysis benchmarks to radiochemical assay data were compared to the previous version of the CANDU libraries provided with SCALE (based on WIMS-AECL models). Benchmark comparisons with available radiochemical assay data indicate that the new cross-section libraries perform well at matching major actinide species (U/Pu), which are generally within 1–4% of experimental values. The library also showed similar or better results over the WIMS-AECL library regarding fission product species and minor actinoids (Np, Am, and Cm). However, a notable exception was in calculated inventories of {sup 154}Eu and {sup 155}Eu, where the new library employing modern nuclear data (ENDF/B-VII.0) performed substantially poorer than the previous WIMS-AECL library (which used ENDF-B/VI.8 cross-sections for these species). The cause for this discrepancy appears to be due to differences in the {sup 154}Eu thermal capture cross-section between ENDF/B-VI.8 and ENDF/B-VII.0, an effect which is exacerbated by the highly thermalized flux of a CANDU heavy water reactor compared to that of a

  16. Charged-current inclusive neutrino cross sections in the SuperScaling model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, M. V., E-mail: martin.inrne@gmail.com [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Grupo de Física Nuclear, Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Megias, G. D.; Caballero, J. A. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); González-Jiménez, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Moreno, O.; Donnelly, T. W. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Barbaro, M. B. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Antonov, A. N. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Moya de Guerra, E.; Udías, J. M. [Grupo de Física Nuclear, Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)

    2016-03-25

    SuperScaling model (SuSA) predictions to neutrino-induced charged-current π{sup +} production in the Δ-resonance region are explored under MiniBooNE experimental conditions. The SuSA charged-current π{sup +} results are in good agreement with data on neutrino flux-averaged double-differential cross sections. The SuSA model for quasielastic scattering and its extension to the pion production region are used for predictions of charged-current inclusive neutrino-nucleus cross sections. Results are also compared with the T2K experimental data for inclusive scattering.

  17. Psychometric evaluation of the exercise identity scale among Greek adults and cross-cultural validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Symeon P; Kaperoni, Maria; Moustaka, Frederiki C; Anderson, Dean F

    2008-09-01

    The present study reported on translating the Exercise Identity Scale (EIS: Anderson & Cychosz, 1994) into Greek and examining its psychometric properties and cross-cultural validity based on U.S. individuals' EIS responses. Using four samples comprising 33, 103, and 647 Greek individuals, including exercisers and nonexercisers, and a similar sample comprising 800 U.S. individuals, the concurrent validity, factor structure, internal reliability, test-retest reliability, external validity, gender invariance, and cross-cultural validity of the EIS responses were examined using confirmatory factor analytical procedures. The results supported the concurrent validity, an adequate unidimensional factor structure for the translated EIS and the internal reliability and test-retest reliability over a 6-week interval. Further, cross-gender configural, partial metric, partial strong factorial, and partial strict factorial invariance and cross-cultural configural and partial metric invariance supported the cross-cultural equivalence of the EIS versions. Moreover, the external validity of the translated EIS responses was also supported. Overall, the findings supported the validity of the exercise identity construct outside North American boundaries and the EIS items' equivalence, providing initial evidence for its cross-cultural applicability.

  18. Cross-indexing of binary SIFT codes for large-scale image search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Houqiang; Zhang, Liyan; Zhou, Wengang; Tian, Qi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in mapping visual features into compact binary codes for applications on large-scale image collections. Encoding high-dimensional data as compact binary codes reduces the memory cost for storage. Besides, it benefits the computational efficiency since the computation of similarity can be efficiently measured by Hamming distance. In this paper, we propose a novel flexible scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) binarization (FSB) algorithm for large-scale image search. The FSB algorithm explores the magnitude patterns of SIFT descriptor. It is unsupervised and the generated binary codes are demonstrated to be dispreserving. Besides, we propose a new searching strategy to find target features based on the cross-indexing in the binary SIFT space and original SIFT space. We evaluate our approach on two publicly released data sets. The experiments on large-scale partial duplicate image retrieval system demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  19. International variations in harsh child discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Desmond K; Shankar, Viswanathan; Hassan, Fatma; Hunter, Wanda M; Jain, Dipty; Paula, Cristiane S; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Ramiro, Laurie S; Muñoz, Sergio R; Vizcarra, Beatriz; Bordin, Isabel A

    2010-09-01

    Although the history of recognition of child abuse in Europe and North America extends over 40 years, recognition and data are lacking in other parts of the world. Cultural differences in child-rearing complicate cross-cultural studies of abuse. To ascertain rates of harsh and less-harsh parenting behavior in population-based samples. We used parallel surveys of parental discipline of children in samples of mothers in Brazil, Chile, Egypt, India, Philippines, and the United States. Data were collected between 1998 and 2003. The instrument used was a modification of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale, along with a study-developed survey of demographic characteristics and other parent and child variables. Women (N=14 239) from 19 communities in 6 countries were surveyed. We interviewed mothers aged 15 to 49 years (18-49 years in the United States) who had a child younger than 18 years in her home. Sample selection involved either random sampling or systematic sampling within randomly selected blocks or neighborhoods. Nearly all parents used nonviolent discipline and verbal or psychological punishment. Physical punishment was used in at least 55% of the families. Spanking rates (with open hand on buttocks) ranged from a low of 15% in an educated community in India to a high of 76% in a Philippine community. Similarly, there was a wide range in the rates of children who were hit with objects (9%-74% [median: 39%]) or beaten by their parents (0.1%-28.5%). Extremely harsh methods of physical punishment, such as burning or smothering, were rare in all countries. It is concerning that >or=20% of parents in 9 communities admitted shaking children younger than 2 years. Physical and verbal punishments of children are common in high-, middle-, and low-income communities around the world. The forms and rates of punishment vary among countries and among communities within countries. A median of 16% of children experienced harsh or potentially abusive physical discipline in

  20. Universal happiness? Cross-cultural measurement invariance of scales assessing positive mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieda, Angela; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Schönfeld, Pia; Brailovskaia, Julia; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Research into positive aspects of the psyche is growing as psychologists learn more about the protective role of positive processes in the development and course of mental disorders, and about their substantial role in promoting mental health. With increasing globalization, there is strong interest in studies examining positive constructs across cultures. To obtain valid cross-cultural comparisons, measurement invariance for the scales assessing positive constructs has to be established. The current study aims to assess the cross-cultural measurement invariance of questionnaires for 6 positive constructs: Social Support (Fydrich, Sommer, Tydecks, & Brähler, 2009), Happiness (Subjective Happiness Scale; Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999), Life Satisfaction (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), Positive Mental Health Scale (Lukat, Margraf, Lutz, van der Veld, & Becker, 2016), Optimism (revised Life Orientation Test [LOT-R]; Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994) and Resilience (Schumacher, Leppert, Gunzelmann, Strauss, & Brähler, 2004). Participants included German (n = 4,453), Russian (n = 3,806), and Chinese (n = 12,524) university students. Confirmatory factor analyses and measurement invariance testing demonstrated at least partial strong measurement invariance for all scales except the LOT-R and Subjective Happiness Scale. The latent mean comparisons of the constructs indicated differences between national groups. Potential methodological and cultural explanations for the intergroup differences are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. A self-similar scaling for cross-shelf exchange driven by transient rip currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanda, Sutara H.; Feddersen, Falk

    2015-07-01

    Transient rip currents, episodic offshore flows from the surf zone to the inner shelf, present a recreational beach hazard and exchange material across the nearshore ocean. The magnitude and offshore extent of transient rip-current-induced exchange and its relative importance to other inner shelf exchange processes are poorly understood. Here 120 model simulations with random, normally incident, directionally spread waves spanning a range of beach slopes and wave conditions show that the transient rip current exchange velocity is self-similar. The nondimensional exchange velocity, surf zone flushing time, and cross-shore decay length scale are scaled by beach slope and wave properties, depending strongly on wave directional spread. Transient rip-current-driven exchange can be compared to other cross-shelf exchange processes. For example, transient rip-current-driven exchange is stronger than wave-induced Stokes-drift-driven exchange up to six surf zone widths from shore.

  2. Cross-National Measurement Invariance of the Teacher and Classmate Support Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun; Rasmussen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    The cross-national measurement invariance of the teacher and classmate support scale was assessed in a study of 23202 Grade 8 and 10 students from Austria, Canada, England, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, and Slovenia, participating in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2001/2002 study....... A multi-group means and covariance analysis supported configural and metric invariance across countries, but not full scalar equivalence. The composite reliability was adequate and highly consistent across countries. In all seven countries, teacher support showed stronger associations with school...... satisfaction than did classmate support, with the results being highly consistent across countries. The results indicate that the teacher and classmate support scale may be used in cross-cultural studies that focus on relationships between teacher and classmate support and other constructs. However, the lack...

  3. Operational discipline and microenterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Rosales Gómez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the elements of the operational Discipline in the business of micro-enterprises in Coatzacoalcos, Mexico. For the analysis an instrument is designed and applied to 20 companies which fulfill the suggested recommendations in research such as caution in the use of hazardous materials, use of equipment with simple specifications and easily accessible to employees, monitoring of some standard to identify risks, good environmental management, among others. We conclude that despite the findings in the application of the methodology of Operational Discipline, it is generally suffers from many important practices, and can be considered as construction companies of the city of Coatzacoalcos no mandatory environmental care this activity.

  4. Cross-cultural validity of the masculine and feminine gender role stress scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Well, Sonja; Kolk, Annemarie M; Arrindell, Willem A

    2005-06-01

    The objective was to examine the usefulness of Dutch versions of the Masculine Gender Role Stress (MGRS; Eisler & Skidmore, 1987) Scale and the Feminine Gender Role Stress (Gillespie & Eisler, 1992) Scale in The Netherlands. Undergraduate students (N = 2,239) completed both gender role stress scales. A subgroup (n = 508) also completed questionnaires about masculinity-femininity and daily hassles. With regard to both gender role stress scales, results of confirmatory factor analyses supported the original 5-factor structures and revealed no cross-sex differences on the factor models. Reliability and homogeneity indexes were all well within acceptable to satisfactory limits. Further evidence of construct validity was found in (a) medium to large correlations with daily hassles, (b) sex differences on the FGRS scale, and (c) small to medium correlations with masculinity-femininity. The major discrepancy with previous studies was that for Dutch female and male students, the MGRS scale was not sex specific. Taken together, this study sustained the utility of both gender role stress scales for use in The Netherlands.

  5. Development and Testing of Neutron Cross Section Covariance Data for SCALE 6.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL; Williams, Mark L [ORNL; Wiarda, Dorothea [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Dunn, Michael E [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL; Clarity, Justin B [ORNL; Jones, Elizabeth L [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Neutron cross-section covariance data are essential for many sensitivity/uncertainty and uncertainty quantification assessments performed both within the TSUNAMI suite and more broadly throughout the SCALE code system. The release of ENDF/B-VII.1 included a more complete set of neutron cross-section covariance data: these data form the basis for a new cross-section covariance library to be released in SCALE 6.2. A range of testing is conducted to investigate the properties of these covariance data and ensure that the data are reasonable. These tests include examination of the uncertainty in critical experiment benchmark model keff values due to nuclear data uncertainties, as well as similarity assessments of irradiated pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel with suites of critical experiments. The contents of the new covariance library, the testing performed, and the behavior of the new covariance data are described in this paper. The neutron cross-section covariances can be combined with a sensitivity data file generated using the TSUNAMI suite of codes within SCALE to determine the uncertainty in system keff caused by nuclear data uncertainties. The Verified, Archived Library of Inputs and Data (VALID) maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contains over 400 critical experiment benchmark models, and sensitivity data are generated for each of these models. The nuclear data uncertainty in keff is generated for each experiment, and the resulting uncertainties are tabulated and compared to the differences in measured and calculated results. The magnitude of the uncertainty for categories of nuclides (such as actinides, fission products, and structural materials) is calculated for irradiated PWR and BWR fuel to quantify the effect of covariance library changes between the SCALE 6.1 and 6.2 libraries. One of the primary applications of sensitivity/uncertainty methods within SCALE is the

  6. Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale for patients seeking esthetic surgery: cross-cultural validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Tatiana Dalpasquale; Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Piccolo, Mônica Sarto; Rosella, Maria Fernanda Normanha da Silva Martins; Sabino, Miguel; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the most sought-after esthetic operations among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic of a public university hospital. Between February 2014 and March 2015, 80 consecutive patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were selected. Thirty of them participated in the phase of cultural adaptation of the instrument. Reproducibility was tested on 20 patients and construct validity was assessed on 50 patients, with correlation against the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. The Brazilian version of the instrument showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.805 and excellent inter-rater reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.873; P Body Dysmorphic Disorder and the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.981, thus showing good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Forty-six percent of the patients had body dysmorphic symptoms and 54% had moderate to severe appearance-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The Brazilian version of the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale is a reproducible instrument that presents face, content and construct validity.

  7. [Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the PROMIS Global Health scale in the Portuguese language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumpano, Camila Eugênia; Mendonça, Tânia Maria da Silva; Silva, Carlos Henrique Martins da; Correia, Helena; Arnold, Benjamin; Pinto, Rogério de Melo Costa

    2017-01-23

    This study aimed to perform the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Global Health scale in the Portuguese language. The ten Global Health items were cross-culturally adapted by the method proposed in the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT). The instrument's final version in Portuguese was self-administered by 1,010 participants in Brazil. The scale's precision was verified by floor and ceiling effects analysis, reliability of internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess the construct's validity and instrument's dimensionality. Calibration of the items used the Gradual Response Model proposed by Samejima. Four global items required adjustments after the pretest. Analysis of the psychometric properties showed that the Global Health scale has good reliability, with Cronbach's alpha of 0.83 and intra-class correlation of 0.89. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed good fit in the previously established two-dimensional model. The Global Physical Health and Global Mental Health scale showed good latent trait coverage according to the Gradual Response Model. The PROMIS Global Health items showed equivalence in Portuguese compared to the original version and satisfactory psychometric properties for application in clinical practice and research in the Brazilian population.

  8. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Atari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The comparison of physical appearance may play an important role in many body-related variables. The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R is a recently developed instrument for measurement of physical appearance comparisons in a number of contexts. The aim of the present study was to validate the Persian version of this scale.Methods: The scale was administered following a standard back-translation procedure. The sample consisted of 206 female university students. The Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Life Orientation Test (LOT, Interest in Aesthetic Rhinoplasty Scale (IARS, and Body Mass Index (BMI were used for assessment of concurrent validity. The factor structure of the scale was investigated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, bivariate correlation coefficients, and one-sample t-test were used in SPSS software for statistical analysis. Effect sizes were also computed in comparisons between the Iranian sample and the American sample on which the scale was developed. Moreover, the reliability of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha.Results: All items had adequate psychometric qualities in item analysis. The instrument was internally consistent (alpha = 0.97 and one-dimensional. It was positively correlated with BMI and interest in aesthetic rhinoplasty. Furthermore, PACS-R was inversely associated with optimism and body appreciation. Cross-cultural comparisons suggested that Iranian female participants had lower scores in physical appearance comparison.Conclusion: The Persian version of the PACS-R is a reliable and valid psychometric scale and may be used in clinical and research settings.

  9. Using Discipline Data to Enhance Equity in School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Ellwood, Kathleen; McCall, Lisa; Girvan, Erik J.

    2018-01-01

    There is a longstanding and pressing challenge regarding overuse of exclusionary discipline (e.g., office discipline referrals, suspensions) for students of color and students with disabilities. Moreover, many common efforts to address the problem have not been shown to enhance equity in school discipline. This article describes a promising…

  10. Disciplined care for disciplined patients: experience of hospitalized blind patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshiri, Mahmood; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Sadeghi, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    Blindness is a permanent condition that alters daily life of blind people. Interpretive phenomenology was used to understand lived experiences of the hospitalized blind people. "Disciplined care for disciplined patients" was one of the themes that emerged from the data. Provision of disciplined care can help health care professionals provide a holistic and comprehensive competent care for blind patients.

  11. Administering Discipline Differently: A Foucauldian Lens on Restorative School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, Hilary

    2017-01-01

    Urban school leaders are under increasing pressure--in some cases, under threat of federal investigation (US Department of Education, 2014)--to use alternative models of non-punitive discipline, known generally as positive discipline practices such as restorative discipline (American Psychological Association, 2008; Anfinson, Autumn, Lehr,…

  12. Cross-Scale Energy Transport and Kinetic Wave Properties Associated with Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas W.

    In the Earth's magnetosphere, the magnetotail plasma sheet ions are much hotter than in the shocked solar wind. On the dawn-sector, the cold-component ions are more abundant and hotter by 30-40 percent when compared to the dusk sector. Recent statistical studies of the flank magnetopause and magnetosheath have shown that the level of temperature asymmetry of the magnetosheath is unable to account for this (Dimmock et al., 2015), so additional physical mechanisms must be at play, either at the magnetopause or plasma sheet, that contribute to this asymmetry. This thesis focuses on ion heating across the magnetopause boundary separating the magnetosheath and the magnetospheric plasmas, which is driven by mechanisms operating on fluid, ion and electron scales. One of the pending problems in collisionless astrophysical plasmas is to understand the plasma heating and transport across three fundamental scales: fluid, ion and electron. Presented here is evidence of the energy transport between the fluid and ion scales: energy is provided by a velocity shear at the magnetopause generating fluid-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability and their rolled-up vortices, where an ion-scale fast magnetosonic wave packet located in the center of a Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex has sufficient energy to account for observed cold-component ion heating. In addition, a statistical analysis is performed on the ion-scale wave properties in the three main plasma regimes common to flank magnetopause boundary crossings when the boundary is unstable to KHI: hot and tenuous magnetospheric, cold and dense magnetosheath and mixed (H. Hasegawa, Fujimoto, Phan, et al., 2004). The statistical analysis shows that during KH events there is enhanced non-adiabatic heating calculated during ion scale wave intervals when compared to non-KH events. This suggests that during KH events there is more free energy for ion-scale wave generation, which in turn can heat ions more effectively when compared to cases when KH

  13. Writing "In" and "Across" the Disciplines: The Historical Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkiewicz, John J.

    The forebears of writing "in" and "across" the disciplines are such historical figures as Aristotle and Cicero. They believed that rhetoric contained within itself all other disciplines. Renaissance rhetoricians also insisted upon assigning a moral cross-disciplinary dimension to rhetoric while at the same time the intellectual…

  14. Discipline in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, B J

    1991-12-01

    As pediatricians we have an opportunity and a responsibility to guide parents in the structure of discipline they set up for their children. The major goals of this structure are to help children develop a sense of being both lovable and capable. To feel lovable a child needs an enduring responsive relationship that conveys positive regard. Attending to children promptly, giving individual time daily, acknowledging positive behaviors, and ignoring minor transgressions all help them feel valued. Active listening without judgment demonstrates acceptance of children's feelings. Talking to children without labels or generalizations but with specific feedback about their actions and with congruent emotional tone is respectful and promotes self-esteem. Children also deserve assistance with transitions, thanks, and apologies as appropriate. To feel (and become) capable, children need a consistent structure of routines, good models, respectful instruction, and progressive expectations so that they have an ongoing experience of success. To grow as individuals they need opportunities to make choices relevant to their interests and role-taking opportunities to gain perspective on social interaction. Praise and rewards motivate as well as instruct children, but they also need to experience consequences to their actions. Natural consequences are optimal but parents also need to design logical consequences that are graded, related, prompt, and reasonable for a child's misbehaviors. Consequences are most effective when given after only one request, exactly as clearly promised by the adult involved without interference by others. Time out is one of the most effective consequences for young children when used properly. Physical punishment has multiple negative effects on a child's development, especially if used noncontingently. Intrapersonal and family factors predispose parents to predictable problems in establishing healthy discipline. Pediatricians can play an important role in

  15. Disciplining Global Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Evans

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the puzzles of the current era is the divide between optimists and pessimists on the question of human rights. The prominence of human rights on the international political agenda sustains the optimist’s hopes for the future, while pessimists point to continued and widespread reports of civil, political, economic, social and cultural violations. This article looks at the tensions and apparent contradictions between these two approaches. Following a discussion on the construction of global human rights discourse(s, the article concludes that the pretensions of law act to mask the socioeconomic normative framework that acts to discipline global society.

  16. Disciplining Global Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Evans

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the puzzles of the current era is the divide between optimists and pessimists on the question of human rights. The prominence of human rights on the international political agenda sustains the optimist’s hopes for the future, while pessimists point to continued and widespread reports of civil, political, economic, social and cultural violations. This article looks at the tensions and apparent contradictions between these two approaches. Following a discussion on the construction of global human rights discourse(s, the article concludes that the pretensions of law act to mask the socioeconomic normative framework that acts to discipline global society.

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2 for the Brazilian context

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    Viviane Vedovato Silva-Rocha

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To present the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2 for the Brazilian context. Method The following stages were used: translation into Brazilian Portuguese by independent translators, elaboration of a synthesis version, back-translation, evaluation by experts and pretest with target population. Results All the stages of cross-cultural adaptation were completed, and in the majority of items evaluated, good concordance between experts was obtained (≥ 80%. Suggested adjustments were compiled into the consensus version by the two authors, with the resulting material being considered adequate in the pretest (and thus no further changes were needed. Termed as “Escala de Ansiedade Esportiva-2,” the final version was considered by the main author of the original scale as an official version in Brazilian Portuguese. Conclusions In view of the fulfilment of all steps suggested for the cross-cultural adaptation process, the SAS-2 is now available in Brazilian Portuguese to be tested for its psychometric qualities.

  18. Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale for patients seeking esthetic surgery: cross-cultural validation study

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    Tatiana Dalpasquale Ramos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Rhinoplasty is one of the most sought-after esthetic operations among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic of a public university hospital. METHODS: Between February 2014 and March 2015, 80 consecutive patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were selected. Thirty of them participated in the phase of cultural adaptation of the instrument. Reproducibility was tested on 20 patients and construct validity was assessed on 50 patients, with correlation against the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. RESULTS: The Brazilian version of the instrument showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.805 and excellent inter-rater reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.873; P < 0.001 and intra-rater reproducibility (ICC = 0.939; P < 0.001. Significant differences in total scores were found between patients with and without symptoms (P < 0.001. A strong correlation (r = 0.841; P < 0.001 was observed between the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder and the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.981, thus showing good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Forty-six percent of the patients had body dysmorphic symptoms and 54% had moderate to severe appearance-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale is a reproducible instrument that presents face, content and construct validity.

  19. Cross-cultural differences in social desirability scales: Influence of cognitive ability

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    Aletta Odendaal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The use of personality tests for selection and screening has been consistently criticised resulting from the risk of socially desirable responding amongst job applicants. Research purpose: This study examined the magnitude of culture and language group meanscore differences amongst job applicants and the moderating effect of race on the relationship between social desirability and cognitive ability. Motivation for the study: The influence of cognitive ability and potential race and ethnic group differences in social desirability scale scores, which can lead to disproportional selection ratios, has not been extensively researched in South Africa. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional research design, based on secondary datasets obtained from the test publisher, was employed. The dataset consisted of 1640 job applicants across industry sectors. Main findings: Moderated multiple regression analyses revealed that the relationship between social desirability and general reasoning was moderated by culture and language, with group differences in social desirability being more pronounced at the low general reasoning level. This suggests that social desirability scales may be an ambiguous indicator of faking as the scales may indicate tendency to fake, but not the ability to fake, that is likely to be connected to the level of cognitive ability of the respondent.Practical/managerial implications: Individual differences in social desirability are not fully explained by cognitive ability as cultural differences also played a role. Responding in a certain manner, reflects a level of psychological sophistication that is informed by the level of education and socio-economic status. In relation to selection practice, this study provided evidence of the potentially adverse consequences of using social desirability scales to detect response distortion. Contribution/value-add: The exploration of cross

  20. Some psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale with cross validation

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    Lahti Satu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the factorial structure and construct validity for the Chinese version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS. Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in March 2006 from adults in the Beijing area. The questionnaire consisted of sections to assess for participants' demographic profile and dental attendance patterns, the Chinese MDAS and the anxiety items from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. The analysis was conducted in two stages using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Cross validation was tested with a North West of England comparison sample. Results 783 questionnaires were successfully completed from Beijing, 468 from England. The Chinese MDAS consisted of two factors: anticipatory dental anxiety (ADA and treatment dental anxiety (TDA. Internal consistency coefficients (tau non-equivalent were 0.74 and 0.86 respectively. Measurement properties were virtually identical for male and female respondents. Relationships of the Chinese MDAS with gender, age and dental attendance supported predictions. Significant structural parameters between the two sub-scales (negative affectivity and autonomic anxiety of the HADS anxiety items and the two newly identified factors of the MDAS were confirmed and duplicated in the comparison sample. Conclusion The Chinese version of the MDAS has good psychometric properties and has the ability to assess, briefly, overall dental anxiety and two correlated but distinct aspects.

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation to Brazil of Medication Adherence Rating Scale for psychiatric patients

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    Icaro Carvalho Moreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The purpose of this research was to make a cross-cultural adaptation of the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS for psychiatric patients to the Brazilian context. Methods The procedure consisted of four phases: translation of the original scale, back-translation, review by an Expert Committee and Pre-test study with a patients’ sample. Results The Expert Committee corrected the items’ translation when necessary and modified the scale administration format and its instructions from self-report to face-to-face interview form in order to ensure easy understanding by the target population. During Pre-test, the instructions and most of the items were properly understood by patients, with the exception of three of them which had to be changed in order to ensure better understanding. The Pre-test sample was composed by 30 psychiatric patients, with severe and persistent disorders mainly single (46.7%, female (60.0%, with a mean age of 43.8 years old and an average of five years of education. Conclusion The Brazilian version of MARS scale is now adapted to the Brazilian Portuguese language and culture and is easily understood by the psychiatric target population. It is necessary to do further research to evaluate the scale psychometric qualities of validity and reliability in order to use it in Brazil.

  2. From eV to EeV: Neutrino Cross Sections Across Energy Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Formaggio, J A

    2013-01-01

    Since its original postulation by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930, the neutrino has played a prominent role in our understanding of nuclear and particle physics. In the intervening 80 years, scientists have detected and measured neutrinos from a variety of sources, both man-made and natural. Underlying all of these observations, and any inferences we may have made from them, is an understanding of how neutrinos interact with matter. Knowledge of neutrino interaction cross sections is an important and necessary ingredient in any neutrino measurement. With the advent of new precision experiments, the demands on our understanding of neutrino interactions is becoming even greater. The purpose of this article is to survey our current knowledge of neutrino cross sections across all known energy scales: from the very lowest energies to the highest that we hope to observe. The article covers a wide range of neutrino interactions including coherent scattering, neutrino capture, inverse beta decay, low energy nuclear interactio...

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peduzzi, Marina; Norman, Ian; Coster, Samantha; Meireles, Everson

    2015-12-01

    Objective Conduct a cross-cultural adaptation of the expanded version of the 29-items Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) into Brazilian Portuguese. Method Five steps were adopted: three translations, synthesis, three back-translations, assessment by an expert committee, and pre-test. Validation comprised 327 students from 13 undergraduate health courses from a public university. Parallel analyses were conducted using the R software and factor analysis using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling. Results 1 9 12 16 10 11 17 19 21 24 25 29 Conclusion Evidences were found relating to the validity of the RIPLS version in Brazilian Portuguese in its application in the national context.

  4. Final Report: Pilot-scale Cross-flow Filtration Test - Envelope A + Entrained Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-06-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company.This filter technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. This plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  5. Cross-cultural validity of four quality of life scales in persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyh, Szilvia; Fellinghauer, Bernd A G; Kirchberger, Inge; Post, Marcel W M

    2010-09-03

    Quality of life (QoL) in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) has been found to differ across countries. However, comparability of measurement results between countries depends on the cross-cultural validity of the applied instruments. The study examined the metric quality and cross-cultural validity of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LISAT-9), the Personal Well-Being Index (PWI) and the 5-item World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQoL-5) across six countries in a sample of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). A cross-sectional multi-centre study was conducted and the data of 243 out-patients with SCI from study centers in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Israel, South Africa, and the United States were analyzed using Rasch-based methods. The analyses showed high reliability for all 4 instruments (person reliability index .78-.92). Unidimensionality of measurement was supported for the WHOQoL-5 (Chi2 = 16.43, df = 10, p = .088), partially supported for the PWI (Chi2 = 15.62, df = 16, p = .480), but rejected for the LISAT-9 (Chi2 = 50.60, df = 18, p = .000) and the SWLS (Chi2 = 78.54, df = 10, p = .000) based on overall and item-wise Chi2 tests, principal components analyses and independent t-tests. The response scales showed the expected ordering for the WHOQoL-5 and the PWI, but not for the other two instruments. Using differential item functioning (DIF) analyses potential cross-country bias was found in two items of the SWLS and the WHOQoL-5, three items of the LISAT-9 and four items of the PWI. However, applying Rasch-based statistical methods, especially subtest analyses, it was possible to identify optimal strategies to enhance the metric properties and the cross-country equivalence of the instruments post-hoc. Following the post-hoc procedures the WHOQOL-5 and the PWI worked in a consistent and expected way in all countries. QoL assessment using the summary scores of the WHOQOL-5 and the PWI

  6. Cross-cultural validity of four quality of life scales in persons with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geyh Szilvia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life (QoL in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI has been found to differ across countries. However, comparability of measurement results between countries depends on the cross-cultural validity of the applied instruments. The study examined the metric quality and cross-cultural validity of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LISAT-9, the Personal Well-Being Index (PWI and the 5-item World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQoL-5 across six countries in a sample of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI. Methods A cross-sectional multi-centre study was conducted and the data of 243 out-patients with SCI from study centers in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Israel, South Africa, and the United States were analyzed using Rasch-based methods. Results The analyses showed high reliability for all 4 instruments (person reliability index .78-.92. Unidimensionality of measurement was supported for the WHOQoL-5 (Chi2 = 16.43, df = 10, p = .088, partially supported for the PWI (Chi2 = 15.62, df = 16, p = .480, but rejected for the LISAT-9 (Chi2 = 50.60, df = 18, p = .000 and the SWLS (Chi2 = 78.54, df = 10, p = .000 based on overall and item-wise Chi2 tests, principal components analyses and independent t-tests. The response scales showed the expected ordering for the WHOQoL-5 and the PWI, but not for the other two instruments. Using differential item functioning (DIF analyses potential cross-country bias was found in two items of the SWLS and the WHOQoL-5, three items of the LISAT-9 and four items of the PWI. However, applying Rasch-based statistical methods, especially subtest analyses, it was possible to identify optimal strategies to enhance the metric properties and the cross-country equivalence of the instruments post-hoc. Following the post-hoc procedures the WHOQOL-5 and the PWI worked in a consistent and expected way in all countries. Conclusions QoL assessment

  7. Heliophysics as a Scientific Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greb, K.; Austin, M.; Guhathakurta, M.

    2016-12-01

    Heliophysics is a developing scientific discipline integrating studies of the Sun's variability, the surrounding heliosphere, and climate environments. Over the past few centuries our understanding of how the Sun drives space weather and climate on the Earth and other planets has advanced at an ever-increasing rate. NASA Living With a Star and the UCAR Visiting Scientist Progams sponsor the annual Heliophysics Summer Schools to build the next generation of scientists in this emerging field. The highly successful series of the summer schools (commencing 2007) trains a select group of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and university faculty to learn and develop the science of heliophysics as a broad, coherent discipline that reaches in space from the Earth's troposphere to the depths of the Sun, and in time from the formation of the solar system to the distant future. Now in its tenth year, the School has resulted in the publication of five Heliophysics textbooks now being used at universities worldwide. The books provide a foundational reference for researchers in space physics, solar physics, aeronomy, space weather, planetary science and climate science, astrophysics, plasma physics,. In parallel, the School also developed the complementary materials that support teaching of heliophysics at both graduate and undergraduate levels. The Jack Eddy Postdoctoral Fellowship Program matches newly graduated postdoctorates with hosting mentors for the purpose of training the next generation researchers needed in heliophysics. The fellowships are for two years, and any U.S. university or research lab may apply to host a fellow. Two major topics of focus for the program are the science of space weather and of the Sun-climate connection. Since the goal of this fellowship program is to train Sun-Earth system researchers, preference is also given to research projects that cross the traditional heliophysics subdomains of the Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere, and ionosphere

  8. Insufficient cross-cultural adaptations and psychometric properties for many translated health assessment scales: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal-Bozkir, Özgül; Parlevliet, Juliette L; de Rooij, Sophia E

    2013-06-01

    If researchers want to assess reliably different aspects of general health in the migrant populations, they need translations of internationally used health assessment scales with appropriate cross-cultural adaptations and satisfactory psychometric properties. A systematic review was performed to assess the quality of the cross-cultural adaptations and the psychometric properties of health assessment scales measuring cognition, mood, activities of daily living, health-related quality of life, and loneliness. We focused on the scales that were adapted for use with Turkish, Arab, and Surinamese (Creole and Hindi) individuals aged 65 years and older. PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases were systematically searched, and selected articles were cross-checked for other relevant publications. In total, 68 relevant studies of the Turkish, Arab, and Surinamese populations were identified. To arrive at an appropriate cross-culturally adapted scale, five steps are required. Six studies followed this complete process. Only a few studies assessed all the psychometric properties of the cross-culturally adapted scales. The studies in which these were best assessed primarily involved cognitive and functional scales. Cross-cultural adaptations are insufficient, and psychometric properties are unknown for many translated health assessment scales. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Disciplining anthropological demography

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    Sara Randall

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study furthers the epistemological development of anthropological demography, and its role in understanding the demography of Europe. Firstly we situate anthropological demography against the context of an evolving world of research in which boundaries between academic disciplines have become much more permeable. This is achieved via an overview of recent theoretical debates about the role and nature of disciplinarity, including interdisciplinarity, multidisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity. Secondly, in order to understand the current state of the art, we sketch out the evolution of anthropological demography, paying particular attention to the different knowledge claims of anthropology and demography. Finally, we flesh out some of the epistemological and theoretical debates about anthropological demography by sketching out the formative research process of our own work on low fertility in the UK.

  10. Cross-Scale Baroclinic Simulation of the Effect of Channel Dredging in an Estuarine Setting

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    Fei Ye

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Holistic simulation approaches are often required to assess human impacts on a river-estuary-coastal system, due to the intrinsically linked processes of contrasting spatial scales. In this paper, a Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model (SCHISM is applied in quantifying the impact of a proposed hydraulic engineering project on the estuarine hydrodynamics. The project involves channel dredging and land expansion that traverse several spatial scales on an ocean-estuary-river-tributary axis. SCHISM is suitable for this undertaking due to its flexible horizontal and vertical grid design and, more importantly, its efficient high-order implicit schemes applied in both the momentum and transport calculations. These techniques and their advantages are briefly described along with the model setup. The model features a mixed horizontal grid with quadrangles following the shipping channels and triangles resolving complex geometries elsewhere. The grid resolution ranges from ~6.3 km in the coastal ocean to 15 m in the project area. Even with this kind of extreme scale contrast, the baroclinic model still runs stably and accurately at a time step of 2 min, courtesy of the implicit schemes. We highlight that the implicit transport solver alone reduces the total computational cost by 82%, as compared to its explicit counterpart. The base model is shown to be well calibrated, then it is applied in simulating the proposed project scenario. The project-induced modifications on salinity intrusion, gravitational circulation, and transient events are quantified and analyzed.

  11. Scale-Crossing Brokers and Network Governance of Urban Ecosystem Services: The Case of Stockholm

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    Henrik Ernstson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecosystem services are crucial for human well-being and the livability of cities. A central challenge for sustaining ecosystem services lies in addressing scale mismatches between ecological processes on one hand, and social processes of governance on the other. This article synthesizes a set of case studies from urban green areas in Stockholm, Sweden - allotment gardens, urban parks, cemeteries and protected areas - and discusses how governmental agencies and civil society groups engaged in urban green area management can be linked through social networks so as to better match spatial scales of ecosystem processes. The article develops a framework that combines ecological scales with social network structure, with the latter being taken as the patterns of interaction between actor groups. Based on this framework, the article (1 assesses current ecosystem governance, and (2 develops a theoretical understanding of how social network structure influences ecosystem governance and how certain actors can work as agents to promote beneficial network structures. The main results show that the mesoscale of what is conceptualized as city scale green networks (i.e., functionally interconnected local green areas is not addressed by any actor in Stockholm, and that the management practices of civil society groups engaged in local ecosystem management play a crucial but neglected role in upholding ecosystem services. The article proposes an alternative network structure and discusses the role of midscale managers (for improving ecological functioning and scale-crossing brokers (engaged in practices to connect actors across ecological scales. Dilemmas, strategies, and practices for establishing this governance system are discussed.

  12. Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench-scale coal gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner. The proposed program is composed of three major technical tasks. Task 1 is directed at the design and actual test of a cross flow filter at a DOE bench scale gasifier. Task 2 is composed of several smaller theoretical and experimental efforts that are intended to firm up areas where engineering and design principles are lacking or considered inadequate. The third task is intended to integrate the results of the first two tasks in a conceptual design and cost analysis such that proper economic perspective for the filter concept can be gained. A brief summary of the approach taken in the technical tasks is presented in the following discussion.

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation of the EMIC Stigma Scale for people with leprosy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Silveira, Erika Maria Kopp Xavier da; Sales, Anna Maria; Nascimento, Lilian Pinheiro Rodrigues do; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Oliveira, Aldair J; Illarramendi, Ximena

    2017-09-04

    Describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the "Explanatory Model Interview Catalog - Stigma Scale" for people affected by leprosy in Brazil. After being authorized by the author of the scale to use it in the national context, we initiated the five steps process of cross-cultural adaptation: (1) translation, (2) synthesis meeting, (3) back-translation, (4) committee of experts and (5) pre-test. The internal consistency of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The 15 items of the scale's original version were translated into Brazilian Portuguese. The adapted scale showed evidence of a good understanding of its content, attested both by experts and members of the target population. Its internal consistency was 0.64. The adapted instrument shows satisfactory internal consistency. It may be useful in future studies that intend to provide broad situational analysis that supports solid public health programs with a focus on effective stigma reduction. In a later study, the construct's validity, criterion, and reproducibility will be evaluated. Descrever o processo de adaptação transcultural da "Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue - Stigma Scale" para pessoas afetadas por hanseníase no Brasil. Após a autorização do autor da escala para seu uso no contexto nacional, deu-se início aos cinco passos do processo de adaptação transcultural: (1) tradução, (2) reunião de síntese, (3) retrotradução, (4) comitê de peritos e (5) pré-teste. A consistência interna da escala foi avaliada utilizando o coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. Os 15 itens da versão original da escala foram traduzidos para a língua portuguesa do Brasil. A escala adaptada apresentou evidência de boa compreensão de seu conteúdo, atestada tanto por peritos como por membros da população alvo. Sua consistência interna foi de 0,64. O instrumento adaptado apresenta consistência interna satisfatória. Pode ser útil em estudos futuros que intencionem viabilizar

  14. The large-scale quasar-Lyman α forest cross-correlation from BOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font-Ribera, Andreu [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Arnau, Eduard [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (IEEC/UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Miralda-Escudé, Jordi, E-mail: font@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: edu.arnau.lazaro@gmail.com, E-mail: miralda@icc.ub.edu [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Passeig Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); and others

    2013-05-01

    We measure the large-scale cross-correlation of quasars with the Lyα forest absorption in redshift space, using ∼ 60000 quasar spectra from Data Release 9 (DR9) of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). The cross-correlation is detected over a wide range of scales, up to comoving separations r of 80 h{sup −1}Mpc. For r > 15 h{sup −1}Mpc, we show that the cross-correlation is well fitted by the linear theory prediction for the mean overdensity around a quasar host halo in the standard ΛCDM model, with the redshift distortions indicative of gravitational evolution detected at high confidence. Using previous determinations of the Lyα forest bias factor obtained from the Lyα autocorrelation, we infer the quasar bias factor to be b{sub q} = 3.64{sup +0.13}{sub −0.15} at a mean redshift z = 2.38, in agreement with previous measurements from the quasar auto-correlation. We also obtain a new estimate of the Lyα forest redshift distortion factor, β{sub F} = 1.1±0.15, slightly larger than but consistent with the previous measurement from the Lyα forest autocorrelation. The simple linear model we use fails at separations r < 15h{sup −1}Mpc, and we show that this may reasonably be due to the enhanced ionization due to radiation from the quasars. We also provide the expected correction that the mass overdensity around the quasar implies for measurements of the ionizing radiation background from the line-of-sight proximity effect.

  15. Lack of cross-scale linkages reduces robustness of community-based fisheries management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cudney-Bueno

    cooperation. However, without cross-scale linkages with higher levels of governance, increase of local fishery stocks may attract outsiders who, if not restricted, will overharvest and threaten local governance. Fishers and fishing communities require incentives to maintain their management efforts. Rewarding local effective management with formal cross-scale governance recognition and support can generate these incentives.

  16. Cross-scale modelling of transpiration from stomata via the leaf boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defraeye, Thijs; Derome, Dominique; Verboven, Pieter; Carmeliet, Jan; Nicolai, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf transpiration is a key parameter for understanding land surface–climate interactions, plant stress and plant structure–function relationships. Transpiration takes place at the microscale level, namely via stomata that are distributed discretely over the leaf surface with a very low surface coverage (approx. 0·2–5 %). The present study aims to shed more light on the dependency of the leaf boundary-layer conductance (BLC) on stomatal surface coverage and air speed. Methods An innovative three-dimensional cross-scale modelling approach was applied to investigate convective mass transport from leaves, using computational fluid dynamics. The gap between stomatal and leaf scale was bridged by including all these scales in the same computational model (10−5–10−1 m), which implies explicitly modelling individual stomata. Key Results BLC was strongly dependent on stomatal surface coverage and air speed. Leaf BLC at low surface coverage ratios (CR), typical for stomata, was still relatively high, compared with BLC of a fully wet leaf (hypothetical CR of 100 %). Nevertheless, these conventional BLCs (CR of 100 %), as obtained from experiments or simulations on leaf models, were found to overpredict the convective exchange. In addition, small variations in stomatal CR were found to result in large variations in BLCs. Furthermore, stomata of a certain size exhibited a higher mass transfer rate at lower CRs. Conclusions The proposed cross-scale modelling approach allows us to increase our understanding of transpiration at the sub-leaf level as well as the boundary-layer microclimate in a way currently not feasible experimentally. The influence of stomatal size, aperture and surface density, and also flow-field parameters can be studied using the model, and prospects for further improvement of the model are presented. An important conclusion of the study is that existing measures of conductances (e.g. from artificial leaves) can be

  17. Lack of Cross-Scale Linkages Reduces Robustness of Community-Based Fisheries Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudney-Bueno, Richard; Basurto, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    cooperation. However, without cross-scale linkages with higher levels of governance, increase of local fishery stocks may attract outsiders who, if not restricted, will overharvest and threaten local governance. Fishers and fishing communities require incentives to maintain their management efforts. Rewarding local effective management with formal cross-scale governance recognition and support can generate these incentives. PMID:19606210

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the teamwork climate scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Charantola Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To adapt and validate the Team Climate Inventory scale, of teamwork climate measurement, for the Portuguese language, in the context of primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Methodological study with quantitative approach of cross-cultural adaptation (translation, back-translation, synthesis, expert committee, and pretest and validation with 497 employees from 72 teams of the Family Health Strategy in the city of Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil. We verified reliability by the Cronbach’s alpha, construct validity by the confirmatory factor analysis with SmartPLS software, and correlation by the job satisfaction scale. RESULTS We problematized the overlap of items 9, 11, and 12 of the “participation in the team” factor and the “team goals” factor regarding its definition. The validation showed no overlapping of items and the reliability ranged from 0.92 to 0.93. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated suitability of the proposed model with distribution of the 38 items in the four factors. The correlation between teamwork climate and job satisfaction was significant. CONCLUSIONS The version of the scale in Brazilian Portuguese was validated and can be used in the context of primary health care in the Country, constituting an adequate tool for the assessment and diagnosis of teamwork.

  19. The discipline of innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, P F

    1998-01-01

    Some innovations spring from a flash of genius. But as Peter Drucker points out in this HBR Classic, most result from a conscious, purposeful search for opportunities. For managers seeking innovation, engaging in disciplined work is more important than having an entrepreneurial personality. Writing originally in the May-June 1985 issue, Drucker describes the major sources of opportunities for innovation. Within a company or industry, opportunities can be found in unexpected occurrences, incongruities of various kinds, process needs, or changes in an industry or market. Outside a company, opportunities arise from demographic changes, changes in perception, or new knowledge. These seven sources overlap, and the potential for innovation may well lie in more than one area at a time. Innovations based on new knowledge, of course, tend to have the greatest effect on the marketplace. But it often takes decades before the ideas are translated into actual products, processes, or services. The other sources of innovation are easier and simpler to handle, yet they still require managers to look beyond established practices. Drucker emphasizes that in seeking opportunities, innovators need to look for simple, focused solutions to real problems. The greatest praise an innovation can receive is for people to say, "This is obvious!" Grandiose ideas designed to revolutionize an industry rarely work. Innovation, like any other endeavor, takes talent, ingenuity, and knowledge. But Drucker cautions that if diligence, persistence, and commitment are lacking, companies are unlikely to succeed at the business of innovation.

  20. Fiscal Discipline in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhita SUCHARITA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study broadly attempts to analyze the role of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in restoring fiscal balance in India. It analyses the need for fiscal rules and constraints in India. The study aims at finding out the major factor behind rising fiscal imbalance in India and to examine whether there is an electoral motive towards high fiscal deficit to GDP ratio or not. It also analyzes the effectiveness of various measures undertaken at the central and state level to inculcate fiscal discipline in the fiscal management. The study also makes an attempt to do a critical in depth reviews of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act and make an attempt at examining effectiveness and suitability of FRBM Act through a quantitative analysis. It also makes an attempt to suggest improvements in the fiscal monitoring mechanism in India. We employ Ordinary Least Square (OLS method to examine the impact of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act on fiscal deficit in India using the data for the period 1980-81 to 2008-09. The regression results indicates that FRBM Act does not have a significant effect on the Gross Fiscal Deficit (GFD to GDP ratio where as GDP (at factor cost growth rate has a significant negative effect on the GFD to GDP ratio.

  1. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Figueredo Chaves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the Diabetes Empowerment Scale – Short Form for assessment of psychosocial self-efficacy in diabetes care within the Brazilian cultural context. METHODS Assessment of the instrument’s conceptual equivalence, as well as its translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed following international standards. The Expert Committee’s assessment of the translated version was conducted through a web questionnaire developed and applied via the web tool e-Surv. The cross-culturally adapted version was used for the pre-test, which was carried out via phone call in a group of eleven health care service users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pre-test results were examined by a group of experts, composed by health care consultants, applied linguists and statisticians, aiming at an adequate version of the instrument, which was subsequently used for test and retest in a sample of 100 users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus via phone call, their answers being recorded by the web tool e-Surv. Internal consistency and reproducibility of analysis were carried out within the statistical programming environment R. RESULTS Face and content validity were attained and the Brazilian Portuguese version, entitled Escala de Autoeficácia em Diabetes – Versão Curta, was established. The scale had acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.634 (95%CI 0.494– 0.737, while the correlation of the total score in the two periods was considered moderate (0.47. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.50. CONCLUSIONS The translated and cross-culturally adapted version of the instrument to spoken Brazilian Portuguese was considered valid and reliable to be used for assessment within the Brazilian population diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of a web tool (e-Surv for recording the Expert Committee responses as well as the responses in the

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale for Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gonçalves da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The internet has proven to be a valuable resource for self-care, allowing access to information and promoting interaction between professionals, caregivers, users of health care services and people interested in health information. However, recurring searches are often related to excessive health anxiety and a phenomenon known as cyberchondria can have impacts on physical and mental health. Within this background, a Cyberchondria Severity Scale has been developed to differentiate healthy and unhealthy behavior in internet searches for health information, based on the following criteria: compulsion, distress, excesses, and trust and distrust of health professionals. Objective: To conduct cross-cultural adaptation of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale for Brazilian Portuguese, because of the lack of an appropriate instrument for Brazil. Methods: This study was authorized by the original author of the scale. The process was divided into the following four steps: 1 initial translation, 2 back-translation, 3 development of a synthesized version, and 4 experimental application. Results: Translation into Brazilian Portuguese required some idiomatic expressions to be adapted. In some cases, words were not literally translated from English into Portuguese. Only items 7, 8, 12, 23 and 27 were altered, as a means of both conforming to proper grammar conventions and achieving easy comprehension. The items were rewritten without loss of the original content. Conclusion: This paper presents a translated version of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale that has been semantically adapted for the Brazilian population, providing a basis for future studies in this area, which should in turn contribute to improved understanding of the cyberchondria phenomenon in this population.

  3. [Spanish version of the Satisfaction With Decision scale: cross-cultural adaptation, validity and reliability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrera, Carolina; Areal, Joan; Font, Albert; Caro, Mónica; Bonet, Marta; Zabalegui, Adelaida

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a Spanish version of the Satisfaction With Decision scale (SWDs) and analyse the psychometric properties of validity and reliability. An observational, descriptive study and validation of a tool to measure satisfaction with the decision. Urology, Radiation oncology, and Medical oncology Departments of the Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Institut Català d'Oncologia and the Institut Oncològic del Vallès - Hospital General de Catalunya. A total of 170 participants diagnosed with prostate cancer, and who could read and write in Spanish and gave their informed consent. A translation, back-translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Spanish was performed on the SWDs. The content validity, criterion validity, construct validity and reliability (internal consistency and stability) of the Spanish version were evaluated. The SWDs contains 6 items with 5-item Likert scales. A Spanish version (ESD) was obtained that was linguistically and conceptually equivalent to the original version. Criterion validity, the ESD correlated with "satisfaction with the decision" using a linear analogue scale, was significant (r=0.63, P<.01) for all items. The factorial analysis showed a unique dimension to explain 82.08% of the variance. The ESD showed excellent results in terms of internal consistency (Cronbach alpha=0.95) and good test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.711. The ESD is a validated Spanish scale to measure the satisfaction with the decisions taken in health, and demonstrates a correct validity and reliability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Moral Distress Scale-Revised for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Aline Marcelino; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Barlem, Jamila Geri Tomaschewski; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Dalmolin, Graziele de Lima; Figueira, Aline Belletti

    2017-01-01

    Cross-culturally adapt and validate the Moral Distress Scale-Revised for nurses. Quantitative, analytical cross-sectional study conducted with 157 nurses of two hospital institutions of Southern Brazil, one public and one philanthropic. Procedures conducted: cultural adaptation of the instrument according to international recommendations; validation for the Brazilian context. Face and content validation was considered satisfactory as assessed by a specialist committee and a pretest. The instrument demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency through frequency and intensity analysis per question in the 157 items and per subgroups of the various hospital units. Cronbach's alpha was 0.88 for the instrument and between 0.76 and 0.94 for hospital units. Pearson's correlation found a moderate association for moral distress among nurses. The Moral Distress Scale-Revised - Brazilian version is a valid instrument for the assessment of moral distress in nurses. Adaptar culturalmente e validar a Moral Distress Scale Revised para enfermeiros. Estudo quantitativo, transversal analítico, realizado com 157 enfermeiros de duas instituições hospitalares do Sul do Brasil, uma pública e uma filantrópica. Realizou-se: a adaptação cultural do instrumento segundo recomendações internacionais; e a sua validação para o contexto brasileiro. A validade de face e conteúdo foi considerada satisfatória mediante avaliação de comitê de especialistas e realização de pré-teste. Mediante análise de frequência e intensidade por questão nos 157 questionários e por subconjuntos das diferentes unidades hospitalares, o instrumento demonstrou consistência interna satisfatória, com alfa de Cronbach 0,88 para o instrumento e entre 0,76 e 0,94 para as unidades hospitalares. A correlação de Pearson identificou moderada associação de sofrimento moral nos enfermeiros. o Moral Distress Scale Revised - versão brasileira é um instrumento válido para ser utilizado na avalia

  5. Molecular-scale simulation of cross-flow migration in polymer melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorrer, Nicholas A; Dorgan, John R

    2014-11-01

    The first ever molecular-scale simulation of cross-flow migration effects in dense polymer melts is presented; simulations for both unentangled and entangled chains are presented. At quiescence a small depletion next to the wall for the segmental densities of longer chains is present, a corresponding excess exists about one-half a radii of gyration away from the wall, and uniform values are observed further from the wall. In shear flow the melts exhibit similar behavior as the quiescent case; a constant shear rate across the gap does not induce chain length based migration. In contradistinction, parabolic flow (where gradients in shear rate are present) causes profound migration for both unentangled and entangled melts. Mapping onto polyethylene and calculating stress shows the system is far below the stress required to break chains. Accordingly, our findings are consistent with flow induced migration mechanisms predominating over competing chain degradation mechanisms thus resolving a 40 year old controversy.

  6. Neuroscience discipline science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Over the past two decades, NASA's efforts in the neurosciences have developed into a program of research directed at understanding the acute changes that occur in the neurovestibular and sensorimotor systems during short-duration space missions. However, the proposed extended-duration flights of up to 28 days on the Shuttle orbiter and 6 months on Space Station Freedom, a lunar outpost, and Mars missions of perhaps 1-3 years in space, make it imperative that NASA's Life Sciences Division begin to concentrate research in the neurosciences on the chronic effects of exposure to microgravity on the nervous system. Major areas of research will be directed at understanding (1) central processing, (2) motor systems, (3) cognitive/spatial orientation, and (4) sensory receptors. The purpose of the Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of neurosciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of nervous system function. It contains a general plan that will be used by NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  7. From eV to EeV: Neutrino cross sections across energy scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formaggio, J. A.; Zeller, G. P.

    2012-09-01

    Since its original postulation by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930, the neutrino has played a prominent role in our understanding of nuclear and particle physics. In the intervening 80 years, scientists have detected and measured neutrinos from a variety of sources, both man-made and natural. Underlying all of these observations, and any inferences we may have made from them, is an understanding of how neutrinos interact with matter. Knowledge of neutrino interaction cross sections is an important and necessary ingredient in any neutrino measurement. With the advent of new precision experiments, the demands on our understanding of neutrino interactions is becoming even greater. The purpose of this article is to survey our current knowledge of neutrino cross sections across all known energy scales: from the very lowest energies to the highest that we hope to observe. The article covers a wide range of neutrino interactions including coherent scattering, neutrino capture, inverse beta decay, low energy nuclear interactions, quasi-elastic scattering, resonant pion production, kaon production, deep inelastic scattering and ultra-high energy interactions. Strong emphasis is placed on experimental data whenever such measurements are available.

  8. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Rating Scale for Countertransference (RSCT) to American English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondrzak, Rafael; Reinert, Camila; Sandri, Andreia; Spanemberg, Lucas; Nogueira, Eduardo L; Bertoluci, Mirella; Eizirik, Claudio Laks; Furtado, Nina Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The Rating Scale for Countertransference (RSCT) - originally, Escala para Avaliação de Contratransferência (EACT) - is a self-administered instrument comprising questions that assess 23 feelings (divided into three blocs, closeness, distance, and indifference) that access conscious countertransferential emotions and sentiments. This paper describes the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the RSCT into American English. This study employed the guidelines proposed by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation which define 10 steps for translation and cross-cultural adaptation of self-report instruments. Additionally, semantic equivalence tools were employed to select the final versions of terms used. The author of the RSCT gave permission for translation and took part in the process. The instrument is available for use free of charge. Analysis of the back-translation showed that just seven of the 23 terms needed to be adjusted to arrive at the final version in American English. This study applied rigorous standards to construct a version of the RSCT in American English. This version of the RSCT translated and adapted into American English should be of great use for accessing and researching countertransferential feelings that are part of psychodynamic treatment.

  9. Teacher Race and School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Constance A.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Does having a teacher of the same race make it more or less likely that students are subject to exclusionary school discipline? In this study, the authors analyze a unique set of student and teacher demographic and discipline data from North Carolina elementary schools to examine whether being matched to a same-race teacher affects the rate at…

  10. Scaling Law for Cross-stream Diffusion in Microchannels under Combined Electroosmotic and Pressure Driven Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongjun; Wang, Yi; Pant, Kapil

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of the cross-stream diffusion of an analyte in a rectangular microchannel under combined electroosmotic flow (EOF) and pressure driven flow to investigate the heterogeneous transport behavior and spatially-dependent diffusion scaling law. An analytical model capable of accurately describing 3D steady-state convection-diffusion in microchannels with arbitrary aspect ratios is developed based on the assumption of the thin Electric Double Layer (EDL). The model is verified against high-fidelity numerical simulation in terms of flow velocity and analyte concentration profiles with excellent agreement (parametric analysis is then undertaken to interrogate the effect of the combined flow velocity field on the transport behavior in both the positive pressure gradient (PPG) and negative pressure gradient (NPG) cases. For the first time, the evolution from the spindle-shaped concentration profile in the PPG case, via the stripe-shaped profile (pure EOF), and finally to the butterfly-shaped profile in the PPG case is obtained using the analytical model along with a quantitative depiction of the spatially-dependent diffusion layer thickness and scaling law across a wide range of the parameter space.

  11. Exploring dimensions, scales, and cross-scale dynamics from the perspectives of change agents in social-ecological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, J.M.; Rutting, L.; Kok, K.; Hermans, F.L.P.; Veldkamp, A.; Bregt, A.K.; Lammeren, van R.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Issues of scale play a crucial role in the governance of social–ecological systems. Yet, attempts to bridge interdisciplinary perspectives on the role of scale have thus far largely been limited to the science arena. This study has extended the scale vocabulary to allow for the inclusion of

  12. Scaling Law for Cross-stream Diffusion in Microchannels under Combined Electroosmotic and Pressure Driven Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongjun; Wang, Yi; Pant, Kapil

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of the cross-stream diffusion of an analyte in a rectangular microchannel under combined electroosmotic flow (EOF) and pressure driven flow to investigate the heterogeneous transport behavior and spatially-dependent diffusion scaling law. An analytical model capable of accurately describing 3D steady-state convection-diffusion in microchannels with arbitrary aspect ratios is developed based on the assumption of the thin Electric Double Layer (EDL). The model is verified against high-fidelity numerical simulation in terms of flow velocity and analyte concentration profiles with excellent agreement (parametric analysis is then undertaken to interrogate the effect of the combined flow velocity field on the transport behavior in both the positive pressure gradient (PPG) and negative pressure gradient (NPG) cases. For the first time, the evolution from the spindle-shaped concentration profile in the PPG case, via the stripe-shaped profile (pure EOF), and finally to the butterfly-shaped profile in the PPG case is obtained using the analytical model along with a quantitative depiction of the spatially-dependent diffusion layer thickness and scaling law across a wide range of the parameter space. PMID:23554584

  13. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Manchester Orofacial Pain Disability Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monira Samaan Kallás

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to translate and perform a cross-cultural adaptation of Manchester Orofacial Pain Disability Scale to the Portuguese language. Material and Methods: A synthesis of two independent translations done by bilingual translators whose mother tongue was the Portuguese language began the process of translation. From the synthesis of the translated version and totally blind to the original version, two different non-native English language teachers without dental knowledge translated the questionnaire back to English. The pre-final version was done by an Expert committee: the researchers, two other non-native English language teachers and one native English language speaker. The new questionnaire was then piloted among 8 patients from the target setting that were interviewed to probe it on their perceived meaning of each question. The Manchester Orofacial Pain Disability Scale (MOPDS thus translated was called Brasil-MOPDS and was validated in 50 patients with Orofacial pain from TMJ and Occlusion clinic ambulatory of São Paulo University School of Dentistry. The Brasil-MOPDS was administered twice by an interviewer (15 - 20 day interval and once by a second independent interviewer. The Brazilian version of the short form oral health impact profile (OHIP-14 questionnaire and the visual analogue pain scale (VAS were applied on the same day. Results: Internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.9, inter-observer (ICC = 0.92 and intra-observer (ICC = 0.98 correlations presented high scores. Validity of Brasil-MOPDS compared to OHIP-14 (r = 0.85 and VAS (r = 0.75 shown high correlations. Conclusions: Brasil-MOPDS was successfully translated and adapted to be applied to Brazilian patients, with satisfactory internal and external reliability.

  14. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the manchester orofacial pain disability scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallás, Monira Samaan; Crosato, Edgard Michel; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Mori, Matsuyoshi; Aggarwal, Vishal R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to translate and perform a cross-cultural adaptation of Manchester Orofacial Pain Disability Scale to the Portuguese language. A synthesis of two independent translations done by bilingual translators whose mother tongue was the Portuguese language began the process of translation. From the synthesis of the translated version and totally blind to the original version, two different non-native English language teachers without dental knowledge translated the questionnaire back to English. The pre-final version was done by an Expert committee: the researchers, two other non-native English language teachers and one native English language speaker. The new questionnaire was then piloted among 8 patients from the target setting that were interviewed to probe it on their perceived meaning of each question. The Manchester Orofacial Pain Disability Scale (MOPDS) thus translated was called Brasil-MOPDS and was validated in 50 patients with Orofacial pain from TMJ and Occlusion clinic ambulatory of São Paulo University School of Dentistry. The Brasil-MOPDS was administered twice by an interviewer (15 - 20 day interval) and once by a second independent interviewer. The Brazilian version of the short form oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire and the visual analogue pain scale (VAS) were applied on the same day. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.9), inter-observer (ICC = 0.92) and intra-observer (ICC = 0.98) correlations presented high scores. Validity of Brasil-MOPDS compared to OHIP-14 (r = 0.85) and VAS (r = 0.75) shown high correlations. Brasil-MOPDS was successfully translated and adapted to be applied to Brazilian patients, with satisfactory internal and external reliability.

  15. Participatory Games: Experiential learning to bridge disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, E.; Suarez, P.; Mendler de Suarez, J.; Bachofen, C.

    2014-12-01

    While the benefits of multi-disciplinary education have been extolled, there is more to success than producing students who are able to articulate the theorems of all pertinent disciplines. Here, we will describe case studies in which participatory scenario exercises and games can make the difference between memorizing information from an "outside" discipline, and actually internalizing the priorities and complications of the issue from an alien perspective. Case studies include teaching Red Cross community-based volunteers the Probability Distribution Function of seasonal rainfall forecasts, as well as requiring students of Columbia University's Master's Program in Climate and Society to study both natural and social aspects of climate. Games create a model system of the world, in which players assume a role and make decisions with consequences, facing complex feedback loops. Taking such roles catalyzes "AHA" moments that effectively bring home the intricacies of disciplinary paradigms outside of one's own.

  16. Molecular-scale dynamics of light-induced spin cross-over in a two-dimensional layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairagi, Kaushik; Iasco, Olga; Bellec, Amandine; Kartsev, Alexey; Li, Dongzhe; Lagoute, Jérôme; Chacon, Cyril; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Miserque, Frédéric; Dappe, Yannick J.; Smogunov, Alexander; Barreteau, Cyrille; Boillot, Marie-Laure; Mallah, Talal; Repain, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    Spin cross-over molecules show the unique ability to switch between two spin states when submitted to external stimuli such as temperature, light or voltage. If controlled at the molecular scale, such switches would be of great interest for the development of genuine molecular devices in spintronics, sensing and for nanomechanics. Unfortunately, up to now, little is known on the behaviour of spin cross-over molecules organized in two dimensions and their ability to show cooperative transformation. Here we demonstrate that a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements and ab initio calculations allows discriminating unambiguously between both states by local vibrational spectroscopy. We also show that a single layer of spin cross-over molecules in contact with a metallic surface displays light-induced collective processes between two ordered mixed spin-state phases with two distinct timescale dynamics. These results open a way to molecular scale control of two-dimensional spin cross-over layers.

  17. Cross-Scale Value Trade-Offs in Managing Social-Ecological Systems: The Politics of Scale in Ruaha National Park, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Zia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Management of social-ecological systems takes place amidst complex governance processes and cross-scale institutional arrangements that are mediated through politics of scale. Each management scenario generates distinct cross-scale trade-offs in the distribution of pluralistic values. This study explores the hypothesis that conservation-oriented management scenarios generate higher value for international and national scale social organizations, whereas mixed or more balanced management scenarios generate higher value for local scale social organizations. This hypothesis is explored in the management context of Ruaha National Park (RNP, Tanzania, especially the 2006 expansion of RNP that led to the eviction of many pastoralists and farmers. Five management scenarios for RNP, i.e., national park, game reserve, game control area, multiple use area, and open area, are evaluated in a multicriteria decision analytical framework on six valuation criteria: economic welfare; good governance; socio-cultural values; social equity; ecosystem services; and biodiversity protection; and at three spatial scales: local, national, and international. Based upon this evaluation, we discuss the politics of scale that ensue from the implementation of management alternatives with different mixes of conservation and development goals in social-ecological systems.

  18. The Interplay of Externalizing Problems and Physical and Inductive Discipline during Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Olson, Sheryl L.; SAMEROFF, ARNOLD J.

    2013-01-01

    Children who are physically disciplined are at elevated risk for externalizing problems. Conversely, maternal reasoning and reminding of rules, or inductive discipline, is associated with fewer child externalizing problems. Few studies have simultaneously examined bidirectional associations between these forms of discipline and child adjustment using cross-informant, multi-method data. We hypothesized that less inductive and more physical discipline would predict more externalizing problems, ...

  19. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Initial Validation of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale into the Yoruba Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, Aderonke O.; Odetunde, Marufat O.; Odole, Adesola C.

    2012-01-01

    Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted…

  20. Architectural anthropology – potentials and pitfalls of mixing disciplines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    approaches to e.g. understand and involve users, clients and citizens. Several other disciplines currently also approach and embrace anthropological methods, and new sub-disciplines such as design anthropology, architectural anthropology, business anthropology and techno-anthropology have emerged...... these cross-disciplinary and applied settings, and how it may contribute to anthropology in general. Based on research and teaching in the field of architectural anthropology, the paper discuss the potentials and pitfalls of mixing approaches from the two disciplines using examples of architects’ approaches...

  1. Multidisciplinarity, Interdisciplinarity, and Bridging Disciplines: A Matter of Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dawn Youngblood

    2007-01-01

    Bridging disciplines have much to teach regarding how to combine analytical tools to tackle problems and questions that cross traditional disciplinary boundaries. This article explores interdisciplinary aspects of two long established bridging disciplines--geography and anthropology--in order to consider what the relatively young undertaking labeled “interdisciplinary studies” can learn from their long existence. It considers the fallacy of nomothetic claim as well as the fruitful production ...

  2. The Alpine nappe stack in western Austria: a crustal-scale cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomella, Hannah; Ortner, Hugo; Zerlauth, Michael; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    Based on an N-S-oriented crustal-scale cross section running east of the Rhine Valley in Vorarlberg, western Austria, we address the Alpine nappe stack and discuss the boundary between Central and Eastern Alps. For our cross section, we used surface geology, drillings and reinterpreted seismic lines, together with published sections. The general architecture of the examined area can be described as a typical foreland fold-and-thrust belt, comprising the tectonic units of the Subalpine Molasse, (Ultra-)Helvetic, Penninic and Austroalpine nappes. These units overthrusted the autochthonous Molasse along the south-dipping listric Alpine basal thrust. The European Basement, together with its autochthonous cover, dips gently towards the south and is dissected by normal faults and trough structures. The seismic data clearly show an offset not only of the top of the European Basement, but also of the Mesozoic cover and the Lower Marine Molasse. This indicates an activity of the structures as normal faults after the sedimentation of the Lower Marine Molasse. The Subalpine Molasse is multiply stacked, forming a triangle zone at the boundary with the foreland Molasse. The shortening within the Subalpine Molasse amounts to approximately 45 km (~67 %), as deduced from our cross section with the Lower Marine Molasse as a reference. The hinterland-dipping duplex structure of the Helvetic nappes is deduced from surface and borehole data. There are at least two Helvetic nappes needed to fill the available space between the Molasse below and the Northpenninic above. This is in line with the westerly located NRP20-East transect (Schmid et al., Tectonics 15(5):1047-1048, 1996; Schmid et al., The TRANSMED Atlas: the Mediterranean Region from Crust to Mantle, 2004), where the two Helvetic nappes are separated by the Säntis thrust. Yet in contrast to the Helvetic nappes in the NRP20-East transect, both of our Helvetic nappes comprise Cretaceous and Jurassic strata. This change is

  3. Cross-Cultural adaptation of the General Functioning Scale of the Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Pires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the General Functioning Scale of the Family, a subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device, for the Brazilian population. METHODS The General Functioning Scale of the Family was translated into Portuguese and administered to 500 guardians of children in the second grade of elementary school in public schools of Sao Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. The types of equivalences investigated were: conceptual and of items, semantic, operational, and measurement. The study involved discussions with experts, translations and back-translations of the instrument, and psychometric assessment. Reliability and validity studies were carried out by internal consistency testing (Cronbach’s alpha, Guttman split-half correlation model, Pearson correlation coefficient, and confirmatory factor analysis. Associations between General Functioning of the Family and variables theoretically associated with the theme (father’s or mother’s drunkenness and violence between parents were estimated by odds ratio. RESULTS Semantic equivalence was between 90.0% and 100%. Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.79 to 0.81, indicating good internal consistency of the instrument. Pearson correlation coefficient ranged between 0.303 and 0.549. Statistical association was found between the general functioning of the family score and the theoretically related variables, as well as good fit quality of the confirmatory analysis model. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate the feasibility of administering the instrument to the Brazilian population, as it is easy to understand and a good measurement of the construct of interest.

  4. Large-scale cross-species chemogenomic platform proposes a new drug discovery strategy of veterinary drug from herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Yang, Yang; Chen, Xuetong; Wang, Chao; Li, Yan; Zheng, Chunli; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-01-01

    Veterinary Herbal Medicine (VHM) is a comprehensive, current, and informative discipline on the utilization of herbs in veterinary practice. Driven by chemistry but progressively directed by pharmacology and the clinical sciences, drug research has contributed more to address the needs for innovative veterinary medicine for curing animal diseases. However, research into veterinary medicine of vegetal origin in the pharmaceutical industry has reduced, owing to questions such as the short of compatibility of traditional natural-product extract libraries with high-throughput screening. Here, we present a cross-species chemogenomic screening platform to dissect the genetic basis of multifactorial diseases and to determine the most suitable points of attack for future veterinary medicines, thereby increasing the number of treatment options. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and text mining, we build a cross-species drug-likeness evaluation approach to screen the lead compounds in veterinary medicines. Second, a specific cross-species target prediction model is developed to infer drug-target connections, with the purpose of understanding how drugs work on the specific targets. Third, we focus on exploring the multiple targets interference effects of veterinary medicines by heterogeneous network convergence and modularization analysis. Finally, we manually integrate a disease pathway to test whether the cross-species chemogenomic platform could uncover the active mechanism of veterinary medicine, which is exemplified by a specific network module. We believe the proposed cross-species chemogenomic platform allows for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of veterinary medicine and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for animal diseases.

  5. Large-scale cross-species chemogenomic platform proposes a new drug discovery strategy of veterinary drug from herbal medicines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    Full Text Available Veterinary Herbal Medicine (VHM is a comprehensive, current, and informative discipline on the utilization of herbs in veterinary practice. Driven by chemistry but progressively directed by pharmacology and the clinical sciences, drug research has contributed more to address the needs for innovative veterinary medicine for curing animal diseases. However, research into veterinary medicine of vegetal origin in the pharmaceutical industry has reduced, owing to questions such as the short of compatibility of traditional natural-product extract libraries with high-throughput screening. Here, we present a cross-species chemogenomic screening platform to dissect the genetic basis of multifactorial diseases and to determine the most suitable points of attack for future veterinary medicines, thereby increasing the number of treatment options. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and text mining, we build a cross-species drug-likeness evaluation approach to screen the lead compounds in veterinary medicines. Second, a specific cross-species target prediction model is developed to infer drug-target connections, with the purpose of understanding how drugs work on the specific targets. Third, we focus on exploring the multiple targets interference effects of veterinary medicines by heterogeneous network convergence and modularization analysis. Finally, we manually integrate a disease pathway to test whether the cross-species chemogenomic platform could uncover the active mechanism of veterinary medicine, which is exemplified by a specific network module. We believe the proposed cross-species chemogenomic platform allows for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of veterinary medicine and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for animal diseases.

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12) for the Brazilian population

    OpenAIRE

    Marangoni,Bruna E.M.; Karina Pavan; Charles Peter Tilbery

    2012-01-01

    Gait impairment is reported by 85% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) as main complaint. In 2003, Hobart et al. developed a scale for walking known as The 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12), which combines the perspectives of patients with psychometric methods. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt and validate the MSWS-12 for the Brazilian population with MS. METHODS: This study included 116 individuals diagnosed with MS, in accordance with McDonald's cr...

  7. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties Testing of the Arabic Anterior Knee Pain Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Abdullah; Lohman, Everett; Daher, Noha S.; Bahijri, Khalid; Alghamdi, Abdulmohsen; Altorairi, Nezar; Arnos, Arin; Matar, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Background PFPS is one of the most frequently occurring overuse injuries affecting the lower limbs. A variety of functional and self-reported outcome measures have been used to assess clinical outcomes of patients with PFPS, however, only the Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS) has been designed for PFPS patients. Material/Methods We followed international recommendations to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the AKPS. The Arabic AKPS and the Arabic RAND 36-item Health Survey were administered to 40 patients who were diagnosed with PFPS. Participants were assessed at baseline and after 2 to 3 days assessed with the Arabic AKPS only. The measurements tested were reliability, validity, and feasibility. Results The Arabic AKPS showed high reliability for both temporal stability, internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha was 0.81 for the first assessment and 0.75 for the second), excellent test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients ICC=0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 0.98) and good agreement (standard error of measurement SEM=1.8%). The Arabic AKPS was significantly correlated with physical components of the RAND 36-Item Health Survey (Spearman’s rho=0.69: pArabic AKPS is a valid and reliable tool and is comparable to the original English version and other translated versions. PMID:28364114

  8. Cross cultural adaptation and validation of the Early Childhood Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) in Peruvian preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Ramos, Roxana P; García Rupaya, Carmen R; Villena-Sarmiento, Rita; Bordoni, Noemí E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to perform semantic adjustment and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) in Spanish on a sample of the Peruvian population. The study was conducted on a sample of 128 children aged 3-5 years, who attended a public school (Hualmay District, Huaura Province, Lima, Peru) in 2011. The ECOHIS questionnaire, developed to measure the impact of oral conditions and/or experiences of dental treatment on oral health-related quality of life in children under 5 years old and their parents or other family members was adapted cross-culturally and subjected to psychometric tests: validity (in terms of construct and discriminant) and reliability (in terms of internal consistency and stability). The cultural adaptation addressed ECOHIS semantic equivalence (Bordoni et al., 2012) and showed that 80-100% of respondents understood the questions. Construct validity was r = .557 (p tooth decay. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha (.948) and stability by intra-class correlation (.992). The Peruvian version of ECOHIS demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability, enabling assessment of the impact of oral health problems in children under 5 years old.

  9. A Japanese version of the Perceived Stress Scale: cross-cultural translation and equivalence assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimura Chizu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the development of a Japanese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, and examines the equivalence between the original and translated version. The PSS is one of the few instruments to measure a global level of perceived stress, and has been widely used in a range of clinical and research settings. The PSS has already been translated into several languages, but there is no validated Japanese version. Methods A forward-backward procedure was implemented. Multiple forward and backward translations were produced, and a panel of reviewers verified conceptual and semantic equivalence between the source and final versions. Non-professional translators who were not brought up in bilingual families were used in order to enhance representativeness of language in the target populations. The PSS was administered to 222 native English speakers and the Japanese version (PSS-J to 1320 native Japanese speakers. Results Factor analysis showed similar factor loadings of the items and satisfactory factorial agreement between the PSS and PSS-J. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was high for both versions and for each factor. Conclusion It is concluded that the PSS and PSS-J are substantially equivalent and suited for use in comparative cross-cultural studies.

  10. Current and Future Carbon Budgets of Tropical Rain Forest: A Cross Scale Analysis. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbauer, S. F.

    2004-01-16

    The goal of this project was to make a first assessment of the major carbon stocks and fluxes and their climatic determinants in a lowland neotropical rain forest, the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Our research design was based on the concurrent use of several of the best available approaches, so that data could be cross-validated. A major focus of our effort was to combine meteorological studies of whole-forest carbon exchange (eddy flux), with parallel independent measurements of key components of the forest carbon budget. The eddy flux system operated from February 1998 to February 2001. To obtain field data that could be scaled up to the landscape level, we monitored carbon stocks, net primary productivity components including tree growth and mortality, litterfall, woody debris production, root biomass, and soil respiration in a series of replicated plots stratified across the major environmental gradients of the forest. A second major focus of this project was on the stocks and changes of carbon in the soil. We used isotope studies and intensive monitoring to investigate soil organic stocks and the climate-driven variation of soil respiration down the soil profile, in a set of six 4m deep soil shafts stratified across the landscape. We measured short term tree growth, climate responses of sap flow, and phenology in a suite of ten canopy trees to develop individual models of tree growth to daytime weather variables.

  11. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties Testing of the Arabic Anterior Knee Pain Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Abdullah; Lohman, Everett; Daher, Noha S; Bahijri, Khalid; Alghamdi, Abdulmohsen; Altorairi, Nezar; Arnons, Arin; Matar, Abdullah

    2017-04-01

    BACKGROUND PFPS is one of the most frequently occurring overuse injuries affecting the lower limbs. A variety of functional and self-reported outcome measures have been used to assess clinical outcomes of patients with PFPS, however, only the Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS) has been designed for PFPS patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS We followed international recommendations to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the AKPS. The Arabic AKPS and the Arabic RAND 36-item Health Survey were administered to 40 patients who were diagnosed with PFPS. Participants were assessed at baseline and after 2 to 3 days assessed with the Arabic AKPS only. The measurements tested were reliability, validity, and feasibility. RESULTS The Arabic AKPS showed high reliability for both temporal stability, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha was 0.81 for the first assessment and 0.75 for the second), excellent test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients ICC=0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 0.98) and good agreement (standard error of measurement SEM=1.8%). The Arabic AKPS was significantly correlated with physical components of the RAND 36-Item Health Survey (Spearman's rho=0.69: pArabic AKPS is a valid and reliable tool and is comparable to the original English version and other translated versions.

  12. Efficient incorporation of channel cross-section geometry uncertainty into regional and global scale flood models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jeffrey; Odoni, Nicholas; Trigg, Mark; Freer, Jim; Garcia-Pintado, Javier; Mason, David; Wood, Melissa; Bates, Paul

    2015-04-01

    This work explores the challenge of representing structural differences in river channel cross-section geometry for regional to global scale river hydraulic models and the effect this can have on simulations of flood wave dynamics. Classically, channel geometry is defined using data, yet at larger scales the necessary information and model structures do not exist to take this approach. We therefore propose a fundamentally different approach where the structural uncertainty in channel geometry is represented using a simple parameterization and that can then be estimated through calibration or data assimilation. We first outline the development of a computationally efficient numerical scheme to represent generalised channel shapes using a single parameter, which is then validated using a simple straight channel test case and shown to predict wetted perimeter to within 2% for the channels tested. An application to the River Severn, UK and Niger Inner Delta, Mali are also presented, along with an analysis of model sensitivity to channel shape, depth and friction. The channel shape parameter was shown to improve model simulations of river level, particularly for more physically plausible channel roughness and depth parameter ranges. Calibrating channel Manning's coefficient in a rectangular channel provided similar water level simulation accuracy in terms of Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency to a model where friction and shape or depth were calibrated. However, the calibrated Manning coefficient in the rectangular channel model was greater by 0.015-0.02 than the more complex channel shape and this erroneously slowed wave propagation times through the 30 km reach by 1.4 hours (17%). Even a poor estimate of channel shape resulted in more physically realistic calibration of channel Manning's coefficient and channel depth. On the River Niger, where the river depth and shape are unknown, we calibrate depth, shape and friction using ICEsat data for a number of reaches. Including the

  13. Cross-Scale and Cross-Level Dynamics: Governance and Capacity for Resilience in a Social-Ecological System in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Sheng Tai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience thinking has strongly influenced how people understand and pursue sustainability of linked social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking highlights the need to build capacity and manage general system properties in a complex, constantly changing world. I modified an analytical framework to address associations among cross-scale and cross-level dynamics, attributes of governance, and capacity to enhance resilience. The Danungdafu Forestation Area represents one of Taiwan’s most controvisal cases concerning land use, indigenous rights, and environmental issues. Analysis of this Taiwanese experience from a social-ecological perspective can show how current capacities for managing resilience are related to critical governance attributes. Analysis helped identify fundamental flaws in current governance and key issues needing to be addressed. The Danungdafu Forestation Area should transition towards a governance regime that is more participatory, deliberative, multi-layered, accountable, just, and networked. This can be done by developing an intermediate level institution that coordinates the cross-scale and cross-level interactions that better fit this social-ecological system.

  14. Building the Foundations for a Large-Scale, Cross-Sector Collaboration for a Sustainable and Permanent Return to the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoglou, A.

    2017-10-01

    This presentation will describe how to build the foundations needed for a large scale, cross-industry collaboration to enable a sustainable and permanent return to the Moon based on system leadership, cross-sector partnership, and inclusive business.

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Danish consensus version of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Anita; Dalgaard, Vita Ligaya; Nielsen, Kent Jacob

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to (i) cross-culturally adapt a Danish consensus version of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and (ii) evaluate its psychometric properties in terms of agreement, reliability, validity, responsiveness, and interpretability among patients...

  16. Efficient incorporation of channel cross-section geometry uncertainty into regional and global scale flood inundation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neal, J. C.; Odini, Nicolas; trigg, mark; Freer, Jim; garcia-pintado, javier; mason, david; Wood, Melissa; Bates, P. D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenge of representing structural differences in river channel cross-section geometry for regional to global scale river hydraulic models and the effect this can have on simulations of wave dynamics. Classically, channel geometry is defined using data, yet at larger

  17. Meaning shift of items in different language versions. A cross-national validation study of the illegal aliens scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, C.G.; Ommundsen, R.; Hak, T.; Larsen, K.S.

    2003-01-01

    The 20-item Illegal Aliens Scale, which was developed and validated by Ommundsen and Larsen at Oregon State University (1999), has been translated into Norwegian and Dutch. Cross-national comparisons of attitudes require equivalence of measurement instruments (Rogler, 1999). The results of a

  18. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale - Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Fernanda Figueredo; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Pagano, Adriana Silvina; Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho

    2017-03-23

    To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the Diabetes Empowerment Scale - Short Form for assessment of psychosocial self-efficacy in diabetes care within the Brazilian cultural context. Assessment of the instrument's conceptual equivalence, as well as its translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed following international standards. The Expert Committee's assessment of the translated version was conducted through a web questionnaire developed and applied via the web tool e-Surv. The cross-culturally adapted version was used for the pre-test, which was carried out via phone call in a group of eleven health care service users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pre-test results were examined by a group of experts, composed by health care consultants, applied linguists and statisticians, aiming at an adequate version of the instrument, which was subsequently used for test and retest in a sample of 100 users diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus via phone call, their answers being recorded by the web tool e-Surv. Internal consistency and reproducibility of analysis were carried out within the statistical programming environment R. Face and content validity were attained and the Brazilian Portuguese version, entitled Escala de Autoeficácia em Diabetes - Versão Curta, was established. The scale had acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha of 0.634 (95%CI 0.494- 0.737), while the correlation of the total score in the two periods was considered moderate (0.47). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.50. The translated and cross-culturally adapted version of the instrument to spoken Brazilian Portuguese was considered valid and reliable to be used for assessment within the Brazilian population diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of a web tool (e-Surv) for recording the Expert Committee responses as well as the responses in the validation tests proved to be a reliable, safe and innovative method. Traduzir

  19. Cross-cultural alexithymia: development and validation of a Hindi translation of the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, R; Mandal, M K; Taylor, G J; Parker, J D

    1996-03-01

    The possibility that alexithymia may be a culture-bound construct was evaluated by developing a Hindi version of the Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale and assessing its psychometric properties in a sample of 285 normal young adults in India. The Hindi version of the scale (TAS-20-H) showed excellent cross-language equivalence with the English version. In addition, the TAS-20-H demonstrated adequate internal consistency, good test-retest reliability, and a three-factor structure consistent with the three-factor model of the original scale.

  20. [Spanish translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the ARMS-scale for measuring medication adherence in polypathological patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Bueno, Javier; Calvo-Cidoncha, Elena; Sevilla-Sánchez, Daniel; Espaulella-Panicot, Joan; Codina-Jané, Carles; Santos-Ramos, Bernardo

    2017-10-01

    Translate the ARMS scale into Spanish ensuring cross-cultural equivalence for measuring medication adherence in polypathological patients. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and pilot testing. Secondary hospital. (i)Forward and blind-back translations followed by cross-cultural adaptation through qualitative methodology to ensure conceptual, semantic and content equivalence between the original scale and the Spanish version. (ii)Pilot testing in non-institutionalized polypathological patients to assess the instrument for clarity. The Spanish version of the ARMS scale has been obtained. Overall scores from translators involved in forward and blind-back translations were consistent with a low difficulty for assuring conceptual equivalence between both languages. Pilot testing (cognitive debriefing) in a sample of 40 non-institutionalized polypathological patients admitted to an internal medicine department of a secondary hospital showed an excellent clarity. The ARMS-e scale is a Spanish-adapted version of the ARMS scale, suitable for measuring adherence in polypathological patients. Its structure enables a multidimensional approach of the lack of adherence allowing the implementation of individualized interventions guided by the barriers detected in every patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. A cross-syndrome evaluation of a new attention rating scale: The Scale of Attention in Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Nerelie C; Gray, Kylie M; Taffe, John R; Cornish, Kim M

    2016-10-01

    Whilst neuropsychological research has enhanced our understanding of inattentive and hyperactive behaviours among children with intellectual disability (ID), the absence of rating scales developed for this group continues to be a gap in knowledge. This study examined these behaviours in 176 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Down Syndrome (DS), or idiopathic ID using a newly developed teacher rating scale, the Scale of Attention in Intellectual Disability. Findings suggested that children with ASD had a significantly greater breadth of hyperactive/impulsive behaviours than those with DS or idiopathic ID. These findings support existing research suggesting differing profiles of attention and activity across groups. Understanding disorder-specific profiles has implications for developing strategies to support students with ID in the classroom. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mosaics of Change: Cross-Scale Forest Cover Dynamics and Drivers in Tibetan Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hoek, Jamon

    In reaction to devastating floods on the Yangtze River in the summer of 1998, the Chinese Central Government introduced a logging ban as part of the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP) with the goal of dramatically increasing national forest cover. Since then, over 11 billion USD has been allocated to the program, but the NFPP's success at promoting reforestation is unclear as neither the extent of forest cover change, nor the potential factors influencing the spatial variability of change have been examined. This research employs a case study in northwest Yunnan Province, southwest China, to evaluate the spatial variability of forest cover change under the NFPP and investigate drivers that have influenced recent patterns of change. I employ a mixed methods, cross-scale research framework that includes the analysis of areal trajectories and spatial variability of Landsat-5 imagery-derived forest cover change at three administrative levels before and after the NFPP's introduction; landscape ecology-based metrics to measure the shifting patterns of forest cover change at the patch level; and household interview data on village-level forest resource use patterns and processes in three neighboring villages. Prefecture- and county-level analyses suggest rather stable forest cover across the three-county study area since the introduction of the ban, though township-level measures of forest cover change show a degree of spatial variability as well as a temporal delay in policy implementation effectiveness. Village-level remote sensing analysis shows comparable amounts of forest cover change between study villages but disparate forest resource use patterns in terms of location and amount. Though all research villages continue to exploit local forests for firewood and timber relatively unfettered by policy restrictions, villagers with tourism-derived income are able to buy forest products collected in outside forests much more often; this redistributes local-scale

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Chilean version of the Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruston, Francisco Contreras; Moreti, Felipe; Vivero, Martín; Malebran, Celina; Behlau, Mara

    This research aims to accomplish the cross-cultural equivalence of the Chilean version of the VoiSS protocol through its cultural and linguistic adaptation. After the translation of the VoiSS protocol to Chilean Spanish by two bilingual speech therapists and its back translation to English, we compared the items of the original tool with the previous translated version. The existing discrepancies were modified by a consensus committee of five speech therapists and the translated version was entitled Escala de Sintomas Vocales - ESV, with 30 questions and five answers: "Never", "Occasionally", "Sometimes", "Most of the time", "Always". For cross-cultural equivalence, the protocol was applied to 15 individuals with vocal problems. In each question the option of "Not applicable" was added to the answer choices for identification of the questions not comprehended or not appropriate for the target population. Two individuals had difficulty answering two questions, which made it necessary to adapt the translation of only one of them. The modified ESV was applied to three individuals with vocal problems, and there were incomprehensible inappropriate questions for the Chilean culture. The ESV reflects the original English version, both in the number of questions and the limitations of the emotional and physical domains. There is now a cross-cultural equivalence of VoiSS in Chilean Spanish, titled ESV. The validation of the ESV for Chilean Spanish is ongoing. RESUMEN Este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la equivalencia cultural de la versión Chilena del protocolo Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS por medio de su adaptación cultural y lingüística. Después de la traducción del VoiSS para el Español Chileno, por dos fonoaudiólogos bilingües, y de la retro traducción para el inglés, se realizó una comparación de los ítems del instrumento original con la versión traducida, surgiendo discrepancias; tales divergencias fueron resueltas por un comité compuesto por

  4. Cross-cultural validation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Shi, Hai-Song; Geng, Fu-Lei; Zou, Lai-Quan; Tan, Shu-Ping; Wang, Yi; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-05-01

    The gap between the demand and delivery of mental health services in mainland China can be reduced by validating freely available and psychometrically sound psychological instruments. The present research examined the Chinese version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Study 1 administered the DASS-21 to 1,815 Chinese college students and found internal consistency indices (Cronbach's alpha) of .83, .80, and .82 for the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales, respectively, and .92 for the total DASS total. Test-retest reliability over a 6-month interval was .39 to .46 for each of the 3 subscales and .46 for the total DASS. Moderate convergent validity of the Depression and Anxiety subscales was demonstrated via significant correlations with the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory (r = .51 at Time 1 and r = .64 at Time 2) and the Chinese State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = .41), respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the original 3-factor model with 1 minor change (nonnormed fit index [NNFI] = .964, comparative fit index [CFI] = .968, and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .079). Study 2 examined the clinical utility of the Chinese DASS-21 in 166 patients with schizophrenia and 90 matched healthy controls. Patients had higher Depression and Anxiety but not Stress subscale scores than healthy controls. A discriminant function composed of the linear combination of 3 subscale scores correctly discriminated 69.92% of participants, which again supported the potential clinical utility of the DASS in mainland China. Taken together, findings in these studies support the cross-cultural validity of the DASS-21 in China. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Neonatal Infant Pain Scale: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Giordana de Cássia Pinheiro da; Schardosim, Juliana Machado; Cunha, Maria Luzia Chollopetz da

    2015-09-01

    The Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), initially developed in Canada, has been previously used but not adequately adapted and validated for use in Brazil. The goal of the present study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation and clinical validation of the NIPS for use in the Brazilian population. The instrument was adapted based on the method outlined by Beaton et al., including the production and combination of translated versions, back-translation, committee review, and pilot testing. The psychometric properties of the adapted instrument, including its validity, reliability, and internal consistency, were tested in a clinical validation study. The sample comprised 60 at-term newborns who were evaluated by six nurses as they experienced vaccination. Psychometric properties were evaluated using Student's t-tests, prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa scores, the Bland-Altman method, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The Brazilian version of the NIPS (Escala de Dor no Recém-Nascido [NIPS-Brazil]) demonstrated excellent interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Total NIPS-Brazil scores yielded prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa scores of 0.93, whereas the Bland-Altman method revealed interobserver and intraobserver reliability values of 95% and 90%, respectively. The NIPS-Brazil had adequate internal consistency, as evidenced by a Cronbach's alpha of 0.762. The NIPS was successfully adapted for use in Brazil and is now available for use in the assessment of acute pain in at-term newborns in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Can we really use available scales for child and adolescent psychopathology across cultures? A systematic review of cross-cultural measurement invariance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Dejan; Jafari, Peyman; Knez, Rajna; Franic, Tomislav; Atilola, Olayinka; Davidovic, Nikolina; Bagheri, Zahra; Lakic, Aneta

    2017-02-01

    In this systematic review, we assessed available evidence for cross-cultural measurement invariance of assessment scales for child and adolescent psychopathology as an indicator of cross-cultural validity. A literature search was conducted using the Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. Cross-cultural measurement invariance data was available for 26 scales. Based on the aggregation of the evidence from the studies under review, none of the evaluated scales have strong evidence for cross-cultural validity and suitability for cross-cultural comparison. A few of the studies showed a moderate level of measurement invariance for some scales (such as the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale), which may make them suitable in cross-cultural comparative studies. The remainder of the scales either showed weak or outright lack of measurement invariance. This review showed only limited testing for measurement invariance across cultural groups of scales for pediatric psychopathology, with evidence of cross-cultural validity for only a few scales. This study also revealed a need to improve practices of statistical analysis reporting in testing measurement invariance. Implications for future research are discussed.

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the teamwork climate scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mariana Charantola; Peduzzi, Marina; Sangaleti, Carine Teles; Silva, Dirceu da; Agreli, Heloise Fernandes; West, Michael A; Anderson, Neil R

    2016-08-22

    To adapt and validate the Team Climate Inventory scale, of teamwork climate measurement, for the Portuguese language, in the context of primary health care in Brazil. Methodological study with quantitative approach of cross-cultural adaptation (translation, back-translation, synthesis, expert committee, and pretest) and validation with 497 employees from 72 teams of the Family Health Strategy in the city of Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil. We verified reliability by the Cronbach's alpha, construct validity by the confirmatory factor analysis with SmartPLS software, and correlation by the job satisfaction scale. We problematized the overlap of items 9, 11, and 12 of the "participation in the team" factor and the "team goals" factor regarding its definition. The validation showed no overlapping of items and the reliability ranged from 0.92 to 0.93. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated suitability of the proposed model with distribution of the 38 items in the four factors. The correlation between teamwork climate and job satisfaction was significant. The version of the scale in Brazilian Portuguese was validated and can be used in the context of primary health care in the Country, constituting an adequate tool for the assessment and diagnosis of teamwork. Adaptar e validar a escala Team Climate Invetory, de medida do clima de trabalho em equipe, para o idioma português, no contexto da atenção primária à saúde no Brasil. Estudo metodológico com abordagem quantitativa de adaptação transcultural (tradução, retrotradução, síntese, comitê de especialistas e pré-teste) e validação com 497 trabalhadores de 72 equipes da Estratégia Saúde da Família no município de Campinas, São Paulo. Verificou-se confiabilidade pelo alfa de Cronbach, validade de construto pela análise fatorial confirmatória pelo software SmartPLS e correlação com escala de satisfação no trabalho. Foi problematizado a sobreposição dos itens 9, 11 e 12 do fator participa

  8. Spatial scale and cross-taxon congruence of terrestrial vertebrate and vascular plant species richness in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Kissling, W Daniel

    2010-04-01

    In ecology and biogeography it is often recognized that the species richness of different groups of organisms is spatially congruent (and thus positively correlated). However, ecological phenomena are often scale dependent and can change with spatial scale (i.e., grain size and extent). Because species richness gradients are also correlated with environmental gradients and plant species richness is thought to influence animal species richness, the relative roles of environment and plant richness in influencing cross-taxon congruence of animal richness at different spatial scales remain poorly explored. In this study, we examine the spatial concordance in species richness among terrestrial vertebrates and vascular plants at two spatial grain sizes (local and regional) across China. We hypothesize that (H1) cross-taxon richness relationships are weaker at the local scale; (H2) climatic predictors of species richness are stronger at the regional scale; (H3) effects of habitat heterogeneity on species richness are stronger at the local scale; (H4) plant richness positively affects vertebrate richness after accounting for environmental effects; and (H5) the plant-vertebrate richness relationship is weaker at the regional scale. We found significant and positive correlations between species richness of the groups, with correlations being stronger at the regional scale than at the local scale (supporting H1). Climate has weaker effects on species richness at the regional scale than at the local scale (rejecting H2), and for vertebrates (but not for plants) effects of habitat heterogeneity are stronger at the local scale (supporting hypothesis H3). Plant richness positively affects vertebrate richness after accounting for environmental effects (supporting H4), but the effect is stronger for the two endothermic groups (mammals and birds) than for the two ectothermic groups (reptiles and amphibians). In contrast to hypothesis H5, the effect of plant richness on species

  9. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the arabic version of the nasal obstruction symptom evaluation scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Mohamed A; Kabbash, Ibrahim A; Younes, Ahmed; Elzayat, Saad; Tomoum, Mohamed O

    2017-11-01

    Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scale into the Arabic language with studying of its psychometric properties. Prospective instrument-validation study. Guidelines for the cross-cultural adaptation process from the original English language scale into the Arabic language version were followed. We assessed the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the NOSE scale (A-NOSE) (feasibility, reproducibility, internal consistency, reliability, discriminatory validity, responsiveness to change) in 101 consecutive patients who underwent septal surgery (preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively) and 102 asymptomatic controls. The Mann-Whitney test showed a statistically significant difference for the mean score between the patients and the control group denoting good clinical validity. The Cronbach's α coefficient value for the A-NOSE scale for 101 cases was 0.995, demonstrating good internal consistency. The Wilcoxon signed rank test showed a marked improvement in the patients score 3 months postoperatively. Correlation and level of agreement of the mean score of the A-NOSE scale for each question were studied using Spearman's rank correlation for each question, and Pearson's correlation for the total score showed statistically significant results. The A-NOSE scale is a valid instrument for evaluating the subjective severity of nasal obstruction and is recommended to be used in rhinology research and daily practice. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:2455-2459, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Medicine in words and numbers: a cross-sectional survey comparing probability assessment scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koele Pieter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the complex domain of medical decision making, reasoning under uncertainty can benefit from supporting tools. Automated decision support tools often build upon mathematical models, such as Bayesian networks. These networks require probabilities which often have to be assessed by experts in the domain of application. Probability response scales can be used to support the assessment process. We compare assessments obtained with different types of response scale. Methods General practitioners (GPs gave assessments on and preferences for three different probability response scales: a numerical scale, a scale with only verbal labels, and a combined verbal-numerical scale we had designed ourselves. Standard analyses of variance were performed. Results No differences in assessments over the three response scales were found. Preferences for type of scale differed: the less experienced GPs preferred the verbal scale, the most experienced preferred the numerical scale, with the groups in between having a preference for the combined verbal-numerical scale. Conclusion We conclude that all three response scales are equally suitable for supporting probability assessment. The combined verbal-numerical scale is a good choice for aiding the process, since it offers numerical labels to those who prefer numbers and verbal labels to those who prefer words, and accommodates both more and less experienced professionals.

  11. Scaling of cross-sections for asymmetric (e, 3e) process on helium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 63; Issue 5. Scaling of ... An approximate simple scaling law is obtained for asymmetric (, 3) process on helium-like ions for double ionization by fast electrons. ... The scaling law becomes increasingly accurate as the target nuclear charge and the energy increase.

  12. Commonness of Amazonian palm (Arecaceae) species: Cross-scale links and potential determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Thea; Svenning, J.-C.; Grández, César

    2009-01-01

    in a western Amazonian landscape, while commonness at the largest scale (continental range size) was estimated from digitized distribution maps. Landscape frequency was positively related to both local abundance and continental range size, which, however, were not related to each other. Landscape frequency...... commonness in the Amazonian palm flora appear to be scale-dependent, with the unrelated local scale abundance and continental range size probably being controlled by different driving factors. Interestingly, commonness at the intermediate, landscape scale seems linked to both the smaller and the larger scale...

  13. Structure of attitudes toward illegal immigration: development of cross-national cumulative scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veer, Kees; Ommundsen, Reidar; Larsen, Knud S; Le, Hao Van; Krumov, Krum; Pernice, Regina E; Romans, Gerardo Pastor

    2004-06-01

    This research examined the possibility of developing Mokken cumulative scales measuring attitudes toward illegal immigrants in a 9-nation sample. A total of 1,407 respondents primarily from national and regional universities participated in the surveys including the 20-item Illegal Immigration Scale. The scales displayed acceptable reliability with coefficients alpha ranging from .79 to .93. A Procrustes analysis yielded coefficients of congruence with the previously established three-factor solution. The amount of variance accounted for varied between 33.1 and 54.7%, supporting the presence of other factors in attitudes toward illegal immigrants. Mokken scale analysis yielded robust and economical scales in two clusters of national samples.

  14. Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tell your child that she will lose her TV time today if she hits, be prepared to turn off the TV for the day. DO NOT make huge threats ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  15. Cross-Cultural adaptation of the General Functioning Scale of the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Thiago; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Avanci, Joviana Quintes; Pesce, Renata Pires

    2016-06-27

    To describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the General Functioning Scale of the Family, a subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device, for the Brazilian population. The General Functioning Scale of the Family was translated into Portuguese and administered to 500 guardians of children in the second grade of elementary school in public schools of Sao Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. The types of equivalences investigated were: conceptual and of items, semantic, operational, and measurement. The study involved discussions with experts, translations and back-translations of the instrument, and psychometric assessment. Reliability and validity studies were carried out by internal consistency testing (Cronbach's alpha), Guttman split-half correlation model, Pearson correlation coefficient, and confirmatory factor analysis. Associations between General Functioning of the Family and variables theoretically associated with the theme (father's or mother's drunkenness and violence between parents) were estimated by odds ratio. Semantic equivalence was between 90.0% and 100%. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.79 to 0.81, indicating good internal consistency of the instrument. Pearson correlation coefficient ranged between 0.303 and 0.549. Statistical association was found between the general functioning of the family score and the theoretically related variables, as well as good fit quality of the confirmatory analysis model. The results indicate the feasibility of administering the instrument to the Brazilian population, as it is easy to understand and a good measurement of the construct of interest. Descrever o processo de adaptação transcultural da escala de Funcionamento Geral da Família, subescala da McMaster Family Assessment Device, para a população brasileira. A escala de Funcionamento Geral da Família, original no idioma inglês, foi traduzida para o português e aplicada a 500 responsáveis de crianças do segundo ano do ensino

  16. Alternative Discipline Can Benefit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, Mary Schmid; Vargas, Karla M.; Caldwell, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Schools across the country are changing how they discipline students by implementing research- and evidence-based disciplinary practices that have yielded positive results for schools and students. These disciplinary practices--known as Restorative Justice, Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, and social and emotional learning--largely…

  17. Retail design : A new discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaans, H.H.C.M.; Almendra, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper has the aim to address Retail Design as a new research and education discipline that because of its multidisciplinarity asks for a holistic approach. Although retailing as commerce is timeless, Retail Design is one of the most challenging new fields of design, embracing both design

  18. Eliminating Disparities in School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Disparities in suspension rates for White, Black, Hispanic, and American Indian students are more often a result of inequitable disciplinary actions than differences in behavior. Exclusionary discipline undermines students' academic achievement by weakening their connection with school and removing them from the classroom. Students who experience…

  19. Cross-validation of clinical characteristics and treatment patterns associated with phenotypes for lithium response defined by the Alda scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jan; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Sportiche, Sarah; Brichant-Petit-Jean, Clara; Gard, Sebastien; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Henry, Chantal; Etain, Bruno; Bellivier, Frank

    2017-01-15

    It is increasingly recognised that reliable and valid assessments of lithium response are needed in order to target more efficiently the use of this medication in bipolar disorders (BD) and to identify genotypes, endophenotypes and biomarkers of response. In a large, multi-centre, clinically representative sample of 300 cases of BD, we assess external clinical validators of lithium response phenotypes as defined using three different recommended approaches to scoring the Alda lithium response scale. The scale comprises an A scale (rating lithium response) and a B scale (assessing confounders). Analysis of the two continuous scoring methods (A scale score minus the B scale score, or A scale score in those with a low B scale score) demonstrated that 21-23% of the explained variance in lithium response was accounted for by a positive family history of BD I and the early introduction of lithium. Categorical definitions of response suggest poor response is also associated with a positive history of alcohol and/or substance use comorbidities. High B scale scores were significantly associated with longer duration of illness prior to receiving lithium and the presence of psychotic symptoms. The original sample was not recruited specifically to study lithium response. The Alda scale is designed to assess response retrospectively. This cross-validation study identifies different clinical phenotypes of lithium response when defined by continuous or categorical measures. Future clinical, genetic and biomarker studies should report both the findings and the method employed to assess lithium response according to the Alda scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Coupled Vulnerability and Resilience: the Dynamics of Cross-Scale Interactions in Post-Katrina New Orleans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin F. Gotham

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of trauma on cross-scale interactions in order to identify the major social-ecological factors affecting the pace and trajectory of post-Katrina rebuilding in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Disaster and traumatic events create and activate networks and linkages at different spatial and institutional levels to provide information and resources related to post-trauma recovery and rebuilding. The extension, intensification, and acceleration of cross-scale linkages and interactions in response to trauma alter organizational couplings, which then contribute to the vulnerability and resilience of social-ecological systems. Rather than viewing urban ecosystems as either resilient or vulnerable, we conceptualize them as embodying both resilient and vulnerable components. This integrated approach directs analytical attention to the impact of socio-legal regulations, government policies, and institutional actions on resilience and vulnerability, which are also systemic properties of urban ecosystems.

  1. Numerical and experimental analysis of an in-scale masonry cross-vault prototype up to failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Michela; Calderini, Chiara; Lagomarsino, Sergio [Department of Civil, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, Genoa (Italy); Milani, Gabriele [Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering, Milan Polytechnic University, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milan (Italy)

    2015-12-31

    A heterogeneous full 3D non-linear FE approach is validated against experimental results obtained on an in-scale masonry cross vault assembled with dry joints, and subjected to various loading conditions consisting on imposed displacement combinations to the abutments. The FE model relies into a discretization of the blocks by means of few rigid-infinitely resistant parallelepiped elements interacting by means of planar four-noded interfaces, where all the deformation (elastic and inelastic) occurs. The investigated response mechanisms of vault are the shear in-plane distortion and the longitudinal opening and closing mechanism at the abutments. After the validation of the approach on the experimentally tested cross-vault, a sensitivity analysis is conducted on the same geometry, but in real scale, varying mortar joints mechanical properties, in order to furnish useful hints for safety assessment, especially in presence of seismic action.

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Norwegian pain catastrophizing scale in patients with low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Linda; Storheim Kjersti; Lochting Ida; Grotle Margreth

    2012-01-01

    Background Pain catastrophizing has been found to be an important predictor of disability and days lost from work in patients with low back pain. The most commonly used outcome measure to identify pain catastrophizing is the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). To enable the use of the PCS in clinical settings and research in Norwegian speaking patients, the PCS had to be translated. The purpose of this study was therefore to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PCS into N...

  3. Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis for Large-Scale Warehouse-Out Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Can-Zhong; Lin, Ji-Nan; Zheng, Xu-Zhou

    2015-09-01

    Based on cross-correlation algorithm, we analyze the correlation property of warehouse-out quantity of different warehouses, respectively, and different products of each warehouse. Our study identifies that significant cross-correlation relationship for warehouse-out quantity exists among different warehouses and different products of a warehouse. Further, we take multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis for warehouse-out quantity among different warehouses and different products of a warehouse. The results show that for the warehouse-out behaviors of total amount, different warehouses and different products of a warehouse significantly follow multifractal property. Specifically for each warehouse, the coupling relationships of rebar and wire rod reveal long-term memory characteristics, no matter for large fluctuation or small one. The cross-correlation effect on long-range memory property among warehouses probably has less to do with product types,and the long-term memory of YZ warehouse is greater than others especially in total amount and wire rod product. Finally, we shuffle and surrogate data to explore the source of multifractal cross-correlation property in logistics system. Taking the total amount of warehouse-out quantity as example, we confirm that the fat-tail distribution of warehouse-out quantity sequences is the main factor for multifractal cross-correlation. Through comparing the performance of the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA), centered multifractal detrending moving average cross-correlation analysis (MF-X-DMA) algorithms, the forward and backward MF-X-DMA algorithms, we find that the forward and backward MF-X-DMA algorithms exhibit a better performance than the other ones.

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F A Sekeff-Sallem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical dystonia (CD is a prevalent and incapacitating movement disorder which needs a thorough clinical evaluation of every patient to better tailor treatment strategies. In Brazil, there are no validated CD scales that measure the burden of dystonia. The aim of our study was to translate and adapt the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS to Brazilian Portuguese. After translation and back-translation according to international methods, a pre-test was carried out with 30 patients. Patients under 8 years of formal schooling had severe difficulty in understanding the whole scale. The scale went through a remodeling process, without loss of its conceptual and semantic properties. The new scale was tested in 15 patients, with good understanding scores. We are now in the process of validation of the adapted scale.

  5. Care dependency of hospitalized children: testing the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics in a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tork, Hanan; Dassen, Theo; Lohrmann, Christa

    2009-02-01

    This paper is a report of a study to examine the psychometric properties of the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics in Germany and Egypt and to compare the care dependency of school-age children in both countries. Cross-cultural differences in care dependency of older adults have been documented in the literature, but little is known about the differences and similarities with regard to children's care dependency in different cultures. A convenience sample of 258 school-aged children from Germany and Egypt participated in the study in 2005. The reliability of the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics was assessed in terms of internal consistency and interrater reliability. Factor analysis (principal component analysis) was employed to verify the construct validity. A Visual Analogue Scale was used to investigate the criterion-related validity. Good internal consistency was detected both for the Arabic and German versions. Factor analysis revealed one factor for both versions. A Pearson's correlation between the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics and Visual Analogue Scale was statistically significant for both versions indicating criterion-related validity. Statistically significant differences between the participants were detected regarding the mean sum score on the Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics. The Care Dependency Scale for Paediatrics is a reliable and valid tool for assessing the care dependency of children and is recommended for assessing the care dependency of children from different ethnic origins. Differences in care dependency between German and Egyptian children were detected, which might be due to cultural differences.

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Condom Self-Efficacy Scale: application to Brazilian adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Suellen Pires de Sousa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: translate and adapt the Condom Self-Efficacy Scale to Portuguese in the Brazilian context. The scale originated in the United States and measures self-efficacy in condom use. Method: methodological study in two phases: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and verification of psychometric properties. The translation and adaptation process involved four translators, one mediator of the synthesis and five health professionals. The content validity was verified using the Content Validation Index, based on 22 experts’ judgments. Forty subjects participated in the pretest, who contributed to the understanding of the scale items. The scale was applied to 209 students between 13 and 26 years of age from a school affiliated with the state-owned educational network. The reliability was analyzed by means of Cronbach’s alpha. Results: the Portuguese version of the scale obtained a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.85 and the total mean score was 68.1 points. A statistically significant relation was found between the total scale and the variables not having children (p= 0.038, condom use (p= 0.008 and condom use with fixed partner (p=0.036. Conclusion: the Brazilian version of the Condom Self-Efficacy Scale is a valid and reliable tool to verify the self-efficacy in condom use among adolescents and young adults.

  7. The problems of discipline at secondary education

    OpenAIRE

    NÁVORKOVÁ, Miluše

    2016-01-01

    The theme of this bachelor´s thesis is Problems of discipline at secondary education. The aim of this work is to map the problems of school discipline at the students of higher secondary education. The basic terms concerned the problems of discipline, the definitions and analysis of the lack of discipline are being described in the theoretical part. This thesis also tries to find out possible reasons, preventative arrangements and remedy possibilities of the lack of discipline at the students...

  8. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Atari; Saeed Akbari-Zardkhaneh; Mehrnoosh Soufiabadi; Leila Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The comparison of physical appearance may play an important role in many body-related variables. The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R) is a recently developed instrument for measurement of physical appearance comparisons in a number of contexts. The aim of the present study was to validate the Persian version of this scale. Methods: The scale was administered following a standard back-translation procedure. The sample consisted of 206 female university students...

  9. Scaling of cross-sections for asymmetric (e,3e) process on helium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An approximate simple scaling law is obtained for asymmetric (e, 3e) process on helium-like ions for double ionization by fast electrons. It is based on the equation. (Z 3/π) exp[−Z (r1 + r2)], Z = Z − (5/16) for ground state wave function of helium- like ions and Z 2 scaling of energies. The scaling law is found to work ...

  10. Cross-Scale Variation in Biodiversity-Environment Links Illustrated by Coastal Sandflat Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Kraan

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in the composition of communities is the product of many biotic and environmental interactions. A neglected factor in the analysis of community distribution patterns is the multi-scale nature of the data, which has implications for understanding ecological processes and the development of conservation and environmental management practice. Drawing on recently established multivariate spatial analyses, we investigate whether including relationships between spatial structure and abiotic variables enable us to better discern patterns of species and communities across scales. Data comprised 1200 macrozoobenthic samples collected over an array of distances (30 cm to 1 km in three New Zealand harbours, as well as commonly used abiotic variables, such as sediment characteristics and chlorophyll a concentrations, measured at the same scales. Moran's eigenvector mapping was used to extract spatial scales at which communities were structured. Benthic communities, representing primarily bivalves, polychaetes and crustaceans, were spatially structured at four spatial scales, i.e. >100 m, 50-100 m, 50-15 m, and < 15 m. A broad selection of abiotic variables contributed to the large-scale variation, whereas a more limited set explained part of the fine-scale community structure. Across all scales, less than 30% of the variation in spatial structure was captured by our analysis. The large number of species (48 making up the 10 highest species scores based on redundancy analyses illustrate the variability of species-scale associations. Our results emphasise that abiotic variables and biodiversity are related at all scales investigated and stress the importance of assessing the relationship between environmental variables and the abundance and distribution of biological assemblages across a range of different scales.

  11. Scaling of triple differential cross-sections for asymmetric (e, 2e ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 1 ... A simple scaling law is obtained for asymmetric (, 2) process on helium isoelectronic ions by fast electrons. ... The scaling law is found to work reasonably well for fast incident electrons and becomes increasingly accurate as target increases.

  12. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Intelligibility in Context Scale for South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Michelle; McLeod, Sharynne

    2016-01-01

    The Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS) is a screening questionnaire that focuses on parents' perceptions of children's speech in different contexts. Originally developed in English, it has been translated into 60 languages and the validity and clinical utility of the scale has been documented in a range of countries. In South Africa, there are…

  13. Cross-cultural validity of the masculine and Feminine Gender Role Stress scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Well, S; Kolk, AM; Arrindell, WA

    The objective was to examine the usefulness of Dutch versions of the Masculine Gender Role Stress (MGRS; Eisler & Skidmore, 1987) Scale and the Feminine Gender Role Stress (Gillespie & Eisler, 1992) Scale in The Netherlands. Undergraduate students (N = 2,239) completed both gender role stress

  14. Equation Chapter 1 Section 1Cross Layer Design for Localization in Large-Scale Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfeng ZHANG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many technical challenges for designing large-scale underwater sensor networks, especially the sensor node localization. Although many papers studied for large-scale sensor node localization, previous studies mainly study the location algorithm without the cross layer design for localization. In this paper, by utilizing the network hierarchical structure of underwater sensor networks, we propose a new large-scale underwater acoustic localization scheme based on cross layer design. In this scheme, localization is performed in a hierarchical way, and the whole localization process focused on the physical layer, data link layer and application layer. We increase the pipeline parameters which matched the acoustic channel, added in MAC protocol to increase the authenticity of the large-scale underwater sensor networks, and made analysis of different location algorithm. We conduct extensive simulations, and our results show that MAC layer protocol and the localization algorithm all would affect the result of localization which can balance the trade-off between localization accuracy, localization coverage, and communication cost.

  15. Measurement of internalized homonegativity in gay and bisexual men in Uganda: Cross-cultural properties of the Internalized Homonegativity scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael W; Smolenski, Derek J; Kajubi, Phoebe; Mandel, Jeffrey S; McFarland, Willi; Raymond, Fisher H

    2010-03-01

    Internalized homonegativity (IH) measures the internalization of homophobia in gay and bisexual men. We obtained data on Ross and Rosser's 26-item IH scale from 216 gay and bisexual men in Kampala, Uganda and used confirmatory factor analysis to compare the structure of the Ugandan responses to those of a large US sample of gay and bisexual men. The data indicated that the structure of a reduced 8-item version of the scale was closely matched between the US and Ugandan samples. The three factors that consistently emerged were personal comfort with being gay; social comfort with other gay people; and public identification as being gay. Men who experienced violence or abuse for being gay had significantly higher scores on the personal discomfort with being gay subscale. These data indicate that the structure of IH in gay and bisexual men in East Africa is congruent with that in equivalent western samples and that the IH scale is cross-culturally robust.

  16. Fiscal decentralization and fiscal discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Çakır, Nida

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In this thesis, the effects of fiscal procedures, fiscal centralization and fiscal decentralization, on fiscal discipline are analyzed in a theoretical framework. A model of two optimization problems is established: central government’s optimization problem and local government’s optimization problem representing the two fiscal procedures; fiscal centralization and fiscal decentralization respectively. Comparative static analysis is per...

  17. Sense of Coherence and Physical Health. A Cross-Sectional Study Using a New Scale (SOC II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trine Flensborg-Madsen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we constructed a new sense of coherence scale (SOC II, where we eliminated the notion of predictability (that life is meant to be predictable, which was present in the original SOC scale developed by Aaron Antonovsky (1923–1994 (SOC-29 and SOC-13. Our hypothesis was that SOC II would show a higher degree of association with physical health than the original SOC scale. In order to test this idea, we used a cross-sectional study including 4,648 Danes and used the three different health measures: self-evaluated physical health, physical symptoms, and self-evaluated psychological health. We found that SOC II was positively associated with all three health measures with the correlation coefficients 0.338, 0.282, and 0.578, respectively. Furthermore, we found dose response tendencies for all three health measures across groups of SOC, since health improved with a higher SOC. By means of regression analysis, we found that SOC was significantly associated with all three health measures after stratifying for demographic variables, life style variables, life form variables, and attitude variables, respectively. We conclude from this study that the SOC II scale we developed seems better associated with physical health than found with the original SOC scale. We also postulate that the concept of predictability was irrelevant, or even disturbing, and should not be included in the SOC scale.

  18. Cross-Scale Variation in Biodiversity-Environment Links Illustrated by Coastal Sandflat Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Casper; Dormann, Carsten F; Greenfield, Barry L; Thrush, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    Spatial variation in the composition of communities is the product of many biotic and environmental interactions. A neglected factor in the analysis of community distribution patterns is the multi-scale nature of the data, which has implications for understanding ecological processes and the development of conservation and environmental management practice. Drawing on recently established multivariate spatial analyses, we investigate whether including relationships between spatial structure and abiotic variables enable us to better discern patterns of species and communities across scales. Data comprised 1200 macrozoobenthic samples collected over an array of distances (30 cm to 1 km) in three New Zealand harbours, as well as commonly used abiotic variables, such as sediment characteristics and chlorophyll a concentrations, measured at the same scales. Moran's eigenvector mapping was used to extract spatial scales at which communities were structured. Benthic communities, representing primarily bivalves, polychaetes and crustaceans, were spatially structured at four spatial scales, i.e. >100 m, 50-100 m, 50-15 m, and biodiversity are related at all scales investigated and stress the importance of assessing the relationship between environmental variables and the abundance and distribution of biological assemblages across a range of different scales.

  19. Regulatory physiology discipline science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the Regulatory Physiology discipline of the Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program is twofold. First, to determine and study how microgravity and associated factors of space flight affect the regulatory mechanisms by which humans adapt and achieve homeostasis and thereby regulate their ability to respond to internal and external signals; and, second, to study selected physiological systems that have been demonstrated to be influenced by gravity. The Regulatory Physiology discipline, as defined here, is composed of seven subdisciplines: (1) Circadian Rhythms, (2) Endocrinology, (3) Fluid and Electrolyte Regulation, (4) Hematology, (5) Immunology, (6) Metabolism and Nutrition, and (7) Temperature Regulation. The purpose of this Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the area of regulatory physiology. It covers the research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in regulatory physiology. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  20. Using the Worldmindedness Scale in Cross-Cultural Research: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikman, Louis P.; Parker, Edmond T.

    Important global attitudes in the United States and other countries are measured and social attitudes interpreted according to a number of variables in this cross-cultural study. The term Worldmindedness (the quality which is measured in the study) refers to a world-view of problems of humanity rather than a national view of them. Two testing…

  1. Post-installation geotechnical issues associated with large-scale HDD crossings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgard, A.; Savigny, K.W. [BGC Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada); Cocciolo, P. [Terasen Pipelines Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) is often used to install pipeline crossings beneath rivers, through mountains, or beneath urban infrastructure. HDD processes can often lead to the development of localized sinkholes and settlement above installed pipelines. This paper provided several examples of the unfavorable ground conditions and HDD installation procedures responsible for the development of sinkholes and settlement. Various mitigation measures designed to prevent both sinkhole and settlement from occurring after HDD installation were also presented. Case studies from 2 large HDD crossings were presented in order to illustrate the potential magnitude of post-HDD sinkholes and settlements at a crossing of the Fraser River located near Vancouver, British Columbia; and at major river crossing in north-central Argentina. Both case studies showed that large sinkholes formed behind HDD exit points, which resulted in property damage and eventually threatened the stability of neighbouring utilities. Triggering factors relating to unfavourable ground conditions included loose soils; compressible ground; fluctuating water tables; and high conductivity soils. Triggering factors relating to HDD installation methods included excessive annulus size; differences in entry/exit point elevation; excessive washing; and excessive circulating pressure. Several remediation options used in the case studies were also discussed, as well as site investigation and design techniques implemented to minimize the potential for sinkhole development. It was concluded that potential sinkhole and settlement triggering factors must be identified as early as possible during the construction and design phases of a project in order to allow for the implementation of mitigation measures. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  2. A large-scale cross-linguistic investigation of the acquisition of passive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armon Lotem, Sharon; Haman, Ewa; Jensen de López, Kristine M.

    2016-01-01

    with argument reduction), children at the age of five are capable of acquiring both the short passive and the full passive. Variation, however, stems from the specific characteristics of each language, and good mastery of passives by the age of five is not a universal, cross-linguistically valid milestone...

  3. Measuring Sense of Community in the Military: Cross-Cultural Evidence for the Validity of the Brief Sense of Community Scale and Its Underlying Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombacher, Jorg; Tagg, Stephen K.; Burgi, Thomas; MacBryde, Jillian

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a German Sense of Community (SOC) Scale for use in military settings. The scale is based on the translation and field-testing of an existing U.S.-based measure of neighborhood SOC (Peterson, Speer, & McMillan, 2008). The methodological intricacies underlying cross-cultural scale development are highlighted, as…

  4. Translation into Brazilian Portuguese, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Stanford presenteeism scale-6 and work instability scale for ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauendorf, Renata; de Medeiros Pinheiro, Marcelo; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita

    2014-12-01

    Loss of productivity at work, as a result of health problems, is becoming an issue of interest due to the high burden it represents in society. The measurement of such phenomenon can be made using generic and specific scales for certain diseases such as the Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-6) and the Work Instability Scale for Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS-WIS), specific for patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aim of this study was to translate and perform a cross-cultural adaptation of SPS-6 and AS-WIS into Portuguese and check their psychometric properties. The study also aimed to evaluate the relationship between the general scores of the scales and the main sociodemographic and clinical data, lifestyles, and absenteeism in patients with AS and correlate these variables with SPS-6 and AS-WIS scales. A sample of 120 patients with AS and 80 workers at a university hospital was evaluated. The processes for the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the instruments followed preestablished steps and rules presented in the literature. For the evaluation of measurement properties and correlations between scales, intra-class correlation coefficient (reproducibility analysis), Cronbach alpha (internal consistency), and Pearson correlation coefficient (validity) were employed. The inter-observer (0.986) and intra-observer (0.992) reproducibilities of the AS-WIS were shown to be high as well as the internal consistency (0.995). Similarly, the inter-observer reliability of SPS-6 was considered good (0.890), although it showed a poorer performance when considering the same observer (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.675 and intra-class correlation = 0.656). Internal consistency, for the total number of items, as measured by Cronbach alpha, was 0.889. The validity of the scales was evaluated thru the comparison of the achieved scores with the results of the WLQ, SF-36, ASQoL, BASFI, BASDAI, HAQ-S, and SRQ-20 instruments. Correlations between loss of

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation to Brazil of the scale of attitudes toward physician-pharmacists collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Luiza; Neves, Sabrina; Marques, Tatiane C; Araújo, Dyego; Alcantara, Thaciana; Lyra, Divaldo P

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing complexity of medication therapies and the expansion of pharmaceutical clinical services to optimize patient care working in collaboration with physicians. In this sense, interdisciplinary education has been encouraged. However, no instrument is available to measure attitudes toward collaborative relationships. To translate, cross-cultural adaptation and validation an instrument to measure collaboration attitudes toward students of medicine/pharmacy and physicians/pharmacists. The process of cross-cultural adaptation was carried out using international recommendations and was performed from January 2014 to April 2015. The instrument under consideration was translated and re-translated. A panel of experts compared the generated documents and the translation was evaluated for 20 undergraduate students of Pharmacy, 20 undergraduate students of Medicine and professionals (20 pharmacists and 20 physicians). The process of cross-cultural translation and validation result in the Portuguese version. Modifications to the grammatical structures were made in order to establish a cross-cultural similarity between the English and Portuguese versions. Regarding the evaluation of the expert panel, six questions required modifications. Psychometric evaluation demonstrated and confirmed the validity of the Brazilian-Portuguese version to assess collaborative attitudes among pharmacists and physicians. Moreover, the scale can be used to evaluate undergraduates and postgraduates and foster the development of teaching methods that promote comprehensive attitudes in patient care.

  6. Bench-scale cross flow filtration of Tank S-107 sludge slurries and Tank C-107 supernatant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1996-10-01

    Hanford tank waste filtration experiments were conducted using a bench-scale cross flow filter on 8 wt%, 1.5 wt%, and 0.05 wt% Tank S- 107 sludge slurries and on Tank C-107 supernatant. For comparison, two simulants each with solids loadings of 8 wt% and 0.05 wt% were also tested. The purpose of the tests was to determine the efficacy of cross flow filtration on slurries of various solids loadings. -In addition, filtrate flux dependency on axial velocity and transmembrane pressure was sought so that conditions for future experiments might be better selected. The data gathered are compared to the simulants and three cross flow filtration models. A two- parameter central composite design which tested. transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial Velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. The cross flow filter effectively removed solids from the liquid, as 19 of 20 filtrate samples had particle concentrations below the resolution limit of the photon correlation spectrometer used in the Hanford Radiocolloid Laboratory. Radiochemical analysis indicate that all filtrate samples were below Class A waste classification standards for 9OSr and transuranics.

  7. Normative studies with the Scale for Interpersonal Behaviour (SIB): II. US students. A cross-cultural comparison with Dutch data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrindell, W A; Bridges, K R; van der Ende, J; St Lawrence, J S; Gray-Shellberg, L; Harnish, R; Rogers, R; Sanderman, R

    2001-12-01

    The Scale for Interpersonal Behaviour (SIB), a multidimensional, self-report measure of state assertiveness, was administered to a nationwide sample of 2375 undergraduates enrolled at 11 colleges and universities across the USA. The SIB was developed in the Netherlands for the independent assessment of both distress associated with self-assertion in a variety of social situations and the likelihood of engaging in a specific assertive response. This is done with four factorially-derived, first-order dimensions: (i) Display of negative feelings (Negative assertion); (ii) Expression of and dealing with personal limitations; (iii) Initiating assertiveness; and (iv) Praising others and the ability to deal with compliments/praise of others (Positive assertion). The present study was designed to determine the cross-national invariance of the original Dutch factors and the construct validity of the corresponding dimensions. It also set out to develop norms for a nationwide sample of US students. The results provide further support for the reliability, factorial and construct validity of the SIB. Compared to their Dutch equivalents, US students had meaningfully higher distress in assertiveness scores on all SIB scales (medium to large effect sizes), whereas differences on the performance scales reflected small effect sizes. The cross-national differences in distress scores were hypothesized to have originated from the American culture being more socially demanding with respect to interpersonal competence than the Dutch, and from the perceived threats and related cognitive appraisals that are associated with such demands.

  8. Rasch analysis of the London Handicap Scale in stroke patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Choi, Yoo-Im

    2014-07-31

    Although activity and participation are the target domains in stroke rehabilitation interventions, there is insufficient evidence available regarding the validity of participation measurement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the London Handicap Scale in community-dwelling stroke patients, using Rasch analysis. Participants were 170 community-dwelling stroke survivors. The data were analyzed using Winsteps (version 3.62) with the Rasch model to determine the unidimensionality of item fit, the distribution of item difficulty, and the reliability and suitability of the rating process for the London Handicap Scale. Data of 16 participants did not fit the Rasch model and there were no misfitting items. The person separation value was 2.42, and the reliability was .85; furthermore, the rating process for the London Handicap Scale was found to be suitable for use with stroke patients. This was the first trial to investigate the psychometric properties of the London Handicap Scale using Rasch analysis; the results supported the suitability of this scale for use with stroke patients.

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation to Brazil of the Obesity-related Problems Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Andreia Mara Brolezzi; Brasil, Fábio; Maurício, Angélica Aparecida; Vilela, Regina Maria

    2017-01-01

    To validate a reliable version of the Obesity-related Problems Scale in Portuguese to use it in Brazil. The Obesity-related Problems Scale was translated and transculturally adapted. Later it was simultaneously self-applied with a 12-item version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), to 50 obese patients and 50 non-obese individuals, and applied again to half of them after 14 days. The Obesity-related Problems scale was able to differentiate obese from non-obese individuals with higher accuracy than WHODAS 2.0, correlating with this scale and with body mass index. The factor analysis determined a two-dimensional structure, which was confirmed with χ2/df=1.81, SRMR=0.05, and CFI=0.97. The general a coefficient was 0.90 and the inter-item intra-class correlation, in the reapplication, ranged from 0.75 to 0.87. The scale proved to be valid and reliable for use in the Brazilian population, without the need to exclude items.

  10. Cross-cultural validation of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowkar, Bahram; Friborg, Oddgeir; Hjemdal, Odin

    2010-10-01

    Resilience, as an ability to withstand and rebound from crisis and adversity, is becoming an increasingly popular concept in research on intervention and prevention of mental health. The present study examined psychometric properties of a Persian version of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), a scale intended to measure protective factors presumed to enhance resilience. The participants were 373 university undergraduate students, as well as 30 pairs of run-away girls and a matched control group. A confirmatory factor analysis verified the Norwegian five-factor structure. All subscale scores, personal competence, social competence, family cohesion, social resources and structured style, had good reliability. The convergent validity of the RSA was supported by showing positive associations with another resilience scale, i.e., a Persian version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Predictive validity of the RSA was supported, as well, by significantly differentiating between girls who had run away from home and a matched control group. The results indicate that the RSA may be a valid and reliable scale for the assessment of resilience protective resources in an Iranian population. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  11. [Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12) into Brazilian Portuguese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Leandro Alberto Calazans; Baitelli, Carolinne; Alvarenga, Regina Maria Papais; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos

    2012-05-01

    Poor walking performance is predictive of heart disease and osteoporosis and increases the risk of death in the elderly. Gait and vision have been identified as the most valuable physical functions according to multiple sclerosis patients' perceptions. The objective of this study was to perform a translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12) into Brazilian Portuguese. A study of cross-cultural adaptation was conducted in ten steps. Participation in the study included four translators, two back-translators, twelve medical experts, twelve patients, twelve healthy subjects, and a Portuguese language expert. Only the question "Did standing make it more difficult to do things?" posed difficulty in the translation process. Maximum time for completion was less than three minutes (171 seconds). Internal consistency analyses showed high reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94). The content validation and internal consistency stages were completed satisfactorily.

  12. Cross-scale phenological data integration to benefit resource management and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew D.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is presenting new challenges for natural resource managers charged with maintaining sustainable ecosystems and landscapes. Phenology, a branch of science dealing with seasonal natural phenomena (bird migration or plant flowering in response to weather changes, for example), bridges the gap between the biosphere and the climate system. Phenological processes operate across scales that span orders of magnitude—from leaf to globe and from days to seasons—making phenology ideally suited to multiscale, multiplatform data integration and delivery of information at spatial and temporal scales suitable to inform resource management decisions.A workshop report: Workshop held June 2016 to investigate opportunities and challenges facing multi-scale, multi-platform integration of phenological data to support natural resource management decision-making.

  13. Economic Governance to Expand Commercial Wetlands: Within- and Cross-Scale Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne T. de Blaeij

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Commercial wetlands are defined as wetlands directed by an entrepreneur with the intention of making a profit. The combination of ecosystem services that commercial wetlands can provide seems to be an attractive societal perspective. Nevertheless, these wetlands are not developed on a large scale in the Netherlands. This paper discusses different types of economic governance that could facilitate the development of new commercial wetlands and addresses challenges that have to be overcome. We conclude that developing governance solutions that address ecosystem services with different scales is crucial for the introduction of commercial wetlands. Also, distinct and autonomous property rights of entrepreneurs need to be addressed.

  14. The romance of leadership scale : cross-cultural testing and refinement.

    OpenAIRE

    Schyns, B.; Meindl, J.R.; Croon, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Romance of Leadership Scale (RLS) has been used in various studies in different countries and contexts. However, to date, the structure of the scale has been a subject of discussion, making it difficult to compare results over different studies. In this study, using student as well as organization samples from two countries, we want to clarify the factor structure of the RLS. In order to do so, we used a hypothetical factor matrix into which we rotated our data. Although this matrix fits ...

  15. A Framework of Working Across Disciplines in Early Design and R&D of Large Complex Engineered Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas; Papalambros, Panos Y.; Baker, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines four primary methods of working across disciplines during R&D and early design of large-scale complex engineered systems such as aerospace systems. A conceptualized framework, called the Combining System Elements framework, is presented to delineate several aspects of cross-discipline and system integration practice. The framework is derived from a theoretical and empirical analysis of current work practices in actual operational settings and is informed by theories from organization science and engineering. The explanatory framework may be used by teams to clarify assumptions and associated work practices, which may reduce ambiguity in understanding diverse approaches to early systems research, development and design. The framework also highlights that very different engineering results may be obtained depending on work practices, even when the goals for the engineered system are the same.

  16. Cross-scale observations of the 2015 St. Patrick's day storm: THEMIS, Van Allen Probes, and TWINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, J.; Angelopoulos, V.; De Pascuale, S.; Funsten, H. O.; Kurth, W. S.; LLera, K.; McComas, D. J.; Perez, J. D.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Thaller, S. A.; Valek, P. W.; Wygant, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    We present cross-scale magnetospheric observations of the 17 March 2015 (St. Patrick's Day) storm, by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), Van Allen Probes (Radiation Belt Storm Probes), and Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS), plus upstream ACE/Wind solar wind data. THEMIS crossed the bow shock or magnetopause 22 times and observed the magnetospheric compression that initiated the storm. Empirical models reproduce these boundary locations within 0.7 RE. Van Allen Probes crossed the plasmapause 13 times; test particle simulations reproduce these encounters within 0.5 RE. Before the storm, Van Allen Probes measured quiet double-nose proton spectra in the region of corotating cold plasma. About 15 min after a 0605 UT dayside southward turning, Van Allen Probes captured the onset of inner magnetospheric convection, as a density decrease at the moving corotation-convection boundary (CCB) and a steep increase in ring current (RC) proton flux. During the first several hours of the storm, Van Allen Probes measured highly dynamic ion signatures (numerous injections and multiple spectral peaks). Sustained convection after ˜1200 UT initiated a major buildup of the midnight-sector ring current (measured by RBSP A), with much weaker duskside fluxes (measured by RBSP B, THEMIS a and THEMIS d). A close conjunction of THEMIS d, RBSP A, and TWINS 1 at 1631 UT shows good three-way agreement in the shapes of two-peak spectra from the center of the partial RC. A midstorm injection, observed by Van Allen Probes and TWINS at 1740 UT, brought in fresh ions with lower average energies (leading to globally less energetic spectra in precipitating ions) but increased the total pressure. The cross-scale measurements of 17 March 2015 contain significant spatial, spectral, and temporal structure.

  17. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Kannada Version of Modified Dental Anxiety Scale Among an Adult Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gaurav; Shanbhag, Namita; Puranik, Manjunath P

    2015-09-01

    Dental anxiety is one of the most common barriers in seeking dental care. In order to overcome this barrier dentist need to screen patients to successfully help in treatment. A scale is thus needed to measure dental anxiety which is socially & culturally acceptable. This study aimed to assess the Cross cultural adaptation and validity of the Kannada translation of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS-K). A test-retest was conducted on 30 patients visiting a dental institution to assess the reliability of MDAS- K. A cross-sectional survey of 301 patients was conducted in different departments at a dental institution to test the psychometric properties of MDAS-K. The assessment tool consisted of a proforma containing socio-demographic, non socio- demographic variables, MDAS-K and Visual analogue scale (VAS). Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha, inter-item Spearman's correlation. Independent t-test, ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni were used to analyse dental anxiety in the psychometric constructs. The internal consistency of MDAS-K was good with Cronbach's alpha of 0.83. The test-retest reliability for MDAS K had a good correlation of 0.901. The psychometric variables established the construct validity of MDAS-K.MDAS-K also showed good convergent validity with VAS score. The anxiety levels differed in patients visiting different dental departments. The high reliability and validity of the MDAS-K supports its cross cultural adaptation and indicates that it can be a valuable tool for dental practioners in quantifying anxiety among patients and provide quality dental care.

  18. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Kannada Version of Modified Dental Anxiety Scale Among an Adult Indian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Namita; Puranik, Manjunath P

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental anxiety is one of the most common barriers in seeking dental care. In order to overcome this barrier dentist need to screen patients to successfully help in treatment. A scale is thus needed to measure dental anxiety which is socially & culturally acceptable. Aim This study aimed to assess the Cross cultural adaptation and validity of the Kannada translation of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS-K). Materials and Methods A test-retest was conducted on 30 patients visiting a dental institution to assess the reliability of MDAS- K. A cross-sectional survey of 301 patients was conducted in different departments at a dental institution to test the psychometric properties of MDAS-K. The assessment tool consisted of a proforma containing socio-demographic, non socio- demographic variables, MDAS-K and Visual analogue scale (VAS). Statistical analysis Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha, inter-item Spearman’s correlation. Independent t-test, ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni were used to analyse dental anxiety in the psychometric constructs. Results The internal consistency of MDAS-K was good with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.83. The test-retest reliability for MDAS K had a good correlation of 0.901. The psychometric variables established the construct validity of MDAS-K.MDAS-K also showed good convergent validity with VAS score. The anxiety levels differed in patients visiting different dental departments. Conclusion The high reliability and validity of the MDAS-K supports its cross cultural adaptation and indicates that it can be a valuable tool for dental practioners in quantifying anxiety among patients and provide quality dental care. PMID:26501009

  19. A Comparison of Student Academic Motivations across Three Course Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini; Sturges, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations of undergraduate students enrolled in human anatomy and physiology, physics, and nutrition courses were explored with course discipline-specific adapted versions of the Academic Motivation Scale. Information on students' study habits and efforts, and final course grades were also collected. Results revealed the…

  20. Multidisciplinarity, Interdisciplinarity, and Bridging Disciplines: A Matter of Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Youngblood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bridging disciplines have much to teach regarding how to combine analytical tools to tackle problems and questions that cross traditional disciplinary boundaries. This article explores interdisciplinary aspects of two long established bridging disciplines--geography and anthropology--in order to consider what the relatively young undertaking labeled “interdisciplinary studies” can learn from their long existence. It considers the fallacy of nomothetic claim as well as the fruitful production of solutions by viewing process (methodology, not domain (academic turf, as the key to interdisciplinary success. Staking claim to interdisciplinarity is shown to be unproductive while finding the need for interdisciplinary approaches and following the mandates of that need strengthens both the disciplines and interdisciplinary studies.

  1. The Scholarship of Practice in Applied Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyken-Segosebe, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    This chapter examines how the scholarship of practice is being used within applied disciplines and offers recommendations for colleges and universities regarding the implementation of the scholarship of practice for the discipline of higher education.

  2. Nanoclusters a bridge across disciplines

    CERN Document Server

    Jena, Purusottam

    2010-01-01

    This comprehensive book on Nanoclusters comprises sixteen authoritative chapters written by leading researchers in the field. It provides insight into topics that are currently at the cutting edge of cluster science, with the main focus on metal and metal compound systems that are of particular interest in materials science, and also on aspects related to biology and medicine. While there are numerous books on clusters, the focus on clusters as a bridge across disciplines sets this book apart from others. Delivers cutting edge coverage of cluster science Covers a broad range of topics in

  3. [At the limits of discipline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadi, Barbara U; Ruhs, August; Löffler-Stastka, Henriette

    2012-01-01

    According to Foucault, in medicine, the paradigm of discipline has outweighed the paradigm of sovereignty for over a hundred years now. It has become clear, however, that within the field of psychiatry, particularly in psychoanalytic and psychotherapeutic research, an interchangeable corpus of knowledge is not sufficient for the treatment of patients. Moreover, it is often the changing relationship between doctor and patient which seems to be crucial to the process and outcome of the treatment. Every treatment-relationship must be understood as a zone of transference. Psychoanalytic research on transference, its potential and pitfalls, therefore, has to be more integrated into the research of psychic disorders.

  4. Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the Activity Rating Scale for Disorders of the Knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flosadottir, Vala; Roos, Ewa M; Ageberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Activity Rating Scale (ARS) for disorders of the knee evaluates the level of activity by the frequency of participation in 4 separate activities with high demands on knee function, with a score ranging from 0 (none) to 16 (pivoting activities 4 times/wk). PURPOSE: To translate...... and cross-culturally adapt the ARS into Swedish and to assess measurement properties of the Swedish version of the ARS. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: The COSMIN guidelines were followed. Participants (N = 100 [55 women]; mean age, 27 years) who were undergoing...

  5. Cross-validation of the Spanish HP-Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy confirmed with some cross-cultural differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Alcorta-Garza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Medical educators agree that empathy is essential for physicians’ professionalism. The Health Professional Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE-HP was developed in response to a need for a psychometrically sound instrument to measure empathy in the context of patient care. Although extensive support for its validity and reliability is available, the authors recognize the necessity to examine psychometrics of the JSE-HP in different socio-cultural contexts to assure the psychometric soundness of this instrument. The first aim of this study was to confirm its psychometric properties in the cross-cultural context of Spain and Latin American countries. The second aim was to measure the influence of social and cultural factors on the development of medical empathy in health practitioners.Methods: The original English version of the JSE-HP was translated into International Spanish using back-translation procedures. The Spanish version of the JSE-HP was administered to 896 physicians from Spain and thirteen Latin American countries. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis with oblique rotation (promax to allow for correlation among the resulting factors, followed by a second analysis, using confirmatory factor analysis. Two theoretical models, one based on the English JSE-HP and another on the first Spanish student version of the JSE (JSE-S, were tested. Demographic variables were compared using group comparisons.Results: A total of 715 (80% surveys were returned fully completed. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the JSE for the entire sample was 0.84. The psychometric properties of the Spanish JSE-HP matched those of the original English JSE-HP. However, the Spanish JSE-S model proved more appropriate than the original English model for the sample in this study. Group comparisons among physicians classified by gender, medical specialties, cultural and cross-cultural backgrounds yielded

  6. Diversity And Sustainability Of Small – Scale Farming In Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetable crops are largely cultivated here and they provide immediate consumption and income needs to the people thereby contributing to the sustainability of small-scale farming in the city. An emerging spatial concentration of agricultural operations was observed in the eastern flank due to developmental activities in ...

  7. The Adolescent Religious Coping Scale: Development, Validation, and Cross-Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorck, Jeffrey P.; Braese, Robert W.; Tadie, Joseph T.; Gililland, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Research literature on adolescent coping is growing, but typically such studies have ignored religious coping strategies and their potential impact on functioning. To address this lack, we developed the Adolescent Religious Coping Scale and used its seven subscales to examine the relationship between religious coping and emotional functioning. A…

  8. Forest processes from stands to landscapes: exploring model forecast uncertainties using cross-scale model comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Papaik; Andrew Fall; Brian Sturtevant; Daniel Kneeshaw; Christian Messier; Marie-Josee Fortin; Neal. Simon

    2010-01-01

    Forest management practices conducted primarily at the stand scale result in simplified forests with regeneration problems and low structural and biological diversity. Landscape models have been used to help design management strategies to address these problems. However, there remains a great deal of uncertainty that the actual management practices result in the...

  9. The Attitudes toward Rape Victims Scale: Construction, Validation, and Cross-Cultural Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Colleen

    1988-01-01

    Constructed 25-item Attitudes toward Rape Victims Scale (ARVS) which emphasized victim blame, credibility, deservingness, denigration, and trivialization. Results from administration of ARVS to university students, social workers, psychologists, physicians, lawyers, and police officers in Singapore, and to university students in the United States…

  10. Economic Governance to Expand Commercial Wetlands: Within- and Cross-Scale Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaeij, de A.T.; Polman, N.B.P.; Reinhard, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Commercial wetlands are defined as wetlands directed by an entrepreneur with the intention of making a profit. The combination of ecosystem services that commercial wetlands can provide seems to be an attractive societal perspective. Nevertheless, these wetlands are not developed on a large scale in

  11. A Cross-Cultural Validation Study of the "Language Learning Strategy Scale" and Its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Jane; Chen, Yih-Lan E.; Walker, Brenda

    The underlying factor structure of the Language Learning Strategy Scale (LLSS) (Y. Chen, 2001) was examined to determine its consistency across 2 distinct cultures. Variables that affected students' language learning were also identified. The validation study for the LLSS suggested a three-factor model of functional strategies, deep-processing…

  12. Cross-Validation of Levenson's Psychopathy Scale in a Sample of Federal Female Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Chad A.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Heigel, Caron P.

    2008-01-01

    Levenson, Kiehl, and Fitzpatrick's Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRPS) is evaluated to determine the factor structure and concurrent validity of the instrument among 430 federal female inmates. Confirmatory factor analysis fails to validate the expected 2-factor structure. Subsequent exploratory factor analysis reveals a 3-factor structure…

  13. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Male Genital Self-Image Scale in Iranian Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Saffari

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The MGSIS-I is a useful instrument to assess genital self-image in Iranian men, a concept that has been associated with sexual function. Further investigation is needed to identify the applicability of the scale in other cultures or populations.

  14. Cross-scale effects of neural interactions during human neocortical seizure activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eissa, Tahra L.; Dijkstra, Koen; Brune, Christoph; Emerson, Ronald G.; Van Putten, Michel J. A. M.; Goodman, Robert R.; McKhann Jr., Guy M.; Schevon, Catherine A.; van Drongelen, Wim; van Gils, Stephan A.

    2017-01-01

    Small-scale neuronal networks may impose widespread effects on large network dynamics. To unravel this relationship, we analyzed eight multiscale recordings of spontaneous seizures from four patients with epilepsy. During seizures, multiunit spike activity organizes into a submillimeter-sized

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the South African Pain Catastrophizing Scale (SA-PCS among patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Linzette D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain catastrophization has recently been recognized as a barrier to the healthy development of physical functioning among chronic pain patients. Levels of pain catastrophization in chronic pain patients are commonly measured using the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS. Objective To cross-culturally adapt and validate the South African PCS (SA-PCS among English-, Afrikaans- and Xhosa-speaking patients with fibromyalgia living in the Cape Metropole area, Western Cape, South Africa. Methods The original PCS was cross-culturally adapted in accordance with international standards to develop an English, Afrikaans and Xhosa version of the SA-PCS using a repeated measures study design. Psychometric testing included face/content validity, internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha-α, test-retest reliability (intraclass coefficient correlations-ICC, sensitivity-to-change and cross-sectional convergent validity (by comparing the adapted SA-PCS to related constructs. Results The cross-culturally adapted English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS showed good face and content validity, excellent internal consistency (with Chronbach’s α = 0.98, 0.98 and 0.97 for the English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS, as a whole, respectively, excellent test-retest reliability (with ICC’s of 0.90, 0.91 and 0.89 for the English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS, respectively; as well as satisfactory sensitivity-to-change (with a minimum detectable change of 8.8, 9.0 and 9.3 for the English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS, respectively and cross-sectional convergent validity (when compared to pain severity as well as South African versions of the Tampa scale for Kinesiophobia and the revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Conclusion The SA-PCS can therefore be recommended as simple, efficient, valid and reliable tool which shows satisfactory sensitivity-to-change and cross-sectional convergent validity, for use among English, Afrikaans and Xhosa-speaking patients with

  16. Achieving diffraction-limited nanometer-scale X-ray point focus with two crossed multilayer Laue lenses: alignment challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hanfei; Huang, Xiaojing; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Chu, Yong S

    2017-10-16

    We discuss misalignment-induced aberrations in a pair of crossed multilayer Laue lenses used for achieving a nanometer-scale x-ray point focus. We thoroughly investigate the impacts of two most important contributions, the orthogonality and the separation distance between two lenses. We find that misalignment in the orthogonality results in astigmatism at 45° and other inclination angles when coupled with a separation distance error. Theoretical explanation and experimental verification are provided. We show that to achieve a diffraction-limited point focus, accurate alignment of the azimuthal angle is required to ensure orthogonality between two lenses, and the required accuracy is scaled with the ratio of the focus size to the aperture size.

  17. Perspectives on Parent Discipline and Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusec, Joan E.; Danyliuk, Tanya; Kil, Hali; O'Neill, David

    2017-01-01

    Effective discipline involves the use of negative consequences, including reasoning as well as modest levels of power assertion, to discourage unacceptable behavior. A brief history of changing views of discipline is presented and recent positions outlined. Successful discipline requires the imposition of clear and consistent rules, autonomy…

  18. School Discipline, Educational Interest and Pupil Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the concept of school discipline will be explored in relation to that of educational interest. Initially, Clark's account of two different kinds of school order (discipline and control) will be explained. The interest-based theory of school discipline advanced by Pat Wilson will thereafter be analysed. It will be argued that both…

  19. Validation of two-phase CFD models for propellant tank self-pressurization: Crossing fluid types, scales, and gravity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Kartuzova, Olga; Hylton, Sonya

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines our computational ability to capture the transport and phase change phenomena that govern cryogenic storage tank pressurization and underscores our strengths and weaknesses in this area in terms of three computational-experimental validation case studies. In the first study, 1g pressurization of a simulant low-boiling point fluid in a small scale transparent tank is considered in the context of the Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiment to showcase the relatively strong capability that we have developed in modelling the coupling between the convective transport and stratification in the bulk phases with the interfacial evaporative and condensing heat and mass transfer that ultimately control self-pressurization in the storage tank. Here, we show that computational predictions exhibit excellent temporal and spatial fidelity under the moderate Ra number - high Bo number convective-phase distribution regimes. In the second example, we focus on 1g pressurization and pressure control of the large-scale K-site liquid hydrogen tank experiment where we show that by crossing fluid types and physical scales, we enter into high Bo number - high Ra number flow regimes that challenge our ability to predict turbulent heat and mass transfer and their impact on the tank pressurization correctly, especially, in the vapor domain. In the final example, we examine pressurization results from the small scale simulant fluid Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TCPE) performed in microgravity to underscore the fact that in crossing into a low Ra number - low Bo number regime in microgravity, the temporal evolution of the phase front as affected by the time-dependent residual gravity and impulse accelerations becomes an important consideration. In this case detailed acceleration data are needed to predict the correct rate of tank self-pressurization.

  20. Patient-specific scaling of reference S-values for cross-organ radionuclide S-values: what is appropriate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Zankl, M. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Bolch, W.E. [University of Florida, Departments of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Biomedical Engineering, Gainesville, FL 32611-8300 (United States); Sgouros, G. [Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, CRB II 4M61, 1550 Orleans St., Baltimore, MD, 21205 (United States); Wessels, B. [Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee (MIRD) formalism assumes reference mass values for the organs (source and target) and the total body. MIRD publication 11 provides guidance on how patient-specific scaling of reference radionuclide S-values are to be performed for the electron component of the emission spectrum. However, guidance on patient-specific scaling of the photon contributions to the S-value is given only for those cases where the source and target organs are either far apart or are the same. The photon component of the S-value is derived from photon-Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs). These are obtained by Monte Carlo calculation of photon transport. The objective of this work is to verify the MIRD 11 guidance and to examine the relationship between photon SAFs and source/target organ mass when the conditions listed above do not apply. Furthermore, the scaling for photon cross-dose to distributed organs is at present not defined due to lack of data for models other than the reference model. The validity of mass scaling for cross irradiation from near and distant photons sources, especially for Red Bone Marrow (RBM) as a target tissue is also investigated. This is achieved by comparing Monte Carlo-derived SAFs for different source organs to RBM across the GSF voxel phantom series. The results show that, for photon energies greater than 100 keV, the SAF of most source organs to RBM need not be corrected for target mass (error < 5%). In contrast to the results obtained for well-defined source organs, the SAF for RBM irradiating RBM gives a deviation of up to 16% across the different GSF voxel phantoms. (authors)

  1. Patient-specific scaling of reference S-values for cross-organ radionuclide S-values: what is appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, W E; Zankl, M; Sgouros, G; Wessels, B

    2007-01-01

    The Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee (MIRD) formalism assumes reference mass values for the organs (source and target) and the total body. MIRD publication 11 provides guidance on how patient-specific scaling of reference radionuclide S-values are to be performed for the electron component of the emission spectrum. However, guidance on patient-specific scaling of the photon contributions to the S-value is given only for those cases where the source and target organs are either far apart or are the same. The photon component of the S-value is derived from photon-Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs). These are obtained by Monte Carlo calculation of photon transport. The objective of this work is to verify the MIRD 11 guidance and to examine the relationship between photon SAFs and source/target organ mass when the conditions listed above do not apply. Furthermore, the scaling for photon cross-dose to distributed organs is at present not defined due to lack of data for models other than the reference model. The validity of mass scaling for cross irradiation from near and distant photons sources, especially for Red Bone Marrow (RBM) as a target tissue is also investigated. This is achieved by comparing Monte Carlo-derived SAFs for different source organs to RBM across the GSF voxel phantom series. The results show that, for photon energies greater than 100 keV, the SAF of most source organs to RBM need not be corrected for target mass (error GSF voxel phantoms.

  2. Geriatric Cardiology: An Emerging Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, John A.; Matlock, Daniel D.; Forman, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    Given changing demographics, patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease in developed countries are now older and more complex than even a decade ago. This trend is expected to continue into the foreseeable future; accordingly, cardiologists in practice are encountering patients with a greater number of comorbid illnesses as well as “geriatric conditions” such as cognitive impairment and frailty which complicate management and influence outcomes. Simultaneously, technological advances have widened the therapeutic options available for patients, including those with the most advanced CV disease. In the setting of these changes, geriatric cardiology has recently emerged as a discipline that aims to adapt principles from geriatric medicine into everyday cardiology practice. Accordingly, the tasks of a “geriatric cardiologist” may include both traditional evidence-based CV management plus comprehensive geriatric assessment, medication reduction, team-based coordination of care, and explicit incorporation of patient goals into management. Given that the field is still in its relative infancy, the training pathways and structure of clinical programs in geriatric cardiology are still being delineated. In this review we highlight the rationale behind geriatric cardiology as a discipline, several current approaches by geriatric cardiology programs, and future directions for the field. PMID:27476988

  3. Geriatric Cardiology: An Emerging Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, John A; Matlock, Daniel D; Forman, Daniel E

    2016-09-01

    Given changing demographics, patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease in developed countries are now older and more complex than even a decade ago. This trend is expected to continue into the foreseeable future; accordingly, cardiologists are encountering patients with a greater number of comorbid illnesses as well as "geriatric conditions," such as cognitive impairment and frailty, which complicate management and influence outcomes. Simultaneously, technological advances have widened the therapeutic options available for patients, including those with the most advanced CV disease. In the setting of these changes, geriatric cardiology has recently emerged as a discipline that aims to adapt principles from geriatric medicine to everyday cardiology practice. Accordingly, the tasks of a "geriatric cardiologist" may include both traditional evidence-based CV management plus comprehensive geriatric assessment, medication reduction, team-based coordination of care, and explicit incorporation of patient goals into management. Given that the field is still in its relative infancy, the training pathways and structure of clinical programs in geriatric cardiology are still being delineated. In this review, we highlight the rationale behind geriatric cardiology as a discipline, several current approaches by geriatric cardiology programs, and future directions for the field. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Computational Physics Across the Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Vincent; Lammert, Paul; Engstrom, Tyler; Owen, Ben

    2011-03-01

    In this informal talk, I will present two case studies of the unexpected convergence of computational techniques across disciplines. First, the marriage of neutron star astrophysics and the materials theory of the mechanical and thermal response of crystalline solids. Although the lower reaches of a neutron star host exotic nuclear physics, the upper few meters of the crust exist in a regime that is surprisingly amenable to standard molecular dynamics simulation, albeit in a physical regime of density order of magnitude of orders of magnitude different from those familiar to most condensed matter folk. Computational results on shear strength, thermal conductivity, and other properties here are very relevant to possible gravitational wave signals from these sources. The second example connects not two disciplines of computational physics, but experimental and computational physics, and not from the traditional direction of computational progressively approaching experiment. Instead, experiment is approaching computation: regular lattices of single-domain magnetic islands whose magnetic microstates can be exhaustively enumerated by magnetic force microscopy. There resulting images of island magnetization patterns look essentially like the results of Monte Carlo simulations of Ising systems... statistical physics with the microstate revealed.

  5. Rhythms of the collective brain: Metastable synchronization and cross-scale interactions in connected multitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilera, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Collective social events operate at many levels of organization -- from individuals to crowds -- presenting a variety of temporal and spatial scales of activity, whose causal interactions challenge our understanding of social systems. Large data sets of social media activity provide an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the processes that govern the coordination within and between those scales. Using as a case study a data set comprising 1.5 million Twitter messages of the activity around the 15M movement in Spain as an example of multitudinous self-organization, we propose a generic description of the coordination dynamics of the system based on phase-locking statistics at different frequencies using wavelet functions, identifying 8 frequency bands of entrained oscillations between 15 geographical urban nodes. We apply maximum entropy inference methods to extract Ising models capturing phase-locking activity between geographical nodes in our data at each frequency band. Inspecting the properties of the...

  6. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and applicability of the Brazilian version of the Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale (FTD-FRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Bento Lima-Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Staging scales for dementia have been devised for grading Alzheimer's disease (AD but do not include the specific symptoms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD. Objective: To translate and adapt the Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale (FTD-FRS to Brazilian Portuguese. Methods: The cross-cultural adaptation process consisted of the following steps: translation, back-translation (prepared by independent translators, discussion with specialists, and development of a final version after minor adjustments. A pilot application was carried out with 12 patients diagnosed with bvFTD and 11 with AD, matched for disease severity (CDR=1.0. The evaluation protocol included: Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Executive Interview (EXIT-25, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale (FTD-FRS and Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR. Results: The Brazilian version of the FTD-FRS seemed appropriate for use in this country. Preliminary results revealed greater levels of disability in bvFTD than in AD patients (bvFTD: 25% mild, 50% moderate and 25% severe; AD: 36.36% mild, 63.64% moderate. It appears that the CDR underrates disease severity in bvFTD since a relevant proportion of patients rated as having mild dementia (CDR=1.0 in fact had moderate or severe levels of disability according to the FTD-FRS. Conclusion: The Brazilian version of the FTD-FRS seems suitable to aid staging and determining disease progression.

  7. The Self-esteem Stability Scale (SESS) for Cross-Sectional Direct Assessment of Self-esteem Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Tobias; Roth, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826), we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism) and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings) through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability.

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale to Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluwe-Schiavon, Bruno; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence to indicate that childhood maltreatment can negatively affect both physical and mental health and there is increasing interest in understanding the occurrence and consequences of such experiences. While several tools have been developed to retrospectively investigate childhood maltreatment experiences, most of them do not investigate the experience of witnessing family violence during childhood or bullying exposure. Moreover, the majority of scales do not identify when these experiences may have occurred, who was involved or the feelings evoked, such as helplessness or terror. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale was developed to overcome these limitations. In view of the improvements over previous self-report instruments that this new tool offers and of the small number of self-report questionnaires for childhood maltreatment assessment available in Brazil, this study was conducted to conduct cross-cultural adaptation of the MACE scale for Brazilian Portuguese. The following steps were performed: translation, back-translation, committee review for semantic and conceptual evaluation, and acceptability trial for equivalence. Semantic and structural changes were made to the interview to adapt it for the Brazilian culture and all 75 of the items that comprise the longer version of MACE were translated. The results of the acceptability trial suggest that the items are comprehensible. The MACE scales may be useful tools for investigation of childhood maltreatment and make a valuable contribution to research in Brazil. Future studies should consider testing the availability and reliability of the three versions of the instrument translated into Brazilian Portuguese.

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12 for the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna E. M. Marangoni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Gait impairment is reported by 85% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS as main complaint. In 2003, Hobart et al. developed a scale for walking known as The 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12, which combines the perspectives of patients with psychometric methods. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt and validate the MSWS-12 for the Brazilian population with MS. METHODS: This study included 116 individuals diagnosed with MS, in accordance with McDonald's criteria. The steps of the adaptation process included translation, back-translation, review by an expert committee and pretesting. A test and retest of MSWS-12/BR was made for validation, with comparison with another scale (MSIS-29/BR and another test (T25FW. RESULTS: The Brazilian version of MSWS-12/BR was shown to be similar to the original. The results indicate that MSWS-12/BR is a reliable and reproducible scale. CONCLUSIONS: MSWS-12/BR has been adapted and validated, and it is a reliable tool for the Brazilian population.

  10. Translation and cross cultural adaptation of the Pediatric Motor Activity Log-Revised scale

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela da Silva Matuti; Juliana Firmo dos Santos; Ana Carolina Rodrigues da Silva; Rafael Eras-Garcia; Gitendra Uswatte; Edward Taub

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The standardized instrument developed to assess the use of the affected upper limb in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is the Pediatric Motor Activity Log Revised (PMAL-R). Objectives To translate PMAL-R and adapt for the Brazilian culture; analyze the reliability and the internal consistency of the Brazilian version. Method Translation of PMAL-R to the Portuguese-Brazil and back translation. The back-translated version was revised by the authors of the scale. The final version ...

  11. Cross-validation of the Student Perceptions of Team-Based Learning Scale in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald H. Lein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to cross-validate the factor structure of the previously developed Student Perceptions of Team-Based Learning (TBL Scale among students in an entry-level doctor of physical therapy (DPT program in the United States. Methods Toward the end of the semester in 2 patient/client management courses taught using TBL, 115 DPT students completed the Student Perceptions of TBL Scale, with a response rate of 87%. Principal component analysis (PCA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were conducted to replicate and confirm the underlying factor structure of the scale. Results Based on the PCA for the validation sample, the original 2-factor structure (preference for TBL and preference for teamwork of the Student Perceptions of TBL Scale was replicated. The overall goodness-of-fit indices from the CFA suggested that the original 2-factor structure for the 15 items of the scale demonstrated a good model fit (comparative fit index, 0.95; non-normed fit index/Tucker-Lewis index, 0.93; root mean square error of approximation, 0.06; and standardized root mean square residual, 0.07. The 2 factors demonstrated high internal consistency (alpha= 0.83 and 0.88, respectively. DPT students taught using TBL viewed the factor of preference for teamwork more favorably than preference for TBL. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence supporting the replicability of the internal structure of the Student Perceptions of TBL Scale when assessing perceptions of TBL among DPT students in patient/client management courses.

  12. An integrated, cross-disciplinary study of soil hydrophobicity at atomic, molecular, core and landscape scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, G. Peter; Doerr, Stefan; Van Keulen, Geertje; Dudley, Ed; Francis, Lewis; Whalley, Richard; Gazze, Andrea; Hallin, Ingrid; Quinn, Gerry; Sinclair, Kat; Ashton, Rhys

    2017-04-01

    Soil hydrophobicity can lead to reduced soil fertility and heightened flood risk caused by increased run-off. Soil hydrophobicity is a well-known phenomenon when induced by natural events such as wildfires and anthropogenic causes including adding organic wastes or hydrocarbon contaminants. This presentation concerns a much more subtle effect - the naturally occurring changes between hydrophilic and hydrophobic states caused by periods of wetness and drought. Although subtle, they nevertheless affect vast areas of soil, and so their effects can be very significant, and are predicted to increase under climate change conditions. To understand the effect, a major interdisciplinary study has been commissioned by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) to investigate soil hydrophobicity over length scales ranging from atomic through molecular, core and landscape scale. We present the key findings from the many publications currently in preparation. The programme is predicated on the hypothesis that changes in soil protein abundance and localization, induced by variations in soil moisture and temperature, are crucial driving forces for transitions between hydrophobic and hydrophilic conditions at soil particle surfaces, and that these effects can be meaningfully upscaled from molecular to landscape scale. Three soils were chosen based on the severity of hydrophobicity that can be achieved in the field: severe to extreme (natural rough pasture, Wales), intermediate to severe (pasture, Wales), and subcritical (managed research grassland, Rothamsted Research, England). The latter is already highly characterised so was also used as a control. Hydrophobic/ hydrophilic transitions were determined from water droplet penetration times. Scientific advances in the following five areas will be described: (i) the identification of these soil proteins by proteomic methods, using novel separation methods which reduces interference by humic acids, and allows identification

  13. Absolute fragmentation cross sections in atom-molecule collisions : Scaling laws for non-statistical fragmentation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Alexander, J. D.; Zhang, Y.; Rousseau, P.; Domaracka, A.; Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Adoui, L.; Huber, B. A.; Schlathölter, T.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present scaling laws for absolute cross sections for non-statistical fragmentation in collisions between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH/PAH+) and hydrogen or helium atoms with kinetic energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 keV. Further, we calculate the total fragmentation cross sections

  14. Universal scaling behavior of molecular electronic stopping cross section for protons colliding with small molecules and nucleobases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo-López, L.N.; Martínez-Flores, C. [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ap. Postal 43-8, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62251 (Mexico); Cabrera-Trujillo, R., E-mail: trujillo@fis.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ap. Postal 43-8, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62251 (Mexico); Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Ap. Postal 55-534, 09340 México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The electronic stopping cross section and mean excitation energy for molecules and 5 nucleobases have been calculated within the first Born approximation in terms of an orbital decomposition to take into account the molecular structure. The harmonic oscillator (HO) description of the stopping cross section together with a Floating Spherical Gaussian Orbital (FSGO) model is implemented to account for the chemical composition of the target. This approach allows us to use bonds, cores, and lone pairs as HO basis to describe the ground state molecular structure. In the HO model, the orbital angular frequency is the only parameter that connects naturally with the mean excitation energy. As a result, we obtain a simple expression for the equivalent mean excitation energy in terms of the orbital radius parameter, as well as an analytical expression of the stopping cross section. For gas phase molecular targets, we provide HO based orbital mean excitation energies to describe any molecule containing C, N, O, H, and P atoms. We present results for protons colliding with H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, propylene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}), methane (CH{sub 4}), ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and the nucleobases – guanine (C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N{sub 5}O), cytosine (C{sub 4}H{sub 5}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}), thymine (C{sub 5}H{sub 6}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}), adenine (C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N{sub 5}) and uracil (C{sub 4}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The results for the stopping cross section are compared with available experimental and theoretical data showing good to excellent agreement in the region of validity of the model. The HO approach allows us to obtain a universal stopping cross section formula to describe a universal scaling behavior for the energy loss process. The universal scaled curve is confirmed by the experimental data.

  15. Scaling Tests of the Cross Section for Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Camacho, C; Mazouz, M; Ferdi, C; Gavalian, G; Kuchina, E; Amarian, M; Aniol, K A; Beaumel, M; Benaoum, H; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; De Jager, C W; Deur, A; Feuerbach, R; Fieschi, J M; Frullani, S; Garçon, M; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilman, R; Gómez, J; Gueye, P; Guichon, P A M; Guillon, B; Hansen, O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; Jiang, X; Jo, H S; Kaufman, L; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kumbartzki, G; Laveissière, G; Le Rose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Lu, H J; Margaziotis, D J; Meziani, Z E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R; Michel, B; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P; Nanda, S; Nelyubin, V V; Potokar, M; Qiang, Y; Ransome, R D; Real, J S; Reitz, B; Roblin, Y; Roche, J; Sabatie, F; Saha, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K J; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Ulmer, P E; Voutier, E; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2006-01-01

    We present the first measurements of \\vec{e}p->epg cross section in the deep virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) regime and the valence quark region (x_{Bj}=0.36). From JLab E00-110, we extract the imaginary part of the Bethe-Heitler (BH)--DVCS interference terms, to order twist-3 for Q^2 = 1.5, 1.9, and 2.3 GeV^2, and the real part of the BH-DVCS interference terms at Q^2 = 2.3 GeV^2. We present the first model-independent measurement of linear combinations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and GPD integrals up to twist-3 approximation. The validity of this approximation is strongly supported by the absence of Q^2-variation of the extracted terms -- thereby constraining the size of higher twist contributions to our observables.

  16. Geomorphological experiments for understanding cross-scale complexity of earth surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    The shape of the earth's surface is the result of a complex interaction of different processes at different spatial and temporal scales. The challenging problem is, that process observation is rarely possible due to this different scales. In addition, the resulting landform often does not match the scale of process observation. But it is indispensable for the development of concepts of formation of landforms to identify and understand the involved processes and their interaction. To develop models it is even necessary to quantify them and their relevant parameters. Experiments are able to bridge the constraints of process observation mentioned above: it is possible to observe and quantify individual processes as well as complex process combinations up to the development of geomorphological units. The contribution aims at showing, based on soil erosion research, the possibilities of experimental methods for contributing to th understanding of geomorphological processes. A special emphasis is put on the linkage of conceptual understanding of processes, their measurement and the following development of models. The development of experiments to quantify relevant parameters will be shown, as well as the steps undertaken to bring them into the field taking into account the resulting increase of uncertainty in system parameters and results. It will be shown that experiments are even so able to produce precise measurements on individual processes as well as of complex combinations of parameters and processes and to identify their influence on the overall geomorphological dynamics. Experiments are therefore a methodological package able to check complex soil erosion processes at different levels of conceptualization and to generate data for their quantification. And thus, also a methodological concept to take more into account and to further develop in geomorphological science.

  17. TBCC Discipline Overview. Hypersonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    The "National Aeronautics Research and Development Policy" document, issued by the National Science and Technology Council in December 2006, stated that one (among several) of the guiding objectives of the federal aeronautics research and development endeavors shall be stable and long-term foundational research efforts. Nearly concurrently, the National Academies issued a more technically focused aeronautics blueprint, entitled: the "Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics - Foundations for the Future." Taken together these documents outline the principles of an aeronautics maturation plan. Thus, in response to these overarching inputs (and others), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) organized the Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP), a program within the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The FAP initiated foundational research and technology development tasks to enable the capability of future vehicles that operate across a broad range of Mach numbers, inclusive of the subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flight regimes. The FAP Hypersonics Project concentrates on two hypersonic missions: (1) Air-breathing Access to Space (AAS) and (2) the (Planetary Atmospheric) Entry, Decent, and Landing (EDL). The AAS mission focuses on Two-Stage-To-Orbit (TSTO) systems using air-breathing combined-cycle-engine propulsion; whereas, the EDL mission focuses on the challenges associated with delivering large payloads to (and from) Mars. So, the FAP Hypersonic Project investments are aligned to achieve mastery and intellectual stewardship of the core competencies in the hypersonic-flight regime, which ultimately will be required for practical systems with highly integrated aerodynamic/vehicle and propulsion/engine technologies. Within the FAP Hypersonics, the technology management is further divided into disciplines including one targeting Turbine-Based Combine-Cycle (TBCC) propulsion. Additionally, to obtain expertise and support from outside

  18. Parametrically disciplined operation of a vibratory gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Parametrically disciplined operation of a symmetric nearly degenerate mode vibratory gyroscope is disclosed. A parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope having a natural oscillation frequency in the neighborhood of a sub-harmonic of an external stable clock reference is produced by driving an electrostatic bias electrode at approximately twice this sub-harmonic frequency to achieve disciplined frequency and phase operation of the resonator. A nearly symmetric parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope that can oscillate in any transverse direction and has more than one bias electrostatic electrode that can be independently driven at twice its oscillation frequency at an amplitude and phase that disciplines its damping to zero in any vibration direction. In addition, operation of a parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope is taught in which the precession rate of the driven vibration pattern is digitally disciplined to a prescribed non-zero reference value.

  19. Dynamic cross-flow filtration: enhanced continuous small-scale solid-liquid separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursch, Johannes; Hohl, Roland; Dujmovic, Diana; Brozio, Jörg; Krumme, Markus; Rasenack, Norbert; Khinast, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, a small-scale dynamic filtration device (SFD) was analyzed and the basic mechanisms governing the filtration process were characterized. The present work aims at improving the device's performance in terms of actual production. Various operation modes were tested in order to increase permeate flow and concentration factors (CF), while maintaining a fully continuous production mode. Both, a vacuum-enhanced and a pulsating operation mode, proved to be superior to the currently implemented open-operation mode. For example, for lactose, an increase of the CF could be achieved from 1.7 in open mode to 7.6 in pulsating operation mode. The investigated operation strategy enables process control systems to rapidly react to fluctuating feeds that may occur due to changes in upstream manufacturing steps. As a result, not only filtration performance in terms of permeate rate but also process flexibility can be significantly increased. Overall, vacuum-enhanced operation was shown to be most promising for integration into an industrial environment. The option to elevate achievable concentration factors, ease of flow monitoring as well as the ability to react to changes in the feed conditions allow for effective and efficient continuous small-scale filtration.

  20. Problems in Cross-Cultural Use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: “No Butterflies in the Desert”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maters, Gemma A.; Sanderman, Robbert; Kim, Aimee Y.; Coyne, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used to screen for anxiety and depression. A large literature is citable in support of its validity, but difficulties are increasingly being identified, such as inexplicably discrepant optimal cutpoints and inconsistent factor-structures. This article examines whether these problems could be due to the construction of the HADS that poses difficulties for translation and cross-cultural use. Methods Authors’ awareness of difficulties translating the HADS were identified by examining 20% of studies using the HADS, obtained by a systematic literature search in Pubmed and PsycINFO in May 2012. Reports of use of translations and validation studies were recorded for papers from non-English speaking countries. Narrative and systematic reviews were examined for how authors dealt with different translations. Results Of 417 papers from non-English speaking countries, only 45% indicated whether a translation was used. Studies validating translations were cited in 54%. Seventeen reviews, incorporating data from diverse translated versions, were examined. Only seven mentioned issues of language and culture, and none indicated insurmountable problems in integrating results from different translations. Conclusion Initial decisions concerning item content and response options likely leave the HADS difficult to translate, but we failed to find an acknowledgment of problems in articles involving its translation and cross-cultural use. Investigators’ lack of awareness of these issues can lead to anomalous results and difficulties in interpretation and integration of these results. Reviews tend to overlook these issues and most reviews indiscriminately integrate results from studies performed in different countries. Cross-culturally valid, but literally translated versions of the HADS may not be attainable, and specific cutpoints may not be valid across cultures and language. Claims about rates of anxiety and

  1. Problems in cross-cultural use of the hospital anxiety and depression scale: "no butterflies in the desert".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma A Maters

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS is widely used to screen for anxiety and depression. A large literature is citable in support of its validity, but difficulties are increasingly being identified, such as inexplicably discrepant optimal cutpoints and inconsistent factor-structures. This article examines whether these problems could be due to the construction of the HADS that poses difficulties for translation and cross-cultural use. METHODS: Authors' awareness of difficulties translating the HADS were identified by examining 20% of studies using the HADS, obtained by a systematic literature search in Pubmed and PsycINFO in May 2012. Reports of use of translations and validation studies were recorded for papers from non-English speaking countries. Narrative and systematic reviews were examined for how authors dealt with different translations. RESULTS: Of 417 papers from non-English speaking countries, only 45% indicated whether a translation was used. Studies validating translations were cited in 54%. Seventeen reviews, incorporating data from diverse translated versions, were examined. Only seven mentioned issues of language and culture, and none indicated insurmountable problems in integrating results from different translations. CONCLUSION: Initial decisions concerning item content and response options likely leave the HADS difficult to translate, but we failed to find an acknowledgment of problems in articles involving its translation and cross-cultural use. Investigators' lack of awareness of these issues can lead to anomalous results and difficulties in interpretation and integration of these results. Reviews tend to overlook these issues and most reviews indiscriminately integrate results from studies performed in different countries. Cross-culturally valid, but literally translated versions of the HADS may not be attainable, and specific cutpoints may not be valid across cultures and language. Claims about rates

  2. Cross-Validation of the Spanish HP-Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Confirmed with Some Cross-Cultural Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorta-Garza, Adelina; San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Soler-González, Jorge; Roig, Helena; Vivanco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Medical educators agree that empathy is essential for physicians' professionalism. The Health Professional Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE-HP) was developed in response to a need for a psychometrically sound instrument to measure empathy in the context of patient care. Although extensive support for its validity and reliability is available, the authors recognize the necessity to examine psychometrics of the JSE-HP in different socio-cultural contexts to assure the psychometric soundness of this instrument. The first aim of this study was to confirm its psychometric properties in the cross-cultural context of Spain and Latin American countries. The second aim was to measure the influence of social and cultural factors on the development of medical empathy in health practitioners. The original English version of the JSE-HP was translated into International Spanish using back-translation procedures. The Spanish version of the JSE-HP was administered to 896 physicians from Spain and 13 Latin American countries. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation (promax) to allow for correlation among the resulting factors, followed by a second analysis, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two theoretical models, one based on the English JSE-HP and another on the first Spanish student version of the JSE (JSE-S), were tested. Demographic variables were compared using group comparisons. A total of 715 (80%) surveys were returned fully completed. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the JSE for the entire sample was 0.84. The psychometric properties of the Spanish JSE-HP matched those of the original English JSE-HP. However, the Spanish JSE-S model proved more appropriate than the original English model for the sample in this study. Group comparisons among physicians classified by gender, medical specialties, cultural and cross-cultural backgrounds yielded statistically significant differences

  3. Anglistics as a Dialogic Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Delanoy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In my article; dialogue is suggested as a basic direction for Anglistics. Such a perspective results from a normative notion of dialogue based on a set of particular criteria. In general terms; a case is made for (self-critical and respectful confrontation with other viewpoints within and beyond Anglistics to further develop existing positions and to create new forms of co-operation. While in the first two sections this concept is introduced and applied to the discipline of Anglistics; the final section is focussed on an area of major conflict in contemporary ELT debates. In fact; a dialogic approach will be suggested for dealing with two opposite tendencies; one aiming for standardization and the other for a humanistic form of education.

  4. Scaling Tests of the Cross Section for Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Munoz Camacho; Alexandre Camsonne; Malek Mazouz; Catherine Ferdi; Gagik Gavalian; Elena Kuchina; Moscov Amaryan; Konrad Aniol; Matthieu Beaumel; Hachemi Benaoum; Pierre Bertin; Michel Brossard; Jian-Ping Chen; Eugene Chudakov; Brandon Craver; Francesco Cusanno; Kees de Jager; Alexandre Deur; Robert Feuerbach; Jean Fieschi; Salvatore Frullani; Michel Garcon; Franco Garibaldi; Olivier Gayou; Ronald Gilman; Javier Gomez; Paul Gueye; Pierre Guichon; Benoit Guillon; Jens-ole Hansen; David Hayes; Douglas Higinbotham; Timothy Holmstrom; Charles Hyde-Wright; Hassan Ibrahim; Ryuichi Igarashi; Xiaodong Jiang; Hyon-Suk Jo; Lisa Kaufman; Aidan Kelleher; Ameya Kolarkar; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Geraud Laveissiere; John LeRose; Richard Lindgren; Nilanga Liyanage; Hai-jiang Lu; Demetrius Margaziotis; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Kathy McCormick; Robert Michaels; Bernard Michel; Bryan Moffit; Peter Monaghan; Sirish Nanda; Vladimir Nelyubin; Milan Potokar; Yi Qiang; Ronald Ransome; Jean-Sebastien Real; Bodo Reitz; Yves Roblin; Julie Roche; Franck Sabatie; Arunava Saha; Simon Sirca; Karl Slifer; Patricia Solvignon; Ramesh Subedi; Vincent Sulkosky; Paul Ulmer; Eric Voutier; Kebin Wang; Lawrence Weinstein; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Xiaochao Zheng; Lingyan Zhu

    2006-07-27

    We present the first measurements of {rvec e}p {yields} ep{gamma} cross section in the deep virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) regime and the valence quark region (x{sub Bj} = 0.36). From JLab E00-110, we extract the imaginary part of the Bethe-Heitler (BH)--DVCS interference terms, to order twist-3 for Q{sup 2} = 1.5, 1.9, and 2.3 GeV{sup 2}, and the real part of the BH-DVCS interference terms at Q{sup 2}2 = 2.3 GeV{sup 2}. We present the first model-independent measurement of linear combinations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and GPD integrals up to twist-3 approximation. The validity of this approximation is strongly supported by the absence of Q{sup 2}-variation of the extracted terms--thereby constraining the size of higher twist contributions to our observables.

  5. Translation and cross cultural adaptation of the Pediatric Motor Activity Log-Revised scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuti, Gabriela da Silva; Santos, Juliana Firmo Dos; Silva, Ana Carolina Rodrigues da; Eras-Garcia, Rafael; Uswatte, Gitendra; Taub, Edward

    2016-07-01

    To translate PMAL-R and adapt for the Brazilian culture; analyze the reliability and the internal consistency of the Brazilian version. Translation of PMAL-R to the Portuguese-Brazil and back translation. The back-translated version was revised by the authors of the scale. The final version was administered to a sample of 24 patients with spastic hemiparesis CP between 2-8 years. The reliability intra and inter-rater were suitable (how often = 0.97 and 0.98, how well = 0.98 and 0.99 respectively) and so the internal consistency (0.98). The Brazilian version of PMAL-R has adequate internal consistency, reliability intra and inter raters and can be used to assess the spontaneous use of the upper limb of children with CP type spastic hemiparesis, aged 2-8 years.

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Spence children's anxiety scale in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Atefeh; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Khan, Aqeel; Latif, Adibah Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety among children has increased in recent years. Culturally adapted questionnaires developed to measure the level of anxiety are the best screening instruments for the general population. This study describes the scientific translation and adaptation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) into the Malay language. The process of scientific translation of this selfreport instrument followed the guidelines of the Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). The Malay version and its adaptation for a new cultural context are described. The Malay version achieved the aims of the original version and its conceptual and operational equivalence. It may be used as the first Malay instrument to measure anxiety among children in research and in clinical and community settings.

  7. Sources of uncertainty in hydrological climate impact assessment: a cross-scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattermann, F. F.; Vetter, T.; Breuer, L.; Su, Buda; Daggupati, P.; Donnelly, C.; Fekete, B.; Flörke, F.; Gosling, S. N.; Hoffmann, P.; Liersch, S.; Masaki, Y.; Motovilov, Y.; Müller, C.; Samaniego, L.; Stacke, T.; Wada, Y.; Yang, T.; Krysnaova, V.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change impacts on water availability and hydrological extremes are major concerns as regards the Sustainable Development Goals. Impacts on hydrology are normally investigated as part of a modelling chain, in which climate projections from multiple climate models are used as inputs to multiple impact models, under different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, which result in different amounts of global temperature rise. While the goal is generally to investigate the relevance of changes in climate for the water cycle, water resources or hydrological extremes, it is often the case that variations in other components of the model chain obscure the effect of climate scenario variation. This is particularly important when assessing the impacts of relatively lower magnitudes of global warming, such as those associated with the aspirational goals of the Paris Agreement. In our study, we use ANOVA (analyses of variance) to allocate and quantify the main sources of uncertainty in the hydrological impact modelling chain. In turn we determine the statistical significance of different sources of uncertainty. We achieve this by using a set of five climate models and up to 13 hydrological models, for nine large scale river basins across the globe, under four emissions scenarios. The impact variable we consider in our analysis is daily river discharge. We analyze overall water availability and flow regime, including seasonality, high flows and low flows. Scaling effects are investigated by separately looking at discharge generated by global and regional hydrological models respectively. Finally, we compare our results with other recently published studies. We find that small differences in global temperature rise associated with some emissions scenarios have mostly significant impacts on river discharge—however, climate model related uncertainty is so large that it obscures the sensitivity of the hydrological system.

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Danish 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale among hospital staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Line Skjødt; Willert, Morten Vejs; Eskildsen, Anita; Christiansen, David Høyrup

    2017-08-01

    The 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10) is a brief instrument measuring resilience in adults. The scale has shown sound psychometric properties in different populations and cultures. Our objectives were to cross-culturally adapt the CD-RISC 10 into Danish and to establish the psychometric properties of the Danish version in terms of internal consistency, construct validity and longitudinal validity. The CD-RISC 10 was translated using established guidelines. Employees ( N=272) at hospitals in the Central Denmark Region completed questionnaires at baseline and three months follow-up. Questionnaires included the translated Danish version of the CD-RISC 10 and the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10). Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha and construct and longitudinal validity by correlating CD-RISC 10 and PSS-10 baseline scores and change scores from baseline to follow-up. The Danish CD-RISC 10 provides acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87). Analysis of construct validity revealed a negative correlation with the PSS-10 at baseline ( r=-.63 [95%CI: -.70; -.55], pDanish-speaking population.

  9. Cross-scale interactions affect tree growth and intrinsic water use efficiency and highlight the importance of spatial context in managing forests under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. We investigated the potential of cross-scale interactions to affect the outcome of density reduction in a large-scale silvicultural experiment. 2. We measured tree growth and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) based on stable carbon isotopes (13C) to investigate the...

  10. Fire Resistance of Large-Scale Cross-Laminated Timber Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henek, Vladan; Venkrbec, Václav; Novotný, Miloslav

    2017-12-01

    Wooden structures are increasingly being used in the construction of residential buildings. A common and often published reason to avoid wooden structures is their insufficient fire resistance, which reduces bearing capacity. For this reason, composite sandwich structures began to be designed to eliminate this drawback, as well as others. Recently, however, the trend is for a return to the original, wood-only variant and a search is underway for new technical means of improving the properties of such structures. Many timber structure technologies are known, but structures made from cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels have been used very often in recent years. CLT panels, also known as X-LAM, are currently gaining popularity in Europe. In the case of CLT panels composed of several layers of boards, they can be said to offer a certain advantage in that after the surface layer of a board has burnt and the subsurface layer has dried, oxygen is not drawn to the unburned wood for further combustion and thus the burning process ceases. CLT panels do not need to be specially modified or coated with fire resistant materials, although they are usually lined with gypsum-fibre fire resistant boards due to guidelines set out in the relevant standards. This paper presents a new method for the assessment of load-bearing perimeter walls fabricated from CLT panels without the use of an inner fire-retardant lining to ensure fire resistance at the level required by European standards (i.e. those harmonized for the Czech construction industry). The calculations were verified through laboratory tests which show that better parameters can be achieved during the classification of structures from the fire resistance point of view. The aim of the article is to utilize the results of assessment and testing by an accredited laboratory in order to demonstrate the possibilities of using CLT panels for the construction of multistorey as well as multi-purpose buildings in the Czech Republic.

  11. Translation and cross cultural adaptation of the Pediatric Motor Activity Log-Revised scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela da Silva Matuti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The standardized instrument developed to assess the use of the affected upper limb in children with cerebral palsy (CP is the Pediatric Motor Activity Log Revised (PMAL-R. Objectives To translate PMAL-R and adapt for the Brazilian culture; analyze the reliability and the internal consistency of the Brazilian version. Method Translation of PMAL-R to the Portuguese-Brazil and back translation. The back-translated version was revised by the authors of the scale. The final version was administered to a sample of 24 patients with spastic hemiparesis CP between 2–8 years. Results The reliability intra and inter-rater were suitable (how often = 0.97 and 0.98, how well = 0.98 and 0.99 respectively and so the internal consistency (0.98. Conclusion The Brazilian version of PMAL-R has adequate internal consistency, reliability intra and inter raters and can be used to assess the spontaneous use of the upper limb of children with CP type spastic hemiparesis, aged 2–8 years.

  12. Cross-scale Efficient Tensor Contractions for Coupled Cluster Computations Through Multiple Programming Model Backends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Khaled Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Epifanovsky, Evgeny [Q-Chem, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Williams, Samuel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Krylov, Anna I. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-07-26

    Coupled-cluster methods provide highly accurate models of molecular structure by explicit numerical calculation of tensors representing the correlation between electrons. These calculations are dominated by a sequence of tensor contractions, motivating the development of numerical libraries for such operations. While based on matrix-matrix multiplication, these libraries are specialized to exploit symmetries in the molecular structure and in electronic interactions, and thus reduce the size of the tensor representation and the complexity of contractions. The resulting algorithms are irregular and their parallelization has been previously achieved via the use of dynamic scheduling or specialized data decompositions. We introduce our efforts to extend the Libtensor framework to work in the distributed memory environment in a scalable and energy efficient manner. We achieve up to 240 speedup compared with the best optimized shared memory implementation. We attain scalability to hundreds of thousands of compute cores on three distributed-memory architectures, (Cray XC30&XC40, BlueGene/Q), and on a heterogeneous GPU-CPU system (Cray XK7). As the bottlenecks shift from being compute-bound DGEMM's to communication-bound collectives as the size of the molecular system scales, we adopt two radically different parallelization approaches for handling load-imbalance. Nevertheless, we preserve a uni ed interface to both programming models to maintain the productivity of computational quantum chemists.

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There is strong evidence to indicate that childhood maltreatment can negatively affect both physical and mental health and there is increasing interest in understanding the occurrence and consequences of such experiences. While several tools have been developed to retrospectively investigate childhood maltreatment experiences, most of them do not investigate the experience of witnessing family violence during childhood or bullying exposure. Moreover, the majority of scales do not identify when these experiences may have occurred, who was involved or the feelings evoked, such as helplessness or terror. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale was developed to overcome these limitations. Objective : In view of the improvements over previous self-report instruments that this new tool offers and of the small number of self-report questionnaires for childhood maltreatment assessment available in Brazil, this study was conducted to conduct cross-cultural adaptation of the MACE scale for Brazilian Portuguese. Method : The following steps were performed: translation, back-translation, committee review for semantic and conceptual evaluation, and acceptability trial for equivalence. Results : Semantic and structural changes were made to the interview to adapt it for the Brazilian culture and all 75 of the items that comprise the longer version of MACE were translated. The results of the acceptability trial suggest that the items are comprehensible. Conclusion : The MACE scales may be useful tools for investigation of childhood maltreatment and make a valuable contribution to research in Brazil. Future studies should consider testing the availability and reliability of the three versions of the instrument translated into Brazilian Portuguese.

  14. The Relationships between Workaholism and Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders: A Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Schou Andreassen

    Full Text Available Despite the many number of studies examining workaholism, large-scale studies have been lacking. The present study utilized an open web-based cross-sectional survey assessing symptoms of psychiatric disorders and workaholism among 16,426 workers (Mage = 37.3 years, SD = 11.4, range = 16-75 years. Participants were administered the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Obsession-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Bergen Work Addiction Scale, along with additional questions examining demographic and work-related variables. Correlations between workaholism and all psychiatric disorder symptoms were positive and significant. Workaholism comprised the dependent variable in a three-step linear multiple hierarchical regression analysis. Basic demographics (age, gender, relationship status, and education explained 1.2% of the variance in workaholism, whereas work demographics (work status, position, sector, and annual income explained an additional 5.4% of the variance. Age (inversely and managerial positions (positively were of most importance. The psychiatric symptoms (ADHD, OCD, anxiety, and depression explained 17.0% of the variance. ADHD and anxiety contributed considerably. The prevalence rate of workaholism status was 7.8% of the present sample. In an adjusted logistic regression analysis, all psychiatric symptoms were positively associated with being a workaholic. The independent variables explained between 6.1% and 14.4% in total of the variance in workaholism cases. Although most effect sizes were relatively small, the study's findings expand our understanding of possible psychiatric predictors of workaholism, and particularly shed new insight into the reality of adult ADHD in work life. The study's implications, strengths, and shortcomings are also discussed.

  15. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Self-Assessment Disability Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Stankovic, Iva; Tomic, Aleksandra; Svetel, Marina; Tepavcevic, Darija Kisic; Kostic, Vladimir S; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2013-08-01

    The symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) worsen over time affecting performance and causing disability. The purpose of this study was to translate the Self-Assessment Disability Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease (SADS-PD) into the Serbian language and assess its validity and reliability. From January to July 2012, 114 consecutive PD patients were recruited at the Neurology Clinic in Belgrade. The inclusion criteria were: ability to walk independently for at least 10 m, ability to stand for at least 90 s. The exclusion criteria were: cognitive impairment, the presence of other major neurologic, psychiatric, visual, audio-vestibular, and orthopedic disturbances. The 25-item SADS-PD was translated according to internationally-accepted methodology. The internal consistency of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using Kendall's concordance coefficient for total scores. To evaluate construct validity, an exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis, varimax rotation) was performed. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.984. Kendall's concordance coefficient was 0.994. Duration of the disease, Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) stage, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score, history of falls, Hamilton's Depression and Anxiety Rating Scales (HDRS and HARS) scores were significantly correlated with the total SADS-PD score. On factor analysis 25 items in the SADS-PD questionnaire were separated in two clusters with total matrix variance of 79.7 %. The psychometric properties of the cross-culturally adapted SADS-PD questionnaire (Serbian version) have outstanding validity and reliability as an instrument for evaluation of the extent of disability in patients with PD.

  16. Parental discipline behaviours and beliefs about their child: associations with child internalizing and mediation relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskey, B J; Cartwright-Hatton, S

    2009-09-01

    Internalizing disorders of childhood are a common and disabling problem, with sufferers at increased risk of subsequent psychiatric morbidity. Several studies have found associations between parenting styles and children's internalizing, although few have considered the role of parental discipline. Parental discipline style may exert an effect on children's internalizing symptoms. Anxiety and depression are reliably found to run in families and parental anxiety has been shown to effect parenting behaviour. This study set out to examine the links between parental anxiety, parental discipline style and child internalizing symptoms. Eighty-eight parents of children aged 4-10 years were recruited through primary schools. All parents completed questionnaires including measures relating to: adult anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait version, Penn State Worry Questionnaire), parental depression (Beck Depression Inventory - Fastscreen), parental discipline (The Parenting Scale), parenting-related attributions (Parenting Attitudes, Beliefs and Cognitions Scale) and child psychological morbidity (Child Behaviour Checklist 4-18 version). Significant correlations were found between both parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with ineffective discipline and negative beliefs about parenting. Particularly strong correlations were found between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with harsh discipline. Parents of anxious/withdrawn children were more likely to hold negative beliefs about their child. The link between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms was mediated by harsh discipline. The link between parental anxiety and harsh discipline was mediated by parental beliefs about the child. Discipline style may be an important factor in the relationship between parent anxiety and child internalizing symptoms.

  17. Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for Heart Turkish Version Study: cross-cultural adaptation, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Serap; Savci, Sema; Keskinoğlu, Pembe; Akdeniz, Bahri; Özpelit, Ebru; Özcan Kahraman, Buse; Karadibak, Didem; Sevinc, Can

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with cardiac problems avoid physical activity and exercise because they expect to feel shortness of breath, dizziness, or chest pain. Assessing kinesiophobia related to heart problems is important in terms of cardiac rehabilitation. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia Swedish Version for the Heart (TSK-SV Heart) is reliable and has been validated for cardiac diseases in the Swedish population. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, parallel-form validity, and exploratory factor analysis of the TSK for the Heart Turkish Version (TSK Heart Turkish Version) for evaluating kinesiophobia in patients with heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension. This cross-sectional study involved translation, back translation, and cross-cultural adaptation (localization). Forty-three pulmonary arterial hypertension and 32 heart failure patients were evaluated using the TSK Heart Turkish Version. The 17-item scale, originally composed for the Swedish population, has four factors: perceived danger for heart problem, avoidance of exercise, fear of injury, and dysfunctional self. Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency) and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess the questionnaire's reliability. Results of the patients in the 6-minute walk test, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Nottingham Health Profile were analyzed by Pearson's correlation analysis with the TSK Heart Turkish Version to indicate the convergent validity. Cronbach's alpha for the TSK Heart Turkish Version was 0.75, indicating acceptable internal consistency. Although exploratory factor analysis showed a different subgroup distribution than the original questionnaire, the model was acceptable for the four-factor model hypothesis. Therefore, the questionnaire was rated as reliable. These results supported the reliability of the TSK Heart Turkish Version. Since the acceptable four-factor model fits the subgroups and measures of reliability are sufficiently high, the

  18. Leadership and governance of community health worker programmes at scale: a cross case analysis of provincial implementation in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Helen; Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla

    2017-09-15

    National community health worker (CHW) programmes are returning to favour as an integral part of primary health care systems, often on the back of pre-existing community based initiatives. There are significant challenges to the integration and support of such programmes, and they require coordination and stewardship at all levels of the health system. This paper explores the leadership and governance tasks of large-scale CHW programmes at sub-national level, through the case of national reforms to South Africa's community based sector, referred to as the Ward Based Outreach Team (WBOT) strategy. A cross case analysis of leadership and governance roles, drawing on three case studies of adoption and implementation of the WBOTs strategy at provincial level (Western Cape, North West and Gauteng) was conducted. The primary case studies mapped system components and assessed implementation processes and contexts. They involved teams of researchers and over 200 interviews with stakeholders from senior to frontline, document reviews and analyses of routine data. The secondary, cross case analysis specifically focused on the issues and challenges facing, and strategies adopted by provincial and district policy makers and managers, as they engaged with the new national mandate. From this key sub-national leadership and governance roles were formulated. Four key roles are identified and discussed: 1. Negotiating a fit between national mandates and provincial and district histories and strategies of community based services 2. Defining new organisational and accountability relationships between CHWs, local health services, communities and NGOs 3. Revising and developing new aligned and integrated planning, human resource, financing and information systems 4. Leading change by building new collective visions, mobilising political, including budgetary, support and designing implementation strategies. This analysis, from real-life systems, adds to understanding of the processes

  19. Cross-scale analysis of the region effect on vascular plant species diversity in southern and northern European mountain ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lenoir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region to quantify four diversity components: (i total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity, (ii number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity, (iii pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity and (iv number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity. We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity

  20. Cross-scale analysis of the region effect on vascular plant species diversity in southern and northern European mountain ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Guisan, Antoine; Vittoz, Pascal; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Dullinger, Stefan; Pauli, Harald; Willner, Wolfgang; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Virtanen, Risto; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-12-22

    The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region) to quantify four diversity components: (i) total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity), (ii) number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity), (iii) pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity) and (iv) number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity). We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale) diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale) diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity components. For instance, plot connectivity and/or selection for high dispersal

  1. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and reproducibility of the Brazilian portuguese-language version of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Junior, Boanerges Lopes de; Jardim, José Roberto; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Souza, George Márcio da Costa e; Baker, Timothy B; Santoro, Ilka Lopes

    2012-01-01

    To cross-culturally adapt the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) for use in Brazil and evaluate the reproducibility of the new (Brazilian Portuguese-language) version. The original English version of the WSWS was translated into Brazilian Portuguese. For cross-cultural adaptation, the Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the WSWS was administered to eight volunteers, all of whom were smokers. After adjustments had been made, the WSWS version was back-translated into English. The Brazilian Portuguese-language version was thereby found to be accurate. The final Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the WSWS was applied to 75 smokers at three distinct times. For the assessment of interobserver reproducibility, it was applied twice within a 30-min interval by two different interviewers. For the assessment of intraobserver reproducibility, it was applied again 15 days later by one of the interviewers. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used in order to test the concordance of the answers. The significance level was set at p Portuguese-language version of the WSWS is reproducible, fast, and simple. It can therefore be used as a tool for assessing the severity of the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal syndrome.

  2. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  3. The science of computing shaping a discipline

    CERN Document Server

    Tedre, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The identity of computing has been fiercely debated throughout its short history. Why is it still so hard to define computing as an academic discipline? Is computing a scientific, mathematical, or engineering discipline? By describing the mathematical, engineering, and scientific traditions of computing, The Science of Computing: Shaping a Discipline presents a rich picture of computing from the viewpoints of the field's champions. The book helps readers understand the debates about computing as a discipline. It explains the context of computing's central debates and portrays a broad perspecti

  4. Intergenerational and partner influences on fathers' negative discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, Deborah M; Pears, Katherine C; Kerr, David C R; Owen, Lee D

    2008-04-01

    Recent studies have found significant but relatively modest associations in parenting across generations, suggesting additional influences on parenting beyond experiences in the family of origin. The present prospective, cross-generational study of at-risk men (Oregon Youth Study) focuses on fathers' negative discipline practices with their 2- to 3-year-old children. The theoretical model is based on a dynamic developmental systems approach to problematic family functioning, which points to the importance of developmental systems, including family risk context and key influential social interactional systems, and emphasizes influence that is directly pertinent to the outcome of interest. Path modeling indicated that the men's poor and harsh discipline practices were predicted by partners' problem behavior (substance use and antisocial behavior) and negative discipline practices, as well as by poor discipline experienced in the family of origin; men's own problem behavior, ages at which they became fathers, and family socioeconomic status were controlled. Findings indicate the importance of focusing on influence dynamics across parents.

  5. Cross-cultural validity and measurement invariance of the social physique anxiety scale in five European nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, M S; Aşçi, F H; Lindwall, M; Hein, V; Mülazimoğlu-Balli, O; Tarrant, M; Ruiz, Y Pastor; Sell, V

    2007-12-01

    The cross-cultural generalizability of the social physique anxiety scale (SPAS) was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in five European nations: Britain, Estonia, Spain, Sweden, and Turkey. Motl and Conroy's (2000) methods were used to develop modified versions of the scale within each sample based on the original 12-item version. Pending the satisfactory fit of the CFAs of the modified models within each sample, it was expected that the measurement parameters and mean values of these models would be equivalent across samples in multisample CFAs. An eight-item version of the SPAS exhibited a good fit with data from the British, Estonian, and Swedish samples, and a seven-item version fitted the data well in the Spanish and Turkish samples. The eliminated items were also influenced by a method effect associated with the item wording. Multisample analyses revealed that factor loadings were equivalent across samples. Tests of latent means revealed that British and Spanish participants reported the highest levels of SPA, with Estonian participants reporting the lowest. Results indicate that the SPAS is generalizable across these cultures, although subtle variations existed in the Spanish and Turkish samples. Researchers are advised to follow these procedures to develop a valid version of the SPAS appropriate for their sample.

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport scale to Persian language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Soofia; Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Farhadi, Yasaman; Ebadi, Safoora; Entezary, Ebrahim; Glazer, Douglas

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and provide validation statistics for the Persian Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport scale (I-PRRS) following a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study design. The I-PRRS was forward/back-translated and culturally adapted into Persian language. The Persian I-PRRS was administered to 100 injured athletes (93 male; age 26.0 ± 5.6 years; time since injury 4.84 ± 6.4 months) and 50 healthy athletes (36 male; mean age 25.7 ± 6.0 years). The Persian I-PRRS was re-administered to 50 injured athletes at 1 week to examine test-retest reliability. There were no floor or ceiling effects confirming the content validity of Persian I-PRRS. The internal consistency reliability was good. Excellent test-retest reliability and agreement were demonstrated. The statistically significant difference in Persian I-PRRS total scores between the injured athletes and healthy athletes provides an evidence of discriminative validity. The Persian I-PRRS total scores were positively correlated with the Farsi Mood Scale (FARMS) total scores, showing construct validity. The principal component analysis indicated a two-factor solution consisting of "Confidence to play" and "Confidence in the injured body part and skill level". The Persian I-PRRS showed excellent reliability and validity and can be used to assess injured athletes' psychological readiness to return to sport among Persian-speaking populations.

  7. A Cross-Layer Framework for Designing and Optimizing Deeply-Scaled FinFET-Based Cache Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shafaei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cross-layer framework in order to design and optimize energy-efficient cache memories made of deeply-scaled FinFET devices. The proposed design framework spans device, circuit and architecture levels and considers both super- and near-threshold modes of operation. Initially, at the device-level, seven FinFET devices on a 7-nm process technology are designed in which only one geometry-related parameter (e.g., fin width, gate length, gate underlap is changed per device. Next, at the circuit-level, standard 6T and 8T SRAM cells made of these 7-nm FinFET devices are characterized and compared in terms of static noise margin, access latency, leakage power consumption, etc. Finally, cache memories with all different combinations of devices and SRAM cells are evaluated at the architecture-level using a modified version of the CACTI tool with FinFET support and other considerations for deeply-scaled technologies. Using this design framework, it is observed that L1 cache memory made of longer channel FinFET devices operating at the near-threshold regime achieves the minimum energy operation point.

  8. Experimental Recreation of Large-Scale Coastal Bedforms and Hummocky Cross-Stratification in Sheet Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaas, T.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Huisman, C.; Schretlen, J. L.; van der Werf, J. J.; Ribberink, J. S.; Ruessink, G.

    2010-12-01

    In shallow marine environments various types of large bed forms emerge under waves and currents. There is no consensus on whether and how these bedforms can be classified in a genetically meaningful sense. Hypotheses for their genesis vary from a large variety of causal mechanisms for a number of different ripples to a single growing instability mechanism, reflecting a limited understanding. Our objective is to understand the formative mechanism of a family of large bedforms referred to as Large Wave Ripples in coastal literature and Hummocks in sedimentological literature, which also describes the hummocky cross stratification (HCS) found in the sedimentary rock record. The formative conditions for hummocks have been debated extensively, particularly whether currents or specific particle sizes were required. We collected and compared existing field and laboratory data and we conducted a full scale experiment in the Hannover Grosse Welle wave flume (300 m long, 5 m wide and 7 m deep). Experiments were done for several conditions, including a storm sequence, with 0.7-1.7 m regular trochoidal waves or irregular waves with periods of 5-7.5 s over sand with mean particle sizes of 0.256 (in 2007) or 0.137 mm (in 2008). Bed profiles were collected mechanically and acoustically. A conductivity probe (CCM) was used to measure sheet flow thickness or absence and near-bed flow and suspended sand concentrations were measured in detail with acoustical profilers. From the data collection, we found that there is no distinction empirically between LWR and Hummocks. Both are found around the inception of sheet flow and have the same dimensions. In the experiments we produced short wave ripples superimposed on large wave ripples below and in the transition to sheet flow conditions. The SWR were well predicted by a recent particle-size dependent ripple length predictor. No available predictor matched the LWR dimensions. The LWR remained present in strong sheet flow conditions and

  9. Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for Heart Turkish Version Study: cross-cultural adaptation, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acar S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Serap Acar,1 Sema Savci,1 Pembe Keskinoğlu,2 Bahri Akdeniz,3 Ebru Özpelit,3 Buse Özcan Kahraman,1 Didem Karadibak,1 Can Sevinc4 1School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 2Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, 4Department of Chest Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, İzmir, Turkey Purpose: Individuals with cardiac problems avoid physical activity and exercise because they expect to feel shortness of breath, dizziness, or chest pain. Assessing kinesiophobia related to heart problems is important in terms of cardiac rehabilitation. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia Swedish Version for the Heart (TSK-SV Heart is reliable and has been validated for cardiac diseases in the Swedish population. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, parallel-form validity, and exploratory factor analysis of the TSK for the Heart Turkish Version (TSK Heart Turkish Version for evaluating kinesiophobia in patients with heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension.Methods: This cross-sectional study involved translation, back translation, and cross-cultural adaptation (localization. Forty-three pulmonary arterial hypertension and 32 heart failure patients were evaluated using the TSK Heart Turkish Version. The 17-item scale, originally composed for the Swedish population, has four factors: perceived danger for heart problem, avoidance of exercise, fear of injury, and dysfunctional self. Cronbach’s alpha (internal ­consistency and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess the questionnaire’s reliability. Results of the patients in the 6-minute walk test, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Nottingham Health Profile were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation analysis with the TSK Heart Turkish Version to indicate the convergent validity.Results: Cronbach’s alpha for the TSK Heart Turkish Version was 0.75, indicating acceptable internal

  10. Post-genomic science: cross-disciplinary and large-scale collaborative research and its organizational and technological challenges for the scientific research process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Elaine; Jirotka, Marina; Gavaghan, David

    2006-06-15

    We examine recent developments in cross-disciplinary science and contend that a 'Big Science' approach is increasingly evident in the life sciences-facilitated by a breakdown of the traditional barriers between academic disciplines and the application of technologies across these disciplines. The first fruits of 'Big Biology' are beginning to be seen in, for example, genomics, (bio)-nanotechnology and systems biology. We suggest that this has profound implications for the research process and presents challenges both in technological design, in the provision of infrastructure and training, in the organization of research groups, and in providing suitable research funding mechanisms and reward systems. These challenges need to be addressed if the promise of this approach is to be fully realized. In this paper, we will draw on the work of social scientists to understand how these developments in science and technology relate to organizational culture, organizational change and the context of scientific work. We seek to learn from previous technological developments that seemed to offer similar potential for organizational and social change.

  11. Biomedical informatics--a confluence of disciplines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasman, A.; Ammenwerth, E.; Dickhaus, H.; Knaup, P.; Lovis, C.; Mantas, J.; Maojo, V.; Martin-Sanchez, F. J.; Musen, M.; Patel, V. L.; Surjan, G.; Talmon, J. L.; Sarkar, I. N.

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical informatics is a broad discipline that borrows many methods and techniques from other disciplines. To reflect a) on the character of biomedical informatics and to determine whether it is multi-disciplinary or inter-disciplinary; b) on the question whether biomedical informatics is more

  12. Interrupting the Psy-Disciplines in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers critical explorations of how the psy-disciplines, Michel Foucault’s collective term for psychiatry, psychology and psycho-analysis, play out in contemporary educational spaces. With a strong focus on Foucault’s theories, it critically investigates how the psy-disciplines continue...

  13. Effective Discipline in the Home and School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Genevieve; Corsini, Raymond J.

    Based originally on the work of the Austrian psychiatrist, Alfred Adler, work which was further developed by Rudolph Dreikurs, this book Dreikurs, this book offers solutions to specific child discipline problems. Part I focuses on effective discipline in the home. These topics are covered: fundamentals of practical parenting; problems of routine…

  14. Perceived discipline, punishment and organizational performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study design was correlational design, and the instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire called Discipline, Punishment and Performance Opinion Questionnaire (DPPOQ). The independent variables of the study were discipline (classified into, persuasion, issuance of query, warning letters & withholding of ...

  15. The Law of Student Discipline in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hee, Tie Fatt

    2008-01-01

    Judicial review of decisions on student discipline is limited in Malaysia. This arises because of the general presumption that in the enforcement of school discipline, educators are able to act in the best interest of the student to maintain a safe learning environment. This article examines the range of disciplinary measures in Malaysian schools…

  16. How Can We Improve School Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osher, David; Bear, George G.; Sprague, Jeffrey R.; Doyle, Walter

    2010-01-01

    School discipline addresses schoolwide, classroom, and individual student needs through broad prevention, targeted intervention, and development of self-discipline. Schools often respond to disruptive students with exclusionary and punitive approaches that have limited value. This article surveys three approaches to improving school discipline…

  17. Disproportionality in School Discipline in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastic, Billie

    2017-01-01

    The racial discipline gap--the finding that Black and Latino students are more likely to be disciplined at school than White students, and often more harshly--has implications for students' academic success. This study concluded that differences in students' behavior do not fully explain the disproportionate likelihood that Black students are…

  18. School Discipline Inequities Become a Federal Priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Federal officials are getting the word out that addressing racial disparities in school discipline is a high priority, and they plan to use "disparate-impact analysis" in enforcing school discipline cases--a legal course of action that some civil rights lawyers contend was neglected under the administration of President George W. Bush. In…

  19. School Discipline Feeds the "Pipeline to Prison"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Unsupported fears of youth violence in schools has led to an expansion of school-based policing and zero tolerance discipline. The historical reality is that America's public schools are very safe, even when located in high crime neighborhoods. Yet, school discipline is becoming increasingly punitive, moving from the schoolhouse to the courthouse.…

  20. Policies/Practices in Public School Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William E.; Payne, Tyrone

    1988-01-01

    A survey of 339 teachers (grades K-12) found lack of motivation and poor parental support to be the biggest discipline problems. Nearly 90 percent worked with a stated/written discipline policy. Approximately 75 percent believed that corporal punishment should continue. Verbal reprimands were the most common behavior change method used. (VW)

  1. School Discipline, School Uniforms and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Chris; Krskova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of school discipline in achieving academic performance. The study aims to clarify the role of permissive "vis-à-vis" authoritative teaching styles with an overarching hypothesis that better discipline leads to better academic performance. The authors also probe whether uniformed…

  2. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Tol, Wietse A; Luitel, Nagendra P; Maharjan, Sujen M; Upadhaya, Nawaraj

    2011-08-04

    The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i) purpose of instrument, (ii) construct measured, (iii) contents of construct, (iv) local idioms employed, (v) structure of response sets, and (vi) comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n=64) aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old). The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC)=0.82, sensitivity=0.71, specificity=0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14); CPSS (AUC=0.77, sensitivity=0.68, specificity=0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20). The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7), "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10), and "feeling lonely" (DSRS.15). The CPSS items with

  3. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i) purpose of instrument, (ii) construct measured, (iii) contents of construct, (iv) local idioms employed, (v) structure of response sets, and (vi) comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64) aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old). The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14); CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20). The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7), "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10), and "feeling

  4. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tol Wietse A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i purpose of instrument, (ii construct measured, (iii contents of construct, (iv local idioms employed, (v structure of response sets, and (vi comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64 aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old. The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14; CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20. The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7, "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10, and

  5. Information Visualization Techniques for Effective Cross-Discipline Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ward

    2013-04-01

    Collaboration between research groups in different fields is a common occurrence, but it can often be frustrating due to the absence of a common vocabulary. This lack of a shared context can make expressing important concepts and discussing results difficult. This problem may be further exacerbated when communicating to an audience of laypeople. Without a clear frame of reference, simple concepts are often rendered difficult-to-understand at best, and unintelligible at worst. An easy way to alleviate this confusion is with the use of clear, well-designed visualizations to illustrate an idea, process or conclusion. There exist a number of well-described machine-learning and statistical techniques which can be used to illuminate the information present within complex high-dimensional datasets. Once the information has been separated from the data, clear communication becomes a matter of selecting an appropriate visualization. Ideally, the visualization is information-rich but data-scarce. Anything from a simple bar chart, to a line chart with confidence intervals, to an animated set of 3D point-clouds can be used to render a complex idea as an easily understood image. Several case studies will be presented in this work. In the first study, we will examine how a complex statistical analysis was applied to a high-dimensional dataset, and how the results were succinctly communicated to an audience of microbiologists and chemical engineers. Next, we will examine a technique used to illustrate the concept of the singular value decomposition, as used in the field of computer vision, to a lay audience of undergraduate students from mixed majors. We will then examine a case where a simple animated line plot was used to communicate an approach to signal decomposition, and will finish with a discussion of the tools available to create these visualizations.

  6. The Cross-Cultural Validity of the MMPI-2-RF Higher-Order Scales in a Sample of North Korean Female Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Goodman, Grace M; Toruno, Joseph A; Sherry, Alissa R; Kim, Hee Kyung

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the cross-cultural factorial validity of the three Higher-Order (H-O) scales in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) among a sample of North Korean female refugees (N = 2,732). Given the importance of the H-O scales in the overall structure of the MMPI-2-RF scales and in interpretation, we were interested in exploring their cross-cultural validity. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on the nine Restructured Clinical (RC) scale raw scores and fitted and compared one- to three-factor models. The three-factor model, akin to the model in Tellegen and Ben-Porath, demonstrated the best fit to the data. Furthermore, the pattern matrices of loadings across the current sample and the U.S. samples were comparable despite some differences, such as the RC2 scale's salient, negative loading on a factor analogous to the Behavioral/Externalizing Dysfunction scale. We also investigated the unique psychological characteristics of the refugees, possibly resulting from the arduous, perilous journeys out of North Korea taken by this group of female refugees and discussed the results of EFA in light of those singular psychological traits and experiences. Overall, the three H-O scales of the Korean MMPI-2-RF evidenced reasonable cross-cultural factorial validity among the sample of North Korean female refugees. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. State Legislative Recommendations to Promote Fair and Effective School Discipline. NEPC Discipline Resource Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the larger report "Discipline Policies, Successful Schools, and Racial Justice." State legislation is an important lever for improving the equity of student discipline policies. However, states vary tremendously, and only some provide accurate public reports on school discipline, support effective…

  8. Meat Quality Characteristics of Small East African Goats and Norwegian Crosses Finished under Small Scale Farming Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Hozza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of feeding system on meat quality characteristics of Small East African (SEA goats and their crosses with Norwegian (SEA×N goats finished under small scale farming conditions. Twenty four castrated goats at the age of 18 months with live body weight of 16.7±0.54 kg from each breed (SEA and SEA×N were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement (two breed, and three dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were; no access to concentrate (T0, 66% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance (T66 and 100% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance with 20% refusal (T100 and the experimental period was for 84 days. In addition, all goats were allowed to graze for 2 hours daily and later fed grass hay on ad libitum basis. Daily feed intakes were recorded for all 84-days of experiment after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/d, which was 183 g/d higher than that of T66 group. Supplemented goats had significantly (p0.05 for dressing percentage and carcass conformation among supplemented goats except fatness score, total fat depots and carcass fat which increased (p<0.05 with increasing concentrate levels in the diet. Increasing level of concentrate on offer increased meat dry matter with subsequent increase of fat in the meat. Muscle pH of goats fed concentrate declined rapidly and reached below 6 at 6 h post-mortem but temperature remained at 28°C. Cooking loss and meat tenderness improved (p<0.05 and thawing loss increased (p<0.05 with ageing period. Similarly, meat tenderness improved (p<0.05 with concentrate supplementation. Shear force of muscles varied from 36 to 66, the high values been associated with Semimembranosus and Gluteobiceps muscles. The present study demonstrates that there are differences in meat quality characteristics of meat from SEA goats and their crosses with Norwegian breeds finished under small scale

  9. Correlation between the horizontal wind direction and orientation of cross-field anisotropy of small-scale irregularities in the F region of midlatitude ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, N. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    Radio sounding of midlatitude ionosphere shows that natural small-scale electron density irregularities in the F region are cross-field anisotropic. The orientation of the cross-field anisotropy is different under different geophysical conditions. The cross-field anisotropy orientation is matched with the horizontal wind direction calculated within the HWM07 model for each event. It is ascertained that natural irregularities in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field are stretched along the horizontal wind direction under different geophysical conditions.

  10. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Falls Efficacy Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Stankovic, Iva; Tomic, Aleksandra; Svetel, Marina; Tepavcevic, Darija Kisic; Kostic, Vladimir S; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients in Serbia. A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Clinic for Neurology, between June 2011 and June 2012. A total of 201 consecutive PD outpatients were recruited. The inclusion criteria were: ability to walk independently for at least 10 m, ability to stand for at least 90 s and a Mini-Mental State Examination score >24. The exclusion criteria were: the presence of other major neurological, psychiatric, visual, audio-vestibular and orthopedic disturbances. The 10-item FES was translated according to internationally-accepted methodology. The internal reliability of the Serbian version of the FES was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Reproducibility of the FES was evaluated using the Spearman-Brown coefficient. To evaluate construct validity, an exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis, varimax rotation) was carried out. The internal consistency of the Serbian version of the FES was 0.98. Age, duration of disease, Hoehn and Yahr stage, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score, history of falls, and the Hamilton depression and anxiety scores were significantly correlated with the total FES score. On factor analysis, all 10 items were compact in a one-factor cluster, with an explained variance of 85%. Spearman-Brown's correlation coefficient between the total scores was 0.99. The psychometric characteristics of the Serbian version of the FES have excellent reliability and validity as an instrument for measuring the fear of falling in PD patients. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Knowledge about sources of dietary fibres and health effects using a validated scale: a cross-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiné, R P F; Duarte, J; Ferreira, M; Correia, P; Leal, M; Rumbak, I; Barić, I C; Komes, D; Satalić, Z; Sarić, M M; Tarcea, M; Fazakas, Z; Jovanoska, D; Vanevski, D; Vittadini, E; Pellegrini, N; Szűcs, V; Harangozó, J; El-Kenawy, A; El-Shenawy, O; Yalçın, E; Kösemeci, C; Klava, D; Straumite, E

    2016-12-01

    Dietary fibre (DF) is one of the components of diet that strongly contributes to health improvements, particularly on the gastrointestinal system. Hence, this work intended to evaluate the relations between some sociodemographic variables such as age, gender, level of education, living environment or country on the levels of knowledge about dietary fibre (KADF), its sources and its effects on human health, using a validated scale. The present study was a cross-sectional study. A methodological study was conducted with 6010 participants, residing in 10 countries from different continents (Europe, America, Africa). The instrument was a questionnaire of self-response, aimed at collecting information on knowledge about food fibres. The instrument was used to validate a scale (KADF) which model was used in the present work to identify the best predictors of knowledge. The statistical tools used were as follows: basic descriptive statistics, decision trees, inferential analysis (t-test for independent samples with Levene test and one-way ANOVA with multiple comparisons post hoc tests). The results showed that the best predictor for the three types of knowledge evaluated (about DF, about its sources and about its effects on human health) was always the country, meaning that the social, cultural and/or political conditions greatly determine the level of knowledge. On the other hand, the tests also showed that statistically significant differences were encountered regarding the three types of knowledge for all sociodemographic variables evaluated: age, gender, level of education, living environment and country. The results showed that to improve the level of knowledge the actions planned should not be delineated in general as to reach all sectors of the populations, and that in addressing different people, different methodologies must be designed so as to provide an effective health education. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Nursing Student Satisfaction Scale for use with Brazilian nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Carolina Domingues; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Barlem, Jamila Geri Tomaschewski; Dalmolin, Graziele de Lima; Pereira, Liliane Alves; Ferreira, Amanda Guimarães

    2016-08-29

    to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Nursing Student Satisfaction Scale (NSSS) for use with nursing students in the Brazilian context. this was a quantitative exploratory and descriptive study using a cross-sectional design conducted with 123 undergraduate nursing students studying at a public university in the south of Brazil. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to international guidelines. Validation for use in a Brazilian context was performed using factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. based on the expert committee assessment and pre-test, face and content validity were considered satisfactory. Factor analysis resulted in three constructs: curriculum and teaching; professional social interaction, and learning environment. The internal consistency of the instrument was satisfactory: the value of Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93 for the instrument as a whole, and between 0.88 and 0.89 for the constructs. the Brazilian version of the Nursing Student Satisfaction Scale was shown to be reliable and validated for the evaluation of student satisfaction with undergraduate nursing programs, considering the aspects teaching activities, curriculum, professional social interaction, and learning environment. adaptar culturalmente e validar o instrumento Nursing Student Satisfaction Scale (NSSS) para utilização no contexto brasileiro por estudantes de enfermagem. estudo quantitativo, do tipo exploratório e descritivo, com delineamento transversal, realizado com 123 estudantes da graduação em enfermagem de uma universidade pública no sul do Brasil. Realizou-se a adaptação cultural do instrumento segundo recomendações internacionais e a sua validação para utilização no contexto brasileiro, através da análise fatorial e alfa de Cronbach. mediante avaliação de comitê de especialistas e realização de pré-teste, a validade de face e conteúdo do instrumento foram considerados satisfatórios. A partir da análise fatorial, foram

  13. Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores and profiles in African American adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Frank C; Andretta, James R; Woodland, Malcolm H

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency and structural validity of Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores in a sample of 477 African American adolescents who had been arrested in a city in the mid-Atlantic. Using cluster analysis, we also identified profiles of CRIS scores and compared adolescents with different profiles on Major Depressive Episode, Manic Episode, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder scores. Results indicated that CRIS subscale scores were reliable, and the 6-factor structure of the CRIS was supported. Five nigrescence profiles were identified: Miseducation-Pro-Black, Conflicted-Self-Hatred, Multiculturalist, Low Race Salience, and Conflicted-Anti-White. Individuals with Conflicted-Self-Hatred profiles reported significantly and meaningfully higher scores on the 4 syndromes than did their peers, and individuals with the Multiculturalist and Low Race Salience profiles reported the lowest scores. A greater percentage of individuals with Conflicted racial identity profiles had syndrome scores in the clinically significant range. The results of this study demonstrate that some of the nigrescence profiles found in college-age students generalize to adolescents. The implications of the findings for theory, research, and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Cross contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 between lettuce and wash water during home-scale washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dane A; Friedrich, Loretta M; Harris, Linda J; Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2015-04-01

    Lettuce and leafy greens have been implicated in multiple foodborne disease outbreaks. This study quantifies cross contamination between lettuce pieces in a small-scale home environment. A five-strain cocktail of relevant Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains was used. Bacterial transfer between single inoculated lettuce leaf pieces to 10 non-inoculated lettuce leaf pieces that were washed in a stainless steel bowl of water for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, and 5 min was quantified. Regardless of washing time, the wash water became contaminated with 90-99% of bacteria originally present on the inoculated lettuce leaf piece. The E. coli O157:H7 concentration on initially inoculated leaf pieces was reduced ∼ 2 log CFU. Each initially uncontaminated lettuce leaf piece had ∼ 1% of the E. coli O157:H7 from the inoculated lettuce piece transferred to it after washing, with more transfer occurring during the shortest (30 s) and longest (5 min) wash times. In all cases the log percent transfer rates were essentially normally distributed. In all scenarios, most of the E. coli O157:H7 (90-99%) transferred from the inoculated lettuce pieces to the wash water. Washing with plain tap water reduces levels of E. coli O157:H7 on the inoculated lettuce leaf pieces, but also spreads contamination to previously uncontaminated leaf pieces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A 3D, cross-scale, baroclinic model with implicit vertical transport for the Upper Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fei; Zhang, Yinglong J.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Wang, Harry V.; Irby, Isaac D.; Shen, Jian; Wang, Zhengui

    2016-11-01

    We develop a new vertically implicit transport solver, based on two total variation diminishing (TVD) limiters in space and time, inside a 3D unstructured-grid model (SCHISM), and apply it to the Upper Chesapeake Bay (UCB), which has complex geometry and sharp pycnocline. We show that the model is able to accurately and efficiently capture the elevation, velocity, salinity and temperature in both the deep and shallow regions of UCB. Compared with all available CTD casts, the overall model skills have the mean absolute error of 1.08 PSU and 0.85 °C, and correlation coefficient of 0.97 and 0.99 for salinity and temperature respectively. More importantly, the new implicit solver better captures the density stratification, which has great implications on biogeochemistry in this estuarine system. The cross-scale capability of the model is demonstrated by extending the high-resolution grids into a tributary (Chester River) and its sub-tributary (Corsica River), with minimal impact on the model efficiency. The model is also able to capture complex 3D structures at the transition zone between the main bay and the tributary, including the three-layered circulation in Baltimore Harbor. As more and more attention is being paid to the productive shallows in the Chesapeake Bay and other estuaries, the model can serve as a very powerful management tool to understand the impact of both local and remote forcing functions.

  16. NNLO QCD corrections to the Drell-Yan cross section in models of TeV-scale gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Taushif; Banerjee, Pulak; Dhani, Prasanna K.; Rana, Narayan [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India); Kumar, M.C. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Department of Physics, Guwahati (India); Mathews, Prakash [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Ravindran, V. [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-01-15

    The first results on the complete next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) Quantum Chromodynamic (QCD) corrections to the production of di-leptons at hadron colliders in large extra dimension models with spin-2 particles are reported in this article. In particular, we have computed these corrections to the invariant mass distribution of the di-leptons taking into account all the partonic sub-processes that contribute at NNLO. In these models, spin-2 particles couple through the energy-momentum tensor of the Standard Model with the universal coupling strength. The tensorial nature of the interaction and the presence of both quark annihilation and gluon fusion channels at the Born level make it challenging computationally and interesting phenomenologically. We have demonstrated numerically the importance of our results at Large Hadron Collider energies. The two-loop corrections contribute an additional 10% to the total cross section. We find that the QCD corrections are not only large but also important to make the predictions stable under renormalisation and factorisation scale variations, providing an opportunity to stringently constrain the parameters of the models with a spin-2 particle. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of Muscle Strength Among Different Sports Disciplines: Relevance for Improving Sports Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, SC; Chengappa, R; Banerjee, A.

    2002-01-01

    A pilot cross-sectional study among 262 service sportsmen belonging to different sports disciplines was carried out to evaluate various indicators of muscle strength, such as peak torque, peak torque to weight, time to peak torque, maximum power, explosive work etc., using isokinetic testing during flexion and extension of the knee joint in sitting positions at different angles. It was found that peak torque varied significantly among the various sports disciplines depending on the requiremen...

  18. Cross-Sectional Investigations of Oxide Scale Nanocrystalline FeCr Alloys after High-Temperature Oxidation Test at 900°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saryanto, H.; Sebayang, D.; Untoro, P.

    2017-05-01

    The cross-sectional examinations of oxide films formed by oxidation on the surface of FeCr alloys with various crystallite sizes were observed and investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to characterize the oxide scale morphology and to identify the phases and oxidation products. Furthermore, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) have been used to study the cross-sectional oxides produced by specimens after oxidation process. The cross-sectional investigation shows that the oxide scale formed on the surface of FeCr alloys consisted roughly of Cr2O3 with a small amount of FeO mixture. The outward diffusivity of Chromium to form Cr2O3 protective layers vary significantly occurrences on the surface of FeCr alloy with smallest crystallite size (38.51 nm), the scale had an enriched Cr content which improves the adherence of the oxide scale to the substrate, in another word, it increases the oxidation resistance. While the oxide scale formed on the surface of FeCr alloy with largest crystallite sizes (76.60 nm) had an enriched Fe content which reduces the resistance to oxidation, and adherence to the substrate. The thickness of oxide scale formed on nanocrystalline FeCr alloy with smallest crystallite sizes was found around 8 μm thick, which three-time thinner than FeCr alloy with largest crystallite sizes.

  19. Allocative efficiency constraints in snail (Archachatina marginata production by small scale snail farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius B. Adinya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined constraints militating against the profitability potentials of snail (Archachatina marginata production by small-scale snail farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from a random sample of 120 respondents in the study area by means of structured and semi-structured questionnaire. The first stage involved random selection of three (Ogoja, Ikom and Odukpani local government areas from eighteen local government areas in Cross River State, Nigeria. This was followed by random selection of three villages (Igoli in Ogoja Local Government Area, Alesi in Ikom Local Government Area and Adiabo in Odukpani Local Government Area in Cross River State. The respondents were randomly selected from each of the villages, 40 respondents were selected each from three villages, making a total number of 120 respondents. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and costs returns analysis. The results indicated that Cobb-Douglas production function had the best fit in explaining the relationship between output of snail and inputs used, the coefficient of multiple determinant (R2=0.60 indicates that sixty percent of the variability in output of snail is explained by the independent variables. Results from the analysis revealed that the marginal value products of farm size, labour, farm management practices and operating costs were N1080, N20.6, N972.8, N14.84 respectively, there existed allocative inefficiency, there is a high potential for snail farmers to increase their yields and income. Further analysis of results revealed that net returns on snail is N2,935,000.00 with return on every naira invested of N0.14 is also positive indicating a profit from the business, with attractive net return on investment. This study shows that snail farmers are faced with several problems in their production activities. These problems or constraints affect the efficiency of snail production in the study area. Notable among them

  20. The Relationships between Workaholism and Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders: A Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Sinha, Rajita; Hetland, Jørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-01-01

    ...). Participants were administered the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Obsession-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Bergen Work Addiction Scale, along...

  1. Rising to the Challenge: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Adapted German Version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy for Students (JSPE-S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preusche, Ingrid; Wagner-Menghin, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of students' attitudes towards physicians' empathy is essential in medical education and in practice because empathy is vital in physician-patient communication. To cross-culturally adapt the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (S-version, JSPE-S) into a German version, examine its psychometric properties in comparison to the original…

  2. Standard Errors for National Trends in International Large-Scale Assessments in the Case of Cross-National Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Karoline A.; Haag, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Standard errors computed according to the operational practices of international large-scale assessment studies such as the Programme for International Student Assessment's (PISA) or the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) may be biased when cross-national differential item functioning (DIF) and item parameter drift are…

  3. A Comparison of Linking Methods for Estimating National Trends in International Comparative Large-Scale Assessments in the Presence of Cross-national DIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Karoline A.; Roppelt, Alexander; Haag, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Trend estimation in international comparative large-scale assessments relies on measurement invariance between countries. However, cross-national differential item functioning (DIF) has been repeatedly documented. We ran a simulation study using national item parameters, which required trends to be computed separately for each country, to compare…

  4. Quantifying discipline practices using absolute versus relative frequencies: clinical and research implications for child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Shaffer, Anne; Kolko, David J

    2014-01-01

    In the parent intervention outcome literatures, discipline practices are generally quantified as absolute frequencies or, less commonly, as relative frequencies. These differences in methodology warrant direct comparison as they have critical implications for study results and conclusions among treatments targeted at reducing parental aggression and harsh discipline. In this study, we directly compared the absolute frequency method and the relative frequency method for quantifying physically aggressive, psychologically aggressive, and nonaggressive discipline practices. Longitudinal data over a 3-year period came from an existing data set of a clinical trial examining the effectiveness of a psychosocial treatment in reducing parental physical and psychological aggression and improving child behavior (N = 139). Discipline practices (aggressive and nonaggressive) were assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scale. The two methods yielded different patterns of results, particularly for nonaggressive discipline strategies. We suggest that each method makes its own unique contribution to a more complete understanding of the association between parental aggression and intervention effects.

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Korean Scale for Internet Addiction (K-Scale) in Japanese high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Kim, Dongil; Aum, Narae; Choi, Jung-Seok; Cheng, Cecilia; Ko, Huei-Chen; Watanabe, Hiroko

    2017-03-01

    The Korean Scale for Internet Addiction (K-Scale) was developed in Korea for assessing addictive internet behaviors. This study aims to adopt K-Scale and examine its psychometric properties in Japanese adolescents. In 2014, 589 (36.0% boys) high school students (Grade 10-12) from Japan completed a survey, including items of Japanese versions of K-Scale and Smartphone Scale for Smartphone Addiction (S-Scale). Model fit indices of the original four-factor structure, three-factor structure obtained from exploratory factor analysis, and improved two-factor structure of K-Scale were computed using confirmatory factor analysis, with internal reliability of included items reported. The convergent validity of K-Scale was tested against self-rated internet addiction, and S-Scale using multiple regression models. The results showed that a second-order two-factor 13-item structure was the most parsimonious model (NFI=0.919, NNFI=0.935, CFI=0.949, and RMSEA=0.05) with good internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.87). The two factors revealed were "Disturbance of Adaptation and Life Orientation" and "Withdrawal and Tolerance". Moreover, the correlation between internet user classifications defined by K-Scale and self-rating was significant. K-Scale total score was significantly and positively associated with S-Scale total (adjusted R2=0.440) and subscale scores (adjusted R2=0.439). In conclusion, K-Scale is a valid and reliable assessment scale of internet addiction for Japanese high school students after modifications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Research lacking on school discipline reforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    ...: 215-898-9642, katstein@gse.upenn.edu, Penn Graduate School of Education Research lacking on school discipline reforms Thin evidence on causes of and alternatives to suspensions, expulsions September 29, 2016--Since 2011, the Obama...

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation and initial validation of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale into the Yoruba language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, Aderonke O; Odetunde, Marufat O; Odole, Adesola C

    2012-12-01

    Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted to Yoruba language by including Yoruba culture-specific examples in items SC4, UE2 and UE6. The adapted English version (AEV) was independently translated into Yoruba by two language experts who later agreed on a consensus translation, which was then back translated, subjected to an expert committee review and pretested; a cognitive debriefing interview was also carried out to generate the Yoruba translated version (YTV). Thirty-five stroke survivors completed the AEV and Yoruba version (YV) in English and Yoruba. The order of administration was randomized. Data were analysed using Spearman's rank order correlation and Wilcoxon's signed-rank test at a P value less than 0.05. The mean age of the participants (23 men, 12 women) was 58.5±11.3 years. The domain scores of the participants on AEV and YV did not differ significantly, except in the work/productivity domain. In both versions, the mean domain score of the participants was the highest in the language domain [22.6±3.8 (AEV) and 22.7±3.4 (YV)] and the lowest in the work domain [9.0±3.7 (AEV) and 8.0±3.3 (YTV)]. Domain scores on both versions correlated significantly (P<0.05). Participants' ratings of their current state and prestroke state correlated significantly (P<0.01) in all the general areas, except energy and mood. The YTV of SS-QoL 2.0 fulfilled the initial criteria for validity.

  8. The rod as an instrument of discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Luiz Torres; Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP

    2013-01-01

    Both in biblical literature as in ancient extrabiblical literature, the use of the rod appears primarily related to the capacity or to the authority of the one who holds it. It is, above all, an instrument of power. This article investigates the implications of using the rod as a tool of correction and discipline, taking into account the symbolism, culture and literary tradition associated with the use of that instrument of discipline for correction and transformation of those subjected to it...

  9. Altruism across disciplines: one word, multiple meanings

    OpenAIRE

    Clavien, C.; Chapuisat, M.

    2013-01-01

    Altruism is a deep and complex phenomenon that is analysed by scholars of various disciplines, including psychology, philosophy, biology, evolutionary anthropology and experimental economics. Much confusion arises in current literature because the term altruism covers variable concepts and processes across disciplines. Here we investigate the sense given to altruism when used in different fields and argumentative contexts. We argue that four distinct but related concepts need to be distinguis...

  10. Tourism - an academic discipline (discursive article)

    OpenAIRE

    Butowski, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the main methodological dilemmas connected with tourism as a field of academic research. The first part presents tourism as an area of interest in various academic disciplines. The second is a critical discussion on multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to the study of tourism. The third features an analysis of the methodological standpoints concerning possibilities for the autonomy of tourism as an academic discipline. The summary proposes a model of develo...

  11. Childhood discipline: challenges for clinicians and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, J Burton

    2002-10-15

    Although childhood discipline is an important issue for parents, this topic is seldom emphasized by family physicians during well-child examinations. Behavior problems are relatively common but frequently under-recognized by physicians. Opportunities to counsel parents about safe, effective methods of discipline are therefore missed. Discipline should be instructive and age-appropriate and should include positive reinforcement for good behavior. Punishment is only one aspect of discipline and, in order to be effective, it must be prompt, consistent, and fair. Time-out is frequently used to correct younger children, but because it is often enforced improperly, it loses its effectiveness. Corporal punishment is a controversial but common form of discipline that is less effective than some other types of punishment. Its use is linked to child and spouse abuse, as well as to future substance use, violent crime, poor self-esteem, and depression. Despite the possible negative effects of corporal punishment, it is still widely accepted in our society. Since discipline plays an important role in the social and emotional development of children, physicians should be trained to discuss this issue with parents during routine well-child examinations.

  12. Integrating stakeholders' goals, research disciplines and levels of scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenbooden, van N.

    1995-01-01

    LUSA (Land Use Systems Analysis), a new methodology to develop sustainable agro-ecosystems as part of land-use planning, combines high-tech assessment methodologies, such as multicriteria computer models, with participatory methodologies. LUSA has been tested in Sub-Saharan West Africa

  13. Reliability and Validity of the Telephone-Based eHealth Literacy Scale Among Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellefson, Michael; Paige, Samantha R; Tennant, Bethany; Alber, Julia M; Chaney, Beth H; Chaney, Don; Grossman, Suzanne

    2017-10-26

    Only a handful of studies have examined reliability and validity evidence of scores produced by the 8-item eHealth literacy Scale (eHEALS) among older adults. Older adults are generally more comfortable responding to survey items when asked by a real person rather than by completing self-administered paper-and-pencil or online questionnaires. However, no studies have explored the psychometrics of this scale when administered to older adults over the telephone. The objective of our study was to examine the reliability and internal structure of eHEALS data collected from older adults aged 50 years or older responding to items over the telephone. Respondents (N=283) completed eHEALS as part of a cross-sectional landline telephone survey. Exploratory structural equation modeling (E-SEM) analyses examined model fit of eHEALS scores with 1-, 2-, and 3-factor structures. Subsequent analyses based on the partial credit model explored the internal structure of eHEALS data. Compared with 1- and 2-factor models, the 3-factor eHEALS structure showed the best global E-SEM model fit indices (root mean square error of approximation=.07; comparative fit index=1.0; Tucker-Lewis index=1.0). Nonetheless, the 3 factors were highly correlated (r range .36 to .65). Item analyses revealed that eHEALS items 2 through 5 were overfit to a minor degree (mean square infit/outfit values literacy) than at the lower end of the continuum (ie, those with low eHealth literacy). Item reliability (value=.92) and item separation (value=11.31) estimates indicated that eHEALS responses were reliable and stable. Results support administering eHEALS over the telephone when surveying older adults regarding their use of the Internet for health information. eHEALS scores best captured 3 factors (or subscales) to measure eHealth literacy in older adults; however, statistically significant correlations between these 3 factors suggest an overarching unidimensional structure with 3 underlying dimensions. As

  14. A Cross-Validation of the Keane and Penk MMPI Scales as Measures of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charles G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Compared scores of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, psychiatric patients who did not meet PTSD criteria, and normals on the Keane et al PTSD scale and Penk Combat Scales for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Results confirmed the validities of the PTSO scale and, to a lesser degree, Penk Combat Intensity Scales as…

  15. A cross-sectional study of chiropractic students' research readiness using the Academic Self-Concept Analysis Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillier, Stephney; Au, Kent; Feng, Louie; Su, Helen

    2017-10-01

    The shift toward evidence-based health care has reoriented tertiary clinical education in a way that necessitates and incorporates research. This study assesses the inclination and suitability of chiropractic students for research over a 5-year educational program. Research attributes of chiropractic students were assessed in this cross-sectional study using a validated and modified academic self-concept analysis scale. Students in first and final year were assessed in 4 domains: creativity, motivation, self-regulation, and general intellectual ability. Univariable differences were assessed using Welch 2-sample t tests, and multivariable analysis was carried out with multiple linear regression models. The response rate was 71% (n = 165). First- and fifth-year students scored highly on all 4 domains (80% to 96%). Compared to first-year students, fifth-year students rated themselves significantly lower in 3 of the domains: general intellectual abilities (t[126] = -2.01; p = 0.047), motivation (t[115] = -4.82; p < 0.001), and creativity (t[136] = -3.00; p = 0.003). Research suitability is high in chiropractic students. Both cohorts scored high in all domains despite the disparity between first and fifth years. First-year students outperformed fifth-year students in 3 domains, indicating a potential decline in the inclination to do research over time. However, unaccounted factors, such as the Dunning-Kruger effect, life changes, and "burnout," may have contributed to these differences. Future studies should include questions about stress, fatigue, clinical orientation, and educational environment to inform the interpretation of findings.

  16. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Persian Version of Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for 5-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imaneh Asgari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Indicators of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL in children are widely adopted to evaluate the effects of oral problems. Recently, the scale of oral health outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5 was developed based on the children’s self-reports. This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the questionnaire in a sample of Iranian children.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 children from four areas of Isfahan selected via non-random purposive sampling. After forward-backward translation of the questionnaire, content and face validity evaluation, a pilot test was carried out. Children forms were completed by interview, while parents forms were self-administered. Test-retest reliability was evaluated in 30 subjects. Construct validity, internal consistency and descriptive quality of life score were assessed with SPSS 18. The child-parent agreement was measured with correlation test and paired t-test (α=0.05.Results: The mean (±standard deviation quality of life scores in children and parents were 2.3±3 and 1.3±1.9, respectively. The most prevalent impacts were difficulty sleeping and eating. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.82 and 0.67 for the child and parent versions, respectively. Significant correlation of the scores with the oral health rating, pain history and perceived need for treatment confirmed its construct validity (r: 0.4-0.6, P<0.05. The hypothesis of the agreement was not supported (P>0.05.Conclusions: Based on the findings, the Persian version of SOHO-5 has acceptable reliability and validity for use in the pediatric population of Iran while there were some conflicts by parents.Keywords: Quality of Life; Oral Health; Child; Surveys and Questionnaires

  17. Crossing Science-Policy-Societal Boundaries to Reduce Scientific and Institutional Uncertainty in Small-Scale Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Abigail M.; Rudd, Murray A.

    2016-10-01

    The governance of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is challenging due to the uncertainty, complexity, and interconnectedness of social, political, ecological, and economical processes. Conventional SSF management has focused on a centralized and top-down approach. A major criticism of conventional management is the over-reliance on `expert science' to guide decision-making and poor consideration of fishers' contextually rich knowledge. That is thought to exacerbate the already low governance potential of SSF. Integrating scientific knowledge with fishers' knowledge is increasingly popular and is often assumed to help reduce levels of biophysical and institutional uncertainties. Many projects aimed at encouraging knowledge integration have, however, been unsuccessful. Our objective in this research was to assess factors that influence knowledge integration and the uptake of integrated knowledge into policy-making. We report results from 54 semi-structured interviews with SSF researchers and practitioners from around the globe. Our analysis is framed in terms of scientific credibility, societal legitimacy, and policy saliency, and we discuss cases that have been partially or fully successful in reducing uncertainty via push-and-pull-oriented boundary crossing initiatives. Our findings suggest that two important factors affect the science-policy-societal boundary: a lack of consensus among stakeholders about what constitutes credible knowledge and institutional uncertainty resulting from shifting policies and leadership change. A lack of training for scientific leaders and an apparent `shelf-life' for community organizations highlight the importance of ongoing institutional support for knowledge integration projects. Institutional support may be enhanced through such investments, such as capacity building and specialized platforms for knowledge integration.

  18. Crossing Science-Policy-Societal Boundaries to Reduce Scientific and Institutional Uncertainty in Small-Scale Fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Abigail M; Rudd, Murray A

    2016-10-01

    The governance of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is challenging due to the uncertainty, complexity, and interconnectedness of social, political, ecological, and economical processes. Conventional SSF management has focused on a centralized and top-down approach. A major criticism of conventional management is the over-reliance on 'expert science' to guide decision-making and poor consideration of fishers' contextually rich knowledge. That is thought to exacerbate the already low governance potential of SSF. Integrating scientific knowledge with fishers' knowledge is increasingly popular and is often assumed to help reduce levels of biophysical and institutional uncertainties. Many projects aimed at encouraging knowledge integration have, however, been unsuccessful. Our objective in this research was to assess factors that influence knowledge integration and the uptake of integrated knowledge into policy-making. We report results from 54 semi-structured interviews with SSF researchers and practitioners from around the globe. Our analysis is framed in terms of scientific credibility, societal legitimacy, and policy saliency, and we discuss cases that have been partially or fully successful in reducing uncertainty via push-and-pull-oriented boundary crossing initiatives. Our findings suggest that two important factors affect the science-policy-societal boundary: a lack of consensus among stakeholders about what constitutes credible knowledge and institutional uncertainty resulting from shifting policies and leadership change. A lack of training for scientific leaders and an apparent 'shelf-life' for community organizations highlight the importance of ongoing institutional support for knowledge integration projects. Institutional support may be enhanced through such investments, such as capacity building and specialized platforms for knowledge integration.

  19. Cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties of the Arabic version of the Fall Efficacy Scale International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Al-Momani, Murad; Marchetti, Gregory F; Whitney, Susan L

    2015-07-01

    To translate the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) into Arabic according to the World Health Organization`s (WHO) criteria and to evaluate the concurrent validity of the FES-I in persons living with balance and vestibular disorders. This cross-sectional descriptive study included 43 persons with balance and vestibular disorders presenting to an outpatient dizziness center at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between June 2012 and May 2013. All participants completed the Arabic version of the FES-I and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) during their assessment with the clinical audiologist. In addition, subjects completed the Dynamic Gait Index 4-item (DGI-4) gait test. An additional 55 control participants also completed the Arabic FES-I, the DGI-4, and the Arabic DHI. Forty-three participants with vestibular disorders (36 females, 7 males) with a mean age of 32 years (standard deviation (SD) 10 years, range 18-56 years) and 55 control participants (27 females, 28 males) with a mean age of 33, (SD-12), and age range of 18-78 participated. The correlation between the Arabic FES-I and the Arabic DHI was 0.75 in patients and 0.77 in control participants. The correlation between the Arabic FES-I and the DGI-4 was r=-0.30 (p=0.003). The Arabic FES-I has established concurrent validity and may be helpful for measuring an individual`s concern of falling in people with vestibular and balance disorders.

  20. Cross-Validation of the Spanish HP-Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Confirmed with Some Cross-Cultural Differences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alcorta-Garza, Adelina; San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Soler-González, Jorge; Roig, Helena; Vivanco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    .... The Health Professional Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE-HP) was developed in response to a need for a psychometrically sound instrument to measure empathy in the context of patient care...

  1. Factors associated with discipline counseling for parents of infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Michael; Larson, Kandyce; Wissow, Lawrence S; Halfon, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and better understand the factors associated with discipline counseling at health visits and how parents' needs for discipline counseling are being met. Cross-sectional data analyses from the 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health. Participants were 1216 parents of children aged between 10 and 35 months. Main outcome measures were parents' reports that their health care provider discussed discipline practices with them in the previous year, and if not, whether this would have been helpful (an unmet need). Discipline counseling was more common when the health care provider discussed other developmental and psychosocial topics, did a developmental assessment, received higher ratings of family centered care and provided longer visits, and when parents indicated having the opportunity to ask all their questions. However, parents who reported less support for child rearing and parents who reported greater use of spanking were less likely to receive discipline counseling. Spanish-speaking Hispanic parents and parents who reported less support were more likely to report an unmet need for discipline counseling. Higher income respondents were less likely to report an unmet need for discipline counseling. Discipline counseling at health visits is associated with a family-centered orientation and the delivery of other developmental and psychosocial services. However, many parents who might have benefited from discipline counseling were less likely to receive it and more likely to report this as an unmet need. These data suggest that discipline counseling may be more accurately tailored to parents most likely to benefit. Copyright 2010 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Low-Resource Cross-Domain Product Review Sentiment Classification Based on a CNN with an Auxiliary Large-Scale Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocong Wei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The literature [-5]contains several reports evaluating the abilities of deep neural networks in text transfer learning. To our knowledge, however, there have been few efforts to fully realize the potential of deep neural networks in cross-domain product review sentiment classification. In this paper, we propose a two-layer convolutional neural network (CNN for cross-domain product review sentiment classification (LM-CNN-LB. Transfer learning research into product review sentiment classification based on deep neural networks has been limited by the lack of a large-scale corpus; we sought to remedy this problem using a large-scale auxiliary cross-domain dataset collected from Amazon product reviews. Our proposed framework exhibits the dramatic transferability of deep neural networks for cross-domain product review sentiment classification and achieves state-of-the-art performance. The framework also outperforms complex engineered features used with a non-deep neural network method. The experiments demonstrate that introducing large-scale data from similar domains is an effective way to resolve the lack of training data. The LM-CNN-LB trained on the multi-source related domain dataset outperformed the one trained on a single similar domain.

  3. [Cross-cultural adaptation of the Mishel uncertainty in illness scale, in a population with chronic kidney disease treated with hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ortega, Clara; Peña-Amaro, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to translate and adapt the Mishel uncertainty scale to the Spanish context. A cross-sectional study for transcultural adaptation and validation of the Mishel uncertainty scale. The study population were patients with chronic renal disease treated with hemodialysis. The original English version of the "Mishel uncertainty in illness scale" was translated into Spanish, then back-translated into English, and all the discrepancies were resolved after consulting with experts. A panel including 11 experts in renal care assessed this culturally adapted Spanish version, in order to score the content validity. It was administered to 116 patients in order to calculate the psychometric properties scale. Construct validity was calculated using factor analysis, and internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Relationships between variables related to the main theory were analyzed. The Spanish version has 17 items, distributed in 2 dimensions: ambiguity and complexity. A content validity index average of 0.7 and a Cronbach's alpha 0.72. Statistically significant association was found between uncertainty, gender, educational level and disease relapse. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Mishel uncertainty in illness scale preserves equivalence with the original. Content validation identified most useful items for chronic renal patients. The multidimensional nature of the scale is reaffirmed. The association between uncertainty and the level of education is also confirmed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Disciplined by the discipline: a social-epistemic fingerprint of the history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstraeten, Raf; Vandermoere, Frederic

    2015-06-01

    The scientific system is primarily differentiated into disciplines. While disciplines may be wide in scope and diverse in their research practices, they serve scientific communities that evaluate research and also grant recognition to what is published. The analysis of communication and publication practices within such a community hence allows us to shed light on the dynamics of this discipline. On the basis of an empirical analysis of Isis, we show how the process of discipline-building in history of science has led its practitioners to be socialized and sensitized in relatively strong intra-disciplinary terms--with minimal interdisciplinary openness.

  5. Disciplining Bioethics: Towards a Standard of Methodological Rigor in Bioethics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Daniel; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary bioethics research is often described as multi- or interdisciplinary. Disciplines are characterized, in part, by their methods. Thus, when bioethics research draws on a variety of methods, it crosses disciplinary boundaries. Yet each discipline has its own standard of rigor—so when multiple disciplinary perspectives are considered, what constitutes rigor? This question has received inadequate attention, as there is considerable disagreement regarding the disciplinary status of bioethics. This disagreement has presented five challenges to bioethics research. Addressing them requires consideration of the main types of cross-disciplinary research, and consideration of proposals aiming to ensure rigor in bioethics research. PMID:22686634

  6. Reconstructing the paradigm: teaching across the disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Caroline; Pollack, Alexia

    2004-01-01

    In this article, Caroline Brown, a literature professor who focuses on American and African Diasporic writing, and Alexia Pollack, a biology professor with expertise in neuropharmacology, recount their experiences teaching across the disciplines in one another's respective classrooms, finding points of intersection and divergence, and creating classroom dialogues from the resultant encounters. Central to this process is permitting students to enter discipline-specific discourses from other disciplinary perspectives. In Caroline Brown's first year general education seminar, Examining Consciousness, a course constructed around the study of the representation of the brain through the reading of scientific writings, popular essays, personal narratives, fiction, and poetry, Alexia Pollack presented scientific lectures on neurotransmission, brain organization and structure, with an emphasis on how the brain is affected by drug addiction and organic disease. In Alexia Pollack's undergraduate and graduate courses, Neurobiology and Biology of Learning and Memory, Caroline Brown lectured on the intersection of artistry and science in American literature, tracing the depiction of learning and memory in Realistic, Modern, and Post-Modern novels, and how scientific developments influenced their representation. During these encounters the students were introduced to discipline-specific approaches, which were distinct from the perspectives of their respective classrooms. As a result, larger classroom discussions were created, allowing students to perceive intersecting dimensions of very different disciplines. This conceptual flexibility permitted students to "think outside the box" in order to develop a more complete appreciation of their particular discipline and to recognize its place in the world at large.

  7. Can Discipline Education be Culturally Sensitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley E; Hudnut-Beumler, Julia; Scholer, Seth J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Inappropriate discipline such as harsh physical punishment is a social determinant of health. The objective was to determine if a brief parent training intervention that teaches discipline strategies is culturally sensitive. Methods English or Spanish-speaking parents of 1-5 year old children viewed a multimedia program that teaches appropriate discipline strategies. The intervention, Play Nicely, was viewed in the exam room before the physician's visit. Parents viewed 4 of 20 discipline strategies of their choosing; the average viewing time was 7 min. Results Of 204 parents eligible to participate, 197 (96 %) completed the study; 41 % were Black, 31 % were White, and 21 % were Hispanic. At least 80 % of parents from each racial/ethnic group reported that the program built their confidence to care for their child, addressed their family needs, explained things in a way they could understand, respected their family values, and was sensitive to their personal beliefs. Overall, 80 % of parents reported that the program answered individual questions. One parent (0.5 %) reported that the program did not respect her family values. Conclusions for Practice Discipline education can be integrated into the pediatric primary care clinic in a way that is family-centered and culturally sensitive for the majority of parents. The results have implications for the development and implementation of population-based parenting programs and the primary prevention of child abuse and violence.

  8. FACEBOOK AS A MEDIATION TOOL IN BIOCHEMISTRY DISCIPLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. X. Gomes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The current students generation are daily connected to the Internet, wich encourages the use of mobile tools in education. Many of the students of Biochemistry feel apprehensive about the discipline and the use of facebook may contribute, among other factors, motivating them. Objectives: It was analyzed the use of facebook as a mediator and motivator in the discipline of Biochemistry, basing on socioconstrutivist interventions. Material and methods: This work was developed in the action-research perspective, using the quali-quantitative method. An investigative questionnaire was used, using Likert scale and open questions, to investigate the facebook use, as well as the preferences of students, focusing on Biochemistry group in the Biomedicine course.  The posts were analyzed identifying: frequency of the interaction`s types (post, comment, likes;  interaction's categories (question, answer, motivational; and the content itself of the post. Results: It was highlighted students' interest to search materials, answering questions, and especially seeking information about the discipline. It was emphasized that the group was motivating for learning Biochemistry, encouragement the group to study, with quick and easy access to the professor by chat. Conclusions: The results indicate a preference for students at facebook, with a great motivational potential, is at easy access to colleagues, professor and monitor, or even the ease of obtaining the materials and ask questions in real time, indicating that this tool as a possible way, still little explored, to enhance the teaching of Biochemistry.

  9. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Tol, Wietse A; Luitel, Nagendra P; Maharjan, Sujen M; Upadhaya, Nawaraj

    2011-01-01

    ...) structure of response sets, and (vi) comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS...

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Norwegian pain catastrophizing scale in patients with low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Linda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain catastrophizing has been found to be an important predictor of disability and days lost from work in patients with low back pain. The most commonly used outcome measure to identify pain catastrophizing is the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS. To enable the use of the PCS in clinical settings and research in Norwegian speaking patients, the PCS had to be translated. The purpose of this study was therefore to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PCS into Norwegian and to test internal consistency, construct validity and reproducibility of the PCS. Methods The PCS was translated before it was tested for psychometric properties. Patients with subacute or chronic non-specific low back pain aged 18 years or more were recruited from primary and secondary care. Validity of the PCS was assessed by evaluating data quality (missing, floor and ceiling effects, principal components analysis, internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha, and construct validity (Spearman’s rho. Reproducibility analyses included standard error of measurement, minimum detectable change, limits of agreement, and intraclass correlation coefficients. Results A total of 38 men and 52 women (n = 90, with a mean (SD age of 47.6 (11.7 years, were included for baseline testing. A subgroup of 61 patients was included for test-retest assessments. The Norwegian PCS was easy-to-comprehend. The principal components analysis supported a three-factor structure, internal consistency was satisfactory for the PCS total score (α 0.90 and the subscales rumination (α 0.83 and helplessness (α 0.86, but not for the subscale magnification (α 0.53. In total, 86% of the correlation analyses were in accordance with predefined hypothesis. The reliability analyses showed intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.74 − 0.87 for the PCS total score and subscales. The PCS total score (range 0–52 points showed a standard error of measurement of 4.6 points and a 95

  11. Longitudinal links between fathers' and mothers' harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline at age 13 predicted an increase in adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms between ages 13 and 14. A child effect was also present, with adolescent misconduct at age 13 predicting increases in mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline between ages 13 and 14. Furthermore, maternal and paternal warmth did not moderate the longitudinal associations between mothers' and fathers' use of harsh verbal discipline and adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Longitudinal Links between Fathers' and Mothers' Harsh Verbal Discipline and Adolescents' Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline at age 13 predicted an increase in adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms between ages 13 and 14. A child effect was also present, with adolescent misconduct at age 13 predicting increases in mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline between ages 13 and 14. Furthermore, maternal and paternal warmth did not moderate the longitudinal associations between mothers' and fathers' use of harsh verbal discipline and adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. PMID:24001259

  13. [Nursing as discipline, profession, and labour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Denise

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this essay is to articulate theoretical-conceptual aspects of nursing as a profession, a scientific discipline, and labour contributing to reflection concerning nursing knowledge and professional practice exercised in the context of collective work in health care. It reviews concepts from sociological theory and epistemology in order to analyze nursing in the context of scientific community, and the sociology of professions, and the work process theories in health care. This paper argues that nursing has the attributes of a profession as well as a scientific discipline, and that the limits of nursing practice need to be historically and socially contextualized. It concludes that as a social practice and discipline, nursing faces scientific and political challenges which demand a permanent process of construction.

  14. Zero Benefit: Estimating the Effect of Zero Tolerance Discipline Polices on Racial Disparities in School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the effect of zero tolerance disciplinary policies on racial disparities in school discipline in an urban district. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, the abrupt expansion of zero tolerance discipline policies in a mid-sized urban school district, the study demonstrates that Black students in the district were…

  15. Authorizers Are Not Monolithic on School Discipline: How Charter School Authorizers Differ in School Discipline Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, M. K.; Conlan, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    In theory, authorizers play an important role in decisions regarding charter schools and student discipline, as they are the bodies responsible for protecting the public interest, while balancing school autonomy and accountability. Within public education, a rigorous debate is occurring about student discipline practices, particularly suspensions…

  16. Overuse Injuries in Professional Ballet: Injury-Based Differences Among Ballet Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, Francisco José; de la Cuadra, Crótida; Guillén, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    Despite overuse injuries being previously described as the most frequent in ballet, there are no studies on professional dancers providing the specific clinical diagnoses or type of injury based on the discipline. Overuse injuries are the most frequent injuries in ballet, with differences in the type and frequency of injuries based on discipline. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study performed between January 1, 2005, and October 10, 2010, on injuries occurring in professional dancers from leading Spanish dance companies who practiced disciplines such as classical, neoclassical, contemporary, and Spanish ballet. Data, including type of injury, were obtained from specialized medical services at the Trauma Service, Fremap, Madrid, Spain. A total of 486 injuries were evaluated, a significant number of which were overuse disorders (P ballet (82.60%). Injuries were more frequent among female dancers (75.90%) and classical ballet (83.60%). A statistically significant prevalence of patellofemoral pain syndrome was found in the classical discipline (P = .007). Injuries of the adductor muscles of the thigh (P = .001) and of the low back facet (P = .02) in the Spanish ballet discipline and lateral snapping hip (P = .02) in classical and Spanish ballet disciplines were significant. Overuse injuries were the most frequent injuries among the professional dancers included in this study. The prevalence of injuries was greater for the most technically demanding discipline (classical ballet) as well as for women. Patellofemoral pain syndrome was the most prevalent overuse injury, followed by Achilles tendinopathy, patellar tendinopathy, and mechanical low back pain. Specific clinical diagnoses and injury-based differences between the disciplines are a key factor in ballet.

  17. Space civil engineering - A new discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.

    1991-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding the Civil Engineering know-how and practice to the development and maintenance of infrastructure on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University under a recently established NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option at both undergraduate and graduate levels are presented. The role of Space Civil Engineering in the Space Program is discussed.

  18. Vulnerable discipline: experiences of male competitive bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnestad, Jone; Kandal, Øyvind; Anderssen, Norman

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to understand experiences of male competitive bodybuilders from a non-pathologizing perspective. Six male Norwegian competitive bodybuilders were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using a meaning condensation procedure resulting in five themes: being proud of capacity for discipline, seeing a perfectionist attitude as a necessary evil, experiencing recognition within the bodybuilding community, being stigmatized outside the bodybuilding community and going on stage to display a capacity for willpower and discipline. We suggest that bodybuilders may be stigmatized for breaking social norms: by their distinctive appearance, by the way they handle suspected drug use and by challenging gender norms. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. A possible reconceptualization of food engineering discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Niranjan, Keshavan

    2016-01-01

    Food industry is critical to any nation’s health and well-being; it is also critical to the economic health of a nation, since it can typically constitute over a fifth of the nation’s manufacturing GDP. Food Engineering is a discipline that ought to be at the heart of the food industry. Unfortunately, this discipline is not playing its rightful role today: engineering has been relegated to play the role of a service provider to the food industry, instead of it being a strategic driver for the...

  20. The Relationships between Workaholism and Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders: A Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Sinha, Rajita; Hetland, Jørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-01-01

    .... The present study utilized an open web-based cross-sectional survey assessing symptoms of psychiatric disorders and workaholism among 16,426 workers (Mage = 37.3 years, SD = 11.4, range = 16-75 years...

  1. Cross-Validation of Two Commonly Used Self-Stigma Measures, Taiwan Versions of the Internalized Stigma Mental Illness Scale and Self-Stigma Scale – Short, for People With Mental Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chih-Cheng; Lin, Chung-Ying; Gronholm, Petra Charlotta; Wu, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Self-stigma instruments investigate how people with mental illness internalize public stigma. However, information is limited for the psychometric properties of their scores, especially cross-validating scores from different instruments. Thus, we used confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) and item-response theory (IRT) models to examine the Internalized Stigma Mental Illness (ISMI) scale and the Self-Stigma Scale–Short (SSS-S). Participants with mental illness (n = 347) completed both instrumen...

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation, validation and reliability of the brazilian version of the Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Priscilla; Rangé, Bernard; Kukar-Kiney, Monika; Ridgway, Nancy; Monroe, Kent; Ribas Junior, Rodolfo; Landeira Fernandez, J; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Silva, Adriana

    2013-03-01

    To present the process of transcultural adaptation of the Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale to Brazilian Portuguese. For the semantic adaptation step, the scale was translated to Portuguese and then back-translated to English by two professional translators and one psychologist, without any communication between them. The scale was then applied to 20 participants from the general population for language adjustments. For the construct validation step, an exploratory factor analysis was performed, using the scree plot test, principal component analysis for factor extraction, and Varimax rotation. For convergent validity, the correlation matrix was analyzed through Pearson's coefficient. The scale showed easy applicability, satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=.87), and a high correlation with other rating scales for compulsive buying disorder, indicating that it is suitable to be used in the assessment and diagnosis of compulsive buying disorder, as it presents psychometric validity. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale has good validity and reliability.

  3. Imitating intrinsic alignments: a bias to the CMB lensing-galaxy shape cross-correlation power spectrum induced by the large-scale structure bispectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Philipp M.; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2017-10-01

    Cross-correlating the lensing signals of galaxies and comic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations is expected to provide valuable cosmological information. In particular, it may help tighten constraints on parameters describing the properties of intrinsically aligned galaxies at high redshift. To access the information conveyed by the cross-correlation signal, its accurate theoretical description is required. We compute the bias to CMB lensing-galaxy shape cross-correlation measurements induced by non-linear structure growth. Using tree-level perturbation theory for the large-scale structure bispectrum, we find that the bias is negative on most angular scales, therefore mimicking the signal of intrinsic alignments. Combining Euclid-like galaxy lensing data with a CMB experiment comparable to the Planck satellite mission, the bias becomes significant only on smallest scales (ℓ ≳ 2500). For improved CMB observations, however, the corrections amount to 10-15 per cent of the CMB lensing-intrinsic alignment signal over a wide multipole range (10 ≲ ℓ ≲ 2000). Accordingly, the power spectrum bias, if uncorrected, translates into 2σ and 3σ errors in the determination of the intrinsic alignment amplitude in the case of CMB stage III and stage IV experiments, respectively.

  4. XOA: Web-Enabled Cross-Ontological Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riensche, Roderick M.; Baddeley, Bob; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu

    2007-07-09

    The paper being submitted (as an "extended abstract" prior to conference acceptance) provides a technical description of our proof-of-concept prototype for the XOA method. Abstract: To address meaningful questions, scientists need to relate information across diverse classification schemes such as ontologies, terminologies and thesauri. These resources typically address a single knowledge domain at a time and are not cross-indexed. Information that is germane to the same object may therefore remain unlinked with consequent loss of knowledge discovery across disciplines and even sub-domains of the same discipline. We propose to address these problems by fostering semantic interoperability through the development of ontology alignment web services capable of enabling cross-scale knowledge discovery, and demonstrate a specific application of such an approach to the biomedical domain.

  5. Scale development for measuring children's Internet and video game addiction, and cross-sectional change in the scale values from primary to high school students

    OpenAIRE

    戸部, 秀之; 堀田, 美枝子; 竹内, 一夫

    2010-01-01

    The scales to measure 'Internet addiction' and 'video game addiction' for school children were developed using item response theory (IRT). The participants in this study were 2,947 school children from fourth grader of primary school to second grader of high school. They answered the questionnaire including the scale items for each addiction and the usage of Internet and video game, and so on. The data of children who used Internet (N=1,521) or video games (N=1,742) were analyzed for each sca...

  6. The Anti-Clot Treatment Scale (ACTS in clinical trials: cross-cultural validation in venous thromboembolism patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cano Stefan J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Anti-Clot Treatment Scale (ACTS is a 15-item patient-reported instrument of satisfaction with anticoagulant treatment. It includes a 12-item ACTS Burdens scale and a 3-item ACTS Benefits scale. Its role in clinical trials and other settings should be supported by evidence that it is both clinically meaningful and scientifically sound. The aim of the study was to evaluate the measurement performance of the ACTS (Dutch, Italian, French, German and English language versions in patients with venous thromboembolism based on traditional psychometric methods. Methods ACTS Burdens and Benefits scale data from a large clinical trial (EINSTEIN DVT involving 1336 people with venous thromboembolism were analysed at both the scale and item level. Five key psychometric properties were examined using traditional psychometric methods: acceptability, scaling assumptions, reliability (including internal consistency reliability, test-retest reproducibility; validity (including known groups and discriminant validity; and responsiveness. These methods of examination underpin the US Food and Drug Administration recommendations for patient-reported outcome instrument evaluation. Results Overall, the 12-item ACTS Burdens scale and 3-item ACTS Benefits scale met the psychometric criteria evaluated at both item and scale levels, with the exception of some relatively minor issues in the Dutch language version, which were just below reliability criteria (i.e. alpha = 0.72, test-retest intraclass correlation = 0.79. A consistent finding from item-level evaluations of aggregate endorsement frequencies and skewness suggested that response scales may be improved by reducing the number of response options from five to four. Conclusions Both the ACTS Burdens and ACTS Benefits scales consistently satisfied traditional reliability and validity criteria across multiple language datasets, supporting it as a clinically useful patient

  7. La Disciplina Positiva (Positive Discipline). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. The digest explains 12 methods of disciplining children that promote children's self-worth. These methods are: (1) showing children that the reasons for their actions are understood; (2) stating reasons; (3)…

  8. Pervasive Healthcare as a Scientific Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    2008-01-01

    . Methods: The paper presents the research questions, approach, technologies, and methods of pervasive healthcare and discusses these in comparison to those of other related scientific disciplines. Results: A set of central research themes are presented; monitoring and body sensor networks; pervasive...

  9. Childrearing Discipline and Violence in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and country-level correlates of 11 responses to children's behavior, including nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical violence, as well as endorsement of the use of physical punishment, in 24 countries using data from 30,470 families with 2- to 4-year-old children that participated…

  10. School-Wide Discipline and Classroom Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Mary Beth; Audette, Bob; White, Richard; Ellis, Edward; Algozzine, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Shortages of teachers with specialized skills, coupled with increased difficulty accommodating students with problem behaviors in general education classrooms, create pressures for performance and accountability in schools. Describes improvements in classroom ecology after implementation of a school-wide discipline model. These outcomes were…

  11. Discipline Based Instruction in Business Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custin, Richard E.; Demas, John C.; Lampe, Marc; Custin, Colette L.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate business law courses typically utilize traditional textbooks organized by topic. Individual chapters, address the usual topics including contracts, torts, the court system and ethics. An innovative approach to facilitating a business law course involves segregating sections of the course into common business disciplines. Rather than…

  12. Discipline and Methodology in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Higher education research is a multidisciplinary field, engaging researchers from across the academy who make use of a wide range of methodological approaches. This article examines the relation between discipline and methodology in higher education research, analysing a database of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals…

  13. Dance: The Possibilities of a Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Dance has been a discipline in higher education in the UK for nearly 35 years; the first programme was introduced at the Laban Centre in 1975. The breadth of features that have come to characterise dance in the academy during this time have arguably been enriched by a permeability between the varied ideas that have come to be part of its maturing…

  14. The relationship between discipline and academic performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to show that quality teaching and learning are the bed rock of discipline and academic performance. The main aim is to show how the escalation of indiscipline has effect on the academic performance of the learners. Indiscipline has become strife in schools and which has plunged our learners ...

  15. Philosophy and the Disciplines: The Borderlines | Minimah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major difference is that while the practitioners of the disciplines are concerned with mere definitions or meaning of concepts, the philosopher from the stand point of Wittgenstein's reaction to the Cartesian conception of the mind and his ideas on language goes beyond mere definitions or meaning to the analysis of ...

  16. Restorative Justice for Discipline with Respect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmelynski, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Expulsion is commonly schools' last resort to maintain discipline and keep schools safe. But increasingly, educators are turning to "restorative justice"--an alternative method from the field of criminology--with promising results. According to Randall Comfort, assistant upper-school director, Mounds Park Academy, St. Paul, Minnesota, using this…

  17. Restorative Justice: Pedagogy, Praxis, and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Brenda E.; Vaandering, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    In the ongoing effort of designing school contexts in support of proactive discipline, a range of practices and theoretical frameworks have been advanced, from behaviorist approaches to social and emotional learning. This article describes the theory and practice of restorative justice with the aim of defining this distinctive paradigm, in…

  18. perceived discipline, punishment and organizational performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    suggest that scholars may misinterpret the incidence of discipline when they fail to account for the dynamic ways that organizations and management shape sanctioning patterns. Daft. (2009) suggests that managers should dispense punishment carefully to avoid employees giving up on attitudes of high performance. This,.

  19. Veterinary Medical Genetics: A Developing Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, James E.; Templeton, Joe W.

    1978-01-01

    Areas that will influence the development of veterinary medical genetics as a clinical discipline are discussed, some critical research areas of immediate concern are suggested, and misconceptions held by many practicing veterinarians which must be corrected at the level of veterinary education are identified. (JMD)

  20. Agriculture Undergraduates Preference For Agriculture Disciplines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that they would have made a change in their fields of study if given the opportunity, which could result in glut of personnel in some departments of agriculture while leaving a surplus in others. Hypothesis testing shows a significant difference among students\\' perception of their discipline and agriculture as the ...

  1. Report: The Continuing Need to Rethink Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Schools should be safe, nurturing, and welcoming environments for all students. Frequently, exclusionary school discipline practices, which remove students from the classroom--even for minor infractions of school rules--through suspension or expulsion, prevent students from participating fully in their education. Suspensions, expulsions, and other…

  2. Collaborative Problem Solving Can Transform School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ross W.

    2011-01-01

    What we're thinking about behaviorally challenging students and what we're doing to them requires a fresh look. When schools believe that parental discipline explains a child's misbehavior, educators are less likely to consider different explanations for the misbehavior and the full range of interventions that could be implemented at school. And…

  3. Interoperable Data Sharing for Diverse Scientific Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John S.; Crichton, Daniel; Martinez, Santa; Law, Emily; Hardman, Sean

    2016-04-01

    For diverse scientific disciplines to interoperate they must be able to exchange information based on a shared understanding. To capture this shared understanding, we have developed a knowledge representation framework using ontologies and ISO level archive and metadata registry reference models. This framework provides multi-level governance, evolves independent of implementation technologies, and promotes agile development, namely adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, continuous improvement, and rapid and flexible response to change. The knowledge representation framework is populated through knowledge acquisition from discipline experts. It is also extended to meet specific discipline requirements. The result is a formalized and rigorous knowledge base that addresses data representation, integrity, provenance, context, quantity, and their relationships within the community. The contents of the knowledge base is translated and written to files in appropriate formats to configure system software and services, provide user documentation, validate ingested data, and support data analytics. This presentation will provide an overview of the framework, present the Planetary Data System's PDS4 as a use case that has been adopted by the international planetary science community, describe how the framework is being applied to other disciplines, and share some important lessons learned.

  4. Study in Depth: Sociology versus Other Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Theodore C.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of student perceptions concerning in-depth study of sociology compared with other disciplines in the social sciences and other liberal arts. Finds that sociology majors experience less study in depth than do other majors. Discusses the implications of the findings. (CFR)

  5. On General Education as a Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljens, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses general education as a foundational discipline within the educational sciences. Refers to the Nordic and German traditions of general education, or "Allgemeine Padogogik," which covers what the Anglo-American world refers to as educational theory and philosophy. Reports that today the interest towards the philosophy and theory…

  6. Redefining & Leading the Academic Discipline in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Damien G.; Healy, Annah H.

    2013-01-01

    Disciplines have emerged as an alternative administrative structure to departments or schools in Australian universities. We presently investigate the pattern of discipline use and by way of case study examine a role for distributed leadership in discipline management. Over forty per cent of Australian universities currently employ disciplines,…

  7. Cross-scale drivers of natural disturbances prone to anthropogenic amplification: Dynamics of biome-wide bark beetle eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth F. Raffa; Brian H. Aukema; Barbara J. Bentz; Allan L. Carroll; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Monica G. Turner; William H. Romme

    2008-01-01

    Biome-scale disturbances by eruptive herbivores provide valuable insights into species interactions, ecosystem-function, and impacts of global change. We present a conceptual framework using one system as a model, emphasizing interactions across levels of biological hierarchy and spatiotemporal scales. Bark beetles are major natural disturbance agents in western North...

  8. Measuring distance “as the horse runs”: Cross-scale comparison of terrain-based metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenfield, Barbara P.; Ghandehari, M; Leyk, S; Stanislawski, Larry V.; Brantley, M E; Qiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    hierarchical terrain models. Schneider (2001) creates a ‘plausibility’ metric for DEM-extracted structure lines. d’Oleire- Oltmanns et al. (2014) adopt object-based image processing as an alternative to working with DEMs; acknowledging the pre-processing involved in converting terrain into an object model is computationally intensive, and likely infeasible for some applications.This paper compares planar distance with surface adjusted distance, evolving from distance “as the crow flies” to distance “as the horse runs”. Several methods are compared for DEMs spanning a range of resolutions for the study area and validated against a 3 meter (m) lidar data benchmark. Error magnitudes vary with pixel size and with the method of surface adjustment. The rate of error increase may also vary with landscape type (terrain roughness, precipitation regimes and land settlement patterns). Cross-scale analysis for a single study area is reported here. Additional areas will be presented at the conference.

  9. Beliefs in genetic determinism and attitudes towards psychiatric genetic research: psychometric scale properties, construct associations, demographic correlates, and cross-cultural comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren; Loibl, Lisa Mariella; Furnham, Adrian

    2007-12-01

    Using two new scales, this study examined beliefs in genetic determinism and attitudes towards psychiatric genetic research in student samples from Austria, Malaysia, Romania, and the United Kingdom. For both constructs, effects of culture were detectable, whereas those related to key demographics were either small and inconsistent across samples (political orientation and religiosity) or zero (sex and age). Judged from factorial dimensionality and internal consistency, the psychometric properties of both scales were satisfactory. Belief in genetic determinism had lower prevalence and corresponded only modestly to positive attitudes towards psychiatric genetic research which had higher prevalence. The correlations of both constructs with a preference of inequality among social groups (social dominance orientation) were modest and inconsistent across samples. Both scales appear appropriate for cross-cultural applications, in particular for research into lay theories and public perceptions regarding genetic vs environmental effects on human behavior, mental disorders, and behavioral and psychiatric genetic research related to these.

  10. Breaking the Cycle of Inequitable School Discipline through Community and Civic Collaboration in Nashville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majors, Tony; Ward, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Tom Ward and Tony Majors, community and district lead partners in Nashville, Tennessee, talk about what the Positive and Safe Schools Advancing Greater Equity (PASSAGE) initiative has meant in their city. They share how and why their journey began by embedding the work to end discipline disparities across a broad, cross-sector table that includes…

  11. The large-scale cross-correlation of Damped Lyman alpha systems with the Lyman alpha forest: first measurements from BOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font-Ribera, Andreu [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Miralda-Escudé, Jordi [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Arnau, Eduard [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (IEEC/UB), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Carithers, Bill; Ross, Nicholas P.; White, Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lee, Khee-Gan [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick; Rollinde, Emmanuel [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Université Paris 6 et CNRS, 98bis blvd. Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Rich, James [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); York, Donald G., E-mail: font@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: miralda@icc.ub.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and The Fermi Institute, Chicago University, 5640 So. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We present the first measurement of the large-scale cross-correlation of Lyα forest absorption and Damped Lyman α systems (DLA), using the 9th Data Release of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). The cross-correlation is clearly detected on scales up to 40h{sup −1}Mpc and is well fitted by the linear theory prediction of the standard Cold Dark Matter model of structure formation with the expected redshift distortions, confirming its origin in the gravitational evolution of structure. The amplitude of the DLA-Lyα cross-correlation depends on only one free parameter, the bias factor of the DLA systems, once the Lyα forest bias factors are known from independent Lyα forest correlation measurements. We measure the DLA bias factor to be b{sub D} = (2.17±0.20)β{sub F}{sup 0.22}, where the Lyα forest redshift distortion parameter β{sub F} is expected to be above unity. This bias factor implies a typical host halo mass for DLAs that is much larger than expected in present DLA models, and is reproduced if the DLA cross section scales with halo mass as M{sub h}{sup α}, with α = 1.1±0.1 for β{sub F} = 1. Matching the observed DLA bias factor and rate of incidence requires that atomic gas remains extended in massive halos over larger areas than predicted in present simulations of galaxy formation, with typical DLA proper sizes larger than 20 kpc in host halos of masses ∼ 10{sup 12}M{sub ☉}. We infer that typical galaxies at z ≅ 2 to 3 are surrounded by systems of atomic clouds that are much more extended than the luminous parts of galaxies and contain ∼ 10% of the baryons in the host halo.

  12. [Cross-cultural adaptation difficulties in health quality of life scales for developing countries: example of St-George respiratory questionnaire validation in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rhazi, K; Nejjari, C; Serhier, Z; Tachfouti, N; Berraho, M; Zakaria, Y; Qarmiche, N; Benjelloun, M C; Barberger Gateau, P

    2009-06-01

    In developing countries, quality of life (QoL) is becoming an increasingly relevant question. The use, in these countries, of the validated English scales could resolve an important problem of a lack of QoL tools noted in southern countries. However, this approach raises methodological problems of cross-cultural adaptation. This paper underlines the principal difficulties related to cross-cultural adaptation of QoL measurement scales based on the example of St-George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) translation from English to the Moroccan Arabic language. The SGRQ, initially designed in English, was translated into dialectical Arabic by four translators following the recommended stages of translation and cultural adaptation: translation with conceptual and linguistic evaluation, back translation, comparison of the source and target versions and verification of the new instrument. During this cross-cultural adaptation process, some items were modified to adapt the original questionnaire to the Moroccan culture. Because of the great diversity of the Moroccan dialectal language, some words were, sometimes, translated into two or more equivalents which were put in the brackets in the final version of the SGRQ(m). Some questions were not applicable to all the Moroccan population such as a question about sports that did not concern women. On the other hand, some questions involving the same items posed differently in different dimensions, gave rise to confusion or the impression of repetition in the Moroccan Arabic version. The cross-cultural adaptation process, even if carried out in a rigorous way, does not always lead to the best target version and suggests it would be useful to develop new scales specific to each culture and at the same time, to think about the Trans cultural adaptation.

  13. Positive discipline, harsh physical discipline, physical discipline and psychological aggression in five Caribbean countries: Associations with preschoolers' early literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede Yildirim, Elif; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L

    2017-11-02

    Physical punishment has received worldwide attention because of its negative impact on children's cognitive and social development and its implications for children's rights. Using UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys 4 and 5 data, we assessed the associations between positive discipline, harsh physical punishment, physical punishment and psychological aggression and preschoolers' literacy skills in 5628 preschool-aged children and their caregivers in the developing nations of Belize, the Dominican Republic, Guyana, Jamaica and Suriname. Caregivers across countries used high levels of explanations and psychological aggression. There were significant country differences in the use of the four disciplinary practices. In the Dominican Republic and Guyana, physical punishment had negative associations with children's literacy skills, and in the Dominican Republic, positive discipline had a positive association with children's literacy skills. Findings are discussed with respect to the negative consequences of harsh disciplinary practices on preschoolers' early literacy skills in the developing world. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the Activity Rating Scale for Disorders of the Knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flosadottir, Vala; Roos, Ewa M; Ageberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    and cross-culturally adapt the ARS into Swedish and to assess measurement properties of the Swedish version of the ARS. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: The COSMIN guidelines were followed. Participants (N = 100 [55 women]; mean age, 27 years) who were undergoing...

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation: translation and Portuguese language content validation of the Tripartite Influence Scale for body dissatisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Conti, Maria Aparecida; Scagliusi, Fernanda; Queiroz, Gisele Kawamura de Oliveira; Hearst, Norman; Cordás, Táki Athanássios

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the Tripartite Influence Scale to the Portuguese language and evaluate its content validity and internal consistency. Six steps included: (1) translation; (2) back-translation; (3...

  16. Attitudes towards doping and related experience in Spanish national cycling teams according to different Olympic disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Mateo-March, Manuel; Zabala, Mikel

    2013-01-01

    Attitudes towards doping are considered an influence of doping intentions. The aims of the present study were 1) to discover and compare the attitudes towards doping among Spanish national team cyclists from different Olympic disciplines, as well as 2) to get some complementary information that could better explain the context. The sample was comprised of seventy-two cyclists: mean age 19.67±4.72 years; 70.8% males (n = 51); from the different Olympic disciplines of Mountain bike -MTB- (n = 18), Bicycle Moto Cross -BMX- (n = 12), Track -TRA- (n = 9) and Road -ROA- (n = 33). Descriptive design was carried out using a validated scale (PEAS). To complement this, a qualitative open-ended questionnaire was used. Overall mean score (17-102) was 36.12±9.39. For different groups, the data were: MTB: 30.28±6.92; BMX: 42.46±10.74; TRA: 43.22±12.00; ROA: 34.91±6.62, respectively. In relation to overall score, significant differences were observed between MTB and BMX (p = 0.002) and between MTB and TRA (p = 0.003). For the open-ended qualitative questionnaire, the most mentioned word associated with "doping" was "cheating" (48.83% of total sample), with "responsible agents of doping" the word "doctor" (52,77%), and with the "main reason for the initiation in doping" the words "sport achievement" (45.83%). The major proposed solution was "doing more doping controls" (43.05%). Moreover, 48.67% stated that there was "a different treatment between cycling and other sports". This study shows that Spanish national team cyclists from Olympic cycling disciplines, in general, are not tolerant in relation to doping. BMX and Track riders are a little more permissive towards the use of banned substances than MTB and Road. Results from the qualitative open-ended questionnaire showed interesting data in specific questions. These results empower the idea that, apart from maintaining doping controls and making them more efficient, anti-doping education

  17. Attitudes towards doping and related experience in Spanish national cycling teams according to different Olympic disciplines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Morente-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Attitudes towards doping are considered an influence of doping intentions. The aims of the present study were 1 to discover and compare the attitudes towards doping among Spanish national team cyclists from different Olympic disciplines, as well as 2 to get some complementary information that could better explain the context. The sample was comprised of seventy-two cyclists: mean age 19.67±4.72 years; 70.8% males (n = 51; from the different Olympic disciplines of Mountain bike -MTB- (n = 18, Bicycle Moto Cross -BMX- (n = 12, Track -TRA- (n = 9 and Road -ROA- (n = 33. Descriptive design was carried out using a validated scale (PEAS. To complement this, a qualitative open-ended questionnaire was used. Overall mean score (17-102 was 36.12±9.39. For different groups, the data were: MTB: 30.28±6.92; BMX: 42.46±10.74; TRA: 43.22±12.00; ROA: 34.91±6.62, respectively. In relation to overall score, significant differences were observed between MTB and BMX (p = 0.002 and between MTB and TRA (p = 0.003. For the open-ended qualitative questionnaire, the most mentioned word associated with "doping" was "cheating" (48.83% of total sample, with "responsible agents of doping" the word "doctor" (52,77%, and with the "main reason for the initiation in doping" the words "sport achievement" (45.83%. The major proposed solution was "doing more doping controls" (43.05%. Moreover, 48.67% stated that there was "a different treatment between cycling and other sports". This study shows that Spanish national team cyclists from Olympic cycling disciplines, in general, are not tolerant in relation to doping. BMX and Track riders are a little more permissive towards the use of banned substances than MTB and Road. Results from the qualitative open-ended questionnaire showed interesting data in specific questions. These results empower the idea that, apart from maintaining doping controls and making them more efficient, anti-doping education

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation, validation and reliability of the brazilian version of the Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Leite

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the process of transcultural adaptation of the Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale to Brazilian Portuguese. METHODS: For the semantic adaptation step, the scale was translated to Portuguese and then back-translated to English by two professional translators and one psychologist, without any communication between them. The scale was then applied to 20 participants from the general population for language adjustments. For the construct validation step, an exploratory factor analysis was performed, using the scree plot test, principal component analysis for factor extraction, and Varimax rotation. For convergent validity, the correlation matrix was analyzed through Pearson's coefficient. RESULTS: The scale showed easy applicability, satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=.87, and a high correlation with other rating scales for compulsive buying disorder, indicating that it is suitable to be used in the assessment and diagnosis of compulsive buying disorder, as it presents psychometric validity. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale has good validity and reliability

  19. Cross-scale modelling of the climate-change mitigation potential of biochar systems: Global implications of nano-scale processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Dominic; Lehmann, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    With CO2 emissions still tracking the upper bounds of projected emissions scenarios, it is becoming increasingly urgent to reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and increasingly likely that restricting future atmospheric GHG concentrations to within safe limits will require an eventual transition towards net negative GHG emissions. Few measures capable of providing negative emissions at a globally-significant scale are currently known. Two that are most often considered include carbon sequestration in biomass and soil, and biomass energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). In common with these two approaches, biochar also relies on the use of photosynthetically-bound carbon in biomass. But, because biomass and land are limited, it is critical that these resources are efficiently allocated between biomass/soil sequestration, bioenergy, BECCS, biochar, and other competing uses such as food, fiber and biodiversity. In many situations, biochar can offer advantages that may make it the preferred use of a limited biomass supply. These advantages include that: 1) Biochar can provide valuable benefits to agriculture by improving soil fertility and crop production, and reducing fertlizer and irrigation requirements. 2) Biochar is significantly more stable than biomass or other forms of soil carbon, thus lowering the risk of future losses compared to sequestration in biomass or soil organic carbon. 3) Gases and volatiles produced by pyrolysis can be combusted for energy (which may offset fossil fuel emissions). 4) Biochar can further lower GHG emissions by reducing nitrous oxide emissions from soil and by enhancing net primary production. Determining the optimal use of biomass requires that we are able to model not only the climate-change mitigation impact of each option, but also their economic and wider environmental impacts. Thus, what is required is a systems modelling approach that integrates components representing soil biogeochemistry, hydrology, crop

  20. Parents' experience of flooding in discipline encounters: Associations with discipline and interplay with related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Michael F; Mitnick, Danielle M; Slep, Amy M Smith

    2016-06-01

    In family psychology, the term flooding refers to the feeling of being overwhelmed by a family member's behavior in a manner that undermines an organized response. In the present investigation we first aimed to clarify the role of flooding in overreactive and lax discipline. The second study aim was to more fully establish the position of parental flooding in its nomological network given the relative paucity of research on parental flooding. Maternal discipline and physiological responses, as well as child behavior, were observed in laboratory discipline encounters with 97 mother-toddler dyads. Mothers then rated the extent to which they experienced flooding in response to their children's behavior and emotion displays during the immediately preceding discipline encounters. Mothers' experience of negative emotion was assessed via video-mediated recall. Flooding was positively associated with both overreactive and lax discipline; this association did not reflect confounding by mothers' experience of negative emotion. Flooding was further associated with mothers' experienced negative emotion and heart rate reactivity, as well as child misbehavior and negative emotion displays. The flooding-overreactive discipline association was concentrated in those mothers who exhibited greater increases in heart rate and greater vagal withdrawal, and whose children misbehaved more during the discipline encounter. The present results suggest the incremental validity of flooding in predicting discipline practices, as well as the strong fit of flooding in its nomological network. Parents' self-recognition of flooding may ultimately prove useful in parenting interventions as a signal to trigger compensatory techniques. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Seesaw Discipline: The Interactive Effect of Harsh and Lax Discipline on Youth Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Justin; McKee, Laura G; Forehand, Rex

    2016-02-01

    Although extant research documents the negative consequences of harsh and lax discipline for youth, little empirical attention has been devoted to understanding the impact when parents utilize both strategies. As such, the current study was designed to explore the interaction of harsh and lax discipline on youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms in three developmental periods (early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence). Participants were 615 parents (55 % female) and one of their 3-to-17 year old children (45 % female). Parents provided reports of their harsh and lax parenting tactics as well as offspring internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Multiple linear regression analyses were utilized to examine the relations between the interaction of harsh and lax parenting on youth symptoms. The interaction between harsh and lax discipline was significantly related to youth internalizing, but not externalizing, problems in the both the young and middle childhood samples and marginally significant in the adolescence sample: Seesaw discipline - a novel construct indicative of high levels of both harsh and lax discipline - was associated with the highest levels of youth internalizing problems. Parents who engage in seesaw parenting have children and adolescents who are more likely to evidence internalizing symptoms. Such findings may inform prevention and intervention efforts that target dysfunctional discipline.

  2. Cross-cultural validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) in older people: results from Germany, the Netherlands and the UK were satisfactory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; Todd, Chris J; Van Haastregt, Jolanda C M; Zijlstra, G A Rixt; Beyer, Nina; Freiberger, Ellen; Hauer, Klaus A; Piot-Ziegler, Chantal; Yardley, Lucy

    2007-01-30

    To carry out a cross-cultural validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I), a 16-item modified version of the Falls Efficacy Scale that was developed to assess both easy and more complex physical and social activities, in a range of languages and different cultural contexts. Data were collected in Germany (n = 94), The Netherlands (n = 193), and the UK (n = 178) in samples of older people living in the community. Four-week FES-I re-test data were collected in Germany and The Netherlands. Descriptive statistics and reliability estimates were computed as well as FES-I sum scores according to age, sex, falls history and fear of falling. Mean inter-item correlations were all above 0.38 and internal reliability estimates were all 0.90 or above. The intra-class correlation coefficients in the German and the Dutch sample were 0.79 and 0.82, respectively. As expected, FES-I scores were associated with age, sex, falls history and fear of falling. In addition, the FES-I discriminated between sub-groups somewhat better than the original ten-item FES scale. The FES-I has been shown to have acceptable reliability and construct validity in different samples in different countries and may be used in cross-cultural rehabilitation research and clinical trials.

  3. Dealing with uncertainties - communication between disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Bernadet; Bessembinder, Janette

    2013-04-01

    Climate adaptation research inevitably involves uncertainty issues - whether people are building a model, using climate scenarios, or evaluating policy processes. However, do they know which uncertainties are relevant in their field of work? And which uncertainties exist in the data from other disciplines that they use (e.g. climate data, land use, hydrological data) and how they propagate? From experiences in Dutch research programmes on climate change in the Netherlands we know that disciplines often deal differently with uncertainties. This complicates communication between disciplines and also with the various users of data and information on climate change and its impacts. In October 2012 an autumn school was organized within the Knowledge for Climate Research Programme in the Netherlands with as central theme dealing with and communicating about uncertainties, in climate- and socio-economic scenarios, in impact models and in the decision making process. The lectures and discussions contributed to the development of a common frame of reference (CFR) for dealing with uncertainties. The common frame contains the following: 1. Common definitions (typology of uncertainties, robustness); 2. Common understanding (why do we consider it important to take uncertainties into account) and aspects on which we disagree (how far should scientists go in communication?); 3. Documents that are considered important by all participants; 4. Do's and don'ts in dealing with uncertainties and communicating about uncertainties (e.g. know your audience, check how your figures are interpreted); 5. Recommendations for further actions (e.g. need for a platform to exchange experiences). The CFR is meant to help researchers in climate adaptation to work together and communicate together on climate change (better interaction between disciplines). It is also meant to help researchers to explain to others (e.g. decision makers) why and when researchers agree and when and why they disagree

  4. Teaching biomedical technology innovation as a discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yock, Paul G; Brinton, Todd J; Zenios, Stefanos A

    2011-07-20

    Recently, universities in the United States and abroad have developed dedicated educational programs in life science technology innovation. Here, we discuss the two major streams of educational theory and practice that have informed these programs: design thinking and entrepreneurship education. We make the case that the process of innovation for new medical technologies (medtech) is different from that for biopharmaceuticals and outline the challenges and opportunities associated with developing a discipline of medtech innovation.

  5. Enterprise Architecture Design as an Engineering Discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Aier, Stephan; Kurpjuweit, Stephan; Saat, Jan; Winter, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Enterprise architecture can provide systematic support to organizational change, when requirements of respective stakeholders of business and IT are met. This article focuses on the design of enterprise architecture and proposes a business-to-IT approach that considers lessons from classical engineering disciplines. A framework for engineering driven enterprise architecture design is presented. Since such an approach creates specific requirements for tool support, an appropriate software impl...

  6. Genetic epidemiology: an expanding scientific discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyszynski Diego F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic epidemiology is a relatively new discipline that studies the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of human diseases. Taking advantage of genetic markers provided by molecular biological research, complex computerized algorithms, and large databases, the field of genetic epidemiology has undergone significant development over the past 10 years. Using concrete examples from recent scientific literature, this article describes the objectives and methodology of genetic epidemiology.

  7. Describing Creativity in Design Across Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Llew; Tekmen Araci, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Creativity is an essential aspect of design thinking. Being able to describe creativity and creative processes is important for developing future designers. While much research has been undertaken describing creativity in design, there is very little investigating how creativity and creative thinking varies across disciplines. A coding scheme involving six separate codes was developed initially from the literature, refined and then used to describe how creativity and creative thinking was app...

  8. Rape Myths and the Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Fang, Gang; Huang, Hui; Cui, Naixue; Rhodes, Karin V; Gelles, Richard

    2016-06-05

    The study examines the similarities and differences between China and the United States with regard to rape myths. We assessed the individual level of rape myth acceptance among Chinese university students by adapting and translating a widely used measure of rape myth endorsement in the United States, the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance (IRMA) scale. We assessed whether the IRMA scale would be an appropriate assessment of attitudes toward rape among young adults in China. The sample consisted of 975 Chinese university students enrolled in seven Chinese universities. We used explorative factor analysis to examine the factor structure of the Chinese translation of the IRMA scale. Results suggest that the IRMA scale requires some modification to be employed with young adults in China. Our analyses indicate that 20 items should be deleted, and a five-factor model is generated. We discuss relevant similarities and differences in the factor structure and item loadings between the Chinese Rape Myth Acceptance (CRMA) and the IRMA scales. A revised version of the IRMA, the CRMA, can be used as a resource in rape prevention services and rape victim support services. Future research in China that employs CRMA will allow researchers to examine whether individual's response to rape myth acceptance can predict rape potential and judgments of victim blaming and community members' acceptance of marital rape. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Resilience to climate change in a cross-scale tourism governance context: a combined quantitative-qualitative network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Luthe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Social systems in mountain regions are exposed to a number of disturbances, such as climate change. Calls for conceptual and practical approaches on how to address climate change have been taken up in the literature. The resilience concept as a comprehensive theory-driven approach to address climate change has only recently increased in importance. Limited research has been undertaken concerning tourism and resilience from a network governance point of view. We analyze tourism supply chain networks with regard to resilience to climate change at the municipal governance scale of three Alpine villages. We compare these with a planned destination management organization (DMO as a governance entity of the same three municipalities on the regional scale. Network measures are analyzed via a quantitative social network analysis (SNA focusing on resilience from a tourism governance point of view. Results indicate higher resilience of the regional DMO because of a more flexible and diverse governance structure, more centralized steering of fast collective action, and improved innovative capacity, because of higher modularity and better core-periphery integration. Interpretations of quantitative results have been qualitatively validated by interviews and a workshop. We conclude that adaptation of tourism-dependent municipalities to gradual climate change should be dealt with at a regional governance scale and adaptation to sudden changes at a municipal scale. Overall, DMO building at a regional scale may enhance the resilience of tourism destinations, if the municipalities are well integrated.

  10. Mn doped InSb studied at the atomic scale by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, S. J. C.; Bocquel, J.; Koenraad, P. M.; Feeser, C. E.; Parashar, N. D.; Wessels, B. W.

    2015-11-01

    We present an atomically resolved study of metal-organic vapor epitaxy grown Mn doped InSb. Both topographic and spectroscopic measurements have been performed by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The measurements on the Mn doped InSb samples show a perfect crystal structure without any precipitates and reveal that Mn acts as a shallow acceptor. The Mn concentration of the order of ˜1020 cm-3 obtained from the cross-sectional STM data compare well with the intended doping concentration. While the pair correlation function of the Mn atoms showed that their local distribution is uncorrelated beyond the STM resolution for observing individual dopants, disorder in the Mn ion location giving rise to percolation pathways is clearly noted. The amount of clustering that we see is thus as expected for a fully randomly disordered distribution of the Mn atoms and no enhanced clustering or second phase material was observed.

  11. The cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity of the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale in patients with chronic neck pain: Turkish version study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapali, Gökmen; Günel, Mintaze Kerem; Karahan, Sevilay

    2012-05-15

    The study design was cross-cultural adaptation and investigation of reliability and validity of the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CNFDS). The aim of this study was to translate the CNFDS into Turkish language and assess its reliability and validity among patients with neck pain in Turkish population. The CNFDS is a reliable and valid evaluation instrument for disability, but there is no published the Turkish version of the CNFDS. One hundred one subjects who had chronic neck pain were included in this study. The CNFDS, Neck Pain and Disability Scale, and visual analogue scale were administered to all subjects. For investigating test-retest reliability, correlation between CNFDS scores, applied at 1-week interval, intraclass correlation coefficient score for test-retest reliability was 0.86 (95% confidence interval = 0.679-0.935). There was no difference between test-retest scores (P validity, correlation between total score of the CNFDS and the mean visual analogue scale was r = 0.73 (P validity of the CNFDS was very good. For investigating construct validity, correlation between total score of the CNFDS and the Neck Pain and Disability Scale was r = 0.78 (P validity of the CNFDS was also very good. Our results suggest that the Turkish version of the CNFDS is a reliable and valid instrument for Turkish people.

  12. Is Primatology an equal-opportunity discipline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position. However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index, which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues.

  13. Is Primatology an equal-opportunity discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Elsa; Borgi, Marta; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues.

  14. A Framing Approach to Cross-disciplinary Research Collaboration: Experiences from a Large-scale Research Project on Adaptive Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Dewulf

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although cross-disciplinary research collaboration is necessary to achieve a better understanding of how human and natural systems are dynamically linked, it often turns out to be very difficult in practice. We outline a framing approach to cross-disciplinary research that focuses on the different perspectives that researchers from different backgrounds use to make sense of the issues they want to research jointly. Based on interviews, participants' evaluations, and our own observations during meetings, we analyze three aspects of frame diversity in a large-scale research project. First, we identify dimensions of difference in the way project members frame the central concept of adaptive water management. Second, we analyze the challenges provoked by the multiple framings of concepts. Third, we analyze how a number of interventions (interactive workshops, facilitation, group model building, and concrete case contexts contribute to the connection and integration of different frames through a process of joint learning and knowledge construction.

  15. Scaling of cross sections for K-electron capture by high-energy protons and alpha-particles from the multielectron atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, K.

    1979-01-01

    Electron capture by protons from H, He, and the K shell of Ar, and electron capture by alpha particles from He are considered. Using the experimental data, a function of the capture cross section is formed. It is shown that when this function is plotted versus the inverse of the collision energies, at high energies a straight line is obtained. At lower energies the line is concave up or down, depending on the charge of the projectile and/or the effective charge and the ionization potential of the electron that is being captured. The plot can be used to predict cross sections where experimental data are not available, and as a guide in future experiments. High-energy scaling formulas for K-electron capture by low-charge projectiles are given.

  16. [Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the newcastle satisfaction with nursing scales into the Brazilian culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigan, Gisele Hespanhol; de Guirardello, Edinêis Brito

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to translate and culturally adapt the Newcastle Satisfaction with Nursing Scales for use in Brazil, and to assess its usability. The instrument contains two scales and aims to assess the patient's experiences and level of satisfaction with nursing care. The methodological procedure of cultural adaptation followed the steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, assessment by an expert committee, and pre-test. The process of translation and cultural adaptation was considered adequate. The committee assessment resulted in simple grammatical modifications for most of the items, and 40 subjects were considered for the pre-test. The Brazilian version of the Newcastle Satisfaction with Nursing Scales demonstrated adequate content validity and was easily understood by the group of subjects. However, this is a study that precedes the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the instrument, whose results will be presented in a later publication.

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Arabic version of the knee outcome survey-activities for daily living scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzubar, Fawzi F; Aljadi, Sameera H; Alotaibi, Naser M; Irrgang, James J

    2017-04-14

    The purpose of this study is to cross-culturally adapt the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale into Arabic and to assess its psychometric properties (internal consistency, reliability, validity, and responsiveness) in patients with knee disorders. The cross-cultural adaptation process for the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale into Arabic was performed consistent with the published guidelines. The psychometric properties of this Arabic version were then evaluated. Participants completed this version three times: at baseline, 2-4 days later, and 4 weeks later. Correlations between the Arabic version of Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale and the Arabic version of the Short Form-36 Health Survey, Get Up and Go, and Ascending/Descending stairs tests were evaluated. Linguistic and cultural issues were addressed. The Arabic version of the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.97) and excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.97). Construct validity of the Arabic version of the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale with the Arabic version of Short Form-36 Health Survey subscales ranged from r = 0.28 to 0.53, p Arabic version was able to detect changes 4 weeks later (effect size = 1.12 and minimum clinically important difference = 14 points). The Arabic version of the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale is a reliable, valid and responsive measure for assessing knee-related symptoms and functional limitations Implications for rehabilitation The Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale-Arabic is a reliable, valid and responsive measure for assessing knee-related functional limitations. This Arabic version can be used in clinical practice and for research purposes to assess symptoms and functional limitations in Arabic-speaking patients with

  18. Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of CO2 in relation to climate: a cross-biome analysis across multiple time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Montagnani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE varies at time scales from seconds to years and longer via the response of its components, gross ecosystem productivity (GEP and ecosystem respiration (RE, to physical and biological drivers. Quantifying the relationship between flux and climate at multiple time scales is necessary for a comprehensive understanding of the role of climate in the terrestrial carbon cycle. Orthonormal wavelet transformation (OWT can quantify the strength of the interactions between gappy eddy covariance flux and micrometeorological measurements at multiple frequencies while expressing time series variance in few energetic wavelet coefficients, offering a low-dimensional view of the response of terrestrial carbon flux to climatic variability. The variability of NEE, GEP and RE, and their co-variability with dominant climatic drivers, are explored with nearly one thousand site-years of data from the FLUXNET global dataset consisting of 253 eddy covariance research sites. The NEE and GEP wavelet spectra were similar among plant functional types (PFT at weekly and shorter time scales, but significant divergence appeared among PFT at the biweekly and longer time scales, at which NEE and GEP were relatively less variable than climate. The RE spectra rarely differed among PFT across time scales as expected. On average, RE spectra had greater low frequency (monthly to interannual variability than NEE, GEP and climate. CANOAK ecosystem model simulations demonstrate that "multi-annual" spectral peaks in flux may emerge at low (4+ years time scales. Biological responses to climate and other internal system dynamics, rather than direct ecosystem response to climate, provide the likely explanation for observed multi-annual variability, but data records must be lengthened and measurements of ecosystem state must be made, and made available, to disentangle the mechanisms responsible for low frequency patterns in ecosystem CO2 exchange.

  19. How Many Disciplines Does It Take to Tackle Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S.; Calderazzo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Through my involvement in two multidisciplinary climate change education and outreach projects, the website 100 Views of Climate Change and Changing Climates @ Colorado State, I have come to understand that just as this problem is everybody's business, almost everybody has something to contribute to understanding and dealing with it. This is certainly true of the academic disciplines represented on college campuses, where faculty from nearly every department have relevant things to teach their students: speakers in a climate-change lecture series we organized came from 27 departments in 8 colleges, plus numerous other campus and local entities, and more could have been included. As one convener of this AGU session, I have worked to include a good sample of these varied and complementary disciplinary perspectives. Inevitably, though, this sample leaves significant gaps in what would constitute a robust cross-campus climate literacy, and I will talk about some of these missing disciplinary perspectives and why they are important.

  20. Assumptions, Emotions, and Interpretations as Ethical Moments: Navigating a Small-Scale Cross-Cultural Online Interviewing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisoli, Paul St. John

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I map important "messy" elements that I learned from my five-month small-scale research project, one that was designed around pivotal works on online social research. I used computers and the Internet with Minan, a young man living in Guinea, West Africa, in order to examine his perceptions surrounding the value of these…

  1. Cross-scale intercomparison of climate change impacts simulated by regional and global hydrological models in eleven large river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattermann, F. F.; Krysanova, V.; Gosling, S. N.; Dankers, R.; Daggupati, P.; Donnelly, C.; Flörke, M.; Huang, S.; Motovilov, Y.; Buda, S.; Yang, T.; Müller, C.; Leng, G.; Tang, Q.; Portmann, F. T.; Hagemann, S.; Gerten, D.; Wada, Y.; Masaki, Y.; Alemayehu, T.; Satoh, Y.; Samaniego, L.

    2017-01-04

    Ideally, the results from models operating at different scales should agree in trend direction and magnitude of impacts under climate change. However, this implies that the sensitivity of impact models designed for either scale to climate variability and change is comparable. In this study, we compare hydrological changes simulated by 9 global and 9 regional hydrological models (HM) for 11 large river basins in all continents under reference and scenario conditions. The foci are on model validation runs, sensitivity of annual discharge to climate variability in the reference period, and sensitivity of the long-term average monthly seasonal dynamics to climate change. One major result is that the global models, mostly not calibrated against observations, often show a considerable bias in mean monthly discharge, whereas regional models show a much better reproduction of reference conditions. However, the sensitivity of two HM ensembles to climate variability is in general similar. The simulated climate change impacts in terms of long-term average monthly dynamics evaluated for HM ensemble medians and spreads show that the medians are to a certain extent comparable in some cases with distinct differences in others, and the spreads related to global models are mostly notably larger. Summarizing, this implies that global HMs are useful tools when looking at large-scale impacts of climate change and variability, but whenever impacts for a specific river basin or region are of interest, e.g. for complex water management applications, the regional-scale models validated against observed discharge should be used.

  2. Problems in Cross-Cultural Use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: "No Butterflies in the Desert"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maters, G.A.; Sanderman, Robbert; Kim, A.Y.; Coyne, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used to screen for anxiety and depression. A large literature is citable in support of its validity, but difficulties are increasingly being identified, such as inexplicably discrepant optimal cutpoints and inconsistent

  3. Normative studies with the Scale for Interpersonal Behaviour (SIB) : II. US students - A cross-cultural comparison with Dutch data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, WA; Bridges, KR; van der Ende, J; Lawrence, JSS; Gray-Shellberg, L; Harnish, R; Rogers, R; Sanderman, R; Gray, Shellberg L.

    2001-01-01

    The Scale for Interpersonal Behaviour (SIB), a multidimensional, self-report measure of state assertiveness, was administered to a nationwide sample of 2375 undergraduates enrolled at I I colleges and universities across the USA. The SIB was developed in the Netherlands for the independent

  4. Problems in Cross-Cultural Use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale : "No Butterflies in the Desert"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maters, Gemma A.; Sanderman, Robbert; Kim, Aimee Y.; Coyne, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used to screen for anxiety and depression. A large literature is citable in support of its validity, but difficulties are increasingly being identified, such as inexplicably discrepant optimal cutpoints and inconsistent

  5. Using multi-scale sampling and spatial cross-correlation to investigate patterns of plant species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhan, M.A.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    Land managers need better techniques to assess exoticplant invasions. We used the cross-correlationstatistic, IYZ, to test for the presence ofspatial cross-correlation between pair-wisecombinations of soil characteristics, topographicvariables, plant species richness, and cover ofvascular plants in a 754 ha study site in RockyMountain National Park, Colorado, U.S.A. Using 25 largeplots (1000 m2) in five vegetation types, 8 of 12variables showed significant spatial cross-correlationwith at least one other variable, while 6 of 12variables showed significant spatial auto-correlation. Elevation and slope showed significant spatialcross-correlation with all variables except percentcover of native and exotic species. Percent cover ofnative species had significant spatialcross-correlations with soil variables, but not withexotic species. This was probably because of thepatchy distributions of vegetation types in the studyarea. At a finer resolution, using data from ten1 m2 subplots within each of the 1000 m2 plots, allvariables showed significant spatial auto- andcross-correlation. Large-plot sampling was moreaffected by topographic factors than speciesdistribution patterns, while with finer resolutionsampling, the opposite was true. However, thestatistically and biologically significant spatialcorrelation of native and exotic species could only bedetected with finer resolution sampling. We foundexotic plant species invading areas with high nativeplant richness and cover, and in fertile soils high innitrogen, silt, and clay. Spatial auto- andcross-correlation statistics, along with theintegration of remotely sensed data and geographicinformation systems, are powerful new tools forevaluating the patterns and distribution of native andexotic plant species in relation to landscape structure.

  6. Subpilot scale gasifier evaluation of ceramic cross flow filter. Final report, February 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippert, T.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Meyer, J.H.

    1993-08-01

    The operating characteristics, performance and durability of a hot gas cross flow filter system were evaluated at the Texaco 15 tpd, entrained-bed gasifier pilot plant facility that is located at their Montebello Research Facilities (MRL) in California. A candle filter unit was also tested for comparative purposes. A wide range of operating test conditions were experienced. This report summarizes the results of eleven different test runs that occurred from April 1989 through August 1992. Differences between filter operation on the entrained gasifier and prior experience on fluid bed combustion are discussed.

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation of the short-form condom attitude scale: validity assessment in a sub-sample of rural-to-urban migrant workers in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The reliable and valid measurement of attitudes towards condom use are essential to assist efforts to design population specific interventions aimed at promoting positive attitude towards, and increased use of condoms. Although several studies, mostly in English speaking western world, have demonstrated the utility of condom attitude scales, very limited culturally relevant condom attitude measures have been developed till to date. We have developed a scale and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sub-sample of rural-to-urban migrant workers in Bangladesh. Methods This paper reports mostly on cross-sectional survey components of a mixed methods sexual health research in Bangladesh. The survey sample (n = 878) comprised rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers (n = 437) and restaurant workers (n = 441) in Dhaka (aged 18–35 years). The study also involved focus group sessions with same populations to establish the content validity and cultural equivalency of the scale. The current scale was administered with a large sexual health survey questionnaire and consisted of 10 items. Quantitative and qualitative data were assessed with statistical and thematic analysis, respectively, and then presented. Results The participants found the scale simple and easy to understand and use. The internal consistency (α) of the scale was 0.89 with high construct validity (the first component accounted for about 52% of variance and second component about 20% of the total variance with an Eigen-value for both factors greater than one). The test-retest reliability (repeatability) was also found satisfactory with high inter-item correlations (the majority of the intra-class correlation coefficient values was above 2 and was significant for all items on the scale, p Bengali version of the scale have good metric properties for assessing attitudes toward condom use. Validated scale is a short, simple and reliable instrument for measuring attitudes towards condom

  8. [Cross-cultural adaptation: translation and Portuguese language content validation of the Tripartite Influence Scale for body dissatisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Maria Aparecida; Scagliusi, Fernanda; Queiroz, Gisele Kawamura de Oliveira; Hearst, Norman; Cordás, Táki Athanássios

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the Tripartite Influence Scale to the Portuguese language and evaluate its content validity and internal consistency. Six steps included: (1) translation; (2) back-translation; (3) technique revision and semantic evaluation; (4) conduct validation by professional experts (judges); (5) assessment of comprehensibility by the target population, using a verbal rating scale; and (6) evaluation of the internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The 43 questions were translated and adapted to the Portuguese language. The final version consisted of 39 items, with content validity for three constructs (media, family, and friends), clarity and easy understanding, and good internal agreement (Cronbach's alpha coefficients > 0.80). The instrument was successfully translated and adapted to Portuguese and showed good content validity, verbal comprehensibility, and internal consistency. Further analysis of external validity, equivalence of measurement, and reproducibility are necessary.

  9. Brazilian-Portuguese translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Myasthenia Gravis Composite scale. A multicentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ezequiel Fernandes; Lima, Valéria Cavalcante; Perez, Eduardo Araujo; Polaro, Melissa Nunes; Valério, Berenice Cataldo Oliveira; Pereiro, João R; Nacif, Sergio Roberto; Oliveira, Claudia Santos; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco

    2016-11-01

    To perform the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Myasthenia Gravis Composite (MGC) scale in Brazil. The study was conducted at three neuromuscular disease research centers in accordance with the international ethical standards, following a multi-modal approach and was conducted in three steps consisting of translation, cultural adaptation, and validation according to international guidelines. The final version of the MGC was applied in a sample of 27 MG patients and the total score was compared to a Portuguese version of the MG-QOL-15. The internal consistency verified by Cohen's Kappa test was excellent (0.766). The correlation between the MGC and MG-QOL-15 was strong (R = 0.777; p = 0.000). No significant differences were found between the responses of patients in the first and second applications of the MGC. The MGC scale, validated into Brazilian Portuguese, has proven to be a reliable instrument that is easy to use, and is highly reproducible.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation into Punjabi of the English version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Rod S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We wanted to use a Punjabi version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS to enable non-English speaking patients to participate in a clinical trial. The aim of the study was to translate and validate the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale into Punjabi. Methods The HADS was translated into Punjabi by a multidisciplinary team, verified against the original version, and administered to 73 bilingual patients attending an outpatient clinic. Results One sample t-tests and the Bland-Altman plots demonstrated acceptable linguistic agreement between the two versions of the HADS. Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients (p Conclusion The Punjabi HADS is an acceptable, reliable and valid measure of anxiety and depression among physically ill Punjabi speaking people in the United Kingdom.

  11. Short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale adapted to Spanish and French: Towards a cross-cultural research in problematic mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz

    2017-01-01

    Research into smartphone addiction has followed the scientific literature on problematic mobile phone use developed during the last decade, with valid screening scales being developed to identify maladaptive behaviour associated with this technology, usually in adolescent populations. This study adapts the short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale [SAS-SV] into Spanish and into French. The aim of the study was to (i) examine the scale's psychometric properties in both languages, (ii) estimate the prevalence of potential excessive smartphone use among Spanish and Belgian adults, and (iii) compare the addictive symptomatology measured by the SAS-SV between potentially excessive users from both countries. Data were collected via online surveys administered to 281 and 144 voluntary participants from both countries respectively, aged over 18years and recruited from academic environments. Results indicated that the reliability was excellent (i.e., Cronbach alphas: Spain: .88 and Belgium: .90), and the validity was very good (e.g., unifactoriality with a 49% and 54% of variance explained through explorative factor analysis, respectively). Findings showed that the prevalence of potential excessive smartphone use 12.5% for Spanish and 21.5% for francophone Belgians. The scale showed that at least 60% of excessive users endorsed withdrawal and tolerance symptoms in both countries, although the proposed addictive symptomatology did not cover the entire group of estimated excessive users and cultural differences appeared. This first cross-cultural study discusses the smartphone excessive use construct from its addictive pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cross - Scale Intercomparison of Climate Change Impacts Simulated by Regional and Global Hydrological Models in Eleven Large River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattermann, F. F.; Krysanova, V.; Gosling, S. N.; Dankers, R.; Daggupati, P.; Donnelly, C.; Florke, M.; Huang, S.; Motovilov, Y.; Buda, S.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Ideally, the results from models operating at different scales should agree in trend direction and magnitude of impacts under climate change. However, this implies that the sensitivity to climate variability and climate change is comparable for impact models designed for either scale. In this study, we compare hydrological changes simulated by 9 global and 9 regional hydrological models (HM) for 11 large river basins in all continents under reference and scenario conditions. The foci are on model validation runs, sensitivity of annual discharge to climate variability in the reference period, and sensitivity of the long-term average monthly seasonal dynamics to climate change. One major result is that the global models, mostly not calibrated against observations, often show a considerable bias in mean monthly discharge, whereas regional models show a better reproduction of reference conditions. However, the sensitivity of the two HM ensembles to climate variability is in general similar. The simulated climate change impacts in terms of long-term average monthly dynamics evaluated for HM ensemble medians and spreads show that the medians are to a certain extent comparable in some cases, but have distinct differences in other cases, and the spreads related to global models are mostly notably larger. Summarizing, this implies that global HMs are useful tools when looking at large-scale impacts of climate change and variability. Whenever impacts for a specific river basin or region are of interest, e.g. for complex water management applications, the regional-scale models calibrated and validated against observed discharge should be used.

  13. Impact of Dental Neglect Scale on Oral Health Status Among Different Professionals in Indore City-A Cross- Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Pubali; Dasar, Pralhad; Nagarajappa, Sandesh; Mishra, Prashant; Kumar, Sandeep; Balsaraf, Swati; Lalani, Afsheen; Chauhan, Astha

    2015-10-01

    Young educated Indian generation are very much health conscious. They take adequate nutritious balanced diet and practice physical exercise regularly to keep themselves active and healthy. Oral health is a part of general health care system. If oral health is neglected it may affect our general health and as a result it affects our quality of life too. To assess dental negligence and oral health status by using Dental Neglect scale questionnaire among different professionals of Indore city. The study consisted of a convenient sample of 400 students of aged 18-25 years from 4 different professional colleges of Sri Aurobindo Group of Institutes of the same campus. A pretested validated questionnaire was used for assessing dental neglect and home dental care practices. Oral health examination was conducted to assess dental caries and oral hygiene status by using DMFT and OHIS respectively. Data was analysed using SPSS Software (version 20). For OHI(S), majority of the respondents (57.7%) showed fair oral hygiene for DNS score 15. The Dental Neglect Scale (DNS) score was found statistically significant with OHIS and caries experience at 95% Confidence Interval. There was no statistically significant difference between DNS score and frequency of Decayed, Missing and Filled teeth DMFT. The Dental Neglect Scale appears to be a sound method for objectifying dental neglect. It has many of the features of a satisfying health index. However, further validation with other age groups, cultures, place and a larger population is required in order to justify the utility of Dental Neglect Scale in different situations.

  14. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Female Genital Self-Image Scale (FGSIS) in Iranian Female College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Pakpour, Amir H.; Zeidi, Isa Mohammadi; Ziaeiha, Masoumeh; Burri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a translated and culturally adapted Iranian version of the Female Genital Self-Image Scale (FGSIS-I) in a sample of college women. Further, the relationship between women's self-image, body appreciation, sexual functioning, and gynecological exam behavior was explored. A sample of 1,877 female students from five different universities across Qazvin and Tehran completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the B...

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Female Genital Self-Image Scale (FGSIS) in Iranian female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpour, Amir H; Zeidi, Isa Mohammadi; Ziaeiha, Masoumeh; Burri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a translated and culturally adapted Iranian version of the Female Genital Self-Image Scale (FGSIS-I) in a sample of college women. Further, the relationship between women's self-image, body appreciation, sexual functioning, and gynecological exam behavior was explored. A sample of 1,877 female students from five different universities across Qazvin and Tehran completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the FGSIS-I, and a gynecological exam behavior questionnaire. Good to excellent internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, and convergent and construct validity were found. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) both provided a two-factor structure for the FGSIS-I. The validity of the FGSIS-I in predicting gynecological exam behavior of college women was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The final model accounted for 33% of the variance in gynecological exam behavior (p self-image in Iranian women.

  16. Cross-cultural validity of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2. Psychometric evaluation in a sample of the general French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Andreeva, Valentina A; Sautron, Valérie; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Intuitive eating is an adaptive dietary behavior that emphasizes eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) measures such attitudes and behaviors. The aim of the present study was to adapt the IES-2 to the French context and to test its psychometric properties in 335 women and 297 men participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. We evaluated the construct validity of the IES-2 by testing hypotheses with regard to its factor structure, relationships with scores of the revised 21-item Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and differences between "a priori" relevant subgroups. First, the exploratory factor analysis revealed three main dimensions: Eating for Physical Rather than Emotional Reasons, Reliance on Hunger and Satiety Cues, and Unconditional Permission to Eat. Second-order confirmatory factor analysis upheld the 3-factor solution influenced by a broader intuitive eating dimension. IES-2 total score was negatively related to cognitive restraint (r = -0.31, P eating (r = -0.58, P eating (r = -0.40, P Eating for Physical Reasons, and Unconditional Permission to Eat subscales. Current or former dieters had lower scores on the IES-2 total scale and on all subscales than did those who had never dieted (all P intuitive eating behaviors in empirical and epidemiological studies in the general population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of the 7-8-year cycle in daily mean air temperature as a cross-scale information transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Paluš, Milan

    2015-04-01

    Using a novel nonlinear time-series analysis method, an information transfer from larger to smaller scales of the air temperature variability has been observed in daily mean surface air temperature (SAT) data from European stations as the influence of the phase of slow oscillatory phenomena with periods around 6-11 years on amplitudes of the variability characterized by smaller temporal scales from a few months to 4-5 years [1]. The strongest effect is exerted by an oscillatory mode with the period close to 8 years and its influence can be seen in 1-2 °C differences of the conditional SAT means taken conditionally on the phase of the 8-year cycle. The size of this effect, however, changes in space and time. The changes in time are studied using sliding window technique, showing that the effect evolves in time, and during the last decades the effect is stronger and significant. Sliding window technique was used along with seasonal division of the data, and it has been found that the cycle is most pronounced in the winter season. Different types of surrogate data are applied in order to establish statistical significance and distinguish the effect of the 7-8-yr cycle from climate variability on shorter time scales. [1] M. Palus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 078702 (2014) This study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the Program KONTAKT II, Project No. LH14001.

  18. Dutch Translation and Cross-cultural Adaptation of the Lysholm Score and Tegner Activity Scale for Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshuis, Rienk; Lentjes, Gijsbertus Wilhelmus; Tegner, Yelverton; Wolterbeek, Nienke; Veen, Maurits Remmelt

    2016-11-01

    Study Design Clinical measurement. Background The Lysholm score and Tegner activity scale are frequently used patient-reported instruments to determine the functional status and activity level after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Objectives To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Lysholm score and Tegner activity scale for use in the Dutch population and to evaluate the reliability and validity of these questionnaires in individuals after ACL reconstruction. Methods The translation and adaptation were conducted in several steps according to the guidelines in the literature. The measurement properties of the Lysholm score and Tegner activity scale (internal consistency, construct validity, and floor and ceiling effects) were tested in 96 patients. Reproducibility was tested in 69 patients with ACL injuries. On the first occasion, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form (IKDC) and RAND 36-Item Health Survey (RAND-36) were also administered. Results The Lysholm score and Tegner activity scale showed good test-retest reliability between repeated measures (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.93 and 0.97, respectively) and reasonable to good internal consistency (Cronbach α = .70-.83). The Lysholm score had a very strong correlation with the IKDC (r = 0.83, P<.01) and moderate correlation with the RAND-36 (r = 0.55, P<.01). The Tegner activity scale had moderate correlations with both the IKDC (r = 0.42, P<.01) and RAND-36 (r = 0.48, P<.01). Conclusion The psychometric performance of the Lysholm score and the Tegner activity scale as outcome measures for Dutch patients after ACL reconstruction is acceptable. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(11):976-983. Epub 28 Sep 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6566.

  19. Emotional flooding and hostile discipline in the families of toddlers with disruptive behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mence, Melanie; Hawes, David J; Wedgwood, Lucinda; Morgan, Susan; Barnett, Bryanne; Kohlhoff, Jane; Hunt, Caroline

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between negative parenting practices and dysfunction in parents' cognitive processing of child affect cues in families of toddlers with disruptive behavior problems. This dysfunction comprised a bias toward the misclassification of child affect as anger (affect appraisal bias) and parents' proneness to emotional flooding (Gottman, 1991, 1993). Participants were families of toddlers (n = 82; 53% male; aged 18-48 months) referred to a tertiary-level health service for the treatment of disruptive behavior problems. Affect appraisal bias was indexed in terms of the discrepancy between rates of child anger coded from video recordings of parent-child interactions and rates of child anger estimated by parents immediately after these interactions. Parenting practices and emotional flooding were assessed using the Parenting Scale and the Parental Flooding Scale. Both hostile and overreactive discipline were positively associated with severity of disruptive behavior problems, however only hostile discipline was associated with the biased appraisal of child affect and emotional flooding. Emotional flooding was found to be a unique predictor of hostile discipline, independent of covariates including the severity of disruptive behavior problems. Variance in hostile discipline was further explained by the interaction between emotional flooding and affect appraisal bias. Emotional flooding appears to be particularly proximal to hostile discipline in the families of toddlers with disruptive behavior problems, consistent with evidence previously reported for nonclinical families.

  20. Child discipline in Qatar and Palestine: A comparative study of ICAST-R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldeeb, Nehal; Halileh, Samia; Alyafei, Khalid A; Ghandour, Rula; Dargham, Soha; Giacaman, Rita; Kamal, Madeeha; Imseeh, Sawsan; Korayem, Mona; Nasr, Shiraz; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen; Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Tawfik, Hassan; Lynch, Margaret A; Mian, Marcellina

    2016-11-01

    To compare the nature and determinants of child discipline in Qatar and Palestine among young adults through retrospective survey to develop legislation, policies and interventions for effective prevention of child maltreatment, and educational materials to promote positive discipline among parents and caregivers. Cross-sectional random household surveys were conducted in each country (Qataris N=697, Palestinians N=2064) using ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Retrospective (ICAST-R) for young adults (18-24 years), to investigate child discipline methods into the maltreatment range. Qatari young adults were more educated (pPalestine, e.g. Hit/Punch, Kick (pPalestine to develop survey methodology with a more culturally appropriate level of intrusion, such as indirect yet meaningful child maltreatment questions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Governing bodies and learner discipline: managing rural schools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SGBs) should adopt and assist in the enforcement of a learner code of conduct to maintain discipline effectively. This study focuses on the perceptions and experiences of SGBs in managing discipline in rural secondary schools through the ...

  2. Entrepreneurship and the Discipline of External Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanda, Ramana

    I confirm the finding that the propensity to start a new firm rises sharply among those in the top five per­centiles of personal wealth. This pattern is more pronounced for entrants in less capital intensive sectors. Prior to entry, founders in this group earn about 6% less compared to those who ......, these findings suggest that the spike in entry at the top end of the wealth distribution is driven by low-ability individuals who can afford to start (and sometimes continue running) weaker firms because they do not face the discipline of external finance....

  3. Bridging disciplines through problem based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether a problem based approach to students’ learning may support interdisciplinary education at university level, where students are required to engage with the complexities inherent in constructing knowledge across disciplinary boundaries. These complexities include students...... of how a problem based approach to learning will be implemented in the programs to support students in their engagement with the complexities of amalgamating and transgressing the disciplines of technology and anthropology. The paper is concluded by a brief discussion of problem based learning...... as an approach to operationalising interdisciplinary education, and some challenges are identified....

  4. Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench-scale coal gasifier. Fourth quarterly report, July 1, 1985--September 30, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

    1985-12-31

    The Department of Energy is currently supporting a program that will aid in the development of cross flow filtration technology as applied to combined cycle power generation with coal gasification. The stated overall goal is to gain information on both the operational and economic feasibility of the implementation of cross flow filtration in various gasifier options. Westinghouse has prepared a comprehensive program that will lead directly to these program goals in an efficient manner. The proposed program is composed of three major technical tasks. Task 1 is directed at the design and actual test of a cross flow filter at a DOE bench scale gasifier. Task 2 is composed of several smaller theoretical and experimental efforts that are intended to firm up areas where engineering and design principles are lacking or considered inadequate. The third task is intended to integrate the results of the first two tasks in a conceptual design and cost analysis such that proper economic perspective for the filter concept can be gained. A brief summary of the approach taken in the technical tasks is presented in the following discussion.

  5. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version of the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (Petróczi, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Morente-Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Spanish version of the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS. A cross-sectional multi-sample survey with 17 independent datasets was carried out. Cross-cultural adaptation of the PEAS into Spanish was conducted through forward/backward translations, consensus panels and comparative analyses of known-groups to establish evidence for its reliability and validity. Weighted Kappa coefficients with quadratic weighting were used to assess the reliability of each item, with Cronbach’s internal consistency coefficients for overall scale’s reliability and Spearman’s correlation coefficient for test–retest reliability over a one-week period. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was performed to assess the scale’s structure. Differences between self-admitted doping users and non-users were analysed to verify the PEAS’ construct validity in 8 datasets. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was also used to assess the relationships between the PEAS and self-esteem, self-efficacy and perceived descriptive norm to establish convergent validity. The scale showed satisfactory levels of internal consistency (α = 0.71–0.85, reliability of each item (Kappa values range 0.34-0.64 and temporal stability (r = 0.818; p < 0.001. CFA showed acceptable fit (RMSEA <0.08, mean RMSEA = 0.055; χ2/df < 3, mean χ2/df = 1.89 for all but one samples. As expected, self-admitted doping users showed more positive attitude toward doping than non-users. Significant and strong negative relationship was found between PEAS and self-efficacy; weak negative correlation with self-esteem and and positive correlation with perceived descriptive norm. The Spanish version of PEAS showed satisfactory psychometric properties. Considerations for application and improvement are outlined.

  6. Beliefs about the genetics of suicide in Canadian students: cross-language validation of the Beliefs in the Inheritance of Risk Factors for Suicide Scale (BIRFSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Fisher, Maryanne L; Loibl, Lisa Mariella; Tan, Hasan; Sonneck, Gernot

    2008-06-01

    The genetics underlying suicidal behavior is becoming increasingly recognized and investigated. Convergent evidence towards this end has emerged from numerous research strategies (adoption, family, genome-scan, geographic, immigrant, molecular genetic, surname, and twin studies of suicide). The topic-related mental-health literacy (i.e. knowledge and beliefs) of professionals and laypersons, however, may lag behind this research progress, and data on this question are scant. The aim of the present study was therefore to further validate, in a cross-language setting, the novel 22-item Beliefs in the Inheritance of Risk Factors for Suicide Scale (BIRFSS), originally developed in German, which assesses beliefs about the genetics of suicide. Data were collected from a mixed student sample from Canada (n = 288; 70.5% females, 58.0% studying psychology as a major or minor). Factor analysis of BIRFSS items yielded a dominant first factor. Internal scale consistency was, however, only middling (lower than previously observed in Austrian samples). Although the structure of beliefs about the genetics of suicide seems to be complex, the Canadian sample's item-performance indicators corresponded strongly to those obtained in Austrian samples, thus indicating cross-sample and cross-language robustness of item statistics. For the Canadian sample, BIRFSS scores were positively related to overall and specific knowledge about suicide and general beliefs about genetic determinism (convergent validity), whereas they were not (or only trivially) related to the Big Five personality dimensions, lay theories of suicide, locus of control, social desirability, religiosity, and political orientation (discriminant validity), and to several key demographic variables. Supplemental findings, study limitations, application possibilities, user recommendations, and avenues for further inquiry are discussed.

  7. Local and regional palm (Arecaceae) species richness patterns and their cross-scale determinants in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Thea; Svenning, J.-C.; Pedersen, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    1. Local and regional patterns of plant species richness in tropical rain forests, aswell as their possible drivers, remain largely unexplored. The main hypotheses for local species richness (alpha diversity) are (i) local environmental determinism with species-saturated communities, and (ii......-scale topography. Apart fromgamma diversity, the factormost strongly related to regional alpha diversity was precipitation seasonality, while gamma diversity itself was strongly linked to long-termhabitat stability. These results imply that plant species richness is contingent on both contemporary and historical...... factors with a strong link between local species richness and the regional species pool....

  8. How Do Academic Disciplines Use PowerPoint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    How do academic disciplines use PowerPoint? This project analyzed PowerPoint files created by an academic publisher to supplement textbooks. An automated analysis of 30,263 files revealed clear differences by disciplines. Single-paradigm "hard" disciplines used less complex writing but had more words than multi-paradigm "soft"…

  9. The Discipline Dilemma: Control, Management, Influence. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ramon

    Noting that more democratic values have begun to replace authoritarian values in the classroom, this book offers teachers three different discipline styles and provides guidance in classroom management, discipline strategy, and flexible problem solving. Chapter 1 of the book addresses general discipline and provides debate on utilizing democratic…

  10. Integrating Proactive Discipline Practices into Codes of Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenning, Pamela; Theodos, Jennifer; Benner, Courtney; Bohanon-Edmonson, Hank

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to advocate for proactive content in discipline codes of conduct. Proactive discipline codes integrate Positive Behavior Support (PBS) strategies (Sugai & Horner, 2002) and attend to the academic needs of students (McEvoy & Welker, 2000). Proactive discipline codes of conduct have meaningful participation by key…

  11. english as an arts discipline in environmental education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The subject English can be used as a discipline or as a medium. This paper describes the form of English as a discipline and questions the way it is used in environmental education. A call is made to involve in environmental education those who understand the form of English as a discipline in particular and of the arts in ...

  12. Discipline-based academic literacy in two contexts | Goodier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It argues that basing academic literacy courses in the disciplines that students are studying is essential in assisting students to acquire discipline-specific genres, and is likely to be far more effective than a generic course ... Keywords: discipline-based language learning, academic literacy, science writing, commerce writing

  13. Gendered Views of Managing Discipline in School and Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatka, Izhar; Atias, Miri

    2007-01-01

    The current study explored male and female principals' views of classroom and discipline management from a gender perspective. Based on semi-structured interviews with 16 primary school principals from Israel, the study points to gendered views of school discipline, in that certain perspectives to prevent or handle discipline problems in school…

  14. Adaptation and cross-cultural validation of the Brazilian version of the Warwick-Edinburgh mental well-being scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Jovelino Amaral dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: the Warwick-Edinburgh mental well-being scale (WEMWBS was designed to assess the level of mental well-being of a population or specific groups. The scale consists of 14 items covering functional psychological aspects, as well as well-being. The final score is calculated by adding up the response of each item, ranging from 1 to 5, obtaining a result from 14 to 70 points. Methods: the procedure was developed in accordance with the protocol recommended by the World Health Organization covering translation, back translation, semantic equivalence, expert evaluation of the previous steps, pre-test and final version of the instrument. Following, the final version was applied to a sample of 122 individuals and the data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, factor analysis, internal consistency and correlation with other validated instruments. Results: we performed the instrument's adaptation to the Portuguese spoken in Brazil, replacing terms to approximate the language to expressions of everyday life. The final version showed similar results to those from the original version, demonstrated by factor analysis, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.89 and positive correlation with instruments validated to the Portuguese language. Conclusion: the Brazilian version of the WEMWBS proved to be easy to use and understand, showed high internal consistency and construct validity similar to the original instrument.

  15. A pilot plant scale evaluation of a new process aid for enhancing chlorine efficacy against pathogen survival and cross-contamination during produce wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yaguang; Nou, Xiangwu; Millner, Patricia; Zhou, Bin; Shen, Cangliang; Yang, Yang; Wu, Yunpeng; Wang, Qin; Feng, Hao; Shelton, Dan

    2012-08-17

    Developing food safety intervention technology that can be readily adopted by the industry often requires test conditions that match as closely as possible to those of commercial food processing operations; yet biosafety risks inherent in pathogen studies constrain most experiments to laboratory settings. In this study, we report the first semi-commercial pilot-scale evaluation of a new process aid, T128, for its impact on enhancing the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorinated wash water against pathogen survival and cross-contamination. A non-pathogenic, BSL-1, strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was inoculated onto freshly harvested baby spinach leaves and washed with large amounts of freshly cut un-inoculated iceberg lettuce shreds in wash water with free chlorine periodically replenished, in the presence or absence of T128. Changes in water quality and pathogen survival and cross-contamination were monitored at every 2 min intervals for up to 36 min for each treatment during the wash operation. Results indicated that the use of T128 did not significantly (P>0.05) influence the rate of wash water deterioration, nor the pathogen populations remaining on the inoculated spinach leaves. However, in the absence of T128 (control), survival of E. coli O157:H7 in wash water and cross-contamination of un-inoculated lettuce frequently occurred when free chlorine in solution dropped below 1mg/l during the wash process. In contrast, the use of T128 significantly reduced the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7 surviving in wash water and of cross-contamination to un-inoculated shredded iceberg lettuce under the same operational conditions, suggesting that the application of T128 in a chlorine-based fresh produce sanitization system could increase the safety margin of process control on fresh-cut operations. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Dossier 'Cultural management, a new discipline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glòria Munilla

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, neither universities nor the other training centres have considered cultural management to be a free-standing area of knowledge, seeing it instead to be dependent on other areas classically accepted by the scientific and education community.In this dossier, three researchers and professionals bring us into closer contact with the world of cultural management in terms of their different areas of professional activity and their corresponding different perspectives: cultural management in public institutions and their approach to the university world; the impact that two institutions and their management model, Barcelona's Contemporary Art Museum (MACBA and Barcelona's Contemporary Culture Centre (CCCB, can have on a city and a neighbourhood, and how this new discipline is seen in terms of the day-to-day of managing events of international scope. All three, Alba Colombo, Joaquim Rius and Laura Solanilla, are united in their passion for this discipline; likewise, all three of them, show exactly the extent to which interdisciplinary training is vital for this 'new' (or not so new cultural profession.

  17. Ophthalmologic findings in contact sport disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrione, Paolo; Quaranta, Federico; DE Luca, Valeria; Sperandii, Fabio; Ciminelli, Emanuela; Cantera, Emilia; Fagnani, Federica; Pigozzi, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and the incidence of ocular complications in contact sport disciplines in a large population of professional and amateur athletes over a period of 3 years. We performed a retrospective review of 694 medical records from athletes examinated from 2008 to 2011. The following data were collected during the routine visit for agonistic sports eligibility: medical history, age, weight, years of sport practice, approximate number of matches, head and eyes injuries during and beyond of the match and a through ocular history. All athletes underwent a detailed ophthalmological evaluation. The follow-up of each athlete was carried out during the following routine visit for agonistic sports eligibility. Most common disorders observed were: peripheral retinal degeneration, blepharitis, conjunctival and corneal diseases with a prevalence of 7%, 4%, 7% and 4% respectively. It was observed a positive correlation between peripheral retinal degeneration and age in amateur male boxers. Moreover, we noticed an incidence of 6% of laser therapeutic treatments as a result of retinal holes or degenerations, during the follow-up. Contact sport disciplines did not result in higher prevalence of severe ocular lesion. Both conjuntival diseases and peripheral retinal degenerations represented the ophthalmologic disorders with the higher prevalence in our sample. In particular, peripheral retinal degeneration is remarkable because of the increased risk of retinal detachment. Dyschromatopsie, even if quite rare, should be considered when analysing the reception of shots, since gloves in most cases are either red or blue.

  18. Crossing Cross-Platform: Comparing Skills Preferences and Convergence Attitudes in Strategic Communication and News Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Glenn T.; Kang, Jin-Ae; Crawford, Elizabeth Crisp

    2016-01-01

    National survey of college mass communication students (N = 247) analyzed attitudes on the teaching of print and electronic media skills, using journalism students as comparison group. Previous research had not explored strategic communication student responses to convergence. Found identity variables within public relations (PR) field related to…

  19. A conceptual cross-scale approach for linking empirical discharge measurements and regional groundwater models with application to legacy nitrogen transport and coastal nitrogen management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, J. R.; Helton, A. M.; Starn, J. J.; Briggs, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Despite years of management, seasonal hypoxia from excess nitrogen (N) is a pervasive problem in many coastal waters. Current approaches to managing coastal eutrophication in the United States (USA) focus on surface runoff and river transport of nutrients, and often assume that groundwater N is at steady state. This is not necessarily the case, as terrestrial N inputs are affected by changing land use and nutrient management practices. Furthermore, approximately 70% of surface water in the USA is derived from groundwater and there is widespread N contamination in many of our nation's aquifers. Nitrogen export via groundwater discharge to streams during baseflow may be the reason many impaired coastal systems show little improvement. There is a critical need to develop approaches that consider the effects of groundwater transport on N loading to surface waters. Aquifer transport times, which can be decades or even centuries longer than surface water transport times, introduce lags between changes in terrestrial management and reductions in coastal loads. Ignoring these lags can lead to overly ambitious and unrealistic load reduction goals, or incorrect conclusions regarding the effectiveness of management strategies. Additionally, regional groundwater models typically have a coarse resolution that makes it difficult to incorporate fine-scale processes that drive N transformations, such as groundwater-surface water exchange across steep redox gradients at stream bed interfaces. Despite this challenge, representing these important fine-scale processes well is essential to modeling groundwater transport of N across regional scales and to making informed management decisions. We present 1) a conceptual approach to linking regional models and fine-scale empirical measurements, and 2) preliminary groundwater flow and transport model results for the Housatonic and Farmington Rivers in Connecticut, USA. Our cross-scale approach utilizes thermal infrared imaging and vertical

  20. Development of a community commitment scale with cross-sectional survey validation for preventing social isolation in older Japanese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Ayumi; Tadaka, Etsuko; Kanaya, Yukiko; Dai, Yuka; Itoi, Waka; Imamatsu, Yuki

    2012-10-24

    Elderly social isolation could be prevented by facilitating communication or mutual helping at the neighborhood level. The helping of elderly neighbors by local volunteers may relate to their community commitment (CC), but ways to measure CC have not been identified. The aim of the present study was to develop a Community Commitment Scale (CCS) to measure psychological sense of belonging and socializing in the community among local volunteers, for research in prevention of elderly social isolation. We also tested the CCS in a general population of the elderly. A pilot test of 266 Japanese urban residents was conducted to examine face validity for 24 identified items, of which 12 items were selected for the CCS, based on a 4-point Likert-type scale. The CCS was developed via self-report questionnaires to 859 local volunteers in two suburban cities and to 3484 randomly sampled general residents aged 55 years or older living in one of the cities. To assess concurrent validity, data were collected using the Brief Sense of Community Scale (Peterson; 2008) and two types of single questions on self-efficacy for helping elderly neighbors. Item analysis and factor analysis identified 8 items, which were classified between two datasets under the domains of "belonging" and "socializing" in the local volunteers and the general residents. Cronbach's alpha (which conveyed the internal consistency of the CCS) was 0.75 in local volunteers and 0.78 in general residents. The correlation coefficients between the scores of the CCS and BSCS were 0.54 for local volunteers and 0.62 for general residents. ANOVA comparing the CCS between the confidence levels of the two types of single question of self-efficacy on helping elderly neighbors showed a strong relationship in the volunteers and residents. These results demonstrate acceptable internal consistency and concurrent validity for the CCS, with the two dimensions "belonging" and "socializing", among the local volunteers and general

  1. Development of a Community Commitment Scale with Cross-sectional Survey Validation for Preventing Social Isolation in Older Japanese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kono Ayumi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elderly social isolation could be prevented by facilitating communication or mutual helping at the neighborhood level. The helping of elderly neighbors by local volunteers may relate to their community commitment (CC, but ways to measure CC have not been identified. The aim of the present study was to develop a Community Commitment Scale (CCS to measure psychological sense of belonging and socializing in the community among local volunteers, for research in prevention of elderly social isolation. We also tested the CCS in a general population of the elderly. Methods A pilot test of 266 Japanese urban residents was conducted to examine face validity for 24 identified items, of which 12 items were selected for the CCS, based on a 4-point Likert-type scale. The CCS was developed via self-report questionnaires to 859 local volunteers in two suburban cities and to 3484 randomly sampled general residents aged 55 years or older living in one of the cities. To assess concurrent validity, data were collected using the Brief Sense of Community Scale (Peterson; 2008 and two types of single questions on self-efficacy for helping elderly neighbors. Results Item analysis and factor analysis identified 8 items, which were classified between two datasets under the domains of “belonging” and “socializing” in the local volunteers and the general residents. Cronbach’s alpha (which conveyed the internal consistency of the CCS was 0.75 in local volunteers and 0.78 in general residents. The correlation coefficients between the scores of the CCS and BSCS were 0.54 for local volunteers and 0.62 for general residents. ANOVA comparing the CCS between the confidence levels of the two types of single question of self-efficacy on helping elderly neighbors showed a strong relationship in the volunteers and residents. Conclusions These results demonstrate acceptable internal consistency and concurrent validity for the CCS, with the two dimensions

  2. Multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, and transdisciplinarity in health research, services, education and policy: 3. Discipline, inter-discipline distance, and selection of discipline.

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    Choi, Bernard C K; Pak, Anita W P

    2008-01-01

    Multiple disciplinary efforts are increasingly encouraged in health research, services, education and policy. This paper is the third in a series. The first discussed the definitions, objectives, and evidence of effectiveness of multiple disciplinary teamwork. The second examined the promoters, barriers, and ways to enhance such teamwork. This paper addresses the questions of discipline, inter-discipline distance, and where to look for multiple disciplinary collaboration. This paper proposes a conceptual framework of the knowledge universe, based on a review of a number of key papers on the Global Brain. These key papers were identified during a literature review on multiple disciplinary teamwork, using Google and MEDLINE (1982-2007) searches. A discipline is held together by a shared epistemology. In general, disciplines that are more disparate from one another epistemologically are more likely to achieve new insight for a complex problem. The proposed conceptual framework of the knowledge universe consists of several knowledge subsystems, each containing a number of disciplines. The inter-discipline distance can guide us to select appropriate disciplines for a multiple disciplinary team. If multiple disciplinarity is called for, the proposed view of the knowledge universe as a series of knowledge subsystems and disciplines, and the place of health sciences in the knowledge universe, will help researchers, practitioners, and policy makers to identify disciplines for multiple disciplinary efforts.

  3. Removal of Salmonella Enteritidis from commercial unpasteurized liquid egg white using pilot scale cross flow tangential microfiltration.

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    Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Tomasula, Peggy M; Luchansky, John B; Porto-Fett, Anna; Call, Jeffrey E

    2010-09-01

    Effectiveness of a cross flow microfiltration (MF) process for removal of a cocktail of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis species from commercial unpasteurized liquid egg white (LEW) from a local egg breaking plant, while maintaining its functional properties was evaluated. To facilitate MF, LEW was wedge screened, homogenized and then diluted (1:2 w/w) with distilled water containing 0.5% sodium chloride. Diluted unpasteurized LEW was inoculated with five strains of S. Enteritidis (ATCC 4931, ATCC BAA-708, ATCC 49215, ATCC 49218, and ATCC BAA-1045) to a level of approximately 10(7)CFU/mL of LEW and microfiltered using a ceramic membrane. Process parameters influencing egg white functional properties and pathogen removal efficiency were evaluated. Average permeates flux increased by almost 126% when pH of LEW was adjusted from pH 8 to pH 7 at 25 degrees C. Microbial removal efficiency was at least, on average, 6.8Log(10)CFU/mL (limit of detection < or =0.5Log(10)CFU/mL). Functional property analysis indicated that the MF process did not alter the foaming power of LEW. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Lower blood pressure and smaller pulse pressure in sleeping pill users: A large-scale cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Nobuo; Fujiwara, Saeko; Ozono, Ryoji; Yamashita, Hidehisa; Kihara, Yasuki

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between sleeping pill use and hypertension or blood pressure (BP) via a cross-sectional analysis.A total of 11,225 subjects (5875 men and 5350 women) underwent health examinations. We compared the proportion of sleeping pill users among hypertension (n = 5099) and normotensive (n = 6126) participants. We analyzed participants with no intake of antihypertensive medication (n = 7788), comparing the proportions with high systolic BP (SBP) ≥140, high diastolic BP (DBP) ≥90, and high pulse pressure (PP) ≥50 mm Hg across 3 subgroups. These groups were classified according to the sleeping pill use [nonuse group (n = 6869); low-frequency-use group, defined as taking sleeping pills ≤2 days per week (n = 344); and high-frequency-use group, defined as taking sleeping pills ≥3 days per week (n = 575)].In the multivariable-adjusted model, odds of sleeping pill use (odds ratio (OR), 1.14; P Sleeping pills were more frequently required in hypertensive participants than in the normotensive ones. Sleeping pill use may decrease BP and assist in the treatment of high BP in patients with sleep disturbances.

  5. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the French version of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Return to Sport after Injury (ACL-RSI) scale.

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    Bohu, Y; Klouche, S; Lefevre, N; Webster, K; Herman, S

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to translate, adapt and validate in French the Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Return to Sport after Injury (ACL-RSI), a 12-item English language scale assessing the psychological impact of returning to sports after ACL reconstruction. The ACL-RSI scale was forward and back translated, cross-culturally adapted and validated using international guidelines. The study population included all patients who were active in sports and underwent primary arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. The control group included subjects with no history of knee trauma. At the 6-month follow-up, the study population completed the ACL-RSI scale twice within 3-4 days, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores. Statistical tests assessed the construct validity, discriminant validity, internal consistency, reliability and feasibility of the ACL-RSI scale. Ninety-one patients with ACL tears and 98 control subjects were included: mean age 31.7 ± 8.1 and 21.8 ± 2, respectively. The ACL-RSI scores were correlated with all KOOS sub-categories (r = 0.22-0.64, p sport (72.1 ± 21.4 vs. 60.3 ± 18.1, p = 0.008). Internal consistency was high (α = 0.96). Test-retest reproducibility was excellent: ρ = 0.90 (0.86-0.94), p < 0.00001. Administration time was 1.32 ± 0.7 mn, and all items were answered. This study showed that the cross-cultural adaptation of the English version of the ACL-RSI was successful and validated in a French-speaking population. The discriminant capacity of the scale between patients who underwent reconstruction and healthy subjects was confirmed. II.

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale of maternal confidence assessment for use in Brazil.

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    Pereira, Lívia W; Bernardi, Juliana R; Matos, Salete de; Silva, Clecio H da; Goldani, Marcelo Z; Bosa, Vera L

    2017-08-23

    To transculturally adapt and validate the Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale to the Brazilian Portuguese language and culture and verify the combination of the results with the maternal sociodemographic characteristics. This is a validation and transcultural adaptation nestled in a longitudinal and observational study in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, assessing mother-infant pairs from different gestational and perinatal environments. The original authors authorized the translation into Brazilian Portuguese, unified version creation, back-translation, analysis by specialists, final version implementation, and acceptance. Cronbach's alpha analysis was performed. The Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Dunn's test was used to compare the study groups. Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, obtained through a questionnaire in the first 24-48h of the newborns' life, were associated with maternal results by the Brazilian version of the scale, using Spearman's correlation and Mann-Whitney's test. The sample consisted of 251 postpartum women, with the confidence maternal questionnaire being applied at 15 days postpartum. The median score of the mothers' confidence was 40.00 (37.00-43.00). The protocol obtained a Cronbach's alpha of 0.717. There were significant weak positive correlations between maternal confidence and age (p=0.013, r=0.157) and between maternal confidence and schooling (p=0.048, r=0.125). Additionally, a significant association was observed between maternal confidence and parity (p=0.030). The transcultural adaptation and validation of the confidence maternal questionnaire into Brazilian Portuguese language and culture showed good reliability for this sample. The results of its use demonstrated that maternal confidence was associated with schooling, age and parity. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross-cultural validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) in Portuguese community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Daniela; Santos, Sónia

    The Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) is a highly reliable instrument to assess fear of falling among older population. This study aimed to develop a European Portuguese version of the FES-I (FES-I (P) ) and analyse its psychometric properties in terms of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent and convergent validity. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data collection integrated a socio-demographic questionnaire which included falls history and presence/absence of fear of falling, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Timed Up and Go (TUG) and the Five Times Sit to Stand Test (FTSST). Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed. A total of 100 Portuguese community-dwelling older people (74.27±8.7years old) have participated in the study. From these, 82 have participated in the reliability study. The FES-I (P) had excellent internal consistency (α=0,978) and test-retest reliability (ICC 2,1 =0,999). A significant negative correlation was found between the FES-I (P) and the ABC (r s =-0.85; pPortuguese community-living older people. Future studies should explore the FES-I (P) responsiveness to change over time and analyse its psychometric properties in samples of both non-community-dwelling and community-dwelling older adults with different health conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the french version of the 15-item Myasthenia Gravis Quality Of life scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Simone; Ghout, Idir; Demeret, Sophie; Bolgert, Francis; Eymard, Bruno; Sharshar, Tarek; Portero, Pierre; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2017-05-01

    Evaluation of quality of life (QOL) has become essential in healthcare. Currently no MG-specific QOL measure exists in French. The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt, and evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of the 15-Item Myasthenia Gravis Quality of Life Scale (MG-QOL15) scale for French myasthenia patients. Translation and cross-cultural adaption of the MG-QOL15 was performed, followed by reliability and validity evaluations. One hundred and twenty-five patients were included. Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach α = 0.92) as was test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.96). Concurrent validity was good for both clinical scores (myasthenic muscle score: ρ = -0.52, P < 0.001; Myasthenia Gravis-Activities of Daily Living scale score: ρ = 0.62, P < 0.001). Correlations were strongest for overall QOL (ρ = 0.62, P < 0.001) and physical health (ρ = 0.67, P < 0.001) on the World Health Organization Quality of Life short score (WHO-QOL BREF). The French version of the MG-QOL15 is valid and reliable and is now available for use with French-speaking patients. Muscle Nerve, 2016 Muscle Nerve 55: 639-645, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Reliability and Validity of the Cross-Culturally Adapted Thai Version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areeudomwong, Pattanasin; Buttagat, Vitsarut

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a cross-culturally adapted Thai version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) and investigate its reliability and validity among patients with knee osteoarthritis. The TSK was translated into Thai language and culturally adapted in line with the international standards. The Thai TSK questionnaire was then tested for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity by comparing it with the visual analogue scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Timed Up and Go Test. Eighty patients with knee osteoarthritis were included in the study. The Thai version of the TSK was easily comprehended and completed within 6 minutes. The questionnaire showed a good internal consistency (α = 0.90) and high test-retest reliability {ICC (2,1) = 0.934}. Convergent validity showed high correlations with the visual analogue scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.741, 0.856, and 0.817, respectively). However, there was no significant correlation between the Thai version of the TSK scores and the Timed Up and Go Test results. The Thai version of the TSK has satisfactory reliability and validity for the evaluation of pain-related fear of movement/(re)injury in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  10. Vulnerable Decision Points for Disproportionate Office Discipline Referrals: Comparisons of Discipline for African American and White Elementary School Students

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    Smolkowski, Keith; Girvan, Erik J.; McIntosh, Kent; Nese, Rhonda N. T.; Horner, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in rates of exclusionary school discipline are well documented and seemingly intractable. However, emerging theories on implicit bias show promise in identifying effective interventions. In this study, we used school discipline data from 1,666 elementary schools and 483,686 office discipline referrals to identify specific…

  11. Attributions and Discipline History as Predictors of Child Abuse Potential and Future Discipline Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina, M.; Price, Brittany, L.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: We attempted to identify factors that can be applied in primary and secondary prevention programs and expand the understanding of why those who were not abused may engage in abusive behavior. The purpose of this research was to explore how young adults' attributions of whether they deserved their childhood discipline, as well as their…

  12. Federal Policy Recommendations to Promote Fair and Effective School Discipline. NEPC Discipline Resource Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Federal legislation is an important lever for improving the equity and efficacy of school, district, and state discipline policies. Legislation should ensure that all students are treated fairly, regardless of race, gender, or class. This paper presents three recommendations for changing federal legislation to accomplish this goal. These…

  13. Non-disclosure of violence among female sex workers: evidence from a large scale cross-sectional survey in India.

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    Bidhubhusan Mahapatra

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: One of the indicators critical to the success of violence reduction programmes among female sex workers (FSWs is the pattern of disclosure of violence. This study examines the rate of non-disclosure of violence among FSWs in India by perpetrators of violence and programme exposure. METHODS: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study conducted among FSWs in 2009 across four states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The analytical sample included 1341 FSWs who experienced physical violence in past six months. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by state was conducted to examine predictors of non-disclosure. RESULTS: About 54% of FSWs did not disclose their experience of violence to anyone with considerable variations in the pattern of disclosure across states. Another 36% of FSWs shared the experience with NGO worker/peer. Compared to violence perpetrated by paying partners/stranger, that by non-paying partner were twice more likely to report non-disclosure (53% vs. 68%, Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.3-2.4. Similarly, FSWs who were not registered with an NGO/sex worker collective were 40% more likely to report non-disclosure of violence against those registered (58% vs. 53%, AOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9. CONCLUSIONS: Non-disclosure of physical violence is quite high among FSWs which can be a barrier to the success of violence reduction efforts. Immediate efforts are required to understand the reasons behind non-disclosure based on which interventions can be developed. Community collectivisation and designing gender-based interventions with the involvement of non-paying partners should be the way forward.

  14. Non-disclosure of violence among female sex workers: evidence from a large scale cross-sectional survey in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Battala, Madhusudana; Porwal, Akash; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    One of the indicators critical to the success of violence reduction programmes among female sex workers (FSWs) is the pattern of disclosure of violence. This study examines the rate of non-disclosure of violence among FSWs in India by perpetrators of violence and programme exposure. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study conducted among FSWs in 2009 across four states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The analytical sample included 1341 FSWs who experienced physical violence in past six months. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by state was conducted to examine predictors of non-disclosure. About 54% of FSWs did not disclose their experience of violence to anyone with considerable variations in the pattern of disclosure across states. Another 36% of FSWs shared the experience with NGO worker/peer. Compared to violence perpetrated by paying partners/stranger, that by non-paying partner were twice more likely to report non-disclosure (53% vs. 68%, Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.3-2.4). Similarly, FSWs who were not registered with an NGO/sex worker collective were 40% more likely to report non-disclosure of violence against those registered (58% vs. 53%, AOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9). Non-disclosure of physical violence is quite high among FSWs which can be a barrier to the success of violence reduction efforts. Immediate efforts are required to understand the reasons behind non-disclosure based on which interventions can be developed. Community collectivisation and designing gender-based interventions with the involvement of non-paying partners should be the way forward.

  15. The traditional Chinese medicine prescription pattern of patients with primary dysmenorrhea in Taiwan: a large-scale cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jung-Chuan; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Fang, Ruei-Chi; Yeh, Chia-Hao

    2014-03-14

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), when given for symptom relief, has gained widespread popularity among women with primary dysmenorrhea (PD). The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of TCM among PD women in Taiwan. The use, service frequency and Chinese herbal products prescribed for PD women were evaluated using a cross sectional survey of 23,118 beneficiaries who were recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for utilization of TCM. Overall, 53.4% (N=12,349) of PD women utilized TCM and 92.2% of them sought TCM with the intention of treating their menstruation-related pain symptoms. PD women who do not take prescription painkillers (aOR=35.75, 95% CI:33.20-38.49) were more likely to seek TCM treatment than those who took pain medication (aOR=1.00). There were a total of 213,249 TCM visits due to PD, of which more than 99% were treated with Chinese herbal products (CHPs). Dang-gui-shao-yao-san (Tangkuei and Peony Powder) was the most frequently prescribed formula for treating PD. Primary dysmenorrhea women tended to use Chinese herbal products to deal with pain-related symptoms, rather than use acupuncture. Dang-gui-shao-yao-san, which containing both sedative and anti-inflammatory agents, is the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula for the treatment of PD. A well designed, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study to further evaluate the efficacy of Dang-gui-shao-yao-san as a treatment women with primary dysmenorrhea is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Assembly of Geophysics: Scientific Disciplines as Frameworks of Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Gregory A.

    What makes any investigative field a scientific discipline? This article argues that disciplines are ever-changing frameworks within which scientific activity is organised. Moreover, disciplinarity is not a yes or no proposition: scientific activities may achieve degrees of identity development. Degree of consensus is the key, and consensus on many questions (conceptual, methodological, institutional, and social) varies among sciences. Lastly, disciplinary development is non-teleological. Disciplines pass through no regular stages on their way from immature to mature status, designations articulated within the rhetoric of discipline formation. Scientists assemble disciplines using many elements: phenomena, methods, instruments, theories, analytical techniques, and institutional tools such as journals, government bureaus, and university positions. Scientists created geophysics during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries through such a combination. Whether geophysics became a discipline depends on how discipline is defined.

  17. Personal and Social Performance (PSP scale for patients with schizophrenia: translation to Portuguese, cross-cultural adaptation and interrater reliability

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    Anny Karinna Pires Mendes Menezes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder associated with impairment in social functioning. The most widely used scale to measure social functioning is the GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning, but it has the disadvantage of measuring at the same time symptoms and functioning, as described in its anchors. OBJECTIVES:Translation and cultural adaptation of the PSP, proposing a final version in Portuguese for use in Brazil. METHODS: We performed five steps: 1 translation; 2 back translation; 3 formal assessment of semantic equivalence; 4 debriefing; 5 analysis by experts. Interrater reliability (Intraclass correlation, ICC between two raters was also measured. RESULTS: The final version was applied by two independent investigators in 18 adults with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR. The interrater reliability (ICC was 0.812 (p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: The translation and adaptation of the PSP had an adequate level of semantic equivalence between the Portuguese version and the original English version. There were no difficulties related to understanding the content expressed in the translated texts and terms. Its application was easy and it showed a good interrater reliability. The PSP is a valid instrument for the measurement of personal and social functioning in schizophrenia.

  18. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of sexual dysfunction modified scale in multiple sclerosis for Brazilian population

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    Raquel Ataíde Peres da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. These patients suffer from various comorbidities, including sexual dysfunction (SD. The lesions of MS may affect regions of the CNS along the pathway of sexual response. The Multiple Sclerosis Intimacy and Sexuality Questionnaire-19 (MSISQ-19 is a scale that assesses sexual dysfunction. Adapt and validate the MSISQ-19 to Brazilian patients with MS. 204 individuals were evaluated, 134 patients with MS and 70 healthy persons for the control group. It was determined reproducibility, validity, internal consistency and sensitivity of the MSISQ-19-BR. Among patients with MS, 54.3% of male and 71.7% of female presented some kind of SD. In the control group the results were 12.5% and 19.5%, respectively. The MSISQ-19-BR is reproducible, reliable and valid for the Brazilian population and may be used as a tool for assessing the impact of sexual dysfunction in patients with MS.

  19. The Dojang: School of Discipline and Morality

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    Gonzalo Ariel Millán

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Martial arts can be defined as history in motion. Few sport activities of international fame represent a complex symbolic and practical repertory of ethic morality and aesthetic sensuality so distinctive of a nation as the Korean martial disciplines do, especially taekwondo and gumdo. Similar to other combat sports the martial arts gym (dojang is the place where values are produced and reproduced and where the appropriation of skills, cognition and recognition – degrees, certificates, and so on – that legitimates the social and bodily devotion of an individual to a martial art takes place. This article aims to transmit the emotions generated in a neophyte by the practice of a martial art and the social and kinaesthetic strains that result from this action in modern Korean society. It also explores some of the historical factors linked to its development and rapid expansion, in barely half a century.

  20. Molecular pharmacognosy: a new borderline discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Cui, Guang-Hong; Dai, Zhu-Bo; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2009-11-01

    Pharmacognosy has developed rapidly in recent years and now represents a highly interdisciplinary science. At the boundary between pharmacognosy and molecular biology, molecular pharmacognosy has developed as a new borderline discipline. Using the method and technology of molecular biology, molecular pharmacognosy focuses on resolving a wide range of challenging problems, such as distinguishing herbal and animal drug populations by molecular marker assay, conserving and utilizing wild resources on the basis of knowledge of genetic diversity, investigating the mechanism of active compound accumulation and obtaining new resources with higher quality through genetic engineering. Recent research results show that molecular pharmacognosy has extended the scope of pharmacognostical science and plays an important role in the safe and efficient usage of crude drugs.

  1. A new discipline: Confined Areas Medicine

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    Stefano Agostinis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Confined Areas Medicine is a new discipline devoted to a specific branch of the components of emergency services. In it convey the characteristics typical of behavioral intervention in hostile area peculiar of the National Fire Corps and the National Speleological and Alpine Corps. While not considering the natural events that cause the collapse of housing the Italian case reported in the last fifty years about two hundred structural collapses that are charged over a thousand deaths (source: ISTAT 2006. Analysis of the documents accessible to the public today we can say without fear of denials, that 25% of these deaths are due to relief late or ineffective treatment on the spot. In fact, the NFPA (National Fire Protection Association claims that 10% of victims trapped under the rubble can be saved with a location and an early recovery, which can significantly increase this percentage with the health care stabilization directly at the place of discovery.

  2. Synthetic biology: an emerging engineering discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Allen A; Lu, Timothy K

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, synthetic biology has emerged as an engineering discipline for biological systems. Compared with other substrates, biology poses a unique set of engineering challenges resulting from an incomplete understanding of natural biological systems and tools for manipulating them. To address these challenges, synthetic biology is advancing from developing proof-of-concept designs to focusing on core platforms for rational and high-throughput biological engineering. These platforms span the entire biological design cycle, including DNA construction, parts libraries, computational design tools, and interfaces for manipulating and probing synthetic circuits. The development of these enabling technologies requires an engineering mindset to be applied to biology, with an emphasis on generalizable techniques in addition to application-specific designs. This review aims to discuss the progress and challenges in synthetic biology and to illustrate areas where synthetic biology may impact biomedical engineering and human health.

  3. The reformative discipline of the landscape

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    Antonio Esposito

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We have been granted a new season that is much too long and devastating during which an indigestible amount has been built in a very brief period. Eventually, we will have to address this with actions of either reclamation or redevelopment and architecture will have to know how to propose itself as a guiding discipline that will reform the Italian landscape, especially the urban one. It will be necessary to conceive a critical point of view with respect to the usual logic used in redevelopment building that tends to overlook collective interests. Architecture is a collective art, in its contributions and results. Design on the other hand, is a personal art, which has become closely connected to architecture in recent years, a privileged vehicle that has allowed the designer and the products of design reach commercial gains.

  4. Data science as an academic discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Jack Smith

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available I recall being a proud young academic about 1970; I had just received a research grant to build and study a scientific database, and I had joined CODATA. I was looking forward to the future in this new exciting discipline when the head of my department, an internationally known professor, advised me that data was “a low level activity” not suitable for an academic. I recall my dismay. What can we do to ensure that this does not happen again and that data science is universally recognized as a worthwhile academic activity? Incidentally, I did not take that advice, or I would not be writing this essay, but moved into computer science. I will use my experience to draw comparisons between the problems computer science had to become academically recognized and those faced by data science.

  5. Cross-species comparison of biological themes and underlying genes on a global gene expression scale in a mouse model of colorectal liver metastasis and in clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schirmacher Peter

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasion-related genes over-expressed by tumor cells as well as by reacting host cells represent promising drug targets for anti-cancer therapy. Such candidate genes need to be validated in appropriate animal models. Results This study examined the suitability of a murine model (CT26/Balb/C of colorectal liver metastasis to represent clinical liver metastasis specimens using a global gene expression approach. Cross-species similarity was examined between pure liver, liver invasion, tumor invasion and pure tumor compartments through overlap of up-regulated genes and gene ontology (GO-based biological themes on the level of single GO-terms and of condensed GO-term families. Three out of four GO-term families were conserved in a compartment-specific way between the species: secondary metabolism (liver, invasion (invasion front, and immune response (invasion front and liver. Among the individual GO-terms over-represented in the invasion compartments in both species were "extracellular matrix", "cell motility", "cell adhesion" and "antigen presentation" indicating that typical invasion related processes are operating in both species. This was reflected on the single gene level as well, as cross-species overlap of potential target genes over-expressed in the combined invasion front compartments reached up to 36.5%. Generally, histopathology and gene expression correlated well as the highest single gene overlap was found to be 44% in syn-compartmental comparisons (liver versus liver whereas cross-compartmental overlaps were much lower (e.g. liver versus tumor: 9.7%. However, single gene overlap was surprisingly high in some cross-compartmental comparisons (e.g. human liver invasion compartment and murine tumor invasion compartment: 9.0% despite little histolopathologic similarity indicating that invasion relevant genes are not necessarily confined to histologically defined compartments. Conclusion In summary, cross

  6. Advanced Large Scale Cross Domain Temporal Topic Modeling Algorithms to Infer the Influence of Recent Research on IPCC Assessment Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, J.; Halem, M.; Finin, T.; Cane, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Approximately every five years dating back to 1989, thousands of climate scientists, research centers and government labs volunteer to prepare comprehensive Assessment Reports for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. These are highly curated reports distributed to 200 nation policy makers. There have been five IPCC Assessment Reports to date, the latest leading to a Paris Agreement in Dec. 2016 signed thus far by 172 nations to limit the amount of global Greenhouse gases emitted to producing no more than a 20 C warming of the atmosphere. These reports are a living evolving big data collection tracing 30 years of climate science research, observations, and model scenario intercomparisons. They contain more than 200,000 citations over a 30 year period that trace the evolution of the physical basis of climate science, the observed and predicted impact, risk and adaptation to increased greenhouse gases and mitigation approaches, pathways, policies for climate change. Document-topic and topic-term probability distributions are built from the vocabularies of the respective assessment report chapters and citations. Using Microsoft Bing, we retrieve 150,000 citations referenced across chapters and convert those citations to text. Using a word n-gram model based on a heterogeneous set of climate change terminology, lemmatization, noise filtering and stopword elimination, we calculate word frequencies for chapters and citations. Temporal document sets are built based on the assessment period. In addition to topic modeling, we employ cross domain correlation measures. Using the Jensen-Shannon divergence and Pearson correlation we build correlation matrices for chapter and citations topics. The shared vocabulary acts as the bridge between domains resulting in chapter-citation point pairs in space. Pairs are established based on a document-topic probability distribution. Each chapter and citation is associated with a vector of topics and based on the n most probable

  7. SEARCH: Study of Environmental Arctic Change--A System-scale, Cross-disciplinary Arctic Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnoro, R. S.; Eicken, H.; Francis, J. A.; Scambos, T. A.; Schuur, E. A.; Straneo, F.; Wiggins, H. V.

    2013-12-01

    SEARCH is an interdisciplinary, interagency program that works with academic and government agency scientists and stakeholders to plan, conduct, and synthesize studies of Arctic change. Over the past three years, SEARCH has developed a new vision and mission, a set of prioritized cross-disciplinary 5-year goals, an integrated set of activities, and an organizational structure. The vision of SEARCH is to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic. SEARCH's 5-year science goals include: 1. Improve understanding, advance prediction, and explore consequences of changing Arctic sea ice. 2. Document and understand how degradation of near-surface permafrost will affect Arctic and global systems. 3. Improve predictions of future land-ice loss and impacts on sea level. 4. Analyze societal and policy implications of Arctic environmental change. Action Teams organized around each of the 5-year goals will serve as standing groups responsible for implementing specific goal activities. Members will be drawn from academia, different agencies and stakeholders, with a range of disciplinary backgrounds and perspectives. 'Arctic Futures 2050' scenarios tasks will describe plausible future states of the arctic system based on recent trajectories and projected changes. These scenarios will combine a range of data including climate model output, paleo-data, results from data synthesis and systems modeling, as well as expert scientific and traditional knowledge. Current activities include: - Arctic Observing Network (AON) - coordinating a system of atmospheric, land- and ocean-based environmental monitoring capabilities that will significantly advance our observations of arctic environmental conditions. - Arctic Sea Ice Outlook - an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. A newly-launched Sea Ice Prediction Network

  8. The nursing work environment and quality of care: A cross-sectional study using the Essentials of Magnetism II Scale in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshodi, Titilayo O; Crockett, Rachel; Bruneau, Benjamin; West, Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    To explore the structure of the Essentials of Magnetism II (EOMII) scale using data from nurses working in England; and to describe the impact of different aspects of the nursing work environment on nurse-assessed care quality (NACQ). The EOMII Scale was developed in the United States to measure nursing work environments. It has been widely used in the United States and in a number of other countries, but has not yet been used in the UK. Cross-sectional study. Registered nurses (n = 247) providing direct patient care in two National Health Service hospitals in England completed the EOMII scale and a single-item measuring NACQ. Principal components analysis was used to assess the structure of the scale. Correlation and regression analyses were used to describe the relationships between factors and NACQ. A solution with explanatory variance of 45.25% was identified. Forty items loaded on five factors, with satisfactory consistency: (i) ward manager support; (ii) working as a team; (iii) concern for patients; (iv) organisational autonomy; and (v) constraints on nursing practice. While in univariate analyses, each of the factors was significantly associated with NACQ, in multivariate analyses, the relationship between organisational autonomy and NACQ no longer reached significance. However, a multiple mediation model indicated that the effect of organisational autonomy on NACQ was mediated by nurse manager support, working as a team and concern for patients but not constraints on nursing practice. Subscales of the EOMII identified in an English sample of nurses measured important aspects of the nursing work environment, each of which is related to NACQ. The EOMII could be a very useful tool for measuring aspects of the nursing work environment in the English Trusts particularly in relation to the quality of care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the driving anger scale (DAS): long form and short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantini, Jessye Almeida; Santos, George Oliveira; Machado, Eduardo de Carvalho; Nardi, Antonio Egídio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Driving anger has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years because it may induce individuals to drive aggressively or adopt risk behaviors. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was designed to evaluate the propensity of drivers to become angry or aggressive while driving. This study describes the cross-cultural adaptation of a Brazilian version of the short form and the long form of the DAS. Translation and adaptation were made in four steps: two translations and two back-translations carried out by independent evaluators; the development of a brief version by four bilingual experts in mental health and driving behaviors; a subsequent experimental application; and, finally, an investigation of operational equivalence. Final Brazilian versions of the short form and of the long form of the DAS were made and are presented. This important instrument, which assesses driving anger and aggressive behaviors, is now available to evaluate the driving behaviors of the Brazilian population, which facilitates research in this field.

  10. Quantifying Discipline Practices Using Absolute vs. Relative Frequencies: Clinical and Research Implications for Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Shaffer, Anne; Kolko, David J.

    2014-01-01

    In the parent intervention outcome literatures, discipline practices are generally quantified as absolute frequencies or, less commonly, as relative frequencies. These differences in methodology warrant direct comparison as they have critical implications for study results and conclusions among treatments targeted at reducing parental aggression and harsh discipline. In this study, we directly compared the absolute frequency method and the relative frequency method for quantifying physically aggressive, psychologically aggressive, and nonaggressive discipline practices. Longitudinal data over a 3-year period came from an existing data set of a clinical trial examining the effectiveness of a psychosocial treatment in reducing parental physical and psychological aggression and improving child behavior (N = 139; Kolko et al., 2009). Discipline practices (both aggressive and nonaggressive) were assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS; Straus et al., 1998). The two methods yielded different patterns of results, particularly for nonaggressive discipline strategies. We suggest that each method makes its own unique contribution to a more complete understanding of the association between parental aggression and intervention effects. PMID:24106146

  11. The Chinese version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia was cross-culturally adapted and validated in patients with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xianzhao; Xu, Ximing; Zhao, Yongfei; Hu, Wen; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain a cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of a Simplified Chinese (SC) version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) for use in patients with low back pain (LBP). The TSK was translated and adapted cross-culturally following international guidelines. It was administered to 150 patients with LBP along with the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index, Short Form Health Survey, and a pain visual analog scale assessment. Measurement properties, including content validity, construct validity (structural validity and hypotheses testing), internal consistency, and test-retest reliability, were tested. The final analysis included data from 142 patients. Content validity analysis led to the exclusion of four reverse-scored items due to low item-total correlation. Structural validity analysis favored a three-factor structure: somatic focus, activity avoidance, and avoidance belief. Construct validity analysis confirmed 9 of 11 a priori hypotheses. Both the 17-item and 13-item versions of the SC-TSK had excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.74 and 0.82, all values, respectively) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.86, 0.90). TSK was adapted successfully into an SC version with excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability and with acceptable construct validity. A 13-item, three-factored SC-TSK structure was deemed to be a good fit for Chinese patients and appropriate for clinical and research use in mainland China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the French version of the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Esculier, Jean-Francois; Maltais, Désirée B

    2014-06-01

    The Activities of Daily Living Scale of the Knee Outcome Survey (KOS-ADLS) is a joint-specific questionnaire measuring functional limitation experienced by individuals with knee disorders. The original English version of the KOS-ADLS has been shown to be highly reliable and responsive to change. The purpose of this study was to perform a translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the original version of the KOS-ADLS questionnaire into French and to validate this French version of the questionnaire. In accordance with standard procedure, the original version of the KOS-ADLS was translated and cross-culturally adapted into French. Once the final French version of the KOS-ADLS was developed, it was subjected to further psychometric evaluation with 76 individuals with knee disorders. Each participant completed the KOS-ADLS on three occasions: at baseline, two days later to evaluate test-retest reliability, and four weeks later to evaluate responsiveness. Symptoms and function-oriented construct questions were also completed to evaluate construct-convergent and known-group validity. The cross-cultural adaptation procedure revealed no major problems with content or language. The French version of the KOS-ADLS showed excellent test-retest reliability with low measurement error (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.92, minimal detectable change = 8.3), as well as high responsiveness (standardized response mean = 1.41; clinically important difference = 13.6). Further, it discriminates between different levels of self-rated or clinician-rated knee function. The French version of the KOS-ADLS is a reliable, valid and responsive questionnaire for the assessment of functional limitation in individuals with musculoskeletal knee disorders. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Is the General Self-Efficacy Scale a Reliable Measure to be used in Cross-Cultural Studies? Results from Brazil, Germany and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damásio, Bruno F; Valentini, Felipe; Núñes-Rodriguez, Susana I; Kliem, Soeren; Koller, Sílvia H; Hinz, Andreas; Brähler, Elmar; Finck, Carolyn; Zenger, Markus

    2016-05-26

    This study evaluated cross-cultural measurement invariance for the General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES) in a large Brazilian (N = 2.394) and representative German (N = 2.046) and Colombian (N = 1.500) samples. Initially, multiple-indicators multiple-causes (MIMIC) analyses showed that sex and age were biasing items responses on the total sample (2 and 10 items, respectively). After controlling for these two covariates, a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) was employed. Configural invariance was attested. However, metric invariance was not supported for five items, in a total of 10, and scalar invariance was not supported for all items. We also evaluated the differences between the latent scores estimated by two models: MIMIC and MGCFA unconstraining the non-equivalent parameters across countries. The average difference was equal to |.07| on the estimation of the latent scores, and 22.8% of the scores were biased in at least .10 standardized points. Bias effects were above the mean for the German group, which the average difference was equal to |.09|, and 33.7% of the scores were biased in at least .10. In synthesis, the GSES did not provide evidence of measurement invariance to be employed in this cross-cultural study. More than that, our results showed that even when controlling for sex and age effects, the absence of control on items parameters in the MGCFA analyses across countries would implicate in bias of the latent scores estimation, with a higher effect for the German population.

  14. Modeling of the cross-beam energy transfer with realistic inertial-confinement-fusion beams in a large-scale hydrocode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaïtis, A; Duchateau, G; Ribeyre, X; Tikhonchuk, V

    2015-01-01

    A method for modeling realistic laser beams smoothed by kinoform phase plates is presented. The ray-based paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO) model with Gaussian thick rays allows one to create intensity variations, or pseudospeckles, that reproduce the beam envelope, contrast, and high-intensity statistics predicted by paraxial laser propagation codes. A steady-state cross-beam energy-transfer (CBET) model is implemented in a large-scale radiative hydrocode based on the PCGO model. It is used in conjunction with the realistic beam modeling technique to study the effects of CBET between coplanar laser beams on the target implosion. The pseudospeckle pattern imposed by PCGO produces modulations in the irradiation field and the shell implosion pressure. Cross-beam energy transfer between beams at 20(∘) and 40(∘) significantly degrades the irradiation symmetry by amplifying low-frequency modes and reducing the laser-capsule coupling efficiency, ultimately leading to large modulations of the shell areal density and lower convergence ratios. These results highlight the role of laser-plasma interaction and its influence on the implosion dynamics.

  15. A simultaneous measurement of the $b$-tagging efficiency scale factor and the $t\\bar{t}$ Production Cross Section at the Collider Detector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Nazim; /McGill U.

    2011-07-01

    The ability to compare results between Monte Carlo and data is imperative in modern experimental high-energy physics analyses. The b-tagging efficiency Scale Factor (SF) allows for an accurate comparison of b quark identification in data samples and Monte Carlo. This thesis presents a simultaneous measurement of the SF for the SecVtx algorithm and the t{bar t} production cross section using 5.6 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment. The t{bar t} cross section was measured to be 7.26 {+-} 0.47 pb, consistent with prior CDF analyses. The tight SF value was measured to be 0.925 {+-} 0.032 and the loose SF value was measured at 0.967 {+-} 0.033. These are the most precise SF SecVtx measurements to be performed at CDF to date.

  16. Intramyocellular lipids of muscle type in athletes of different sport disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa Y.; Hattori M

    2017-01-01

    Yoshinao Nakagawa,1 Masaaki Hattori2 1Human Performance Lab, Otaru University, Otaru, Hokkaido, 2Department of Community Development, Tokai University, Sapporo, Japan Abstract: The present study used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to examine quantitative differences in intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) contents in various muscle types at rest for individual athletes from different sport disciplines. Five groups consisting of sprinters, alpine skiers, cross-country skiers, endurance runn...

  17. Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Validity and Reliability of the Arabic Version of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaweh, Hadeel; Svantesson, Ulla; Rosberg, Susanne; Willen, Carin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of an Arabic language version (Ar) of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) with respect to its use with Arabic-speaking elderly subjects. For cross-cultural adaptation, the translation of the original English version of the scale was conducted based on the protocol of the Prevention of Falls Network Europe (ProFaNE). The FES-I (Ar) was administered via face-to-face interviews to 108 community-dwelling elderly Palestinians (61 women and 47 men, aged 60-84 years). Statistical analyses were used to determine group differences with respect to age, gender and fall history. To assess validity, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation between the total scores of FES-I (Ar) and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, gait speed and balance. Test-retest reliability between the two test occasions was assessed in accordance with Svensson's method. The FES-I (Ar) total scores were positively correlated with TUG (r(s) = 0.641, p Arabic-speaking elderly persons. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation of self-esteem scale for adolescents / Adaptação transcultural de escala de auto-estima para adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joviana Q. Avanci

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a cross-cultural adaptation (Herdman, Fox-Rushby & Badia, 1998 of "Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale" for adolescents who live in an urban neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro (São Gonçalo. The sample was composed of 266 adolescents, students of the 7th/ 8th grade of Elementary School and of the 1st/2nd grade of High School, of public and private schools of São Gonçalo/RJ. The following equivalences were evaluated: conceptual and itens equivalences, semantic equivalence (referential and general meaning, measurement equivalence (test-retest reliability, internal consistency, factorial analysis and construct validity and operational and functional equivalences. Good results were obtained for semantics equivalence, alpha of Cronbach was of 0.68, the Kappa was moderate and regular, and the factorial analysis proposed two structures of factors (low and high self-esteem. Construct validity showed significant positive correlation with social support and negative correlation with psychological abuse, violence between parents and brothers. The results indicate the applicability of the scale in a reference population, suggesting the necessity to develop others studies in distinct samples.

  19. Cross-Cultural Validity, Reliability, and Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson’s Disease-Psychosocial Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Considering the influence of different motor and nonmotor features of Parkinson’s disease (PD, it is important to evaluate the psychosocial functioning of the patients. For this purpose, the scales for outcomes in Parkinson’s disease-psychosocial questionnaire (SCOPA-PS has been previously designed. The aim of our study was to assess the cross-cultural validation and psychometric properties of the Persian version of the SCOPA-PS. Methods. One hundred and ten nondemented idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD patients were consecutively recruited from an outpatient referral movement disorder clinic. Eligible patients filled up a number of questionnaires including the Persian version of SCOPA-PS during the face-to-face interview session and clinical examination to measure disease severity, nonmotor psychiatric symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Results. The highest and lowest correlation coefficients of internal consistency were reported for item 7 on “asking for help” (r=0.765 and item 5 on “sexual problems” (r=0.553. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient of the entire scale was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.83–0.90. The Hoehn and Yahr stage (r=0.34, P<0.001, Schwab and England ADL scale (r=-0.55, P<0.001, anxiety (r=0.64, P<0.001, depression (r=0.71, P<0.001, and fatigue (r=0.35, P<0.001 were significantly correlated with the total score of the SCOPA-PS questionnaire. Conclusions. The Persian version of SCOPA-PS is a highly reliable and valid scale to measure psychosocial functioning in IPD patients with different sex, age-group, and educational level, which could be applied in future researches. Disease severity scales, depression, anxiety, fatigue, and different domains of HRQoL were all associated with psychosocial functioning in PD patients.

  20. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the health of small-scale farmers in Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Thomsen, Jane F; Sekimpi, Deogratias K; Maziina, James; Racheal, Apio; Jørs, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Over the past years there has been an increase in the use of pesticides in developing countries. This study describes pesticide use among small-scale farmers in Uganda and analyses predictors of pesticide poisoning (intoxication) symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a standardized questionnaire. Some 317 small-scale farmers in two districts in Uganda were interviewed about pesticide use, knowledge and attitude, symptoms of intoxication, personal protective equipment (PPE) and hygiene. The risk of reporting symptoms was analysed using logistic regression analysis. The most frequently used pesticides belonged to WHO class II. The farmers had poor knowledge about pesticide toxicity, and the majority did not use appropriate PPE nor good hygiene when handling pesticides. There was no significant association between the number of times of spraying with pesticides and self-reported symptoms of pesticide poisoning. The only significant association was between blowing and sucking the nozzle of the knapsack sprayer and self-reported symptoms of pesticide intoxication (OR: 2.13. 95% CI: 1.09 - 4.18). Unlike the practice in several other developing countries, small-scale farmers in Uganda do not use the most hazardous pesticides (WHO class 1a and 1b). However use of WHO class II pesticides and those of lower toxicity is seen in combination with inadequate knowledge and practice among the farmers. This poses a danger of acute intoxications, chronic health problems and environmental pollution. Training of farmers in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) methods, use of proper hygiene and personal protective equipment when handling pesticides should be promoted.