WorldWideScience

Sample records for scale structural comparison

  1. The natural armors of fish: A comparison of the lamination pattern and structure of scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murcia, Sandra; Lavoie, Ellen; Linley, Tim; Devaraj, Arun; Ossa, E. Alex; Arola, D.

    2017-09-01

    Fish scales exhibit a unique balance of flexibility, strength and toughness, which is essential to provide protection without encumbering locomotion. Although the mechanical behavior and structure of this natural armor are of recent interest, a comparison of these qualities from scales of different fish species has not been reported. In this investigation the armor of fish with different locomotion, size and protection needs were analyzed. Scales from the Arapaima gigas, the tarpon (Megalops atlanticus) and the carp (Cyprinus carpio) were compared in terms of the stacking sequence of individual plies and their microstructure. The scales were also compared with respect to anatomical position to distinguish site-specific functional differences. Results show that the lamination sequence of plies for the carp and tarpon exhibit a Bouligand structure with relative rotation of 75° between consecutive plies. The arapaima scales exhibit a cross-ply structure, with 90° rotation between adjacent plies. In addition, results indicate that the volume fraction of reinforcement, the number of plies and the variations in thickness with anatomical position are unique amongst the three fish. These characteristics should be considered in evaluations focused on the mechanical behavior.

  2. The natural armors of fish: A comparison of the lamination pattern and structure of scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Sandra; Lavoie, Ellen; Linley, Tim; Devaraj, Arun; Ossa, E Alex; Arola, D

    2017-09-01

    Fish scales exhibit a unique balance of flexibility, strength and toughness, which is essential to provide protection without encumbering locomotion. Although the mechanical behavior and structure of this natural armor are of recent interest, a comparison of these qualities from scales of different fish species has not been reported. In this investigation the armor of fish with different locomotion, size and protection needs were analyzed. Scales from the Arapaima gigas, the tarpon (Megalops atlanticus) and the carp (Cyprinus carpio) were compared in terms of the stacking sequence of individual plies and their microstructure. The scales were also compared with respect to anatomical position to distinguish site-specific functional differences. Results show that the lamination sequence of plies for the carp and tarpon exhibit a Bouligand structure with relative rotation of 75° between consecutive plies. The arapaima scales exhibit a cross-ply structure, with 90° rotation between adjacent plies. In addition, results indicate that the volume fraction of reinforcement, the number of plies and the variations in thickness with anatomical position are unique amongst the three fish. These characteristics should be considered in evaluations focused on the mechanical behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Factor structure and measurement invariance of a multidimensional loneliness scale : Comparisons across gender and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, Marlies; Klimstra, T.A.; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Goossens, Luc

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the factor structure of a multidimensional loneliness measure, that is, the Loneliness and Aloneness Scale for Children and Adolescents (LACA). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on a large sample of children and adolescents (N = 9,676) in Belgium. Results indicated

  4. Large-scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    White, S D M

    1993-01-01

    Abstract. Recent observational surveys have made substantial progress in quantifying the structure of the Universe on large scales. Galaxy density and galaxy velocity fields show deviations from the predictions of a homogeneous and isotropic world model on scales approaching one percent of the current hori— zon scale. A comparison of the amplitudes in density and in velocity provides the first direct dynamical evidence in favour of a high mean density similar to that required for closure. The fluctuations observed on these scales have the amplitude predicted by the standard Cold Dark Matter (CDM) model when this model is normalised to agree with the microwave background fluc- tuations measured on much larger scales by the COBE satellite. However, a CDM model with this amplitude appears inconsistent with observational data on smaller scales. In addition it predicts a scale dependence of fluctua— tion amplitude which disagrees with that observed for galaxies in the APM survey of two million faint galaxi...

  5. Large-Scale Sequence Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Devi; Verma, Mansi

    2017-01-01

    There are millions of sequences deposited in genomic databases, and it is an important task to categorize them according to their structural and functional roles. Sequence comparison is a prerequisite for proper categorization of both DNA and protein sequences, and helps in assigning a putative or hypothetical structure and function to a given sequence. There are various methods available for comparing sequences, alignment being first and foremost for sequences with a small number of base pairs as well as for large-scale genome comparison. Various tools are available for performing pairwise large sequence comparison. The best known tools either perform global alignment or generate local alignments between the two sequences. In this chapter we first provide basic information regarding sequence comparison. This is followed by the description of the PAM and BLOSUM matrices that form the basis of sequence comparison. We also give a practical overview of currently available methods such as BLAST and FASTA, followed by a description and overview of tools available for genome comparison including LAGAN, MumMER, BLASTZ, and AVID.

  6. Comparison of prestellar core elongations and large-scale molecular cloud structures in the Lupus I region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poidevin, Frédérick [UCL, KLB, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Nutter, David [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Angile, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeffrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Benton, Steven J.; Netterfield, Calvin B. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada); Chapin, Edward L. [XMM SOC, ESAC, Apartado 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canãda, Madrid (Spain); Fissel, Laura M.; Gandilo, Natalie N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Gundersen, Joshua O. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Korotkov, Andrei L. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Matthews, Tristan G.; Novak, Giles [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Olmi, Luca, E-mail: fpoidevin@iac.es [Physics Department, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Box 23343, UPR station, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States); and others

    2014-08-10

    Turbulence and magnetic fields are expected to be important for regulating molecular cloud formation and evolution. However, their effects on sub-parsec to 100 parsec scales, leading to the formation of starless cores, are not well understood. We investigate the prestellar core structure morphologies obtained from analysis of the Herschel-SPIRE 350 μm maps of the Lupus I cloud. This distribution is first compared on a statistical basis to the large-scale shape of the main filament. We find the distribution of the elongation position angle of the cores to be consistent with a random distribution, which means no specific orientation of the morphology of the cores is observed with respect to the mean orientation of the large-scale filament in Lupus I, nor relative to a large-scale bent filament model. This distribution is also compared to the mean orientation of the large-scale magnetic fields probed at 350 μm with the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Telescope for Polarimetry during its 2010 campaign. Here again we do not find any correlation between the core morphology distribution and the average orientation of the magnetic fields on parsec scales. Our main conclusion is that the local filament dynamics—including secondary filaments that often run orthogonally to the primary filament—and possibly small-scale variations in the local magnetic field direction, could be the dominant factors for explaining the final orientation of each core.

  7. Comparison of Conjugate Gradient Density Matrix Search and Chebyshev Expansion Methods for Avoiding Diagonalization in Large-Scale Electronic Structure Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Kevin R.; Daniels, Andrew D.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    1998-01-01

    We report a comparison of two linear-scaling methods which avoid the diagonalization bottleneck of traditional electronic structure algorithms. The Chebyshev expansion method (CEM) is implemented for carbon tight-binding calculations of large systems and its memory and timing requirements compared to those of our previously implemented conjugate gradient density matrix search (CG-DMS). Benchmark calculations are carried out on icosahedral fullerenes from C60 to C8640 and the linear scaling memory and CPU requirements of the CEM demonstrated. We show that the CPU requisites of the CEM and CG-DMS are similar for calculations with comparable accuracy.

  8. RNA-TVcurve: a Web server for RNA secondary structure comparison based on a multi-scale similarity of its triple vector curve representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Shi, Xiaohu; Liang, Yanchun; Xie, Juan; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Qin

    2017-01-21

    RNAs have been found to carry diverse functionalities in nature. Inferring the similarity between two given RNAs is a fundamental step to understand and interpret their functional relationship. The majority of functional RNAs show conserved secondary structures, rather than sequence conservation. Those algorithms relying on sequence-based features usually have limitations in their prediction performance. Hence, integrating RNA structure features is very critical for RNA analysis. Existing algorithms mainly fall into two categories: alignment-based and alignment-free. The alignment-free algorithms of RNA comparison usually have lower time complexity than alignment-based algorithms. An alignment-free RNA comparison algorithm was proposed, in which novel numerical representations RNA-TVcurve (triple vector curve representation) of RNA sequence and corresponding secondary structure features are provided. Then a multi-scale similarity score of two given RNAs was designed based on wavelet decomposition of their numerical representation. In support of RNA mutation and phylogenetic analysis, a web server (RNA-TVcurve) was designed based on this alignment-free RNA comparison algorithm. It provides three functional modules: 1) visualization of numerical representation of RNA secondary structure; 2) detection of single-point mutation based on secondary structure; and 3) comparison of pairwise and multiple RNA secondary structures. The inputs of the web server require RNA primary sequences, while corresponding secondary structures are optional. For the primary sequences alone, the web server can compute the secondary structures using free energy minimization algorithm in terms of RNAfold tool from Vienna RNA package. RNA-TVcurve is the first integrated web server, based on an alignment-free method, to deliver a suite of RNA analysis functions, including visualization, mutation analysis and multiple RNAs structure comparison. The comparison results with two popular RNA

  9. A nonlinear structural subgrid-scale closure for compressible MHD Part II: a priori comparison on turbulence simulation data

    CERN Document Server

    Grete, P; Schmidt, W; Schleicher, D R G

    2016-01-01

    Even though compressible plasma turbulence is encountered in many astrophysical phenomena, its effect is often not well understood. Furthermore, direct numerical simulations are typically not able to reach the extreme parameters of these processes. For this reason, large-eddy simulations (LES), which only simulate large and intermediate scales directly, are employed. The smallest, unresolved scales and the interactions between small and large scales are introduced by means of a subgrid-scale (SGS) model. We propose and verify a new set of nonlinear SGS closures for future application as an SGS model in LES of compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We use 15 simulations (without explicit SGS model) of forced, isotropic, homogeneous turbulence with varying sonic Mach number $\\mathrm{M_s} = 0.2$ to $20$ as reference data for the most extensive \\textit{a priori} tests performed so far in literature. In these tests we explicitly filter the reference data and compare the performance of the new closures against th...

  10. Challenging comparison of stroke scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavian Ghandehari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke scales can be classified as clinicometric scales and functional impairment, handicap scales. All studies describing stroke scales were reviewed by internet searching engines with the final search performed on January 1, 2013. The following string of keywords was entered into search engines; stroke, scale, score and disability. Despite advantages of modified National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and Scandinavian stroke scale comparing to the NIHSS, including their simplification and less inter-rater variability; most of the stroke neurologists around the world continue using the NIHSS. The modified Rankin scale (mRS and Barthel index (BI are widely used functional impairment and disability scales. Distinction between grades of mRS is poorly defined. The Asian stroke disability scale is a simplified functional impairment, handicap scale which is as valid as mRS and BI. At the present time, the NIHSS, mRS and BI are routine stroke scales because physicians have used to work with these scales for more than two decades, although it could not be an acceptable reason. On the other side, results of previous stroke trials, which are the basis of stroke management guidelines are driven using these scales.

  11. A Comparison of the Structural Factors of the Propensity for Abusiveness Scale for Women and Men in a Domestic Violence Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Maas, Carl D; Barber, Sara

    2015-08-01

    Court-mandated domestic violence (DV) treatment programs across the country have seen a marked increase in female clients. These programs use a variety of measurement tools to assess the needs of their clients. Increased numbers of women in treatment for DV reflect a need to address the measurement of intimate partner violence (IPV) for both males and females. Unfortunately, the reliability and validity of many of measures used to assess IPV and related constructs for women remains unknown. The current study focuses on a particular measure, the Propensity for Abusiveness Scale (PAS). The PAS is not a measure of abusive behavior per se; rather, it assesses risk factors for abuse, including affective lability, anger expression, trauma symptoms, and harsh parenting experienced by the respondent. Specifically, the current study compares the factor structure and the measurement properties of the PAS for males and females in a sample of 885 (647 female, 238 male) participants in a DV treatment program. Findings indicate that the PAS demonstrated configural, metric, and scalar invariance between the female and male samples. These results suggest that it is appropriate for researchers and clinicians to make comparisons between women and men based on PAS factor scores. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Structural Similitude and Scaling Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitses, George J.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft and spacecraft comprise the class of aerospace structures that require efficiency and wisdom in design, sophistication and accuracy in analysis and numerous and careful experimental evaluations of components and prototype, in order to achieve the necessary system reliability, performance and safety. Preliminary and/or concept design entails the assemblage of system mission requirements, system expected performance and identification of components and their connections as well as of manufacturing and system assembly techniques. This is accomplished through experience based on previous similar designs, and through the possible use of models to simulate the entire system characteristics. Detail design is heavily dependent on information and concepts derived from the previous steps. This information identifies critical design areas which need sophisticated analyses, and design and redesign procedures to achieve the expected component performance. This step may require several independent analysis models, which, in many instances, require component testing. The last step in the design process, before going to production, is the verification of the design. This step necessitates the production of large components and prototypes in order to test component and system analytical predictions and verify strength and performance requirements under the worst loading conditions that the system is expected to encounter in service. Clearly then, full-scale testing is in many cases necessary and always very expensive. In the aircraft industry, in addition to full-scale tests, certification and safety necessitate large component static and dynamic testing. Such tests are extremely difficult, time consuming and definitely absolutely necessary. Clearly, one should not expect that prototype testing will be totally eliminated in the aircraft industry. It is hoped, though, that we can reduce full-scale testing to a minimum. Full-scale large component testing is necessary in

  13. Correlations between scale structure and pigmentation in butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, J M; Monteiro, A; Brakefield, P M

    2001-01-01

    We examined the correlation between color and structure of wing scales in the nymphalid butterflies Bicyclus anynana and Heliconius melpomene. All scales in B. anynana are rather similar in comparison to the clear structural differences of differently pigmented scales in H. melpomene. Where scale structural differences in H. melpomene are qualitative, they seem to be quantitative in B. anynana. There is a "gradient" in the density of some structural elements, the cross ribs, in the scales of B. anynana: black, gold, and brown scales show progressively lower cross rib density within an individual. There is, however, high individual variation in the absolute cross rib densities (i.e., scales with a particular color and cross rib density in one individual may have a different color but similar density in another individual). By ectopically inducing color pattern during early pupal development, we examined whether a scale's color and its microstructure could be uncoupled. The effect of these manipulations appears to be different in B. anynana and H. melpomene. In Bicyclus, "black" scales induced by wing damage at an ectopic location normally containing brown scales acquire both an intermediate structure and color between that of brown and normal black scales. In Heliconius, however, intermediate colors or scale structure were never observed, and scales with an altered color (due to damage) always have the same structure as normal scales with that color. The results are discussed on the basis of gene expression patterns, variability in rates of scale development and pigment, and scale sclerotization pathways.

  14. Factor Structure of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale: Cross-Cultural Comparisons Between Jordanian Arab and Malaysian Muslim University Students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Ahmad S

    2016-03-01

    This study reported the differences in factor structure of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) among Jordanian Arab and Malaysian Muslim participants and further examined its validity and reliability. A convenience sample of 553 Jordanian Arab and 183 Malaysian Malay Muslim university students was recruited from governmental universities in northern Jordan. The findings of this study revealed that this scale consists of two factors for the Jordanian Arab group, representing the "Religious Well-Being" and the "Existential Well-Being" subscales, and consists of three factors for the Malaysian group, representing the "Affiliation/Meaning and Purpose," "Positive Existential Well-Being/God Caring and Love," and "Alienation/Despair" subscales. In conclusion, the factor structure of the SWBS for both groups in this study was psychometrically sound with evidence of acceptable to good validity and reliability. Furthermore, this study supported the multidimensional nature of the SWBS and the earlier notion that ethnicity shapes responses to this scale. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Significant scales in community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traag, V A; Krings, G; Van Dooren, P

    2013-10-14

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of "significance" of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine "good" resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role.

  16. Measuring social desirability across language and sex: A comparison of Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale factor structures in English and Mandarin Chinese in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, A Solomon; Drescher, Christopher F; Chin, Eu Gene; Johnson, Laura R

    2016-06-01

    Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country in which multiple languages are prominently spoken, including English and Mandarin Chinese. As psychological science continues to develop within Malaysia, there is a need for psychometrically sound instruments that measure psychological phenomena in multiple languages. For example, assessment tools for measuring social desirability could be a useful addition in psychological assessments and research studies in a Malaysian context. This study examined the psychometric performance of the English and Mandarin Chinese versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale when used in Malaysia. Two hundred and eighty-three students (64% female; 83% Chinese, 9% Indian) from two college campuses completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale in their language of choice (i.e., English or Mandarin Chinese). Proposed factor structures were compared with confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple indicators-multiple causes models were used to examine measurement invariance across language and sex. Factor analyses supported a two-factor structure (i.e., Attribution and Denial) for the measure. Invariance tests revealed the scale was invariant by sex, indicating that social desirability can be interpreted similarly across sex. The scale was partially invariant by language version, with some non-invariance observed within the Denial factor. Non-invariance may be related to differences in the English and Mandarin Chinese languages, as well as cultural differences. Directions for further research include examining the measurement of social desirability in other contexts where both English and Mandarin Chinese are spoken (i.e., China) and further examining the causes of non-invariance on specific items. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Rankings, Standards, and Competition: Task vs. Scale Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Stephen M.; Tor, Avishalom

    2007-01-01

    Research showing how upward social comparison breeds competitive behavior has so far conflated local comparisons in "task" performance (e.g. a test score) with comparisons on a more general "scale" (i.e. an underlying skill). Using a ranking methodology (Garcia, Tor, & Gonzalez, 2006) to separate task and scale comparisons, Studies 1-2 reveal that…

  18. Experimental/Numerical Comparison of Turbine Efficiency and Wake Structure in an Array of 3 Scale-Model Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Danny; Bates, John; Polagye, Brian; Aliseda, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Numerical simulations and experiments are conducted for axial-flow Marine Hydro-Kinetic (MHK) turbines operating in a flume. This study aims to understand the influence of coherent structures in high Reynolds number wakes on energy extraction and dynamical rotor control processes. In experiments, rotor torque and rotational position measurements are collected, and the flow field characterized by simultaneous imaging with particle image velocimetry. The performance of 3 turbines are characterized under varying downstream spacing and lateral offsets. To study effects of unsteady hydrodynamics, the turbines are outfitted with open-loop and close-loop feedback controls and compared to the case of uncontrolled rotor. In numerical simulations, different tiers of turbine models are evaluated to discern tradeoffs in fidelity to physics versus cost. Analogous ``actuator methods'' are included from Large-Eddy-Simulations and Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes, where the models impose body forces upon the flow field in form of disks, lines, or surfaces. An aeroelastic model coupled to LES predicts the dynamical response of rotors to upstream wakes and ambient turbulence. These comparative studies inform how simulations can be scaled up to inform design of utility-scale MHK power plants.

  19. An Evaluation Framework for Large-Scale Network Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation framework for large-scale network structures is presented, which facilitates evaluations and comparisons of different physical network structures. A number of quantitative and qualitative parameters are presented, and their importance to networks discussed. Choosing a network...... is closed by an example of how the framework can be used. The framework supports network planners in decision-making and researchers in evaluation and development of network structures....

  20. Unifying Inference of Meso-Scale Structures in Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkan Tunç

    Full Text Available Networks are among the most prevalent formal representations in scientific studies, employed to depict interactions between objects such as molecules, neuronal clusters, or social groups. Studies performed at meso-scale that involve grouping of objects based on their distinctive interaction patterns form one of the main lines of investigation in network science. In a social network, for instance, meso-scale structures can correspond to isolated social groupings or groups of individuals that serve as a communication core. Currently, the research on different meso-scale structures such as community and core-periphery structures has been conducted via independent approaches, which precludes the possibility of an algorithmic design that can handle multiple meso-scale structures and deciding which structure explains the observed data better. In this study, we propose a unified formulation for the algorithmic detection and analysis of different meso-scale structures. This facilitates the investigation of hybrid structures that capture the interplay between multiple meso-scale structures and statistical comparison of competing structures, all of which have been hitherto unavailable. We demonstrate the applicability of the methodology in analyzing the human brain network, by determining the dominant organizational structure (communities of the brain, as well as its auxiliary characteristics (core-periphery.

  1. Unifying Inference of Meso-Scale Structures in Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunç, Birkan; Verma, Ragini

    2015-01-01

    Networks are among the most prevalent formal representations in scientific studies, employed to depict interactions between objects such as molecules, neuronal clusters, or social groups. Studies performed at meso-scale that involve grouping of objects based on their distinctive interaction patterns form one of the main lines of investigation in network science. In a social network, for instance, meso-scale structures can correspond to isolated social groupings or groups of individuals that serve as a communication core. Currently, the research on different meso-scale structures such as community and core-periphery structures has been conducted via independent approaches, which precludes the possibility of an algorithmic design that can handle multiple meso-scale structures and deciding which structure explains the observed data better. In this study, we propose a unified formulation for the algorithmic detection and analysis of different meso-scale structures. This facilitates the investigation of hybrid structures that capture the interplay between multiple meso-scale structures and statistical comparison of competing structures, all of which have been hitherto unavailable. We demonstrate the applicability of the methodology in analyzing the human brain network, by determining the dominant organizational structure (communities) of the brain, as well as its auxiliary characteristics (core-periphery).

  2. Physical scale experiments on torrential filter structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Michael; Moser, Markus; Trojer, Martin; Hübl, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the INTERREG Project "SedAlp" physical scale model experiments are carried out in the hydraulic laboratory of the Institute of Mountain Risk Engineering at the University of Life Sciences in Vienna in order to optimize torrent protection structures. Two different types of check dams are investigated. A screen-dam with inclined vertical beams is compared with a beam-dam with horizontal beams. The experiments evaluate the variation of sediment transport of these structures including the influence of coarse woody debris. Therefore the distance between the steel elements can be adjusted to show their ability to filter sediment. The physical scale of the experiments is 1:30. All experimental runs are Froude scaled. Both dams are tested in elongated and pear-shaped sediment retention basins in order to investigate the shape effect of the deposition area. For a systematic comparison of the two check dams experiments with fluvial bedload transport are made. First a typical hydrograph for an extreme flood with unlimited sediment supply is modelled. A typical torrential sediment mixture with a wide grain-size distribution is fed by a conveyor belt according the transport capacity of the upstream reach. Then the deposition is scanned with a laser-scan device in order to analyse the deposition pattern and the deposited volume. Afterwards a flood with a lower reoccurrence period without sediment transport from upstream is modelled to investigate the ability of the protection structure for self-emptying. To investigate the influence of driftwood on the deposition behaviour experiments with logs are made. Different log diameters and lengths are added upstream the basin. The results show, that the deposition during the experiments was not controlled by sorting-effects at the location of the dam. The deposition always started from upstream, where the transport capacity was reduced due to the milder slope and the widening of the basin. No grain sorting effects

  3. Inflation, large scale structure and particle physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We review experimental and theoretical developments in inflation and its application to structure formation, including the curvation idea. We then discuss a particle physics model of supersymmetric hybrid inflation at the intermediate scale in which the Higgs scalar field is responsible for large scale structure, show how such ...

  4. Euthanasia attitude; A comparison of two scales

    OpenAIRE

    Aghababaei, Naser; Farahani, Hojjatollah; Hatami, Javad

    2011-01-01

    The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term ?euthanasia? influences people?s support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors. In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared. 197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) or Wasserman?s Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale). The former scale includes the term ?euthanasia?, the...

  5. Adhesive strength of pilot-scale-produced water-washed cottonseed meal in comparison with a synthetic glue for non-structural interior application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) has been shown the potential to be used as renewable and environment-friendly adhesives in wood products industry. Recently, WCSM was produced from defatted meal in a pilot scale. In this study, we initially compare the adhesive strength of the pilot-produced WCSM...

  6. Computational applications of DNA structural scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, P.; Chauvin, Y.; Brunak, Søren

    1998-01-01

    that these scales provide an alternative or complementary compact representation of DNA sequences. As an example, we construct a strand-invariant representation of DNA sequences. The scales can also be used to analyze and discover new DNA structural patterns, especially in combination with hidden Markov models...

  7. Euthanasia attitude; A comparison of two scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababaei, Naser; Farahani, Hojjatollah; Hatami, Javad

    2011-01-01

    The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term "euthanasia" influences people's support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors. In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared. 197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) or Wasserman's Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale). The former scale includes the term "euthanasia", the latter does not. All participants filled out 50 items of International Personality Item Pool, 16 items of the the HEXACO openness, and 14 items of Religious Orientation Scale-Revised. Results indicated that even though the two groups were not different in terms of gender, age, education, religiosity and personality, mean score on the ATE scale was significantly higher than that of the EAS. Euthanasia attitude was negatively correlated with religiosity and conscientiousness and it was positively correlated with psychoticism and openness. It can be concluded that analyzing the attitude towards euthanasia with the use of EAS rather than the ATE scale results in lower levels of opposition against euthanasia. This study raises the question of whether euthanasia attitude scales should contain definitions and concepts of euthanasia or they should describe cases of it.

  8. Traceable nano geometric structure measurement and international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Sitian; Du, Hua; Lu, Minzhen; Cui, Jianjun; Shi, Yushu

    2009-02-01

    The accuracy of geometric structure plays a key role to guarantee high quality of the nano function device and electronic device. In June 1998, the Consultative Committee for Length (CCL) of International Committee for Weights and Measures decided to carry out international comparisons of five different types of artifacts: Step height standards, 1D-gratings, line scales, 2D-gratings and line width standards. The paper described the activity of NIM in the international comparison measurement of first three items, include the characters of artifacts, the working principle of instruments, the measuring procedures, the calculation methods, the comparison results and the measurement uncertainty.

  9. Large Scale Structure of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplinghat, Manoj

    2011-03-01

    These notes are based on 4 lectures given at Theoretical Advanced Study Institute in 2009 on the large scale structure of the universe. They provide a pedagogical introduction to the temporal evolution of linear density perturbations in the universe and a discussion of how density perturbations on small scales depend on the particle properties of dark matter. The notes assume the reader is familiar with the concepts and mathematics required to describe isotropic and homogeneous cosmology.

  10. Large-scale film structures in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Kirill

    Up-to-date space technology calls for not only taking account of, but also employment of, specific attributes of the outer space environment such as weightlessness, centrifugal forces, hard vacuum, powerful solar radiation. These specific characteristics of outer space allow the use of various structures in space whose development and operation is impossible and inexpedient on Earth. Currently, interest in large-scale space structures is growing; there are various projects on such multi-body space structures and experiments are being conducted for their development. Such designs are represented by spacecraft with solar sails, orbiting solar reflectors, solar energy concentrators, low frequency antennas and others. This paper examines a large-scale flexible space structure made from thin reflective film used as the working surface of the sunlight reflector or the sailcraft. Specifically, this paper deals with techniques of modeling large-scale space structure attitude motion, numerical calculation of vibrations which occur in the system after a spatial slew is performed, as well as optimal trajectory computations. Various methods of the film structure attitude control and stabilization, including optimal slewing programs, are discussed.

  11. Scalings of intermittent structures in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zhdankin, Vladimir; Uzdensky, Dmitri A

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence is ubiquitous in plasmas, leading to rich dynamics characterized by irregularity, irreversibility, energy fluctuations across many scales, and energy transfer across many scales. Another fundamental and generic feature of turbulence, although sometimes overlooked, is the inhomogeneous dissipation of energy in space and in time. This is a consequence of intermittency, the scale-dependent inhomogeneity of dynamics caused by fluctuations in the turbulent cascade. Intermittency causes turbulent plasmas to self-organize into coherent dissipative structures, which may govern heating, diffusion, particle acceleration, and radiation emissions. In this paper, we present recent progress on understanding intermittency in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with a strong guide field. We focus on the statistical analysis of intermittent dissipative structures, which occupy a small fraction of the volume but arguably account for the majority of energy dissipation. We show that, in our numerical simulat...

  12. Study of structural colour of Hebomoia glaucippe butterfly wing scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, V. Ya; Kuznetsov, D. K.; Pryakhina, V. I.; Kosobokov, M. S.; Zubarev, I. V.; Boymuradova, S. K.; Volchetskaya, K. V.

    2017-10-01

    Structural colours of Hebomoia glaucippe butterfly wing scales have been studied experimentally using high resolution scanning electron microscopy. Visualization of scales structures and computer simulation allowed distinguishing correlation between nanostructures on the scales and their colour.

  13. Structural response of reduced scale naval structures under impact tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calle M.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scaled models are important in naval engineering since actual ship size makes too expensive to test prototypes. However, the analysis of ship collision events employing naval structures in reduced scale is not an ordinary ship research area. The aim of this work is to create the basis for a posterior similarity study by analysing reduced scale ship structures submitted to impact loads. Two basic naval structures, commonly found in the construction of large ships, were considered for this study: a T cross-section beam submitted to a mid-span impact test and a double plate panel with inner cross reinforcement also submitted to a central impact load. These models were made in a reduced scale of 1:100. The experimental material characterization was also carried out in this work, including the evaluation of the stress strain curve under quasi static conditions, the strain rate sensitivity and the structural failure using three criteria developed particularly for numerical modelling of ship collision by other authors.

  14. Efficient Multicriteria Protein Structure Comparison on Modern Processor Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anuj; Manolakos, Elias S

    2015-01-01

    Fast increasing computational demand for all-to-all protein structures comparison (PSC) is a result of three confounding factors: rapidly expanding structural proteomics databases, high computational complexity of pairwise protein comparison algorithms, and the trend in the domain towards using multiple criteria for protein structures comparison (MCPSC) and combining results. We have developed a software framework that exploits many-core and multicore CPUs to implement efficient parallel MCPSC in modern processors based on three popular PSC methods, namely, TMalign, CE, and USM. We evaluate and compare the performance and efficiency of the two parallel MCPSC implementations using Intel's experimental many-core Single-Chip Cloud Computer (SCC) as well as Intel's Core i7 multicore processor. We show that the 48-core SCC is more efficient than the latest generation Core i7, achieving a speedup factor of 42 (efficiency of 0.9), making many-core processors an exciting emerging technology for large-scale structural proteomics. We compare and contrast the performance of the two processors on several datasets and also show that MCPSC outperforms its component methods in grouping related domains, achieving a high F-measure of 0.91 on the benchmark CK34 dataset. The software implementation for protein structure comparison using the three methods and combined MCPSC, along with the developed underlying rckskel algorithmic skeletons library, is available via GitHub.

  15. Efficient Multicriteria Protein Structure Comparison on Modern Processor Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolakos, Elias S.

    2015-01-01

    Fast increasing computational demand for all-to-all protein structures comparison (PSC) is a result of three confounding factors: rapidly expanding structural proteomics databases, high computational complexity of pairwise protein comparison algorithms, and the trend in the domain towards using multiple criteria for protein structures comparison (MCPSC) and combining results. We have developed a software framework that exploits many-core and multicore CPUs to implement efficient parallel MCPSC in modern processors based on three popular PSC methods, namely, TMalign, CE, and USM. We evaluate and compare the performance and efficiency of the two parallel MCPSC implementations using Intel's experimental many-core Single-Chip Cloud Computer (SCC) as well as Intel's Core i7 multicore processor. We show that the 48-core SCC is more efficient than the latest generation Core i7, achieving a speedup factor of 42 (efficiency of 0.9), making many-core processors an exciting emerging technology for large-scale structural proteomics. We compare and contrast the performance of the two processors on several datasets and also show that MCPSC outperforms its component methods in grouping related domains, achieving a high F-measure of 0.91 on the benchmark CK34 dataset. The software implementation for protein structure comparison using the three methods and combined MCPSC, along with the developed underlying rckskel algorithmic skeletons library, is available via GitHub. PMID:26605332

  16. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Atari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The comparison of physical appearance may play an important role in many body-related variables. The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R is a recently developed instrument for measurement of physical appearance comparisons in a number of contexts. The aim of the present study was to validate the Persian version of this scale.Methods: The scale was administered following a standard back-translation procedure. The sample consisted of 206 female university students. The Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Life Orientation Test (LOT, Interest in Aesthetic Rhinoplasty Scale (IARS, and Body Mass Index (BMI were used for assessment of concurrent validity. The factor structure of the scale was investigated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, bivariate correlation coefficients, and one-sample t-test were used in SPSS software for statistical analysis. Effect sizes were also computed in comparisons between the Iranian sample and the American sample on which the scale was developed. Moreover, the reliability of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha.Results: All items had adequate psychometric qualities in item analysis. The instrument was internally consistent (alpha = 0.97 and one-dimensional. It was positively correlated with BMI and interest in aesthetic rhinoplasty. Furthermore, PACS-R was inversely associated with optimism and body appreciation. Cross-cultural comparisons suggested that Iranian female participants had lower scores in physical appearance comparison.Conclusion: The Persian version of the PACS-R is a reliable and valid psychometric scale and may be used in clinical and research settings.

  17. Imaging meso-scale ionospheric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burston, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The accuracy and capacity to resolve meso-scale structures of a four dimensional ionospheric imaging algorithm in the circumstance of data from dense networks of permanent GNSS ground receiver stations were investigated. Simulation studies were conducted in order to be able to assess the performance of the algorithm over the entire imaged region. The Multi-instrument Data Assimilation Software (MIDAS) algorithm was used for this purpose. Simulated input data in Receiver Independent Exchange Format (RINEX) were produced by calculating slant Total Electron Content (sTEC) values for satellite to receiver raypaths through an artificially generated ionosphere. Modeling these signals including Differential Code Biases (DCBs) and noise had negligible impact on the output from the imaging algorithm when compared with modeled signals that included neither. Comparing the output from MIDAS using a range of grid definitions show that finer grids have improved capacity to resolve meso-scale structures in the input model but over all are less accurate than coarser grids. The greatest errors occur in low-data regions of the grid and where structures in the input have the greatest gradients in vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC). A good compromise between the conflicting needs of resolution and accuracy is given by a grid defined with 2° × 2° latitude by longitude local horizontal grid divisions.

  18. Large scale structure statistics: Finite volume effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, S.; Bouchet, F. R.; Schaeffer, R.

    1994-01-01

    We study finite volume effects on the count probability distribution function PN(l) and the averaged Q-body correlations Xi-barQ (2 less than or = Q less than or equal 5). These statistics are computed for cubic cells, of size l. We use as an example the case of the matter distribution of a cold dark matter (CDM) universe involving approximately 3 x 105 particles. The main effect of the finiteness of the sampled volume is to induce an abrupt cut-off on the function PN(l) at large N. This clear signature makes an analysis of the consequences easy, and one can envisage a correction procedure. As a matter of fact, we demonstrate how an unfair sample can strongly affect the estimates of the functions Xi-barQ for Q greater than or = 3 (and decrease the measured zero of the two-body correlation function). We propose a method to correct for this are fact, or at least to evaluate the corresponding errors. We show that the correlations are systematically underestimated by direct measurements. We find that, once corrected, the statistical properties of the CDM universe appear compatible with the scaling relation SQ identically equals Xi-bar2 exp Q-1 = constant with respect to scale, in the non-linear regime; it was not the case with direct measurments. However, we note a deviation from scaling at scales close to the correlation length. It is probably due to the transition between the highly non-linear regime and the weakly correlated regime, where the functions SQ also seem to present a plateau. We apply the same procedure to simulations with hot dark matter (HDM) and white noise initial conditions, with similar results. Our method thus provides the first accurate measurement of the normalized skewness, S3, and the normalized kurtosis, S4, for three typical models of large scale structure formation in an expanding universe.

  19. Seeing Scale: Richard Dunn’s Structuralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Broadfoot

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Writing on the occasion of a retrospective of Richard Dunn’s work, Terence Maloon argued that ‘structuralism had an important bearing on virtually all of Richard Dunn’s mature works’, with ‘his modular, “crossed” formats’ being the most obvious manifestation of this. In this article I wish to reconsider this relation, withdrawing from a broad consideration of the framework of structuralism to focus on some of the quite particular ideas that Lacan proposed in response to structuralism. Beginning from a pivotal painting in the 1960s that developed out of Dunn’s experience of viewing the work of Barnett Newman, I wish to suggest a relation between the ongoing exploration of the thematic of scale in Dunn’s work and the idea of the symbolic that Lacan derives from structuralist thought. This relation, I argue, opens up a different way of understanding the art historical transition from Minimalism to Conceptual art.

  20. Fire structures pine serotiny at different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Serrano, Ana; Verdú, Miguel; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Pausas, Juli G

    2013-12-01

    Serotiny (delayed seed release with the consequent accumulation of a canopy seedbank) confers fitness benefits in environments with crown-fire regimes. Thus, we predicted that serotiny level should be higher in populations recurrently subjected to crown-fires than in populations where crown-fires are rare. In addition, under a high frequency of fires, space and resources are recurrently available, permitting recruitment around each mother to follow the seed rain shadow. Thus, we also predicted spatial aggregation of serotiny within populations. We compared serotiny, considering both the proportion and the age of serotinous cones, in populations living in contrasting fire regimes for two iconic Mediterranean pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster). We framed our results by quantitatively comparing the strength of the fire-serotiny relationship with previous studies worldwide. For the two species, populations living under high crown-fire recurrence regimes had a higher serotiny level than those populations where the recurrence of crown-fires was low. For P. halepensis (the species with higher serotiny), populations in high fire recurrence regimes had higher fine-scale spatial aggregation of serotiny than those inhabiting low fire recurrence systems. The strength of the observed fire-serotiny relationship in P. halepensis is among the highest in published literature. Fire regime shapes serotiny level among populations, and in populations with high serotiny, recurrent fires maintain a significant spatial structure for this trait. Consequently, fire has long-term evolutionary implications at different scales, emphasizing its prominent role in shaping the ecology of pines.

  1. Responses in large-scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Alexandre; Schmidt, Fabian

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a rigorous definition of general power-spectrum responses as resummed vertices with two hard and n soft momenta in cosmological perturbation theory. These responses measure the impact of long-wavelength perturbations on the local small-scale power spectrum. The kinematic structure of the responses (i.e., their angular dependence) can be decomposed unambiguously through a ``bias'' expansion of the local power spectrum, with a fixed number of physical response coefficients, which are only a function of the hard wavenumber k. Further, the responses up to n-th order completely describe the (n+2)-point function in the squeezed limit, i.e. with two hard and n soft modes, which one can use to derive the response coefficients. This generalizes previous results, which relate the angle-averaged squeezed limit to isotropic response coefficients. We derive the complete expression of first- and second-order responses at leading order in perturbation theory, and present extrapolations to nonlinear scales based on simulation measurements of the isotropic response coefficients. As an application, we use these results to predict the non-Gaussian part of the angle-averaged matter power spectrum covariance CovNGl=0(k1,k2), in the limit where one of the modes, say k2, is much smaller than the other. Without any free parameters, our model results are in very good agreement with simulations for k2 lesssim 0.06 h Mpc-1, and for any k1 gtrsim 2k2. The well-defined kinematic structure of the power spectrum response also permits a quick evaluation of the angular dependence of the covariance matrix. While we focus on the matter density field, the formalism presented here can be generalized to generic tracers such as galaxies.

  2. Topological analysis of large-scale biomedical terminology structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Michael E; Lussier, Yves A; Johnson, Stephen B

    2007-01-01

    To characterize global structural features of large-scale biomedical terminologies using currently emerging statistical approaches. Given rapid growth of terminologies, this research was designed to address scalability. We selected 16 terminologies covering a variety of domains from the UMLS Metathesaurus, a collection of terminological systems. Each was modeled as a network in which nodes were atomic concepts and links were relationships asserted by the source vocabulary. For comparison against each terminology we created three random networks of equivalent size and density. Average node degree, node degree distribution, clustering coefficient, average path length. Eight of 16 terminologies exhibited the small-world characteristics of a short average path length and strong local clustering. An overlapping subset of nine exhibited a power law distribution in node degrees, indicative of a scale-free architecture. We attribute these features to specific design constraints. Constraints on node connectivity, common in more synthetic classification systems, localize the effects of changes and deletions. In contrast, small-world and scale-free features, common in comprehensive medical terminologies, promote flexible navigation and less restrictive organic-like growth. While thought of as synthetic, grid-like structures, some controlled terminologies are structurally indistinguishable from natural language networks. This paradoxical result suggests that terminology structure is shaped not only by formal logic-based semantics, but by rules analogous to those that govern social networks and biological systems. Graph theoretic modeling shows early promise as a framework for describing terminology structure. Deeper understanding of these techniques may inform the development of scalable terminologies and ontologies.

  3. FACTOR STRUCTURE OF MF SCALES AND ITEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LUNNEBORG, CLIFFORD E.; LUNNEBORG, PATRICIA W.

    FACTOR ANALYSES WERE PERFORMED UPON FOUR MASCULINITY-FEMINITY (MF) SCALES AND UPON THE 136-ITEMS COMPRISING THESE SCALES. RESULTS OF THE FIRST ANALYSIS ILLUSTRATED THE DIFFICULTY OF INTERPRETING FACTORS BASED ON HETEROGENEOUS SCALES. THE ITEM FACTORING REVEALED THE MULTIDIMENSIONALITY OF MF. CERTAIN ITEM FACTORS WERE UNCORRELATED WITH SEX STATUS…

  4. The development and validation of the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lauren M; Thompson, J Kevin

    2014-04-01

    The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS; Thompson, Heinberg, & Tantleff, 1991) was revised to assess appearance comparisons relevant to women and men in a wide variety of contexts. The revised scale (Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised, PACS-R) was administered to 1176 college females. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis and parallel analysis using one half of the sample suggested a single factor structure for the PACS-R. Study 2 utilized the remaining half of the sample to conduct confirmatory factor analysis, item analysis, and to examine the convergent validity of the scale. These analyses resulted in an 11-item measure that demonstrated excellent internal consistency and convergent validity with measures of body satisfaction, eating pathology, sociocultural influences on appearance, and self-esteem. Regression analyses demonstrated the utility of the PACS-R in predicting body satisfaction and eating pathology. Overall, results indicate that the PACS-R is a reliable and valid tool for assessing appearance comparison tendencies in women. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Fast alignment and comparison of RNA structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegels, Tim; Bienert, Stefan; Torda, Andrew E

    2013-03-01

    To recognize remote relationships between RNA molecules, one must be able to align structures without regard to sequence similarity. We have implemented a method, which is swift [O(n(2))], sensitive and tolerant of large gaps and insertions. Molecules are broken into overlapping fragments, which are characterized by their memberships in a probabilistic classification based on local geometry and H-bonding descriptors. This leads to a probabilistic similarity measure that is used in a conventional dynamic programming method. Examples are given of database searching, the detection of structural similarities, which would not be found using sequence based methods, and comparisons with a previously published approach. Source code (C and perl) and binaries for linux are freely available at www.zbh.uni-hamburg.de/fries.

  6. Assessing the GDP structure in global comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with identifying relationships between the household consumption and the GDP on the selected sample of countries of the world. It provides an analysis of the GDP structure and its development and, on the basis of available statistic data, carries out evaluation of the development of the GDP structure from the point of view of the expenditure method of its estimating in the selected sample of the world countries. In this respect, the validity of a hypothesis is also verified that countries with higher GDP per capita reach the lower proportion of consumption in the total GDP than countries with a lower GDP per capita, namely at the global comparison on the more heterogeneous sample of countries than analyses published so far.

  7. Learning from large-scale quality improvement through comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovretveit, John; Klazinga, Niek

    2012-10-01

    To discover lessons from 10 national health and social care quality programmes in the Netherlands. A mixed-methods comparison using a 'quantitative summarization of evidence for systematic comparison'. Each research team assessed whether there was evidence from their evaluation to support or refute 17 hypotheses about successful implementation of quality programmes. The programme managers carried out a similar assessment. Their assessments were represented as scores which made it possible to carry out a cross-case analysis to assess factors affecting the success of large-scale quality programmes. The researchers who evaluated each of the programmes and the leaders who organized each programme. Health and social care service organizations and national organization, which led the quality improvement programmes. This study did not make an intervention but compared experiences and evaluations of interventions carried out by national organization to health and social care service organizations to help these organizations to improve their services. The success of the national programmes, and the learning achieved by the programme organizations and care service delivery organizations. The method provided a way to summarize and compare complex information. Common factors which appeared to influence success in implementation included understanding of political processes, leader's influencing skills, as well as technical skills to manage projects and apply improvement and change methods. Others could use a similar method to make a fast, broad level, but systematic comparison across reports of improvements or programmes. Descriptions, and then comparisons of the programmes, reveal common factors which appeared to influence success in implementation. There were groups of factors which appeared to be more important for the success of certain types of programmes. It is possible that these factors may also be important for the success of large-scale improvement programmes in

  8. Protestant Work Ethic Endorsement among Anglo Americans, Chicanos, and Mexicans: A Comparison of Factor Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isonio, Steven A.; Garza, Raymond T.

    1987-01-01

    The cross-cultural appropriateness of the Mirels and Garrett (1971) Protestant Work Ethic Scale was assessed by comparing the factor structures of Anglo American, Chicano, and Mexican samples. Full scale comparisons indicated endorsement in the following order: Mexicans, Chicanos, and Anglo Americans. Cultural differences in orientation towards…

  9. Beam Coupling to Optical Scale Accelerating Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, C.M.; Byer, R.L.; Colby, E.R.; Cowan, B.M.; Ischebeck, R.; Lincoln, M.R.; Siemann, R.H.; Spencer, J.E.; /SLAC; Plettner, T.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2007-03-27

    Current research efforts into structure based laser acceleration of electrons utilize beams from standard RF linacs. These beams must be coupled into very small structures with transverse dimensions comparable to the laser wavelength. To obtain decent transmission, a permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) triplet with a focusing gradient of 560 T/m is used to focus into the structure. Also of interest is the induced wakefield from the structure, useful for diagnosing potential accelerator structures or as novel radiation sources.

  10. Structural colors from Morpho peleides butterfly wing scales

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Yong

    2009-01-01

    A male Morpho peleides butterfly wing is decorated by two types of scales, cover and ground scales. We have studied the optical properties of each type of scales in conjunction with the structural information provided by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and computer simulation. The shining blue color is mainly from the Bragg reflection of the one-dimensional photonic structure, e.g., the shelf structure packed regularly in each ridges on cover scales. A thin-film-like interference effect from the base plate of the cover scale enhances such blue color and further gives extra reflection peaks in the infrared and ultraviolet regions. The analogy in the spectra acquired from the original wing and that from the cover scales suggests that the cover scales take a dominant role in its structural color. This study provides insight of using the biotemplates for fabricating smart photonic structures. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Structural colors from Morpho peleides butterfly wing scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Xu, Sheng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2009-10-01

    A male Morpho peleides butterfly wing is decorated by two types of scales, cover and ground scales. We have studied the optical properties of each type of scales in conjunction with the structural information provided by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and computer simulation. The shining blue color is mainly from the Bragg reflection of the one-dimensional photonic structure, e.g., the shelf structure packed regularly in each ridges on cover scales. A thin-film-like interference effect from the base plate of the cover scale enhances such blue color and further gives extra reflection peaks in the infrared and ultraviolet regions. The analogy in the spectra acquired from the original wing and that from the cover scales suggests that the cover scales take a dominant role in its structural color. This study provides insight of using the biotemplates for fabricating smart photonic structures.

  12. Scaling images using their background ratio. An application in statistical comparisons of images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemis, A; Binnie, D; Bailey, D L; Flower, M A; Ott, R J

    2003-06-07

    Comparison of two medical images often requires image scaling as a pre-processing step. This is usually done with the scaling-to-the-mean or scaling-to-the-maximum techniques which, under certain circumstances, in quantitative applications may contribute a significant amount of bias. In this paper, we present a simple scaling method which assumes only that the most predominant values in the corresponding images belong to their background structure. The ratio of the two images to be compared is calculated and its frequency histogram is plotted. The scaling factor is given by the position of the peak in this histogram which belongs to the background structure. The method was tested against the traditional scaling-to-the-mean technique on simulated planar gamma-camera images which were compared using pixelwise statistical parametric tests. Both sensitivity and specificity for each condition were measured over a range of different contrasts and sizes of inhomogeneity for the two scaling techniques. The new method was found to preserve sensitivity in all cases while the traditional technique resulted in significant degradation of sensitivity in certain cases.

  13. Large scale structure from viscous dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, Diego; Garny, Mathias; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations of sufficiently long wavelength admit a fluid dynamic description. We consider modes with wavevectors below a scale $k_m$ for which the dynamics is only mildly non-linear. The leading effect of modes above that scale can be accounted for by effective non-equilibrium viscosity and pressure terms. For mildly non-linear scales, these mainly arise from momentum transport within the ideal and cold but inhomogeneous fluid, while momentum transport due to more microscopic degrees of freedom is suppressed. As a consequence, concrete expressions with no free parameters, except the matching scale $k_m$, can be derived from matching evolution equations to standard cosmological perturbation theory. Two-loop calculations of the matter power spectrum in the viscous theory lead to excellent agreement with $N$-body simulations up to scales $k=0.2 \\, h/$Mpc. The convergence properties in the ultraviolet are better than for standard perturbation theory and the results are robust with respect to varia...

  14. A comparison of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas A

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we utilized a large undergraduate sample (N = 536), oversampled for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text revision [DSM-IV-TR]; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) pathology, to compare 8 self-report measures of OCPD. No prior study has compared more than 3 measures, and the results indicate that the scales had only moderate convergent validity. We also went beyond the existing literature to compare these scales to 2 external reference points: their relationships with a well-established measure of the five-factor model of personality (FFM) and clinicians' ratings of their coverage of the DSM-IV-TR criterion set. When the FFM was used as a point of comparison, the results suggest important differences among the measures with respect to their divergent representation of conscientiousness, neuroticism, and agreeableness. Additionally, an analysis of the construct coverage indicated that the measures also varied in terms of their representation of particular diagnostic criteria. For example, whereas some scales contained items distributed across the diagnostic criteria, others were concentrated more heavily on particular features of the DSM-IV-TR disorder.

  15. Spatial Structure and Scaling of Agricultural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Considering agricultural landscapes as networks can provide information about spatial connectivity relevant for a wide range of applications including pollination, pest management, and ecology. Global agricultural networks are well-described by power law rank-size distributions. However, regional analyses capture only a subset of the total global network. Most analyses are regional. In this paper, we seek to address the following questions: Does the globally observed scale-free property of agricultural networks hold over smaller spatial domains? Can similar properties be observed at kilometer to meter scales? We analyze 9 intensively cultivated Landsat scenes on 5 continents with a wide range of vegetation distributions. We find that networks of vegetation fraction within the domain of each of these Landsat scenes exhibit substantial variability - but still possess similar scaling properties to the global distribution of agriculture. We also find similar results using a 39 km2 IKONOS image. To illustrate an a...

  16. Measuring dietary restraint status: Comparisons between the Dietary Intent Scale and the Restraint Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Boyce

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of young women’s self-reported dietary restraint status is complex. Compared to Herman and Polivy’s commonly utilized Restraint Scale (RS, Stice’s Dietary Intent Scale (DIS is less understood. Because the DIS is becoming a popular research tool, it is important to understand how this scale compares to more traditional measures of restraint. We conducted two correlational studies (Study 1 N = 110; Study 2 N = 216 to ascertain the similarities and the differences between the DIS and - as a comparison measure - the well-researched RS. We explored how the two scales were related to several body image variables (e.g., thin-ideal internalization; with a range of self-regulatory variables (e.g., dispositional self-control; with observed food intake during a taste test; and with 18-month weight change (Study 2 only. Participants were female University students and were not selected for dieting or disordered eating. Unlike RS scores, DIS scores were not significantly correlated with the majority of variables tapping into unsuccessful self-regulation. However, our data also highlighted similarities between the two restraint scales (e.g., association with 18-month weight-loss and demonstrated that not only were participants’ DIS scores un-related to unsuccessful self-regulatory variables, neither were they related to the variables tapping into successful self-regulation.

  17. Factorial Structure of the Existence Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Tomic, W. A.

    2015-01-01

    Existential meaning in life is becoming an increasingly important measure of personal assessment. In search of a suitable instrument to measure existential meaning, the authors reviewed several measures. Eventually, they selected the Existence Scale (ES), doing so on theoretical grounds. The ES is a

  18. The Large Scale Structure: Polarization Aspects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polarized radio emission is detected at various scales in the Universe. In this document, I will briefly review our knowledge on polarized radio sources in galaxy clusters and at their outskirts, emphasizing the crucial information provided by the polarized signal on the origin and evolution of such sources. Successively, I will ...

  19. Ultra-large-scale electronic structure theory and numerical algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshi, Takeo

    2008-01-01

    This article is composed of two parts; In the first part (Sec. 1), the ultra-large-scale electronic structure theory is reviewed for (i) its fundamental numerical algorithm and (ii) its role in nano-material science. The second part (Sec. 2) is devoted to the mathematical foundation of the large-scale electronic structure theory and their numerical aspects.

  20. Optimization of Large-Scale Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, F. M.

    solutions to small problems with one or two variables to the optimization of large structures such as bridges, ships and offshore structures. The methods used for salving these problems have evolved from being classical differential calculus and calculus of variation to very advanced numerical techniques....... In the same period of time the problems have grown in size and the ongoing research in the various engineering fields has introduced new areas to complicate the optimization task further. These are e.g. structural reliability theory (including new, more complex constraints), discrete optimization (introducing...... new narrow bounds on the optimization variables), s tachastic FEM, vibration theory or multiobjective optimization. At the same time researchers always try to salve problems ahead of to-day's capabilities, thereby utilising current mathematical programming (MP) methods to the limit. However, when...

  1. Recent Progress in Large-Scale Structure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    I will discuss recent progress in the understanding of how to model galaxy clustering. While recent analyses have focussed on the baryon acoustic oscillations as a probe of cosmology, galaxy redshift surveys contain a lot more information than the acoustic scale. In extracting this additional information three main issues need to be well understood: nonlinear evolution of matter fluctuations, galaxy bias and redshift-space distortions. I will present recent progress in modeling these three effects that pave the way to constraining cosmology and galaxy formation with increased precision.

  2. Large-Scale Structures of Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Clay, Ruth; Rogers, Leslie A.

    2015-12-01

    A class of solar system analogs has yet to be identified among the large crop of planetary systems now observed. However, since most observed worlds are more easily detectable than direct analogs of the Sun's planets, the frequency of systems with structures similar to our own remains unknown. Identifying the range of possible planetary system architectures is complicated by the large number of physical processes that affect the formation and dynamical evolution of planets. I will present two ways of organizing planetary system structures. First, I will suggest that relatively few physical parameters are likely to differentiate the qualitative architectures of different systems. Solid mass in a protoplanetary disk is perhaps the most obvious possible controlling parameter, and I will give predictions for correlations between planetary system properties that we would expect to be present if this is the case. In particular, I will suggest that the solar system's structure is representative of low-metallicity systems that nevertheless host giant planets. Second, the disk structures produced as young stars are fed by their host clouds may play a crucial role. Using the observed distribution of RV giant planets as a function of stellar mass, I will demonstrate that invoking ice lines to determine where gas giants can form requires fine tuning. I will suggest that instead, disk structures built during early accretion have lasting impacts on giant planet distributions, and disk clean-up differentially affects the orbital distributions of giant and lower-mass planets. These two organizational hypotheses have different implications for the solar system's context, and I will suggest observational tests that may allow them to be validated or falsified.

  3. Upward and downward physical appearance comparisons: development of scales and examination of predictive qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Caputi, Peter; Minto, Rona; Peoples, Gregory; Hooper, Carlie; Kell, Sally; Sawley, Elise

    2009-06-01

    Despite good theoretical and empirical rationale for assessing tendencies to make upward and downward physical appearance comparisons no measure for these specific constructs exists. The present work developed and tested the psychometric properties of upward and downward physical appearance comparison scales. The scales were administered to participants (N=224) along with measures of general appearance comparison tendencies, body image, disordered eating, Antifat and Antigay attitudes. The scales displayed good psychometric properties. Importantly, the upward but not downward physical appearance comparison scale predicted lower Appearance Evaluation and higher EAT-26 scores. Conversely, the downward but not upward physical appearance comparison scale predicted higher Appearance Evaluation and greater Antifat Attitudes (Dislike). The scales were unrelated to a nonappearance related construct. These new measures fill a gap in the literature and may be of benefit to researchers interested in body image, appearance concerns, eating disorders, social comparison, and obesity prejudice.

  4. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini Kerminen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Coupling dense genotype data with new computational methods offers unprecedented opportunities for individual-level ancestry estimation once geographically precisely defined reference data sets become available. We study such a reference data set for Finland containing 2376 such individuals from the FINRISK Study survey of 1997 both of whose parents were born close to each other. This sampling strategy focuses on the population structure present in Finland before the 1950s. By using the recent haplotype-based methods ChromoPainter (CP and FineSTRUCTURE (FS we reveal a highly geographically clustered genetic structure in Finland and report its connections to the settlement history as well as to the current dialectal regions of the Finnish language. The main genetic division within Finland shows striking concordance with the 1323 borderline of the treaty of Nöteborg. In general, we detect genetic substructure throughout the country, which reflects stronger regional genetic differences in Finland compared to, for example, the UK, which in a similar analysis was dominated by a single unstructured population. We expect that similar population genetic reference data sets will become available for many more populations in the near future with important applications, for example, in forensic genetics and in genetic association studies. With this in mind, we report those extensions of the CP + FS approach that we found most useful in our analyses of the Finnish data.

  5. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Atari; Saeed Akbari-Zardkhaneh; Mehrnoosh Soufiabadi; Leila Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The comparison of physical appearance may play an important role in many body-related variables. The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R) is a recently developed instrument for measurement of physical appearance comparisons in a number of contexts. The aim of the present study was to validate the Persian version of this scale. Methods: The scale was administered following a standard back-translation procedure. The sample consisted of 206 female university students...

  6. Multi-scale structural similarity index for motion detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdel-Salam Nasr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The most recent approach for measuring the image quality is the structural similarity index (SSI. This paper presents a novel algorithm based on the multi-scale structural similarity index for motion detection (MS-SSIM in videos. The MS-SSIM approach is based on modeling of image luminance, contrast and structure at multiple scales. The MS-SSIM has resulted in much better performance than the single scale SSI approach but at the cost of relatively lower processing speed. The major advantages of the presented algorithm are both: the higher detection accuracy and the quasi real-time processing speed.

  7. Problems in large-scale structural optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, J. S.; Belegundu, A. D.

    1984-01-01

    A general design optimization model for large complex systems is defined. Major features of the model that challenge various optimization algorithms are discussed. Requirements of a model optimization algorithm are identified. Objectives of the study of various algorithms are defined and a basis for conducting such a study is developed. Primal as well as transformation methods are analytically studied and a unified viewpoint of various methods is presented. Several numerical examples are solved using different methods to study their performance. Conclusions drawn from the study are presented and discussed. Areas of future research in nonlinear programming as well as structural optimization are identified and discussed.

  8. Optical Properties Of Nanometer-Scale Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kudykina, T A

    2016-01-01

    Two approaches (micro- and macro- investigations) are used to determine the dimension dependences of the optical parameters of the nanometer-scale layers of materials. It is shown that both an index of refraction and coefficient of absorption depend strongly on the thickness of the layer. In this region of thicknesses, the dimension resonance occurs, where an index of refraction has a maximum and a coefficient of absorption has a minimum. The numerical calculation of the optical parameters of some materials (Ag, Al, Fe, Ge, Si, Se, Te) have been carried out with the use of the experimental data of reflection and transparency of thin layers, obtained in a series of works, and with our formulas for the wave amplitudes and the laws of refractions. The analogues of the Fresnel formulas and the Snell law have been derived from the Maxwell boundary conditions where the absorption and conductivity of media were taken into account. The use of our formulas for the wave amplitudes leads to the fulfillment of the conser...

  9. Structured ecosystem-scale approach to marine water quality management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taljaard, Susan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available and implement environmental management programmes. A structured ecosystem-scale approach for the design and implementation of marine water quality management programmes developed by the CSIR (South Africa) in response to recent advances in policies...

  10. Validity and factor structure of the bodybuilding dependence scale

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, D; Hale, B

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the bodybuilding dependence scale and to investigate differences in bodybuilding dependence between men and women and competitive and non-competitive bodybuilders.

  11. Factor Structure of the Conflict Tactics Scale 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Baba

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Conflict Tactics Scale 1 (CTS1 is a widely used self-report measure of abusive attitudes of parents towards children. The factor structure of the CTS1 still remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Japanese version of the CTS1 for postpartum women in community settings. Method: The data in this study came from the Okayama and Kumamoto’s study. These were part of a larger survey using longitudinal questionnaire studies conducted in Japan from 2001 to 2002 and in 2011, respectively. In both study sites, the participant mothers were asked to fill in the CTS1 one month after delivery when they attended for check-up at the out-patient clinic. Results: A total of 1,150 questionnaires were collected, excluding the participants with missing values in the CTS1. Finally, 1,078 were included in the statistical analyses. Data of 1,078 women were divided into two parts. In the first halved sample (n=578, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted for the CTS1 items after exluding nine items with extremely low prevalence. It revealed 2-factor or 3-factor models. Then, we conducted a model comparison with the second halved sample (n=500, using confirmatory factor analysis. In terms of goodness-of-fit indeces, the 2-factor model was superior. Its subscales were Reasoning and Psycholosical Aggression. Conclusion: The 2-factor model of the CTS1 consisting of Reasoning and Psychological Aggression was superior to the 3-factor model. This is not inconsistent with the original authors’ theoretical model.

  12. Large and small-scale structures in Saturn's rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, N.; Rehnberg, M. E.; Brown, Z. L.; Sremcevic, M.; Esposito, L. W.

    2017-09-01

    Observations made by the Cassini spacecraft have revealed both large and small scale structures in Saturn's rings in unprecedented detail. Analysis of high-resolution measurements by the Cassini Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVIS) High Speed Photometer (HSP) and the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) show an abundance of intrinsic small-scale structures (or clumping) seen across the entire ring system. These include self-gravity wakes (50-100m), sub-km structure at the A and B ring edges, and "straw"/"ropy" structures (1-3km).

  13. Probes of large-scale structure in the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Yasushi; Gorski, Krzysztof; Juszkiewicz, Roman; Silk, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    A general formalism is developed which shows that the gravitational instability theory for the origin of the large-scale structure of the universe is now capable of critically confronting observational results on cosmic background radiation angular anisotropies, large-scale bulk motions, and large-scale clumpiness in the galaxy counts. The results indicate that presently advocated cosmological models will have considerable difficulty in simultaneously explaining the observational results.

  14. Development of large-scale structure in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ostriker, J P

    1991-01-01

    This volume grew out of the 1988 Fermi lectures given by Professor Ostriker, and is concerned with cosmological models that take into account the large scale structure of the universe. He starts with homogeneous isotropic models of the universe and then, by considering perturbations, he leads us to modern cosmological theories of the large scale, such as superconducting strings. This will be an excellent companion for all those interested in the cosmology and the large scale nature of the universe.

  15. The Large Scale Structure: Polarization Aspects R. F. Pizzo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: pizzo@astron.nl. Abstract. Polarized radio emission is detected at various scales in the ... are located at the nodes of the filamentary large-scale structure of the cosmic web and form by subsequent merging .... After calibration, we produced Q and U channel images for each dataset and we inspected them to remove ...

  16. Factor Structure of Child Behavior Scale Scores in Peruvian Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Erin L.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Soto, Cesar Merino; Simmons, Crystal S.; Anguiano, Rebecca; Brett, Jeremy; Holman, Alea; Martin, Justin F.; Hata, Heidi K.; Roberts, Kimberly J.; Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior rating scales aid in the identification of problem behaviors, as well as the development of interventions to reduce such behavior. Although scores on many behavior rating scales have been validated in the United States, there have been few such studies in other cultural contexts. In this study, the structural validity of scores on a…

  17. Accelerating large-scale protein structure alignments with graphics processing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Bin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale protein structure alignment, an indispensable tool to structural bioinformatics, poses a tremendous challenge on computational resources. To ensure structure alignment accuracy and efficiency, efforts have been made to parallelize traditional alignment algorithms in grid environments. However, these solutions are costly and of limited accessibility. Others trade alignment quality for speedup by using high-level characteristics of structure fragments for structure comparisons. Findings We present ppsAlign, a parallel protein structure Alignment framework designed and optimized to exploit the parallelism of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs. As a general-purpose GPU platform, ppsAlign could take many concurrent methods, such as TM-align and Fr-TM-align, into the parallelized algorithm design. We evaluated ppsAlign on an NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU card, and compared it with existing software solutions running on an AMD dual-core CPU. We observed a 36-fold speedup over TM-align, a 65-fold speedup over Fr-TM-align, and a 40-fold speedup over MAMMOTH. Conclusions ppsAlign is a high-performance protein structure alignment tool designed to tackle the computational complexity issues from protein structural data. The solution presented in this paper allows large-scale structure comparisons to be performed using massive parallel computing power of GPU.

  18. Hierarchical structure and cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhou; Wang, Yukun; Feng, Qingling; Kienzle, Arne; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-10-01

    To study the structure and the cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of fish scales treated with different processing methods. Based on varying morphologies and components, the fish scales can be divided into three regions on the surface and three layers in vertical. The functions of these three individual layers were analyzed. SEM results show that the primary inorganic components are spherical or cubic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. The fish scales have an ~60° overlapped plywood structure of lamellas in the fibrillary plate. The plywood structure consists of co-aligned type I collagen fibers, which are parallel to the HA lamellas. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicate that the main components are HA and type I collagen fibers. MC3T3-E1 cell culture results show a high cytocompatibility and the ability to guide cell proliferation and migration along the scale ridge channels of the fish scales. This plywood structure provides inspiration for a structure-enhanced composite material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Light trapping structures in wing scales of butterfly Trogonoptera brookiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Niu, Shichao; Shang, Chunhui; Liu, Zhenning; Ren, Luquan

    2012-04-28

    The fine optical structures in wing scales of Trogonoptera brookiana, a tropical butterfly exhibiting efficient light trapping effect, were carefully examined and the reflectivity was measured using reflectance spectrometry. The optimized 3D configuration of the coupling structure was determined using SEM and TEM data, and the light trapping mechanism of butterfly scales was studied. It is found that the front and back sides of butterfly wings possess different light trapping structures, but both can significantly increase the optical path and thus result in almost total absorption of all incident light. An optical model was created to check the properties of this light trapping structure. The simulated reflectance spectra are in concordance with the experimental ones. The results reliably confirm that these structures induce efficient light trapping effect. This functional "biomimetic structure" would have a potential value in wide engineering and optical applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  20. Comparison for Chinese subordinates as a motivation approach: Scale Development and Psychometric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Ge

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chinese people are motivated by social comparison and temporal comparison. Based on this finding, we conceptualized lateral comparison and vertical comparison as two distinct constructs that represent individual self-enhancement toward the nature of social comparison with others and temporal comparison with self over time. We hypothesized that as stable individual psychological difference, lateral comparison and vertical comparison would have differential effects on people’s working behavior in the Chinese organizational context. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a conceptualization approach to Chinese management research, we conducted three studies to develop and validate a two-factor comparison scale which includes three-item lateral comparison and a three-item vertical comparison. Findings: Results from qualitative data in Study 1 provide evidence of convergent and discriminate validity of the scale, while Study 2 demonstrates the scale’s predictive validity. Furthermore, in Study two, a field survey in multiple Chinese organizations showed that lateral comparison and vertical comparison had differential effects on employee task performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Research implications: The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed in the working context in Chinese organizations and beyond. Originality/value: This finding integrates insights from previous research in social comparison and temporal comparison into a motivation approach that supervisors use toward subordinates in the Chinese organizational context.

  1. Upward and downward physical appearance comparisons: Development of scales and examination of predictive qualities

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Kerry S.; Caputi, Peter; Minto, Rona; Peoples, Gregory; Hooper, Carlie; Kell, Sally; Sawley, Elise

    2009-01-01

    Despite good theoretical and empirical rationale for assessing tendencies to make upward and downward physical appearance comparisons no measure for these specific constructs exists. The present work developed and tested the psychometric properties of upward and downward physical appearance comparison scales. The scales were administered to participants (N = 224) along with measures of general appearance comparison tendencies, body image, disordered eating, Antifat and Antigay attitudes. The ...

  2. Graph-based linear scaling electronic structure theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Anders M N; Mniszewski, Susan M; Negre, Christian F A; Cawkwell, Marc J; Swart, Pieter J; Mohd-Yusof, Jamal; Germann, Timothy C; Wall, Michael E; Bock, Nicolas; Rubensson, Emanuel H; Djidjev, Hristo

    2016-06-21

    We show how graph theory can be combined with quantum theory to calculate the electronic structure of large complex systems. The graph formalism is general and applicable to a broad range of electronic structure methods and materials, including challenging systems such as biomolecules. The methodology combines well-controlled accuracy, low computational cost, and natural low-communication parallelism. This combination addresses substantial shortcomings of linear scaling electronic structure theory, in particular with respect to quantum-based molecular dynamics simulations.

  3. Multi-scale structures of turbulent magnetic reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T. K. M., E-mail: takuma.nakamura@oeaw.ac.at; Nakamura, R.; Narita, Y.; Baumjohann, W. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz 8042 (Austria); Daughton, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We have analyzed data from a series of 3D fully kinetic simulations of turbulent magnetic reconnection with a guide field. A new concept of the guide filed reconnection process has recently been proposed, in which the secondary tearing instability and the resulting formation of oblique, small scale flux ropes largely disturb the structure of the primary reconnection layer and lead to 3D turbulent features [W. Daughton et al., Nat. Phys. 7, 539 (2011)]. In this paper, we further investigate the multi-scale physics in this turbulent, guide field reconnection process by introducing a wave number band-pass filter (k-BPF) technique in which modes for the small scale (less than ion scale) fluctuations and the background large scale (more than ion scale) variations are separately reconstructed from the wave number domain to the spatial domain in the inverse Fourier transform process. Combining with the Fourier based analyses in the wave number domain, we successfully identify spatial and temporal development of the multi-scale structures in the turbulent reconnection process. When considering a strong guide field, the small scale tearing mode and the resulting flux ropes develop over a specific range of oblique angles mainly along the edge of the primary ion scale flux ropes and reconnection separatrix. The rapid merging of these small scale modes leads to a smooth energy spectrum connecting ion and electron scales. When the guide field is sufficiently weak, the background current sheet is strongly kinked and oblique angles for the small scale modes are widely scattered at the kinked regions. Similar approaches handling both the wave number and spatial domains will be applicable to the data from multipoint, high-resolution spacecraft observations such as the NASA magnetospheric multiscale (MMS) mission.

  4. Comparison of MCMI-II and 16PF validity scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, L S; Craig, R J

    1995-04-01

    We administered the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II; Millon, 1987) and the Sixteen Personality Factors Inventory (16PF; Cattell, Eber, & Tatsuoka, 1970) to 131 outpatients in marital therapy and tested the correlation between the validity scales of the two instruments. The results indicated that MCMI-II Disclosure and Debasement scales were positively correlated with the 16PF Fake-Bad scale and negatively correlated with the 16PF Fake-Good scale. The MCMI-II Desirability scale was significantly correlated with the 16PF Fake-Good scale.

  5. Multi-scale structural community organisation of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Rasha E; Tremblay, Nicolas; Arneodo, Alain; Borgnat, Pierre; Audit, Benjamin

    2017-04-11

    Structural interaction frequency matrices between all genome loci are now experimentally achievable thanks to high-throughput chromosome conformation capture technologies. This ensues a new methodological challenge for computational biology which consists in objectively extracting from these data the structural motifs characteristic of genome organisation. We deployed the fast multi-scale community mining algorithm based on spectral graph wavelets to characterise the networks of intra-chromosomal interactions in human cell lines. We observed that there exist structural domains of all sizes up to chromosome length and demonstrated that the set of structural communities forms a hierarchy of chromosome segments. Hence, at all scales, chromosome folding predominantly involves interactions between neighbouring sites rather than the formation of links between distant loci. Multi-scale structural decomposition of human chromosomes provides an original framework to question structural organisation and its relationship to functional regulation across the scales. By construction the proposed methodology is independent of the precise assembly of the reference genome and is thus directly applicable to genomes whose assembly is not fully determined.

  6. The scale dependence of single-nucleon shell structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somà, V., E-mail: vittorio.soma@cea.fr [Centre de Saclay, IRFU/Service de Physique Nucléaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Duguet, T. [Centre de Saclay, IRFU/Service de Physique Nucléaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1321 (United States); NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1321 (United States); Hergert, H. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1321 (United States); The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Holt, J. D. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    We address the scale dependence of (effective) single-particle energies, non-observable quantities that are commonly used for interpreting nuclear structure observables measured in experiments and computed in many-body theories. We first demonstrate their scale dependence on a formal level, making them intrinsically theoretical objects, before illustrating this point via ab initio calculations in the oxygen isotopes. Finally, we consider a modified definition of effective single-particle energy and investigate its running properties.

  7. Tree Structure Sparsity Pattern Guided Convex Optimization for Compressive Sensing of Large-Scale Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-Jie; Lin, Gang-Xuan; Lu, Chun-Shien

    2016-12-01

    Cost-efficient compressive sensing of large-scale images with quickly reconstructed high-quality results is very challenging. In this paper, we present an algorithm to solve convex optimization via the tree structure sparsity pattern, which can be run in the operator to reduce computation cost and maintain good quality, especially for large-scale images. We also provide convergence analysis and convergence rate analysis for the proposed method. The feasibility of our method is verified through simulations and comparison with state-of-theart algorithms.

  8. Comparisons of the Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent Version in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glod, Magdalena; Creswell, Cathy; Waite, Polly; Jamieson, Ruth; McConachie, Helen; South, Mikle Don; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2017-01-01

    The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent version (SCAS-P) is often used to assess anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), however, little is known about the validity of the tool in this population. The aim of this study was to determine whether the SCAS-P has the same factorial validity in a sample of young people with ASD (n =…

  9. Intermittent structures at ion scales in the turbulent solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Denise; Alexandrova, Olga; Lion, Sonny; Roberts, Owen W.; Maksimovic, Milan; Escoubet, Philippe C.; Zouganelis, Yannis

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the physical mechanisms of dissipation, and the related heating, in turbulent collisionless plasmas (such as the solar wind) represents nowadays one of the key issues of plasma physics. Although the complex behavior of the solar wind has been matter of investigation of many years, some of the primary problems still remain a puzzle for the scientific community. Here, we study coherent structures responsible for solar wind intermittency around ion characteristic scales. We find that, in fast solar wind, intermittency is due to current sheets and Alfvén vortex-like structures. In slow solar wind, we observe as well compressive structures like magnetic solitons, holes and shocks. By using high-time resolution magnetic field data of multi-point measurements of Cluster spacecraft, we characterize the observed coherent structures in terms of topology and propagation speed. We show that all structures, both in fast and slow solar wind, are characterized by a strong wave-vector anisotropy in the perpendicular direction with respect to the local magnetic field and typical scales around ion characteristic scales. Moreover, some of them propagate in the plasma rest frame. Moreover, a further analysis on the ion velocity distribution shows a high variability; in particular, close to coherent structures the proton distribution function appears strongly deformed and far from the thermodynamic equilibrium. We discuss possible interpretation of the observed structures and their role in the heating process of the plasma.

  10. Comparison of sequence-based and structure-based phylogenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-12-12

    Dec 12, 2006 ... Using a dataset of 108 protein domain families of known structures with at least 10 members per family we present a comparison of extent of structural and sequence dissimilarities among pairs of proteins which are inputs into the construction of phylogenetic trees. We find that correlation between the ...

  11. Large eddy simulation of flow over a wall-mounted cube: Comparison of different semi dynamic subgrid scale models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nooroullahi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the ability of different semi dynamic subgrid scale models for large eddy simulation was studied in a challenging test case. The semi dynamic subgrid scale models were examined in this investigation is Selective Structure model, Coherent structure model, Wall Adaptive Large Eddy model. The test case is a simulation of flow over a wall-mounted cube in a channel. The results of these models were compared to structure function model, dynamic models and experimental data at Reynolds number 40000. Results show that these semi dynamic models could improve the ability of numerical simulation in comparison with other models which use a constant coefficient for simulation of subgrid scale viscosity. In addition, these models don't have the instability problems of dynamic models.

  12. Large scale structures and the cubic galileon model

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Tomaras, Theodore N

    2015-01-01

    The maximum size of a bound cosmic structure is computed perturbatively as a function of its mass in the framework of the cubic galileon, proposed recently to model the dark energy of our Universe. Comparison of our results with observations constrains the matter-galileon coupling of the model to $0.03\\lesssim \\alpha \\lesssim 0.17$, thus improving previous bounds based solely on solar system physics.

  13. Constraining cosmological ultralarge scale structure using numerical relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Jonathan; Johnson, Matthew C.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Aguirre, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    Cosmic inflation, a period of accelerated expansion in the early universe, can give rise to large amplitude ultralarge scale inhomogeneities on distance scales comparable to or larger than the observable universe. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy on the largest angular scales is sensitive to such inhomogeneities and can be used to constrain the presence of ultralarge scale structure (ULSS). We numerically evolve nonlinear inhomogeneities present at the beginning of inflation in full general relativity to assess the CMB quadrupole constraint on the amplitude of the initial fluctuations and the size of the observable universe relative to a length scale characterizing the ULSS. To obtain a statistically meaningful ensemble of simulations, we adopt a toy model in which inhomogeneities are injected along a preferred direction. We compute the likelihood function for the CMB quadrupole including both ULSS and the standard quantum fluctuations produced during inflation. We compute the posterior given the observed CMB quadrupole, finding that when including gravitational nonlinearities, ULSS curvature perturbations of order unity are allowed by the data, even on length scales not too much larger than the size of the observable universe. To demonstrate the robustness of our conclusions, we also explore a semianalytic model for the ULSS which reproduces our numerical results for the case of planar symmetry, and which can be extended to ULSS with a three-dimensional inhomogeneity structure. Our results illustrate the utility and importance of numerical relativity for constraining early universe cosmology.

  14. INVESTIGATING THE FACTOR STRUCTURE OF THE BLOG ATTITUDE SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra SHAHSAVAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the wide application of advanced technology in education, many attitude scales have been developed to evaluate learners’ attitudes toward educational tools. However, with the rapid development of emerging technologies, using blogs as one of the Web 2.0 tools is still in its infancy and few blog attitude scales have been developed yet. In view of this need, a lot of researchers like to design a new scale based on their conceptual and theoretical framework of their own study rather than using available scales. The present study reports the design and development of a blog attitude scale (BAS. The researchers developed a pool of items to capture the complexity of the blog attitude trait, selected 29 items in the content analysis, and assigned the scale comprising 29 items to 216 undergraduate students to explore the underlying structure of the BAS. In exploratory factor analysis, three factors were discovered: blog anxiety, blog desirability, and blog self-efficacy; 14 items were excluded. The extracted items were subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis which lent further support to the BAS underpinning structure.

  15. Atomic scale structures of interfaces between kaolinite edges and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Lu, X.; Wang, R.; Meijer, E.J.; Zhou, H.; He, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the atomic scale structures of kaolinite edge surfaces in contact with water. The commonly occurring edge surfaces are investigated (i.e. (0 1 0) and (1 1 0)) by using first principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) technique. For (1 1 0)-type edge surface, there are two different

  16. Factor Structure of Japanese Versions of Two Emotional Intelligence Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Eriko; Saklofske, Donald H.; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Fung, Tak Shing; Miyaoka, Yayoi; Kiyama, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the psychometric properties of two emotional intelligence measures translated into Japanese. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the factor structure of a Japanese version of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) completed by 310 Japanese university students. A second study employed CFA…

  17. Random walk models of large-scale structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper describes the insights gained from the excursion set approach, in which vari- ous questions about the phenomenology of large-scale structure formation can be mapped to problems associated with the first crossing distribution of appropriately defined barriers by random walks. Much of this is ...

  18. Gregory Research Beliefs Scale: Factor Structure and Internal Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Virgil L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluates the factor structure and internal consistency of the Gregory Research Beliefs Scale (GRBS). Method: Data were collected from subject matter experts, a pilot study, an online sample, and a classroom sample. Psychometric analyses were conducted after combining the online and classroom samples. Results: An a priori…

  19. A structured ecosystem-scale approach to marine water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These, in turn, created the need for holistic and integrated frameworks within which to design and implement environmental management programmes. A structured ecosystem-scale approach for the design and implementation of marine water quality management programmes developed by the CSIR (South Africa) in ...

  20. Examining the factor structure of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Shawn M; Li, Jian; Rumrill, Phillip D; Merchant, William; Bishop, Malachy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) to assess its suitability for modeling the impact of MS on a nation-wide sample of individuals from the United States. Investigators completed a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to examine the two-factor structure proposed by Hobart et al. [17]. Although the original MSIS-29 factor structure did not fit the data exactly, the hypothesized two-factor model was partially supported in the current data. Implications for future instrument development and rehabilitation practice are discussed.

  1. Toward high-throughput, multicriteria protein-structure comparison and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Azhar Ali; Folino, Gianluigi; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2010-06-01

    the time required by it. Our results show that the proposed distributed method can be used efficiently to compare: 1) a particular protein against a very large protein structures dataset (target-against-all comparison), and 2) a particular very large-scale dataset against itself or against another very large-scale dataset (all-against-all comparison). We conclude the paper by enumerating some of the outstanding challenges for real-time MC-PSC.

  2. Comparison of Chemical Nano Structure, Rheological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, chemical nano structures, rheological and mechanical properties of long oil alkyd resin which was synthesized using different polybasic acid catalysts have been studied. These catalyst were phosphoric acid, 1,2,4-benzene tricarboxylic acid and succinic acid. The new compounds were compared with ...

  3. External validation and comparison of three pediatric clinical dehydration scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Joshua; Nelson, Daniel; Choo, Esther; Stearns, Branden; Levine, Adam C; Liebmann, Otto; Shah, Sachita P

    2014-01-01

    To prospectively validate three popular clinical dehydration scales and overall physician gestalt in children with vomiting or diarrhea relative to the criterion standard of percent weight change with rehydration. We prospectively enrolled a non-consecutive cohort of children ≤ 18 years of age with an acute episode of diarrhea or vomiting. Patient weight, clinical scale variables and physician clinical impression, or gestalt, were recorded before and after fluid resuscitation in the emergency department and upon hospital discharge. The percent weight change from presentation to discharge was used to calculate the degree of dehydration, with a weight change of ≥ 5% considered significant dehydration. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed for each of the three clinical scales and physician gestalt. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated based on the best cut-points of the ROC curve. We approached 209 patients, and of those, 148 were enrolled and 113 patients had complete data for analysis. Of these, 10.6% had significant dehydration based on our criterion standard. The Clinical Dehydration Scale (CDS) and Gorelick scales both had an area under the ROC curve (AUC) statistically different from the reference line with AUCs of 0.72 (95% CI 0.60, 0.84) and 0.71 (95% CI 0.57, 0.85) respectively. The World Health Organization (WHO) scale and physician gestalt had AUCs of 0.61 (95% CI 0.45, 0.77) and 0.61 (0.44, 0.78) respectively, which were not statistically significant. The Gorelick scale and Clinical Dehydration Scale were fair predictors of dehydration in children with diarrhea or vomiting. The World Health Organization scale and physician gestalt were not helpful predictors of dehydration in our cohort.

  4. Students Perception of Ability Scale: comparison of scores for gifted, average, and learning disabled students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J W; Boersma, F J

    1986-08-01

    On the Student's Perception of Ability Scale, comparison of scores for gifted, average, and learning disabled students differentiated the groups, thereby providing some construct validity as well as confirming the ceiling is high enough for use.

  5. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattula, Deepthi; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Sarkar, Rajiv; Jiang, Victoria; S, Mahasampath Gowri; Henry, Ankita; Deosaran, Jordanna Devi; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India. A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales-Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL), the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI) and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting. The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%). Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%. There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities.

  6. Toward Small-Scale Wind Energy Harvesting: Design, Enhancement, Performance Comparison, and Applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of harvesting ambient energy as an alternative power supply for electronic systems like remote sensors to avoid replacement of depleted batteries has been enthusiastically investigated over the past few years. Wind energy is a potential power source which is ubiquitous in both indoor and outdoor environments. The increasing research interests have resulted in numerous techniques on small-scale wind energy harvesting, and a rigorous and quantitative comparison is necessary to provide the academic community a guideline. This paper reviews the recent advances on various wind power harvesting techniques ranging between cm-scaled wind turbines and windmills, harvesters based on aeroelasticities, and those based on turbulence and other types of working principles, mainly from a quantitative perspective. The merits, weaknesses, and applicability of different prototypes are discussed in detail. Also, efficiency enhancing methods are summarized from two aspects, that is, structural modification aspect and interface circuit improvement aspect. Studies on integrating wind energy harvesters with wireless sensors for potential practical uses are also reviewed. The purpose of this paper is to provide useful guidance to researchers from various disciplines interested in small-scale wind energy harvesting and help them build a quantitative understanding of this technique.

  7. An enquiry into the method of paired comparison: reliability, scaling, and Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; George L. Peterson

    2009-01-01

    The method of paired comparisons is used to measure individuals' preference orderings of items presented to them as discrete binary choices. This paper reviews the theory and application of the paired comparison method, describes a new computer program available for eliciting the choices, and presents an analysis of methods for scaling paired choice data to...

  8. Structural footprinting in protein structure comparison: the impact of structural fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbur W John

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One approach for speeding-up protein structure comparison is the projection approach, where a protein structure is mapped to a high-dimensional vector and structural similarity is approximated by distance between the corresponding vectors. Structural footprinting methods are projection methods that employ the same general technique to produce the mapping: first select a representative set of structural fragments as models and then map a protein structure to a vector in which each dimension corresponds to a particular model and "counts" the number of times the model appears in the structure. The main difference between any two structural footprinting methods is in the set of models they use; in fact a large number of methods can be generated by varying the type of structural fragments used and the amount of detail in their representation. How do these choices affect the ability of the method to detect various types of structural similarity? Results To answer this question we benchmarked three structural footprinting methods that vary significantly in their selection of models against the CATH database. In the first set of experiments we compared the methods' ability to detect structural similarity characteristic of evolutionarily related structures, i.e., structures within the same CATH superfamily. In the second set of experiments we tested the methods' agreement with the boundaries imposed by classification groups at the Class, Architecture, and Fold levels of the CATH hierarchy. Conclusion In both experiments we found that the method which uses secondary structure information has the best performance on average, but no one method performs consistently the best across all groups at a given classification level. We also found that combining the methods' outputs significantly improves the performance. Moreover, our new techniques to measure and visualize the methods' agreement with the CATH hierarchy, including the

  9. Mechanical properties and the laminate structure of Arapaima gigas scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y S; Wei, C T; Olevsky, E A; Meyers, Marc A

    2011-10-01

    The Arapaima gigas scales play an important role in protecting this large Amazon basin fish against predators such as the piranha. They have a laminate composite structure composed of an external mineralized layer and internal lamellae with thickness of 50-60 μm each and composed of collagen fibers with ~1 μm diameter. The alignment of collagen fibers is consistent in each individual layer but varies from layer to layer, forming a non-orthogonal plywood structure, known as Bouligand stacking. X-ray diffraction revealed that the external surface of the scale contains calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite. EDS results confirm that the percentage of calcium is higher in the external layer. The micro-indentation hardness of the external layer (550 MPa) is considerably higher than that of the internal layer (200 MPa), consistent with its higher degree of mineralization. Tensile testing of the scales carried out in the dry and wet conditions shows that the strength and stiffness are hydration dependent. As is the case of most biological materials, the elastic modulus of the scale is strain-rate dependent. The strain-rate dependence of the elastic modulus, as expressed by the Ramberg-Osgood equation, is equal to 0.26, approximately ten times higher than that of bone. This is attributed to the higher fraction of collagen in the scales and to the high degree of hydration (30% H(2)O). Deproteinization of the scale reveals the structure of the mineral component consisting of an interconnected network of platelets with a thickness of ~50 nm and diameter of ~500 nm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reliability Evaluation considering Structures of a Large Scale Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Je-Seok; Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the most widely used renewable energy resources. Wind power has been connected to the grid as large scale wind farm which is made up of dozens of wind turbines, and the scale of wind farm is more increased recently. Due to intermittent and variable wind source, reliability...... wind farm which is able to enhance a capability of delivering a power instead of controlling an uncontrollable output of wind power. Therefore, this paper introduces a method to evaluate the reliability depending upon structures of wind farm and to reflect the result to the planning stage of wind farm....

  11. Response function of the large-scale structure of the universe to the small scale inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimichi, Takahiro, E-mail: takahiro.nishimichi@ipmu.jp [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 6 et CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); CREST, JST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Bernardeau, Francis, E-mail: francis.bernardeau@iap.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 6 et CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); CEA, CNRS, UMR 3681, Institut de Physique Théorique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Taruya, Atsushi, E-mail: ataruya@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-11-10

    In order to infer the impact of the small-scale physics to the large-scale properties of the universe, we use a series of cosmological N-body simulations of self-gravitating matter inhomogeneities to measure, for the first time, the response function of such a system defined as a functional derivative of the nonlinear power spectrum with respect to its linear counterpart. Its measured shape and amplitude are found to be in good agreement with perturbation theory predictions except for the coupling from small to large-scale perturbations. The latter is found to be significantly damped, following a Lorentzian form. These results shed light on validity regime of perturbation theory calculations giving a useful guideline for regularization of small scale effects in analytical modeling. Most importantly our result indicates that the statistical properties of the large-scale structure of the universe are remarkably insensitive to the details of the small-scale physics, astrophysical or gravitational, paving the way for the derivation of robust estimates of theoretical uncertainties on the determination of cosmological parameters from large-scale survey observations.

  12. Grammatical Structures in Cross-Cultural Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Н Гладкова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how cultural information is embedded at the level of grammar and it treats grammar as inseparable from semantics and pragmatics. The study is done within the approach known as ethnosyntax. The article provides examples of cultural meaning embedded at the level of syntax relying on examples from Russian and English. In particular, it demonstrates variation in impersonal constructions in Russian and causative constructions in English. It then discusses variation in the use of grammatical structures due to the influence of cultural factors on the basis of ways of wording ‘requests’ in English and Russian. The linguistic examples in the discussion are sources from the Russian National Corpus for Russian and Collins Wordbanks Online for English. The article argues for the importance of culture-sensitive linguistic studies in language teaching.

  13. Geophysical mapping of complex glaciogenic large-scale structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Anne-Sophie

    2013-01-01

    is required to understand the structures. In practice, however, also the applicability and costs of the methods are crucial. The SkyTEM method is very cost-effective in providing dense data sets, and it is therefore recommendable to use this method initially in mapping campaigns. For more detailed structural...... information, seismic data can profitably be acquired in certain areas of interest, preferably selected on the basis of the SkyTEM data. In areas where extremely detailed information about the near-surface is required, geoelec¬tri¬cal data (resistivity information) and ground penetrating radar data (structural......This thesis presents the main results of a four year PhD study concerning the use of geophysical data in geological mapping. The study is related to the Geocenter project, “KOMPLEKS”, which focuses on the mapping of complex, large-scale geological structures. The study area is approximately 100 km2...

  14. Inferring synaptic structure in presence of neural interaction time scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Capone

    Full Text Available Biological networks display a variety of activity patterns reflecting a web of interactions that is complex both in space and time. Yet inference methods have mainly focused on reconstructing, from the network's activity, the spatial structure, by assuming equilibrium conditions or, more recently, a probabilistic dynamics with a single arbitrary time-step. Here we show that, under this latter assumption, the inference procedure fails to reconstruct the synaptic matrix of a network of integrate-and-fire neurons when the chosen time scale of interaction does not closely match the synaptic delay or when no single time scale for the interaction can be identified; such failure, moreover, exposes a distinctive bias of the inference method that can lead to infer as inhibitory the excitatory synapses with interaction time scales longer than the model's time-step. We therefore introduce a new two-step method, that first infers through cross-correlation profiles the delay-structure of the network and then reconstructs the synaptic matrix, and successfully test it on networks with different topologies and in different activity regimes. Although step one is able to accurately recover the delay-structure of the network, thus getting rid of any a priori guess about the time scales of the interaction, the inference method introduces nonetheless an arbitrary time scale, the time-bin dt used to binarize the spike trains. We therefore analytically and numerically study how the choice of dt affects the inference in our network model, finding that the relationship between the inferred couplings and the real synaptic efficacies, albeit being quadratic in both cases, depends critically on dt for the excitatory synapses only, whilst being basically independent of it for the inhibitory ones.

  15. Scale and structure of capitated physician organizations in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M B; Frank, R G; Buchanan, J L; Epstein, A M

    2001-01-01

    Physician organizations in California broke new ground in the 1980s by accepting capitated contracts and taking on utilization management functions. In this paper we present new data that document the scale, structure, and vertical affiliations of physician organizations that accept capitation in California. We provide information on capitated enrollment, the share of revenue derived by physician organizations from capitation contracts, and the scope of risk sharing with health maintenance organizations (HMOs). Capitation contracts and risk sharing dominate payment arrangements with HMOs. Physician organizations appear to have responded to capitation by affiliating with hospitals and management companies, adopting hybrid organizational structures, and consolidating into larger entities.

  16. A comparison of multidimensional scaling methods for perceptual mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, T.H.A.; Wedel, M.

    Multidimensional scaling has been applied to a wide range of marketing problems, in particular to perceptual mapping based on dissimilarity judgments. The introduction of methods based on the maximum likelihood principle is one of the most important developments. In this article, the authors compare

  17. Tribological Analysis of Ventral Scale Structure in a Python Regius in Relation to Laser Textured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-aal, Hisham A

    2013-01-01

    Laser Texturing is one of the leading technologies applied to modify surface topography. To date, however, a standardized procedure to generate deterministic textures is virtually non-existent. In nature, especially in squamata, there are many examples of deterministic structured textures that allow species to control friction and condition their tribological response for efficient function. In this work, we draw a comparison between industrial surfaces and reptilian surfaces. We chose the python regius species as a bio-analogue with a deterministic surface. We first study the structural make up of the ventral scales of the snake (both construction and metrology). We further compare the metrological features of the ventral scales to experimentally recommended performance indicators of industrial surfaces extracted from open literature. The results indicate the feasibility of engineering a Laser Textured Surface based on the reptilian ornamentation constructs. It is shown that the metrological features, key to...

  18. The effective field theory of cosmological large scale structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, John Joseph M. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Hertzberg, Mark P. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2012-09-20

    Large scale structure surveys will likely become the next leading cosmological probe. In our universe, matter perturbations are large on short distances and small at long scales, i.e. strongly coupled in the UV and weakly coupled in the IR. To make precise analytical predictions on large scales, we develop an effective field theory formulated in terms of an IR effective fluid characterized by several parameters, such as speed of sound and viscosity. These parameters, determined by the UV physics described by the Boltzmann equation, are measured from N-body simulations. We find that the speed of sound of the effective fluid is c2s ≈ 10–6c2 and that the viscosity contributions are of the same order. The fluid describes all the relevant physics at long scales k and permits a manifestly convergent perturbative expansion in the size of the matter perturbations δ(k) for all the observables. As an example, we calculate the correction to the power spectrum at order δ(k)4. As a result, the predictions of the effective field theory are found to be in much better agreement with observation than standard cosmological perturbation theory, already reaching percent precision at this order up to a relatively short scale k ≃ 0.24h Mpc–1.

  19. Dark matter self-interactions and small scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulin, Sean; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2018-02-01

    We review theories of dark matter (DM) beyond the collisionless paradigm, known as self-interacting dark matter (SIDM), and their observable implications for astrophysical structure in the Universe. Self-interactions are motivated, in part, due to the potential to explain long-standing (and more recent) small scale structure observations that are in tension with collisionless cold DM (CDM) predictions. Simple particle physics models for SIDM can provide a universal explanation for these observations across a wide range of mass scales spanning dwarf galaxies, low and high surface brightness spiral galaxies, and clusters of galaxies. At the same time, SIDM leaves intact the success of ΛCDM cosmology on large scales. This report covers the following topics: (1) small scale structure issues, including the core-cusp problem, the diversity problem for rotation curves, the missing satellites problem, and the too-big-to-fail problem, as well as recent progress in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation; (2) N-body simulations for SIDM, including implications for density profiles, halo shapes, substructure, and the interplay between baryons and self-interactions; (3) semi-analytic Jeans-based methods that provide a complementary approach for connecting particle models with observations; (4) merging systems, such as cluster mergers (e.g., the Bullet Cluster) and minor infalls, along with recent simulation results for mergers; (5) particle physics models, including light mediator models and composite DM models; and (6) complementary probes for SIDM, including indirect and direct detection experiments, particle collider searches, and cosmological observations. We provide a summary and critical look for all current constraints on DM self-interactions and an outline for future directions.

  20. Using LiDAR Metrics to Characterize Forest Structural Complexity at Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, V. R.; McGaughey, R. J.; Gersonde, R.; Franklin, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    Forest structure - the size and arrangement of trees and foliage - reflects a stand's history of initiation, growth, disturbance, and mortality. Because of this, studying the structure of forests can provide key insights into ecological processes, guides to silvicultural prescriptions to improve habitat, and assessments of forested landscapes. This study tested LiDAR metrics to characterize stands based on canopy structure. The study site was the 34,591 ha of forests in the Cedar River Watershed in western Washington State, USA. Stands ranged in age from 350 years old (including old-growth). Study sites spanned the western hemlock- Douglas fir (Tsuga heterophylla-Pseudotsuga menziesii), Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis), and mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertansiana) forest zones. Eighty sample plots were used to ground truth the LiDAR data. A variety of structural indices were used to study canopy structural variations at the plot, stand, and landscape scales. The two most successful indices used the exposed geometry of the canopy surface: (1) the ratio of the canopy surface area to ground surface area (rumple index), and (2) the ratio of the volume beneath the canopy surface to maximum volume beneath the 95th percentile height (modified canopy volume method). These two indices integrated the spatial effects of tree heights, foliage distribution, and tree arrangement within 15m pixels. Variation between pixels revealed structural complexity at larger scales. Results: At the plot scale (~4 pixels), correlations with standard plot metrics (e.g., diameter at breast height) were similar to those reported by other studies. Comparison of structural complexity with age and height revealed a diversity of development pathways. The relationship between height and complexity allowed stands to be classified by the degree to which they have achieved their potential structural complexity, a new way to examine forest development. At the stand scale, the indices allowed spatial

  1. Structural Quality of Service in Large-Scale Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    , telephony and data. To meet the requirements of the different applications, and to handle the increased vulnerability to failures, the ability to design robust networks providing good Quality of Service is crucial. However, most planning of large-scale networks today is ad-hoc based, leading to highly......Digitalization has created the base for co-existence and convergence in communications, leading to an increasing use of multi service networks. This is for example seen in the Fiber To The Home implementations, where a single fiber is used for virtually all means of communication, including TV...... complex networks lacking predictability and global structural properties. The thesis applies the concept of Structural Quality of Service to formulate desirable global properties, and it shows how regular graph structures can be used to obtain such properties....

  2. Structures, profile consistency, and transport scaling in electrostatic convection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.

    2005-01-01

    that for interchange modes, profile consistency is in fact due to mixing by persistent large-scale convective cells. This mechanism is not a turbulent diffusion, cannot occur in collisionless systems, and is the analog of the well-known laminar "magnetic flux expulsion" in magneiohydrodynamics. This expulsion process...... involves a "pinch" across closed streamlines and further results in the formation of pressure fingers along the-separatrix of the convective cells. By nature, these coherent structures are dissipative because the mixing process that leads to their formation relies on a finite amount of collisional...... diffusion. Numerical simulations of two-dimensional interchange modes confirm the role of laminar expulsion by convective cells, for profile consistency and structure formation. They also show that the fingerlike pressure structures ultimately control the rate of heat transport across the plasma layer...

  3. Ion-scale turbulence in MAST: anomalous transport, subcritical transitions, and comparison to BES measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, F.; Highcock, E. G.; Field, A. R.; Roach, C. M.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Parra, F. I.; Dorland, W.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the effect of varying the ion temperature gradient (ITG) and toroidal equilibrium scale sheared flow on ion-scale turbulence in the outer core of MAST by means of local gyrokinetic simulations. We show that nonlinear simulations reproduce the experimental ion heat flux and that the experimentally measured values of the ITG and the flow shear lie close to the turbulence threshold. We demonstrate that the system is subcritical in the presence of flow shear, i.e., the system is formally stable to small perturbations, but transitions to a turbulent state given a large enough initial perturbation. We propose that the transition to subcritical turbulence occurs via an intermediate state dominated by low number of coherent long-lived structures, close to threshold, which increase in number as the system is taken away from the threshold into the more strongly turbulent regime, until they fill the domain and a more conventional turbulence emerges. We show that the properties of turbulence are effectively functions of the distance to threshold, as quantified by the ion heat flux. We make quantitative comparisons of correlation lengths, times, and amplitudes between our simulations and experimental measurements using the MAST BES diagnostic. We find reasonable agreement of the correlation properties, most notably of the correlation time, for which significant discrepancies were found in previous numerical studies of MAST turbulence.

  4. Biodegradation of creosote compounds: Comparison of experiments at different scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, K.; Arvin, Erik

    2001-01-01

    of the experiments were conducted with till or ground water from the field site at Ringe on the island of Funen. Although the experiments were conducted on different scales, they revealed that some phenomena-e.g., an extensive biodegradation potential of several of the creosote compounds, the inhibitory influence...... of the pyrroles on the biodegradation of benzene, and the biodegradation of benzothiophene occurs only in the presence of a primary substrate. The experiments show that some biodegradation processes of organic compounds may be common to different microorganisms....

  5. Responsiveness of the Multiple Sclerosis Impairment Scale in comparison with the Expanded Disability Status Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, M; Blinkenberg, M; Sellebjerg, F

    2005-01-01

    The Multiple Sclerosis Impairment Scale (MSIS) is a measure of accumulated deficits assessed by means of a standard neurological examination. We compared the responsiveness of the MSIS with that of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). We reviewed 4300 records collected systematically from......, while the variance of the annualized change in MSIS was stable. The study indicates that the responsiveness of the MSIS is better than that of the EDSS in terms of both magnitude and stability over the range of measurement...

  6. Full-Scale Structural and NDI Validation Tests of Bonded Composite Doublers for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

    1999-02-01

    Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. Most of the concerns surrounding composite doubler technology pertain to long-term survivability, especially in the presence of non-optimum installations, and the validation of appropriate inspection procedures. This report focuses on a series of full-scale structural and nondestructive inspection (NDI) tests that were conducted to investigate the performance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Full-scale tests were conducted on fuselage panels cut from retired aircraft. These full-scale tests studied stress reductions, crack mitigation, and load transfer capabilities of composite doublers using simulated flight conditions of cabin pressure and axial stress. Also, structures which modeled key aspects of aircraft structure repairs were subjected to extreme tension, shear and bending loads to examine the composite laminate's resistance to disbond and delamination flaws. Several of the structures were loaded to failure in order to determine doubler design margins. Nondestructive inspections were conducted throughout the test series in order to validate appropriate techniques on actual aircraft structure. The test results showed that a properly designed and installed composite doubler is able to enhance fatigue life, transfer load away from damaged structure, and avoid the introduction of new stress risers (i.e. eliminate global reduction in the fatigue life of the structure). Comparisons with test data obtained prior to the doubler installation revealed that stresses in the parent material can be reduced 30%--60% through the use of the composite doubler. Tests to failure demonstrated that the bondline is able to transfer plastic strains into the doubler and that

  7. Kinetic Scale Structure of Low-frequency Waves and Fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Rodrigo A.; Yoon, Peter H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Viñas, Adolfo F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Araneda, Jaime A., E-mail: rlopezh@umd.edu, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile)

    2017-08-10

    The dissipation of solar wind turbulence at kinetic scales is believed to be important for the heating of the corona and for accelerating the wind. The linear Vlasov kinetic theory is a useful tool for identifying various wave modes, including kinetic Alfvén, fast magnetosonic/whistler, and ion-acoustic (or kinetic slow), and their possible roles in the dissipation. However, the kinetic mode structure in the vicinity of ion-cyclotron modes is not clearly understood. The present paper aims to further elucidate the structure of these low-frequency waves by introducing discrete particle effects through hybrid simulations and Klimontovich formalism of spontaneous emission theory. The theory and simulation of spontaneously emitted low-frequency fluctuations are employed to identify and distinguish the detailed mode structures associated with ion-Bernstein modes versus quasi-modes. The spontaneous emission theory and simulation also confirm the findings of the Vlasov theory in that the kinetic Alfvén waves can be defined over a wide range of frequencies, including the proton cyclotron frequency and its harmonics, especially for high-beta plasmas. This implies that these low-frequency modes may play predominant roles even in the fully kinetic description of kinetic scale turbulence and dissipation despite the fact that cyclotron harmonic and Bernstein modes may also play important roles in wave–particle interactions.

  8. Structural colour: Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukusic, P.; Sambles, J. R.; Lawrence, C. R.

    2000-03-01

    Green coloration in the animal kingdom, as seen in birds' feathers and reptile integument, is often an additive mixture of structurally effected blue and pigmentary yellow. Here we investigate the origin of the bright green coloration of the wing scales of the Indonesian male Papilio palinurus butterfly, the microstructure of which generates an extraordinary combination of both yellow and blue iridescence. The dual colour arises from a modulation imposed on the multilayer, producing the blue component as a result of a previously undiscovered retro-reflection process.

  9. Cosmology from large-scale structure observations: a subjective review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilicki, Maciej; Hellwing, Wojciech A.

    2017-08-01

    In these lecture notes we give a brief overview of cosmological inference from the observed large-scale structure (LSS) of the Universe. After a general introduction, we briefly summarize the current status of the standard cosmological model, ΛCDM, and then discuss a few general puzzles related to this otherwise successful model. Next, after a concise presentation of LSS properties, we describe various observational cosmological probes, such as baryon acoustic oscillations, redshift space distortions and weak gravitational lensing. We also provide examples of how the rapidly developing technique of cross-correlations of cosmological datasets is applied. Finally, we briefly mention the promise brought to cosmology by gravitational wave detections.

  10. Cosmological constraints from large-scale structure growth rate measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Anatoly; Farooq, Omer; Ratra, Bharat

    2014-07-01

    We compile a list of 14 independent measurements of a large-scale structure growth rate between redshifts 0.067≤z≤0.8 and use this to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving general-relativistic dark energy cosmologies. With the assumption that gravity is well modeled by general relativity, we discover that growth-rate data provide restrictive cosmological parameter constraints. In combination with type Ia supernova apparent magnitude versus redshift data and Hubble parameter measurements, the growth rate data are consistent with the standard spatially flat ΛCDM model, as well as with mildly evolving dark energy density cosmological models.

  11. The Self-Monitoring Scale: A Factorial Comparison among Mexicans, Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosch, Harmon M.; Marchioni, Perry M.

    1986-01-01

    Responses to Snyder's Self-Monitoring Scale (SM) by 138 Mexican, 154 Mexican American, and 145 Anglo American undergraduates were analyzed to determine the scale's factorial structure. Clear differences existed in the structure of SM responses for the three ethnic/national groups showing that the meaning of subjects' responses was culturally…

  12. Linear scaling 3D fragment method for large-scale electronic structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Lin-Wang; Lee, Byounghak; Shan, HongZhang; Zhao, Zhengji; Meza, Juan; Strohmaier, Erich; Bailey, David

    2008-07-11

    We present a new linearly scaling three-dimensional fragment (LS3DF) method for large scale ab initio electronic structure calculations. LS3DF is based on a divide-and-conquer approach, which incorporates a novel patching scheme that effectively cancels out the artificial boundary effects due to the subdivision of the system. As a consequence, the LS3DF program yields essentially the same results as direct density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The fragments of the LS3DF algorithm can be calculated separately with different groups of processors. This leads to almost perfect parallelization on tens of thousands of processors. After code optimization, we were able to achieve 35.1 Tflop/s, which is 39% of the theoretical speed on 17,280 Cray XT4 processor cores. Our 13,824-atom ZnTeO alloy calculation runs 400 times faster than a direct DFT calculation, even presuming that the direct DFT calculation can scale well up to 17,280 processor cores. These results demonstrate the applicability of the LS3DF method to material simulations, the advantage of using linearly scaling algorithms over conventional O(N{sup 3}) methods, and the potential for petascale computation using the LS3DF method.

  13. Linearly Scaling 3D Fragment Method for Large-Scale Electronic Structure Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Lee, Byounghak; Shan, Hongzhang; Zhao, Zhengji; Meza, Juan; Strohmaier, Erich; Bailey, David H.

    2008-07-01

    We present a new linearly scaling three-dimensional fragment (LS3DF) method for large scale ab initio electronic structure calculations. LS3DF is based on a divide-and-conquer approach, which incorporates a novel patching scheme that effectively cancels out the artificial boundary effects due to the subdivision of the system. As a consequence, the LS3DF program yields essentially the same results as direct density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The fragments of the LS3DF algorithm can be calculated separately with different groups of processors. This leads to almost perfect parallelization on tens of thousands of processors. After code optimization, we were able to achieve 35.1 Tflop/s, which is 39percent of the theoretical speed on 17,280 Cray XT4 processor cores. Our 13,824-atom ZnTeO alloy calculation runs 400 times faster than a direct DFTcalculation, even presuming that the direct DFT calculation can scale well up to 17,280 processor cores. These results demonstrate the applicability of the LS3DF method to material simulations, the advantage of using linearly scaling algorithms over conventional O(N3) methods, and the potential for petascale computation using the LS3DF method.

  14. Fine-Scale Structure Design for 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Francis Julian

    Modern additive fabrication technologies can manufacture shapes whose geometric complexities far exceed what existing computational design tools can analyze or optimize. At the same time, falling costs have placed these fabrication technologies within the average consumer's reach. Especially for inexpert designers, new software tools are needed to take full advantage of 3D printing technology. This thesis develops such tools and demonstrates the exciting possibilities enabled by fine-tuning objects at the small scales achievable by 3D printing. The thesis applies two high-level ideas to invent these tools: two-scale design and worst-case analysis. The two-scale design approach addresses the problem that accurately simulating--let alone optimizing--the full-resolution geometry sent to the printer requires orders of magnitude more computational power than currently available. However, we can decompose the design problem into a small-scale problem (designing tileable structures achieving a particular deformation behavior) and a macro-scale problem (deciding where to place these structures in the larger object). This separation is particularly effective, since structures for every useful behavior can be designed once, stored in a database, then reused for many different macroscale problems. Worst-case analysis refers to determining how likely an object is to fracture by studying the worst possible scenario: the forces most efficiently breaking it. This analysis is needed when the designer has insufficient knowledge or experience to predict what forces an object will undergo, or when the design is intended for use in many different scenarios unknown a priori. The thesis begins by summarizing the physics and mathematics necessary to rigorously approach these design and analysis problems. Specifically, the second chapter introduces linear elasticity and periodic homogenization. The third chapter presents a pipeline to design microstructures achieving a wide range of

  15. Comparison of sample preparation techniques for large-scale proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuljanin, Miljan; Dieters-Castator, Dylan Z; Hess, David A; Postovit, Lynne-Marie; Lajoie, Gilles A

    2017-01-01

    Numerous workflows exist for large-scale bottom-up proteomics, many of which achieve exceptional proteome depth. Herein, we evaluated the performance of several commonly used sample preparation techniques for proteomic characterization of HeLa lysates [unfractionated in-solution digests, SDS-PAGE coupled with in-gel digestion, gel-eluted liquid fraction entrapment electrophoresis (GELFrEE) technology, SCX StageTips and high-/low-pH reversed phase fractionation (HpH)]. HpH fractionation was found to be superior in terms of proteome depth (>8400 proteins detected) and fractionation efficiency compared to other techniques. SCX StageTip fractionation required minimal sample handling and was also a substantial improvement over SDS-PAGE separation and GELFrEE technology. Sequence coverage of the HeLa proteome increased to 38% when combining all workflows, however, total proteins detected improved only slightly to 8710. In summary, HpH fractionation and SCX StageTips are robust techniques and highly suited for complex proteome analysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Riverbank filtration: comparison of pilot scale transport with theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Johnson, W P; Shafieian, P; Ryu, H; Alum, A; Abbaszadegan, M; Hubbs, S A; Rauch-Williams, T

    2009-02-01

    Pilot-scale column experiments were conducted in this study using natural soil and river water from Ohio river to assess the removal of microbes of size ranging over 2 orders of magnitude, i.e., viruses (0.025-0.065 microm), bacteria (1-2 microm), and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts (4-7 microm) under conditions representing normal operation and flood scour events. Among these different organisms, the bacterial indicators were transported over the longest distances and highest concentrations; whereas much greater retention was observed for smaller (i.e., viral indicators) and larger (i.e., Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts) microbes. These results are in qualitative agreement with colloid filtration theory (CFT) which predicts the least removal for micrometer size colloids, suggesting that the respective sizes of the organisms was a dominant control on their transport despite expected differences in their surface characteristics. Increased fluid velocity coupled with decreased ionic strength (representative of major flood events) decreased colloid retention, also in qualitative agreement with CFT. The retention of organisms occurred disproportionately near the source relative to the log-linear expectations of CFT, and this was true both in the presence and absence of a colmation zone, suggesting that microbial removal by the RBF system is not necessarily vulnerable to flood scour of the colmation zone.

  17. Large-scale structure non-Gaussianities with modal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittfull, Marcel

    2016-10-01

    Relying on a separable modal expansion of the bispectrum, the implementation of a fast estimator for the full bispectrum of a 3d particle distribution is presented. The computational cost of accurate bispectrum estimation is negligible relative to simulation evolution, so the bispectrum can be used as a standard diagnostic whenever the power spectrum is evaluated. As an application, the time evolution of gravitational and primordial dark matter bispectra was measured in a large suite of N-body simulations. The bispectrum shape changes characteristically when the cosmic web becomes dominated by filaments and halos, therefore providing a quantitative probe of 3d structure formation. Our measured bispectra are determined by ~ 50 coefficients, which can be used as fitting formulae in the nonlinear regime and for non-Gaussian initial conditions. We also compare the measured bispectra with predictions from the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures (EFTofLSS).

  18. Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazra, Siddharth S. (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); de Boer, Maarten Pieter (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Boyce, Brad Lee; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Foulk, James W., III; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.

    2010-09-01

    Designing reliable MEMS structures presents numerous challenges. Polycrystalline silicon fractures in a brittle manner with considerable variability in measured strength. Furthermore, it is not clear how to use a measured tensile strength distribution to predict the strength of a complex MEMS structure. To address such issues, two recently developed high throughput MEMS tensile test techniques have been used to measure strength distribution tails. The measured tensile strength distributions enable the definition of a threshold strength as well as an inferred maximum flaw size. The nature of strength-controlling flaws has been identified and sources of the observed variation in strength investigated. A double edge-notched specimen geometry was also tested to study the effect of a severe, micron-scale stress concentration on the measured strength distribution. Strength-based, Weibull-based, and fracture mechanics-based failure analyses were performed and compared with the experimental results.

  19. Responsiveness of the Multiple Sclerosis Impairment Scale in comparison with the Expanded Disability Status Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, M; Blinkenberg, M; Sellebjerg, F

    2005-01-01

    The Multiple Sclerosis Impairment Scale (MSIS) is a measure of accumulated deficits assessed by means of a standard neurological examination. We compared the responsiveness of the MSIS with that of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). We reviewed 4300 records collected systematically from...... 1995 to 2003 and identified 534 patients who had clinically definite multiple sclerosis and had had at least two clinical assessments with a time interval of 2-5 years. The rate of deterioration was significantly higher on the MSIS than on the EDSS. The annualized change in EDSS exhibited a maximum...

  20. UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3): reliability, validity, and factor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, D W

    1996-02-01

    In this article I evaluated the psychometric properties of the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3). Using data from prior studies of college students, nurses, teachers, and the elderly, analyses of the reliability, validity, and factor structure of this new version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale were conducted. Results indicated that the measure was highly reliable, both in terms of internal consistency (coefficient alpha ranging from .89 to .94) and test-retest reliability over a 1-year period (r = .73). Convergent validity for the scale was indicated by significant correlations with other measures of loneliness. Construct validity was supported by significant relations with measures of the adequacy of the individual's interpersonal relationships, and by correlations between loneliness and measures of health and well-being. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a model incorporating a global bipolar loneliness factor along with two method factor reflecting direction of item wording provided a very good fit to the data across samples. Implications of these results for future measurement research on loneliness are discussed.

  1. The scaling structure of the global road network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Emanuele; Giometto, Andrea; Shai, Saray; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mucha, Peter J; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Because of increasing global urbanization and its immediate consequences, including changes in patterns of food demand, circulation and land use, the next century will witness a major increase in the extent of paved roads built worldwide. To model the effects of this increase, it is crucial to understand whether possible self-organized patterns are inherent in the global road network structure. Here, we use the largest updated database comprising all major roads on the Earth, together with global urban and cropland inventories, to suggest that road length distributions within croplands are indistinguishable from urban ones, once rescaled to account for the difference in mean road length. Such similarity extends to road length distributions within urban or agricultural domains of a given area. We find two distinct regimes for the scaling of the mean road length with the associated area, holding in general at small and at large values of the latter. In suitably large urban and cropland domains, we find that mean and total road lengths increase linearly with their domain area, differently from earlier suggestions. Scaling regimes suggest that simple and universal mechanisms regulate urban and cropland road expansion at the global scale. As such, our findings bear implications for global road infrastructure growth based on land-use change and for planning policies sustaining urban expansions.

  2. Structural connectivity at a national scale: Wildlife corridors in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Riggio

    Full Text Available Wildlife corridors can help maintain landscape connectivity but novel methods must be developed to assess regional structural connectivity quickly and cheaply so as to determine where expensive and time-consuming surveys of functional connectivity should occur. We use least-cost methods, the most accurate and up-to-date land conversion dataset for East Africa, and interview data on wildlife corridors, to develop a single, consistent methodology to systematically assess wildlife corridors at a national scale using Tanzania as a case study. Our research aimed to answer the following questions; (i which corridors may still remain open (i.e. structurally connected at a national scale, (ii which have been potentially severed by anthropogenic land conversion (e.g., agriculture and settlements, (iii where are other remaining potential wildlife corridors located, and (iv which protected areas with lower forms of protection (e.g., Forest Reserves and Wildlife Management Areas may act as stepping-stones linking more than one National Park and/or Game Reserve. We identify a total of 52 structural connections between protected areas that are potentially open to wildlife movement, and in so doing add 23 to those initially identified by other methods in Tanzanian Government reports. We find that the vast majority of corridors noted in earlier reports as "likely to be severed" have actually not been cut structurally (21 of 24. Nonetheless, nearly a sixth of all the wildlife corridors identified in Tanzania in 2009 have potentially been separated by land conversion, and a third now pass across lands likely to be converted to human use in the near future. Our study uncovers two reserves with lower forms of protection (Uvinza Forest Reserve in the west and Wami-Mbiki Wildlife Management Area in the east that act as apparently crucial stepping-stones between National Parks and/or Game Reserves and therefore require far more serious conservation support. Methods

  3. Structural connectivity at a national scale: Wildlife corridors in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Jason; Caro, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife corridors can help maintain landscape connectivity but novel methods must be developed to assess regional structural connectivity quickly and cheaply so as to determine where expensive and time-consuming surveys of functional connectivity should occur. We use least-cost methods, the most accurate and up-to-date land conversion dataset for East Africa, and interview data on wildlife corridors, to develop a single, consistent methodology to systematically assess wildlife corridors at a national scale using Tanzania as a case study. Our research aimed to answer the following questions; (i) which corridors may still remain open (i.e. structurally connected) at a national scale, (ii) which have been potentially severed by anthropogenic land conversion (e.g., agriculture and settlements), (iii) where are other remaining potential wildlife corridors located, and (iv) which protected areas with lower forms of protection (e.g., Forest Reserves and Wildlife Management Areas) may act as stepping-stones linking more than one National Park and/or Game Reserve. We identify a total of 52 structural connections between protected areas that are potentially open to wildlife movement, and in so doing add 23 to those initially identified by other methods in Tanzanian Government reports. We find that the vast majority of corridors noted in earlier reports as "likely to be severed" have actually not been cut structurally (21 of 24). Nonetheless, nearly a sixth of all the wildlife corridors identified in Tanzania in 2009 have potentially been separated by land conversion, and a third now pass across lands likely to be converted to human use in the near future. Our study uncovers two reserves with lower forms of protection (Uvinza Forest Reserve in the west and Wami-Mbiki Wildlife Management Area in the east) that act as apparently crucial stepping-stones between National Parks and/or Game Reserves and therefore require far more serious conservation support. Methods used in this

  4. Individual differences on social comparison : properties of the orientation Spanish scale towards social comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, AP; Belmonte, J; Peiro, JM; Zurriaga, R; Gibbons, FX

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development and the properties of the INCOM-E, the Spanish language version of the INCOM, a measure to assess individual differences in social comparison orientation that was originally developed simultaneously in English and in Dutch. In both Study 1 (including 212

  5. Scour around Support Structures of Scaled Model Marine Hydrokinetic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, M. A.; Beninati, M. L.; Krane, M.; Fontaine, A.

    2013-12-01

    Experiments are presented to explore scour due to flows around support structures of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. Three related studies were performed to understand how submergence, scour condition, and the presence of an MHK device impact scour around the support structure (cylinder). The first study focuses on clear-water scour conditions for a cylinder of varying submergence: surface-piercing and fully submerged. The second study centers on three separate scour conditions (clear-water, transitional and live-bed) around the fully submerged cylinder. Lastly, the third study emphasizes the impact of an MHK turbine on scour around the support structure, in live-bed conditions. Small-scale laboratory testing of model devices can be used to help predict the behavior of MHK devices at full-scale. Extensive studies have been performed on single cylinders, modeling bridge piers, though few have focused on fully submerged structures. Many of the devices being used to harness marine hydrokinetic energy are fully submerged in the flow. Additionally, scour hole dimensions and scour rates have not been addressed. Thus, these three studies address the effect of structure blockage/drag, and the ambient scour conditions on scour around the support structure. The experiments were performed in the small-scale testing platform in the hydraulic flume facility (9.8 m long, 1.2 m wide and 0.4 m deep) at Bucknell University. The support structure diameter (D = 2.54 cm) was held constant for all tests. The submerged cylinder (l/D = 5) and sediment size (d50 = 790 microns) were held constant for all three studies. The MHK device (Dturbine = 10.2 cm) is a two-bladed horizontal axis turbine and the rotating shaft is friction-loaded using a metal brush motor. For each study, bed form topology was measured after a three-hour time interval using a traversing two-dimensional bed profiler. During the experiments, scour hole depth measurements at the front face of the support structure

  6. Structure and composition of calcareous sponge spicules: a review and comparison to structurally related biominerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethmann, Ingo; Wörheide, Gert

    2008-01-01

    , the current knowledge about the structure, composition, and formation of calcareous sponge spicules is summarised and discussed. Comparisons of calcareous sponge spicules with the amorphous silica spicules of sponges of the classes Hexactinellida and Demospongiae, as well as with calcitic skeletal elements of echinoderms are drawn. Despite the variety of poriferan spicule mineralogy and the distant phylogenetic relationship between sponges and echinoderms, all of these biominerals share similarities regarding their nano-scale construction. Furthermore, echinoderm skeletal elements resemble calcareous sponge spicules in that they represent magnesium-bearing calcite single-crystals with extremely complex morphologies.

  7. BRASERO: A Resource for Benchmarking RNA Secondary Structure Comparison Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Allali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pairwise comparison of RNA secondary structures is a fundamental problem, with direct application in mining databases for annotating putative noncoding RNA candidates in newly sequenced genomes. An increasing number of software tools are available for comparing RNA secondary structures, based on different models (such as ordered trees or forests, arc annotated sequences, and multilevel trees and computational principles (edit distance, alignment. We describe here the website BRASERO that offers tools for evaluating such software tools on real and synthetic datasets.

  8. Detecting small scale CO2 emission structures using OCO-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Eldering, Annmarie; Verhulst, Kristal R.; Miller, Charles E.; Nguyen, Hai M.; Oda, Tomohiro; O'Dell, Christopher; Rao, Preeti; Kahn, Brian; Crisp, David; Gunson, Michael R.; Sanchez, Robert M.; Ashok, Manasa; Pieri, David; Linick, Justin P.; Yuen, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Localized carbon dioxide (CO2) emission structures cover spatial domains of less than 50 km diameter and include cities and transportation networks, as well as fossil fuel production, upgrading and distribution infra-structure. Anthropogenic sources increasingly upset the natural balance between natural carbon sources and sinks. Mitigation of resulting climate change impacts requires management of emissions, and emissions management requires monitoring, reporting and verification. Space-borne measurements provide a unique opportunity to detect, quantify, and analyze small scale and point source emissions on a global scale. NASA's first satellite dedicated to atmospheric CO2 observation, the July 2014 launched Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2), now leads the afternoon constellation of satellites (A-Train). Its continuous swath of 2 to 10 km in width and eight footprints across can slice through coincident emission plumes and may provide momentary cross sections. First OCO-2 results demonstrate that we can detect localized source signals in the form of urban total column averaged CO2 enhancements of ~2 ppm against suburban and rural backgrounds. OCO-2's multi-sounding swath observing geometry reveals intra-urban spatial structures reflected in XCO2 data, previously unobserved from space. The transition from single-shot GOSAT soundings detecting urban/rural differences (Kort et al., 2012) to hundreds of soundings per OCO-2 swath opens up the path to future capabilities enabling urban tomography of greenhouse gases. For singular point sources like coal fired power plants, we have developed proxy detections of plumes using bands of imaging spectrometers with sensitivity to SO2 in the thermal infrared (ASTER). This approach provides a means to automate plume detection with subsequent matching and mining of OCO-2 data for enhanced detection efficiency and validation. © California Institute of Technology

  9. Nonlinear Analysis and Scaling Laws for Noncircular Composite Structures Subjected to Combined Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Results from an analytical study of the response of a built-up, multi-cell noncircular composite structure subjected to combined internal pressure and mechanical loads are presented. Nondimensional parameters and scaling laws based on a first-order shear-deformation plate theory are derived for this noncircular composite structure. The scaling laws are used to design sub-scale structural models for predicting the structural response of a full-scale structure representative of a portion of a blended-wing-body transport aircraft. Because of the complexity of the full-scale structure, some of the similitude conditions are relaxed for the sub-scale structural models. Results from a systematic parametric study are used to determine the effects of relaxing selected similitude conditions on the sensitivity of the effectiveness of using the sub-scale structural model response characteristics for predicting the full-scale structure response characteristics.

  10. Improving the Factor Structure of Psychological Scales: The Expanded Format as an Alternative to the Likert Scale Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xijuan; Savalei, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Many psychological scales written in the Likert format include reverse worded (RW) items in order to control acquiescence bias. However, studies have shown that RW items often contaminate the factor structure of the scale by creating one or more method factors. The present study examines an alternative scale format, called the Expanded format,…

  11. Final report on EUROMET Key Comparison EUROMET.L-K7: Calibration of line scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acko, Bojan

    2012-01-01

    The results of the EUROMET key comparison on line scales (EUROMET.L-K7) are reported. The comparison involved measurements of thirty measurands ranging from 0.1 mm to 100 mm on two glass scales. Each glass scale circulated in a separated loop. Thirty participants (20 from EURAMET, 10 from other RMOs) were divided into two groups with two linking laboratories. Participating laboratories have used different measurement techniques, which are normally used for calibration services. The results are in quite good agreement: out of the 900 results reported, 80 were not in agreement (within their k = 2 uncertainties) with the weighted mean values taken to be the key comparison reference values. The results of this key comparison will contribute to the Mutual Recognition Arrangement. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. Large-scale prokaryotic gene prediction and comparison to genome annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pernille; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    2005-01-01

    comparison either on a large or small scale would be facilitated by using a single standard for annotation, which incorporates a transparency of why an open reading frame (ORF) is considered to be a gene. Results: A total of 143 prokaryotic genomes were scored with an updated version of the prokaryotic...

  13. Assessing Self-Efficacy in Infant Care: A Comparison of Two Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassanee Prasopkittikun, RN, PhD

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: The findings suggest that correlations between SICS and two different response formats do not reach the criteria for use as alternatives to each other. However, further research is needed, with particular emphasis on the investigation of construct validity and comparisons between the two scales.

  14. Statistics of Caustics in Large-Scale Structure Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbrugge, Job L.; Hidding, Johan; van de Weygaert, Rien

    2016-10-01

    The cosmic web is a complex spatial pattern of walls, filaments, cluster nodes and underdense void regions. It emerged through gravitational amplification from the Gaussian primordial density field. Here we infer analytical expressions for the spatial statistics of caustics in the evolving large-scale mass distribution. In our analysis, following the quasi-linear Zel'dovich formalism and confined to the 1D and 2D situation, we compute number density and correlation properties of caustics in cosmic density fields that evolve from Gaussian primordial conditions. The analysis can be straightforwardly extended to the 3D situation. We moreover, are currently extending the approach to the non-linear regime of structure formation by including higher order Lagrangian approximations and Lagrangian effective field theory.

  15. Testing Inflation with Large Scale Structure: Connecting Hopes with Reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Marcello [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Baldauf, T. [Inst. of Advanced Studies, Princeton, NJ (United States); Bond, J. Richard [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Canadian Inst. for Advanced Research, Toronto, ON (Canada); Dalal, N. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Putter, R. D. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Dore, O. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Green, Daniel [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Canadian Inst. for Advanced Research, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hirata, Chris [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Huang, Zhiqi [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Huterer, Dragan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jeong, Donghui [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Johnson, Matthew C. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada); Perimeter Inst., Waterloo, ON (Canada); Krause, Elisabeth [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Loverde, Marilena [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Meyers, Joel [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Meeburg, Daniel [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Shandera, Sarah [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Silverstein, Eva [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Slosar, Anze [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, Kendrick [Perimeter Inst., Waterloo, Toronto, ON (Canada); Zaldarriaga, Matias [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Assassi, Valentin [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom); Braden, Jonathan [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Hajian, Amir [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Kobayashi, Takeshi [Perimeter Inst., Waterloo, Toronto, ON (Canada); Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Stein, George [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Engelen, Alexander van [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-12-15

    The statistics of primordial curvature fluctuations are our window into the period of inflation, where these fluctuations were generated. To date, the cosmic microwave background has been the dominant source of information about these perturbations. Large-scale structure is, however, from where drastic improvements should originate. In this paper, we explain the theoretical motivations for pursuing such measurements and the challenges that lie ahead. In particular, we discuss and identify theoretical targets regarding the measurement of primordial non-Gaussianity. We argue that when quantified in terms of the local (equilateral) template amplitude f$loc\\atop{NL}$ (f$eq\\atop{NL}$), natural target levels of sensitivity are Δf$loc, eq\\atop{NL}$ ≃ 1. We highlight that such levels are within reach of future surveys by measuring 2-, 3- and 4-point statistics of the galaxy spatial distribution. This paper summarizes a workshop held at CITA (University of Toronto) on October 23-24, 2014.

  16. Breed locally, disperse globally: fine-scale genetic structure despite landscape-scale panmixia in a fire-specialist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Pierson

    Full Text Available An exciting advance in the understanding of metapopulation dynamics has been the investigation of how populations respond to ephemeral patches that go 'extinct' during the lifetime of an individual. Previous research has shown that this scenario leads to genetic homogenization across large spatial scales. However, little is known about fine-scale genetic structuring or how this changes over time in ephemeral patches. We predicted that species that specialize on ephemeral habitats will delay dispersal to exploit natal habitat patches while resources are plentiful and thus display fine-scale structure. To investigate this idea, we evaluated the effect of frequent colonization of ephemeral habitats on the fine-scale genetic structure of a fire specialist, the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus and found a pattern of fine-scale genetic structure. We then tested for differences in spatial structure between sexes and detected a pattern consistent with male-biased dispersal. We also detected a temporal increase in relatedness among individuals within newly burned forest patches. Our results indicate that specialist species that outlive their ephemeral patches can accrue significant fine-scale spatial structure that does not necessarily affect spatial structure at larger scales. This highlights the importance of both spatial and temporal scale considerations in both sampling and data interpretation of molecular genetic results.

  17. Detection of Coherent Structures in Extreme-Scale Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, C; Iverson, J; Kirk, R; Karypis, G

    2012-03-24

    The analysis of coherent structures is a common problem in many scientific domains ranging from astrophysics to combustion, fusion, and materials science. The data from three-dimensional simulations are analyzed to detect the structures, extract statistics on them, and track them over time to gain insights into the phenomenon being modeled. This analysis is typically done off-line, using data that have been written out by the simulations. However, the move towards extreme scale architectures, with multi-core processors and graphical processing units, will affect how such analysis is done as it is unlikely that the systems will support the I/O bandwidth required for off-line analysis. Moving the analysis in-situ is a solution only if we know a priori what analysis will be done, as well as the algorithms used and their parameter settings. Even then, we need to ensure that this will not substantially increase the memory requirements or the data movement as the former will be limited and the latter will be expensive. In the Exa-DM project, a collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and University of Minnesota, we are exploring ways in which we can address the conflicting demands of coherent structure analysis of simulation data and the architecture of modern parallel systems, while enabling scientific discovery at the exascale. In this paper, we describe our work in two areas: the in situ implementation of an existing algorithm for coherent structure analysis and the use of graph-based techniques to efficiently compress the data.

  18. Iron phosphate glasses: Bulk properties and atomic scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Kitheri; Stennett, Martin C.; Hyatt, Neil C.; Asuvathraman, R.; Dube, Charu L.; Gandy, Amy S.; Govindan Kutty, K. V.; Jolley, Kenny; Vasudeva Rao, P. R.; Smith, Roger

    2017-10-01

    Bulk properties such as glass transition temperature, density and thermal expansion of iron phosphate glass compositions, with replacement of Cs by Ba, are investigated as a surrogate for the transmutation of 137Cs to 137Ba, relevant to the immobilisation of Cs in glass. These studies are required to establish the appropriate incorporation rate of 137Cs in iron phosphate glass. Density and glass transition temperature increases with the addition of BaO indicating the shrinkage and reticulation of the iron phosphate glass network. The average thermal expansion coefficient reduces from 19.8 × 10-6 K-1 to 13.4 × 10-6 K-1, when 25 wt. % of Cs2O was replaced by 25 wt. % of BaO in caesium loaded iron phosphate glass. In addition to the above bulk properties, the role of Ba as a network modifier in the structure of iron phosphate glass is examined using various spectroscopic techniques. The FeII content and average coordination number of iron in the glass network was estimated using Mössbauer spectroscopy. The FeII content in the un-doped iron phosphate glass and barium doped iron phosphate glasses was 20, 21 and 22 ± 1% respectively and the average Fe coordination varied from 5.3 ± 0.2 to 5.7 ± 0.2 with increasing Ba content. The atomic scale structure was further probed by Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The average coordination number provided by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure was in good agreement with that given by the Mössbauer data.

  19. Inflationary tensor fossils in large-scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimastrogiovanni, Emanuela [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Fasiello, Matteo [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Jeong, Donghui [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kamionkowski, Marc, E-mail: ema@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: mrf65@case.edu, E-mail: duj13@psu.edu, E-mail: kamion@jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 3400 N. Charles St., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Inflation models make specific predictions for a tensor-scalar-scalar three-point correlation, or bispectrum, between one gravitational-wave (tensor) mode and two density-perturbation (scalar) modes. This tensor-scalar-scalar correlation leads to a local power quadrupole, an apparent departure from statistical isotropy in our Universe, as well as characteristic four-point correlations in the current mass distribution in the Universe. So far, the predictions for these observables have been worked out only for single-clock models in which certain consistency conditions between the tensor-scalar-scalar correlation and tensor and scalar power spectra are satisfied. Here we review the requirements on inflation models for these consistency conditions to be satisfied. We then consider several examples of inflation models, such as non-attractor and solid-inflation models, in which these conditions are put to the test. In solid inflation the simplest consistency conditions are already violated whilst in the non-attractor model we find that, contrary to the standard scenario, the tensor-scalar-scalar correlator probes directly relevant model-dependent information. We work out the predictions for observables in these models. For non-attractor inflation we find an apparent local quadrupolar departure from statistical isotropy in large-scale structure but that this power quadrupole decreases very rapidly at smaller scales. The consistency of the CMB quadrupole with statistical isotropy then constrains the distance scale that corresponds to the transition from the non-attractor to attractor phase of inflation to be larger than the currently observable horizon. Solid inflation predicts clustering fossils signatures in the current galaxy distribution that may be large enough to be detectable with forthcoming, and possibly even current, galaxy surveys.

  20. Structure-color-species correlation in photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in blue lycaenid butterfly scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszter, G; Kertész, K; Vértesy, Z; Mark, G I; Bálint, Zs; Biró, L P

    2012-11-01

    The blue colored males of nine Polyommatine butterfly species were investigated under the aspect of color-structure-species correlation. A large number of individuals from museum collections (in total more than 100) were used to obtain average reflectance spectra to reduce the effect of individual variations as much as possible. Structural characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The relevant structural data were extracted using the Biophot Analyzer software. It was found that the position of the main reflectance peak is decided primarily by the nearest neighbor distance of holes in the perforated layers constituting the pepper-pot type structure. However, very different value of the 2D filling factor may have a large enough effect on the spectral position and the width and asymmetry of the peak to overrule the classification on taking into account only the nearest neighbor distance. The comparison of the structural and spectral data may indicate that the species Polyommatus amandus may constitute an evolutionary link between different groups of species. The examined pepper-pot type nanoarchitectures show that with the alteration of the structural parameters (first neighbor distance, 2D filling factor) the tuning of the reflectance of such nanoarchitectures may be achieved. These type of nanoarchitectures may be attractive for practical applications as their large scale manufacturing may require less strict conditions as compared with fully regular nanoarchitectures.

  1. Deep structure beneath Lake Ontario: Crustal-scale Grenville subdivisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, D. A.; Milkereit, B.; Zelt, Colin A.; White, D. J.; Easton, R. M.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.

    1994-01-01

    Lake Ontario marine seismic data reveal major Grenville crustal subdivisions beneath central and southern Lake Ontario separated by interpreted shear zones that extend to the lower crust. A shear zone bounded transition between the Elzevir and Frontenac terranes exposed north of Lake Ontario is linked to a seismically defined shear zone beneath central Lake Ontario by prominent aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies, easterly dipping wide-angle reflections, and fractures in Paleozoic strata. We suggest the central Lake Ontario zone represents crustal-scale deformation along an Elzevir–Frontenac boundary zone that extends from outcrop to the south shore of Lake Ontario.Seismic images from Lake Ontario and the exposed western Central Metasedimentary Belt are dominated by crustal-scale shear zones and reflection geometries featuring arcuate reflections truncated at their bases by apparent east-dipping linear reflections. The images show that zones analogous to the interpreted Grenville Front Tectonic Zone are also present within the Central Metasedimentary Belt and support models of northwest-directed crustal shortening for Grenvillian deep crustal deformation beneath most of southeastern Ontario.A Precambrian basement high, the Iroquoian high, is defined by a thinning of generally horizontal Paleozoic strata over a crestal area above the basement shear zone beneath central Lake Ontario. The Iroquoian high helps explain the peninsular extension into Lake Ontario forming Prince Edward County, the occurrence of Precambrian inlier outcrops in Prince Edward County, and Paleozoic fractures forming the Clarendon–Linden structure in New York.

  2. Validity and factor structure of the bodybuilding dependence scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D; Hale, B

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the bodybuilding dependence scale and to investigate differences in bodybuilding dependence between men and women and competitive and non-competitive bodybuilders. Methods: Seventy two male competitive bodybuilders, 63 female competitive bodybuilders, 87 male non-competitive bodybuilders, and 63 non-competitive female bodybuilders completed the bodybuilding dependence scale (BDS), the exercise dependence questionnaire (EDQ), and the muscle dysmorphia inventory (MDI). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis of the BDS supported a three factor model of bodybuilding dependence, consisting of social dependence, training dependence, and mastery dependence (Q = 3.16, CFI = 0.98, SRMR = 0.04). Internal reliability of all three subscales was high (Cronbach's α = 0.92, 0.92, and 0.93 respectively). Significant (p0.05). Conclusion: The three factor BDS appears to be a reliable and valid measure of bodybuilding dependence. Symptoms of bodybuilding dependence are more prevalent in competitive bodybuilders than non-competitive ones, but there are no significant sex differences in bodybuilding dependence. PMID:15039255

  3. Validity and factor structure of the bodybuilding dependence scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D; Hale, B

    2004-04-01

    To investigate the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the bodybuilding dependence scale and to investigate differences in bodybuilding dependence between men and women and competitive and non-competitive bodybuilders. Seventy two male competitive bodybuilders, 63 female competitive bodybuilders, 87 male non-competitive bodybuilders, and 63 non-competitive female bodybuilders completed the bodybuilding dependence scale (BDS), the exercise dependence questionnaire (EDQ), and the muscle dysmorphia inventory (MDI). Confirmatory factor analysis of the BDS supported a three factor model of bodybuilding dependence, consisting of social dependence, training dependence, and mastery dependence (Q = 3.16, CFI = 0.98, SRMR = 0.04). Internal reliability of all three subscales was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92, 0.92, and 0.93 respectively). Significant (pbodybuilders scored significantly (pbodybuilders. However, there were no significant sex differences on any of the BDS subscales (p>0.05). The three factor BDS appears to be a reliable and valid measure of bodybuilding dependence. Symptoms of bodybuilding dependence are more prevalent in competitive bodybuilders than non-competitive ones, but there are no significant sex differences in bodybuilding dependence.

  4. Comparison of Structural Properties between Monopile and Tripod Offshore Wind-Turbine Support Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind power provides a new kind of green energy. This paper presents a comparison study on the structural properties of monopile and tripod wind-turbine support structures, which are used extensively in offshore wind farms. Both structures have the same upper tower, but different lower structures, one with a monopile and the other with a tripod. Static, fatigue, and modal analyses indicate that both the tripod and monopile structures are feasible in the field, but that the tripod structure is superior to the monopile structure. Static analysis reveals that the location of maximum stress in the monopile structure is different from that in the tripod structure, and that the tripod structure shows higher stiffness and greater stress-control capacity than the monopile structure. Fatigue analysis indicates that the tripod structure has a longer lifetime than the monopile structure. Modal analysis indicates that the two structures exhibit large differences in their natural frequencies. Unlike the monopile structure, the third and first modes both have a substantial influence on the dynamic response of the tripod structure.

  5. Towards a true vario-scale structure supporting smooth-zoom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Meijers, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the first true vario-scale structure for geographic information: a delta in scale leads to a delta in the map (and smaller scale deltas lead to smaller map deltas until and including the infinitesimal small delta) for all scales. The structure is called smooth tGAP and its

  6. Model-simulated and Satellite-derived Leaf Area Index (LAI) Comparisons Across Multiple Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iiames, J. S., Jr.; Cooter, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is an important parameter in assessing vegetation structure for characterizing forest canopies over large areas at broad spatial scales using satellite remote sensing data. However, satellite-derived LAI products can be limited by obstructed atmospheric conditions yielding sub-optimal values, or complete non-returns. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Exposure Methods and Measurements and Computational Exposure Divisions are investigating the viability of supplemental modelled LAI inputs into satellite-derived data streams to support various regional and local scale air quality models for retrospective and future climate assessments. In this present study, one-year (2002) of plot level stand characteristics at four study sites located in Virginia and North Carolina (USA) are used to calibrate species-specific plant parameters in a semi-empirical biogeochemical model. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was designed primarily for managed agricultural field crop ecosystems, but also includes managed woody species that span both xeric and mesic sites (e.g., mesquite, pine, oak, etc.). LAI was simulated using EPIC at a 4 km2 and 12 km2 grid coincident with the regional Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) grid. LAI comparisons were made between model-simulated and MODIS-derived LAI. Field/satellite-upscaled LAI was also compared to the corresponding MODIS LAI value. Preliminary results show field/satellite-upscaled LAI (1 km2) was 1.5 to 3 times smaller than that with the corresponding 1 km2 MODIS LAI for all four sites across all dates, with the largest discrepancies occurring at leaf-out and leaf senescence periods. Simulated LAI/MODIS LAI comparison results will be presented at the conference. Disclaimer: This work is done in support of EPA's Sustainable Healthy Communities Research Program. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency funded and conducted the research described in this paper. Although

  7. COMPARISON OF METHODS USED FOR SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čada

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates effects of the seismic load to a structure. The article describes main methods of the definition and practical application of the seismic load based on the Standard Eurocode 8. There was made a comparison of all methods using the same structure. A simple two-storeyed concrete 2D-frame with fixed joints was chosen. A one another model with rigid beams for some calculations was defined. The second model can be used for hand-calculations as a cantilever with two masses. The paper describes main dynamic properties of the chosen structure. Seismic load was defined by lateral force method, modal response spectrum, non-linear time-history analysis and pushover analysis. The time-history analysis is represented by accelerograms. There were made linear and non-linear calculations.

  8. Comparison of various decentralised structural and cavity feedback control strategies for transmitted noise reduction through a double panel structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.H.; Berkhoff, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares various decentralised control strategies, including structural and acoustic actuator-sensor configuration designs, to reduce noise transmission through a double panel structure. The comparison is based on identical control stability indexes. The double panel structure consists of

  9. Comparison of various decentralised structural and cavity feedback control strategies for transmitted noise reduction through a double panel structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    This paper compares various decentralised control strategies, including structural and acoustic actuator–sensor configuration designs, to reduce noise transmission through a double panel structure. The comparison is based on identical control stability indexes. The double panel structure consists of

  10. Small-Scale Fabrication of Biomimetic Structures for Periodontal Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David William Green

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The periodontium is the supporting tissues for the tooth organ and is vulnerable to destruction, arising from overpopulating pathogenic bacteria and spirochaetes. The presence of microbes together with host responses can destroy large parts of the periodontium sometimes leading tooth loss. Permanent tissue replacements are made possible with tissue engineering techniques. However, existing periodontal biomaterials cannot promote proper tissue architectures, necessary tissue volumes within the periodontal pocket and a water-tight barrier, to become clinically acceptable. New kinds of small-scale engineered biomaterials, with increasing biological complexity are needed to guide proper biomimetic regeneration of periodontal tissues. So the ability to make compound structures with small modules, filled with tissue components, is a promising design strategy for simulating the anatomical complexity of the periodotium attachement complexes along the tooth root and the abutment with the tooth collar. Anatomical structures such as, intima, adventitia and special compartments such as the epithelial cell rests of Malassez or a stellate reticulum niche need to be engineered from the start of regeneration to produce proper periodontium replacement.. It is our contention that the positioning of tissue components at the origin is also necessary to promote self-organising cell-cell connections, cell-matrix connections. This leads to accelerated, synchronized and well-formed tissue architectures and anatomies. This strategy is a highly effective preparation for tackling periodontitis, periodontium tissue resorption and to ultimately prevent tooth loss. Furthermore, such biomimetic tissue replacements will tackle problems associated with dental implant support and perimimplantitis.

  11. Small-Scale Fabrication of Biomimetic Structures for Periodontal Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David W.; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Han-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The periodontium is the supporting tissues for the tooth organ and is vulnerable to destruction, arising from overpopulating pathogenic bacteria and spirochaetes. The presence of microbes together with host responses can destroy large parts of the periodontium sometimes leading tooth loss. Permanent tissue replacements are made possible with tissue engineering techniques. However, existing periodontal biomaterials cannot promote proper tissue architectures, necessary tissue volumes within the periodontal pocket and a “water-tight” barrier, to become clinically acceptable. New kinds of small-scale engineered biomaterials, with increasing biological complexity are needed to guide proper biomimetic regeneration of periodontal tissues. So the ability to make compound structures with small modules, filled with tissue components, is a promising design strategy for simulating the anatomical complexity of the periodotium attachment complexes along the tooth root and the abutment with the tooth collar. Anatomical structures such as, intima, adventitia, and special compartments such as the epithelial cell rests of Malassez or a stellate reticulum niche need to be engineered from the start of regeneration to produce proper periodontium replacement. It is our contention that the positioning of tissue components at the origin is also necessary to promote self-organizing cell–cell connections, cell–matrix connections. This leads to accelerated, synchronized and well-formed tissue architectures and anatomies. This strategy is a highly effective preparation for tackling periodontitis, periodontium tissue resorption, and to ultimately prevent tooth loss. Furthermore, such biomimetic tissue replacements will tackle problems associated with dental implant support and perimimplantitis. PMID:26903872

  12. Large scale structures in liquid crystal/clay colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijneveldt, Jeroen S.; Klein, Susanne; Leach, Edward; Pizzey, Claire; Richardson, Robert M.

    2005-04-01

    Suspensions of three different clays in K15, a thermotropic liquid crystal, have been studied by optical microscopy and small angle x-ray scattering. The three clays were claytone AF, a surface treated natural montmorillonite, laponite RD, a synthetic hectorite, and mined sepiolite. The claytone and laponite were sterically stabilized whereas sepiolite formed a relatively stable suspension in K15 without any surface treatment. Micrographs of the different suspensions revealed that all three suspensions contained large scale structures. The nature of these aggregates was investigated using small angle x-ray scattering. For the clays with sheet-like particles, claytone and laponite, the flocs contain a mixture of stacked and single platelets. The basal spacing in the stacks was independent of particle concentration in the suspension and the phase of the solvent. The number of platelets in the stack and their percentage in the suspension varied with concentration and the aspect ratio of the platelets. The lath shaped sepiolite did not show any tendency to organize into ordered structures. Here the aggregates are networks of randomly oriented single rods.

  13. Scale-adaptive surface modeling of vascular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Xin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effective geometric modeling of vascular structures is crucial for diagnosis, therapy planning and medical education. These applications require good balance with respect to surface smoothness, surface accuracy, triangle quality and surface size. Methods Our method first extracts the vascular boundary voxels from the segmentation result, and utilizes these voxels to build a three-dimensional (3D point cloud whose normal vectors are estimated via covariance analysis. Then a 3D implicit indicator function is computed from the oriented 3D point cloud by solving a Poisson equation. Finally the vessel surface is generated by a proposed adaptive polygonization algorithm for explicit 3D visualization. Results Experiments carried out on several typical vascular structures demonstrate that the presented method yields both a smooth morphologically correct and a topologically preserved two-manifold surface, which is scale-adaptive to the local curvature of the surface. Furthermore, the presented method produces fewer and better-shaped triangles with satisfactory surface quality and accuracy. Conclusions Compared to other state-of-the-art approaches, our method reaches good balance in terms of smoothness, accuracy, triangle quality and surface size. The vessel surfaces produced by our method are suitable for applications such as computational fluid dynamics simulations and real-time virtual interventional surgery.

  14. Closed coronal structures. III - Comparison of static models with X-ray, EUV, and radio observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavicini, R.; Peres, G.; Serio, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Golub, L.; Rosner, R.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical models of static coronal loops in energy balance are compared with high spatial resolution observations of extreme ultraviolet lines, broad-band X-ray emission, and interferometric observations at 2.8 cm of a solar active region. Difficulties of using scaling laws to test static models of coronal loops are reviewed. The theoretical model used for the comparison is summarized; the detailed X-ray, EUV, and microwave observations of the selected active region are presented; and the comparison of the model with the observations is performed. It is shown that simple static models with conductive flux vanishing at the loop base reproduce satisfactorily the observed properties in the upper portion of loop structures from compact, high-pressure loops in the core of the region to more extended, fainter loops and to large-scale loops interconnecting different active regions. Effects of changing loop parameters are investigated, and it is argued, that in contrast to the present approach, scaling laws cannot be used to discriminate between different static energy balance models. Some discrepancy is found between model predictions and observations for the lower sections of loop structures. Possible causes of the discrepancy are discussed.

  15. A comparison of interatomic potentials for modeling tungsten nanocluster structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Jiannan; Shu, Xiaolin, E-mail: shuxlin@buaa.edu.cn; Jin, Shuo; Zhang, Xuesong; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Guang-Hong

    2017-02-15

    Molecular dynamic simulation is utilized to study the nanocluster and the fuzz structure on the PFM surface of tungsten. The polyhedral and linear cluster structures based on the icosahedron, cuboctahedron and rhombic dodecahedron are built up. Three interatomic potentials are used in calculating the relationship between the cluster energy and the number of atoms. The results are compared with first-principles calculation to show each potential’s best application scale. Furthermore, the transition between the icosahedral and the cuboctahedral clusters is observed in molecular dynamic simulation at different temperatures, which follows a critical curve for different numbers of atoms. The linear structures are proved to be stable at experimental temperatures by thermodynamics. The work presents a selection of interatomic potentials in simulating tungsten cluster systems and helps researchers understand the growth and evolution laws of clusters and the fuzz-like structure formation process in fusion devices.

  16. Full-scale tests of wind effects on a long span roof structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiyang; Zheng, Qingxing; Wu, Jiurong; Xu, An

    2015-06-01

    Full-scale measurements are regarded as the most reliable method to evaluate wind effects on large buildings and structures. Some selected results are presented in this paper from the full-scale measurement of wind effects on a long-span steel roof structure during the passage of Typhoon Fanapi. Some field data, including wind speed and direction, acceleration responses, etc., were continuously and simultaneously recorded during the passage of the typhoon. Comprehensive analysis of the measured data is conducted to evaluate the typhoon-generated wind characteristics and its effects on a long-span steel roof. The first four natural frequencies and their vibration mode shapes of the Guangzhou International Sports Arena (GISA) roof are evaluated by the stochastic subspace identification (SSI) method and comparisons with those from finite element (FE) analysis are made. Meanwhile, damping ratios of the roof are also identified by the SSI method and compared with those identified by the random decrement method; the amplitude-dependent damping behaviors are also discussed. The fullscale measurement results are further compared with the corresponding wind tunnel test results to evaluate its reliability. The results obtained from this study are valuable for academic and professional engineers involved in the design of large-span roof structures.

  17. Comprehensive Comparison of Two Image-Based Point Clouds from Aerial Photos with Airborne LIDAR for Large-Scale Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyaningrum, E.; Gorte, B. G. H.

    2017-09-01

    The integration of computer vision and photogrammetry to generate three-dimensional (3D) information from images has contributed to a wider use of point clouds, for mapping purposes. Large-scale topographic map production requires 3D data with high precision and accuracy to represent the real conditions of the earth surface. Apart from LiDAR point clouds, the image-based matching is also believed to have the ability to generate reliable and detailed point clouds from multiple-view images. In order to examine and analyze possible fusion of LiDAR and image-based matching for large-scale detailed mapping purposes, point clouds are generated by Semi Global Matching (SGM) and by Structure from Motion (SfM). In order to conduct comprehensive and fair comparison, this study uses aerial photos and LiDAR data that were acquired at the same time. Qualitative and quantitative assessments have been applied to evaluate LiDAR and image-matching point clouds data in terms of visualization, geometric accuracy, and classification result. The comparison results conclude that LiDAR is the best data for large-scale mapping.

  18. Cosmological parameters from large scale structure - geometric versus shape information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Århus C (Denmark); Lesgourgues, Julien [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rampf, Cornelius; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y., E-mail: hamann@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk, E-mail: julien.lesgourgues@cern.ch, E-mail: rampf@physik.rwth-aachen.de, E-mail: ywong@physik.rwth-aachen.de [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The matter power spectrum as derived from large scale structure (LSS) surveys contains two important and distinct pieces of information: an overall smooth shape and the imprint of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). We investigate the separate impact of these two types of information on cosmological parameter estimation for current data, and show that for the simplest cosmological models, the broad-band shape information currently contained in the SDSS DR7 halo power spectrum (HPS) is by far superseded by geometric information derived from the baryonic features. An immediate corollary is that contrary to popular beliefs, the upper limit on the neutrino mass m{sub ν} presently derived from LSS combined with cosmic microwave background (CMB) data does not in fact arise from the possible small-scale power suppression due to neutrino free-streaming, if we limit the model framework to minimal ΛCDM+m{sub ν}. However, in more complicated models, such as those extended with extra light degrees of freedom and a dark energy equation of state parameter w differing from -1, shape information becomes crucial for the resolution of parameter degeneracies. This conclusion will remain true even when data from the Planck spacecraft are combined with SDSS DR7 data. In the course of our analysis, we update both the BAO likelihood function by including an exact numerical calculation of the time of decoupling, as well as the HPS likelihood, by introducing a new dewiggling procedure that generalises the previous approach to models with an arbitrary sound horizon at decoupling. These changes allow a consistent application of the BAO and HPS data sets to a much wider class of models, including the ones considered in this work. All the cases considered here are compatible with the conservative 95%-bounds Σm{sub ν} < 1.16eV, N{sub eff} = 4.8±2.0.

  19. A multi-scale comparison of modeled and observed seasonal methane emissions in northern wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiyan; Riley, William J.; Koven, Charles D.; Billesbach, Dave P.; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Commane, Róisín; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Hartery, Sean; Harazono, Yoshinobu; Iwata, Hiroki; McDonald, Kyle C.; Miller, Charles E.; Oechel, Walter C.; Poulter, Benjamin; Raz-Yaseef, Naama; Sweeney, Colm; Torn, Margaret; Wofsy, Steven C.; Zhang, Zhen; Zona, Donatella

    2016-09-01

    Wetlands are the largest global natural methane (CH4) source, and emissions between 50 and 70° N latitude contribute 10-30 % to this source. Predictive capability of land models for northern wetland CH4 emissions is still low due to limited site measurements, strong spatial and temporal variability in emissions, and complex hydrological and biogeochemical dynamics. To explore this issue, we compare wetland CH4 emission predictions from the Community Land Model 4.5 (CLM4.5-BGC) with site- to regional-scale observations. A comparison of the CH4 fluxes with eddy flux data highlighted needed changes to the model's estimate of aerenchyma area, which we implemented and tested. The model modification substantially reduced biases in CH4 emissions when compared with CarbonTracker CH4 predictions. CLM4.5 CH4 emission predictions agree well with growing season (May-September) CarbonTracker Alaskan regional-level CH4 predictions and site-level observations. However, CLM4.5 underestimated CH4 emissions in the cold season (October-April). The monthly atmospheric CH4 mole fraction enhancements due to wetland emissions are also assessed using the Weather Research and Forecasting-Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (WRF-STILT) model coupled with daily emissions from CLM4.5 and compared with aircraft CH4 mole fraction measurements from the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) campaign. Both the tower and aircraft analyses confirm the underestimate of cold-season CH4 emissions by CLM4.5. The greatest uncertainties in predicting the seasonal CH4 cycle are from the wetland extent, cold-season CH4 production and CH4 transport processes. We recommend more cold-season experimental studies in high-latitude systems, which could improve the understanding and parameterization of ecosystem structure and function during this period. Predicted CH4 emissions remain uncertain, but we show here that benchmarking against observations across spatial scales can

  20. Structural characterization of genomes by large scale sequence-structure threading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkasov Artem

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using sequence-structure threading we have conducted structural characterization of complete proteomes of 37 archaeal, bacterial and eukaryotic organisms (including worm, fly, mouse and human totaling 167,888 genes. Results The reported data represent first rather general evaluation of performance of full sequence-structure threading on multiple genomes providing opportunity to evaluate its general applicability for large scale studies. According to the estimated results the sequence-structure threading has assigned protein folds to more then 60% of eukaryotic, 68% of archaeal and 70% of bacterial proteomes. The repertoires of protein classes, architectures, topologies and homologous superfamilies (according to the CATH 2.4 classification have been established for distant organisms and superkingdoms. It has been found that the average abundance of CATH classes decreases from "alpha and beta" to "mainly beta", followed by "mainly alpha" and "few secondary structures". 3-Layer (aba Sandwich has been characterized as the most abundant protein architecture and Rossman fold as the most common topology. Conclusion The analysis of genomic occurrences of CATH 2.4 protein homologous superfamilies and topologies has revealed the power-law character of their distributions. The corresponding double logarithmic "frequency – genomic occurrence" dependences characteristic of scale-free systems have been established for individual organisms and for three superkingdoms. Supplementary materials to this works are available at 1.

  1. Structural comparison of human mammalian ste20-like kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Record

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The serine/threonine mammalian Ste-20 like kinases (MSTs are key regulators of apoptosis, cellular proliferation as well as polarization. Deregulation of MSTs has been associated with disease progression in prostate and colorectal cancer. The four human MSTs are regulated differently by C-terminal regions flanking the catalytic domains.We have determined the crystal structure of kinase domain of MST4 in complex with an ATP-mimetic inhibitor. This is the first structure of an inactive conformation of a member of the MST kinase family. Comparison with active structures of MST3 and MST1 revealed a dimeric association of MST4 suggesting an activation loop exchanged mechanism of MST4 auto-activation. Together with a homology model of MST2 we provide a comparative analysis of the kinase domains for all four members of the human MST family.The comparative analysis identified new structural features in the MST ATP binding pocket and has also defined the mechanism for autophosphorylation. Both structural features may be further explored for inhibitors design.This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S1.

  2. Perfluoroalkyl Acids Shift Microbial Community Structure Across Experimental Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, T. S.; Sharp, J.

    2016-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are contaminants of emerging concern that have increasingly been found in groundwater and drinking water systems. Previously, we demonstrated that PFAAs significantly alter the abundance of specific microbial clades in batch reductive dechlorinating systems, resulting in decreased chlorinated solvent attenuation capabilities. To further understand the impacts of PFAA exposure on subsurface microbial processes and PFAA transport, we investigated changes in microbial community structure as a function of PFAA presence in flow-through columns simulating aquifer transport. Phylogenetic analysis using high throughput, next generation sequencing performed after exposure to 250 pore volumes of source zone concentrations of PFAAs (10 mg/L each of 11 analytes including PFOS and PFOA) resulted in patterns that mirrored those observed in batch systems, demonstrating a conservation of community dynamics across experimental scales. Of the nine clades observed in both batch and flow-through systems, six were similarly impacted as a function of PFAA exposure, regardless of the experimental differences in transport and redox state. Specifically, the presence of PFAAs enhanced the relative abundance of Archaea, Bacteroidetes (phylum), and the family Veillonellaceae in both systems. Repressed clades include the genus Sedimentibacter, Ruminococcaceae (family), and the Anaerolineales, which contains Dehalococcoides, a genus known for its ability to fully dechlorinate TCE. As PFAAs are often co-located with TCE and BTEX, changes in microbial community structure can result in hindered bioremediation of these co-contaminants. Consideration of community shifts and corresponding changes in behavior, such as repressed reductive dechlorination or increased biofilm formation, will aid in the development of conceptual site models that account for co-contaminant bioremediation potential and PFAA transport.

  3. Comparison Study of Subspace Identification Methods Applied to Flexible Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelghani, M.; Verhaegen, M.; Van Overschee, P.; De Moor, B.

    1998-09-01

    In the past few years, various time domain methods for identifying dynamic models of mechanical structures from modal experimental data have appeared. Much attention has been given recently to so-called subspace methods for identifying state space models. This paper presents a detailed comparison study of these subspace identification methods: the eigensystem realisation algorithm with observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters computed from input/output data (ERA/OM), the robust version of the numerical algorithm for subspace system identification (N4SID), and a refined version of the past outputs scheme of the multiple-output error state space (MOESP) family of algorithms. The comparison is performed by simulating experimental data using the five mode reduced model of the NASA Mini-Mast structure. The general conclusion is that for the case of white noise excitations as well as coloured noise excitations, the N4SID/MOESP algorithms perform equally well but give better results (improved transfer function estimates, improved estimates of the output) compared to the ERA/OM algorithm. The key computational step in the three algorithms is the approximation of the extended observability matrix of the system to be identified, for N4SID/MOESP, or of the observer for the system to be identified, for the ERA/OM. Furthermore, the three algorithms only require the specification of one dimensioning parameter.

  4. [Aging and spirituality: Factorial structure and reliability of 2 scales].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiana, Laura; Sancho, Patricia; Oliver, Amparo; Tomás, José Manuel; Calatayud, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    In the field of gerontology, the study of the improvement of health and quality of life, and «successfully aging», spirituality plays a key role and, is one of the current research approaches. However, its incorporation into scientific literature is arduous and slow, a fact that is in part due to the absence of developed and validated measurement tools, particularly, in the Spanish speaking area. This work aims to present evidence of the psychometric properties of two tools for the measurement of spirituality: the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp) and the GES Questionnaire. A sample of 224 elderly persons from Valencia (Spain) was recruited, on which two confirmatory factor analyses were estimated, with the proposed a priori structures for each tool, together with several reliability coefficients. Both models presented an good fit to the data: χ(2)51=104.97 (P.05); CFI=.996; RMSEA=.050 for the GES Questionnaire. Reliability indices also supported the use of the scales in elderly population, with alphas of .85 and .86, respectively. These results may be useful as a starting point to include spirituality in works that aim to discover the mechanisms involved in successful aging. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Large-Scale Structure of the Carina Nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith; Egan; Carey; Price; Morse; Price

    2000-04-01

    Observations obtained with the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite reveal for the first time the complex mid-infrared morphology of the entire Carina Nebula (NGC 3372). On the largest size scale of approximately 100 pc, the thermal infrared emission from the giant H ii region delineates one coherent structure: a (somewhat distorted) bipolar nebula with the major axis perpendicular to the Galactic plane. The Carina Nebula is usually described as an evolved H ii region that is no longer actively forming stars, clearing away the last vestiges of its natal molecular cloud. However, the MSX observations presented here reveal numerous embedded infrared sources that are good candidates for sites of current star formation. Several compact infrared sources are located at the heads of dust pillars or in dark globules behind ionization fronts. Because their morphology suggests a strong interaction with the peculiar collection of massive stars in the nebula, we speculate that these new infrared sources may be sites of triggered star formation in NGC 3372.

  6. Far field scattering pattern of differently structured butterfly scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldo, M. A.; Yoshioka, S.; Stavenga, D. G.

    The angular and spectral reflectance of single scales of five different butterfly species was measured and related to the scale anatomy. The scales of the pierids Pieris rapae and Delias nigrina scatter white light randomly, in close agreement with Lambert's cosine law, which can be well understood

  7. Visualization of small scale structures on high resolution DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Zakšek, Klemen; Pehani, Peter; Čotar, Klemen; Oštir, Krištof

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge on the terrain morphology is very important for observation of numerous processes and events and digital elevation models are therefore one of the most important datasets in geographic analyses. Furthermore, recognition of natural and anthropogenic microrelief structures, which can be observed on detailed terrain models derived from aerial laser scanning (lidar) or structure-from-motion photogrammetry, is of paramount importance in many applications. In this paper we thus examine and evaluate methods of raster lidar data visualization for the determination (recognition) of microrelief features and present a series of strategies to assist selecting the preferred visualization of choice for structures of various shapes and sizes, set in varied landscapes. Often the answer is not definite and more frequently a combination of techniques has to be used to map a very diverse landscape. Researchers can only very recently benefit from free software for calculation of advanced visualization techniques. These tools are often difficult to understand, have numerous options that confuse the user, or require and produce non-standard data formats, because they were written for specific purposes. We therefore designed the Relief Visualization Toolbox (RVT) as a free, easy-to-use, standalone application to create visualisations from high-resolution digital elevation data. It is tailored for the very beginners in relief interpretation, but it can also be used by more advanced users in data processing and geographic information systems. It offers a range of techniques, such as simple hillshading and its derivatives, slope gradient, trend removal, positive and negative openness, sky-view factor, and anisotropic sky-view factor. All included methods have been proven to be effective for detection of small scale features and the default settings are optimised to accomplish this task. However, the usability of the tool goes beyond computation for visualization purposes, as sky

  8. Broad-Scale Comparison of Photosynthesis in Terrestrial and Aquatic Plant Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Krause-Jensen, D.

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons of photosynthesis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats have been impaired by differences in methods and time-scales of measurements. We compiled information on gross photosynthesis at high irradiance and photosynthetic efficiency at low irradiance from 109 published terrestrial studies...... communities probably due to more efficient light utilization and gas exchange in the terrestrial habitats. By contrast only small differences were found within different aquatic plant communities or within different terrestrial plant communities.......Comparisons of photosynthesis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats have been impaired by differences in methods and time-scales of measurements. We compiled information on gross photosynthesis at high irradiance and photosynthetic efficiency at low irradiance from 109 published terrestrial studies...... of forests, grasslands and crops and 319 aquatic studies of phytoplankton, macrophyte and attached microalgal communities to test if specific differences existed between the communities. Maximum gross photosynthesis and photosynthetic efficiency were systematically higher in terrestrial than in aquatic...

  9. Factor Structure and Sensitivity to Change of the Recovery Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Salene M W; Ludman, Evette J

    2017-07-19

    The focus on recovery, not just symptom reduction, in mental health care brings a need for psychometrically sound measures of recovery. This study examined the factor structure and sensitivity to change of a common measure of mental health recovery, the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS). We conducted a secondary data analysis from a randomized clinical trial of self-management for depression (n = 302). We tested both bifactor and the previously found five-factor model. Sensitivity to change was examined three ways: (1) between the intervention and control group; (2) across time in the intervention group; and (3) in those whose depression remitted. The previous five-factor model was supported. One subscale, no domination by symptoms, was particularly sensitive to change and showed sensitivity to change whereas the subscale reliance on others did not show change in any of the comparisons. Results suggest that the subscales of the RAS should be examined separately in future studies of recovery.

  10. Comparison of Trimming Techniques for Sub-Lithographic Silicon Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreeskornfeld, L.; Graham, A. P.; Hartwich, J.; Kretz, J.; Landgraf, E.; Lutz, T.; Rösner, W.; Specht, M.; Risch, L.

    2006-06-01

    The trimming of electron beam features is investigated to explore the limits of this scaling technique for the fabrication of nano-scale devices. The semiconductor industry, in particular, needs features below 50 nm, e.g., for extremely small gates for future technology nodes. In addition, sub-lithographic structures are required for other device concepts, such as the fin-type field effect transistor (FinFET). The trimming of very thin layers of calixarene, an organic resist material, as well as an oxide-like resist (hydrogen-silesquioxane) were investigated and extremely small feature sizes, well below 10 nm, were achieved. Resist structures down to 4 nm in width and silicon features of about 8 nm have been successfully fabricated. Different trimming procedures utilizing plasma resist trimming, etching of Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) hard-masks in hydrofluoric acid (HF) and sacrificial oxidation were compared and, for the first time, a comprehensive study of these techniques applied to sub-10 nm-structuring is presented. In summary, results prove the potential of the trimming procedures investigated here, each of which has specific applications.

  11. Comparison of Test and Finite Element Analysis for Two Full-Scale Helicopter Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.; Horta,Lucas G.

    2011-01-01

    Finite element analyses have been performed for two full-scale crash tests of an MD-500 helicopter. The first crash test was conducted to evaluate the performance of a composite deployable energy absorber under combined flight loads. In the second crash test, the energy absorber was removed to establish the baseline loads. The use of an energy absorbing device reduced the impact acceleration levels by a factor of three. Accelerations and kinematic data collected from the crash tests were compared to analytical results. Details of the full-scale crash tests and development of the system-integrated finite element model are briefly described along with direct comparisons of acceleration magnitudes and durations for the first full-scale crash test. Because load levels were significantly different between tests, models developed for the purposes of predicting the overall system response with external energy absorbers were not adequate under more severe conditions seen in the second crash test. Relative error comparisons were inadequate to guide model calibration. A newly developed model calibration approach that includes uncertainty estimation, parameter sensitivity, impact shape orthogonality, and numerical optimization was used for the second full-scale crash test. The calibrated parameter set reduced 2-norm prediction error by 51% but did not improve impact shape orthogonality.

  12. Comparison of reconfigurable structures for flexible word-length multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pfänder

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Binary multiplication continues to be one of the essential arithmetic operations in digital circuits. Even though field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs are becoming more and more powerful these days, the vendors cannot avoid implementing multiplications with high word-lengths using embedded blocks instead of configurable logic. But on the other hand, the circuit's efficiency decreases if the provided word-length of the hard-wired multipliers exceeds the precision requirements of the algorithm mapped into the FPGA. Thus it is beneficial to use multiplier blocks with configurable word-length, optimized for area, speed and power dissipation, e.g. regarding digital signal processing (DSP applications.

    In this contribution, we present different approaches and structures for the realization of a multiplication with variable precision and perform an objective comparison. This includes one approach based on a modified Baugh and Wooley algorithm and three structures using Booth's arithmetic operand recoding with different array structures. All modules have the option to compute signed two's complement fix-point numbers either as an individual computing unit or interconnected to a superior array. Therefore, a high throughput at low precision through parallelism, or a high precision through concatenation can be achieved.

  13. Comparison of the existing internally consistent pressure scales at high pressures and high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynn, Hyunchae; Baer, B. J.; MacLeod, S. G.; Evans, W. J.; Lipp, M. J.; Klepeis, J. P.; Jenei, Zs.; Chen, J. Y.; Catalli, K.; Popov, D.; Park, C. Y.

    2012-02-01

    There have been several efforts to determine internally consistent pressure scales for static diamond anvil high pressure study. We decide to extend the choice of pressure scales to include W and Cu. A recent study of Cu claims that electronic theory can constrain cold curve and possibly room temperature isotherm (Greeff et al., 2006, JPCS). We will present our comparison of 6 different pressure scales in regards with the suggested Cu EOS. We have measured angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction of Au, Pt, W, Cu, Ne, and NaCl to directly compare with the current existing EOS. We will also discuss discrepancies in the precise determination of pressure of phase transformations.

  14. Planetary-scale streak structures produced in a high-resolution simulation of Venus atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimura, H.; Sugimoto, N.; Takagi, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ohfuchi, W.; Enomoto, T.; Nakajima, K.; Ishiwatari, M.; Sato, T. M.; Hashimoto, G. L.; Satoh, T.; Takahashi, Y. O.; Hayashi, Y.-Y.

    2017-09-01

    Planetary-scale streak structures captured by the IR2 camera onboard AKATSUKI was reproduced in a high-resolution simulation of Venus Atmosphere. We have found that the streak structures are extending from the polar vortices and synchronized in both hemispheres. Our experiments suggest that a low-stability layer is a key for forming the planetary-scale streak structures.

  15. Otoliths versus scales: evaluating the most suitable structure for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otoliths (1.4% rejected) were more readable than scales (41.7% and 7.5% rejected) for Wriggleswade and Mankazana Impoundments respectively. Otolith readings were more precise (average percentage error (APE) = 13.6%; coefficient of variation (CV) = 15.8%) than scales (APE = 18.0%; CV = 21.9%) for the total sample ...

  16. Rich Linguistic Structure from Large-Scale Web Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamangil, Elif

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have shown an unexpected effectiveness of "Web-scale" data in natural language processing. Even the simplest models, when paired with unprecedented amounts of unstructured and unlabeled Web data, have been shown to outperform sophisticated ones. It has been argued that the effectiveness of Web-scale data has…

  17. Factor analyses of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: a Bayesian structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Ted Chun Tat; Ho, Rainbow Tin Hung

    2013-12-01

    The latent structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) has caused inconsistent results in the literature. The HADS is frequently analyzed via maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis (ML-CFA). However, the overly restrictive assumption of exact zero cross-loadings and residual correlations in ML-CFA can lead to poor model fits and distorted factor structures. This study applied Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) to evaluate the latent structure of the HADS. Three a priori models, the two-factor, three-factor, and bifactor models, were investigated in a Chinese community sample (N = 312) and clinical sample (N = 198) using ML-CFA and BSEM. BSEM specified approximate zero cross-loadings and residual correlations through the use of zero-mean, small-variance informative priors. The model comparison was based on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). Using ML-CFA, none of the three models provided an adequate fit for either sample. The BSEM two-factor model with approximate zero cross-loadings and residual correlations fitted both samples well with the lowest BIC of the three models and displayed a simple and parsimonious factor-loading pattern. The study demonstrated that the two-factor structure fitted the HADS well, suggesting its usefulness in assessing the symptoms of anxiety and depression in clinical practice. BSEM is a sophisticated and flexible statistical technique that better reflects substantive theories and locates the source of model misfit. Future use of BSEM is recommended to evaluate the latent structure of other psychological instruments.

  18. Scale-invariant structure of energy fluctuations in real earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Chang, Zhe; Wang, Huanyu; Lu, Hong

    2017-11-01

    Earthquakes are obviously complex phenomena associated with complicated spatiotemporal correlations, and they are generally characterized by two power laws: the Gutenberg-Richter (GR) and the Omori-Utsu laws. However, an important challenge has been to explain two apparently contrasting features: the GR and Omori-Utsu laws are scale-invariant and unaffected by energy or time scales, whereas earthquakes occasionally exhibit a characteristic energy or time scale, such as with asperity events. In this paper, three high-quality datasets on earthquakes were used to calculate the earthquake energy fluctuations at various spatiotemporal scales, and the results reveal the correlations between seismic events regardless of their critical or characteristic features. The probability density functions (PDFs) of the fluctuations exhibit evidence of another scaling that behaves as a q-Gaussian rather than random process. The scaling behaviors are observed for scales spanning three orders of magnitude. Considering the spatial heterogeneities in a real earthquake fault, we propose an inhomogeneous Olami-Feder-Christensen (OFC) model to describe the statistical properties of real earthquakes. The numerical simulations show that the inhomogeneous OFC model shares the same statistical properties with real earthquakes.

  19. Comparison of clinical and biochemical markers of dehydration with the clinical dehydration scale in children: a case comparison trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Ron K; Wong, Hubert; Plint, Amy; Lepage, Nathalie; Filler, Guido

    2014-06-16

    The clinical dehydration scale (CDS) is a quick, easy-to-use tool with 4 clinical items and a score of 1-8 that serves to classify dehydration in children with gastroenteritis as no, some or moderate/severe dehydration. Studies validating the CDS (Friedman JN) with a comparison group remain elusive. We hypothesized that the CDS correlates with a wide spectrum of established markers of dehydration, making it an appropriate and easy-to-use clinical tool. This study was designed as a prospective double-cohort trial in a single tertiary care center. Children with diarrhea and vomiting, who clinically required intravenous fluids for rehydration, were compared with minor trauma patients who required intravenous needling for conscious sedation. We compared the CDS with clinical and urinary markers (urinary electrolytes, proteins, ratios and fractional excretions) for dehydration in both groups using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to determine the area under the curve (AUC). We enrolled 73 children (male = 36) in the dehydration group and 143 (male = 105) in the comparison group. Median age was 32 months (range 3-214) in the dehydration and 96 months (range 2.6-214 months, p dehydration group and 0 in the comparison group (p dehydrated group: difference in heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, urine sodium/potassium ratio, urine sodium, fractional sodium excretion, serum bicarbonate, and creatinine measurements. The best markers for dehydration were urine Na and serum bicarbonate (ROC AUC = 0.798 and 0.821, respectively). CDS was most closely correlated with serum bicarbonate (Pearson r = -0.3696, p = 0.002). Although serum bicarbonate is not the gold standard for dehydration, this study provides further evidence for the usefulness of the CDS as a dehydration marker in children. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00462527) on April 18, 2007.

  20. Micron-scale lens array having diffracting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A

    2013-10-29

    A novel micron-scale lens, a microlens, is engineered to concentrate light efficiently onto an area of interest, such as a small, light-sensitive detector element in an integrated electronic device. Existing microlens designs imitate the form of large-scale lenses and are less effective at small sizes. The microlenses described herein have been designed to accommodate diffraction effects, which dominate the behavior of light at small length scales. Thus a new class of light-concentrating optical elements with much higher relative performance has been created. Furthermore, the new designs are much easier to fabricate than previous designs.

  1. A comparison of two scales for assessing health professional students’ attitude toward interprofessional learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Annabel Lie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rationale : The validated 19-item Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS is often used for assessing attitudes toward interprofessional education (IPE. The 12-item Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS, also used for this purpose, has not been validated among the professions of medicine, pharmacy, and physician assistants (PAs. The discriminatory ability of the two scales has not been directly compared. Comparison of the two will aid educators in selecting the optimal scale. Objective : To compare psychometric properties of the RIPLS and IEPS and to examine the ability of each scale to discriminate mean scores among student subgroups (gender, profession, seniority, and prior IPE exposure. Method : We conducted a cross-sectional (Qualtrics© survey (RIPLS and IEPS of junior and senior students in medicine (n=360, pharmacy (n=360, and the PA profession (n=106. Descriptive statistics were used to report aggregate mean scores of subgroups. The internal consistency of each scale was assessed using Cronbach's α. Concurrent validity was measured by Pearson's correlation coefficients. Independent-sample t-tests and analysis of variances (ANOVAs were performed to assess the discriminatory ability of each scale. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for all significant pair-wise comparisons. Results : Response rate was 82%. Cronbach's α was 0.85 (RIPLS and 0.91 (IEPS. The RIPLS discriminated scores by gender among junior students only, and scores by IPE exposure among all students. The IEPS distinguished score differences for the three professions among junior students and by prior IPE exposure for all three professions. Neither scale detected differences in mean scores by profession among all students or by level of training among the three professions. Conclusions : Neither the RIPLS nor the IEPS has greater discriminatory ability for detecting attitude differences among the student subgroups. Reason for differences may be

  2. A comparison of two scales for assessing health professional students' attitude toward interprofessional learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Désirée Annabel; Fung, Cha Chi; Trial, Janet; Lohenry, Kevin

    2013-12-02

    The validated 19-item Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) is often used for assessing attitudes toward interprofessional education (IPE). The 12-item Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS), also used for this purpose, has not been validated among the professions of medicine, pharmacy, and physician assistants (PAs). The discriminatory ability of the two scales has not been directly compared. Comparison of the two will aid educators in selecting the optimal scale. To compare psychometric properties of the RIPLS and IEPS and to examine the ability of each scale to discriminate mean scores among student subgroups (gender, profession, seniority, and prior IPE exposure). We conducted a cross-sectional (Qualtrics(©)) survey (RIPLS and IEPS) of junior and senior students in medicine (n=360), pharmacy (n=360), and the PA profession (n=106). Descriptive statistics were used to report aggregate mean scores of subgroups. The internal consistency of each scale was assessed using Cronbach's α. Concurrent validity was measured by Pearson's correlation coefficients. Independent-sample t-tests and analysis of variances (ANOVAs) were performed to assess the discriminatory ability of each scale. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for all significant pair-wise comparisons. Response rate was 82%. Cronbach's α was 0.85 (RIPLS) and 0.91 (IEPS). The RIPLS discriminated scores by gender among junior students only, and scores by IPE exposure among all students. The IEPS distinguished score differences for the three professions among junior students and by prior IPE exposure for all three professions. Neither scale detected differences in mean scores by profession among all students or by level of training among the three professions. Neither the RIPLS nor the IEPS has greater discriminatory ability for detecting attitude differences among the student subgroups. Reason for differences may be explained by slightly different scale constructs. The RIPLS

  3. Effects of structural connectivity on fine scale population genetic structure of muskrat, Ondatra zibethicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Sophie; Smith, Matthew J; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2013-01-01

    In heterogeneous landscapes, physical barriers and loss of structural connectivity have been shown to reduce gene flow and therefore lead to population structuring. In this study, we assessed the influence of landscape features on population genetic structure and gene flow of a semiaquatic species, the muskrat. A total of 97 muskrats were sampled from three watersheds near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. We estimated population genetic structure using 11 microsatellite loci and identified a single genetic cluster and no genetic differences were found among the watersheds as a result of high levels of gene flow. At finer scales, we assessed the correlation between individual pairwise genetic distances and Euclidean distance as well as different models of least cost path (LCP). We used a range of cost values for the landscape types in order to build our LCP models. We found a positive relationship between genetic distance and least cost distance when we considered roads as corridors for movements. Open landscapes and urban areas seemed to restrict but not prevent gene flow within the study area. Our study underlines the high-dispersal ability of generalist species in their use of landscape and highlights how landscape features often considered barriers to animal movements are corridors for other species. PMID:24223287

  4. Comparing large-scale computational approaches to epidemic modeling: Agent-based versus structured metapopulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merler Stefano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years large-scale computational models for the realistic simulation of epidemic outbreaks have been used with increased frequency. Methodologies adapt to the scale of interest and range from very detailed agent-based models to spatially-structured metapopulation models. One major issue thus concerns to what extent the geotemporal spreading pattern found by different modeling approaches may differ and depend on the different approximations and assumptions used. Methods We provide for the first time a side-by-side comparison of the results obtained with a stochastic agent-based model and a structured metapopulation stochastic model for the progression of a baseline pandemic event in Italy, a large and geographically heterogeneous European country. The agent-based model is based on the explicit representation of the Italian population through highly detailed data on the socio-demographic structure. The metapopulation simulations use the GLobal Epidemic and Mobility (GLEaM model, based on high-resolution census data worldwide, and integrating airline travel flow data with short-range human mobility patterns at the global scale. The model also considers age structure data for Italy. GLEaM and the agent-based models are synchronized in their initial conditions by using the same disease parameterization, and by defining the same importation of infected cases from international travels. Results The results obtained show that both models provide epidemic patterns that are in very good agreement at the granularity levels accessible by both approaches, with differences in peak timing on the order of a few days. The relative difference of the epidemic size depends on the basic reproductive ratio, R0, and on the fact that the metapopulation model consistently yields a larger incidence than the agent-based model, as expected due to the differences in the structure in the intra-population contact pattern of the approaches. The age

  5. Fractals and the Large-Scale Structure in the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gasket. Hence by definition, the self-similarity dimension of the. Sierpinski gasket is. (1). The n = 5 approximation of the Sierpinski gasket is shown in Fig1.LTe B. say .8 . ern. : If it is scaled down by a factor of 1/2 we win get a line segment of length 4 cm. Two such scaled down line segments 'put together produce the original.

  6. Multiple Scales of Control on the Structure and Spatial Distribution of Woody Vegetation in African Savanna Watersheds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R Vaughn

    Full Text Available Factors controlling savanna woody vegetation structure vary at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and as a consequence, unraveling their combined effects has proven to be a classic challenge in savanna ecology. We used airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging to map three-dimensional woody vegetation structure throughout four savanna watersheds, each contrasting in geologic substrate and climate, in Kruger National Park, South Africa. By comparison of the four watersheds, we found that geologic substrate had a stronger effect than climate in determining watershed-scale differences in vegetation structural properties, including cover, height and crown density. Generalized Linear Models were used to assess the spatial distribution of woody vegetation structural properties, including cover, height and crown density, in relation to mapped hydrologic, topographic and fire history traits. For each substrate and climate combination, models incorporating topography, hydrology and fire history explained up to 30% of the remaining variation in woody canopy structure, but inclusion of a spatial autocovariate term further improved model performance. Both crown density and the cover of shorter woody canopies were determined more by unknown factors likely to be changing on smaller spatial scales, such as soil texture, herbivore abundance or fire behavior, than by our mapped regional-scale changes in topography and hydrology. We also detected patterns in spatial covariance at distances up to 50-450 m, depending on watershed and structural metric. Our results suggest that large-scale environmental factors play a smaller role than is often attributed to them in determining woody vegetation structure in southern African savannas. This highlights the need for more spatially-explicit, wide-area analyses using high resolution remote sensing techniques.

  7. Multiple Scales of Control on the Structure and Spatial Distribution of Woody Vegetation in African Savanna Watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Nicholas R; Asner, Gregory P; Smit, Izak P J; Riddel, Edward S

    2015-01-01

    Factors controlling savanna woody vegetation structure vary at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and as a consequence, unraveling their combined effects has proven to be a classic challenge in savanna ecology. We used airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging) to map three-dimensional woody vegetation structure throughout four savanna watersheds, each contrasting in geologic substrate and climate, in Kruger National Park, South Africa. By comparison of the four watersheds, we found that geologic substrate had a stronger effect than climate in determining watershed-scale differences in vegetation structural properties, including cover, height and crown density. Generalized Linear Models were used to assess the spatial distribution of woody vegetation structural properties, including cover, height and crown density, in relation to mapped hydrologic, topographic and fire history traits. For each substrate and climate combination, models incorporating topography, hydrology and fire history explained up to 30% of the remaining variation in woody canopy structure, but inclusion of a spatial autocovariate term further improved model performance. Both crown density and the cover of shorter woody canopies were determined more by unknown factors likely to be changing on smaller spatial scales, such as soil texture, herbivore abundance or fire behavior, than by our mapped regional-scale changes in topography and hydrology. We also detected patterns in spatial covariance at distances up to 50-450 m, depending on watershed and structural metric. Our results suggest that large-scale environmental factors play a smaller role than is often attributed to them in determining woody vegetation structure in southern African savannas. This highlights the need for more spatially-explicit, wide-area analyses using high resolution remote sensing techniques.

  8. Developement of the method for realization of spectral irradiance scale featuring system of spectral comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skerovic, V; Zarubica, V; Aleksic, M [Directorate of measures and precious metals, Optical radiation Metrology department, Mike Alasa 14, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Zekovic, L; Belca, I, E-mail: vladanskerovic@dmdm.r [Faculty of Physics, Department for Applied physics and metrology, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-10-15

    Realization of the scale of spectral responsivity of the detectors in the Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals (DMDM) is based on silicon detectors traceable to LNE-INM. In order to realize the unit of spectral irradiance in the laboratory for photometry and radiometry of the Bureau of Measures and Precious Metals, the new method based on the calibration of the spectroradiometer by comparison with standard detector has been established. The development of the method included realization of the System of Spectral Comparisons (SSC), together with the detector spectral responsivity calibrations by means of a primary spectrophotometric system. The linearity testing and stray light analysis were preformed to characterize the spectroradiometer. Measurement of aperture diameter and calibration of transimpedance amplifier were part of the overall experiment. In this paper, the developed method is presented and measurement results with the associated measurement uncertainty budget are shown.

  9. Forest processes from stands to landscapes: exploring model forecast uncertainties using cross-scale model comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Papaik; Andrew Fall; Brian Sturtevant; Daniel Kneeshaw; Christian Messier; Marie-Josee Fortin; Neal. Simon

    2010-01-01

    Forest management practices conducted primarily at the stand scale result in simplified forests with regeneration problems and low structural and biological diversity. Landscape models have been used to help design management strategies to address these problems. However, there remains a great deal of uncertainty that the actual management practices result in the...

  10. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structure at Two Loops: the apparent scale dependence of the speed of sound

    OpenAIRE

    Baldauf, Tobias; Mercolli, Lorenzo; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-01-01

    We study the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structure for cosmic density and momentum fields. We show that the finite part of the two-loop calculation and its counterterms introduce an apparent scale dependence for the leading order parameter $c_\\text{s}^2$ of the EFT starting at k=0.1 h/Mpc. These terms limit the range over which one can trust the one-loop EFT calculation at the 1 % level to k

  11. Strain, nano-phase separation, multi-scale structures and function of advanced materials

    OpenAIRE

    Billinge, S. J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent atomic pair distribution function results from our group from manganites and cuprate systems are reviewed in light of the presence of multi-scale structures. These structures have a profound effect on the material properties

  12. Large-scale Interstellar Structure and the Heliosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Frisch, P. C.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    The properties of interstellar clouds near the Sun are ordered by the Loop I superbubble and by the interstellar radiation field. Comparisons of the kinematics and magnetic field of the interstellar gas flowing past the Sun, including the Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC), indicate a geometric relation between Loop I as defined by radio synchrotron emission, and the interstellar magnetic field that polarizes nearby starlight. Depletion of Fe and Mg onto dust grains in the LIC shows a surprising ...

  13. Size structure, not metabolic scaling rules, determines fisheries reference points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Beyer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    these empirical relations is lacking. Here, we combine life-history invariants, metabolic scaling and size-spectrum theory to develop a general size- and trait-based theory for demography and recruitment of exploited fish stocks. Important concepts are physiological or metabolic scaled mortalities and flux...... of individuals or their biomass to size. The theory is based on classic metabolic relations at the individual level and uses asymptotic size W∞ as a trait. The theory predicts fundamental similarities and differences between small and large species in vital rates and response to fishing. The central result...... that even though small species have a higher productivity than large species their resilience towards fishing is lower than expected from metabolic scaling rules. Further, we show that the fishing mortality leading to maximum yield per recruit is an ill-suited reference point. The theory can be used...

  14. Assessing the accuracy of template-based structure prediction metaservers by comparison with structural genomics structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gront, Dominik; Grabowski, Marek; Zimmerman, Matthew D; Raynor, John; Tkaczuk, Karolina L; Minor, Wladek

    2012-12-01

    The explosion of the size of the universe of known protein sequences has stimulated two complementary approaches to structural mapping of these sequences: theoretical structure prediction and experimental determination by structural genomics (SG). In this work, we assess the accuracy of structure prediction by two automated template-based structure prediction metaservers (genesilico.pl and bioinfo.pl) by measuring the structural similarity of the predicted models to corresponding experimental models determined a posteriori. Of 199 targets chosen from SG programs, the metaservers predicted the structures of about a fourth of them "correctly." (In this case, "correct" was defined as placing more than 70 % of the alpha carbon atoms in the model within 2 Å of the experimentally determined positions.) Almost all of the targets that could be modeled to this accuracy were those with an available template in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) with more than 25 % sequence identity. The majority of those SG targets with lower sequence identity to structures in the PDB were not predicted by the metaservers with this accuracy. We also compared metaserver results to CASP8 results, finding that the models obtained by participants in the CASP competition were significantly better than those produced by the metaservers.

  15. Comparison of the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 with the parent-rated Kinder Infant Development Scale (KIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sayaka; Hashimoto, Keiji; Ikeda, Natsuha; Takekoh, Makoto; Fujiwara, Takeo; Morisaki, Naho; Mezawa, Hidetoshi; Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to extend our understanding of the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development (KSPD) by comparison with a parent-rated scale, the Kinder Infant Development Scale (KIDS). The participants of this study were 229 children aged 0-4, who were referred to the Developmental Evaluation Center of the National Center for Child Health and Development, due to a suspected developmental disorder/delay. The participants were divided into subgroups, depending on age and overall DQ. For each group separately, correlation analyses were conducted between the Developmental Quotient (DQ) of each KSPD domain and DQ of each KIDS subscale. For high DQ group, in all ages, the KSPD Postural-Motor (P-M) domain DQ demonstrated a high correlation with the KIDS Physical-Motor DQ, and at young ages, it was also found to be moderately or strongly associated with the KIDS Manipulation DQ. For high DQ group, the KSPD Cognitive-Adaptive (C-A) domain DQ was most consistently related to the KIDS Manipulation DQ, and was also moderately correlated with the KIDS Physical-Motor DQ, Receptive Language DQ, Social Relationship with Adults DQ, Discipline DQ, and Feeding DQ, depending on age. For high DQ group, the KSPD Language-Social (L-S) DQ most consistently showed a moderate or high correlation with the KIDS Receptive Language DQ and the Manipulation DQ, and also related to Physical-Motor DQ, Expressive Language DQ, Language Conception DQ, Social Relationship with Adults DQ, and Social Relationship with Children DQ for some age groups. The low DQ group demonstrated stronger relationships on many of the pairs of the DQ of a KSPD subdomain and the DQ of a KIDS subscale, regardless of the type of subdomains and subscales. For high DQ group, the KSPD P-M domain was consistently related to parent-reported physical/motor development, the C-A domain primarily reflected a child's fine motor skills and his/her ability to understand and follow verbal instructions provided by adults

  16. Evolution of Wechsler's Memory Scales: Content and structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Phillip L

    2017-01-01

    The Wechsler Memory Scale-1 was introduced to the professional community 70 years ago and has been the most widely used standardized memory battery for over 50 years. Since its introduction, the test has been revised three times, with the last revision occurring in 2009 . Few clinicians are aware that Wechsler developed a prior memory battery in 1917 , which was used to assess retention deficits in persons with Korsakoff psychosis. The purpose of the present article is to describe the development of Wechsler's memory scales from 1917 through 2009 . Suggestions for the next revision are offered.

  17. Structural genomics of eukaryotic targets at a laboratory scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Didier; Poussin-Courmontagne, Pierre; Rosé, David; Ripp, Raymond; Litt, Alain; Thierry, Jean-Claude; Moras, Dino

    2005-01-01

    Structural genomics programs are distributed worldwide and funded by large institutions such as the NIH in United-States, the RIKEN in Japan or the European Commission through the SPINE network in Europe. Such initiatives, essentially managed by large consortia, led to technology and method developments at the different steps required to produce biological samples compatible with structural studies. Besides specific applications, method developments resulted mainly upon miniaturization and parallelization. The challenge that academic laboratories faces to pursue structural genomics programs is to produce, at a higher rate, protein samples. The Structural Biology and Genomics Department (IGBMC - Illkirch - France) is implicated in a structural genomics program of high eukaryotes whose goal is solving crystal structures of proteins and their complexes (including large complexes) related to human health and biotechnology. To achieve such a challenging goal, the Department has established a medium-throughput pipeline for producing protein samples suitable for structural biology studies. Here, we describe the setting up of our initiative from cloning to crystallization and we demonstrate that structural genomics may be manageable by academic laboratories by strategic investments in robotic and by adapting classical bench protocols and new developments, in particular in the field of protein expression, to parallelization.

  18. Modeling and Analysis of Structural Dynamics for a One-Tenth Scale Model NGST Sunshield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John; Lienard, Sebastien; Brodeur, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    New modeling and analysis techniques have been developed for predicting the dynamic behavior of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) sunshield. The sunshield consists of multiple layers of pretensioned, thin-film membranes supported by deployable booms. Modeling the structural dynamic behavior of the sunshield is a challenging aspect of the problem due to the effects of membrane wrinkling. A finite element model of the sunshield was developed using an approximate engineering approach, the cable network method, to account for membrane wrinkling effects. Ground testing of a one-tenth scale model of the NGST sunshield were carried out to provide data for validating the analytical model. A series of analyses were performed to predict the behavior of the sunshield under the ground test conditions. Modal analyses were performed to predict the frequencies and mode shapes of the test article and transient response analyses were completed to simulate impulse excitation tests. Comparison was made between analytical predictions and test measurements for the dynamic behavior of the sunshield. In general, the results show good agreement with the analytical model correctly predicting the approximate frequency and mode shapes for the significant structural modes.

  19. The deep structure of Gaussian scale space images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Arjan

    2002-01-01

    In order to be able to deal with the discrete nature of images in a continuous way, one can use results of the mathematical field of 'distribution theory'. Under almost trivial assumptions, like 'we know nothing', one ends up with convolving the image with a Gaussian filter. In this manner scale is

  20. Structural Validity of the Fear of Success Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Jonathan N.; Conroy, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Fear of success is a dispositional form of anxiety that can have harmful effects on athletes' motivation and performance; however, empirical research on fear of success in sport has been limited. Zuckerman and Allison's (1976) Fear of Success Scale (FOSS) has been the most popular fear of success measure used in sport, yet it is laden with…

  1. The Student Perception of University Support and Structure Scale: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintre, Maxine G.; Gates, Shawn K. E.; Pancer, W. Mark; Pratt, Michael S.; Polivy, Janet; Birnie-Lefcovitch, S.; Adams, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    A new scale, the Student Perception of University Support and Structure Scale (SPUSS), was developed for research on the transition to university. The scale was based on concepts derived from Baumrind's (1971) theory of parenting styles. Data were obtained from two separate cohorts of freshmen (n=759 and 397) attending six Canadian universities of…

  2. Scaling the relative dominance of exogenous drivers in structuring desert small mammal assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Daniela; Ojeda, Ricardo A.

    2015-11-01

    Assemblage patterns could be primarily generated by two types of drivers: exogenous (such as environmental and climatic factors) and endogenous (interactions such as competition, predation, mutualism or herbivory). The most widely accepted hypothesis states that at smaller scales (such as patch scale), interspecific interactions are the major drivers structuring communities, whereas at larger regional scales, factors such as climate, topography and soil act as ecological filters that determine assemblage composition. The general aim of this paper is to compare different exogenous drivers in terms of their relative dominance in structuring desert small mammal communities across a range of spatial scales, from patch to regional, and compare them with previous results on endogenous drivers. Our results show that as spatial scale increases, the explanatory power of exogenous factors also increases, e.g. from 17% at the patch scale (i.e. abundance) to 99% at the regional scale (i.e. diversity). Moreover, environmental drivers vary in type and strength depending on the community estimator across several spatial scales. On the other hand, endogenous drivers such as interspecific interactions are more important at the patch scale, diminishing in importance towards the regional scale. Therefore, the relative importance of exogenous versus endogenous drivers affects small mammal assemblage structure at different spatial scales. Our results fill up a knowledge gap concerning ecological drivers of assemblage structure at intermediate spatial scales for Monte desert small mammals, and highlight the importance of dealing with multi-causal factors in explaining ecological patterns of assemblages.

  3. Relationships between avian richness and landscape structure at multiple scales using multiple landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Mitchell; Scott H. Rutzmoser; T. Bently Wigley; Craig Loehle; John A. Gerwin; Patrick D. Keyser; Richard A. Lancia; Roger W. Perry; Christopher L. Reynolds; Ronald E. Thill; Robert Weih; Don White; Petra Bohall Wood

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about factors that structure biodiversity on landscape scales, yet current land management protocols, such as forest certification programs, place an increasing emphasis on managing for sustainable biodiversity at landscape scales. We used a replicated landscape study to evaluate relationships between forest structure and avian diversity at both stand...

  4. Double inflation: A possible resolution of the large-scale structure problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S.; Villumsen, J.V.; Vittorio, N.; Silk, J.; Juszkiewicz, R.

    1986-11-01

    A model is presented for the large-scale structure of the universe in which two successive inflationary phases resulted in large small-scale and small large-scale density fluctuations. This bimodal density fluctuation spectrum in an ..cap omega.. = 1 universe dominated by hot dark matter leads to large-scale structure of the galaxy distribution that is consistent with recent observational results. In particular, large, nearly empty voids and significant large-scale peculiar velocity fields are produced over scales of approx.100 Mpc, while the small-scale structure over less than or equal to 10 Mpc resembles that in a low density universe, as observed. Detailed analytical calculations and numerical simulations are given of the spatial and velocity correlations. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Horizon Run 4 Simulation: Coupled Evolution of Galaxies and Large-Scale Structures of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juhan; Park, Changbom; L'Huillier, Benjamin; Hong, Sungwook E.

    2015-08-01

    The Horizon Run 4 is a cosmological N-body simulation designed for the study of coupled evolution between galaxies and large-scale structures of the Universe, and for the test of galaxy formation models. Using 6300^3 gravitating particles in a cubic box of L_{box} = 3150 h^{-1} Mpc, we build a dense forest of halo merger trees to trace the halo merger history with a halo mass resolution scale down to M_s = 2.7 × 10^{11} h^{-1} M_⊙. We build a set of particle and halo data, which can serve as testbeds for comparison of cosmological models and gravitational theories with observations. We find that the FoF halo mass function shows a substantial deviation from the universal form with tangible redshift evolution of amplitude and shape. At higher redshifts, the amplitude of the mass function is lower, and the functional form is shifted toward larger values of ln (1/σ). We also find that the baryonic acoustic oscillation feature in the two-point correlation funct-ion of mock galaxies becomes broader with a peak position moving to smaller scales and the peak amplitude decreasing for increasing directional cosine mu compared to the linear predictions. From the halo merger trees built from halo data at 75 redshifts, we measure the half-mass epoch of halos and find that less massive halos tend to reach half of their current mass at higher redshifts. Simulation outputs including snapshot data, past lightcone space data, and halo merger data are available at http://sdss.kias.re.kr/astro/Horizon-Run4

  6. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

    2011-08-15

    'The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste feed delivery to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Hall (2008) includes WTP acceptance criteria that describe physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be certified as acceptable before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST. The objectives of Washington River Protection Solutions' (WRPS) Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project are to understand and demonstrate the DST sampling and batch transfer performance at multiple scales using slurry simulants comprised of UDS particles and liquid (Townson 2009). The SSMD project utilizes geometrically scaled DST feed tanks to generate mixing, sampling, and transfer test data. In Phase 2 of the testing, RPP-49740, the 5-part simulant defined in RPP-48358 was used as the waste slurry simulant. The Phase 2 test data are being used to estimate the expected performance of the prototypic systems in the full-scale DSTs. As such, understanding of the how the small-scale systems as well as the simulant relate to the full-scale DSTs and actual waste is required. The focus of this report is comparison of the size and density of the 5-part SSMD simulant to that of the Hanford waste. This is accomplished by computing metrics for particle mobilization, suspension, settling, transfer line intake, and pipeline transfer from the characterization of the 5-part SSMD simulant and characterizations of the Hanford waste. In addition, the effects of the suspending fluid characteristics on the test results are considered, and a computational fluid dynamics tool useful to quantify uncertainties from simulant selections is discussed.'

  7. Comparison between the Comfort and Hartwig sedation scales in pediatric patients undergoing mechanical lung ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werther Brunow de Carvalho

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: A high number of hospitalized children do not receive adequate sedation due to inadequate evaluation and use of such agents. With the increase in knowledge of sedation and analgesia in recent years, concern has also risen, such that it is now not acceptable that incorrect evaluations of the state of children's pain and anxiety are made. OBJECTIVE: A comparison between the Comfort and Hartwig sedation scales in pediatric patients undergoing mechanical lung ventilation. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A pediatric intensive care unit with three beds at an urban teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Thirty simultaneous and independent observations were conducted by specialists on 18 patients studied. DIAGNOSTIC TEST: Comfort and Hartwig scales were applied, after 3 minutes of observation. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Agreement rate (kappa. RESULTS: On the Comfort scale, the averages for adequately sedated, insufficiently sedated, and over-sedated were 20.28 (SD 2.78, 27.5 (SD 0.70, and 15.1 (SD 1.10, respectively, whereas on the Hartwig scale, the averages for adequately sedated, insufficiently sedated, and over-sedated were 16.35 (SD 0.77, 20.85 (SD 1.57, and 13.0 (SD 0.89, respectively. The observed agreement rate was 63% (p = 0.006 and the expected agreement rate was 44% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.345238 (z = 2.49. CONCLUSIONS: In our study there was no statistically significant difference whether the more complex Comfort scale was applied (8 physiological and behavioral parameters or the less complex Hartwig scale (5 behavioral parameters was applied to assess the sedation of mechanically ventilated pediatric patients.

  8. Titanium alloy lattice structures with millimeter scale cell sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moongkhamklang, Pimsiree; Wadley, Haydn N.G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22904-4745 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Titanium sandwich panels with cellular cores of a uniform 1-5 mm diameter open cell size are well suited for impact energy absorption and cross flow heat exchange applications. Periodic cellular structures (lattices) made from high specific strength, high temperature alloys are preferred for these multifunctional uses. A diffusion bonding method has been applied here to make cellular lattice structures from a Ti-6A1-4V alloy. To illustrate the approach, lattice structures with both square and diamond collinear topologies, a 2 mm open cell size, and a relative density of 15% were made from 254 {mu}m diameter titanium alloy wires. These structures were found to have a compressive strength of 40 {+-} 5 MPa that was controlled by plastic yield followed by buckling of the struts. The cellular structures have been brazed to titanium alloy face sheets to create sandwich panel structures that appear well suited for multifunctional applications up to 420 C. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Fine-Scale Analysis Reveals Cryptic Landscape Genetic Structure in Desert Tortoises

    OpenAIRE

    Latch, Emily K.; William I Boarman; Andrew Walde; Robert C Fleischer

    2011-01-01

    Characterizing the effects of landscape features on genetic variation is essential for understanding how landscapes shape patterns of gene flow and spatial genetic structure of populations. Most landscape genetics studies have focused on patterns of gene flow at a regional scale. However, the genetic structure of populations at a local scale may be influenced by a unique suite of landscape variables that have little bearing on connectivity patterns observed at broader spatial scales. We inves...

  10. Hydrologic response to valley-scale structure in alpine headwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekes, Anne A.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Montgomery, David R.; Woodward, Andrea; Bolton, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Few systematic studies of valley-scale geomorphic drivers of streamflow regimes in complex alpine headwaters have compared response between catchments. As a result, little guidance is available for regional-scale hydrological research and monitoring efforts that include assessments of ecosystem function. Physical parameters such as slope, elevation range, drainage area and bedrock geology are often used to stratify differences in streamflow response between sampling sites within an ecoregion. However, these metrics do not take into account geomorphic controls on streamflow specific to glaciated mountain headwaters. The coarse-grained nature of depositional features in alpine catchments suggests that these landforms have little water storage capacity because hillslope runoff moves rapidly just beneath the rock mantle before emerging in fluvial networks. However, recent studies show that a range of depositional features, including talus slopes, protalus ramparts and 'rock-ice' features may have more storage capacity than previously thought.

  11. Local Large-Scale Structure and the Assumption of Homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Ryan C.; Barger, Amy J.; Cowie, Lennox L.

    2016-10-01

    Our recent estimates of galaxy counts and the luminosity density in the near-infrared (Keenan et al. 2010, 2012) indicated that the local universe may be under-dense on radial scales of several hundred megaparsecs. Such a large-scale local under-density could introduce significant biases in the measurement and interpretation of cosmological observables, such as the inferred effects of dark energy on the rate of expansion. In Keenan et al. (2013), we measured the K-band luminosity density as a function of distance from us to test for such a local under-density. We made this measurement over the redshift range 0.01 0.07, we measure an increasing luminosity density that by z ~ 0.1 rises to a value of ~ 1.5 times higher than that measured locally. This implies that the stellar mass density follows a similar trend. Assuming that the underlying dark matter distribution is traced by this luminous matter, this suggests that the local mass density may be lower than the global mass density of the universe at an amplitude and on a scale that is sufficient to introduce significant biases into the measurement of basic cosmological observables. At least one study has shown that an under-density of roughly this amplitude and scale could resolve the apparent tension between direct local measurements of the Hubble constant and those inferred by Planck team. Other theoretical studies have concluded that such an under-density could account for what looks like an accelerating expansion, even when no dark energy is present.

  12. Spatial Scales of Genetic Structure in Free-Standing and Strangler Figs (Ficus, Moraceae Inhabiting Neotropical Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Heer

    Full Text Available Wind-borne pollinating wasps (Agaonidae can transport fig (Ficus sp., Moraceae pollen over enormous distances (> 100 km. Because of their extensive breeding areas, Neotropical figs are expected to exhibit weak patterns of genetic structure at local and regional scales. We evaluated genetic structure at the regional to continental scale (Panama, Costa Rica, and Peru for the free-standing fig species Ficus insipida. Genetic differentiation was detected only at distances > 300 km (Jost´s Dest = 0.68 ± 0.07 & FST = 0.30 ± 0.03 between Mesoamerican and Amazonian sites and evidence for phylogeographic structure (RST>>permuted RST was only significant in comparisons between Central and South America. Further, we assessed local scale spatial genetic structure (SGS, d ≤ 8 km in Panama and developed an agent-based model parameterized with data from F. insipida to estimate minimum pollination distances, which determine the contribution of pollen dispersal on SGS. The local scale data for F. insipida was compared to SGS data collected for an additional free-standing fig, F. yoponensis (subgenus Pharmacosycea, and two species of strangler figs, F. citrifolia and F. obtusifolia (subgenus Urostigma sampled in Panama. All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012. Model simulations indicated that most pollination events likely occur at distances > > 1 km, largely ruling out spatially limited pollen dispersal as the determinant of SGS in F. insipida and, by extension, the other fig species. Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal. We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs.

  13. Multi-scale structural analysis of gas diffusion layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Martin; Godehardt, Michael; Schladitz, Katja

    2017-07-01

    The macroscopic properties of materials are strongly determined by their micro structure. Here, transport properties of gas diffusion layers (GDL) for fuel cells are considered. In order to simulate flow and thermal properties, detailed micro structural information is essential. 3D images obtained by high-resolution computed tomography using synchrotron radiation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with focused ion beam (FIB) serial slicing were used. A recent method for reconstruction of porous structures from FIB-SEM images and sophisticated morphological image transformations were applied to segment the solid structural components. The essential algorithmic steps for segmenting the different components in the tomographic data-sets are described and discussed. In this paper, two types of GDL, based on a non-woven substrate layer and a paper substrate layer were considered, respectively. More than three components are separated within the synchrotron radiation computed tomography data. That is, fiber system, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder/impregnation, micro porous layer (MPL), inclusions within the latter, and pore space are segmented. The usage of the thus derived 3D structure data in different simulation applications can be demonstrated. Simulations of macroscopic properties such as thermal conductivity, depending on the flooding state of the GDL are possible.

  14. SCOWLP classification: Structural comparison and analysis of protein binding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Gerd

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed information about protein interactions is critical for our understanding of the principles governing protein recognition mechanisms. The structures of many proteins have been experimentally determined in complex with different ligands bound either in the same or different binding regions. Thus, the structural interactome requires the development of tools to classify protein binding regions. A proper classification may provide a general view of the regions that a protein uses to bind others and also facilitate a detailed comparative analysis of the interacting information for specific protein binding regions at atomic level. Such classification might be of potential use for deciphering protein interaction networks, understanding protein function, rational engineering and design. Description Protein binding regions (PBRs might be ideally described as well-defined separated regions that share no interacting residues one another. However, PBRs are often irregular, discontinuous and can share a wide range of interacting residues among them. The criteria to define an individual binding region can be often arbitrary and may differ from other binding regions within a protein family. Therefore, the rational behind protein interface classification should aim to fulfil the requirements of the analysis to be performed. We extract detailed interaction information of protein domains, peptides and interfacial solvent from the SCOWLP database and we classify the PBRs of each domain family. For this purpose, we define a similarity index based on the overlapping of interacting residues mapped in pair-wise structural alignments. We perform our classification with agglomerative hierarchical clustering using the complete-linkage method. Our classification is calculated at different similarity cut-offs to allow flexibility in the analysis of PBRs, feature especially interesting for those protein families with conflictive binding regions

  15. Additive Manufacturing of Metal Structures at the Micrometer Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Luca; Reiser, Alain; Spolenak, Ralph; Zambelli, Tomaso

    2017-05-01

    Currently, the focus of additive manufacturing (AM) is shifting from simple prototyping to actual production. One driving factor of this process is the ability of AM to build geometries that are not accessible by subtractive fabrication techniques. While these techniques often call for a geometry that is easiest to manufacture, AM enables the geometry required for best performance to be built by freeing the design process from restrictions imposed by traditional machining. At the micrometer scale, the design limitations of standard fabrication techniques are even more severe. Microscale AM thus holds great potential, as confirmed by the rapid success of commercial micro-stereolithography tools as an enabling technology for a broad range of scientific applications. For metals, however, there is still no established AM solution at small scales. To tackle the limited resolution of standard metal AM methods (a few tens of micrometers at best), various new techniques aimed at the micrometer scale and below are presently under development. Here, we review these recent efforts. Specifically, we feature the techniques of direct ink writing, electrohydrodynamic printing, laser-assisted electrophoretic deposition, laser-induced forward transfer, local electroplating methods, laser-induced photoreduction and focused electron or ion beam induced deposition. Although these methods have proven to facilitate the AM of metals with feature sizes in the range of 0.1-10 µm, they are still in a prototype stage and their potential is not fully explored yet. For instance, comprehensive studies of material availability and material properties are often lacking, yet compulsory for actual applications. We address these items while critically discussing and comparing the potential of current microscale metal AM techniques. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Emergence of scale-free close-knit friendship structure in online social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Xiang Cui

    Full Text Available Although the structural properties of online social networks have attracted much attention, the properties of the close-knit friendship structures remain an important question. Here, we mainly focus on how these mesoscale structures are affected by the local and global structural properties. Analyzing the data of four large-scale online social networks reveals several common structural properties. It is found that not only the local structures given by the indegree, outdegree, and reciprocal degree distributions follow a similar scaling behavior, the mesoscale structures represented by the distributions of close-knit friendship structures also exhibit a similar scaling law. The degree correlation is very weak over a wide range of the degrees. We propose a simple directed network model that captures the observed properties. The model incorporates two mechanisms: reciprocation and preferential attachment. Through rate equation analysis of our model, the local-scale and mesoscale structural properties are derived. In the local-scale, the same scaling behavior of indegree and outdegree distributions stems from indegree and outdegree of nodes both growing as the same function of the introduction time, and the reciprocal degree distribution also shows the same power-law due to the linear relationship between the reciprocal degree and in/outdegree of nodes. In the mesoscale, the distributions of four closed triples representing close-knit friendship structures are found to exhibit identical power-laws, a behavior attributed to the negligible degree correlations. Intriguingly, all the power-law exponents of the distributions in the local-scale and mesoscale depend only on one global parameter, the mean in/outdegree, while both the mean in/outdegree and the reciprocity together determine the ratio of the reciprocal degree of a node to its in/outdegree. Structural properties of numerical simulated networks are analyzed and compared with each of the four

  17. A comparison study of succinct data structures for use in GWAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Patrick P; Zhang, Ge; Wilsey, Philip A

    2013-12-21

    In recent years genetic data analysis has seen a rapid increase in the scale of data to be analyzed. Schadt et al (NRG 11:647-657, 2010) offered that with data sets approaching the petabyte scale, data related challenges such as formatting, management, and transfer are increasingly important topics which need to be addressed. The use of succinct data structures is one method of reducing physical size of a data set without the use of expensive compression techniques. In this work, we consider the use of 2- and 3-bit encoding schemes for genotype data. We compare the computational performance of allele or genotype counting algorithms utilizing genotype data encoded in both schemes. We perform a comparison of 2- and 3-bit genotype encoding schemes for use in genotype counting algorithms. We find that there is a 20% overhead when building simple frequency tables from 2-bit encoded genotypes. However, building pairwise count tables for genome-wide epistasis is 1.0% more efficient. In this work, we were concerned with comparing the performance benefits and disadvantages of using more densely packed genotype data representations in Genome Wide Associations Studies (GWAS). We implemented a 2-bit encoding for genotype data, and compared it against a more commonly used 3-bit encoding scheme. We also developed a C++ library, libgwaspp, which offers these data structures, and implementations of several common GWAS algorithms. In general, the 2-bit encoding consumes less memory, and is slightly more efficient in some algorithms than the 3-bit encoding.

  18. Critical Scales, Fundamental Structures and Inherent Instabilities of Turbulent Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    turbulence scales were both analyzed. It was shown that in both limits interactions of detonations with non-uniform fluid density fields had greater...effects than interactions with non-uniform fluid velocity fields. High-speed turbulent-combustion dynamics thereby was shown to behave very...Williams,   “Ignition  Time  of  Hydrogen-­‐Air  Diffusion  Flames,”  Comptes  Rendus   Mecanique  340,  882-­‐893  (2012

  19. The scaling and structure of aquatic animal wakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, JJ; Stamhuis, EJ; Muller, UK; van Duren, LA

    2002-01-01

    Animal generated water movements are visualized and quantified using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV). The resulting vector flow fields allow for the study of the distribution of velocity, vorticity and vortices. Structural and temporal aspects of animal-induced flows covering a

  20. Large-scale structure and gravitational waves. III. Tidal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Fabian; Pajer, Enrico; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2014-04-01

    The leading locally observable effect of a long-wavelength metric perturbation corresponds to a tidal field. We derive the tidal field induced by scalar, vector, and tensor perturbations, and use second-order perturbation theory to calculate the effect on the locally measured small-scale density fluctuations. For subhorizon scalar perturbations, we recover the standard perturbation theory result (F2 kernel). For tensor modes of wavenumber kL, we find that effects persist for kLτ ≫1, i.e. even long after the gravitational wave has entered the horizon and redshifted away ("fossil effect"). We then use these results, combined with the "ruler perturbations" of F. Schmidt and D. Jeong [Phys. Rev. D 86, 083527 (2012)], to predict the observed distortion of the small-scale matter correlation function induced by a long-wavelength tensor mode. We also estimate the observed signal in the B mode of the cosmic shear from a gravitational wave background, including both tidal (intrinsic alignment) and projection (lensing) effects. The nonvanishing tidal effect in the kLτ≫1 limit significantly increases the intrinsic alignment contribution to shear B modes, especially at low redshifts z≲2.

  1. PERSISTENT ASYMMETRIC STRUCTURE OF SAGITTARIUS A* ON EVENT HORIZON SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Lu, Ru-Sen; Akiyama, Kazunori; Beaudoin, Christopher; Cappallo, Roger [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Haystack Observatory, Route 40, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Johnson, Michael D.; Blackburn, Lindy; Blundell, Ray; Chael, Andrew A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Broderick, Avery E. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Psaltis, Dimitrios; Chan, Chi-Kwan [Steward Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Alef, Walter; Bertarini, Alessandra [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Algaba, Juan Carlos [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Asada, Keiichi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Bower, Geoffrey C. [Academia Sinica Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 645 N. A‘ohōkū Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Brinkerink, Christiaan [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Chamberlin, Richard, E-mail: vfish@haystack.mit.edu [Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, 111 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); and others

    2016-04-01

    The Galactic Center black hole Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) is a prime observing target for the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), which can resolve the 1.3 mm emission from this source on angular scales comparable to that of the general relativistic shadow. Previous EHT observations have used visibility amplitudes to infer the morphology of the millimeter-wavelength emission. Potentially much richer source information is contained in the phases. We report on 1.3 mm phase information on Sgr A* obtained with the EHT on a total of 13 observing nights over four years. Closure phases, which are the sum of visibility phases along a closed triangle of interferometer baselines, are used because they are robust against phase corruptions introduced by instrumentation and the rapidly variable atmosphere. The median closure phase on a triangle including telescopes in California, Hawaii, and Arizona is nonzero. This result conclusively demonstrates that the millimeter emission is asymmetric on scales of a few Schwarzschild radii and can be used to break 180° rotational ambiguities inherent from amplitude data alone. The stability of the sign of the closure phase over most observing nights indicates persistent asymmetry in the image of Sgr A* that is not obscured by refraction due to interstellar electrons along the line of sight.

  2. Evidence of variant intra- and interspecific scaling of tree crown structure and relevance for allometric theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretzsch, Hans; Dieler, Jochen

    2012-07-01

    General scaling rules or constants for metabolic and structural plant allometry as assumed by the theory of Euclidian geometric scaling (2/3-scaling) or metabolic scaling (3/4-scaling) may meet human's innate propensity for simplicity and generality of pattern and processes in nature. However, numerous empirical works show that variability of crown structure rather than constancy is essential for a tree's success in coping with crowding. In order to link theory and empiricism, we analyzed the intra- and inter-specific scaling of crown structure for 52 tree species. The basis is data from 84 long-term plots of temperate monospecific forests under survey since 1870 and a set of 126 yield tables of angiosperm and gymnosperm forest tree species across the world. The study draws attention to (1) the intra-specific variation and correlation of the three scaling relationships: tree height versus trunk diameter, crown cross-sectional area versus trunk diameter, and tree volume versus trunk diameter, and their dependence on competition, (2) the inter-specific variation and correlation of the same scaling exponents ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]) across 52 tree species, and (3) the relevance of the revealed variable scaling of crown structure for leaf organs and metabolic scaling. Our results arrive at suggesting a more extended metabolic theory of ecology which includes variability and covariation between allometric relationships as prerequisite for the individual plant's competitiveness.

  3. Sediment Scaling for Mud Mountain Fish Barrier Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-28

    Structure by Jeremy A. Sharp, Gary L. Brown, and Gary L. Bell PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory technical note describes the process of... energy in the system (model) to keep the WL suspended until it encounters an area of momentum loss (e.g., behind the barrier). Satisfaction of Rouse...Seattle District hydraulic engineers and the fish barrier operators). At a flow of approximately 4,000 cubic feet/second, the bed mobilizes and readily

  4. Large Scale Structure From Motion for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    and putting up with my bad movie choices. Thanks Charlie for defending your ideals, for the runs together, and for being Charlie. Mark Johnson to...mosaicing, the information from multiple underwater views can be used to extract structure and motion estimates using ideas from SFM and photogrammetry ...to use images to measure and come up with estimates of uncertainty will bring some of the fruits of photogrammetry to underwater archeology such as

  5. Equifinality and the Scaling Exponent of the Structure Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitton, G. F.; Mezematy, Y.; Schertzer, D. J. M.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.

    2014-12-01

    In turbulence the structure function is by far the most widely used tool for the empirical analysis of the velocity field. This is due mainly to the work of Kolmogorov (1941) who hypothesised a homogeneous flux of energy and derived the famous 2/3 power law for the second-order structure function; — which corresponds to a 5/3 law for the energy spectrum (Obukhov, 1942). In 1962 Kolmogorov refined his hypothesis to take into account the intermittency of the flux, with the consequence that the exponent ξ(q) of the structure function is not longer proportional to its statistical order q. In this communication, we first show that the refined hypothesis can lead to different models that can have opposite intermittency corrections. Secondly, we demonstrate that the inverse problem, i.e., starting from a given expression of ξ(q) to recover the involved flux leads to an interesting problem of equifinality for the definition of this flux. This is done in particular in the framework of the Fractionally Integrated Flux model that gives a precise meaning to the refined hypothesis. The theoretical and practical consequences are illustrated with the help data analysis and simulations of turbulence in wind farms and urban lakes.

  6. Small scale structures in coupled scalar field dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Beyer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate structure formation for ultra-light scalar field dark matter coupled to quintessence, in particular the cosmon–bolon system. The linear power spectrum is computed by a numerical solution of the coupled field equations. We infer the substructure abundance within a Milky Way-like halo. Estimates of dark halo abundances from recent galaxy surveys imply a lower bound on the bolon mass of about 9×10−22 eV. This seems to exclude a possible detection of scalar field dark matter through time variation in pulsar timing signals in the near future.

  7. Dimensionality of the 9-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale revisited: A Bayesian structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Ted C T; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reexamine the dimensionality of the widely used 9-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale using the maximum likelihood (ML) approach and Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) approach. Three measurement models (1-factor, 3-factor, and bi-factor models) were evaluated in two split samples of 1,112 health-care workers using confirmatory factor analysis and BSEM, which specified small-variance informative priors for cross-loadings and residual covariances. Model fit and comparisons were evaluated by posterior predictive p-value (PPP), deviance information criterion, and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). None of the three ML-based models showed an adequate fit to the data. The use of informative priors for cross-loadings did not improve the PPP for the models. The 1-factor BSEM model with approximately zero residual covariances displayed a good fit (PPP>0.10) to both samples and a substantially lower BIC than its 3-factor and bi-factor counterparts. The BSEM results demonstrate empirical support for the 1-factor model as a parsimonious and reasonable representation of work engagement.

  8. An Assessment of the Dimensionality and Factorial Structure of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, Kenneth; Denovan, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Parker, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Since its introduction, the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS) has developed into a principal measure of belief in the paranormal. Accordingly, the RPBS regularly appears within parapsychological research. Despite common usage, academic debates continue to focus on the factorial structure of the RPBS and its psychometric integrity. Using an aggregated heterogeneous sample (N = 3,764), the present study tested the fit of 10 factorial models encompassing variants of the most commonly proposed solutions (seven, five, two, and one-factor) plus new bifactor alternatives. A comparison of competing models revealed a seven-factor bifactor solution possessed superior data-model fit (CFI = 0.945, TLI = 0.933, IFI = 0.945, SRMR = 0.046, RMSEA = 0.058), containing strong factor loadings for a general factor and weaker, albeit acceptable, factor loadings for seven subfactors. This indicated that belief in the paranormal, as measured by the RPBS, is best characterized as a single overarching construct, comprising several related, but conceptually independent subfactors. Furthermore, women reported significantly higher paranormal belief scores than men, and tests of invariance indicated that mean differences in gender are unlikely to reflect measurement bias. Results indicate that despite concerns about the content and psychometric integrity of the RPBS the measure functions well at both a global and seven-factor level. Indeed, the original seven-factors contaminate alternative solutions.

  9. An Assessment of the Dimensionality and Factorial Structure of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Drinkwater

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction, the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS has developed into a principal measure of belief in the paranormal. Accordingly, the RPBS regularly appears within parapsychological research. Despite common usage, academic debates continue to focus on the factorial structure of the RPBS and its psychometric integrity. Using an aggregated heterogeneous sample (N = 3,764, the present study tested the fit of 10 factorial models encompassing variants of the most commonly proposed solutions (seven, five, two, and one-factor plus new bifactor alternatives. A comparison of competing models revealed a seven-factor bifactor solution possessed superior data-model fit (CFI = 0.945, TLI = 0.933, IFI = 0.945, SRMR = 0.046, RMSEA = 0.058, containing strong factor loadings for a general factor and weaker, albeit acceptable, factor loadings for seven subfactors. This indicated that belief in the paranormal, as measured by the RPBS, is best characterized as a single overarching construct, comprising several related, but conceptually independent subfactors. Furthermore, women reported significantly higher paranormal belief scores than men, and tests of invariance indicated that mean differences in gender are unlikely to reflect measurement bias. Results indicate that despite concerns about the content and psychometric integrity of the RPBS the measure functions well at both a global and seven-factor level. Indeed, the original seven-factors contaminate alternative solutions.

  10. Factor Structure and Validity of the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale: Results from the 1972 Psychology Today Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Frederick

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1972, the first major national study on body image was conducted under the auspices of Psychology Today. Body image was assessed with the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale, which examined the dissatisfaction people experienced with 24 aspects of their bodies. Despite the continued reliance on this scale and reference to the study, data on the factor structure of this measure in a sample of adults have never been published, and citations of the original scale have relied on an unpublished manuscript (Bohrnstedt, 1977. An exploratory factor analysis conducted on 2,013 adults revealed factors for men (Face, Sex Organ, Height, Lower Body, Mid Torso, Upper Torso, Height and women (Face, Sex Organ, Height, Lower Torso, Mid Torso, Extremities, Breast. The factors were weakly to moderately intercorrelated, suggesting the scale can be analyzed by items, by subscales, or by total score. People who reported more dissatisfaction with their body also tended to report lower self-esteem and less comfort interacting with members of the other sex. The analyses provide a useful comparison point for researchers looking to examine gender differences in dissatisfaction with specific aspects of the body, as well as the factor structures linking these items.

  11. Thermal scaling laws of the optical Bragg acceleration structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Karagodsky

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The temperature distribution and heat flow in the planar optical Bragg acceleration structure, fed by a train of high-power laser pulses, are analyzed. Dynamic analysis of a high-repetition rate train of pulses indicates that the stationary solution is an excellent approximation for the regime of interest. Analytic expressions for the temperature and heat distributions across the acceleration structure are developed. Assuming an accelerating gradient of 1  GV/m and a loss factor similar to that existing in communication optical fibers 1   dB/km (tan⁡δ∼10^{-11}, the temperature increase is less than 1 K and the heat flow is of the order of 1   W/cm^{2}, which is 3 orders of magnitude lower than the known technological limit for heat dissipation. Obviously, using materials with a significantly higher loss tangent may lead to unacceptable temperatures and temperature gradients as well as confinement difficulties and phase mismatch.

  12. A comparison of preconditioned nonsymmetric Krylov methods on a large-scale MIMD machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadid, J.N.; Tuminaro, R.S.

    1992-01-02

    Many complex physical processes are modeled by coupled systems of partial differential equations (PDEs). Often, the numerical approximation of these PDEs requires the solution of large sparse nonsymmetric systems of equations. In this paper we compare the parallel performance of a number of preconditioned Krylov subspace methods on a large-scale MIMD machine. These methods are among the most robust and efficient iterative algorithms for the solution of large sparse linear systems. They are easy to implement on various architectures and work well on a wide variety of important problems. In this comparison we focus on the parallel issues associated with both local preconditioners (those that combine information from the entire domain). The various preconditioners are applied to a variety of PDE problems within the GMRES, CCGS, BiCGSTAB, and QMRCGS methods. Conclusions are drawn on the effectiveness of the different schemes based on results obtained from a 1024 processor a nCUBE 2 hypercube.

  13. Implementation of Grid-computing Framework for Simulation in Multi-scale Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Data Iranata

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new grid-computing framework for simulation in multi-scale structural analysis is presented. Two levels of parallel processing will be involved in this framework: multiple local distributed computing environments connected by local network to form a grid-based cluster-to-cluster distributed computing environment. To successfully perform the simulation, a large-scale structural system task is decomposed into the simulations of a simplified global model and several detailed component models using various scales. These correlated multi-scale structural system tasks are distributed among clusters and connected together in a multi-level hierarchy and then coordinated over the internet. The software framework for supporting the multi-scale structural simulation approach is also presented. The program architecture design allows the integration of several multi-scale models as clients and servers under a single platform. To check its feasibility, a prototype software system has been designed and implemented to perform the proposed concept. The simulation results show that the software framework can increase the speedup performance of the structural analysis. Based on this result, the proposed grid-computing framework is suitable to perform the simulation of the multi-scale structural analysis.

  14. DHS small-scale safety and thermal testing of improvised explosives-comparison of testing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. G.; Sandstrom, M. M.; Brown, G. W.; Warner, K. F.; Phillips, J. J.; Shelley, T. J.; Reyes, J. A.; Hsu, P. C.

    2014-05-01

    One of the first steps in establishing safe handling procedures for explosives is small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing. To better understand the response of improvised materials or homemade explosives (HMEs) to SSST testing, 16 HME materials were compared to three standard military explosives in a proficiency-type round robin study among five laboratories-two DoD and three DOE-sponsored by DHS. The testing matrix has been designed to address problems encountered with improvised materials-powder mixtures, liquid suspensions, partially wetted solids, immiscible liquids, and reactive materials. More than 30 issues have been identified that indicate standard test methods may require modification when applied to HMEs to derive accurate sensitivity assessments needed for developing safe handling and storage practices. This paper presents a generalized comparison of the results among the testing participants, comparison of friction results from BAM (German Bundesanstalt für Materi-alprüfung) and ABL (Allegany Ballistics Laboratory) designed testing equipment, and an overview of the statistical results from the RDX (1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine) standard tested throughout the proficiency test.

  15. Deciphering Adsorption Structure on Insulators at the Atomic Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurmer, Konrad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Feibelman, Peter J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Integrated Nanotechnologies

    2014-09-01

    We applied Scanning Probe Microscopy and Density Functional Theory (DFT) to discover the basics of how adsorbates wet insulating substrates, addressing a key question in geochemistry. To allow experiments on insulating samples we added Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) capability to our existing UHV Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM). This was accomplished by integrating and debugging a commercial qPlus AFM upgrade. Examining up-to-40-nm-thick water films grown in vacuum we found that the exact nature of the growth spirals forming around dislocations determines what structure of ice, cubic or hexagonal, is formed at low temperature. DFT revealed that wetting of mica is controlled by how exactly a water layer wraps around (hydrates) the K+ ions that protrude from the mica surface. DFT also sheds light on the experimentally observed extreme sensitivity of the mica surface to preparation conditions: K atoms can easily be rinsed off by water flowing past the mica surface.

  16. Reliability of the factor structure of the Multidimensional Scale of Interpersonal Reactivity (EMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton S. Formiga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to check the internal consistency and factor structure evaluative of the empathy scale in a high school and college sample in the state of Minas Gerais. The instruments that measure empathy can be easily found, however, of the existing, just multidimensional scale of interpersonal reactivity (Emri is the theoretical framework that has far more and better organized, and the scale that is most commonly used to assess this construct. Participated 488 subjects, male and female, with ages from 14-54 years old, distributed in primary and college levels in Patrocínio-MG composed this study sample. The subjects answered the Multidimensional Scale of Interpersonal Reactivity and socio-demographic data. From an equation analysis and structural modeling were observed psychometric indicators that assured the structural consistency of the scale, promoting in the security of the measure theoretical construct of empathy.

  17. A divide-and-conquer linear scaling three dimensional fragment method for large scale electronic structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Zhao, Zhengji; Meza, Juan; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2008-07-11

    We present a new linear scaling ab initio total energy electronic structure calculation method based on the divide-and-conquer strategy. This method is simple to implement, easily to parallelize, and produces very accurate results when compared with the direct ab initio method. The method has been tested using up to 8,000 processors, and has been used to calculate nanosystems up to 15,000 atoms.

  18. Adaptation of the Body Image after Breast Cancer Questionnaire in the Polish context: factorial structure and validity of the scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Derbis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Valid assessment of body image is salient in therapy and rehabilitation of women suffering from breast cancer. Adequate instruments are still lacking in this domain. To overcome this limitation two aims were formulated in the study. First, we tested the factorial structure of the Body Image after Breast Cancer Questionnaire (BIBCQ developed by Baxter (1998 in Canada, in the Polish context. Then, we tested the construct validity of the scale. The scale is based on a multidimensional concept of the body image of chronically ill individuals proposed by Vamos (1993. Participants and procedure A group of 270 women at the mean age of 55 (range of 23-81 with breast cancer who underwent conservation, mastectomy, or lumpectomy surgery was sampled in the Amazonki community. Results Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the factorial structure of the instrument. To test the convergent validity, scales assessing body self, body image, self-esteem, and depression were used. Divergent validity was analyzed in the context of the social desirability construct. Discriminant validity was based on comparisons between women who had undergone lumpectomy or mastectomy surgery. The results showed that within two out of six subscales proposed by Baxter, two additional subscales had to be distinguished. However, some differences in comparisons with previous validation studies were also found. Conclusions The BIBCQ scale was found to be a valid multidimensional tool of body image assessment in the Polish context. The results are discussed in terms of cross-cultural differences in body image perception in breast cancer patients and guidelines for the scale’s implementation in the Polish context.

  19. Femtosecond structural dynamics on the atomic length scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongfang

    2014-03-15

    This thesis reports on the development and application of two different but complementary ultrafast electron diffraction setups built at the Max Planck Research Department for Structural Dynamics. One is an ultra-compact femtosecond electron diffraction (FED) setup (Egun300), which is currently operational (with a maximum electron energy of 150 keV) and provides ultrashort (∝300 fs) and bright (∝10 e/μm{sup 2}) electron bunches. The other one, named as Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE) is a radio frequency driven 2 to 5 MeV FED setup built in collaboration with different groups from DESY. REGAE was developed as a facility that will provide high quality diffraction with sufficient coherence to even address structural protein dynamics and with electron pulses as short as 20 fs (FWHM). As one of the first students in Prof. R.J. Dwayne Miller's group, I led the femtosecond (fs) laser sub-group at REGAE being responsible for the construction of different key optical elements required to drive both of aforementioned FED systems. A third harmonic generation (THG) and a nonlinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) have been used for the photo-generation of ultrashort electron bursts as well as sample laser excitation. Different diagnostic tools have been constructed to monitor the performance of the fs optical system. A fast autocorrelator was developed to provide on the fly pulse duration correction. A transient-grating frequency-resolved optical gating (TG-FROG) was built to obtain detail information about the characteristics of fs optical pulse, i.e. phase and amplitude of its spectral components. In addition to these optical setups, I developed a fs optical pump-probe system, which supports broadband probe pulses. This setup was successfully applied to investigate the semiconductor-to-metal photoinduced phase transition in VO{sub 2} and the ultrafast photo-reduction mechanism of graphene oxide. In regard to FED setups, I have been

  20. Morphology Characterization of PP/Clay Nanocomposites Across the Length Scales of the Structural Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szazdi, Laszlo; Abranyi, Agnes; Pukansky Jr, Bela; Vancso, Gyula J.; Pukanszky, B.; Pukanszky, Bela

    2006-01-01

    The structure and rheological properties of a large number of layered silicate poly(propylene) nanocomposites were studied with widely varying compositions. Morphology characterization at different length scales was achieved by SEM, TEM, and XRD. Rheological measurements supplied additional

  1. Gauged extended supergravity without cosmological constant no-scale structure and supersymmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, Laura; Ferrara, Sergio; Lledó, M A

    2003-01-01

    We consider the interplay of duality symmetries and gauged isometries of supergravity models giving N-extended, spontaneously broken supergravity with a no-scale structure. Some examples, motivated by superstring and M-theory compactifications are described.

  2. Comparison of very-large-scale motions of turbulent pipe and boundary layer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hwa; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2013-04-01

    A direct numerical simulation of a fully developed turbulent pipe flow was performed to investigate the similarities and differences of very-large-scale motions (VLSMs) to those of turbulent boundary layer (TBL) flows. The Reynolds number was set to ReD = 35 000, and the computational domain was 30 pipe radii in length. Inspection of instantaneous fields, streamwise two-point correlations, and population trends of the momentum regions showed that the streamwise length of the structures in the pipe flow grew continuously beyond the log layer (y/δ 3δ), and the maximum length of the VLSMs increased up to ˜30δ. Such differences between the TBL and pipe flows arose due to the entrainment of large plumes of the intermittent potential flow in the TBL, creating break-down of the streamwise coherence of the structures above the log layer with the strong swirling strength and Reynolds shear stress. The average streamwise length scale of the pipe flow was approximately 1.5-3.0 times larger than that of the TBL through the log and wake regions. The maximum contribution of the structures to the Reynolds shear stress was observed at approximately 6δ in length, whereas that of the TBL was at 1δ-2δ, indicating a higher contribution of the VLSMs to the Reynolds shear stress in the pipe flow than in the TBL flow.

  3. Comparison of bacterial diversity in full scale anammox bioreactors operated under different conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Osorio, Francisco; Morillo, Jose A; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus; Abbas, Ben A; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial community structure of full-scale anammox bioreactor is still mainly unknown. It has never been analyzed whether different anammox bioreactor configurations might result in the development of different bacterial community structures among these systems. In this work, the bacterial community structure of six full-scale autotrophic nitrogen removal bioreactors located in The Netherlands and China operating under three different technologies and with different influent wastewater characteristics was studied by the means of pyrotag sequencing evaluation of the bacterial assemblage yielded a great diversity in all systems. The most represented phyla were the Bacteroidetes and the Proteobacteria, followed by the Planctomycetes. 14 OTUs were shared by all bioreactors, but none of them belonged to the Brocadiales order. Statistical analysis at OTU level showed that differences in the microbial communities were high, and that the main driver of the bacterial assemblage composition was different for the distinct phyla identified in the six bioreactors, depending on bioreactor technology or influent wastewater characteristics. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. TRMM Latent Heating Retrieval: Applications and Comparisons with Field Campaigns and Large-Scale Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Takayabu, Yukari N.; Lang, Steve; Shige, Shoichi; Olson, William S.; Hou, Arthur; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Jiang, Xining; Zhang, Chidong; Lau, William K.; Krishnamurti, T.; Waliser, D.; Grecu, M.; Ciesielski, Paul; Johnson, Richard; Houze, Robert A.; Kakar, R.; Nakamura, K.; Braun, S.; Hagos, Samson M.; Oki, R.; Bhardwaj, A.

    2016-05-05

    Yanai et al. (1973) utilized the meteorological data collected from a sounding network to present a pioneering work on thermodynamic budgets, which are referred to as the apparent heat source (Q1) and apparent moisture sink (Q2). Latent heating (LH) is one of the most dominant terms in Q1. Yanai’s paper motivated the development of satellite-based LH algorithms and provided a theoretical background for imposing large-scale advective forcing into cloud-resolving models (CRMs). These CRM-simulated LH and Q1 data have been used to generate the look-up tables in Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) LH algorithms. A set of algorithms developed for retrieving LH profiles from TRMM-based rainfall profiles are described and evaluated, including details concerning their intrinsic space-time resolutions. Included in the paper are results from a variety of validation analyses that define the uncertainty of the LH profile estimates. Also, examples of how TRMM-retrieved LH profiles have been used to understand the lifecycle of the MJO and improve the predictions of global weather and climate models as well as comparisons with large-scale analyses are provided. Areas for further improvement of the TRMM products are discussed.

  5. A Comparison of Parametric and Non-Parametric Methods Applied to a Likert Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircioiu, Constantin; Atkinson, Jeffrey

    2017-05-10

    A trenchant and passionate dispute over the use of parametric versus non-parametric methods for the analysis of Likert scale ordinal data has raged for the past eight decades. The answer is not a simple "yes" or "no" but is related to hypotheses, objectives, risks, and paradigms. In this paper, we took a pragmatic approach. We applied both types of methods to the analysis of actual Likert data on responses from different professional subgroups of European pharmacists regarding competencies for practice. Results obtained show that with "large" (>15) numbers of responses and similar (but clearly not normal) distributions from different subgroups, parametric and non-parametric analyses give in almost all cases the same significant or non-significant results for inter-subgroup comparisons. Parametric methods were more discriminant in the cases of non-similar conclusions. Considering that the largest differences in opinions occurred in the upper part of the 4-point Likert scale (ranks 3 "very important" and 4 "essential"), a "score analysis" based on this part of the data was undertaken. This transformation of the ordinal Likert data into binary scores produced a graphical representation that was visually easier to understand as differences were accentuated. In conclusion, in this case of Likert ordinal data with high response rates, restraining the analysis to non-parametric methods leads to a loss of information. The addition of parametric methods, graphical analysis, analysis of subsets, and transformation of data leads to more in-depth analyses.

  6. Large-Scale Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell Expansion: A Visualization Tool for Bioprocess Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Toon; Sonnaert, Maarten; Schrooten, Jan; Luyten, Frank P; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Papantoniou, Ioannis

    2016-12-01

    Large-scale and cost-effective cell expansion processes are a prerequisite for the clinical and commercial translation of cell-based therapies. A large variety of cell expansion processes are described in literature, utilizing different cell types, culture vessels, and medium formulations. Consequently there are no straightforward means for the comparison or benchmarking of these processes in terms of efficiency, scale, or costs. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the available mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) expansion literature and develop an interactive visualization tool for comparing the expansion processes. By using this computational tool, process data could be concentrated, standardized, and analyzed to facilitate a more general understanding of the parameters that define a cell culture process, and in the future allow rational selection or design of these bioprocesses. Additionally, a set of bioprocess metrics were defined that assured the comparability between different processes. Currently, the literature-based data repository holds 73 individual cell expansion processes on seven different types of human MSCs in five different types of culture vessels. The visualization tool allowed benchmarking of these processes against each other, serving as a reference point for cell expansion process efficiency.

  7. The Development of Large Scale Cosmic Structure:. A Theoretician's Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2001-03-01

    The study of cosmology, the origin, nature and future evolution of structure in the universe, has been totally transformed in the last decade, and computers have played a major role in the change. New theories have arisen from particle physics which make the subject, formerly almost a branch of philosophy, into quantitative science. Initial, semi-quantitative tests of these theories, either using data on galaxy distributions in the local universe or the cosmic background radiation fluctuations reaching us from the distant universe, indicate rough agreement with the simplest predictions of the theories. But now that fully three-dimensional, time-dependent numerical simulations can be made on modern, parallel architecture computers, we can examine (using good physical modelling) the detailed quantitative predictions of the various theories that have been proposed to see which, if any, can produce an output consistent with the real world being revealed to us by the latest ground-and space-based instruments. Using these tools, we have been able to reduce to a small number the currently viable options for the correct cosmological theory. At present, the most acceptable model, passing all presently applied tests, is the low density but flat Cold Dark Matter model with Ωbaryon = 0.04, ΩCDM = 0.26, ΩLambda = 0.70. The nature of the "cosmological constant" presents a challenging problem of physics.

  8. Coupling Fine-Scale Root and Canopy Structure Using Ground-Based Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady S. Hardiman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem physical structure, defined by the quantity and spatial distribution of biomass, influences a range of ecosystem functions. Remote sensing tools permit the non-destructive characterization of canopy and root features, potentially providing opportunities to link above- and belowground structure at fine spatial resolution in functionally meaningful ways. To test this possibility, we employed ground-based portable canopy LiDAR (PCL and ground penetrating radar (GPR along co-located transects in forested sites spanning multiple stages of ecosystem development and, consequently, of structural complexity. We examined canopy and root structural data for coherence (i.e., correlation in the frequency of spatial variation at multiple spatial scales ≤10 m within each site using wavelet analysis. Forest sites varied substantially in vertical canopy and root structure, with leaf area index and root mass more becoming even vertically as forests aged. In all sites, above- and belowground structure, characterized as mean maximum canopy height and root mass, exhibited significant coherence at a scale of 3.5–4 m, and results suggest that the scale of coherence may increase with stand age. Our findings demonstrate that canopy and root structure are linked at characteristic spatial scales, which provides the basis to optimize scales of observation. Our study highlights the potential, and limitations, for fusing LiDAR and radar technologies to quantitatively couple above- and belowground ecosystem structure.

  9. Beyond Scale Correspondence: A Comparison of Continuous Open Scaling and Fixed Graded Scaling when Using Social Cognitive Constructs in the Exercise Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E.; Matheson, Deborah H.; Blanchard, Chris M.

    2006-01-01

    The standard response format for self-reported exercise-behavior measurement is the continuous open scale, but popular social cognitive theories use fixed graded scales, a noncorrespondent format. Benefits of using continuous open scales for social cognitive constructs include scale correspondence with the behavior measure, the potential of…

  10. MMPI-A Scale-Level Factor Structure: Replication in a Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Robert P.; Krishnamurthy, Radhika

    1997-01-01

    The scale-level factor structure of the adolescent form of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-A) was examined in a clinical sample of 358 adolescents receiving psychiatric services. Nine factors accounted for 75.6% of total variance in scale and subscale raw scores. Findings support use of the MMPI-A for assessment of…

  11. Examination of the Spanish Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 Factor Structure in a Mexican Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia Vázquez, Juan Antonio; Rubio Sosa, Juan Carlos A.; French, Brian F.

    2015-01-01

    The Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) is an emotional intelligence (EI) assessment originally developed for the U.S. population. This scale measures three EI factors--attention, clarity, and repair--to evaluate how an individual perceives one's own EI skills. Although the TMMS has been adapted for use in several languages and cultures, the structure of…

  12. A Structural Equation Modelling of the Academic Self-Concept Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matovu, Musa

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at validating the academic self-concept scale by Liu and Wang (2005) in measuring academic self-concept among university students. Structural equation modelling was used to validate the scale which was composed of two subscales; academic confidence and academic effort. The study was conducted on university students; males and…

  13. Relationship between microbial activity and microbial community structure in six full-scale anaerobic digesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regueiro, L.; Veiga, P.; Figueroa, M.; Alonso-Gutierrez, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lema, J.M.; Carballa, M.

    2012-01-01

    High activity levels and balanced anaerobic microbial communities are necessary to attain proper anaerobic digestion performance. Therefore, this work was focused on the kinetic performance and the microbial community structure of six full-scale anaerobic digesters and one lab-scale co-digester.

  14. Factorial Structure of Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale among Crack-Cocaine Drug Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jichuan; Siegal, Harvey A.; Falck, Russell S.; Carlson, Robert G.

    2001-01-01

    Used nine different confirmatory factor analysis models to test the factorial structure of Rosenberg's (M. Rosenberg, 1965) self-esteem scale with a sample of 430 crack-cocaine users. Results partly support earlier research to show a single global self-esteem factor underlying responses to the Rosenberg scale, method effects associated with item…

  15. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing of PZT thick film micro-scale structures

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, D; Zhu, X.; Liang, J.; Ren, T.; Zha, W.; Dong,W.; Rocks, SA; Dorey, RA; Xu, Z; Wang, X

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. This paper reports the use of a printing technique, called electrohydrodynamic jet printing, for producing PZT thick film micro-scale structures without additional material removing processes. The PZT powder was ball-milled and the effect of milling time on the particle size was examined. This ball-milling process can significantly reduce the PZT particle size and help to prepare stable composite slurry suitable for the E-Jet printing. The PZT micro-scale structures with ...

  16. Egg distribution, bottom topography and small-scale cod population structure in a coastal marine system

    OpenAIRE

    Knutsen, Halvor; Olsen, Espen Moland; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Espeland, Sigurd Heiberg; Knutsen, Jan Atle; Simonsen, Jan Henrik; Skreslet, Stig; Stenseth, Nils Christian

    2007-01-01

    Coastal marine species with pelagic egg and larval stages, such as the Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, can be structured into genetically distinct local populations on a surprisingly small geographic scale considering their dispersal potential. Mechanisms responsible for such small-scale genetic structure may involve homing of adults to their natal spawning grounds, but also local retention of pelagic eggs and larvae. For example, spawning within sheltered fjord habitats is expected to favour loca...

  17. INTRINSIC FINE-SCALE STRUCTURE IN COMPLEX MATERIALS: BEYOND GLOBAL CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. MIGLIORI; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    Many important classes of materials owe their interesting properties to structures and patterns produced by local atomic deviations from ideal crystallographic positions. The pattern scale may vary from a few atomic spacings to many microns. In a macroscopic sample these deviations may still average to an ideal lattice while retaining the intrinsic fine-scale structures, or a phase transition may create a pattern of variants of a new crystallographic structure. We have carried out experiments on the formation of fine-scale structures in a range of materials, particularly those produced by phase transitions. We have used Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy for elastic properties and dissipation, neutron pair-distribution function, and electronic transport measurements to characterize samples. We have carried out extensive dynamical modeling based on Ginzberg-Landau formalisms to simulate the development and appearance of the structures. Our results highlight the importance of long-range strain fields and the intrinsic unstable equilibrium features of the materials studied.

  18. Analysis and Comparison of Magnetic Structures in a Tapped Boost Converter for LED Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an an alysis and comparison of magnetics structures in a tapped boost converter for LED applications. The magnetic structure is a coupled inductor which is analyzed in a conventional wire-wound core as well as in a planar structure for different interleaving winding arrangements...

  19. Contrasting effects of sampling scale on insect herbivores distribution in response to canopy structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico S. Neves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Species diversity of insect herbivores associated to canopy may vary local and geographically responding to distinct factors at different spatial scales. The aim of this study was to investigate how forest canopy structure affects insect herbivore species richness and abundance depending on feeding guilds´ specificities. We tested the hypothesis that habitat structure affects insect herbivore species richness and abundance differently to sap-sucking and chewing herbivore guilds. Two spatial scales were evaluated: inside tree crowns (fine spatial scale and canopy regions (coarse spatial scale. In three sampling sites we measured 120 tree crowns, grouped in five points with four contiguous tree crowns. Insects were sampled by beating method from each crown and data were summed up for analyzing each canopy region. In crowns (fine spatial scale we measured habitat structure: trunk circumference, tree height, canopy depth, number of ramifications and maximum ramification level. In each point, defined as a canopy region (coarse spatial scale, we measured habitat structure using a vertical cylindrical transect: tree species richness, leaf area, sum of strata heights and maximum canopy height. A principal component analysis based on the measured variables for each spatial scale was run to estimate habitat structure parameters. To test the effects of habitat structure upon herbivores, different general linear models were adjusted using the first two principal components as explanatory variables. Sap-sucking insect species richness and all herbivore abundances increased with size of crown at fine spatial scale. On the other hand, chewer species richness and abundance increased with resource quantity at coarse scale. Feeding specialization, resources availability, and agility are discussed as ecological causes of the found pattern.

  20. Does Scale Length Matter? A Comparison of Nine- versus Five-Point Rating Scales for the Mini-CEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Educators must often decide how many points to use in a rating scale. No studies have compared interrater reliability for different-length scales, and few have evaluated accuracy. This study sought to evaluate the interrater reliability and accuracy of mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) scores, comparing the traditional mini-CEX…

  1. Comparison of Three Consciousness Assessment Scales in Poisoned Patients and Recommendation of a New Scale: AVPU Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rajabi Kheirabadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few methods have been introduced to assess the level of consciousness in critically-ill patients. This study was designed to evaluate how the AlertVerbalPainfulUnresponsive (AVPU responsive scale corresponds with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS and Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS scores in drug-poisoned patients and to devise an augmented AVPU scale. Methods: In this prospective study, patients with diagnosis of acute drug poisoning were included and their level of consciousness was assessed using GCS, RASS and AVPU scales. Results: Overall, 165 poisoned patients (59% female were studied. According to AVPU scale, 123 patients (74.5% were graded as “alert”, 26 patients (15.8% as “responsive to verbal stimulation”, 10 patients (6.1% as “responsive to painful stimulation”, and 6 patients as “unresponsive” (3.6%. AVPU grades of "alert", "responsive to verbal stimulation", "responsive to painful stimulation" and "unresponsive" corresponded with median [IQR] GCS scores of 15 [15–15], 13 [12–13], 8 [7–10] and 6 [5–6], and median [IQR] RASS scores of -1 [-1 – +1], -2 [-3 – -1], -3 [-4 – -1], -5 [-5 – -5], respectively. By taking the median of RASS scores corresponding with each AVPU grade, an augmented AVPU scale for the assessment of consciousness was devised. The first proposed version of AVPU plus includes 14 qualitative grades of consciousness. By application of this scale, clinicians can evaluate both the alertness/attentiveness and arousal/excitability of poisoned and critical patients. Conclusion: The AVPU plus is a new scale designed for more detailed assessment of neurologic status of poisoned and critical patients. The prognostic-ability, reliability and validity of the scale should be investigated in future studies.

  2. Engineering data management through different breakdown structures in a large-scale project

    CERN Document Server

    Hameri, A P

    2002-01-01

    This document discusses the benefits stemming from managing different project breakdown structures with an engineering data management system. The structures discussed are project breakdown structure (PBS), assembly breakdown structure (ABS), as-built structure and hardware breakdown. Each structure is presented from the quality management point of view and a practical example of each of the four structures is given to illustrate their differences, and to show what kind of engineering information is to be stored in these structures. The main underlying case is that of CERN and its global, over a decade-long Large Hadron Collider project. The approach used for managing the new particle accelerator project is benchmarked against the way large-scale shipbuilding projects are managed. It is concluded that several structures are needed to manage complex system projects, and that linking information between structures plays a crucial role for the overall success of the project. Information technology and the WWW ar...

  3. A comprehensive comparison of comparative RNA structure prediction approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, P. P.; Giegerich, R.

    2004-01-01

    Background An increasing number of researchers have released novel RNA structure analysis and prediction algorithms for comparative approaches to structure prediction. Yet, independent benchmarking of these algorithms is rarely performed as is now common practice for protein-folding, gene...

  4. A four-scale homogenization analysis of creep of a nuclear containment structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, A.B. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Échelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, F-77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); EDF R and D – Département MMC Site des Renardières – Avenue des Renardières - Ecuelles, 77818 Moret sur Loing Cedex (France); Department of Applied Informatics in Construction, National University of Civil Engineering, 55 Giai Phong Road, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Yvonnet, J., E-mail: julien.yvonnet@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Échelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, F-77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); He, Q.-C. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Échelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, F-77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Toulemonde, C.; Sanahuja, J. [EDF R and D – Département MMC Site des Renardières – Avenue des Renardières - Ecuelles, 77818 Moret sur Loing Cedex (France)

    2013-12-15

    A four-scale approach is proposed to predict the creep behavior of a concrete structure. The behavior of concrete is modeled through a numerical multiscale methodology, by successively homogenizing the viscoelastic behavior at different scales, starting from the cement paste. The homogenization is carried out by numerically constructing an effective relaxation tensor at each scale. In this framework, the impact of modifying the microstructural parameters can be directly observed on the structure response, like the interaction of the creep of concrete with the prestressing tendons network, and the effects of an internal pressure which might occur during a nuclear accident.

  5. MultiSETTER: web server for multiple RNA structure comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čech, Petr; Hoksza, David; Svozil, Daniel

    2015-08-12

    Understanding the architecture and function of RNA molecules requires methods for comparing and analyzing their tertiary and quaternary structures. While structural superposition of short RNAs is achievable in a reasonable time, large structures represent much bigger challenge. Therefore, we have developed a fast and accurate algorithm for RNA pairwise structure superposition called SETTER and implemented it in the SETTER web server. However, though biological relationships can be inferred by a pairwise structure alignment, key features preserved by evolution can be identified only from a multiple structure alignment. Thus, we extended the SETTER algorithm to the alignment of multiple RNA structures and developed the MultiSETTER algorithm. In this paper, we present the updated version of the SETTER web server that implements a user friendly interface to the MultiSETTER algorithm. The server accepts RNA structures either as the list of PDB IDs or as user-defined PDB files. After the superposition is computed, structures are visualized in 3D and several reports and statistics are generated. To the best of our knowledge, the MultiSETTER web server is the first publicly available tool for a multiple RNA structure alignment. The MultiSETTER server offers the visual inspection of an alignment in 3D space which may reveal structural and functional relationships not captured by other multiple alignment methods based either on a sequence or on secondary structure motifs.

  6. Comparison of sequence-based and structure-based phylogenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    The extent of divergence in the three-dimensional (3-D) structures of homologous proteins in a family is related to the extent of similarity in their amino acid sequences. (Lesk and Chothia 1980). It is well known that the 3-D structures and structural features of homologous proteins are conserved better than their amino acid ...

  7. A new scaling approach for the mesoscale simulation of magnetic domain structures using Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, B., E-mail: radhakrishnb@ornl.gov; Eisenbach, M.; Burress, T.A.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Developed new scaling technique for dipole–dipole interaction energy. • Developed new scaling technique for exchange interaction energy. • Used scaling laws to extend atomistic simulations to micrometer length scale. • Demonstrated transition from mono-domain to vortex magnetic structure. • Simulated domain wall width and transition length scale agree with experiments. - Abstract: A new scaling approach has been proposed for the spin exchange and the dipole–dipole interaction energy as a function of the system size. The computed scaling laws are used in atomistic Monte Carlo simulations of magnetic moment evolution to predict the transition from single domain to a vortex structure as the system size increases. The width of a 180° – domain wall extracted from the simulated structures is in close agreement with experimentally values for an F–Si alloy. The transition size from a single domain to a vortex structure is also in close agreement with theoretically predicted and experimentally measured values for Fe.

  8. Scale Issues in the Assessment of Pesticide Leaching Vulnerability for Loamy Structured Soils in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Keur, Peter; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Hollis, John

    Three approaches for vulnerability mapping of pesticide leaching for Denmark are considered. The first method is based on an approach developed at the European spatial scale, the second method relies on mapping soil hydraulic properties at a finer scale derived from a national soil property map...... for vulnerability due to change in climate and agricultural land management. In the European scale approach soil types in Denmark are classified using a decision tree structure that accounts for both soil texture as well as the lower boundary condition available from soil survey data at the European scale...... saturated conductivity. It is expected that loamy soils are vulnerable at both the low and high values as low values indicate risk for preferential flow, whereas high values correspond to a more coarse soil structure with high soil hydraulic conductivity. It appears that the coarse spatial scale of derived...

  9. Factorial Structure and Invariance Analysis of the Sense of Belonging Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Esau; Simon, Merril A.

    2010-01-01

    Using a diverse sample of university students, this article describes outcomes of a confirmatory factor analysis and a group invariance analysis conducted to validate the factorial structure of the Sense of Belonging Scales. Accordingly, a modified factor structure departing significantly from that of the original authors is proposed. (Contains 5…

  10. Factorial Structure of the New Ecological Paradigm Scale in Two French Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury-Bahi, Ghozlane; Marcouyeux, Aurore; Renard, Elise; Roussiau, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The principal objective of this research is to test the factorial structure of the New Ecological Paradigm scale on a population of men and women residing in France. The tested model is a second-order factorial model. This factorial structure is evaluated on two separate samples to test the stability of the solution (a first sample of 253…

  11. Initial condition effects on large scale structure in numerical simulations of plane mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, W. A.; Garrett, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, Large Eddy Simulations are performed on the spatially developing plane turbulent mixing layer. The simulated mixing layers originate from initially laminar conditions. The focus of this research is on the effect of the nature of the imposed fluctuations on the large-scale spanwise and streamwise structures in the flow. Two simulations are performed; one with low-level three-dimensional inflow fluctuations obtained from pseudo-random numbers, the other with physically correlated fluctuations of the same magnitude obtained from an inflow generation technique. Where white-noise fluctuations provide the inflow disturbances, no spatially stationary streamwise vortex structure is observed, and the large-scale spanwise turbulent vortical structures grow continuously and linearly. These structures are observed to have a three-dimensional internal geometry with branches and dislocations. Where physically correlated provide the inflow disturbances a "streaky" streamwise structure that is spatially stationary is observed, with the large-scale turbulent vortical structures growing with the square-root of time. These large-scale structures are quasi-two-dimensional, on top of which the secondary structure rides. The simulation results are discussed in the context of the varying interpretations of mixing layer growth that have been postulated. Recommendations are made concerning the data required from experiments in order to produce accurate numerical simulation recreations of real flows.

  12. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Sawchuk, Craig N.; Moretz, Melanie W.; David, Bieke; Armstrong, Thomas; Ciesielski, Bethany G.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety (IPS-Anx). Principal components analysis of IPS-Anx items in Study 1 (n = 498) revealed a 2-factor structure consisting of Distal Fear and Contact Fear. However, CFA results in Study 2 (n = 567) suggest that a 1-factor…

  13. Application of Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling to Evaluate the Academic Motivation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frédéric; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Litalien, David; Valois, Pierre; Vallerand, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the authors examined the construct validity of scores of the Academic Motivation Scale using exploratory structural equation modeling. Study 1 and Study 2 involved 1,416 college students and 4,498 high school students, respectively. First, results of both studies indicated that the factor structure tested with exploratory…

  14. Scale-dependent genetic structure of the Idaho giant salamander (Dicamptodon aterrimus) in stream networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindy B. Mullen; H. Arthur Woods; Michael K. Schwartz; Adam J. Sepulveda; Winsor H. Lowe

    2010-01-01

    The network architecture of streams and rivers constrains evolutionary, demographic and ecological processes of freshwater organisms. This consistent architecture also makes stream networks useful for testing general models of population genetic structure and the scaling of gene flow. We examined genetic structure and gene flow in the facultatively paedomorphic Idaho...

  15. STRUCTURAL SCALE LIFE PREDICTION OF AERO STRUCTURES EXPERIENCING COMBINED EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Using Complex Variables to Estimate the Derivatives of Nonlinear Reduced-Order Models,” AIAA-2016-1707, 57th AIAA/ ASME /ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, San Diego, CA, Jan 2016.

  16. Chameleon: Dynamic Color Mapping for Multi-Scale Structural Biology Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldin, Nicholas; Le Muzic, Mathieu; Waldner, Manuela; Gröller, Eduard; Goodsell, David; Ludovic, Autin; Viola, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Visualization of structural biology data uses color to categorize or separate dense structures into particular semantic units. In multiscale models of viruses or bacteria, there are atoms on the finest level of detail, then amino-acids, secondary structures, macromolecules, up to the compartment level and, in all these levels, elements can be visually distinguished by color. However, currently only single scale coloring schemes are utilized that show information for one particular scale only. We present a novel technology which adaptively, based on the current scale level, adjusts the color scheme to depict or distinguish the currently best visible structural information. We treat the color as a visual resource that is distributed given a particular demand. The changes of the color scheme are seamlessly interpolated between the color scheme from the previous views into a given new one. With such dynamic multi-scale color mapping we ensure that the viewer is able to distinguish structural detail that is shown on any given scale. This technique has been tested by users with an expertise in structural biology and has been overall well received.

  17. Advancing multiscale structural mapping of the brain through fluorescence imaging and analysis across length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogstrom, L. J.; Guo, S. M.; Murugadoss, K.; Bathe, M.

    2016-01-01

    Brain function emerges from hierarchical neuronal structure that spans orders of magnitude in length scale, from the nanometre-scale organization of synaptic proteins to the macroscopic wiring of neuronal circuits. Because the synaptic electrochemical signal transmission that drives brain function ultimately relies on the organization of neuronal circuits, understanding brain function requires an understanding of the principles that determine hierarchical neuronal structure in living or intact organisms. Recent advances in fluorescence imaging now enable quantitative characterization of neuronal structure across length scales, ranging from single-molecule localization using super-resolution imaging to whole-brain imaging using light-sheet microscopy on cleared samples. These tools, together with correlative electron microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging at the nanoscopic and macroscopic scales, respectively, now facilitate our ability to probe brain structure across its full range of length scales with cellular and molecular specificity. As these imaging datasets become increasingly accessible to researchers, novel statistical and computational frameworks will play an increasing role in efforts to relate hierarchical brain structure to its function. In this perspective, we discuss several prominent experimental advances that are ushering in a new era of quantitative fluorescence-based imaging in neuroscience along with novel computational and statistical strategies that are helping to distil our understanding of complex brain structure. PMID:26855758

  18. Skin and scales of teleost fish: Simple structure but high performance and multiple functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernerey, Franck J.; Barthelat, Francois

    2014-08-01

    Natural and man-made structural materials perform similar functions such as structural support or protection. Therefore they rely on the same types of properties: strength, robustness, lightweight. Nature can therefore provide a significant source of inspiration for new and alternative engineering designs. We report here some results regarding a very common, yet largely unknown, type of biological material: fish skin. Within a thin, flexible and lightweight layer, fish skins display a variety of strain stiffening and stabilizing mechanisms which promote multiple functions such as protection, robustness and swimming efficiency. We particularly discuss four important features pertaining to scaled skins: (a) a strongly elastic tensile behavior that is independent from the presence of rigid scales, (b) a compressive response that prevents buckling and wrinkling instabilities, which are usually predominant for thin membranes, (c) a bending response that displays nonlinear stiffening mechanisms arising from geometric constraints between neighboring scales and (d) a robust structure that preserves the above characteristics upon the loss or damage of structural elements. These important properties make fish skin an attractive model for the development of very thin and flexible armors and protective layers, especially when combined with the high penetration resistance of individual scales. Scaled structures inspired by fish skin could find applications in ultra-light and flexible armor systems, flexible electronics or the design of smart and adaptive morphing structures for aerospace vehicles.

  19. A new scaling approach for the mesoscale simulation of magnetic domain structures using Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eisenbach, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burress, Timothy A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-24

    A new scaling approach has been proposed for the spin exchange and the dipole–dipole interaction energy as a function of the system size. The computed scaling laws are used in atomistic Monte Carlo simulations of magnetic moment evolution to predict the transition from single domain to a vortex structure as the system size increases. The width of a 180° – domain wall extracted from the simulated structures is in close agreement with experimentally values for an F–Si alloy. In conclusion, the transition size from a single domain to a vortex structure is also in close agreement with theoretically predicted and experimentally measured values for Fe.

  20. Factor structure of the Italian version of the religious fundamentalism scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlucci, Leonardo; Tommasi, Marco; Saggino, Aristide

    2013-02-01

    The Religious Fundamentalism Scale was applied to an Italian group, composed of 250 participants, to assess if it could be considered a reliable measure of fundamentalism. All participants professed to be believers of the Catholic religion. The overall group was split randomly into two smaller groups. The data of the first group were analyzed with an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to test the factor structure of the Italian version of the scale. The data of the second sample were analyzed with a confirmatory factor analysis, to test the factor structure that emerged from EFA. Results indicated a two-dimensional structure, composed of two correlated factors apparently representing believing and skeptical attitudes.

  1. A Comparison of Crater-Size Scaling and Ejection-Speed Scaling During Experimental Impacts in Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L. B.; Cintala, M. J.; Johnson, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Non-dimensional scaling relationships are used to understand various cratering processes including final crater sizes and the excavation of material from a growing crater. The principal assumption behind these scaling relationships is that these processes depend on a combination of the projectile's characteristics, namely its diameter, density, and impact speed. This simplifies the impact event into a single point-source. So long as the process of interest is beyond a few projectile radii from the impact point, the point-source assumption holds. These assumptions can be tested through laboratory experiments in which the initial conditions of the impact are controlled and resulting processes measured directly. In this contribution, we continue our exploration of the congruence between crater-size scaling and ejection-speed scaling relationships. In particular, we examine a series of experimental suites in which the projectile diameter and average grain size of the target are varied.

  2. A comparison of X-ray and calculated structures of the enzyme MTH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Hannah; Carter, Megan; Stenmark, Pål; Stewart, James J P; Braun-Sand, Sonja B

    2016-07-01

    Modern computational chemistry methods provide a powerful tool for use in refining the geometry of proteins determined by X-ray crystallography. Specifically, computational methods can be used to correctly place hydrogen atoms unresolved by this experimental method and improve bond geometry accuracy. Using the semiempirical method PM7, the structure of the nucleotide-sanitizing enzyme MTH1, complete with hydrolyzed substrate 8-oxo-dGMP, was optimized and the resulting geometry compared with the original X-ray structure of MTH1. After determining hydrogen atom placement and the identification of ionized sites, the charge distribution in the binding site was explored. Where comparison was possible, all the theoretical predictions were in good agreement with experimental observations. However, when these were combined with additional predictions for which experimental observations were not available, the result was a new and alternative description of the substrate-binding site interaction. An estimate was made of the strengths and weaknesses of the PM7 method for modeling proteins on varying scales, ranging from overall structure to individual interatomic distances. An attempt to correct a known fault in PM7, the under-estimation of steric repulsion, is also described. This work sheds light on the specificity of the enzyme MTH1 toward the substrate 8-oxo-dGTP; information that would facilitate drug development involving MTH1. Graphical Abstract Overlay of the backbone traces of the two MTH1 protein chains (green and orange respectively) in PDB 3ZR0 and the equivalent PM7 structures (magenta and cyan respectively) each optimized separately.

  3. Comparison of the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale, Mini-BESTest, and Berg Balance Scale to Predict Falls in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenstedt, Christian; Brombacher, Stephanie; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Weisser, Burkhard; Möller, Bettina; Deuschl, Günther

    2016-04-01

    The correct identification of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) at risk for falling is important to initiate appropriate treatment early. This study compared the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale with the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) to identify individuals with PD at risk for falls and to analyze which of the items of the scales best predict future falls. This was a prospective study to assess predictive criterion-related validity. The study was conducted at a university hospital in an urban community. Eighty-five patients with idiopathic PD (Hoehn and Yahr stages: 1-4) participated in the study. Measures were number of falls (assessed prospectively over 6 months), FAB scale, Mini-BESTest, BBS, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. The FAB scale, Mini-BESTest, and BBS showed similar accuracy to predict future falls, with values for area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.68, 0.65, and 0.69, respectively. A model combining the items "tandem stance," "rise to toes," "one-leg stance," "compensatory stepping backward," "turning," and "placing alternate foot on stool" had an AUC of 0.84 of the ROC curve. There was a dropout rate of 19/85 participants. The FAB scale, Mini-BESTest, and BBS provide moderate capacity to predict "fallers" (people with one or more falls) from "nonfallers." Only some items of the 3 scales contribute to the detection of future falls. Clinicians should particularly focus on the item "tandem stance" along with the items "one-leg stance," "rise to toes," "compensatory stepping backward," "turning 360°," and "placing foot on stool" when analyzing postural control deficits related to fall risk. Future research should analyze whether balance training including the aforementioned items is effective in reducing fall risk. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  4. TRITON vs POLARIS. Comparison Between Two Modules for LWRs Modelling in SCALE 6.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labarile, A.; Barrachina, T.; Miró, R.; Verdú, G.

    2015-07-01

    -One of them challenges more important in the research of reactors nuclear is the development of codes of best estimate that allow decrease them uncertainties of them calculations increasing the reliability of the results. You will also need sensitivity and uncertainty analysis and validation of the implemented code. This work offers a comparison of two modules of SCALE-6.2 for the case of a reactor's water to pressure (PWR). Based is in data from plant of the reactor Three thousands Island-1 is has calculated the keff and the cross sections effective with two modules in two dimensions (2-D) of the program SCALE: TRITON and POLARIS. TRITON is a module already validated for the calculation of the transport as POLARIS is located in distribution from end of the 2014. The objective is to compare the results of keff and cross sections of two simulations, and carry out a sensitivity analysis and uncertainty of the results. In TRITON and POLARIS calculations have been made to fuel elements of the PWR Three thousand Island-1, in two different configurations (with and without control rods), condition of stop in hot (HZP) and condition of full power (HFP). The results are presented in this work. A good correlation between the results of two simulations has found and, in addition, POLARIS module has presented less computational time and good stability in the parameters. After having compared the results obtained, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to confirm the validation of two modules and study the influence of uncertainties in the calculation of the fuel element. (Author)

  5. Scaling Professional Problems of Teachers in Turkey with Paired Comparison Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Duygu ESEN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, teachers’ professional problems was investigated and the significance level of them was measured with the paired comparison method. The study was carried out in survey model. The study group consisted of 484 teachers working in public schools which are accredited by Ministry of National Education (MEB in Turkey. “The Teacher Professional Problems Survey” developed by the researchers was used as a data collection tool. In data analysis , the scaling method with the third conditional equation of Thurstone’s law of comparative judgement was used. According to the results of study, the teachers’ professional problems include teacher training and the quality of teacher, employee rights and financial problems, decrease of professional reputation, the problems with MEB policies, the problems with union activities, workload, the problems with administration in school, physical conditions and the lack of infrastructure, the problems with parents, the problems with students. According to teachers, the most significant problem is MEB educational policies. This is followed by decrease of professional reputation, physical conditions and the lack of infrastructure, the problems with students, employee rights and financial problems, the problems with administration in school, teacher training and the quality of teacher, the problems with parents, workload, and the problems with union activities. When teachers’ professional problems were analyzed seniority variable, there was little difference in scale values. While the teachers with 0-10 years experience consider decrease of professional reputation as the most important problem, the teachers with 11-45 years experience put the problems with MEB policies at the first place.

  6. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

    2012-07-10

    The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions' Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems. A series of these tests have used a five-part simulant composed of particles of different size and density and designed to be equal or more challenging than AY-102 waste. This five-part simulant, however, has not been compared with the broad range of Hanford waste, and thus there is an additional uncertainty that this simulant may not be as challenging as the most difficult Hanford waste. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the current five-part simulant compares to all of the Hanford sludge waste, and to suggest alternate simulants that could be tested to reduce the uncertainty in applying the current testing results to potentially more challenging wastes.

  7. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

    2011-09-01

    The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions' Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems. A series of these tests have used a five-part simulant composed of particles of different size and density and designed to be equal or more challenging than AY-102 waste. This five-part simulant, however, has not been compared with the broad range of Hanford waste, and thus there is an additional uncertainty that this simulant may not be as challenging as the most difficult Hanford waste. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the current five-part simulant compares to all of the Hanford sludge waste, and to suggest alternate simulants that could be tested to reduce the uncertainty in applying the current testing results to potentially more challenging wastes.

  8. Possible uses of the layered structure found in the scales of Hoplia coerulea (Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneron, Jean-Pol; Rassart, Marie; Simonis, Priscilla; Colomer, Jean-Francois; Bay, Annick

    2009-08-01

    The male of the beetle Hoplia coerulea is known for its spectacular blue-violet iridescence. The blue coloration is caused by the presence of an interesting photonic structure inside the scales which cover the dorsal parts of the insect's body. This structure can be described as the stacking of chitin plates supporting arrays of parallel rods. The change of colour of this structure with humidity is investigated, as well as its response to some other external conditions, such as mechanical strain.

  9. Mechanism and scaling for convection of isolated structures in nonuniformly magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.; Naulin, V.

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale radial advection of isolated structures in nonuniformly magnetized plasmas is investigated. The underlying mechanism considered is due to the nonlinear evolution of interchange motions, without any presumption of plasma sheaths. Theoretical arguments supported by numerical simulations...... of the structures, compares favorably with recent experimental measurements of radially propagating blob structures in the scrape-off layer of magnetically confined plasmas. (C) 2005 American Institute of Physics....

  10. Structure function scaling in a Reλ = 250 turbulent mixing layer

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio

    2011-12-22

    A highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulation of a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer is presented. In the fully developed region, the flow achieves a turbulent Reynolds number Reλ = 250, high enough for a clear separation between large and dissipative scales, so for the presence of an inertial range. Structure functions have been calculated in the self-similar region using velocity time series and Taylor\\'s frozen turbulence hypothesis. The Extended Self-Similarity (ESS) concept has been employed to evaluate relative scaling exponents. A wide range of scales with scaling exponents and intermittency levels equal to homogeneous isotropic turbulence has been identified. Moreover an additional scaling range exists for larger scales; it is characterized by smaller exponents, similar to the values reported in the literature for flows with strong shear.

  11. Using linear algebra for protein structural comparison and classification

    OpenAIRE

    Janaína Gomide; Raquel Melo-Minardi; Marcos Augusto dos Santos; Goran Neshich; Wagner Meira Jr.; Júlio César Lopes; Marcelo Santoro

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we describe a novel methodology to extract semantic characteristics from protein structures using linear algebra in order to compose structural signature vectors which may be used efficiently to compare and classify protein structures into fold families. These signatures are built from the pattern of hydrophobic intrachain interactions using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) techniques. Considering proteins as documents and contacts as term...

  12. A COMPARISON ON RADAR ABSORBING PROPERTIES OF NANO AND MICRO-SCALE BARIUM HEXAFERRITE POWDERS REINFORCED POLYMERIC COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüsnügül Yılmaz Atay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been highlighted the usage of barium hexaferrite as a radar absorbing material in the polymer composites in our previous works. With this respect in this study, finer barium hexaferrite powders were obtained, and a comparison has been done on the radar absorbing properties by means of usage of micro and Nano-size powders reinforced composite coatings. Barium hexaferrite powders were synthesized by Sol-Gel method in Nano-size with the hexagonal molecular structure obtained powders were added to a polyurethane resin to interpolate radar absorbing property with different loading levels. Later on, metal substrates were coated with those polymeric composites. Besides characterization tests, such as particle size analysis, X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, scratch test, radar absorbing test were performed with a Network Analyzer to indicate electromagnetic properties of barium hexaferrite reinforced composites. It was concluded that increasing barium hexaferrite powder amount in the composites increased radar absorbing performance. Additionally, by decreasing BaFe12O19 powder size to Nano scale, improved radar absorbing properties were obtained.

  13. Large-Scale Structure Effects on Particle Motion in a Spatialy Developing Mixing Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E.; Acharya, Sumanta; Ning, Hui

    1996-11-01

    We will present results from a simulation of particle motion in a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer forced by a single frequency. The simulation is based on a model which utilizes Eulerian formulation for the carrier phase flowfield and Lagrangian formulation for the dispersed particles. The carrier-phase mean flow is determined from the classical turbulent boundary layer equations and a traditional k-ɛ turbulence model modified to include interaction terms with the imposed large-scale structure. An integral energy method is used to determine the evolution of the large-scale structure which is modeled as a spatially growing wave. The effect of the carrier phase small-scale turbulent fluctuations is taken into account by using a classical stochastic model with a gaussian PDF. The effects of the particle time scale magnitude relative to the large-scale structure timescale (Stokes number) are discussed as well as the effects of the particle injection conditions. It is found that the Stokes number for which the cross-stream dispersion of the particles is maximized has a strong dependence on the particle injection conditions. The particle injection phase relative to the large-scale structure also has a profound influence on the motion of the particles and their distribution within the mixing layer.

  14. Identification of the underlying factor structure of the Derriford Appearance Scale 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Victoria; White, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Derriford Appearance Scale24 (DAS24) is a widely used measure of distress and dysfunction in relation to self-consciousness of appearance. It has been used in clinical and research settings, and translated into numerous European and Asian languages. Hitherto, no study has conducted an analysis to determine the underlying factor structure of the scale. Methods. A large (n = 1,265) sample of community and hospital patients with a visible difference were recruited face to face or by post, and completed the DAS24. Results. A two factor solution was generated. An evaluation of the congruence of the factor solutions on each of the the hospital and the community samples using Tucker’s Coefficient of Congruence (rc = .979) and confirmatory factor analysis, which demonstrated a consistent factor structure. A main factor, general self consciousness (GSC), was represented by 18 items. Six items comprised a second factor, sexual and body self-consciousness (SBSC). The SBSC scale demonstrated greater sensitivity and specificity in identifying distress for sexually significant areas of the body. Discussion. The factor structure of the DAS24 facilitates a more nuanced interpretation of scores using this scale. Two conceptually and statistically coherent sub-scales were identified. The SBSC sub-scale offers a means of identifying distress and dysfunction around sexually significant areas of the body not previously possible with this scale. PMID:26157633

  15. Identification of the underlying factor structure of the Derriford Appearance Scale 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Moss

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Derriford Appearance Scale24 (DAS24 is a widely used measure of distress and dysfunction in relation to self-consciousness of appearance. It has been used in clinical and research settings, and translated into numerous European and Asian languages. Hitherto, no study has conducted an analysis to determine the underlying factor structure of the scale.Methods. A large (n = 1,265 sample of community and hospital patients with a visible difference were recruited face to face or by post, and completed the DAS24.Results. A two factor solution was generated. An evaluation of the congruence of the factor solutions on each of the the hospital and the community samples using Tucker’s Coefficient of Congruence (rc = .979 and confirmatory factor analysis, which demonstrated a consistent factor structure. A main factor, general self consciousness (GSC, was represented by 18 items. Six items comprised a second factor, sexual and body self-consciousness (SBSC. The SBSC scale demonstrated greater sensitivity and specificity in identifying distress for sexually significant areas of the body.Discussion. The factor structure of the DAS24 facilitates a more nuanced interpretation of scores using this scale. Two conceptually and statistically coherent sub-scales were identified. The SBSC sub-scale offers a means of identifying distress and dysfunction around sexually significant areas of the body not previously possible with this scale.

  16. A large-scale comparison of prospective and retrospective memory development from childhood to middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylor, Elizabeth A; Logie, Robert H

    2010-03-01

    We present the first large-scale comparison of prospective memory (PM) and retrospective memory (RM) from 8 to 50 years of age (N = 318,614). Participants in an Internet study were asked to remember to click on a smiley face (single-trial event-based PM test) and to indicate whether/where a picture had changed from study to test (single-trial RM test), in both cases after retention intervals filled with working-memory tests and questionnaires. Both PM and RM improved during childhood; however, whereas maximal PM was reached by teenagers, with approximately linear decline through the 20s-40s, RM continued to improve through the 20s and 30s. On both tests, females outperformed males and achieved maximal success at earlier ages. Strikingly, 10-11-year-old girls performed significantly better than females in their late 20s on the PM test. The presence of the smiley face at encoding and temporal uncertainty (expecting it "later" rather than at the "end" of the test) both benefited PM; these effects decreased and increased, respectively, from childhood to middle age. The findings demonstrate that in a cross-sectional study (a) developmental trajectories are qualitatively different between PM and RM, and (b) the relative influence of PM cues differs between younger and older ages.

  17. Validation of the Brazilian version of the Clinical Gait and Balance Scale and comparison with the Berg Balance Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Jussara Almeida Oliveira; Curtarelli, Mônica de Biagi; Rodrigues, Guilherme Riccioppo; Tumas, Vitor

    2013-09-01

    To validate the Clinical Gait and Balance Scale (GABS) for a Brazilian population of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to compare it to the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). One hundred and seven PD patients were evaluated by shortened UPDRS motor scale (sUPDRSm), Hoehn and Yahr (HY), Schwab and England scale (SE), Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I), Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOG-Q), BBS and GABS. The internal consistency of the GABS was 0.94, the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were 0.94 and 0.98 respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.72, with a sensitivity of 0.75 and specificity of 0.6, to discriminate patients with a history of falls in the last twelve months, for a cut-off score of 13 points. Our study shows that the Brazilian version of the GABS is a reliable and valid instrument to assess gait and balance in PD.

  18. Methodological problems in the measurement of pain: a comparison between the verbal rating scale and the visual analogue scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnhaus, E E; Adler, R

    1975-12-01

    The effect of analgesics on pathological pain in a double-blind, complete cross-over design was assessed by means of two rating scales, a verbal rating scale (VRS) and visual analogue scale (VAS). The VRS is widely used, but has several disadvantages as compared to the VAS. The results obtained by means of the VRS showed higher F-ratios (analysis of variance and Kruskall-Wallis H-test) than those obtained by means of the VAS. The VRS, which transfers a continuous feeling into a digital system, seems to augment artificially the measurement of effects produced by analgesics, and the VAS seems to assess more closely what a patient actually experiences with respect to change in pain intensities. The correlation between the two scales was highly significant (r = 0.81, P less than 0.001). The calculated regression line (y=-29.6 + 0.55-x) was not similar to the line of identity and showed much lower values for the VAS, supporting our interpretation. The distribution of the variances of the values obtained by means of both scales was not homogenous. This indicates that the homogeneity of the distribution of variances should always be checked and a Kruskall-Wallis H-test used, if they are inhomogenously distributed.

  19. Validation of the Brazilian version of the Clinical Gait and Balance Scale and comparison with the Berg Balance Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Almeida Oliveira Baggio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To validate the Clinical Gait and Balance Scale (GABS for a Brazilian population of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD and to compare it to the Berg Balance Scale (BBS. Methods One hundred and seven PD patients were evaluated by shortened UPDRS motor scale (sUPDRSm, Hoehn and Yahr (HY, Schwab and England scale (SE, Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I, Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOG-Q, BBS and GABS. Results The internal consistency of the GABS was 0.94, the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were 0.94 and 0.98 respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was 0.72, with a sensitivity of 0.75 and specificity of 0.6, to discriminate patients with a history of falls in the last twelve months, for a cut-off score of 13 points. Conclusions Our study shows that the Brazilian version of the GABS is a reliable and valid instrument to assess gait and balance in PD.

  20. Comparison of Cellulose Supramolecular Structures Between Nanocrystals of Different Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Christopher G. Hunt; Jeffery Catchmark; E. Johan Foster; Akira Isogai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, morphologies and supramolecular structures of CNCs from wood-pulp, cotton, bacteria, tunicate, and cladophora were investigated. TEM was used to study the morphological aspects of the nanocrystals whereas Raman spectroscopy provided information on the cellulose molecular structure and its organization within a CNC. Dimensional differences between the...

  1. Structural health monitoring algorithm comparisons using standard data sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Eloi; Park, Gyuhae; Figueiras, Joaquim; Farrar, Charles; Worden, Keith

    2009-03-01

    The real-world structures are subjected to operational and environmental condition changes that impose difficulties in detecting and identifying structural damage. The aim of this report is to detect damage with the presence of such operational and environmental condition changes through the application of the Los Alamos National Laboratory’s statistical pattern recognition paradigm for structural health monitoring (SHM). The test structure is a laboratory three-story building, and the damage is simulated through nonlinear effects introduced by a bumper mechanism that simulates a repetitive impact-type nonlinearity. The report reviews and illustrates various statistical principles that have had wide application in many engineering fields. The intent is to provide the reader with an introduction to feature extraction and statistical modelling for feature classification in the context of SHM. In this process, the strengths and limitations of some actual statistical techniques used to detect damage in the structures are discussed. In the hierarchical structure of damage detection, this report is only concerned with the first step of the damage detection strategy, which is the evaluation of the existence of damage in the structure. The data from this study and a detailed description of the test structure are available for download at: http://institute.lanl.gov/ei/software-and-data/.

  2. Compressive Coherent Structures at Ion Scales in the Slow Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, D.; Alexandrova, O.; Mangeney, A.; Maksimovic, M.; Lacombe, C.; Rakoto, V.; Kasper, J. C.; Jovanovic, D.

    2016-08-01

    We present a study of magnetic field fluctuations in a slow solar wind stream, close to ion scales, where an increase of the level of magnetic compressibility is observed. Here, the nature of these compressive fluctuations is found to be characterized by coherent structures. Although previous studies have shown that current sheets can be considered the principal cause of intermittency at ion scales, here we show for the first time that, in the case of the slow solar wind, a large variety of coherent structures contributes to intermittency at proton scales, and current sheets are not the most common. Specifically, we find compressive (δ {b}\\parallel \\gg δ {b}\\perp ), linearly polarized structures in the form of magnetic holes, solitons, and shock waves. Examples of Alfvénic structures (δ {b}\\perp \\gt δ {b}\\parallel ) are identified as current sheets and vortex-like structures. Some of these vortices have δ {b}\\perp \\gg δ {b}\\parallel , as in the case of Alfvén vortices, but the majority of them are characterized by δ {b}\\perp ≳ δ {b}\\parallel . Thanks to multi-point measurements by the Cluster spacecraft, for about 100 structures we could determine the normal, the propagation velocity, and the spatial scale along this normal. Independently of the nature of the structures, the normal is always perpendicular to the local magnetic field, meaning that k ⊥ ≫ k ∥. The spatial scales of the studied structures are found to be between two and eight times the proton gyroradius. Most of them are simply convected by the wind, but 25% propagate in the plasma frame. Possible interpretations of the observed structures and the connection with plasma heating are discussed.

  3. Large-scale structural analysis: The structural analyst, the CSM Testbed and the NAS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Mccleary, Susan L.; Macy, Steven C.; Aminpour, Mohammad A.

    1989-01-01

    The Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) activity is developing advanced structural analysis and computational methods that exploit high-performance computers. Methods are developed in the framework of the CSM testbed software system and applied to representative complex structural analysis problems from the aerospace industry. An overview of the CSM testbed methods development environment is presented and some numerical methods developed on a CRAY-2 are described. Selected application studies performed on the NAS CRAY-2 are also summarized.

  4. Climate, habitat, and species interactions at different scales determine the structure of a Neotropical bat community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Villegas, Sergio; McGill, Brian J; Kalko, Elisabeth K V

    2012-05-01

    Climate, habitat, and species interactions are factors that control community properties (e.g., species richness, abundance) across various spatial scales. Usually, researchers study how a few properties are affected by one factor in isolation and at one scale. Hence, there are few multi-scale studies testing how multiple controlling factors simultaneously affect community properties at different scales. We ask whether climate, habitat structure, or insect resources at each of three spatial scales explains most of the variation in six community properties and which theory best explains the distribution of selected community properties across a rainfall gradient. We studied a Neotropical insectivorous bat ensemble in the Isthmus of Panama with acoustic monitoring techniques. Using climatological data, habitat surveys, and insect captures in a hierarchical sampling design we determined how much variation of the community properties was explained by the three factors employing two approaches for variance partitioning. Our results revealed that most of the variation in species richness, total abundance, and feeding activity occurred at the smallest spatial scale and was explained by habitat structure. In contrast, climate at large scales explained most of the variation in individual species' abundances. Although each species had an idiosyncratic response to the gradient, species richness peaked at intermediate levels of precipitation, whereas total abundance was very similar across sites, suggesting density compensation. All community properties responded in a different manner to the factor and scale under consideration.

  5. Characterization of multi-scale porous structure of fly ash/phosphate geopolymer hollow sphere structures: from submillimeter to nano-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruifeng; Wu, Gaohui; Jiang, Longtao; Sun, Dongli

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the porous structure of fly ash/phosphate geopolymer hollow sphere structures (FPGHSS), prepared by pre-bonding and curing technology, has been characterized by multi-resolution methods from sub-millimeter to nano-scale. Micro-CT and confocal microscopy could provide the macroscopic distribution of porous structure on sub-millimeter scale, and hollow fly ashes with sphere shape and several sub-millimeter open cells with irregular shape were identified. SEM is more suitable to illustrate the distribution of micro-sized open and closed cells, and it was found that the open cells of FPGHSS were mainly formed in the interstitial porosity between fly ashes. Mercury porosimeter measurement showed that the micro-sized open cell of FPGHSS demonstrated a normal/bimodal distribution, and the peaks of pore size distribution were mainly around 100 and 10 μm. TEM observation revealed that the phosphate geopolymer was mainly composed of the porous area with nano-pores and dense areas, which were amorphous Al-O-P phase and α-Al2O3 respectively. The pore size of nano-pores demonstrated a quasi-normal distribution from about 10 to 100 nm. Therefore, detailed information of the porous structure of FPGHSS could be revealed using multiple methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving the seismic small-scale modelling by comparison with numerical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pageot, Damien; Leparoux, Donatienne; Le Feuvre, Mathieu; Durand, Olivier; Côte, Philippe; Capdeville, Yann

    2017-10-01

    The potential of experimental seismic modelling at reduced scale provides an intermediate step between numerical tests and geophysical campaigns on field sites. Recent technologies such as laser interferometers offer the opportunity to get data without any coupling effects. This kind of device is used in the Mesures Ultrasonores Sans Contact (MUSC) measurement bench for which an automated support system makes possible to generate multisource and multireceivers seismic data at laboratory scale. Experimental seismic modelling would become a great tool providing a value-added stage in the imaging process validation if (1) the experimental measurement chain is perfectly mastered, and thus if the experimental data are perfectly reproducible with a numerical tool, as well as if (2) the effective source is reproducible along the measurement setup. These aspects for a quantitative validation concerning devices with piezoelectrical sources and a laser interferometer have not been yet quantitatively studied in published studies. Thus, as a new stage for the experimental modelling approach, these two key issues are tackled in the proposed paper in order to precisely define the quality of the experimental small-scale data provided by the bench MUSC, which are available in the scientific community. These two steps of quantitative validation are dealt apart any imaging techniques in order to offer the opportunity to geophysicists who want to use such data (delivered as free data) of precisely knowing their quality before testing any imaging technique. First, in order to overcome the 2-D-3-D correction usually done in seismic processing when comparing 2-D numerical data with 3-D experimental measurement, we quantitatively refined the comparison between numerical and experimental data by generating accurate experimental line sources, avoiding the necessity of geometrical spreading correction for 3-D point-source data. The comparison with 2-D and 3-D numerical modelling is based on

  7. Theoretical Predictions of Springing and Their Comparison with Full Scale Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, X.; Storhaug, G.; Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena

    2003-01-01

    The present paper considers a large ocean going ship with significant springing responses, which have made a large contribution to the fatigue cracking for certain structural details. Four different theories for predicting ship responses and associated computer programs for predictions of springing...... are described. These theories represent four different approaches with various characteristics, e.g. linear, scond-order, nonlinear, frequency-domain, time-domain, two-dimensional and three-dimensional, in calculating hydrodynamic loads and vibrations. The numerical programs, WASIM (DNV), SOST (DTU), SINO...... (CSSRC) and VERES (Marintek), have been well validated for ordinary ship responses. Assumptions regarding how the different programs are sued in the present calculations are provided. Sensitivity studies are carried out and the main results are presented. A selected number of full-scale measurements...

  8. Probing Newton's constant on vast scales: Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati gravity, cosmic acceleration, and large scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Lue, Arthur; Starkman, G D

    2004-01-01

    The nature of the fuel that drives today's cosmic acceleration is an open and tantalizing mystery. The brane-world theory of Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati (DGP) provides a context where late-time acceleration is driven not by some energy-momentum component (dark energy), but rather is the manifestation of the excruciatingly slow leakage of gravity off our four-dimensional world into an extra dimension. At the same time, DGP gravity alters the gravitational force law in a specific and dramatic way at cosmologically accessible scales. We derive the DGP gravitational force law in a cosmological setting for spherical perturbations at subhorizon scales and compute the growth of large-scale structures. We find that a residual repulsive force at large distances gives rise to a suppression of the growth of density and velocity perturbations. Explaining the cosmic acceleration in this framework leads to a present day fluctuation power spectrum normalization sigma8<=0.8 at about the two-sigma level, in contrast with...

  9. Assessing insomnia in adolescents: comparison of Insomnia Severity Index, Athens Insomnia Scale and Sleep Quality Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Kan, Katherine Ka-Ki; Yeung, Wing-Fai

    2011-05-01

    To compare the psychometric properties of the Chinese versions of Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and Sleep Quality Index (SQI) for assessment and screening of insomnia in adolescents. This is a school-based survey of 1516 adolescents aged 12-19 years. Sleep-wake habit questionnaire, ISI, AIS, SQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were administered. Insomnia Interview Schedule was used to assess the severity of insomnia symptoms and DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of insomnia. The Cronbach's alpha of ISI, AIS and SQI were 0.83, 0.81 and 0.65, respectively, and the 2-week test-retest reliability were 0.79, 0.80 and 0.72. All three scales had a 2-factor structure, and their scores were significantly correlated with sleep-wake variables, ESS and GHQ-12 scores, smoking and drinking habits, and academic performance. The areas under curve of ISI, AIS and SQI for detecting clinical insomnia were 0.85, 0.80 and 0.85, respectively. The optimal cut-offs for ISI, AIS and SQI were a total score of nine (sensitivity/specificity: 0.87/0.75), seven (sensitivity/specificity: 0.78/0.74) and five (sensitivity/specificity: 0.83/0.79), respectively. The Chinese versions of ISI, AIS and SQI are reliable and valid instruments. The ISI and AIS appear to have better psychometric properties than the SQI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Diversity trends in Neogene European ungulates and rodents: large-scale comparisons and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridet, Olivier; Costeur, Loïc

    2010-02-01

    The ungulate and rodent fossil records are often used independently to understand mammalian evolutionary history. Few studies have directly compared both records over long time periods and large geographic areas. Here, we compiled two datasets of European fossil localities containing rodents and/or ungulates over 20 My (Early Miocene-Early Pliocene) and processed the data with the same methodology. We counted the raw diversity and calculated a measure of evenness (Pielou’s index). After controlling for potential biases on diversity estimators, we identify the evenness index as a more reliable estimator bringing interesting insights into the way both mammal groups are structured by biotic or abiotic factors. In this study, we consider that an uneven distribution of the species richness among families, when only some families successfully diversify within the “continental-scale community”, represents a lower adaptability of this community to the environmental context. Pielou’s index is used to estimate this adaptability through time. The responses of ungulates and rodents to environmental changes are very divergent, especially facing the climatic changes known since the Middle Miocene. The general patterns suggest that rodent broad-scale assemblages are affected by all kinds of perturbations, even short biotic and abiotic events, but show a better adaptability when facing long-term abiotic changes. Unlike rodents, the ungulate assemblages show more stability in periods of relative environmental stability but show less adaptability to long-term climatic changes. Life-history traits of mammals can help explain patterns of diversity and biogeography at different spatial scales and may probably partly explain the opposite patterns evidenced here.

  11. A comparison of two stochastic inverse methods in a field-scale application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Marie; Delay, Fred; Banton, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Inverse modeling is a useful tool in ground water flow modeling studies. The most frequent difficulties encountered when using this technique are the lack of conditioning information (e.g., heads and transmissivities), the uncertainty in available data, and the nonuniqueness of the solution. These problems can be addressed and quantified through a stochastic Monte Carlo approach. The aim of this work was to compare the applicability of two stochastic inverse modeling approaches in a field-scale application. The multi-scaling (MS) approach uses a downscaling parameterization procedure that is not based on geostatistics. The pilot point (PP) approach uses geostatistical random fields as initial transmissivity values and an experimental variogram to condition the calibration. The studied area (375 km2) is part of a regional aquifer, northwest of Montreal in the St. Lawrence lowlands (southern Québec). It is located in limestone, dolomite, and sandstone formations, and is mostly a fractured porous medium. The MS approach generated small errors on heads, but the calibrated transmissivity fields did not reproduce the variogram of observed transmissivities. The PP approach generated larger errors on heads but better reproduced the spatial structure of observed transmissivities. The PP approach was also less sensitive to uncertainty in head measurements. If reliable heads are available but no transmissivities are measured, the MS approach provides useful results. If reliable transmissivities with a well inferred spatial structure are available, then the PP approach is a better alternative. This approach however must be used with caution if measured transmissivities are not reliable.

  12. Dimensionality of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in Cardiac Patients: Comparison of Mokken Scale Analysis and Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2012-01-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) measures anxiety and depressive symptoms and is widely used in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, there is some debate about the number of dimensions represented by the HADS. In a sample of 534 Dutch cardiac patients, this study examined (a) the dimensionality of the HADS using Mokken…

  13. Using linear algebra for protein structural comparison and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we describe a novel methodology to extract semantic characteristics from protein structures using linear algebra in order to compose structural signature vectors which may be used efficiently to compare and classify protein structures into fold families. These signatures are built from the pattern of hydrophobic intrachain interactions using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) techniques. Considering proteins as documents and contacts as terms, we have built a retrieval system which is able to find conserved contacts in samples of myoglobin fold family and to retrieve these proteins among proteins of varied folds with precision of up to 80%. The classifier is a web tool available at our laboratory website. Users can search for similar chains from a specific PDB, view and compare their contact maps and browse their structures using a JMol plug-in. PMID:21637532

  14. Feature Comparison in Structural Health Monitoring of a Vehicle Crane

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kullaa, J; Heine, T

    2008-01-01

    Vibration-based structural health monitoring of a vehicle crane was studied. The performance of different features to detect damage was investigated after eliminating the normal operational variations using factor analysis...

  15. Using linear algebra for protein structural comparison and classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Gomide

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe a novel methodology to extract semantic characteristics from protein structures using linear algebra in order to compose structural signature vectors which may be used efficiently to compare and classify protein structures into fold families. These signatures are built from the pattern of hydrophobic intrachain interactions using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI techniques. Considering proteins as documents and contacts as terms, we have built a retrieval system which is able to find conserved contacts in samples of myoglobin fold family and to retrieve these proteins among proteins of varied folds with precision of up to 80%. The classifier is a web tool available at our laboratory website. Users can search for similar chains from a specific PDB, view and compare their contact maps and browse their structures using a JMol plug-in.

  16. Using linear algebra for protein structural comparison and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomide, Janaína; Melo-Minardi, Raquel; Dos Santos, Marcos Augusto; Neshich, Goran; Meira, Wagner; Lopes, Júlio César; Santoro, Marcelo

    2009-07-01

    In this article, we describe a novel methodology to extract semantic characteristics from protein structures using linear algebra in order to compose structural signature vectors which may be used efficiently to compare and classify protein structures into fold families. These signatures are built from the pattern of hydrophobic intrachain interactions using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) techniques. Considering proteins as documents and contacts as terms, we have built a retrieval system which is able to find conserved contacts in samples of myoglobin fold family and to retrieve these proteins among proteins of varied folds with precision of up to 80%. The classifier is a web tool available at our laboratory website. Users can search for similar chains from a specific PDB, view and compare their contact maps and browse their structures using a JMol plug-in.

  17. Implications of a class of grand unified theories for large scale structure in the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Q.; Stecker, F. W.

    1983-01-01

    A class of grand unified theories in which cosmologicaly significant axion and neutrino energy densities arise naturally is discussed. To obtain large scale structure three scenarios are considered: (1) an inflationary scenario; (2) inflation followed by string production; and (3) a non-inflationary scenario with density fluctuations caused solely by strings. Inflation may be compatible with the recent observational indications that mega 1 on the scale of superclusters, particularly if strings are present.

  18. Condition of Vocal Production-Teacher questionnaire: comparison of responses on Likert scale and visual analog scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Susana Pimentel Pinto; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Ferreira, Léslie Piccolotto

    2016-01-01

    To compare the responses related to vocal symptoms in two versions of the Vocal Production Condition - Teacher (CPV-T) questionnaire, with responses on a Likert scale and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), in order to evaluate which is the best measurement method. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted with teachers with voice disorders during the period from July 2011 to July 2012. All teachers answered the CPV-T in two versions: with answers on a 4-point Likert scale and on a 50-mm VAS. The answers related to vocal symptoms dimension were analyzed. Most of the symptoms showed good (hoarseness, high-pitched voice, unstable voice, weak voice, effort when speaking, throat clearing, burning throat, and pain when speaking) or regular concordance (loss of voice, failing voice, low-pitched voice, vocal fatigue, dry throat, lump in the throat, secretion in the throat, pain when swallowing, difficulty swallowing, and dry cough). The CPV-T questionnaire with answers on Likert scale proved to be more suitable than the VAS owing to the ease of understanding and interpretation, in addition to facilitating the input of answers for the researcher. Therefore, the Likert scale was chosen for the CPV-T, considering it to be validated as the method to measure the answers. The dimension of vocal aspects evaluated in the present study, the Voice Disorder Screening Index (ITDV), can be used in epidemiological studies to estimate the prevalence of vocal symptoms and in the Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology clinic routine or in monitoring teachers throughout their careers.

  19. Halo Models of Large Scale Structure and Reliability of Cosmological N-Body Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gaite

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Halo models of the large scale structure of the Universe are critically examined, focusing on the definition of halos as smooth distributions of cold dark matter. This definition is essentially based on the results of cosmological N-body simulations. By a careful analysis of the standard assumptions of halo models and N-body simulations and by taking into account previous studies of self-similarity of the cosmic web structure, we conclude that N-body cosmological simulations are not fully reliable in the range of scales where halos appear. Therefore, to have a consistent definition of halos is necessary either to define them as entities of arbitrary size with a grainy rather than smooth structure or to define their size in terms of small-scale baryonic physics.

  20. Fine-scale analysis reveals cryptic landscape genetic structure in desert tortoises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K Latch

    Full Text Available Characterizing the effects of landscape features on genetic variation is essential for understanding how landscapes shape patterns of gene flow and spatial genetic structure of populations. Most landscape genetics studies have focused on patterns of gene flow at a regional scale. However, the genetic structure of populations at a local scale may be influenced by a unique suite of landscape variables that have little bearing on connectivity patterns observed at broader spatial scales. We investigated fine-scale spatial patterns of genetic variation and gene flow in relation to features of the landscape in desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii, using 859 tortoises genotyped at 16 microsatellite loci with associated data on geographic location, sex, elevation, slope, and soil type, and spatial relationship to putative barriers (power lines, roads. We used spatially explicit and non-explicit Bayesian clustering algorithms to partition the sample into discrete clusters, and characterize the relationships between genetic distance and ecological variables to identify factors with the greatest influence on gene flow at a local scale. Desert tortoises exhibit weak genetic structure at a local scale, and we identified two subpopulations across the study area. Although genetic differentiation between the subpopulations was low, our landscape genetic analysis identified both natural (slope and anthropogenic (roads landscape variables that have significantly influenced gene flow within this local population. We show that desert tortoise movements at a local scale are influenced by features of the landscape, and that these features are different than those that influence gene flow at larger scales. Our findings are important for desert tortoise conservation and management, particularly in light of recent translocation efforts in the region. More generally, our results indicate that recent landscape changes can affect gene flow at a local scale and that their

  1. Towards a Gravity Dual for the Large Scale Structure of the Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehagias, A.; Riotto, Antonio; Sloth, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of the large-scale structure of the universe enjoys at all scales, even in the highly non-linear regime, a Lifshitz symmetry during the matter-dominated period. In this paper we propose a general class of six-dimensional spacetimes which could be a gravity dual to the four-dimensiona......The dynamics of the large-scale structure of the universe enjoys at all scales, even in the highly non-linear regime, a Lifshitz symmetry during the matter-dominated period. In this paper we propose a general class of six-dimensional spacetimes which could be a gravity dual to the four......-dimensional large-scale structure of the universe. In this set-up, the Lifshitz symmetry manifests itself as an isometry in the bulk and our universe is a four-dimensional brane moving in such six-dimensional bulk. After finding the correspondence between the bulk and the brane dynamical Lifshitz exponents, we find...... the intriguing result that the preferred value of the dynamical Lifshitz exponent of our observed universe, at both linear and non-linear scales, corresponds to a fixed point of the RGE flow of the dynamical Lifshitz exponent in the dual system where the symmetry is enhanced to the Schrodinger group containing...

  2. Particle-scale structure in frozen colloidal suspensions from small-angle x-ray scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Spannuth, Melissa

    2011-02-01

    During directional solidification of the solvent in a colloidal suspension, the colloidal particles segregate from the growing solid, forming high-particle-density regions with structure on a hierarchy of length scales ranging from that of the particle-scale packing to the large-scale spacing between these regions. Previous work has concentrated mostly on the medium- to large-length scale structure, as it is the most accessible and thought to be more technologically relevant. However, the packing of the colloids at the particle scale is an important component not only in theoretical descriptions of the segregation process, but also to the utility of freeze-cast materials for new applications. Here we present the results of experiments in which we investigated this structure across a wide range of length scales using a combination of small-angle x-ray scattering and direct optical imaging. As expected, during freezing the particles were concentrated into regions between ice dendrites forming a microscopic pattern of high- and low-particle-density regions. X-ray scattering indicates that the particles in the high-density regions were so closely packed as to be touching. However, the arrangement of the particles does not conform to that predicted by standard interparticle pair potentials, suggesting that the particle packing induced by freezing differs from that formed during equilibrium densification processes. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  3. Practical guidelines to select and scale earthquake records for nonlinear response history analysis of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Chopra, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Earthquake engineering practice is increasingly using nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) to demonstrate performance of structures. This rigorous method of analysis requires selection and scaling of ground motions appropriate to design hazard levels. Presented herein is a modal-pushover-based scaling (MPS) method to scale ground motions for use in nonlinear RHA of buildings and bridges. In the MPS method, the ground motions are scaled to match (to a specified tolerance) a target value of the inelastic deformation of the first-'mode' inelastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDF) system whose properties are determined by first-'mode' pushover analysis. Appropriate for first-?mode? dominated structures, this approach is extended for structures with significant contributions of higher modes by considering elastic deformation of second-'mode' SDF system in selecting a subset of the scaled ground motions. Based on results presented for two bridges, covering single- and multi-span 'ordinary standard' bridge types, and six buildings, covering low-, mid-, and tall building types in California, the accuracy and efficiency of the MPS procedure are established and its superiority over the ASCE/SEI 7-05 scaling procedure is demonstrated.

  4. Manufacturing and design of the offshore structure Froude scale model related to basin restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurtu, I. C.

    2015-11-01

    Manufacturing steps for a modern three - column semi-submersible structure are delivered using CFD/CAE software and actual Froude scaled model testing. The three- column offshore is part of the Wind Float Project already realized as prototype for wind energy extraction in water depths more than 40 meters, and the actual model will not consider the wind turbine. The model will have heave plates for a smaller heave motion in order to compare it with the case without heave plates. The heave plates will be part of the Froude scale model.. Using a smaller model will determine a smaller heave motion and this will affect predictions of the vertical movement of the three- column offshore structure in real sea. The Froude criterion is used for the time, speed and acceleration scale. The scale model is manufactured from steel and fiberglass and all parts are subjected to software analysis in order to get the smallest stress in connections inside the model. The model mass was restricted by scale dimensions and also the vertical position of centre gravity will be considered during the manufacturing and design process of the Froude scale offshore structure. All conditions must converge in model manufacturing and design in order to get the best results to compare with real sea states and heave motion data.

  5. Assessment of the confiability and factorial structure of three scales measuring chronic procrastination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Argumedo Bustinza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the confiability and factorial structure of three scales measuring chronic procrastination: Scale of General Procrastination (EPG. Lay. 1986. Adult Procrastinatio Inventory (lPA. McCown & Johnson as cited in Ferrari. Johnson & McCown. 1995 and the Scale of Procrastination in Decision-Making (PTF. Mann. 1982. The sample included 514 adults between 20 and 65 years of age from Lima. The three scales showed high levels of intemal consistency and factorial analysis showed three factors for EPG and IPA and one factor for PTD A second degree factorial analysis suggested the presence of only one factor based on the grouping of items of the EPG and IPA scales The study did not find theoretically relevant dlfferences in chronic procrastination according to gender, age or education level. However,with respect to socioeconomic status. there were higher levels of chronic procrastmation in the poorest sector

  6. Decomposition of multi-scale coherent structures in a turbulent boundary layer by variational mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenkang; Pan, Chong; Wang, Jinjun

    2016-11-01

    Turbulent boundary layer (TBL) is believed to contain a wide spectrum of coherent structures, from near-wall low-speed streaks characterized by inner scale to log-layer large-scale coherent motions (LSM and VLSM) characterized by outer scale. Recent studies have evidenced the interaction between these multi-scale structures via either bottom-up or top-down mechanisms, which implies the possibility of identifying the coexistence of their footprints at medium flow layer. Here, we propose a Quasi-Bivariate Variational Mode Decomposition method (QB-VMD), which is an update of the traditional Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) with bandwidth limitation, for the decomposition of the PIV measured 2D flow fields with large ROI (Δx × Δz 4 δ × 1 . 5 δ) at specified wall-normal heights (y / δ = 0 . 05 0 . 2) of a turbulent boundary layer with Reτ = 3460 . The empirical modes identified by QB-VMD well capture the characteristics of log-layer LSMs as well as that of near-wall streak-like structures. The lateral scales of these structures are analyzed and their respective energy contribution are evaluated. Supported by both the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11372001 and 11490552) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. YWF-16-JCTD-A-05).

  7. Bridging scales from satellite to grains: Structural mapping aided by tablet and photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawemann, Friedrich; Mancktelow, Neil; Pennacchioni, Giorgio; Wex, Sebastian; Camacho, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    Bridging scales from satellite to grains: Structural mapping aided by tablet and photogrammetry A fundamental problem in small-scale mapping is linking outcrop observations to the large scale deformation pattern. The evolution of handheld devices such as tablets with integrated GPS and the availability of airborne imagery allows a precise localization of outcrops. Detailed structural geometries can be analyzed through ortho-rectified photo mosaics generated by photogrammetry software. In this study, we use a cheap standard Samsung-tablet (used for photogrammetry. The software PhotoScan from Agisoft matches the photographs in a fully automated manner, calculates a 3D model of the outcrop, and has the option to project this as an orthophoto onto a flat surface. This allows original orientations of grain-scale structures to be recorded over areas on a scale up to tens to hundreds of metres. The photo mosaics can then be georeferenced with the aid of the GPS-tracks of the shear zones and included in a GIS. This provides a cheap recording of the structures in high detail. The great advantages over mapping with UAVs (drones) is the resolution (1cm), the independence from weather and energy source, and the low cost.

  8. Extending the scope of models for large-scale structure formation in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Buchert, T; Pérez-Mercader, J; Buchert, Thomas; Dominguez, Alvaro; Perez-Mercader, Juan

    1999-01-01

    We propose a phenomenological generalization of the models of large-scale structure formation in the Universe by gravitational instability in two ways: we include pressure forces to model multi-streaming, and noise to model fluctuations due to neglected short-scale physical processes. We show that pressure gives rise to a viscous-like force of the same character as that one introduced in the ``adhesion model'', while noise leads to a roughening of the density field yielding a scaling behavior of its correlations.

  9. Shear viscosity and structural scalings in model adhesive hard-sphere gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Aaron P. R.; Martys, Nicos; Porcar, Lionel; Kline, Steven R.; George, William L.; Kim, Jung M.; Butler, Paul D.; Wagner, Norman J.

    2014-05-01

    We present experiments and simulations that show a fundamental scaling for both the rheology and microstructure of flowing gels. Unique flow-SANS measurements demonstrate that the structure orients along both the neutral and compression axis. We quantify the anisotropy using a single parameter, αn, that scales by a dimensionless number, M', that arises from a force balance on a particle. Simulations support the scalings and confirm the results are independent of the shape and range of the potential suggesting a universal for colloidal gels with short-ranged attractions.

  10. Horizontal Structure of Turbulence on Decimeter to 10m Scales in Fast Tidal Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, R.; Hay, A. E.

    2016-02-01

    We characterize the structure of turbulence in a very fast tidal channel in the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia that has been identified for development as a commercial tidal power resource. A subsurface mooring that orients into the flow was equipped with a horizontally-aimed AD2CP, and upward- and downward-looking ADCPs. Two week-long deployments provide velocity measurements of tidal flows up to 4 m/s that are used to describe the spatial (lateral) and temporal structure of turbulent fluctuations on decimeter to 10m scales. The spatial scales and temporal intermittency vary with both speed of the flow and the effects of upstream topography.

  11. Primordial Non-Gaussianity in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Desjacques

    2010-01-01

    generated the cosmological fluctuations observed today. Any detection of significant non-Gaussianity would thus have profound implications for our understanding of cosmic structure formation. The large-scale mass distribution in the Universe is a sensitive probe of the nature of initial conditions. Recent theoretical progress together with rapid developments in observational techniques will enable us to critically confront predictions of inflationary scenarios and set constraints as competitive as those from the Cosmic Microwave Background. In this paper, we review past and current efforts in the search for primordial non-Gaussianity in the large-scale structure of the Universe.

  12. Paternal psychological response after ultrasonographic detection of structural fetal anomalies with a comparison to maternal response: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Norway almost all pregnant women attend one routine ultrasound examination. Detection of fetal structural anomalies triggers psychological stress responses in the women affected. Despite the frequent use of ultrasound examination in pregnancy, little attention has been devoted to the psychological response of the expectant father following the detection of fetal anomalies. This is important for later fatherhood and the psychological interaction within the couple. We aimed to describe paternal psychological responses shortly after detection of structural fetal anomalies by ultrasonography, and to compare paternal and maternal responses within the same couple. Methods A prospective observational study was performed at a tertiary referral centre for fetal medicine. Pregnant women with a structural fetal anomaly detected by ultrasound and their partners (study group,n=155) and 100 with normal ultrasound findings (comparison group) were included shortly after sonographic examination (inclusion period: May 2006-February 2009). Gestational age was >12 weeks. We used psychometric questionnaires to assess self-reported social dysfunction, health perception, and psychological distress (intrusion, avoidance, arousal, anxiety, and depression): Impact of Event Scale. General Health Questionnaire and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Fetal anomalies were classified according to severity and diagnostic or prognostic ambiguity at the time of assessment. Results Median (range) gestational age at inclusion in the study and comparison group was 19 (12–38) and 19 (13–22) weeks, respectively. Men and women in the study group had significantly higher levels of psychological distress than men and women in the comparison group on all psychometric endpoints. The lowest level of distress in the study group was associated with the least severe anomalies with no diagnostic or prognostic ambiguity (p anomaly group (p anomaly including ambiguity significantly

  13. Comparison of the conditioning of High Gradient Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Degiovanni, Alberto; Giner Navarro, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Accelerating gradients in excess of 100 MV/m, at very low breakdown rates, have been successfully achieved in numerous CLIC prototype accelerating structures. The conditioning and operational histories of several structures, tested at KEK and CERN, have been compared and there is clear evidence that the conditioning progresses with the number of RF pulses and not the number of breakdowns. This observation opens the possibility that the optimum conditioning strategy, which minimizes the total number of breakdowns the structure is subject to without increasing conditioning time, may be to never exceed the breakdown rate target for operation. The result is also likely to have a strong impact on efforts to understand the physical mechanism underlying conditioning and may lead to preparation procedures which reduce conditioning time.

  14. Universal small-scale structure in turbulence driven by magnetorotational instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdankin, Vladimir; Walker, Justin; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Lesur, Geoffroy

    2017-05-01

    The intermittent small-scale structure of turbulence governs energy dissipation in many astrophysical plasmas and is often believed to have universal properties for sufficiently large systems. In this work, we argue that small-scale turbulence in accretion discs is universal in the sense that it is insensitive to the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and background shear, and therefore indistinguishable from standard homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence at small scales. We investigate the intermittency of current density, vorticity and energy dissipation in numerical simulations of incompressible MHD turbulence driven by the MRI in a shearing box. We find that the simulations exhibit a similar degree of intermittency as in standard MHD turbulence. We perform a statistical analysis of intermittent dissipative structures and find that energy dissipation is concentrated in thin sheet-like structures that span a wide range of scales up to the box size. We show that these structures exhibit strikingly similar statistical properties to those in standard MHD turbulence. Additionally, the structures are oriented in the toroidal direction with a characteristic tilt of approximately 17.^{circ}5, implying an effective guide field in that direction.

  15. An Examination of the Structure and Construct Validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Kasey; Watson, David

    2016-01-01

    The Wender Utah Rating Scale (Ward, Wender, & Reimherr, 1993 ) has been widely used in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) research to assess childhood symptoms retrospectively, but little research has examined its factor structure and specificity in predicting ADHD versus other psychopathology. Consequently, this study had 2 goals: (a) to examine the Wender Utah Rating Scale's structure, and (b) to explicate the construct validity of this measure by relating factors from our structural analyses to other ADHD, psychopathology, and personality measures. Structural analyses in an adult community sample (N = 294) yielded a 3-factor structure of aggression (e.g., angry), internalizing distress (e.g., depressed), and academic difficulties (e.g., underachiever). Correlational and regression analyses indicated that these factors failed to display specificity in their associations with ADHD versus other psychopathology. Aggression and internalizing distress associated most strongly with indicators of externalizing (e.g., ill temper, manipulativeness) and internalizing psychopathology (e.g., depression, anxiety), respectively. Academic difficulties associated most strongly with ADHD symptoms, but these relations were relatively weak. Taken together, these findings raise concerns about the Wender Utah Rating Scale's construct validity, although additional longitudinal research is needed to clarify to what extent the Wender Utah Rating Scale validly assesses childhood ADHD symptoms.

  16. Feature Comparison in Structural Health Monitoring of a Vehicle Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kullaa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration-based structural health monitoring of a vehicle crane was studied. The performance of different features to detect damage was investigated after eliminating the normal operational variations using factor analysis. Using eight accelerometers, ten AR parameters from each record were identified for damage detection. Also transmissibilities between sensors were estimated. Damage was introduced with additional masses at different locations of the structure. All damage cases could be detected from either features using control charts, but transmissibilities proved to be more sensitive to damage than the AR coefficients.

  17. Comparison of electronic structure between monolayer silicenes on Ag (111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun-Liang, Lin; Ryuichi, Arafune; Maki, Kawai; Noriaki, Takagi

    2015-08-01

    The electronic structures of monolayer silicenes (4 × 4 and ) grown on Ag (111) surface are studied by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. While both phases have similar electronic structures around the Fermi level, significant differences are observed in the higher energy unoccupied states. The DFT calculations show that the contributions of Si 3pz orbitals to the unoccupied states are different because of their different buckled configurations. Project supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) through Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Grant Nos. 24241040 and 25110008) and the World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI), MEXT, Japan.

  18. COMPARISON OF LASER SCANNING, PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND SFM-MVS PIPELINE APPLIED IN STRUCTURES AND ARTIFICIAL SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Skarlatos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The merging of photogrammetry and computer vision has raised discussions regarding its ability to produce very dense point clouds, comparable, under circumstances to terrestrial laser scanning (TLS. This paper approaches this issue in terms of accuracy, density, methodology and ease to use. Three tests have been conducted to evaluate the process as well as data density, quality, registration and methodology. At the first test a 300 mm sphere with texture has been used as a reference object is order to address data quality using image based techniques. Menci's Zscan was tested against the Bundler-PMVS work flow. The second test is a flat building facade, where Zscan, TLS and Bundler-PMVS are compared directly. The last test was contacted in an electricity power station which was an extremely complex structure. Two TLS stations were compared against 212 Bundler-PMVS photos. Quantitative comparisons based on several criteria are presented. For small and medium size objects and distances Bundler-PMVS seems to have an advantage in terms of methodology and accuracy. In large scale objects TLS is better in terms of quality and processing time.

  19. Reducing the two-loop large-scale structure power spectrum to low-dimensional, radial integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittfull, Marcel; Vlah, Zvonimir

    2016-11-01

    Modeling the large-scale structure of the universe on nonlinear scales has the potential to substantially increase the science return of upcoming surveys by increasing the number of modes available for model comparisons. One way to achieve this is to model nonlinear scales perturbatively. Unfortunately, this involves high-dimensional loop integrals that are cumbersome to evaluate. Trying to simplify this, we show how two-loop (next-to-next-to-leading order) corrections to the density power spectrum can be reduced to low-dimensional, radial integrals. Many of those can be evaluated with a one-dimensional fast Fourier transform, which is significantly faster than the five-dimensional Monte-Carlo integrals that are needed otherwise. The general idea of this fast fourier transform perturbation theory method is to switch between Fourier and position space to avoid convolutions and integrate over orientations, leaving only radial integrals. This reformulation is independent of the underlying shape of the initial linear density power spectrum and should easily accommodate features such as those from baryonic acoustic oscillations. We also discuss how to account for halo bias and redshift space distortions.

  20. Structure Discovery in Large Semantic Graphs Using Extant Ontological Scaling and Descriptive Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    al-Saffar, Sinan; Joslyn, Cliff A.; Chappell, Alan R.

    2011-07-18

    As semantic datasets grow to be very large and divergent, there is a need to identify and exploit their inherent semantic structure for discovery and optimization. Towards that end, we present here a novel methodology to identify the semantic structures inherent in an arbitrary semantic graph dataset. We first present the concept of an extant ontology as a statistical description of the semantic relations present amongst the typed entities modeled in the graph. This serves as a model of the underlying semantic structure to aid in discovery and visualization. We then describe a method of ontological scaling in which the ontology is employed as a hierarchical scaling filter to infer different resolution levels at which the graph structures are to be viewed or analyzed. We illustrate these methods on three large and publicly available semantic datasets containing more than one billion edges each. Keywords-Semantic Web; Visualization; Ontology; Multi-resolution Data Mining;

  1. Tribological analysis of the ventral scale structure in a Python regius in relation to laser textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, H. A.; El Mansori, M.

    2013-09-01

    Laser texturing is one of the leading technologies applied to modify surface topography. To date, however, a standardized procedure to generate deterministic textures is virtually non-existent. In nature, especially in squamata, there are many examples of deterministic structured textures that allow species to control friction and condition their tribological response for efficient function. In this work, we draw a comparison between industrial surfaces and reptilian surfaces. We chose the Python regius species as a bio-analogue with a deterministic surface. We first study the structural make up of the ventral scales of the snake (both construction and metrology). We further compare the metrological features of the ventral scales to experimentally recommended performance indicators of industrial surfaces extracted from open literature. The results indicate the feasibility of engineering a laser textured surface based on the reptilian ornamentation constructs. It is shown that the metrological features, key to efficient function of a rubbing deterministic surface, are already optimized in the reptile. We further show that optimization in reptilian surfaces is based on synchronizing surface form, textures and aspects to condition the frictional response. Mimicking reptilian surfaces, we argue, may form a design methodology potentially capable of generating advanced deterministic surface constructs capable of efficient tribological function.

  2. comparison of chemical nano structure, rheological and mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Although changing in formulation of long oil alkyd resin through replacing maleic anhydride with phetalic anhydride not only made the stereo structure of the alkyd molecule bigger but also reduced the condensation time of esterification reaction. Therefore the viscosity of resin increased within the same time interval (Vaso et ...

  3. Comparison of the population structure and life-history parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blacktail seabream Diplodus capensis were sampled from proximate (10 km apart) exploited and unexploited areas in southern Angola to compare their population structures and life-history parameters. Females dominated the larger size and older age classes in the unexploited area. In the exploited area the length and ...

  4. Comparison of Suspended Solid Separation in Advanced Storm Overflow Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Sørensen, Morten Steen

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory investigation of the separation of suspended solids in a circular weir overflow and a vortex separator. The basic idea is to evaluate the efficiency of a vortical flow in the overflow chamber, and to compare these results with other overflow structures....

  5. Comparison of two views on the structure of ionospheric currents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are two views on the structure of ionospheric currents, here symbolized as VIEW 1 and VIEW 2. The essential difference between them is that VIEW I supports the existence of two ionospheric current layers in the dip equatorial zone as measured by many rockets (Onwumechili,1992b,c). Contrary to the rocket ...

  6. Structuring temporal sequences : Comparison of models and factors of complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essens, P.J.M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Two stages for structuring tone sequences have been distinguished by Povel and Essens (1985). In the first, a mental clock segments a sequence into equal time units (clock model); in the second, intervals are specified in terms of subdivisions of these units. The present findings support the clock

  7. Structuralization of Doctoral Education in Germany: An Interdisciplinary Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Taking the establishment of structured doctoral programmes in Germany as an example, this paper focuses on how knowledge production in certain academic fields reshapes their doctoral education in a widely changing policy context. Based on case studies of eight graduate schools in three research fields, namely economics, life sciences, and…

  8. Achievement Motivation: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Of Structure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to analyze the structure of the achievement motive domain for samples from five states in Nigeria. It was hypothesized that data collected from the various samples will reflect the basic facets suggested by the definitional framework of achievement motivation. It was also hypothesized that the ...

  9. Full-scale performance assessment of aircraft secondary sandwich structure using thermoelastic stress analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Crump, D.A.; Dulieu-Barton, J.M.; Savage, J

    2009-01-01

    The use of resin film infusion (RFI) has been proven to reduce the cost of production of aircraft secondary sandwich structure. In this paper thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) is used to assess the performance of full scale aircraft sandwich structure panels produced using both the conventional autoclave process and RFI. Finite element (FE) models of both panel types are developed and TSA is used to validate the models.

  10. Large-Scale Computations Leading to a First-Principles Approach to Nuclear Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormand, W E; Navratil, P

    2003-08-18

    We report on large-scale applications of the ab initio, no-core shell model with the primary goal of achieving an accurate description of nuclear structure from the fundamental inter-nucleon interactions. In particular, we show that realistic two-nucleon interactions are inadequate to describe the low-lying structure of {sup 10}B, and that realistic three-nucleon interactions are essential.

  11. Lack of sex-biased dispersal promotes fine-scale genetic structure in alpine ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffler, Gretchen H.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Luikart, Gordon; Sage, George K.; Pilgrim, Kristy L.; Adams, Layne G.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying patterns of fine-scale genetic structure in natural populations can advance understanding of critical ecological processes such as dispersal and gene flow across heterogeneous landscapes. Alpine ungulates generally exhibit high levels of genetic structure due to female philopatry and patchy configuration of mountain habitats. We assessed the spatial scale of genetic structure and the amount of gene flow in 301 Dall’s sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) at the landscape level using 15 nuclear microsatellites and 473 base pairs of the mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region. Dall’s sheep exhibited significant genetic structure within contiguous mountain ranges, but mtDNA structure occurred at a broader geographic scale than nuclear DNA within the study area, and mtDNA structure for other North American mountain sheep populations. No evidence of male-mediated gene flow or greater philopatry of females was observed; there was little difference between markers with different modes of inheritance (pairwise nuclear DNA F ST = 0.004–0.325; mtDNA F ST = 0.009–0.544), and males were no more likely than females to be recent immigrants. Historical patterns based on mtDNA indicate separate northern and southern lineages and a pattern of expansion following regional glacial retreat. Boundaries of genetic clusters aligned geographically with prominent mountain ranges, icefields, and major river valleys based on Bayesian and hierarchical modeling of microsatellite and mtDNA data. Our results suggest that fine-scale genetic structure in Dall’s sheep is influenced by limited dispersal, and structure may be weaker in populations occurring near ancestral levels of density and distribution in continuous habitats compared to other alpine ungulates that have experienced declines and marked habitat fragmentation.

  12. Learning Behaviors Scale and Canadian Youths: Factorial Validity Generalization and Comparisons to the U.S. Standardization Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L.; Beran, Tanya N.

    2011-01-01

    The factor structure of the Learning Behaviors Scale (LBS) was examined with a sample of 393 randomly selected Canadian youths in a large western city. An identical four-factor structure was observed for the Canadian sample as was obtained in the standardization sample of U.S. youths and with another American sample. Principal axis exploratory…

  13. Comparison of STRUCTURAL-ACOUSTIC Control Designs on AN Active Composite Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    BINGHAM, B.; ATALLA, M. J.; HAGOOD, N. W.

    2001-07-01

    This work presents a comparison of three technologies for structural-acoustic control that, while prevalent in the literature, had not been compared on a single structure. The comparison is generalizable because the techniques are implemented on a panel structure representative of a more complex structure (e.g., an aircraft fuselage, a submarine vehicle hull, a satellite payload shroud, etc.). The test-bed used for this comparison is a carbon-fiber composite panel manufactured with embedded active fiber composite actuators. Since such integrated structures constitute a continued avenue of research, the manufacturing and performance of this structure is illustrated. The design of the test-bed is guided by an effort to achieve a dynamic response similar to a single panel in a typical aircraft or rotorcraft fuselage.Existing active control architectures for broadband acoustic radiation reduction are compared both analytically and experimentally on a representative structure to quantify the capabilities and limitations of the existing control methodologies. Specifically, three broad categories of control are compared: classical feedback (rate feedback), optimal feedback (linear quadratic Gaussian), and adaptive feedforward control (x -filtered least mean square). The control architectures implemented during this study are all single-input/single-output in order to allow a fair comparison of the issues involved in the design, as well as the use and performance of each approach. Both the vibration and the acoustic performance are recorded for each experiment under equivalent conditions to allow a generalizable comparison. Experimental results lead to conclusions pertaining to the application of active structural-based control to improve the acoustic performance of more complex structures.

  14. Scaling of velocity and scalar structure functions in ac electrokinetic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Guiren

    2017-02-01

    Electrokinetic (EK) turbulence or electrohydrodynamic (EHD) turbulence has been recently achieved in different fluids under both ac [G. Wang et al., Lab Chip 14, 1452 (2014), 10.1039/C3LC51403J; Phys. Rev. E 93, 013106 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.013106] and dc electric fields [A. Varshney et al., Soft Matter 12, 1759 (2016), 10.1039/C5SM02316E]. Here, through dimensional analysis, scaling laws of both velocity and electric conductivity structure functions in the forced cascade region of ac EK turbulence can be predicated (similar to Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling law in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection), in either macroscale or microscale flows. In the forced cascade region, EK force, which relies on the direct cascade of conductivity structures, injects energy directly into a wide spectral region to sustain the flow disturbance. The scaling exponents of the second-order velocity and conductivity structures are 2/5 and 4/5, respectively. In addition to the scaling regions, two characteristic small length scales are derived for both weak and strong electric body forces, respectively. This theoretical investigation can significantly enhance our understanding of EK or EHD turbulence while forced by an ac electric field. It can further broaden our understanding of the forced cascade region of forced turbulence and make the manipulation of the turbulent cascade process more flexible and controllable.

  15. Comparison and validation of community structures in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Mika; Hörnquist, Michael; Lombardi, Anna

    2006-07-01

    The issue of partitioning a network into communities has attracted a great deal of attention recently. Most authors seem to equate this issue with the one of finding the maximum value of the modularity, as defined by Newman. Since the problem formulated this way is believed to be NP-hard, most effort has gone into the construction of search algorithms, and less to the question of other measures of community structures, similarities between various partitionings and the validation with respect to external information. Here we concentrate on a class of computer generated networks and on three well-studied real networks which constitute a bench-mark for network studies; the karate club, the US college football teams and a gene network of yeast. We utilize some standard ways of clustering data (originally not designed for finding community structures in networks) and show that these classical methods sometimes outperform the newer ones. We discuss various measures of the strength of the modular structure, and show by examples features and drawbacks. Further, we compare different partitions by applying some graph-theoretic concepts of distance, which indicate that one of the quality measures of the degree of modularity corresponds quite well with the distance from the true partition. Finally, we introduce a way to validate the partitionings with respect to external data when the nodes are classified but the network structure is unknown. This is here possible since we know everything of the computer generated networks, as well as the historical answer to how the karate club and the football teams are partitioned in reality. The partitioning of the gene network is validated by use of the Gene Ontology database, where we show that a community in general corresponds to a biological process.

  16. Item-level and scale-level factor structures of the MMPI-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, R P; Belevich, J K; Elkins, D E

    1994-04-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) is a 478-item test that represents a substantial revision of the original form of the MMPI. This investigation sought to identify the item-level factor structure of the MMPI-A and also examined the scale-level factor structure of the 69 scales and subscales of this instrument. The study utilized the 1,620 normal adolescents (805 boys and 815 girls) of the normative sample for the MMPI-A. These adolescents ranged in age from 14 to 18, inclusive, with a mean age of 15.54 for boys and 15.60 for girls. A principal factor analysis of item-level responses resulted in extraction of 14 factors that were subjected to promax (oblique) rotation procedures. These 14 factors incorporated 81% of the total MMPI-A item pool and accounted for 44% of the total item-level response variance. For the scale-level analysis, 8 factors were selected for extraction and submitted to promax rotation procedures. These eight factors accounted for a total of 93.5% of the total variance in MMPI-A scale and subscale raw scores. Item-level results were discussed in terms of areas of congruence and dissimilarities from previously reported MMPI factor analyses in adolescent and adult samples, and scale-level factor results were presented in terms of clinical implications for the interpretation of MMPI-A scales and subscales.

  17. Patch-Scale Effects of Equine Disturbance on Arthropod Assemblages and Vegetation Structure in Subalpine Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, Jeffrey G.; Schmidt-Gengenbach, Jutta; Ballenger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-06-01

    Assessments of vertebrate disturbance to plant and animal assemblages often contrast grazed versus ungrazed meadows or other larger areas of usage, and this approach can be powerful. Random sampling of such habitats carries the potential, however, for smaller, more intensely affected patches to be missed and for other responses that are only revealed at smaller scales to also escape detection. We instead sampled arthropod assemblages and vegetation structure at the patch scale (400-900 m2 patches) within subalpine wet meadows of Yosemite National Park (USA), with the goal of determining if there were fine-scale differences in magnitude and directionality of response at three levels of grazing intensity. Effects were both stronger and more nuanced than effects evidenced by previous random sampling of paired grazed and ungrazed meadows: (a) greater negative effects on vegetation structure and fauna in heavily used patches, but (b) some positive effects on fauna in lightly grazed patches, suggested by trends for mean richness and total and population abundances. Although assessment of disturbance at either patch or landscape scales should be appropriate, depending on the management question at hand, our patch-scale work demonstrated that there can be strong local effects on the ecology of these wetlands that may not be detected by comparing larger scale habitats.

  18. German National Proficiency Scales in Biology: Internal Structure, Relations to General Cognitive Abilities and Verbal Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampa, Nele; Köller, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    National and international large-scale assessments (LSA) have a major impact on educational systems, which raises fundamental questions about the validity of the measures regarding their internal structure and their relations to relevant covariates. Given its importance, research on the validity of instruments specifically developed for LSA is…

  19. Clonal growth and fine-scale genetic structure in tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus: Fagaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard S. Dodd; Wasima Mayer; Alejandro Nettel; Zara. Afzal-Rafii

    2013-01-01

    The combination of sprouting and reproduction by seed can have important consequences on fine-scale spatial distribution of genetic structure (SGS). SGS is an important consideration for species’ restoration because it determines the minimum distance among seed trees to maximize genetic diversity while not prejudicing locally adapted genotypes. Local environmental...

  20. Bacterial community structure of a full-scale biofilter treating pig house exhaust air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Anja; Pedersen, Kristina Hadulla; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2011-01-01

    Biological air filters represent a promising tool for treating emissions of ammonia and odor from pig facilities. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to investigate the bacterial community structure and diversity in a full-scale biofilter...

  1. Atomic-scale structure of single-layer MoS2 nanoclusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helveg, S.; Lauritsen, J. V.; Lægsgaard, E.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) the atomic-scale realm of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoclusters, which are of interest as a model system in hydrodesulfurization catalysis. The STM gives the first real space images of the shape and edge structure of single-layer MoS2...

  2. Structure of isolated large-scale inhomogeneities in the outer ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Iu. K.; Romanchuk, A. A.

    1991-03-01

    The structure of large-scale inhomogeneities in the outer ionosphere is examined with reference to Thomson scattering data. The dependence of delta Ne/Ne and delta Ne on the local coordinates is established. The shape function is also examined.

  3. Factor Structure of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Turkish Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    Although the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) is most often validated with the use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on undergraduate students, exploratory factor analysis and multiple factor retention decision criteria necessitate the analysis of underlying factor structure to prevent over and under factoring as well as to reveal…

  4. Homework Management Scale: Confirming the Factor Structure with Middle School Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao; Du, Jianxia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a psychometric evaluation of the Homework Management Scale (HMS) for mathematics, consisting of five subscales for measuring homework management strategies. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted with a sample of middle school students (N = 796). Results indicated that the factor structure of the Chinese version of the HMS…

  5. Factor Structure of the Korean Version of Wong and Law's Emotional Intelligence Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Eriko; Saklofske, Donald H.; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Lim, Hyunjung

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the factor structure of a Korean version of the 16-item Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) for a sample of 161 Korean university students. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor model of the WLEIS: (1) self-emotional appraisal, (2) others' emotional appraisal, (3) use of emotion, and (4) regulation…

  6. The Factor Structure of Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores in Peruvian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Kathryn R.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Merino, Cesar; Worrell, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of the Escala de Conductas de Aprendizaje Preescolar (ECAP), a Spanish translation of the Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS), was examined in this study. Children aged 2 to 6 years (N = 328) enrolled in public and private preschools in the Republic of Peru were rated by classroom teachers on the frequency of observable,…

  7. Phase transitions as the origin of large scale structure in the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turok, Neil

    1989-01-01

    A review of the formation of large scale structure through gravitational growth of primordial perturbations is given. This is followed by a discussion of how symmetry breaking phase transitions in the early universe might have produced the required perturbations, in particular through the formation and evolution of a network of cosmic strings.

  8. Mapping the MMPI-2-RF Specific Problems Scales Onto Extant Psychopathology Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin

    2017-01-01

    A main objective in developing the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 ) was to link the hierarchical structure of the instrument's scales to contemporary psychopathology and personality models for greater enhancement of construct validity. Initial evidence published with the Restructured Clinical scales has indicated promising results in that the higher order structure of these measures maps onto those reported in the extant psychopathology literature. This study focused on evaluating the internal structure of the Specific Problems and Interest scales, which have not yet been examined in this manner. Two large, mixed-gender outpatient and correctional samples were used. Exploratory factor analyses revealed consistent evidence for a 4-factor structure representing somatization, negative affect, externalizing, and social detachment. Convergent and discriminant validity analyses in the outpatient sample yielded a pattern of results consistent with expectations. These findings add further evidence to indicate that the MMPI-2-RF hierarchy of scales map onto extant psychopathology literature, and also add support to the notion that somatization and detachment should be considered important higher order domains in the psychopathology literature.

  9. The structural and hydration properties of heat-treated rice studied at multiple lenght scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witek, M.M.; Weglarz, W.; Jong, de L.; Dalen, van G.; Blonk, J.C.G.; Heussen, P.; Velzen, van E.; As, van H.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of heat-treatment on structure and hydration properties of rice was studied at different length scales (µm–nm). Heat-treatment introduced micro- and macro-pores within rice kernels (µCT) and, within intact cell walls, disintegrated starch granules were observed (SEM, CSLM). In native

  10. Wavelength-Scale Structures as Extremely High Haze Films for Efficient Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Juyoung; Dong, Wan Jae; Jung, Gwan Ho; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2016-03-09

    Wavelength-scale inverted pyramid structures with low reflectance and excellent haze have been designed for application to polymer solar cells (PSCs). The wavelength-scale structured haze films are fabricated on the back surface of glass without damages to organic active layer by using a soft lithographic technique with etched GaN molds. With a rigorous coupled-wave analysis of optical modeling, we find the shift of resonance peaks with the increase of pattern's diameter. Wavelength-scale structures could provide the number of resonances at the long wavelength spectrum (λ = 650-800 nm), yielding enhancement of power conversion efficiency (PCE) in the PSCs. Compared with a flat device (PCE = 7.12%, Jsc = 15.6 mA/cm(2)), improved PCE of 8.41% is achieved in a haze film, which is mainly due to the increased short circuit current density (Jsc) of 17.5 mA/cm(2). Hence, it opens up exciting opportunities for a variety of PSCs with wavelength-scale structures to further improve performance, simplify complicated process, and reduce costs.

  11. Factor Structure of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) among Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessaha, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure of the 6-item version of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6). Methods: A subsample of emerging adults, aged 18-29 (n = 20,699), from the 2013 National Survey of Drug Use and Health were used in this study. Results: Each of the models (one-factor, two-factor…

  12. Examining the Emergence of Large-Scale Structures in Collaboration Networks: Methods in Sociological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Jaideep; Kshitij, Avinash

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a number of methods that can be useful for examining the emergence of large-scale structures in collaboration networks. The study contributes to sociological research by investigating how clusters of research collaborators evolve and sometimes percolate in a collaboration network. Typically, we find that in our networks,…

  13. Factor Structure of the Rorschach Prognostic Rating Scale and Its Relation to Therapeutic Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Stephen M.; Edinger, Jack D.

    1976-01-01

    This study evaluated the factor structure of the Rorschach Prognostic Rating Scale (RPRS) in order to: (a) test the assumption that the RPRS represents a unitary response system and (b) determine the efficacy of employing population specific factor scores as predictors of therapy outcome. (Author/NG)

  14. Fractals and the Large-Scale Structure in the Universe-Is the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 4. Fractals and the Large-Scale Structure in the Universe - Is the Cosmological Principle Valid? A K Mittal T R Seshadri. General Article Volume 7 Issue 4 April 2002 pp 39-47 ...

  15. Fractals and the Large-Scale Structure in the Universe-Introduction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 2. Fractals and the Large-Scale Structure in the Universe - Introduction and Basic Concepts. A K Mittal T R Seshadri. General Article Volume 7 Issue 2 February 2002 pp 6-19 ...

  16. Anatomically diverse butterfly scales all produce structural colours by coherent scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prum, Richard O; Quinn, Tim; Torres, Rodolfo H

    2006-02-01

    The structural colours of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been attributed to a diversity of physical mechanisms, including multilayer interference, diffraction, Bragg scattering, Tyndall scattering and Rayleigh scattering. We used fibre optic spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 2D Fourier analysis to investigate the physical mechanisms of structural colour production in twelve lepidopteran species from four families, representing all of the previously proposed anatomical and optical classes of butterfly nanostructure. The 2D Fourier analyses of TEMs of colour producing butterfly scales document that all species are appropriately nanostructured to produce visible colours by coherent scattering, i.e. differential interference and reinforcement of scattered, visible wavelengths. Previously hypothesized to produce a blue colour by incoherent, Tyndall scattering, the scales of Papilio zalmoxis are not appropriately nanostructured for incoherent scattering. Rather, available data indicate that the blue of P. zalmoxis is a fluorescent pigmentary colour. Despite their nanoscale anatomical diversity, all structurally coloured butterfly scales share a single fundamental physical color production mechanism - coherent scattering. Recognition of this commonality provides a new perspective on how the nanostructure and optical properties of structurally coloured butterfly scales evolved and diversified among and within lepidopteran clades.

  17. Large-scale structural alteration of brain in epileptic children with SCN1A mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jeong Lee

    2017-01-01

    Significance: This study showed large-scale developmental brain changes in patients with epilepsy and SCN1A gene mutation, which may be associated with the core symptoms of the patients. Further longitudinal MRI studies with larger cohorts are required to confirm the effect of SCN1A gene mutation on structural brain development.

  18. Factor Structure of the Acute Stress Disorder Scale in a Sample of Hurricane Katrina Evacuees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal L.

    2010-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) is a poorly understood and controversial diagnosis (A. G. Harvey & R. A. Bryant, 2002). The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factor structure of the most widely used self-report measure of ASD, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (R. A. Bryant, M. L. Moulds, & R. M. Guthrie, 2000),…

  19. Factorial Structure of the French Version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale among the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gana, Kamel; Alaphilippe, Daniel; Bailly, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Ten different confirmatory factor analysis models, including ones with correlated traits correlated methods, correlated traits correlated uniqueness, and correlated traits uncorrelated methods, were proposed to examine the factorial structure of the French version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). In line with previous studies…

  20. Self-Preservation of Large-Scale Structures in Burgers' Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Aurell, E; Wertgeim, I I; Aurell, Erik; Gurbatov, Sergey N.; Wertgeim, Igor I.

    1993-01-01

    Abstract:We investigate the stability of large-scale structures in Burgers' equation under the perturbation of high wave-number noise in the initial conditions. Analytical estimates are obtained for random initial data with spatial spectral density k^n, n < 1. Numerical investigations are performed for the case n=0, using a parallel implementation of the Fast Legendre Transform.

  1. Factor Structure, Reliability and Validity of the Taiwanese Version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Hsu, Fan-Ching; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the factor structure, internal consistency 1 month test-retest reliability and the discriminant validity for the diagnosis of anxiety disorder of the Taiwanese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T). A total of 12,536 Taiwanese children and adolescents in the community were…

  2. Controlling Mobility in Perovskite Oxides by Ferroelectric Modulation of Atomic-Scale Interface Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malashevich, Andrei; Marshall, Matthew S J; Visani, Cristina; Disa, Ankit S; Xu, Haichao; Walker, Frederick J; Ahn, Charles H; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2017-12-26

    Coherent and epitaxial interfaces permit the realization of electric field driven devices controlled by atomic-scale structural and electronic effects at interfaces. Compared to conventional field effect devices where channel conductivity is modulated by carrier density modification, the propagation of atomic-scale distortions across an interface can control the atomic scale bonding, interatomic electron tunneling rates and thus the mobility of the channel material. We use first-principles theory to design an atomically abrupt epitaxial perovskite heterostructure involving an oxide ferroelectric (PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3) and conducting oxide channel (LaNiO3) where coupling of polar atomic motions to structural distortions can induce large, reversible changes in the channel mobility. We fabricate and characterize the heterostructure and measure record values, larger than 1000%, for the conductivity modulation. Our results describe how purely interfacial effects can be engineered to deliver unique electronic device properties and large responses to external fields.

  3. On the Soft Limit of the Large Scale Structure Power Spectrum: UV Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Garny, Mathias; Porto, Rafael A; Sagunski, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We derive a non-perturbative equation for the large scale structure power spectrum of long-wavelength modes. Thereby, we use an operator product expansion together with relations between the three-point function and power spectrum in the soft limit. The resulting equation encodes the coupling to ultraviolet (UV) modes in two time-dependent coefficients, which may be obtained from response functions to (anisotropic) parameters, such as spatial curvature, in a modified cosmology. We argue that both depend weakly on fluctuations deep in the UV. As a byproduct, this implies that the renormalized leading order coefficient(s) in the effective field theory (EFT) of large scale structures receive most of their contribution from modes close to the non-linear scale. Consequently, the UV dependence found in explicit computations within standard perturbation theory stems mostly from counter-term(s). We confront a simplified version of our non-perturbative equation against existent numerical simulations, and find good agr...

  4. What Shapes the Phylogenetic Structure of Anuran Communities in a Seasonal Environment? The Influence of Determinism at Regional Scale to Stochasticity or Antagonistic Forces at Local Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Clarissa de Araújo; Roque, Fabio de Oliveira; Santos, Bráulio A; Ferreira, Vanda Lúcia; Strüssmann, Christine; Tomas, Walfrido Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Ecological communities are structured by both deterministic and stochastic processes. We investigated phylogenetic patterns at regional and local scales to understand the influences of seasonal processes in shaping the structure of anuran communities in the southern Pantanal wetland, Brazil. We assessed the phylogenetic structure at different scales, using the Net Relatedness Index (NRI), the Nearest Taxon Index (NTI), and phylobetadiversity indexes, as well as a permutation test, to evaluate the effect of seasonality. The anuran community was represented by a non-random set of species with a high degree of phylogenetic relatedness at the regional scale. However, at the local scale the phylogenetic structure of the community was weakly related with the seasonality of the system, indicating that oriented stochastic processes (e.g. colonization, extinction and ecological drift) and/or antagonist forces drive the structure of such communities in the southern Pantanal.

  5. Factor structure of the De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale in Spanish elderly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Buz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Loneliness is an important component in the measurement of subjective well-being of elderly adults. The most influential instrument in Europe is the 11-item de Jong Gierveld loneliness scale (DJGLS; de Jong Gierveld and Kamphuis, 1985. The aim of this study was to examine, throughout factorial techniques, the internal structure the Spanish version of the DJGLS. Data were gathered from 328 community-dwelling elderly adults (M = 75.53, Range: 60-99 years. The factor analysis techniques revealed that the scale was essentially unidimensional (RMR = .088, AGFI = .970, NFI = .966. Reliability was .91. Neither substantive nor statistical reasons were found to consider the existence of a second factor. Our findings also revealed some psychometric problems in the measurement of the social and emotional aspects of loneliness. Emphasis is placed on the need to improve the scale and bear in mind the differences between collectivist and individualist cultures in the use of scales measuring well-being.

  6. Scaling collapse and structure functions: identifying self-affinity in finite length time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Chapman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical determination of the scaling properties and exponents of time series presents a formidable challenge in testing, and developing, a theoretical understanding of turbulence and other out-of-equilibrium phenomena. We discuss the special case of self affine time series in the context of a stochastic process. We highlight two complementary approaches to the differenced variable of the data: i attempting a scaling collapse of the Probability Density Functions which should then be well described by the solution of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation and ii using structure functions to determine the scaling properties of the higher order moments. We consider a method of conditioning that recovers the underlying self affine scaling in a finite length time series, and illustrate it using a Lévy flight.

  7. Three-scale structure of diffusion region in the presence of cold ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divin, A.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Vaivads, A.; André, M.; Toledo-Redondo, S.; Markidis, S.; Lapenta, G.

    2016-12-01

    Kinetic simulations and spacecraft observations typically display the two-scale structure of collisionless diffusion region (DR), with electron and ion demagnetization scales governing the spatial extent of the DR. Recent in situ observations of the nightside magnetosphere, as well as investigation of magnetic reconnection events at the Earth's magnetopause, discovered the presence of a population of cold (tens of eV) ions of ionospheric origin. We present two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection in multicomponent plasma with ions consisting of hot and cold populations. We show that a new cold ion diffusion region scale is introduced in between that of hot ions and electrons. Demagnetization scale of cold ion population is several times (˜4-8) larger than the initial cold ion gyroradius. Cold ions are accelerated and thermalized during magnetic reconnection and form ion beams moving with velocities close to the Alfvén velocity.

  8. The emotional contagion scale: factor structure and psychometric properties in a Portuguese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueff-Lopes, Rita; Caetano, António

    2012-12-01

    This manuscript examined the psychometric properties and factor structure of the emotional contagion scale in a Portuguese sample. The original scale was first given to a sample of 1445 individuals to verify its internal consistency. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Results suggested that the data from the emotional contagion scale are best fit by a one-factor model. Differences between sexes were assessed and higher susceptibility to emotional contagion was observed in women than in men. Convergent and discriminant validity analyses were also conducted. The Portuguese version of the emotional contagion scale also had good internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities; thus it is a psychometrically sound measure within a Portuguese population.

  9. Soil structure interaction calculations: a comparison of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wight, L.; Zaslawsky, M.

    1976-07-22

    Two approaches for calculating soil structure interaction (SSI) are compared: finite element and lumped mass. Results indicate that the calculations with the lumped mass method are generally conservative compared to those obtained by the finite element method. They also suggest that a closer agreement between the two sets of calculations is possible, depending on the use of frequency-dependent soil springs and dashpots in the lumped mass calculations. There is a total lack of suitable guidelines for implementing the lumped mass method of calculating SSI, which leads to the conclusion that the finite element method is generally superior for calculative purposes.

  10. Measurement structure of the caregiver burden scale: findings from a national community survey in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Linen Nymphas; Wu, Shwu-Chong

    2014-01-01

    There is no appropriate understanding of community family caregiver burden. The object of the present study was to evaluate the measurement structure of a caregiver burden scale from a nationally representative Taiwanese community sample. Data from nationally representative subjects completing face-to-face interviews on caregiver burden were analyzed. A total of 9020 primary adult family caregivers were enrolled. All of the valid respondents were equally divided into three subsamples. The first sample was used to explore the factor structure of burden scale. The second sample was used to validate the factor structure. The third sample was used to verify the adequacy and stability of the factor structures developed in the former steps. A total of 8826 valid data were included for analysis. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis identified the four-factor, 15-item Caregiver Burden Scale (CBS-15) in the present study. The extracted four factors were predominantly accounted for by the items measuring "burden of time," "relational burden," "financial burden" and "emotional burden". All the goodness-of-fit indices reported for this model were acceptable. The present study supports the usefulness of the CBS-15 as a tool to understand the measurement structure of burden in a nationally representative Taiwanese community family caregivers sample. The CBS-15 can be used to identify community caregiver needs. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Compressive Coherent Structures at Ion Scales in the Slow Solar Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Perrone, D; Mangeney, A; Maksimovic, M; Lacombe, C; Rokoto, V; Kasper, J C; Jovanovic, D

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of magnetic field fluctuations, in a slow solar wind stream, close to ion scales, where an increase of the level of magnetic compressibility is observed. Here, the nature of these compressive fluctuations is found to be characterized by coherent structures. Although previous studies have shown that current sheets can be considered as the principal cause of intermittency at ion scales, here we show for the first time that, in the case of the slow solar wind, a large variety of coherent structures contributes to intermittency at proton scales, and current sheets are not the most common. Specifically, we find compressive ($\\delta b_{\\|} \\gg \\delta b_{\\perp}$), linearly polarized structures in the form of magnetic holes, solitons and shock waves. Examples of Alfv\\'enic structures ($\\delta b_{\\perp} > \\delta b_{\\|}$) are identified as current sheets and vortex-like structures. Some of these vortices have $ \\delta b_{\\perp} \\gg \\delta b_{\\|}$, as in the case of Alfv\\'en vortices, but the majority...

  12. Compound semiconductor alloys: From atomic-scale structure to bandgap bowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnohr, C. S.

    2015-09-01

    Compound semiconductor alloys such as InxGa1-xAs, GaAsxP1-x, or CuInxGa1-xSe2 are increasingly employed in numerous electronic, optoelectronic, and photonic devices due to the possibility of tuning their properties over a wide parameter range simply by adjusting the alloy composition. Interestingly, the material properties are also determined by the atomic-scale structure of the alloys on the subnanometer scale. These local atomic arrangements exhibit a striking deviation from the average crystallographic structure featuring different element-specific bond lengths, pronounced bond angle relaxation and severe atomic displacements. The latter, in particular, have a strong influence on the bandgap energy and give rise to a significant contribution to the experimentally observed bandgap bowing. This article therefore reviews experimental and theoretical studies of the atomic-scale structure of III-V and II-VI zincblende alloys and I-III-VI2 chalcopyrite alloys and explains the characteristic findings in terms of bond length and bond angle relaxation. Different approaches to describe and predict the bandgap bowing are presented and the correlation with local structural parameters is discussed in detail. The article further highlights both similarities and differences between the cubic zincblende alloys and the more complex chalcopyrite alloys and demonstrates that similar effects can also be expected for other tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors of the adamantine structural family.

  13. Development of Teachers’ Structural Empowerment Scale (TSES: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Iliman Puskulluoglu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a data collection tool in order to define the levels of teachers’ structural empowerment. The sample of the research consists of teachers of primary, secondary and high schools. For the construct validity, explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses are done. The five-factor structure, emerged as the result of explanatory factor analysis (EFA, is; Participatory Decision-Making Environment (DM, Accountable Environment (AE, Professional Development Supportive Environment (PD, Facilitative School Environment (FE, and Autonomy-Supportive Environment (AS. This five-factor structure accounts for 65.01% of the total variance. The scale is comprised of a five-point Likert type 30 items ranging from “1-completely disagree” to “5-completely agree”. The five-factor, 30 item structure emerged at the end of EFA, is also analyzed via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, and the results show that the scale has good fit (χ2/sd= 2.93, RMSEA= .079, NFI= .96, NNFI= .97, CFI= .97, IFI= .97, RMR= .04, SRMR= .05. For the reliability of the scale, item total correlations, Cronbach’s Alpha internal consistency coefficients and item means of the upper and lower 27% groups are examined. Consequently, a psychometrically adequate, valid and reliable data collection tool is developed to assess teachers’ structural empowerment.

  14. Motivations for Choosing Teaching as a Career: An International Comparison Using the FIT-Choice Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Helen M. G.; Richardson, Paul W.; Klusmann, Uta; Kunter, Mareike; Beyer, Beate; Trautwein, Ulrich; Baumert, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Motivations for preservice teachers' choice of teaching as a career were investigated using the Factors Influencing Teaching Choice scale (FIT-Choice scale; Watt & Richardson, 2007). This scale was initially developed and validated in the Australian context; our study applied it across international samples from Australia, the United States,…

  15. Self-Monitoring: A Comparison of Snyder, and Lennox and Wolfe Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Martin A.; And Others

    This research compares the Snyder (1974) and Lennox and Wolfe (1982) self-monitoring scales. The data indicate that the Snyder scale is multidimensional. The factors of the Snyder scale correlate dissimilarly with important characteristics of self-monitors. Only the other-directedness factor is significantly related to behavioral cross situational…

  16. CONSERT constrains the internal structure of 67P at a few metres size scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarletti, Valérie; Herique, Alain; Lasue, Jérémie; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Plettemeier, Dirk; Lemmonier, Florentin; Guiffaut, Christophe; Pasquero, Pierre; Kofman, Wlodek

    2017-07-01

    The internal properties of cometary nuclei are the best clues to the size distribution and properties of the early planetesimals that formed the planets during the early Solar system nebula processes. The CONSERT radar was designed to probe the interior of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with a wavelength of about 3 m. It was successfully operated during the First Science Sequence of the Rosetta mission when the CONSERT's wave propagated through part of the nucleus' small lobe. The shape of the received signals provides some hints about the internal structure of the comet's small lobe. The limited broadening observed on the received pulses is compared to simulations performed on a series of non-homogeneous nucleus models to put constrains on the potential structures at the wavelength's scale. The study allows to exclude structures showing a permittivity contrast larger than 0.25 inside the sounded part of the nucleus at a few metres size scale.

  17. Multi-scale structure, pasting and digestibility of heat moisture treated red adzuki bean starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Zhaoyuan; Li, Xiaoxi; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Binjia

    2017-09-01

    The pasting and digestibility of a red adzuki bean starch were simultaneously modulated by heat-moisture treatment (HMT) through altering the multi-scale structure. HMT, especially at high moisture content, could disrupt the granule integrity, semicrystalline lamellae, molecular order (crystallites) and molecular chains. Also, certain rearrangement of starch molecules occurred to form ordered structures with increased thermal stability as shown by DSC. This concomitant disordering and reassembly in the multi-scale structure converted the fractions of resistant starch (RS) and rapidly digestible starch (RDS) into that of slowly digestible starch (SDS). Furthermore, the emergence of thermally-stable orders increased the pasting temperature but suppressed the swelling of granules during heating. Hence, HMT-modified red adzuki starch may serve as a potential thickener/gelling agent with slow digestion rate for various foods. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Multiple scales of patchiness and patch structure: a hierarchical framework for the study of heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotliar, Natasha B.; Wiens, John A.

    1990-01-01

    We develop a hierarchical model of heterogeneity that provides a framework for classifying patch structure across a range of scales. Patches at lower levels in the hierarchy are more simplistic and correspond to the traditional view of patches. At levels approaching the upper bounds of the hierarchy the internal structure becomes more heterogeneous and boundaries more ambiguous. At each level in the hierarchy, patch structure will be influenced by both contrast among patches as well as the degree of aggregation of patches at lower levels in the hierarchy. We apply this model to foraging theory, but it has wider applications as in the study of habitat selection, population dynamics, and habitat fragmentation. It may also be useful in expanding the realm of landscape ecology beyond the current focus on anthropocentric scales.

  19. Comparison between scaling-root-planing (SRP and SRP/photodynamic therapy: six-month study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berakdar Mohammad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The purpose of this long-term clinical study was to examine the additional efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT to scaling and root planing (SRP in patients with chronic periodontal disease. Methods A total of 22 patients (mean age: 59.3 ± 11.7 years with chronic periodontal disease and four teeth with probing depth ≥ 5 mm were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were: no systemic disease, no smoking, no pregnancy and no long-term medication. Beside the anamnesis, the following clinical parameters were assessed at baseline (one week before therapy, and one, three and six months after the therapy: bleeding on probing (BOP, plaque index (PI probing depth (PD, and clinical attachment loss. All measurements were done by the same examiner with a fixed periodontal probe (PCP 12, Hu-Friedy at six measurements/tooth. In each patient, two teeth were treated with SRP alone and two teeth with SRP and PDT (Periowave, Ondine Biopharma, Vancouver, Canada. The nonparametric Wilcoxon test for paired samples was used for comparison of the effect of the two treatments (p ≤ 0.05. Results After both types of treatment, the number of teeth positive for BOP declined. At baseline, the CAL measured 7.2 ± 1.2 mm (SRP or 8.1 ± 1.3 mm (SRP/PDT; one, three and six months after both types of treatment an improvement was observed. At baseline, the probing depth was 5.9 ± 0.8 mm (SRP or 6.4 ± 0.8 mm (SRP/PDT; after six months, an improvement of 2.4 ± 0.6 mm (SRP or 2.9 ± 0.8 mm (SRP/PDT was found. The greater reduction of the PD, achieved by a combination of SRP/PDT, was statistically significant after six months (p = 0.007. Conclusion This clinical study demonstrates that SRP in combination with PDT seems to be effective and is therefore suitable as an adjuvant therapy to the mechanical conditioning of the periodontal pockets in patients with chronic periodontal diseases.

  20. Comparison of residual NAPL source removal techniques in 3D metric scale experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteia, O.; Jousse, F.; Cohen, G.; Höhener, P.

    2017-07-01

    the contaminant fluxes, which were different for each technique. This paper presents the first comparison of four remediation techniques at the scale of 1 m3 tanks including heterogeneities. Sparging, persulfate and surfactant only remove 50% of the mass, while it is more than 99% for thermal. In terms of flux removal oxidant addition performs better when density effects are used.

  1. Polish Adaptation And Validation Of The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (Pacs) - An Analysis Among Young People In Late Adolescence In The Context Of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzielska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna; Nałęcz, Hanna; Oblacińska, Anna; Strucińska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The PACS scale is a tool which is widely used in foreign studies to evaluate the tendency towards appearance comparisons in social situations. People inclined to make such comparisons reveal a higher level of dissatisfaction with their body and a higher inclination towards problem eating. The main purpose of the study was to adapt the PACS scale. A factor structure assessment and reliability analysis of the Polish version was carried out. The correlation between PACS and pubertal development indicators, the body mass index and psycho-social factors and eating behaviours were evaluated as part of the validity analysis. The data were derived from the Internet-based study of problem eating behaviours conducted by the Institute of Mother and Child during the 2014/2015 school year. The analyses covered 1285 second grade upper secondary school students (47.2% boys). The mean age was 17.59 years (SD=0.39). An exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the PACS questionnaire was performed. Using the Kruskal-Wallis test or the Pearson's r correlation, the association between (PACSPL) and perceived pubertal timing, BMI, the body image (BIS), self-perception of body mass, self-esteem (RSES), self-esteem in social relations (SPPA-SSE), problem eating behaviours (TFEQ-13) were evaluated. The linear regression method was used to estimate the impact of PACS-PL on selected variables in the BMI groups in order to investigate of the moderation effect. The shortened 3-item Polish version of the scale (PACS-PL) was considered optimal. It is characterized by high reliability (Cronbach's α=0.868), and the main factor explains 79.1% of the variance of the scale results. The model also shows high values of fit indicators: χ2 = 1.144 (df=1, p=0.285), GFI=0.999, AGFI=0.996, CFI=1.000, NFI=0.999, TLI-1.000, RMSEA=0.011. Girls display a stronger tendency to compare their appearance with others. The PACS-PL scale demonstrates the expected correlations with developmental, psycho

  2. Pulsar Rotation Measures and the Large-Scale Structure of the Galactic Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J. L.; Manchester, R. N.; Lyne, A. G.; Qiao, G. J.; van Straten, W.

    2006-05-01

    The large-scale magnetic field of our Galaxy can be probed in three dimensions using Faraday rotation of pulsar signals. We report on the determination of 223 rotation measures from polarization observations of relatively distant southern pulsars made using the Parkes radio telescope. Combined with previously published observations, these data give clear evidence for large-scale counterclockwise fields (viewed from the north Galactic pole) in the spiral arms interior to the Sun and weaker evidence for a counterclockwise field in the Perseus arm. However, in interarm regions, including the solar neighborhood, we present evidence that suggests that large-scale fields are clockwise. We propose that the large-scale Galactic magnetic field has a bisymmetric structure with reversals on the boundaries of the spiral arms. Streaming motions associated with spiral density waves can directly generate such a structure from an initial, inwardly directed radial field. Large-scale fields increase toward the Galactic center, with a mean value of about 2 μG in the solar neighborhood and 4 μG at a galactocentric radius of 3 kpc.

  3. Morphological Characterization and Effective Thermal Conductivity of Dual-Scale Reticulated Porous Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ackermann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reticulated porous ceramic (RPC made of ceria are promising structures used in solar thermochemical redox cycles for splitting CO2 and H2O. They feature dual-scale porosity with mm-size pores for effective radiative heat transfer during reduction and µm-size pores within its struts for enhanced kinetics during oxidation. In this work, the detailed 3D digital representation of the complex dual-scale RPC is obtained using synchrotron submicrometer tomography and X-ray microtomography. Total and open porosity, pore size distribution, mean pore diameter, and specific surface area are extracted from the computer tomography (CT scans. The 3D digital geometry is then applied in direct pore level simulations (DPLS of Fourier’s law within the solid and the fluid phases for the accurate determination of the effective thermal conductivity at each porosity scale and combined, and for fluid-to-solid thermal conductivity from 10−5 to 1. Results are compared to predictions by analytical models for structures with a wide range of porosities 0.09–0.9 in both the strut’s µm-scale and bulk’s mm-scale. The morphological properties and effective thermal conductivity determined in this work serve as an input to volume-averaged models for the design and optimization of solar chemical reactors.

  4. Morphological Characterization and Effective Thermal Conductivity of Dual-Scale Reticulated Porous Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Simon; Scheffe, Jonathan R; Duss, Jonas; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2014-10-28

    Reticulated porous ceramic (RPC) made of ceria are promising structures used in solar thermochemical redox cycles for splitting CO₂ and H₂O. They feature dual-scale porosity with mm-size pores for effective radiative heat transfer during reduction and µm-size pores within its struts for enhanced kinetics during oxidation. In this work, the detailed 3D digital representation of the complex dual-scale RPC is obtained using synchrotron submicrometer tomography and X-ray microtomography. Total and open porosity, pore size distribution, mean pore diameter, and specific surface area are extracted from the computer tomography (CT) scans. The 3D digital geometry is then applied in direct pore level simulations (DPLS) of Fourier's law within the solid and the fluid phases for the accurate determination of the effective thermal conductivity at each porosity scale and combined, and for fluid-to-solid thermal conductivity from 10-5 to 1. Results are compared to predictions by analytical models for structures with a wide range of porosities 0.09-0.9 in both the strut's µm-scale and bulk's mm-scale. The morphological properties and effective thermal conductivity determined in this work serve as an input to volume-averaged models for the design and optimization of solar chemical reactors.

  5. x- and xi-scaling of the Nuclear Structure Function at Large x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Arrington; C. S. Armstrong; T. Averett; O. K. Baker; L. de Bever; C. W. Bochna; W. Boeglin; B. Bray; R. D. Carlini; G. Collins; C. Cothran; D. Crabb; D. Day; J. A. Dunne; D. Dutta; R. Ent; B. W. Filippone; A. Honegger; E. W. Hughes; J. Jensen; J. Jourdan; C. E. Keppel; D. M. Koltenuk; R. Lindgren; A. Lung; D. J Mack; J. McCarthy; R. D. McKeown; D. Meekins; J. H. Mitchell; H. G. Mkrtchyan; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; T. Petitjean; O. Rondon; I. Sick; C. Smith; B. Terburg; W. F. Vulcan; S. A. Wood; C. Yan; J. Zhao; B. Zihlmann

    2001-07-01

    Inclusive electron scattering data are presented for {sup 2}H and Fe targets at an incident electron energy of 4.045 GeV for a range of momentum transfers from Q{sup 2} = 1 to 7 (GeV/c){sup 2}. Data were taken at Jefferson Laboratory for low values of energy loss, corresponding to values of Bjorken x greater than or near 1. The structure functions do not show scaling in x in this range, where inelastic scattering is not expected to dominate the cross section. The data do show scaling, however, in the Nachtmann variable {xi}. This scaling may be the result of Bloom Gilman duality in the nucleon structure function combined with the Fermi motion of the nucleons in the nucleus. The resulting extension of scaling to larger values of {xi} opens up the possibility of accessing nuclear structure functions in the high-x region at lower values of Q{sup 2} than previously believed.

  6. Scaling exponents of the velocity structure functions in the interplanetary medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Carbone

    Full Text Available We analyze the scaling exponents of the velocity structure functions, obtained from the velocity fluctuations measured in the interplanetary space plasma. Using the expression for the energy transfer rate which seems the most relevant in describing the evolution of the pseudo-energy densities in the interplanetary medium, we introduce an energy cascade model derived from a simple fragmentation process, which takes into account the intermittency effect. In the absence and in the presence of the large-scale magnetic field decorrelation effect the model reduces to the fluid and the hydromagnetic p-model, respectively. We show that the scaling exponents of the q-th power of the velocity structure functions, as obtained by the model in the absence of the decorrelation effect, furnishes the best-fit to the data analyzed from the Voyager 2 velocity field measurements at 8.5 AU. Our results allow us to hypothesize a new kind of scale-similarity for magnetohydrodynamic turbulence when the decorrelation effect is at work, related to the fourth-order velocity structure function.

  7. A multi-scaled approach to evaluating the fish assemblage structure within southern Appalachian streams USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Joseph; Peterson, James T.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable uncertainty about the relative roles of stream habitat and landscape characteristics in structuring stream-fish assemblages. We evaluated the relative importance of environmental characteristics on fish occupancy at the local and landscape scales within the upper Little Tennessee River basin of Georgia and North Carolina. Fishes were sampled using a quadrat sample design at 525 channel units within 48 study reaches during two consecutive years. We evaluated species–habitat relationships (local and landscape factors) by developing hierarchical, multispecies occupancy models. Modeling results suggested that fish occupancy within the Little Tennessee River basin was primarily influenced by stream topology and topography, urban land coverage, and channel unit types. Landscape scale factors (e.g., urban land coverage and elevation) largely controlled the fish assemblage structure at a stream-reach level, and local-scale factors (i.e., channel unit types) influenced fish distribution within stream reaches. Our study demonstrates the utility of a multi-scaled approach and the need to account for hierarchy and the interscale interactions of factors influencing assemblage structure prior to monitoring fish assemblages, developing biological management plans, or allocating management resources throughout a stream system.

  8. The Impact of Baryons on the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiguang; Zhang, Youcai

    2017-06-01

    Numerical simulations play an important role in current astronomy researches. Previous dark-matter-only simulations have represented the large-scale structure of the Universe. However, nowadays, hydro-dynamical simulations with baryonic models, which can directly present realistic galaxies, may twist these results from dark-matter-only simulations. In this chapter, we mainly focus on these three statistical methods: power spectrum, two-point correlation function and halo mass function, which are normally used to characterize the large-scale structure of the Universe. We review how these baryon processes influence the cosmology structures from very large scale to quasi-linear and non-linear scales by comparing dark-matter-only simulations with their hydro-dynamical counterparts. At last, we make a brief discussion on the impacts coming from different baryon models and simulation codes. Please have a look at the updated one at arXiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/1708.02644 for an additional section.

  9. On Spatial Resolution in Habitat Models: Can Small-scale Forest Structure Explain Capercaillie Numbers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Storch

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of spatial resolution on the performance and applicability of habitat models in wildlife management and conservation. A Habitat Suitability Index (HSI model for the Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus in the Bavarian Alps, Germany, is presented. The model was exclusively built on non-spatial, small-scale variables of forest structure and without any consideration of landscape patterns. The main goal was to assess whether a HSI model developed from small-scale habitat preferences can explain differences in population abundance at larger scales. To validate the model, habitat variables and indirect sign of Capercaillie use (such as feathers or feces were mapped in six study areas based on a total of 2901 20 m radius (for habitat variables and 5 m radius sample plots (for Capercaillie sign. First, the model's representation of Capercaillie habitat preferences was assessed. Habitat selection, as expressed by Ivlev's electivity index, was closely related to HSI scores, increased from poor to excellent habitat suitability, and was consistent across all study areas. Then, habitat use was related to HSI scores at different spatial scales. Capercaillie use was best predicted from HSI scores at the small scale. Lowering the spatial resolution of the model stepwise to 36-ha, 100-ha, 400-ha, and 2000-ha areas and relating Capercaillie use to aggregated HSI scores resulted in a deterioration of fit at larger scales. Most importantly, there were pronounced differences in Capercaillie abundance at the scale of study areas, which could not be explained by the HSI model. The results illustrate that even if a habitat model correctly reflects a species' smaller scale habitat preferences, its potential to predict population abundance at larger scales may remain limited.

  10. Comparison of a structural and a functional epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, B C; Wells, J A

    1993-12-05

    A comprehensive analysis of the energetic importance of the 31 side-chains buried at the interface between human growth hormone (hGH) and the extracellular binding domain of its receptor (hGHbp) has been carried out to assess the roles of contact side-chains in modulating the affinity and kinetics of binding. Each side-chain in hGH was converted to alanine, and the kinetics and affinity were measured using a biosensor device. This detects binding of the mutated hormones to the immobilized hGHbp by changes induced in refractive index. The data generated on the biosensor match affinities obtained by radio-immune assay in solution. The study shows that only one-quarter of the side-chains buried at the interface can account for the majority of the binding energy. These residues cluster near the center of the structural epitope. The role of these side-chains is predominantly to slow dissociation because most of the effect of the alanine substitutions is to increase the off-rate, not to slow the on-rate. The hormone associates about 10,000 times slower than expected from random diffusion but 1000 times faster than may be expected if one imposes strict orientation restraints for a productive collision. Electrostatic interactions partly modulate association because mutations at Arg residues most affect association and together contribute a factor of about 20 to the on-rate. The data suggest that the hormone and receptor associate by diffusion and electrostatics to form an ensemble of weak collisional complexes. From these a bound complex is produced that is stabilized by only a small proportion of the contacts. We suggest that solvation energies and/or side-chains interactions within the free hormone or receptor may be so favorable that little energy is gained at most side-chains upon binding. The fact that the functional binding epitope is much smaller than the structural epitope suggests it may be possible to design smaller hormone mimics.

  11. Scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities using functional diversity and community deconstruction approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro Giovâni da; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Community structure is driven by mechanisms linked to environmental, spatial and temporal processes, which have been successfully addressed using metacommunity framework. The relative importance of processes shaping community structure can be identified using several different approaches. Two approaches that are increasingly being used are functional diversity and community deconstruction. Functional diversity is measured using various indices that incorporate distinct community attributes. Community deconstruction is a way to disentangle species responses to ecological processes by grouping species with similar traits. We used these two approaches to determine whether they are improvements over traditional measures (e.g., species composition, abundance, biomass) for identification of the main processes driving dung beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in a fragmented mainland-island landscape in southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We sampled five sites in each of four large forest areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. Sampling was performed in 2012 and 2013. We collected abundance and biomass data from 100 sampling points distributed over 20 sampling sites. We studied environmental, spatial and temporal effects on dung beetle community across three spatial scales, i.e., between sites, between areas and mainland-island. The γ-diversity based on species abundance was mainly attributed to β-diversity as a consequence of the increase in mean α- and β-diversity between areas. Variation partitioning on abundance, biomass and functional diversity showed scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities. We identified two major groups of responses among 17 functional groups. In general, environmental filters were important at both local and regional scales. Spatial factors were important at the intermediate scale. Our study supports the notion of scale-dependence of environmental, spatial and temporal processes in the distribution

  12. Scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities using functional diversity and community deconstruction approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Giovâni da Silva

    Full Text Available Community structure is driven by mechanisms linked to environmental, spatial and temporal processes, which have been successfully addressed using metacommunity framework. The relative importance of processes shaping community structure can be identified using several different approaches. Two approaches that are increasingly being used are functional diversity and community deconstruction. Functional diversity is measured using various indices that incorporate distinct community attributes. Community deconstruction is a way to disentangle species responses to ecological processes by grouping species with similar traits. We used these two approaches to determine whether they are improvements over traditional measures (e.g., species composition, abundance, biomass for identification of the main processes driving dung beetle (Scarabaeinae community structure in a fragmented mainland-island landscape in southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We sampled five sites in each of four large forest areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. Sampling was performed in 2012 and 2013. We collected abundance and biomass data from 100 sampling points distributed over 20 sampling sites. We studied environmental, spatial and temporal effects on dung beetle community across three spatial scales, i.e., between sites, between areas and mainland-island. The γ-diversity based on species abundance was mainly attributed to β-diversity as a consequence of the increase in mean α- and β-diversity between areas. Variation partitioning on abundance, biomass and functional diversity showed scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities. We identified two major groups of responses among 17 functional groups. In general, environmental filters were important at both local and regional scales. Spatial factors were important at the intermediate scale. Our study supports the notion of scale-dependence of environmental, spatial and temporal processes in

  13. A direct comparison of protein structure in the gas and solution phase: the Trp-cage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patriksson, Alexandra; Adams, Christopher M; Kjeldsen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of zwitterions of the Trp-cage protein in the gas phase show that the most stable ion in vacuo has preserved the charge locations acquired in solution. A direct comparison of the gas and solution-phase structures reveals that, despite the similarity in charge location......, there is significant difference in the structures, with a substantial increase in hydrogen bonds and exposure of hydrophobic parts in the gas phase. The structure of the salt bridge in the gas phase is also much more stable than in the (experimental) solution structure....

  14. Nano-scale structure in membranes in relation to enzyme action - computer simulation vs. experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, P.; Jørgensen, Kent; Mouritsen, O.G.

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing theoretical and experimental evidence indicating that small-scale domain structure and dynamical heterogeneity develop in lipid membranes as a consequence of the the underlying phase transitions and the associated density and composition fluctuations. The relevant coherence le...... mixtures show that the enzyme activity is modulated by nano-scale lipid-domain formation in the lipid bilayer and lead to a characteristic lag-burst behavior. The simulations are found to be in semi-quantitative agreement with experimental data....

  15. An investigation into the factor structure of the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. Henn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South African studies investigating the factor structure of the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-being (RPWB are needed to ensure that the instrument is valid and reliable within the South African context.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the factor structure of the RPWB within two South African samples. Motivation for the study: Although a substantial number of studies have been undertaken, results regarding the factor structure of the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being are inconclusive. There is a dearth of information in relation to South African studies examining the scales’ factor structure.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative research approach using a crosssectional field survey design was utilised. An adult working group (n = 202 was selected using convenience sampling, and a student group (n = 226 was selected by means of purposive non-probability sampling. An Exploratory Factor Analysis and a Confirmatory Factor Analysis were conducted to examine the factor structure.Main findings: The preferred model was a two-factor model where all the positively worded items were grouped in the first factor and all the negatively worded items were grouped in the second factor.Practical/managerial implications: The factor structure of the original RPWB was not satisfactorily replicated and remains seemingly unsettled. The utility of negatively worded items should be considered carefully, and alternatives such as mixed response options and phrase completion should be explored. The scales should be used with caution.Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the literature concerning the factor structure of the RPWB with an emphasis on the South African context. It contributes to ensuring that researchers and practitioners use a valid and reliable instrument when measuring psychological well-being.

  16. Optimal fine-scale structures in compliance minimization for a uniaxial load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Robert V; Wirth, Benedikt

    2014-10-08

    We consider the optimization of the topology and geometry of an elastic structure [Formula: see text] subjected to a fixed boundary load, i.e. we aim to minimize a weighted sum of material volume [Formula: see text], structure perimeter [Formula: see text] and structure compliance [Formula: see text] (which is the work done by the load). As a first simple and instructive case, this paper treats the situation of an imposed uniform uniaxial tension load in two dimensions. If the weight ε of the perimeter is small, optimal geometries exhibit very fine-scale structure which cannot be resolved by numerical optimization. Instead, we prove how the minimum energy scales in ε, which involves the construction of a family of near-optimal geometries and thus provides qualitative insights. The construction is based on a classical branching procedure with some features unique to compliance minimization. The proof of the energy scaling also requires an ansatz-independent lower bound, which we derive once via a classical convex duality argument (which is restricted to two dimensions and the uniaxial load) and once via a Fourier-based refinement of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for the effective elastic moduli of composite materials. We also highlight the close relation to and the differences from shape optimization with a scalar PDE-constraint and a link to the pattern formation observed in intermediate states of type-I superconductors.

  17. A structure-based distance metric for high-dimensional space exploration with multidimensional scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jenny Hyunjung; McDonnell, Kevin T; Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, Dan; Mueller, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    Although the euclidean distance does well in measuring data distances within high-dimensional clusters, it does poorly when it comes to gauging intercluster distances. This significantly impacts the quality of global, low-dimensional space embedding procedures such as the popular multidimensional scaling (MDS) where one can often observe nonintuitive layouts. We were inspired by the perceptual processes evoked in the method of parallel coordinates which enables users to visually aggregate the data by the patterns the polylines exhibit across the dimension axes. We call the path of such a polyline its structure and suggest a metric that captures this structure directly in high-dimensional space. This allows us to better gauge the distances of spatially distant data constellations and so achieve data aggregations in MDS plots that are more cognizant of existing high-dimensional structure similarities. Our biscale framework distinguishes far-distances from near-distances. The coarser scale uses the structural similarity metric to separate data aggregates obtained by prior classification or clustering, while the finer scale employs the appropriate euclidean distance.

  18. Spatial distribution of ultra-diffuse galaxies within large-scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Javier; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2017-06-01

    Taking advantage of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe82 data, we have explored the spatial distribution of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) within an area of 8 × 8 Mpc2 centred around the galaxy cluster Abell 168 (z = 0.045). This intermediate massive cluster (σ = 550 km s-1) is surrounded by a complex large-scale structure. Our work confirms the presence of UDGs in the cluster and in the large-scale structure that surrounds it, and it is the first detection of UDGs outside clusters. Approximately 50 per cent of the UDGs analysed in the selected area inhabit the cluster region (˜11 ± 5 per cent in the core and ˜39 ± 9 per cent in the outskirts), whereas the remaining UDGs are found outside the main cluster structure (˜50 ± 11 per cent). The colours and the spatial distribution of the UDGs within this large-scale structure are more similar to dwarf galaxies than to L⋆ galaxies, suggesting that most UDGs could be bona fide dwarf galaxies.

  19. Multi-scale structural changes of starch-based material during microwave and conventional heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Li, Lin; Zhang, Shuyan; Li, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Binjia

    2016-11-01

    This work revealed the influence of thermal processing on the microstructural, mesoscopic and molecular scale structures and thus the plasticizer migration of the starch ester films. Thermal processing promoted the permeation of water molecules to hinder the shrink of the amorphous macromolecules. That is, the swelling of the amorphous macromolecules diminished the ordered regions to a certain degree, resulting in the enlarged amorphous regions. Along with slight degradation of the macromolecules, the crystallites were partially disorganized, as indicated by a reduced relative crystallinity. These multi-scale structural changes of the films and the thermally enhanced mobility of plasticizer molecules synergistically enhanced the plasticizer migration. This study not only enables a well understanding of how thermal treatment alters the plasticizer migration of starch-based films from a multi-scale structural view, but also hints to our future work that rationally modulating the structural features of starch-based film may effectively control the migration of chemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparison between the Static Balance Test and the Berg Balance Scale: validity, reliability, and comparative resource use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickenbrock, Heidrun Maria; Diel, Andrea; Zapf, Antonia

    2016-03-01

    Within a sample of acute post-stroke patients, to compare the score on the Berg Balance Scale and the Static Balance Test for validity, inter-rater reliability, and the expenditure of time. Prospective, intra-individual, cross-sectional evaluation study. Acute stroke unit of a university hospital in Germany. A total of 53 patients with acute stroke who did not have other pathology affecting their balance. For intra-individual comparisons of the Berg Balance Scale and the Static Balance Test, Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. For inter-rater reliability, Bland Altman plots were drawn and the corresponding mean difference and limits of agreement were calculated. The Static Balance Test took three to five minutes; the Berg Balance Scale 20-30 minutes. There was a high correlation between the scores on the Berg Balance Scale and the Static Balance Test (r = 0.91). For the Berg Balance Scale, the mean difference between the two raters was 0.13 and the limits of agreement were small (-0.25; 0.51). For the Static Balance Test, the mean difference between the two raters was -0.02 and also the limits of agreement (-0.06; 0.02) were even smaller than for the Berg Balance Scale. Both scales showed excellent inter-rater reliability. The Static Balance Test was compared with the Berg Balance Scale and turned out to be equally valid, more reliable, and takes much less time. For the moment, the scale can be recommended for the use in acute stroke care, especially for the daily routine therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. The temporal structures and functional significance of scale-free brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Biyu J; Zempel, John M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Raichle, Marcus E

    2010-05-13

    Scale-free dynamics, with a power spectrum following P proportional to f(-beta), are an intrinsic feature of many complex processes in nature. In neural systems, scale-free activity is often neglected in electrophysiological research. Here, we investigate scale-free dynamics in human brain and show that it contains extensive nested frequencies, with the phase of lower frequencies modulating the amplitude of higher frequencies in an upward progression across the frequency spectrum. The functional significance of scale-free brain activity is indicated by task performance modulation and regional variation, with beta being larger in default network and visual cortex and smaller in hippocampus and cerebellum. The precise patterns of nested frequencies in the brain differ from other scale-free dynamics in nature, such as earth seismic waves and stock market fluctuations, suggesting system-specific generative mechanisms. Our findings reveal robust temporal structures and behavioral significance of scale-free brain activity and should motivate future study on its physiological mechanisms and cognitive implications. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective role of Arapaima gigas fish scales: structure and mechanical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Sherman, Vincent R; Gludovatz, Bernd; Mackey, Mason; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Chang, Edwin H; Schaible, Eric; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2014-08-01

    The scales of the arapaima (Arapaima gigas), one of the largest freshwater fish in the world, can serve as inspiration for the design of flexible dermal armor. Each scale is composed of two layers: a laminate composite of parallel collagen fibrils and a hard, highly mineralized surface layer. We review the structure of the arapaima scales and examine the functions of the different layers, focusing on the mechanical behavior, including tension and penetration of the scales, with and without the highly mineralized outer layer. We show that the fracture of the mineral and the stretching, rotation and delamination of collagen fibrils dissipate a significant amount of energy prior to catastrophic failure, providing high toughness and resistance to penetration by predator teeth. We show that the arapaima's scale has evolved to minimize damage from penetration by predator teeth through a Bouligand-like arrangement of successive layers, each consisting of parallel collagen fibrils with different orientations. This inhibits crack propagation and restricts damage to an area adjoining the penetration. The flexibility of the lamellae is instrumental to the redistribution of the compressive stresses in the underlying tissue, decreasing the severity of the concentrated load produced by the action of a tooth. The experimental results, combined with small-angle X-ray scattering characterization and molecular dynamics simulations, provide a complete picture of the mechanisms of deformation, delamination and rotation of the lamellae during tensile extension of the scale. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Enceladus Plume Structure and Time Variability: Comparison of Cassini Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teolis, Ben D; Perry, Mark E; Hansen, Candice J; Waite, J Hunter; Porco, Carolyn C; Spencer, John R; Howett, Carly J A

    2017-09-01

    During three low-altitude (99, 66, 66 km) flybys through the Enceladus plume in 2010 and 2011, Cassini's ion neutral mass spectrometer (INMS) made its first high spatial resolution measurements of the plume's gas density and distribution, detecting in situ the individual gas jets within the broad plume. Since those flybys, more detailed Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) imaging observations of the plume's icy component have been reported, which constrain the locations and orientations of the numerous gas/grain jets. In the present study, we used these ISS imaging results, together with ultraviolet imaging spectrograph stellar and solar occultation measurements and modeling of the three-dimensional structure of the vapor cloud, to constrain the magnitudes, velocities, and time variability of the plume gas sources from the INMS data. Our results confirm a mixture of both low and high Mach gas emission from Enceladus' surface tiger stripes, with gas accelerated as fast as Mach 10 before escaping the surface. The vapor source fluxes and jet intensities/densities vary dramatically and stochastically, up to a factor 10, both spatially along the tiger stripes and over time between flyby observations. This complex spatial variability and dynamics may result from time-variable tidal stress fields interacting with subsurface fissure geometry and tortuosity beyond detectability, including changing gas pathways to the surface, and fluid flow and boiling in response evolving lithostatic stress conditions. The total plume gas source has 30% uncertainty depending on the contributions assumed for adiabatic and nonadiabatic gas expansion/acceleration to the high Mach emission. The overall vapor plume source rate exhibits stochastic time variability up to a factor ∼5 between observations, reflecting that found in the individual gas sources/jets. Key Words: Cassini at Saturn-Geysers-Enceladus-Gas dynamics-Icy satellites. Astrobiology 17, 926-940.

  4. Quantification of structural uncertainties in multi-scale models; case study of the Lublin Basin, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małolepszy, Zbigniew; Szynkaruk, Ewa

    2015-04-01

    The multiscale static modeling of regional structure of the Lublin Basin is carried on in the Polish Geological Institute, in accordance with principles of integrated 3D geological modelling. The model is based on all available geospatial data from Polish digital databases and analogue archives. Mapped regional structure covers the area of 260x80 km located between Warsaw and Polish-Ukrainian border, along NW-SE-trending margin of the East European Craton. Within the basin, the Paleozoic beds with coalbearing Carboniferous and older formations containing hydrocarbons and unconventional prospects are covered unconformably by Permo-Mesozoic and younger rocks. Vertical extent of the regional model is set from topographic surface to 6000 m ssl and at the bottom includes some Proterozoic crystalline formations of the craton. The project focuses on internal consistency of the models built at different scales - from basin (small) scale to field-scale (large-scale). The models, nested in the common structural framework, are being constructed with regional geological knowledge, ensuring smooth transition in the 3D model resolution and amount of geological detail. Major challenge of the multiscale approach to subsurface modelling is the assessment and consistent quantification of various types of geological uncertainties tied to those various scale sub-models. Decreasing amount of information with depth and, particularly, very limited data collected below exploration targets, as well as accuracy and quality of data, all have the most critical impact on the modelled structure. In deeper levels of the Lublin Basin model, seismic interpretation of 2D surveys is sparsely tied to well data. Therefore time-to-depth conversion carries one of the major uncertainties in the modeling of structures, especially below 3000 m ssl. Furthermore, as all models at different scales are based on the same dataset, we must deal with different levels of generalization of geological structures. The

  5. Distance metric learning for complex networks: Towards size-independent comparison of network structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbary, Sadegh; Motallebi, Sadegh; Rashidian, Sina; Habibi, Jafar; Movaghar, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Real networks show nontrivial topological properties such as community structure and long-tail degree distribution. Moreover, many network analysis applications are based on topological comparison of complex networks. Classification and clustering of networks, model selection, and anomaly detection are just some applications of network comparison. In these applications, an effective similarity metric is needed which, given two complex networks of possibly different sizes, evaluates the amount of similarity between the structural features of the two networks. Traditional graph comparison approaches, such as isomorphism-based methods, are not only too time consuming but also inappropriate to compare networks with different sizes. In this paper, we propose an intelligent method based on the genetic algorithms for integrating, selecting, and weighting the network features in order to develop an effective similarity measure for complex networks. The proposed similarity metric outperforms state of the art methods with respect to different evaluation criteria.

  6. Identification and comparison of structural factors of innovation capability in ESCO with desirable status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jalali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the identification and comparison of structural factors of innovation capability in Esfahan Steel Company (ESCO. Innovation is a crucial factor in growth, success, and survival of organizations. Since the innovation for organizations is not possible without the level of innovation capabilities and the need for steel products and imports of goods from developed countries has greatly increased, this study intends to investigate the factors affecting the subject that may be able to increase the production and reduce the need to import it. Evaluation of the innovation capability factors of ESCO compared with its desired status in industry can help companies develop innovative strategies and also achieve organizational goals. Statistical analysis methods and mean comparison test by examining the structure of the innovation capability in the form of a standard questionnaire was employed. The findings suggest that the innovation capability in the existing situation of ESCO in comparison with the desired situation is significantly different.

  7. A Comparison of Change in the 0–10 Numeric Rating Scale to a Pain Relief Scale and Global Medication Performance Scale in a Short-term Clinical Trial of Breakthrough Pain Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, John T.; Polomano, Rosemary C.; Berlin, Jesse A.; Strom, Brian L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pain intensity is commonly reported using a 0–10 numeric rating scale in breakthrough pain clinical trials. Analysis of the change on the Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale as a proportion as most consistently correlated with clinically important differences reported on the Patient Global Impression of Change. The analysis of data using a different global outcome measures and the pain relief scale will extend our understanding of these measures. Use of the pain relief scale is also explored in this study Methods Data came from the open titration phase of a multiple crossover, randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate to immediate-release oral morphine sulfate for treatment of cancer-related breakthrough pain. Raw and percent changes in the pain intensity scores on 1,307 from 134 oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate-naive patients were compared to the clinically relevant secondary outcomes of the pain relief verbal response scale and the global medication performance. The changes in raw and percent change were assessed over time and compared to the ordinal pain relief verbal response scale and global medication performance scales. Results The p-value of the interaction between the raw pain intensity difference was significant but not for the percent pain intensity difference score over 4 15 minute time periods (p = 0.034 and p = 0.26 respectively), in comparison with the ordinal pain relief verbal response scale (p = 0.0048 and p = 0.36 respectively), and global medication performance categories (p = 0.048 and p = 0.45 respectively). Conclusion The change in pain intensity in breakthrough pain was more consistent over time and when compared to both the pain relief verbal response scale and global medication performance scale when the percent change is used rather than raw pain intensity difference. PMID:20463579

  8. A comparison of change in the 0-10 numeric rating scale to a pain relief scale and global medication performance scale in a short-term clinical trial of breakthrough pain intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, John T; Polomano, Rosemary C; Berlin, Jesse A; Strom, Brian L

    2010-06-01

    Pain intensity is commonly reported using a 0-10 Numeric Rating Scale in pain clinical trials. Analysis of the change on the Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale as a proportion has most consistently correlated with clinically important differences reported on the patient's global impression of change. The correlation of data from patients with breakthrough pain with a Pain Relief Scale and a different global outcome measures will extend our understanding of these measures. Data were obtained from the open titration phase of a multiple crossover, randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate with immediate-release oral morphine sulfate for the treatment of cancer-related breakthrough pain. Raw and percentage changes in the pain intensity scores from 1,307 episodes of pain in 134 oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate-naïve patients were correlated with the clinically relevant secondary outcomes of Pain Relief Verbal Response Scale and the global medication performance scale. The changes in raw and percentage change were assessed over time and compared with the ordinal Pain Relief Verbal Response Scale and Global Medication Performance Scale. The P value of the interaction between the raw pain intensity difference was significant (P = 0.034) for four 15-min time periods but not for the percentage pain intensity difference score (P = 0.26). We found similar results in comparison with the ordinal Pain Relief Verbal Response Scale (P = 0.0048 and P = 0.36 respectively) and global medication performance categories (P = 0.048 and P = 0.45, respectively). The change in pain intensity in breakthrough pain was more consistent over time and when compared with both the Pain Relief Verbal Response Scale and the Global Medication Performance Scale when the percentage change is used rather than raw pain intensity difference.

  9. Dimensional measurement of micrometer-scale structures with a nanopipette ball probe by using shear-force detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, S.; Kodama, I.; Gao, W.

    2013-10-01

    A nanopipette ball probe has been introduced for the dimensional measurement of the micrometer-scale structures. A hollow glass nanopipette, which is fabricated by thermal pulling process, is used as the shaft of the probe for the detection of the contact. Since the stiffness of the glass nanopipette is lower than that of metal shaft which is similar size of the glass nanopipette, the contact force between the probe and the sample will be able to reduce in comparison with the probe of the metal shaft. The edge of the nanopipette is filled with the thermosetting resin, and a micro glass sphere with 9 mm diameter is fixed on the edge of the nanopipette probe by the thermosetting resin. By attaching the micro sphere at the edge of the nanopipette, the edge of the probe will be possible to maintain a uniform shape in all directions. With regard to the detection of the contact, the method of the shear-force detection has been employed because of its high-sensitivity and nanometer-scale resolution. The resolution and the sensitivity of the nanopipette probe are evaluated, and then surface profile measurement of the microstructure is demonstrated.

  10. Comparisons between various cavity and panel noise reduction control in double-panel structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Kalverboer, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents comparisons between various panel and cavity resonance control methods to reduce the transmitted sound in a double-panel structure. The double-panel, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, has the advantages of low weight and effective transmission-loss at high

  11. An international comparison in the general food trade: cases of structural change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Nooteboom (Bart); A.R. Thurik (Roy); J.A.C. Vollebregt

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThe paper considers general trends of structural change in terms of averages in the general food trade. It gives an international comparison of trends concerning average shop size, number of shops per 1,000 inhabitants, the share of independents and concentration. On the basis of the

  12. Sidewall patterning—a new wafer-scale method for accurate patterning of vertical silicon structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerik, P. J.; Vijselaar, W. J. C.; Berenschot, J. W.; Tas, N. R.; Huskens, J.; Gardeniers, J. G. E.

    2018-01-01

    For the definition of wafer scale micro- and nanostructures, in-plane geometry is usually controlled by optical lithography. However, options for precisely patterning structures in the out-of-plane direction are much more limited. In this paper we present a versatile self-aligned technique that allows for reproducible sub-micrometer resolution local modification along vertical silicon sidewalls. Instead of optical lithography, this method makes smart use of inclined ion beam etching to selectively etch the top parts of structures, and controlled retraction of a conformal layer to define a hard mask in the vertical direction. The top, bottom or middle part of a structure could be selectively exposed, and it was shown that these exposed regions can, for example, be selectively covered with a catalyst, doped, or structured further.

  13. Impact of aquifer heterogeneity structure and local-scale dispersion on solute concentration uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srzic, Veljko; Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Andricevic, Roko; Gotovac, Hrvoje

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of high log-conductivity variance (σY2) and local-scale dispersion on the first two concentration moments as well as on higher-order moments, skewness, and kurtosis, in a 2-D heterogeneous aquifer. Three different heterogeneity structures are considered, defined with one and the same global isotropic Gaussian variogram. The three structures differ in terms of spatial connectivity patterns at extreme log-conductivity values. Our numerical approach to simulate contaminant transport through heterogeneous porous media is based on the Lagrangian framework with a reverse tracking formulation. Advection and local-scale dispersion are two competing and controlling mechanisms, with a relative ratio defined by the Peclet number (Pe); hydraulic log-conductivity variance σY2 in the simulations is assumed to be one or eight. The term local-scale dispersion is used as a combined effect of molecular diffusion and mechanical dispersion. Uncertainty of the concentration field is quantified by the second-order moment, or the coefficient of variation (CVC) as a function of the sampling position along a centerline, Peclet number, and σY2, as well as by higher-order moments, i.e., skewness and kurtosis. The parameter σY2 shows a strong influence on the concentration statistics, while the three different structures have a minor impact in the case of low heterogeneity. The results also indicate that for σY2=8, the influence of local-scale dispersion is significant after five integral scales (IY) from the source for the connected (CN) field, while in case of a disconnected field, the local-scale dispersion effect is observed after 20IY from the source. In the case of unit σY2, local-scale dispersion acts very slowly affecting concentration uncertainty at distances higher than 20IY from the source. Our inspection of Monte Carlo concentration skewness and kurtosis with the ones obtained from the Beta distribution show the discrepancies for high

  14. [Evaluation of Significant Autobiographical Memories Scale: Design and structural validation at an exploratory level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolich, María; Azzollini, Susana

    2016-11-01

    Personal memories are multimodal cognitive representations. Nowadays, psychometric instruments which aim to assess signifcant memories phenomenological features are scarce. Consequently, the Evaluation of Signifcant Autobiographical Memories Scale was constructed and structural validated at an exploratory level. A total of 404 individuals from Buenos Aires city (Argentina) participated in the research. Initially, an expert judgment and a pilot study administration were carried out. Next, a homogeneity and a principal components analysis were implemented. To assess the scale reliability, Cronbach's alphas coefficients were analyzed. The fnal version has 30 Likert response items gathered in 8 dimensions. Satisfactory psychometric proprieties were obtained - internal consistency of .892 and a total explained variance of 65.78%. The scale provides two main scores regarding the total quantity and intensity of the phenomenological components as well as a partial score per each dimension. It is stated that the test will prove to be useful in the research feld as well as in the clinical area.

  15. Renormalization-group flow of the effective action of cosmological large-scale structures

    CERN Document Server

    Floerchinger, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Following an approach of Matarrese and Pietroni, we derive the functional renormalization group (RG) flow of the effective action of cosmological large-scale structures. Perturbative solutions of this RG flow equation are shown to be consistent with standard cosmological perturbation theory. Non-perturbative approximate solutions can be obtained by truncating the a priori infinite set of possible effective actions to a finite subspace. Using for the truncated effective action a form dictated by dissipative fluid dynamics, we derive RG flow equations for the scale dependence of the effective viscosity and sound velocity of non-interacting dark matter, and we solve them numerically. Physically, the effective viscosity and sound velocity account for the interactions of long-wavelength fluctuations with the spectrum of smaller-scale perturbations. We find that the RG flow exhibits an attractor behaviour in the IR that significantly reduces the dependence of the effective viscosity and sound velocity on the input ...

  16. Scale covariant gravitation. V - Kinetic theory. VI - Stellar structure and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, S.-H.; Canuto, V. M.

    1981-01-01

    A scale covariant kinetic theory for particles and photons is developed. The mathematical framework of the theory is given by the tangent bundle of a Weyl manifold. The Liouville equation is derived, and solutions to corresponding equilibrium distributions are presented and shown to yield thermodynamic results identical to the ones obtained previously. The scale covariant theory is then used to derive results of interest to stellar structure and evolution. A radiative transfer equation is derived that can be used to study stellar evolution with a variable gravitational constant. In addition, it is shown that the sun's absolute luminosity scales as L approximately equal to GM/kappa, where kappa is the stellar opacity. Finally, a formula is derived for the age of globular clusters as a function of the gravitational constant using a previously derived expression for the absolute luminosity.

  17. Combining Dual Scaling with Semi-Structured Interviews to Interpret Rating Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Childs

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dual scaling, a variation of multidimensional scaling, can reveal the dimensions underlying scores, such as raters' judgments. This study illustrates the use of a dual scaling analysis with semi-structured interviews of raters to investigate the differences among the raters as captured by the dimensions. Thirty applications to a one-year post-Bachelor's degree teacher education program were rated by nine teacher educators. Eight of the raters were subsequently interviewed about how they rated the responses. A three-dimensional model was found to explain most of the variance in the ratings for two of the questions and a two-dimensional model was most interpretable for the third question. The interviews suggested that the dimensions reflected, in addition to differences in raters' stringency, differences in their beliefs about their roles as raters and about the types of insights that were required of applicants.

  18. Turbulence and magnetic fields in the large-scale structure of the universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Kang, Hyesung; Cho, Jungyeon; Das, Santabrata

    2008-05-16

    The nature and origin of turbulence and magnetic fields in the intergalactic space are important problems that are yet to be understood. We propose a scenario in which turbulent-flow motions are induced via the cascade of the vorticity generated at cosmological shocks during the formation of the large-scale structure. The turbulence in turn amplifies weak seed magnetic fields of any origin. Supercomputer simulations show that the turbulence is subsonic inside clusters and groups of galaxies, whereas it is transonic or mildly supersonic in filaments. Based on a turbulence dynamo model, we then estimated that the average magnetic field strength would be a few microgauss (microG) inside clusters and groups, approximately 0.1 muG around clusters and groups, and approximately 10 nanogauss in filaments. Our model presents a physical mechanism that transfers the gravitational energy to the turbulence and magnetic field energies in the large-scale structure of the universe.

  19. Investigation of the factor structure of the mental, physical and spiritual well-being scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Green

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of mental, physical and spirituality in coping with violence is becoming increasingly recognized. As such, scales measuring these constructs are instrumental in assessment of clients from a holistic and strengths perspective, the foundation of social work. This article examines the factor structure of the Mental, Physical and Spiritual Well-being scale. The MPS is a 30 item, easy to administer, self report measure. The MPS was administered to 175 crime victims to assess whether or not the three factor structure fits the data from the sample. Exploratory statistical procedures were used to reduce data through principle component analysis identified three factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0 and a cumulative variance of 57%. Recommendations are made for utilizing this brief self-report instrument in assessing victims of crime and training social workers and other practitioners.

  20. Thermal interaction in crusted melt jets with large-scale structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Ken-ichiro; Sotome, Fuminori; Ishikawa, Michio [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to experimentally observe thermal interaction which would be capable of triggering due to entrainment, or entrapment in crusted melt jets with `large-scale structure`. The present experiment was carried out by dropping molten zinc and molten tin of 100 grams, of which mass was sufficient to generate large-scale structures of melt jets. The experimental results show that the thermal interaction of entrapment type occurs in molten-zinc jets with rare probability, and the thermal interaction of entrainment type occurs in molten tin jets with high probability. The difference of thermal interaction between molten zinc and molten tin may attribute to differences of kinematic viscosity and melting point between them. (author)

  1. The Skin Picking Impact Scale: Factor structure, validity and development of a short version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snorrason, Ivar; Olafsson, Ragnar P; Flessner, Christopher A; Keuthen, Nancy J; Franklin, Martin E; Woods, Douglas W

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the psychometric properties of the Skin Picking Impact Scale (SPIS; Keuthen, Deckersbach, Wilhelm et al., 2001), a 10 item self-report questionnaire designed to assess the psychosocial impact of skin picking disorder (SPD). Participants were 650 individuals who met criteria for SPD in an online survey. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a unitary factor structure with high internal consistency (α = 0.94). Consequently, we constructed an abbreviated 4-item version that retained good internal consistency (α = 0.87) and a robust factor structure. Both the short and the full versions demonstrated discriminant and convergent/concurrent validity. In conclusion, the findings indicate that both versions are psychometrically sound measures of SPD related psychosocial impact; however, some potential limitations of the full scale are discussed. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  2. Planck 2013 results. XVII. Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Dechelette, T.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Pullen, A.R.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    On the arcminute angular scales probed by Planck, the CMB anisotropies are gently perturbed by gravitational lensing. Here we present a detailed study of this effect, detecting lensing independently in the 100, 143, and 217GHz frequency bands with an overall significance of greater than 25sigma. We use the temperature-gradient correlations induced by lensing to reconstruct a (noisy) map of the CMB lensing potential, which provides an integrated measure of the mass distribution back to the CMB last-scattering surface. Our lensing potential map is significantly correlated with other tracers of mass, a fact which we demonstrate using several representative tracers of large-scale structure. We estimate the power spectrum of the lensing potential, finding generally good agreement with expectations from the best-fitting LCDM model for the Planck temperature power spectrum, showing that this measurement at z=1100 correctly predicts the properties of the lower-redshift, later-time structures which source the lensing ...

  3. Structural degradation of a large composite wind turbine blade in a full-scale fatigue test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiao

    Wind turbine blades are expected to sustain a high number of loading cycles typically up to a magnitude of 1,000 million during their targeted service lifetime of 20-25 years. Structural properties of composite blades degrade with the time. Although substantial studies, such as [1,2], have been...... tests at a coupon level? What might be the concerns one should take into account when predicting residual structural properties of rotor blades? To answer, at least to a partial extent, these questions, this study conducts a full-scale fatigue test on a 47m composite rotor blade according to IEC 61400...

  4. Probability density and scaling exponents of longitudinal structure functions in strong turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Yakhot, V

    1997-01-01

    The advective terms in the Navier-Stokes and Burgers equations are similar. It is proposed that the longitudinal structure functions $S_{n}(r)$ in homogeneous and isotropic three- dimensional turbulence are goverened by a one-dimensional equation of motion, resembling the 1D-Burgers equation, with the strongly non-local pressure contributions accounted for by galilean-invariance-breaking terms. The resulting equations give both scaling exponents and amplitudes of the structure functions in an excellent agreement with experimental data. The derived probability density function $P(\\Delta u,r)\

  5. POD analysis of flow structures in a scale model of a ventilated room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jakob Martin; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2002-01-01

    Measurements with particle image velocimetry have been carried out in a scale model of the Annex 20 room. Data were taken in a plane near the inlet. The flow consisted of a wall jet (Re=5,000) and a low-velocity region below the jet. POD was used to analyze dominant flow structures. The analysis ...... showed that the flow some of the time has flow structures very different from the mean velocity field. A time-resolved data series was projected onto the orthonormal basis derived from the POD for analysis of the time variation of the POD amplitudes....

  6. Structural scale q-derivative and the LLG equation in a scenario with fractionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberszpil, J.; Helayël-Neto, J. A.

    2017-03-01

    In the present contribution, we study the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with two versions of structural derivatives which were recently proposed: the scale q-derivative in the non-extensive statistical mechanics and the axiomatic metric derivative. The latter presents the Mittag-Leffler functions as eigenfunctions. The use of structural derivatives aims to take into account long-range forces, possible non-manifest or hidden interactions and the dimensionality of space. Having this purpose in mind, we build up an evolution operator and a deformed version of the LLG equation. Damping in the oscillations naturally shows up without an explicit Gilbert damping term.

  7. Automated High Throughput Protein Crystallization Screening at Nanoliter Scale and Protein Structural Study on Lactate Dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fenglei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-08-09

    The purposes of our research were: (1) To develop an economical, easy to use, automated, high throughput system for large scale protein crystallization screening. (2) To develop a new protein crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and complete compatibility with high throughput screening system. (3) To determine the structure of lactate dehydrogenase complexed with NADH by x-ray protein crystallography to study its inherent structural properties. Firstly, we demonstrated large scale protein crystallization screening can be performed in a high throughput manner with low cost, easy operation. The overall system integrates liquid dispensing, crystallization and detection and serves as a whole solution to protein crystallization screening. The system can dispense protein and multiple different precipitants in nanoliter scale and in parallel. A new detection scheme, native fluorescence, has been developed in this system to form a two-detector system with a visible light detector for detecting protein crystallization screening results. This detection scheme has capability of eliminating common false positives by distinguishing protein crystals from inorganic crystals in a high throughput and non-destructive manner. The entire system from liquid dispensing, crystallization to crystal detection is essentially parallel, high throughput and compatible with automation. The system was successfully demonstrated by lysozyme crystallization screening. Secondly, we developed a new crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and compatibility with automation and high throughput. In this crystallization method, a gas permeable membrane is employed to achieve the gentle evaporation required by protein crystallization. Protein consumption is significantly reduced to nanoliter scale for each condition and thus permits exploring more conditions in a phase diagram for given amount of protein. In addition

  8. 3D profile measurement of large-scale curvature plates using structured light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, EunChang; Kim, ByoungChang; Lee, Hyunho; Han, JongMan

    2008-08-01

    In heavy industry, especially in the shipbuilding process, 3D profile measurement of large-scale hull pieces is needed for fabrication and assembly. Currently, using many kinds of templates made of wood or plastic still do an important role as a standard ruler. We suggest an efficient method of 3D profile measurement to obtain the xyz-coordinates of curvature plates. The measurement system comprises multiple line structured laser sources and performs profile measurement by projecting structured light source on the object surface. The measurement results show that measurement accuracy is within the boundary of accuracy required in the shipbuilding process.

  9. Multi-method analysis of the internal structure of the Type D Scale-14 (DS14).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straat, J Hendrik; van der Ark, L Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2012-04-01

    The Type D Scale-14 (DS14) measures distressed (also, Type D) personality by assessing the medium-level trait negative affectivity that encompasses the low-level traits dysphoria, anxiety, and irritability, and the medium-level trait social inhibition that encompasses the low-level traits social discomfort, reticence, and lack of social poise. The literature discusses three different structural models of the DS14. The goal of this study was to investigate which of the three models best describes the internal structure of the DS14. We used three methods to investigate the internal structure of the DS14 items using data collected in representative samples from the Dutch general population (N=3,181). The methods were exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and Mokken scale analysis. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a two-factor structure without evidence of the low-level factors, and the other two methods showed evidence of a three-level structure including the low-level factors. A two-factor model with correlated errors for items defining low-level traits adequately describes the data. The results support the three-level hierarchical model as a conceptual model for Type D personality, and support the interpretation of DS14 scores on item subsets representing medium-level traits and low-level traits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sustainability on the urban scale: Proposal of a structure of indicators for the Spanish context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braulio-Gonzalo, Marta, E-mail: braulio@uji.es; Bovea, María Dolores, E-mail: bovea@uji.es; Ruá, María José, E-mail: rua@uji.es

    2015-07-15

    Some efforts to assess sustainability on the urban scale have been made and different tools for measuring the impact on and caused by cities have emerged. However, the sustainability concept varies from region to region, and indicators to measure it should be suitable for the context-specific conditions of the region under study. After doing a comprehensive review of the indicators included in 13 tools developed to assess urban sustainability of cities, this article proposes a new structure of indicators adapted to a Mediterranean city in Spain. The proposed structure is based on a two-level scheme that consists in 14 categories and 63 subcategories, which agglutinate urban sustainability indicators according to their purpose. This structure suggests a set of comprehensible qualitative and quantitative indicators that are easily applicable on neighbourhood or city scales. Given the similar features of Mediterranean countries in terms of environmental and socio-economic aspects, the proposed structure could be extrapolated to other countries with climatic and cultural similarities. Otherwise, the system is a useful tool in the decision-making process to help the different stakeholders involved in new urban developments and regeneration projects in existing neighbourhoods, such as developers, urban planners and public administrations. - Highlights: • Comprehensive review of 13 urban sustainability assessment tools • Proposal of a two-level structure to cluster urban sustainability indicators • Inclusion of sustainability criteria for urban planning projects and interventions.

  11. Modeling Water Flow and Bromide Transport in a Two-Scale-Structured Lignitic Mine Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, J.; Gerke, H. H.; Vogel, T.; Maurer, T.; Buczko, U.

    2008-12-01

    Two-dimensional single- and dual-permeability simulations are used to analyze water and solute fluxes in heterogeneous lignitic mine soil at a forest-reclaimed mine spoil heap. The soil heterogeneity on this experimental site "Barenbrucker Hohe" resulted from inclined dumping structures and sediment mixtures that consist of sand with lignitic dust and embedded lignitic fragments. Observations on undisturbed field suction- cell lysimeters including tracer experiments revealed funneling-type preferential flow with lateral water and bromide movement along inclined sediment structures. The spatial distribution of soil structures and fragment distributions was acquired by a digital camera and identified by a supervised classification of the digital profile image. First, a classical single-domain modeling approach was proposed with spatially variable scaling factors inferred from image analyses. In the next step, a two-continuum scenario was constructed to examine additional effects of nonequilibrium on the flow regime. The scaling factors used for the preferential flow domain are here obtained from the gradient of the grayscale images. So far, the single domain scenarios failed to predict the bromide leaching patterns although water effluent could be described. Dual-permeability model allows the incorporation of structural effects and can be used as a tool to further testing other approaches that account for structure effects. The numerical study suggests that additional experiments are required to obtain better understanding of the highly complex transport processes on this experimental site.

  12. The Revision of Perceived Classroom Goal Structure Scale and the Evaluation of Its Reliability and Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Chin Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of perceptions of classroom goal structure, rooted in achievement goal theory, argued that students could perceive contextual goals shaped by their teachers. Currently, achievement goal has suffered critics on the issues of measurement and theoretical re-conceptualization. However, the revisions of perceived classroom goal structure based on achievement goal theory were rarely investigated in terms of their utility in classroom settings. The purposes of the present study are to: (1 Revise the scale of perceived classroom goal structure according to the problems highlighted by achievement goal researchers; (2 Examine the extent to which the revised model fit the data; (3 Investigate the measurement stability of the theoretical model. In order to achieve the purposes, the present study adopted a three-step sampling procedure, which involved 373, 740, and 767 eighth graders in the pilot study, model verification, and cross-validitation test, respectively. Results showed: (1 The perception of classroom goal structure with six dimensions hold good internal and external validity. However, high correlations among six first-order factors indicated that there were two second-order factors, classroom mastery goal and classroom performance goal, behind the first-order ones. (2 The perceived classroom goal structure scale was good in cross- validation. It indicated that the measurement of classroom goal was fairly stable. In practice, the six aspects composed of task, authority, recognition, grouping, evaluation, and time could be adopted to form a mastery oriented classroom.

  13. Identifying scales of pattern in ecological data: a comparison of lacunarity, spectral and wavelet analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari C. Saunders; Jiquan Chen; Thomas D. Drummer; Eric J. Gustafson; Kimberley D. Brosofske

    2005-01-01

    Identifying scales of pattern in ecological systems and coupling patterns to processes that create them are ongoing challenges. We examined the utility of three techniques (lacunarity, spectral, and wavelet analysis) for detecting scales of pattern of ecological data. We compared the information obtained using these methods for four datasets, including: surface...

  14. A Comparison of Pain Scales in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness Following Craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraseranivongse, Suwannee; Yuvapoositanont, Pensook; Srisakkrapikoop, Paphatsorn; Pommul, Ruetaichanok; Phaka, Waraporn; Itthimathin, Parunut

    2015-07-01

    Evaluate the validity, reliability, and practicality of pain assessment tools in patients with disorders of consciousness who underwent craniotomy. This prospective observational study cross-validated three pain scales, FLACC (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability), rFLACC (Revised FLA CC), and NCS (Nociception Coma Scale), based on validity, reliability, and practicality. After translation, the three pain scales were tested for concurrent validity, construct validity, and interrater reliability in patients who experienced disorders of consciousness within 24 hours following craniotomy. Opinions regarding practicality were elicited via questionnaire from nurses who have used and are familiar with these pain scales. Fifty-eight patients were enrolled in the present study. Concurrent validity was supported by positive correlations among all scales, which ranged from r = 0.638 to r = 0.978. All scales yielded fair to moderate agreement (K = 0.380-0.626) with routine clinical decision to treat postoperative pain. Concurrent validity was much improved in the assessment of intubated patients. Construct validity was demonstrated by high scores (3-5) in higher pain situations before analgesic was given and low pain scores (0) in pain-free situations after analgesic was given. All scales had good interrater reliability (intraclass correlation = 0.7506-0.8810). All pain scales were found to be valid and reliable, especially in intubated patients. In terms ofpracticality, NCS was found to be the most acceptable by practitioners.

  15. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test Liftoff Acoustic Results and Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, Doug; Houston, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Ares I-X flight data validated the ASMAT LOA results. Ares I Liftoff acoustic environments were verified with scale model test results. Results showed that data book environments were under-conservative for Frustum (Zone 5). Recommendations: Data book environments can be updated with scale model test and flight data. Subscale acoustic model testing useful for future vehicle environment assessments.

  16. A comparison of sap flux-based evapotranspiration estimates with catchment-scale water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelcy R. Ford; Robert M. Hubbard; Brian D. Kloeppel; James M. Vose

    2007-01-01

    Many researchers are using sap flux to estimate tree-level transpiration, and to scale to stand- and catchment-level transpiration; yet studies evaluating the comparability of sap flux-based estimates of transpiration (E) with alternative methods for estimating Et at this spatial scale are rare. Our ability to...

  17. Relationships between an invasive crab, habitat availability and intertidal community structure at biogeographic scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribben, Paul E; Simpson, Michael; Wright, Jeffrey T

    2015-09-01

    At local scales, habitat availability influences interactions between native and invasive species. Habitat availability may also predict patterns in native communities and invasive species at biogeographic scales when both native and invasive species have specific habitat requirements. The New Zealand porcelain crab, Petrolisthes elongatus, has invaded intertidal rocky shores around Tasmania, Australia, where it is found in high densities (>1800 m(2)) under rocks. A hierarchical sampling approach was used to investigate 1) the relationship between habitat availability (rock cover) and the biomass and abundance of P. elongatus, and 2) the relationship between P. elongatus biomass and native communities at local and regional scales. Invertebrate communities and habitat availability were sampled at multiple sites in the north and south regions of Tasmania. P. elongatus biomass and abundance were positively correlated with rock cover and patterns were consistent at the biogeographic scale (between regions). P. elongatus biomass was positively correlated with native species richness, biomass and abundance highlighting their co-dependence on rock cover. However, multivariate analyses indicated a different native community structure with increasing P. elongatus biomass. Flat, strongly adhering gastropods (chitons and limpets) were positively correlated with P. elongatus biomass, whereas mobile gastropods and crabs were negatively correlated with P. elongatus biomass. Despite local scale variation, there were clear consistent relationships between habitat-availability and the biomass of P. elongatus, and between native communities and the biomass of P. elongatus suggesting that the relationships between native and invasive species may be predictable at large spatial scales. Moreover, the strong relationships between P. elongatus biomass and changes in native community structure suggest a greater understanding of its impact is needed so that appropriate

  18. The Aachen Mobility and Balance Index to measure physiological falls risk: a comparison with the Tinetti POMA Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, M; Giesen, M; Plate, S; Gradl-Dietsch, G; Buecking, B; Eschbach, D; van Laack, W; Pape, H-C

    2016-10-01

    The most commonly used mobility assessments for screening risk of falls among older adults are rating scales such as the Tinetti performance oriented mobility assessment (POMA). However, its correlation with falls is not always predictable and disadvantages of the scale include difficulty to assess many of the items on a 3-point scale and poor specificity. The purpose of this study was to describe the ability of the new Aachen Mobility and Balance Index (AMBI) to discriminate between subjects with a fall history and subjects without such events in comparison to the Tinetti POMA Scale. For this prospective cohort study, 24 participants in the study group and 10 in the control group were selected from a population of patients in our hospital who had met the stringent inclusion criteria. Both groups completed the Tinetti POMA Scale (gait and balance component) and the AMBI (tandem stance, tandem walk, ten-meter-walk-test, sit-to-stand with five repetitions, 360° turns, timed-up-and-go-test and measurement of the dominant hand grip strength). A history of falls and hospitalization in the past year were evaluated retrospectively. The relationships among the mobility tests were examined with Bland-Altmananalysis. Receiver-operated characteristics curves, sensitivity and specificity were calculated. The study showed a strong negative correlation between the AMBI (17 points max., highest fall risk) and Tinetti POMA Scale (28 points max., lowest fall risk; r = -0.78, p test comparison (AMBI vs. Tinetti POMA Scale: AUC 0.570 vs. 0.598; p = 0.762). The Tinetti POMA Scale (cut-off 5 points). The AMBI comprises mobility and balance tasks with increasing difficulty as well as a measurement of the dominant hand-grip strength. Its ability to identify fallers was comparable to the Tinetti POMA Scale. However, both measurement sets showed shortcomings in discrimination between fallers and non-fallers based on a self-reported retrospective falls-status.

  19. Spectrally tuned structural and pigmentary coloration of birdwing butterfly wing scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Matsushita, Atsuko; Arikawa, Kentaro; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2015-01-01

    The colourful wing patterns of butterflies play an important role for enhancing fitness; for instance, by providing camouflage, for interspecific mate recognition, or for aposematic display. Closely related butterfly species can have dramatically different wing patterns. The phenomenon is assumed to be caused by ecological processes with changing conditions, e.g. in the environment, and also by sexual selection. Here, we investigate the birdwing butterflies, Ornithoptera, the largest butterflies of the world, together forming a small genus in the butterfly family Papilionidae. The wings of these butterflies are marked by strongly coloured patches. The colours are caused by specially structured wing scales, which act as a chirped multilayer reflector, but the scales also contain papiliochrome pigments, which act as a spectral filter. The combined structural and pigmentary effects tune the coloration of the wing scales. The tuned colours are presumably important for mate recognition and signalling. By applying electron microscopy, (micro-)spectrophotometry and scatterometry we found that the various mechanisms of scale coloration of the different birdwing species strongly correlate with the taxonomical distribution of Ornithoptera species. PMID:26446560

  20. Structure and scale of the mechanics of mammalian dental enamel viewed from an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Peter W; Philip, Swapna M; Al-Qeoud, Dareen; Al-Draihim, Nuha; Saji, Sreeja; van Casteren, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian enamel, the contact dental tissue, is something of an enigma. It is almost entirely made of hydroxyapatite, yet exhibits very different mechanical behavior to a homogeneous block of the same mineral. Recent approaches suggest that its hierarchical composite form, similar to other biological hard tissues, leads to a mechanical performance that depends very much on the scale of measurement. The stiffness of the material is predicted to be highest at the nanoscale, being sacrificed to produce a high toughness at the largest scale, that is, at the level of the tooth crown itself. Yet because virtually all this research has been conducted only on human (or sometimes "bovine") enamel, there has been little regard for structural variation of the tissue considered as evolutionary adaptation to diet. What is mammalian enamel optimized for? We suggest that there are competing selective pressures. We suggest that the structural characteristics that optimize enamel to resist large-scale fractures, such as crown failures, are very different to those that resist wear (small-scale fracture). While enamel is always designed for damage tolerance, this may be suboptimal in the enamel of some species, including modern humans (which have been the target of most investigations), in order to counteract wear. The experimental part of this study introduces novel techniques that help to assess resistance at the nanoscale. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Towards a Gravity Dual for the Large Scale Structure of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Kehagias, A.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of the large-scale structure of the universe enjoys at all scales, even in the highly non-linear regime, a Lifshitz symmetry during the matter-dominated period. In this paper we propose a general class of six-dimensional spacetimes which could be a gravity dual to the four-dimensional large-scale structure of the universe. In this set-up, the Lifshitz symmetry manifests itself as an isometry in the bulk and our universe is a four-dimensional brane moving in such six-dimensional bulk. After finding the correspondence between the bulk and the brane dynamical Lifshitz exponents, we find the intriguing result that the preferred value of the dynamical Lifshitz exponent of our observed universe, at both linear and non-linear scales, corresponds to a fixed point of the RGE flow of the dynamical Lifshitz exponent in the dual system where the symmetry is enhanced to the Schrodinger group containing a non-relativistic conformal symmetry. We also investigate the RGE flow between fixed points of the Lifshitz...

  2. A critique and comparison of two scales from fifteen years of studying compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Chris; Roberts, James A; Kashyap, Vishal

    2008-02-01

    Compulsive buying is an important construct in marketing that has far-reaching personal and social implications. The profile of the adult compulsive buyer in the literature is based largely on the 1992 Faber and O'Guinn Compulsive Buying Scale. A second compulsive buying scale by Edwards has also been used but sparingly. Empirical research conducted over that past 15 years with these two scales shows that, although both scales were designed to measure compulsive buying, the two appear to be different operationalizations of the construct. The present review raises several psychometric issues about both scales. Their robustness is crucial to a clear understanding of the antecedents and consequences of compulsive buying. Directions for research are added.

  3. Testing the Big Bang: Light elements, neutrinos, dark matter and large-scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    Several experimental and observational tests of the standard cosmological model are examined. In particular, a detailed discussion is presented regarding: (1) nucleosynthesis, the light element abundances, and neutrino counting; (2) the dark matter problems; and (3) the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Comments are made on the possible implications of the recent solar neutrino experimental results for cosmology. An appendix briefly discusses the 17 keV thing and the cosmological and astrophysical constraints on it.

  4. Making Structured Graphics and Constraints Practical for Large-Scale Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    the Gilt interface builder, the number of Making Structured Graphics and Constraints Practical for Large-Scale Applications - 8 constraints drops from...invented to allow feedback objects to use relationships such as "I am the same size and position as the selected object." Such constraints are expressed...with expressions such as: (gvl :selected :width) where the feedback object’s :selected slot is set with the appropriate object at run time. Changing

  5. Evidence for non-Abelian dark matter from large scale structure?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    If dark matter multiplicity arises from a weakly coupled non-Abelian dark gauge group the corresponding "dark gluons" can have interesting signatures in cosmology which I will review: 1. the "dark gluons" contribute to the radiation content of the universe and 2. gluon interactions with the dark matter may explain the >3 sigma discrepancy between precision fits to the CMB from Planck and direct measurements of large scale structure in the universe.

  6. The Dimensional Structure of the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales: Factor Identification and Construct Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Silvia, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the factor structure underlying the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales and the validity of these dimensions. Confirmatory factor analysis with 6137 nonclinical young adults supported a 2-factor model with positive and negative schizotypy dimensions. As predicted, the schizotypy dimensions were differentially related to psychopathology, personality, and social impairment. Both dimensions were related to schizotypal and paranoid symptoms. Positive schizotypy was uniquely rel...

  7. Local scale structures in Earth's thermospheric winds and their consequences for wind driven transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadly, Manbharat Singh

    In the traditional picture of Earth's upper thermosphere (~190--300 km), it is widely presumed that its convective stability and enormous kinematic viscosity attenuate wind gradients, and hence smooth out any structure present in the wind over scale size of several hundreds of kilometers. However, several independent experimental studies have shown that observed upper thermospheric wind fields at high latitudes contain stronger than expected local-scale spatial structures. The motivation of this dissertation is to investigate how the resulting local-scale gradients would distort neutral air masses and complicate thermospheric wind transport. To achieve this goal, we examined the behavior of a simple parameter that we refer to as the "distortion gradient". It incorporates all of the wind field's departures from uniformity, and is thus capable of representing all resulting contributions to the distortion or mixing of air masses. Climatological analysis of the distortion gradient using 2010, 2011, and 2012 wind data from the All-sky Scanning Doppler Imager (SDI) located at Poker Flat (65.12N, 147.47W) revealed the diurnal and seasonal trends in distortion of thermospheric masses. Distortion was observed to be dependent on geomagnetic activity and orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field. To understand the time-cumulative influence of these local-scale non-uniformities on thermospheric wind driven transport, time-resolved two-dimensional maps of the thermospheric vector wind fields were used to infer forward and backward air parcel trajectories. Tracing air parcel trajectories through a given geographic location indicates where they came from previously, and where they will go in the future. Results show that wind driven transport is very sensitive to small-scale details of the wind field. Any local-scale spatial wind gradients can significantly complicate air parcel trajectories. Transport of thermospheric neutral species in the presence of the local-scale

  8. Identifying large scale structures at 1 AU using fluctuations and wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niembro, T.; Lara, A.

    2016-12-01

    The solar wind (SW) is inhomogeneous and it is dominated for two types of flows: one quasi-stationary and one related to large scale transients (such as coronal mass ejections and co-rotating interaction regions). The SW inhomogeneities can be study as fluctuations characterized by a wide range of length and time scales. We are interested in the study of the characteristic fluctuations caused by large scale transient events. To do so, we define the vector space F with the normalized moving monthly/annual deviations as the orthogonal basis. Then, we compute the norm in this space of the solar wind parameters (velocity, magnetic field, density and temperature) fluctuations using WIND data from August 1992 to August 2015. This norm gives important information about the presence of a large structure disturbance in the solar wind and by applying a wavelet transform to this norm, we are able to determine, without subjectivity, the duration of the compression regions of these large transient structures and, even more, to identify if the structure corresponds to a single or complex (or merged) event. With this method we have automatically detected most of the events identified and published by other authors.

  9. Evolution of the Busbar Structure in Large-Scale Aluminum Reduction Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Liang, Jinding; Li, Jie; Sun, Kena; Xiao, Jin

    2017-02-01

    Studies of magnetic field and magneto-hydro-dynamics are regarded as the foundation for the development of large-scale aluminum reduction cells, while due to the direct relationship between the busbar configuration and magnetic compensation, the actual key content is the configuration of the busbar. As the line current has been increased from 160 kA to 600 kA, the configuration of the busbar was becoming more complex. To summarize and explore the evolution of busbar configuration in aluminum reduction cells, this paper has reviewed various representative large-scale pre-baked aluminum reduction cell busbar structures, such as end-to-end potlines, side-by-side potlines and external compensation current. The advantages and disadvantages in the magnetic distribution or technical specifications have also been introduced separately, especially for the configurations of the mainstream 400-kA potlines. In the end, the development trends of the bus structure configuration were prospected, based on the recent successful applications of super-scale cell busbar structures in China (500-600 kA).

  10. Thermodynamics, maximum power, and the dynamics of preferential river flow structures at the continental scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kleidon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The organization of drainage basins shows some reproducible phenomena, as exemplified by self-similar fractal river network structures and typical scaling laws, and these have been related to energetic optimization principles, such as minimization of stream power, minimum energy expenditure or maximum "access". Here we describe the organization and dynamics of drainage systems using thermodynamics, focusing on the generation, dissipation and transfer of free energy associated with river flow and sediment transport. We argue that the organization of drainage basins reflects the fundamental tendency of natural systems to deplete driving gradients as fast as possible through the maximization of free energy generation, thereby accelerating the dynamics of the system. This effectively results in the maximization of sediment export to deplete topographic gradients as fast as possible and potentially involves large-scale feedbacks to continental uplift. We illustrate this thermodynamic description with a set of three highly simplified models related to water and sediment flow and describe the mechanisms and feedbacks involved in the evolution and dynamics of the associated structures. We close by discussing how this thermodynamic perspective is consistent with previous approaches and the implications that such a thermodynamic description has for the understanding and prediction of sub-grid scale organization of drainage systems and preferential flow structures in general.

  11. Measures of large-scale structure in the CfA redshift survey slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lapparent, Valerie; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1991-01-01

    Variations of the counts-in-cells with cell size are used here to define two statistical measures of large-scale clustering in three 6 deg slices of the CfA redshift survey. A percolation criterion is used to estimate the filling factor which measures the fraction of the total volume in the survey occupied by the large-scale structures. For the full 18 deg slice of the CfA redshift survey, f is about 0.25 + or - 0.05. After removing groups with more than five members from two of the slices, variations of the counts in occupied cells with cell size have a power-law behavior with a slope beta about 2.2 on scales from 1-10/h Mpc. Application of both this statistic and the percolation analysis to simulations suggests that a network of two-dimensional structures is a better description of the geometry of the clustering in the CfA slices than a network of one-dimensional structures. Counts-in-cells are also used to estimate at 0.3 galaxy h-squared/Mpc the average galaxy surface density in sheets like the Great Wall.

  12. Composition and temperature-induced structural changes in lead-tellurite glasses on different length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, S; Arora, A K; Sivasubramanian, V; Krishna, P S R; Krishnan, R Venkata

    2012-12-19

    Processes occurring at macroscopic and microscopic length scales across the glass transition (T(g)) in lead-tellurite glass (PbO)(x)(TeO(2))(1-x) (x = 0.1-0.3) are investigated using Brillouin and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. For all the samples, the temperature dependence of the longitudinal acoustic (LA) mode is found to exhibit a universal scaling below T(g) and a rapid softening above T(g). The lower value of elastic modulus at a higher concentration of network modifier PbO, estimated from Brillouin data, arises due to loss of network rigidity. From quantitative analysis of the reduced Raman spectra, several modes are found to exhibit anomalous changes across T(g). Instead of the expected anharmonic behaviour, several modes exhibit hardening, suggesting stiffening of the stretching force constants with temperature, the effect being more pronounced in glasses with higher x. In addition, incorporation of PbO in the glass is also found to narrow down the bond-length distribution, as evident from the sharpening of the Raman bands. The stiffening of the force constants of molecular units at a microscopic length scale and the decrease of elastic constant attributed to loss of network rigidity on a macroscopic length scale appear to be opposite. These different behaviours at two length scales are understood on the basis of a microscopic model involving TeO(n) and PbO units in the structure.

  13. Determination of the crystalline structure of scale solids from the 16H evaporator gravity drain line to tank 38H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    August 2015, scale solids from the 16H Evaporator Gravity Drain Line (GDL) to the Tank 38H were delivered to SRNL for analysis. The desired analytical goal was to identify and confirm the crystalline structure of the scale material and determine if the form of the aluminosilicate mineral was consistent with previous analysis of the scale material from the GDL.

  14. MIC-Large Scale Magnetically Inflated Cable Structures for Space Power, Propulsion, Communications and Observational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Rather, John

    2010-01-01

    A new approach for the erection of rigid large scale structures in space-MIC (Magnetically Inflated Cable)-is described. MIC structures are launched as a compact payload of superconducting cables and attached tethers. After reaching orbit, the superconducting cables are energized with electrical current. The magnet force interactions between the cables cause them to expand outwards into the final large structure. Various structural shapes and applications are described. The MIC structure can be a simple flat disc with a superconducting outer ring that supports a tether network holding a solar cell array, or it can form a curved mirror surface that concentrates light and focuses it on a smaller region-for example, a high flux solar array that generates electric power, a high temperature receiver that heats H2 propellant for high Isp propulsion, and a giant primary reflector for a telescope for astronomy and Earth surveillance. Linear dipole and quadrupole MIC structures are also possible. The linear quadrupole structure can be used for magnetic shielding against cosmic radiation for astronauts, for example. MIC could use lightweight YBCO superconducting HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) cables, that can operate with liquid N2 coolant at engineering current densities of ~105 amp/cm2. A 1 kilometer length of MIC cable would weigh only 3 metric tons, including superconductor, thermal insulations, coolant circuits, and refrigerator, and fit within a 3 cubic meter compact package for launch. Four potential MIC applications are described: Solar-thermal propulsion using H2 propellant, space based solar power generation for beaming power to Earth, a large space telescope, and solar electric generation for a manned lunar base. The first 3 applications use large MIC solar concentrating mirrors, while the 4th application uses a surface based array of solar cells on a magnetically levitated MIC structure to follow the sun. MIC space based mirrors can be very large and light

  15. Multi-scale comparisons of tree composition in Amazonian terra firme forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Freitas Alvarado

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We explored the floristic composition of terra firme forests across Amazonia using 55 plots. Firstly, we examined the floristic patterns using both genus- and species-level data and found that the species-level analysis more clearly distinguishes among forests. Next, we compared the variation in plot floristic composition at regional- and continental-scales, and found that average among-pair floristic similarity and its decay with distance behave similarly at regional- and continental-scales. Nevertheless, geographical distance had different effects on floristic similarity within regions at distances <100 km, where north-western and south-western Amazonian regions showed greater floristic variation than plots of central and eastern Amazonia. Finally, we quantified the role of environmental factors and geographical distance for determining variation in floristic composition. A partial Mantel test indicated that while geographical distance appeared to be more important at continental scales, soil fertility was crucial at regional scales within western Amazonia, where areas with similar soil conditions were more likely to share a high number of species. Overall, these results suggest that regional-scale variation in floristic composition can rival continental-scale differences within Amazonian terra firme forests, and that variation in floristic composition at both scales is influenced by geographical distance and environmental factors, such as climate and soil fertility. To fully account for regional-scale variation in continental studies of floristic composition, future floristic studies should focus on forest types poorly represented at regional scales in current datasets, such as terra firme forests with high soil fertility in north-western Amazonia.

  16. Strategies for directing the structure and function of three-dimensional collagen biomaterials across length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, B D; Stegemann, J P

    2014-04-01

    Collagen type I is a widely used natural biomaterial that has found utility in a variety of biological and medical applications. Its well-characterized structure and role as an extracellular matrix protein make it a highly relevant material for controlling cell function and mimicking tissue properties. Collagen type I is abundant in a number of tissues, and can be isolated as a purified protein. This review focuses on hydrogel biomaterials made by reconstituting collagen type I from a solubilized form, with an emphasis on in vitro studies in which collagen structure can be controlled. The hierarchical structure of collagen from the nanoscale to the macroscale is described, with an emphasis on how structure is related to function across scales. Methods of reconstituting collagen into hydrogel materials are presented, including molding of macroscopic constructs, creation of microscale modules and electrospinning of nanoscale fibers. The modification of collagen biomaterials to achieve the desired structures and functions is also addressed, with particular emphasis on mechanical control of collagen structure, creation of collagen composite materials and crosslinking of collagenous matrices. Biomaterials scientists have made remarkable progress in rationally designing collagen-based biomaterials and in applying them both to the study of biology and for therapeutic benefit. This broad review illustrates recent examples of techniques used to control collagen structure and thereby to direct its biological and mechanical functions. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Strategies for Directing the Structure and Function of 3D Collagen Biomaterials across Length Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Brandan D.; Stegemann, Jan P.

    2013-01-01

    Collagen type I is a widely used natural biomaterial that has found utility in a variety of biological and medical applications. Its well characterized structure and role as an extracellular matrix protein make it a highly relevant material for controlling cell function and mimicking tissue properties. Collagen type I is abundant in a number of tissues, and can be isolated as a purified protein. This review focuses on hydrogel biomaterials made by reconstituting collagen type I from a solubilized form, with an emphasis on in vitro studies in which collagen structure can be controlled. The hierarchical structure of collagen from the nanoscale to the macroscale is described, with an emphasis on how structure is related to function across scales. Methods of reconstituting collagen into hydrogel materials are presented, including molding of macroscopic constructs, creation of microscale modules, and electrospinning of nanoscale fibers. The modification of collagen biomaterials to achieve desired structures and functions is also addressed, with particular emphasis on mechanical control of collagen structure, creation of collagen composite materials, and crosslinking of collagenous matrices. Biomaterials scientists have made remarkable progress in rationally designing collagen-based biomaterials and in applying them to both the study of biology and for therapeutic benefit. This broad review illustrates recent examples of techniques used to control collagen structure, and to thereby direct its biological and mechanical functions. PMID:24012608

  18. Fine-scale population structure in a deep-sea teleost (orange roughy, Hoplostethus atlanticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Jens; Shephard, Samuel; Coughlan, James; Trueman, Clive N.; Rogan, Emer; Cross, Tom F.

    2011-06-01

    Microsatellite and otolith chemistry variability were analysed to assess fine scale genetic structure in the deep-sea teleost orange roughy ( Hoplostethus atlanticus). The Porcupine Bank located on the continental shelf west of Ireland, comprises a complex system of mounds and flat areas that are broken up by canyons. Orange roughy form spawning aggregations on mounds and flat areas, and were heavily fished until the resource was depleted. By analysing adults in spawning condition and juvenile orange roughy from six mounds and one flat area, shallow but significant genetic population structure was evident ( FST=0.0031, Dest across loci=0.0306 and G-test). Most of the structure was accounted for by inclusion of a sample from the flats (six of ten significant pairwise FST estimates and G-tests, and five of the highest Dest estimates included the flat sample). While the flat sample contributed most to the genetic structure, there was still significant (albeit weaker) structure among mound samples. The observed structure was supported by otolith analyses. Fish caught as late juveniles in either the flat or mound areas showed consistent differences in chemistry at the otolith core throughout the initial 10 years of growth, which could indicate site fidelity. We hypothesise that seafloor topographic structures (mounds and flats) may provide discrete spawning areas for orange roughy and that the limited gene flow between these spawning areas is insufficient to counteract genetic drift.

  19. Scaling laws of diffusion and time intermittency generated by coherent structures in atmospheric turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Paradisi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the time intermittency of turbulent transport associated with the birth-death of self-organized coherent structures in the atmospheric boundary layer. We apply a threshold analysis on the increments of turbulent fluctuations to extract sequences of rapid acceleration events, which is a marker of the transition between self-organized structures.

    The inter-event time distributions show a power-law decay ψ(τ ~ 1/τμ, with a strong dependence of the power-law index μ on the threshold.

    A recently developed method based on the application of event-driven walking rules to generate different diffusion processes is applied to the experimental event sequences. At variance with the power-law index μ estimated from the inter-event time distributions, the diffusion scaling H, defined by ⟨ X2⟩ ~ t2H, is independent from the threshold.

    From the analysis of the diffusion scaling it can also be inferred the presence of different kind of events, i.e. genuinely transition events and spurious events, which all contribute to the diffusion process but over different time scales. The great advantage of event-driven diffusion lies in the ability of separating different regimes of the scaling H. In fact, the greatest H, corresponding to the most anomalous diffusion process, emerges in the long time range, whereas the smallest H can be seen in the short time range if the time resolution of the data is sufficiently accurate.

    The estimated diffusion scaling is also robust under the change of the definition of turbulent fluctuations and, under the assumption of statistically independent events, it corresponds to a self-similar point process with a well-defined power-law index μD ~ 2.1, where D denotes that μD is derived from the diffusion scaling. We argue that

  20. Scaling laws of diffusion and time intermittency generated by coherent structures in atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, P.; Cesari, R.; Donateo, A.; Contini, D.; Allegrini, P.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the time intermittency of turbulent transport associated with the birth-death of self-organized coherent structures in the atmospheric boundary layer. We apply a threshold analysis on the increments of turbulent fluctuations to extract sequences of rapid acceleration events, which is a marker of the transition between self-organized structures. The inter-event time distributions show a power-law decay ψ(τ) ~ 1/τμ, with a strong dependence of the power-law index μ on the threshold. A recently developed method based on the application of event-driven walking rules to generate different diffusion processes is applied to the experimental event sequences. At variance with the power-law index μ estimated from the inter-event time distributions, the diffusion scaling H, defined by ⟨ X2⟩ ~ t2H, is independent from the threshold. From the analysis of the diffusion scaling it can also be inferred the presence of different kind of events, i.e. genuinely transition events and spurious events, which all contribute to the diffusion process but over different time scales. The great advantage of event-driven diffusion lies in the ability of separating different regimes of the scaling H. In fact, the greatest H, corresponding to the most anomalous diffusion process, emerges in the long time range, whereas the smallest H can be seen in the short time range if the time resolution of the data is sufficiently accurate. The estimated diffusion scaling is also robust under the change of the definition of turbulent fluctuations and, under the assumption of statistically independent events, it corresponds to a self-similar point process with a well-defined power-law index μD ~ 2.1, where D denotes that μD is derived from the diffusion scaling. We argue that this renewal point process can be associated to birth and death of coherent structures and to turbulent transport near the ground, where the contribution of turbulent coherent structures becomes dominant.