WorldWideScience

Sample records for scale magnetic fields

  1. Magnetic Helicity and Large Scale Magnetic Fields: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Eric G.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic fields of laboratory, planetary, stellar, and galactic plasmas commonly exhibit significant order on large temporal or spatial scales compared to the otherwise random motions within the hosting system. Such ordered fields can be measured in the case of planets, stars, and galaxies, or inferred indirectly by the action of their dynamical influence, such as jets. Whether large scale fields are amplified in situ or a remnant from previous stages of an object's history is often debated for objects without a definitive magnetic activity cycle. Magnetic helicity, a measure of twist and linkage of magnetic field lines, is a unifying tool for understanding large scale field evolution for both mechanisms of origin. Its importance stems from its two basic properties: (1) magnetic helicity is typically better conserved than magnetic energy; and (2) the magnetic energy associated with a fixed amount of magnetic helicity is minimized when the system relaxes this helical structure to the largest scale available. Here I discuss how magnetic helicity has come to help us understand the saturation of and sustenance of large scale dynamos, the need for either local or global helicity fluxes to avoid dynamo quenching, and the associated observational consequences. I also discuss how magnetic helicity acts as a hindrance to turbulent diffusion of large scale fields, and thus a helper for fossil remnant large scale field origin models in some contexts. I briefly discuss the connection between large scale fields and accretion disk theory as well. The goal here is to provide a conceptual primer to help the reader efficiently penetrate the literature.

  2. Amplification of large-scale magnetic field in nonhelical magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rohit

    2017-08-11

    It is typically assumed that the kinetic and magnetic helicities play a crucial role in the growth of large-scale dynamo. In this paper, we demonstrate that helicity is not essential for the amplification of large-scale magnetic field. For this purpose, we perform nonhelical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, and show that the large-scale magnetic field can grow in nonhelical MHD when random external forcing is employed at scale 1/10 the box size. The energy fluxes and shell-to-shell transfer rates computed using the numerical data show that the large-scale magnetic energy grows due to the energy transfers from the velocity field at the forcing scales.

  3. The Large Scale Magnetic Field and Sunspot Cycles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2000) 21, 161 162. The Large Scale Magnetic Field and Sunspot Cycles. V. I. Makarov* & A. G. Tlatov, Kislovodsk Solar Station of the Pulkovo Observatory,. Kislovodsk 357700, P.O. Box 145, Russia. *e mail: makarov@gao.spb.ru. Key words. Sun: magnetic field—sunspots—solar cycle. Extended abstract.

  4. Inflationary susceptibilities, duality and large-scale magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We investigate what can be said about the interaction of scalar fields with Abelian gauge fields during a quasi-de Sitter phase of expansion and under the assumption that the electric and the magnetic susceptibilities do not coincide. The duality symmetry, transforming the magnetic susceptibility into the inverse of the electric susceptibility, exchanges the magnetic and electric power spectra. The mismatch between the two susceptibilities determines an effective refractive index affecting the evolution of the canonical fields. The constraints imposed by the duration of the inflationary phase and by the magnetogenesis requirements pin down the rate of variation of the susceptibilities that is consistent with the observations of the magnetic field strength over astrophysical and cosmological scales but avoids back-reaction problems. The parameter space of this magnetogenesis scenario is wider than in the case when the susceptibilities are equal, as it happens when the inflaton or some other spectator field is ...

  5. Generation of Large-Scale Magnetic Fields by Small-Scale Dynamo in Shear Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, J; Bhattacharjee, A

    2015-10-23

    We propose a new mechanism for a turbulent mean-field dynamo in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of a large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the "shear-current" effect. Given the inevitable existence of nonhelical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic nature of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help explain the generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects.

  6. Multi-scale magnetic field intermittence in the plasma sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Vörös, Z.; Baumjohann, W.; Nakamura, R.; Runov, A.; Zhang, T. L.; Volwerk, M.; Eichelberger, H. U.; Balogh, A.; Horbury, T. S.; Glaßmeier, K. -H.; Klecker, B.; Rème, H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that intermittent magnetic field fluctuations in the plasma sheet exhibit transitory, localized, and multi-scale features. We propose a multifractal-based algorithm, which quantifies intermittence on the basis of the statistical distribution of the "strength of burstiness", estimated within a sliding window. Interesting multi-scale phenomena observed by the Cluster spacecraft include large-scale motion of the current sheet and bursty bulk flow ...

  7. Large-scale solar magnetic field mapping: I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Kenneth H

    2013-12-01

    This article focuses on mapping the Sun's large-scale magnetic fields. In particular, the model considers how photospheric fields evolve in time. Our solar field mapping method uses Netlogo's cellular automata software via algorithms to carry out the movement of magnetic field on the Sun via agents. This model's entities consist of two breeds: blue and red agents. The former carry a fixed amount of radially outward magnetic flux: 10(23) Mx, and the latter, the identical amount of inward directed flux. The individual agents are distinguished, for clarity, by various shades of blue and red arrows whose orientation indicates the direction the agents are moving, relative to the near-steady bulk fluid motions. The fluid motions generally advect the field with the well known meridional circulation and differential rotation. Our model predominantly focuses on spatial and temporal variations from the bulk fluid motions owing to magnetic interactions. There are but a few effects that agents have on each other: i) while at the poles, field agents are connected via the Babcock - Leighton (B - L) subsurface field to other latitudes. This allows them to undertake two duties there: A) the B - L subsurface field spawns the next generation of new magnetic field via new agents, and B) the B - L subsurface field attracts lower-latitude fields via the "long-range" magnetic stress tension; ii) nearby agents affect each other's motion by short-range interactions; and iii) through annihilation: when opposite field agents get too close to each other, they disappear in pairs. The behavior of the agents' long- and short-range magnetic forces is discussed within this paper as well as the model's use of internal boundary conditions. The workings of the model may be seen in the accompanying movies and/or by using the software available via SpringerPlus' website, or on the Netlogo (TM) community website, where help is readable available, and should all these fail, some help from the author.

  8. The large-scale properties of simulated cosmological magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinacci, Federico; Vogelsberger, Mark; Mocz, Philip; Pakmor, Rüdiger

    2015-11-01

    We perform uniformly sampled large-scale cosmological simulations including magnetic fields with the moving mesh code AREPO. We run two sets of MHD simulations: one including adiabatic gas physics only; the other featuring the fiducial feedback model of the Illustris simulation. In the adiabatic case, the magnetic field amplification follows the B ∝ ρ2/3 scaling derived from `flux-freezing' arguments, with the seed field strength providing an overall normalization factor. At high baryon overdensities the amplification is enhanced by shear flows and turbulence. Feedback physics and the inclusion of radiative cooling change this picture dramatically. In haloes, gas collapses to much larger densities and the magnetic field is amplified strongly and to the same maximum intensity irrespective of the initial seed field of which any memory is lost. At lower densities a dependence on the seed field strength and orientation, which in principle can be used to constrain models of cosmic magnetogenesis, is still present. Inside the most massive haloes magnetic fields reach values of ˜ 10-100 μG, in agreement with galaxy cluster observations. The topology of the field is tangled and gives rise to rotation measure signals in reasonable agreement with the observations. However, the rotation measure signal declines too rapidly towards larger radii as compared to observational data.

  9. Planck intermediate results XLII. Large-scale Galactic magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent models for the large-scale Galactic magnetic fields in the literature have been largely constrained by synchrotron emission and Faraday rotation measures. We use three different but representative models to compare their predicted polarized synchrotron and dust emission with that measured ...

  10. Multi-scale magnetic field intermittence in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Vörös

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that intermittent magnetic field fluctuations in the plasma sheet exhibit transitory, localized, and multi-scale features. We propose a multifractal-based algorithm, which quantifies intermittence on the basis of the statistical distribution of the "strength of burstiness", estimated within a sliding window. Interesting multi-scale phenomena observed by the Cluster spacecraft include large-scale motion of the current sheet and bursty bulk flow associated turbulence, interpreted as a cross-scale coupling (CSC process.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetotail; plasma sheet – Space plasma physics (turbulence

  11. Multi-scale magnetic field intermittence in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Vörös

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that intermittent magnetic field fluctuations in the plasma sheet exhibit transitory, localized, and multi-scale features. We propose a multifractal-based algorithm, which quantifies intermittence on the basis of the statistical distribution of the "strength of burstiness", estimated within a sliding window. Interesting multi-scale phenomena observed by the Cluster spacecraft include large-scale motion of the current sheet and bursty bulk flow associated turbulence, interpreted as a cross-scale coupling (CSC process.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetotail; plasma sheet – Space plasma physics (turbulence

  12. Entropy perturbations and large-scale magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, Massimo [Centro ' Enrico Fermi' , Compendio del Viminale, Via Panisperna 89/A, 00184 Rome (Italy); Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2006-08-07

    An appropriate gauge-invariant framework for the treatment of magnetized curvature and entropy modes is developed. It is shown that large-scale magnetic fields, present after neutrino decoupling, affect curvature and entropy perturbations. The evolution of different magnetized modes is then studied across the matter-radiation transition both analytically and numerically. From the observation that after equality (but before decoupling) the (scalar) Sachs-Wolfe contribution must be (predominantly) adiabatic, constraints on the magnetic power spectra are deduced. The present results motivate the experimental analysis of more general initial conditions of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies (i.e. mixtures of magnetized adiabatic and isocurvature modes during the pre-decoupling phase). The role of the possible correlations between the different components of the fluctuations is partially discussed.

  13. Planck intermediate results. XLII. Large-scale Galactic magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Alves, M. I. R.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Doré, O.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Ferrière, K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hobson, M.; Hornstrup, A.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Oppermann, N.; Orlando, E.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A. W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-12-01

    Recent models for the large-scale Galactic magnetic fields in the literature have been largely constrained by synchrotron emission and Faraday rotation measures. We use three different but representative models to compare their predicted polarized synchrotron and dust emission with that measured by the Planck satellite. We first update these models to match the Planck synchrotron products using a common model for the cosmic-ray leptons. We discuss the impact on this analysis of the ongoing problems of component separation in the Planck microwave bands and of the uncertain cosmic-ray spectrum. In particular, the inferred degree of ordering in the magnetic fields is sensitive to these systematic uncertainties, and we further show the importance of considering the expected variations in the observables in addition to their mean morphology. We then compare the resulting simulated emission to the observed dust polarization and find that the dust predictions do not match the morphology in the Planck data but underpredict the dust polarization away from the plane. We modify one of the models to roughly match both observables at high latitudes by increasing the field ordering in the thin disc near the observer. Though this specific analysis is dependent on the component separation issues, we present the improved model as a proof of concept for how these studies can be advanced in future using complementary information from ongoing and planned observational projects.

  14. Generation of magnetic fields by large-scale vortices in rotating convection

    CERN Document Server

    Guervilly, Celine; Jones, Chris A

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new self-consistent dynamo mechanism for the generation of large-scale magnetic fields in natural objects. Recent computational studies have described the formation of large-scale vortices (LSVs) in rotating turbulent convection. Here we demonstrate that for magnetic Reynolds numbers below the threshold for small-scale dynamo action, such turbulent flows can sustain large-scale magnetic fields --- i.e. fields with a significant component on the scale of the system.

  15. Parsec-Scale Obscuring Accretion Disk with Large-Scale Magnetic Field in AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorodnitsyn, A.; Kallman, T.

    2017-01-01

    A magnetic field dragged from the galactic disk, along with inflowing gas, can provide vertical support to the geometrically and optically thick pc (parsec) -scale torus in AGNs (Active Galactic Nuclei). Using the Soloviev solution initially developed for Tokamaks, we derive an analytical model for a rotating torus that is supported and confined by a magnetic field. We further perform three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of X-ray irradiated, pc-scale, magnetized tori. We follow the time evolution and compare models that adopt initial conditions derived from our analytic model with simulations in which the initial magnetic flux is entirely contained within the gas torus. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the initial conditions based on the analytic solution produce a longer-lived torus that produces obscuration that is generally consistent with observed constraints.

  16. Beam transport line with scaling fixed field alternating gradient type magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Shinji Machida; Richard Fenning

    2010-01-01

    A scaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator provides large momentum acceptance despite the fact that magnetic guiding fields are constant in time. Optical functions are identical over the large momentum range as well. We have designed a straight beam transport line (BTL) using a scaling FFAG type magnet which has a field profile of y^{k}, where y is the horizontal coordinate and k is the magnetic field index. This FFAG-BTL has very large momentum acceptance and optical funct...

  17. IS THE SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELD CORRELATED WITH THE DYNAMO CYCLE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Brandenburg, Axel, E-mail: bbkarak@nordita.org [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    The small-scale magnetic field is ubiquitous at the solar surface—even at high latitudes. From observations we know that this field is uncorrelated (or perhaps even weakly anticorrelated) with the global sunspot cycle. Our aim is to explore the origin, and particularly the cycle dependence, of such a phenomenon using three-dimensional dynamo simulations. We adopt a simple model of a turbulent dynamo in a shearing box driven by helically forced turbulence. Depending on the dynamo parameters, large-scale (global) and small-scale (local) dynamos can be excited independently in this model. Based on simulations in different parameter regimes, we find that, when only the large-scale dynamo is operating in the system, the small-scale magnetic field generated through shredding and tangling of the large-scale magnetic field is positively correlated with the global magnetic cycle. However, when both dynamos are operating, the small-scale field is produced from both the small-scale dynamo and the tangling of the large-scale field. In this situation, when the large-scale field is weaker than the equipartition value of the turbulence, the small-scale field is almost uncorrelated with the large-scale magnetic cycle. On the other hand, when the large-scale field is stronger than the equipartition value, we observe an anticorrelation between the small-scale field and the large-scale magnetic cycle. This anticorrelation can be interpreted as a suppression of the small-scale dynamo. Based on our studies we conclude that the observed small-scale magnetic field in the Sun is generated by the combined mechanisms of a small-scale dynamo and tangling of the large-scale field.

  18. Large Scale Magnetic Fields: Density Power Spectrum in Redshift ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    are produced at the time of inflation in the very early universe. Larger surveys like the on-going SDSS have the potential to uncover the small discrepancy between theory and observations. In this paper we study the possibility that initial density and velocity perturbations were caused by tangled magnetic fields. In particular ...

  19. Random field Ising model in a uniform magnetic field: Ground states, pinned clusters and scaling laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Banerjee, Varsha; Puri, Sanjay

    2017-11-08

    In this paper, we study the random field Ising model (RFIM) in an external magnetic field h . A computationally efficient graph-cut method is used to study ground state (GS) morphologies in this system for three different disorder types: Gaussian, uniform and bimodal. We obtain the critical properties of this system and find that they are independent of the disorder type. We also study GS morphologies via pinned-cluster distributions, which are scale-free at criticality. The spin-spin correlation functions (and structure factors) are characterized by a roughness exponent [Formula: see text]. The corresponding scaling function is universal for all disorder types and independent of h.

  20. Amplification of large scale magnetic fields in a decaying MHD system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiwan

    2017-10-01

    Dynamo theory explains the amplification of magnetic fields in the conducting fluids (plasmas) driven by the continuous external energy. It is known that the nonhelical continuous kinetic or magnetic energy amplifies the small scale magnetic field; and the helical energy, the instability, or the shear with rotation effect amplifies the large scale magnetic field. However, recently it was reported that the decaying magnetic energy independent of helicity or instability could generate the large scale magnetic field. This phenomenon may look somewhat contradictory to the conventional dynamo theory. But it gives us some clues to the fundamental mechanism of energy transfer in the magnetized conducting fluids. It also implies that an ephemeral astrophysical event emitting the magnetic and kinetic energy can be a direct cause of the large scale magnetic field observed in space. As of now the exact physical mechanism is not yet understood in spite of several numerical results. The plasma motion coupled with a nearly conserved vector potential in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) system may transfer magnetic energy to the large scale. Also the intrinsic property of the scaling invariant MHD equation may decide the direction of energy transfer. In this paper we present the simulation results of inversely transferred helical and nonhelical energy in a decaying MHD system. We introduce a field structure model based on the MHD equation to show that the transfer of magnetic energy is essentially bidirectional depending on the plasma motion and initial energy distribution. And then we derive α coefficient algebraically in line with the field structure model to explain how the large scale magnetic field is induced by the helical energy in the system regardless of an external forcing source. And for the algebraic analysis of nonhelical magnetic energy, we use the eddy damped quasinormalized Markovian approximation to show the inverse transfer of magnetic energy.

  1. Magnetic field measurements of Fermilab/General Dynamics built full scale SSC collider dipole magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delchamps, S.; Bleadon, M.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Gourlay, S.; Hanft, R.; Koska, W.; Kuchnir, M.; Lamm, M.; Mazur, P.; Mokhtarani, A.; Orris, D.; Strait, J.; Wake, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Devred, A.; DiMarco, J.; Kuzminski, J.; Ogitsu, T.; Puglisi, M.; Tompkins, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of magnetic field measurements made on a series of 50 mm aperture 15 m long SSC collider dipole magnets designed and manufactured at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) for use in the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) Accelerator System String Test. The magnets were assembled by Fermilab and General Dynamics personnel, and were tested at the Magnet Test Facility (MTF) at Fermilab. Measurements of the dipole field angle, dipole field strength, and field shape parameters at various stages in magnet construction and testing are described.

  2. Electric field as a switching tool for magnetic states in atomic-scale nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negulyaev, N N; Stepanyuk, V S; Hergert, W; Kirschner, J

    2011-01-21

    One of the most promising candidates for the construction of ultrahigh-density storage media is low-dimensional atomic-scale magnetic nanostructures exhibiting magnetic bi- or multistability. Here we propose a novel route of locally controlling and switching magnetism in such nanostructures. Our ab initio studies reveal that externally applied electric field can be used for this purpose.

  3. Unveiling the Role of the Magnetic Field at the Smallest Scales of Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Mocz, Philip; Burkhart, Blakesley; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans S/N, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia (Spain); Cortés, Paulo C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Springel, Volker [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Lai, Shih-Ping, E-mail: chat.hull@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2 Kuang Fu Road, 30013 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-20

    We report Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of polarized dust emission from the protostellar source Ser-emb 8 at a linear resolution of 140 au. Assuming models of dust-grain alignment hold, the observed polarization pattern gives a projected view of the magnetic field structure in this source. Contrary to expectations based on models of strongly magnetized star formation, the magnetic field in Ser-emb 8 does not exhibit an hourglass morphology. Combining the new ALMA data with previous observational studies, we can connect magnetic field structure from protostellar core (∼80,000 au) to disk (∼100 au) scales. We compare our observations with four magnetohydrodynamic gravo-turbulence simulations made with the AREPO code that have initial conditions ranging from super-Alfvénic (weakly magnetized) to sub-Alfvénic (strongly magnetized). These simulations achieve the spatial dynamic range necessary to resolve the collapse of protostars from the parsec scale of star-forming clouds down to the ∼100 au scale probed by ALMA. Only in the very strongly magnetized simulation do we see both the preservation of the field direction from cloud to disk scales and an hourglass-shaped field at <1000 au scales. We conduct an analysis of the relative orientation of the magnetic field and the density structure in both the Ser-emb 8 ALMA observations and the synthetic observations of the four AREPO simulations. We conclude that the Ser-emb 8 data are most similar to the weakly magnetized simulations, which exhibit random alignment, in contrast to the strongly magnetized simulation, where the magnetic field plays a role in shaping the density structure in the source. In the weak-field case, it is turbulence—not the magnetic field—that shapes the material that forms the protostar, highlighting the dominant role that turbulence can play across many orders of magnitude in spatial scale.

  4. Small-scale primordial magnetic fields and anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedamzik, Karsten [Laboratoire de Univers et Particules, UMR5299-CNRS, Université de Montpellier II, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Abel, Tom, E-mail: karsten.jedamzik@um2.fr, E-mail: tabel@slac.stanford.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC/Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    It is shown that small-scale magnetic fields present before recombination induce baryonic density inhomogeneities of appreciable magnitude. The presence of such inhomogeneities changes the ionization history of the Universe, which in turn decreases the angular scale of the Doppler peaks and increases Silk damping by photon diffusion. This unique signature could be used to (dis)prove the existence of primordial magnetic fields of strength as small as B ≅ 10{sup −11} Gauss by cosmic microwave background observations.

  5. Particle acceleration by collisionless shocks containing large-scale magnetic-field variations

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, F.; Jokipii, J. R.; Kota, J.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration at collisionless shocks is thought to be the source of many of the energetic particles observed in space. Large-scale spatial variations of the magnetic field has been shown to be important in understanding observations. The effects are complex, so here we consider a simple, illustrative model. Here, we solve numerically the Parker transport equation for a shock in the presence of large-scale sinusoidal magnetic-field variations. We demonstrate that the familiar p...

  6. Anisotropic diffusion across an external magnetic field and large-scale fluctuations in magnetized plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holod, I; Zagorodny, A; Weiland, J

    2005-04-01

    The problem of random motion of charged particles in an external magnetic field is studied under the assumption that the Langevin sources produce anisotropic diffusion in velocity space and the friction force is dependent on the direction of particle motion. It is shown that in the case under consideration, the kinetic equation describing particle transitions in phase space is reduced to the equation with a Fokker-Planck collision term in the general form (non-isotropic friction coefficient and nonzero off-diagonal elements of the diffusion tensor in the velocity space). The solution of such an equation has been obtained and the explicit form of the transition probability is found. Using the obtained transition probability, the mean-square particle displacements in configuration and velocity space were calculated and compared with the results of numerical simulations, showing good agreement. The obtained results are used to generalize the theory of large-scale fluctuations in plasmas to the case of anisotropic diffusion across an external magnetic field. Such diffusion is expected to be observed in the case of an anisotropic k spectrum of fluctuations generating random particle motion (for example, in the case of drift-wave turbulence).

  7. Turbulence and magnetic fields in the large-scale structure of the universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Kang, Hyesung; Cho, Jungyeon; Das, Santabrata

    2008-05-16

    The nature and origin of turbulence and magnetic fields in the intergalactic space are important problems that are yet to be understood. We propose a scenario in which turbulent-flow motions are induced via the cascade of the vorticity generated at cosmological shocks during the formation of the large-scale structure. The turbulence in turn amplifies weak seed magnetic fields of any origin. Supercomputer simulations show that the turbulence is subsonic inside clusters and groups of galaxies, whereas it is transonic or mildly supersonic in filaments. Based on a turbulence dynamo model, we then estimated that the average magnetic field strength would be a few microgauss (microG) inside clusters and groups, approximately 0.1 muG around clusters and groups, and approximately 10 nanogauss in filaments. Our model presents a physical mechanism that transfers the gravitational energy to the turbulence and magnetic field energies in the large-scale structure of the universe.

  8. EXPLAINING THE COEXISTENCE OF LARGE-SCALE AND SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELDS IN FULLY CONVECTIVE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Rakesh K.; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Wolk, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Christensen, Ulrich R.; Gastine, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Morin, Julien [LUPM, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, Place Eugène Bataillon, F-34095 (France); Reiners, Ansgar, E-mail: rakesh.yadav@cfa.harvard.edu [Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Göttingen, Friedrich Hund Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2015-11-10

    Despite the lack of a shear-rich tachocline region, low-mass fully convective (FC) stars are capable of generating strong magnetic fields, indicating that a dynamo mechanism fundamentally different from the solar dynamo is at work in these objects. We present a self-consistent three-dimensional model of magnetic field generation in low-mass FC stars. The model utilizes the anelastic magnetohydrodynamic equations to simulate compressible convection in a rotating sphere. A distributed dynamo working in the model spontaneously produces a dipole-dominated surface magnetic field of the observed strength. The interaction of this field with the turbulent convection in outer layers shreds it, producing small-scale fields that carry most of the magnetic flux. The Zeeman–Doppler-Imaging technique applied to synthetic spectropolarimetric data based on our model recovers most of the large-scale field. Our model simultaneously reproduces the morphology and magnitude of the large-scale field as well as the magnitude of the small-scale field observed on low-mass FC stars.

  9. Coronae as Consequence of Large Scale Magnetic Fields in Turbulent Accretion Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Blackman, Eric; Pessah, Martin Elias

    2009-01-01

    Non-thermal X-ray emission in compact accretion engines can be interpreted to result from magnetic dissipation in an optically thin magnetized corona above an optically thick accretion disk. If coronal magnetic field originates in the disk and the disk is turbulent, then only magnetic structures...... large enough for their turbulent shredding time to exceed their buoyant rise time survive the journey to the corona. We use this concept and a physical model to constrain the minimum fraction of magnetic energy above the critical scale for buoyancy as a function of the observed coronal to bolometric...... AGN, for which of order 30 per cent of the bolometric flux is in the X-ray band, we find that more than 20 per cent of the magnetic energy must be of large enough scale to rise and dissipate in the corona....

  10. Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced......he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics...... in the Earth by time-varying external fields. These sources have their specific characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal variations, and their proper separation, based on magnetic measurements, is a major challenge. Such a separation is a prerequisite for remote sensing by means of magnetic field...

  11. Cosmological magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Kerstin E.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic fields are observed on nearly all scales in the Universe, from stars and galaxies up to galaxy clusters and even beyond. The origin of cosmic magnetic fields is still an open question, however a large class of models puts its origin in the very early Universe. A magnetic dynamo amplifying an initial seed magnetic field could explain the present day strength of the galactic magnetic field. However, it is still an open problem how and when this initial magnetic field was created. Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide a window to the early Universe and might therefore be able to tell us whether cosmic magnetic fields are of a primordial cosmological origin and at the same time constrain its parameters. We will give an overview of the observational evidence of large-scale magnetic fields, describe generation mechanisms of primordial magnetic fields and possible imprints in the CMB.

  12. The Large-scale Galactic Magnetic Field Structure and Pulsar Rotation Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J. L.; Manchester, R. N.; Qiao, G. J.; Lyne, A. G.

    Pulsars provide unique probes for the {\\it large-scale} interstellar magnetic field in the Galactic disk. The Parkes multibeam pulsar survey has discovered many distant pulsars which enables us for the first time to explore the magnetic field in most of the nearby half of the Galactic disk. The fields are found to be {\\it coherent in direction} over a linear scale of $\\sim 10$ kpc between the Carina-Sagittarius and Crux-Scutum arms from $l\\sim45\\degr$ to $l\\sim305\\degr$. The coherent spiral structures and field direction reversals, including the newly determined counterclockwise field near the Norma arm, are consistent with bi-symmetric spiral model for the disk field. However, the antisymmetric rotation measure sky from the Galactic halo and the dipole field in the Galactic center suggest that the A0 dynamo is operating there.

  13. Duality and scale invariant magnetic fields from bouncing universes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Debika; Sriramkumar, L.; Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    of such models. We illustrate that, for cosmological scales which have wave numbers much smaller than the wave number associated with the bounce, the shape of the spectrum is preserved across the bounce. Using the analytic solutions obtained, we also illustrate that the problem of backreaction is severe...

  14. MMS Multipoint Electric Field Observations of Small-Scale Magnetic Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Katherine A.; Ergun, Robert E.; Wilder, Frederick; Burch, James; Torbert, Roy; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Russell, Christopher; Strangeway, Robert; Magnus, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale magnetic holes (MHs), local depletions in magnetic field strength, have been observed multiple times in the Earths magnetosphere in the bursty bulk flow (BBF) braking region. This particular subset of MHs has observed scale sizes perpendicular to the background magnetic field (B) less than the ambient ion Larmor radius (p(sib i)). Previous observations by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) indicate that this subset of MHs can be supported by a current driven by the E x B drift of electrons. Ions do not participate in the E x B drift due to the small-scale size of the electric field. While in the BBF braking region, during its commissioning phase, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft observed a small-scale MH. The electric field observations taken during this event suggest the presence of electron currents perpendicular to the magnetic field. These observations also suggest that these currents can evolve to smaller spatial scales.

  15. Geometrically-complex magnetic field distributions enabled by bulk, laser-micromachined permanent magnets at the submillimeter scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Brock Alan

    High-energy-product permanent magnets (PM) are utilized in many industrial, research, consumer, and commercial applications. Indeed, there are many potential applications that can utilize sub-mm PM to create miniaturized versions of motors, generators, energy harvesters, undulators, sensors, actuators, and other microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. Magnets in MEMS are both important and useful because they can provide a strong force at a distance within a compact package; however, there exists a gap in magnet technologies today where magnets have little to no presence between bottom-up microfabricated PM and top-down machined bulk PM. Thus, there is a need for a form of PM that can be 100-500 microm thick with lateral dimensions of the same order to fill this gap and provide the advantageous magnetic properties of bulk PM at this scale. This dissertation presents the development of laser micromachining as a fabrication technology that enables the microfabrication of PM to generate geometrically complex magnetic fields at the sub-mm scale. Generating geometrically complex magnetic fields at the sub-mm scale opens up new possibilities in medical technology, energy generation, and many other applications. Models simulating magnetic properties and the effects of laser machining are presented and compared to measurements. The fabrication technology discussed here allows sub-mm, geometrically complex magnetic fields to be achieved while maintaining the characteristics of bulk PM. The utility of this advance in fabrication technology is demonstrated through multiple research vehicles, including undulators for radiation generation and multipole energy harvesters operable at low frequency. Such vehicles represent a small sample of the potential applications for this work.

  16. Pulsar Rotation Measures and the Large-Scale Structure of the Galactic Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J. L.; Manchester, R. N.; Lyne, A. G.; Qiao, G. J.; van Straten, W.

    2006-05-01

    The large-scale magnetic field of our Galaxy can be probed in three dimensions using Faraday rotation of pulsar signals. We report on the determination of 223 rotation measures from polarization observations of relatively distant southern pulsars made using the Parkes radio telescope. Combined with previously published observations, these data give clear evidence for large-scale counterclockwise fields (viewed from the north Galactic pole) in the spiral arms interior to the Sun and weaker evidence for a counterclockwise field in the Perseus arm. However, in interarm regions, including the solar neighborhood, we present evidence that suggests that large-scale fields are clockwise. We propose that the large-scale Galactic magnetic field has a bisymmetric structure with reversals on the boundaries of the spiral arms. Streaming motions associated with spiral density waves can directly generate such a structure from an initial, inwardly directed radial field. Large-scale fields increase toward the Galactic center, with a mean value of about 2 μG in the solar neighborhood and 4 μG at a galactocentric radius of 3 kpc.

  17. The Parsec-Scale Magnetic Field Properties of Low-Optical Polarization Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Matthew L.; Smith, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Past variability studies of flat-spectrum, compact extra-galactic radio sources have suggested that low- and high-optically polarized quasars (LPQ/HPQ) are the same type of object, differing only in the angle their relativistic jets make to the line of sight. This view has been challenged, however, by recent millimeter-wave polarization observations which indicate intrinsic differences in the inner magnetic field properties of the two classes. The inner jets of LPQs tend to have lower fractional polarizations than HPQs, and inferred magnetic field directions that are mostly parallel to the jet. The magnetic fields of HPQs, on the other hand, lie mainly in a transverse direction. The latter configuration is a prediction of the standard shock-in-jet model, in which a portion of a jet undergoes a strong transverse compression, thereby enhancing the perpendicular components of an originally tangled magnetic field. The main goal of this study is to establish a connection between the optical polarization and magnetic field properties of the inner jets of blazars. The magnetic field orientations of several HPQs have been shown to be stable over many years, which may be due to standing shock(s) located close to the base of the jet. Since these shocks are able to produce large amounts of optically polarized synchrotron radiation, their presence may very well determine whether an object is classified as an HPQ or LPQ. We have imaged the parsec-scale jet regions and magnetic fields of 11 LPQs with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 43 and 22 GHz, and have obtained near- simultaneous optical polarization data for the sample. We discuss correlations between the optical and radio polarization data, and compare the LPQ properties to those of a sample of HPQs presently being monitored with the VLBA and JCMT at mm and sub-mm wavelengths, respectively. This research was performed in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA.

  18. Atomic-scale sensing of the magnetic dipolar field from single atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Taeyoung; Paul, William; Rolf-Pissarczyk, Steffen; MacDonald, Andrew J.; Natterer, Fabian D.; Yang, Kai; Willke, Philip; Lutz, Christopher P.; Heinrich, Andreas J.

    2017-05-01

    Spin resonance provides the high-energy resolution needed to determine biological and material structures by sensing weak magnetic interactions. In recent years, there have been notable achievements in detecting and coherently controlling individual atomic-scale spin centres for sensitive local magnetometry. However, positioning the spin sensor and characterizing spin-spin interactions with sub-nanometre precision have remained outstanding challenges. Here, we use individual Fe atoms as an electron spin resonance (ESR) sensor in a scanning tunnelling microscope to measure the magnetic field emanating from nearby spins with atomic-scale precision. On artificially built assemblies of magnetic atoms (Fe and Co) on a magnesium oxide surface, we measure that the interaction energy between the ESR sensor and an adatom shows an inverse-cube distance dependence (r-3.01±0.04). This demonstrates that the atoms are predominantly coupled by the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction, which, according to our observations, dominates for atom separations greater than 1 nm. This dipolar sensor can determine the magnetic moments of individual adatoms with high accuracy. The achieved atomic-scale spatial resolution in remote sensing of spins may ultimately allow the structural imaging of individual magnetic molecules, nanostructures and spin-labelled biomolecules.

  19. Automated tracing of open-field coronal structures for an optimized large-scale magnetic field reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritsky, V. M.; Davila, J. M.; Jones, S. I.

    2014-12-01

    Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter will provide detailed measurements in the inner heliosphere magnetically connected with the topologically complex and eruptive solar corona. Interpretation of these measurements will require accurate reconstruction of the large-scale coronal magnetic field. In a related presentation by S. Jones et al., we argue that such reconstruction can be performed using photospheric extrapolation methods constrained by white-light coronagraph images. Here, we present the image-processing component of this project dealing with an automated segmentation of fan-like coronal loop structures. In contrast to the existing segmentation codes designed for detecting small-scale closed loops in the vicinity of active regions, we focus on the large-scale geometry of the open-field coronal features observed at significant radial distances from the solar surface. The coronagraph images used for the loop segmentation are transformed into a polar coordinate system and undergo radial detrending and initial noise reduction. The preprocessed images are subject to an adaptive second order differentiation combining radial and azimuthal directions. An adjustable thresholding technique is applied to identify candidate coronagraph features associated with the large-scale coronal field. A blob detection algorithm is used to extract valid features and discard noisy data pixels. The obtained features are interpolated using higher-order polynomials which are used to derive empirical directional constraints for magnetic field extrapolation procedures based on photospheric magnetograms.

  20. Variability of the Magnetic Field Power Spectrum in the Solar Wind at Electron Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Owen Wyn; Alexandrova, O.; Kajdič, P.; Turc, L.; Perrone, D.; Escoubet, C. P.; Walsh, A.

    2017-12-01

    At electron scales, the power spectrum of solar-wind magnetic fluctuations can be highly variable and the dissipation mechanisms of the magnetic energy into the various particle species is under debate. In this paper, we investigate data from the Cluster mission’s STAFF Search Coil magnetometer when the level of turbulence is sufficiently high that the morphology of the power spectrum at electron scales can be investigated. The Cluster spacecraft sample a disturbed interval of plasma where two streams of solar wind interact. Meanwhile, several discontinuities (coherent structures) are seen in the large-scale magnetic field, while at small scales several intermittent bursts of wave activity (whistler waves) are present. Several different morphologies of the power spectrum can be identified: (1) two power laws separated by a break, (2) an exponential cutoff near the Taylor shifted electron scales, and (3) strong spectral knees at the Taylor shifted electron scales. These different morphologies are investigated by using wavelet coherence, showing that, in this interval, a clear break and strong spectral knees are features that are associated with sporadic quasi parallel propagating whistler waves, even for short times. On the other hand, when no signatures of whistler waves at ∼ 0.1{--}0.2{f}{ce} are present, a clear break is difficult to find and the spectrum is often more characteristic of a power law with an exponential cutoff.

  1. Primordial Magnetic Field Effects on the CMB and Large-Scale Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai G. Yamazaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fields are everywhere in nature, and they play an important role in every astronomical environment which involves the formation of plasma and currents. It is natural therefore to suppose that magnetic fields could be present in the turbulent high-temperature environment of the big bang. Such a primordial magnetic field (PMF would be expected to manifest itself in the cosmic microwave background (CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies, and also in the formation of large-scale structure. In this paper, we summarize the theoretical framework which we have developed to calculate the PMF power spectrum to high precision. Using this formulation, we summarize calculations of the effects of a PMF which take accurate quantitative account of the time evolution of the cutoff scale. We review the constructed numerical program, which is without approximation, and an improvement over the approach used in a number of previous works for studying the effect of the PMF on the cosmological perturbations. We demonstrate how the PMF is an important cosmological physical process on small scales. We also summarize the current constraints on the PMF amplitude Bλ and the power spectral index nB which have been deduced from the available CMB observational data by using our computational framework.

  2. Depression of the magnetic field in an active small-scale flux rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Binbin; Li, Wenya; Wang, Chi; Dai, Lei; Burch, Jim; Ergun, Robert; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Pollock, Craig; Russell, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    We report an active small-scale magnetic flux rope (˜9.8di) at the trailing edge of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) waves on September 27 2016 by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, which is probably generated by multiple x-line reconnections. The magnetic field inside this flux rope is significantly depressed, resulting into a non-force-free structure. The currents of this flux rope are filamentary but structured, and the current filaments at the edges induce an opposing field that causes observed |B| depressions in the central flux rope. In addition, intense lower hybrid drift waves (LHDW) are found the magnetospheric edge of the flux rope, whose wave potential reaches to ˜20% of the electron temperature, thus these waves could effectively scatter electrons by the wave electric field corresponding to a local density dip. We suggest LHDW may be stabilized by the electron resonance broadening.

  3. Mitigation of Power frequency Magnetic Fields. Using Scale Invariant and Shape Optimization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas, Ener; Yueqiang Liu; Daalder, Jaap; Cruz, Pedro; Antunez de Souza, Paulo Roberto Jr; Atalaya, Juan Carlos; Paula Marciano, Fabianna de; Eskinasy, Alexandre

    2006-10-15

    The present report describes the development and application of two novel methods for implementing mitigation techniques of magnetic fields at power frequencies. The first method makes use of scaling rules for electromagnetic quantities, while the second one applies a 2D shape optimization algorithm based on gradient methods. Before this project, the first method had already been successfully applied (by some of the authors of this report) to electromagnetic designs involving pure conductive Material (e.g. copper, aluminium) which implied a linear formulation. Here we went beyond this approach and tried to develop a formulation involving ferromagnetic (i.e. non-linear) Materials. Surprisingly, we obtained good equivalent replacement for test-transformers by varying the input current. In spite of the validity of this equivalence constrained to regions not too close to the source, the results can still be considered useful, as most field mitigation techniques are precisely developed for reducing the magnetic field in regions relatively far from the sources. The shape optimization method was applied in this project to calculate the optimal geometry of a pure conductive plate to mitigate the magnetic field originated from underground cables. The objective function was a weighted combination of magnetic energy at the region of interest and dissipated heat at the shielding Material. To our surprise, shapes of complex structure, difficult to interpret (and probably even harder to anticipate) were the results of the applied process. However, the practical implementation (using some approximation of these shapes) gave excellent experimental mitigation factors.

  4. Generation of scaled protogalactic seed magnetic fields in laser-produced shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, G; Ravasio, A; Murphy, C D; Schaar, K; Baird, A; Bell, A R; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Bingham, R; Constantin, C; Drake, R P; Edwards, M; Everson, E T; Gregory, C D; Kuramitsu, Y; Lau, W; Mithen, J; Niemann, C; Park, H-S; Remington, B A; Reville, B; Robinson, A P L; Ryutov, D D; Sakawa, Y; Yang, S; Woolsey, N C; Koenig, M; Miniati, F

    2012-01-25

    The standard model for the origin of galactic magnetic fields is through the amplification of seed fields via dynamo or turbulent processes to the level consistent with present observations. Although other mechanisms may also operate, currents from misaligned pressure and temperature gradients (the Biermann battery process) inevitably accompany the formation of galaxies in the absence of a primordial field. Driven by geometrical asymmetries in shocks associated with the collapse of protogalactic structures, the Biermann battery is believed to generate tiny seed fields to a level of about 10(-21) gauss (refs 7, 8). With the advent of high-power laser systems in the past two decades, a new area of research has opened in which, using simple scaling relations, astrophysical environments can effectively be reproduced in the laboratory. Here we report the results of an experiment that produced seed magnetic fields by the Biermann battery effect. We show that these results can be scaled to the intergalactic medium, where turbulence, acting on timescales of around 700 million years, can amplify the seed fields sufficiently to affect galaxy evolution.

  5. Solar Coronal Loops Associated with Small-scale Mixed Polarity Surface Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitta, L. P.; Peter, H.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Noort, M. van [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rodríguez, J. Blanco [Grupo de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Iniesta, J. C. Del Toro; Suárez, D. Orozco [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Schmidt, W. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Pillet, V. Martínez [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Knölker, M., E-mail: chitta@mps.mpg.de [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    How and where are coronal loops rooted in the solar lower atmosphere? The details of the magnetic environment and its evolution at the footpoints of coronal loops are crucial to understanding the processes of mass and energy supply to the solar corona. To address the above question, we use high-resolution line-of-sight magnetic field data from the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment instrument on the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory and coronal observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory of an emerging active region. We find that the coronal loops are often rooted at the locations with minor small-scale but persistent opposite-polarity magnetic elements very close to the larger dominant polarity. These opposite-polarity small-scale elements continually interact with the dominant polarity underlying the coronal loop through flux cancellation. At these locations we detect small inverse Y-shaped jets in chromospheric Ca ii H images obtained from the Sunrise Filter Imager during the flux cancellation. Our results indicate that magnetic flux cancellation and reconnection at the base of coronal loops due to mixed polarity fields might be a crucial feature for the supply of mass and energy into the corona.

  6. Improved Eddy-current Field Loss Model and Scaling Index for Magnets of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives detailed systematic researches on the mechanism and key factors of eddy-current losses in rotor magnets of high power-density permanent magnet synchronous motors(PMSMs. Firstly, this paper establishes quantitative mathematic model of eddy-current losses for surface-mounted PMSM based on eddy current field model and Maxwell equations. Then, a scaling index is put forward to weigh the key factors relevant to the eddy-current losses in magnets. At the same time, the principles of eddy-current losses in prototype PMSM are analyzed by the finite element analysis (FEA software. The contents researched in the paper have practical reference values for design and reliability analysis of PMSMs.

  7. On the possible origin of the large scale cosmic magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coroniti, F. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    The possibility that the large scale cosmic magnetic field is directly generated at microgauss, equipartition levels during the reionization epoch by collisionless shocks that are forced to satisfy a downstream shear flow boundary condition is investigated through the development of two models—the accretion of an ionized plasma onto a weakly ionized cool galactic disk and onto a cool filament of the cosmic web. The dynamical structure and the physical parameters of the models are synthesized from recent cosmological simulations of the early reionization era after the formation of the first stars. The collisionless shock stands upstream of the disk and filament, and its dissipation is determined by ion inertial length Weibel turbulence. The downstream shear boundary condition is determined by the rotational neutral gas flow in the disk and the inward accretion flow along the filament. The shocked plasma is accelerated to the downstream shear flow velocity by the Weibel turbulence, and the relative shearing motion between the electrons and ions produces a strong, ion inertial scale current sheet that generates an equipartition strength, large scale downstream magnetic field, ∼10{sup –6} G for the disk and ∼6 × 10{sup –8} G for the filament. By assumption, hydrodynamic turbulence transports the shear-shock generated magnetic flux throughout the disk and filament volume.

  8. DETECTION OF A FINE-SCALE DISCONTINUITY OF PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELDS ASSOCIATED WITH SOLAR CORONAL LOOP BRIGHTENINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Donguk; Chae, Jongchul; Park, Soyoung [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Suk; Lim, Eun-Kyung [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kwangsu; Cao, Wenda [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2015-09-10

    We present the transient brightening of a coronal loop and an associated fine-scale magnetic discontinuity detected in the photosphere. Utilizing the high-resolution data taken with the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging Magnetograph of the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, we detect a narrow lane of intense horizontal magnetic field representing a magnetic discontinuity. It was visible as a dark lane partially encircling a pore in the continuum image, and was located near one of the footpoints of a small coronal loop that experienced transient brightenings. The horizontal field strength gradually increased before the loop brightening, and then rapidly decreased in the impulsive phase of the brightening, suggesting the increase of the magnetic non-potentiality at the loop footpoint and the sudden release of magnetic energy via magnetic reconnection. Our results support the nanoflare theory that coronal heating events are caused by magnetic reconnection events at fine-scale magnetic discontinuities.

  9. The Origin of Large-scale Primordial Magnetic Fields in the Big Bang Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyber, Howard D.

    2007-12-01

    Applying the well-known physics of plasma and the theory of first order phase transitions, in particular the known physics of the instability called Spinodal Decomposition, a unique "Strong" Magnetic Field physical model (SMF) explains the origin of a large-scale primordial magnetic field in each DeVaucoleurs Supercluster. The strength of the long-range Electromotive Force is about 10exp40 times stronger than Gravity. Thus, the existence of observed magnetic fields in clusters of galaxies, galaxies, quasars, stars is explained. SMF processes occur at and soon after Combination Time, when the CMB (cosmic microwave background) appears, in the Big Bang model of the Universe. SMF leads to a physical model (Astro-ph0509223) where Gravity continues to attract matter into relatively thin sheets of matter around huge voids, which matches the famous observations of John Huchra and Margaret Geller (Harvard/SAO). Eventually, at some local volume, critical density for gravitational collapse of a cloud along the Supercluster's "shell" is reached and galaxies/quasars begin forming. SMF argues for a new classification of galaxies/quasars by the ratio of magnetic energy to rotational energy in the particular object. However the activity we observe is also a function of the matter accretion rate at the particular time observed. Also, applying SMF, a specific physical model (with an electric current Storage Ring) for the "Central Engine" (AGN) of galaxies, relevant to the formation of galactic spiral arms, jets and gamma ray bursts, is created. SMF embodies two novel concepts used in Nature for the production of electric current, both different from the Faraday/Henry discovery that powers our electric civilization. SMF agrees fully with the comment by Sir Martin Rees that "the phenomena of quasars and radio galaxies cannot be understood until they are placed in the general context of galactic evolution".

  10. Laboratory formation of a scaled protostellar jet by coaligned poloidal magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, B; Ciardi, A; Nakatsutsumi, M; Vinci, T; Béard, J; Bonito, R; Billette, J; Borghesi, M; Burkley, Z; Chen, S N; Cowan, T E; Herrmannsdörfer, T; Higginson, D P; Kroll, F; Pikuz, S A; Naughton, K; Romagnani, L; Riconda, C; Revet, G; Riquier, R; Schlenvoigt, H-P; Skobelev, I Yu; Faenov, A Ya; Soloviev, A; Huarte-Espinosa, M; Frank, A; Portugall, O; Pépin, H; Fuchs, J

    2014-10-17

    Although bipolar jets are seen emerging from a wide variety of astrophysical systems, the issue of their formation and morphology beyond their launching is still under study. Our scaled laboratory experiments, representative of young stellar object outflows, reveal that stable and narrow collimation of the entire flow can result from the presence of a poloidal magnetic field whose strength is consistent with observations. The laboratory plasma becomes focused with an interior cavity. This gives rise to a standing conical shock from which the jet emerges. Following simulations of the process at the full astrophysical scale, we conclude that it can also explain recently discovered x-ray emission features observed in low-density regions at the base of protostellar jets, such as the well-studied jet HH 154. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Cosmic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez Almeida, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic fields pervade the universe and play an important role in many astrophysical processes. However, they require specialised observational tools, and are challenging to model and understand. This volume provides a unified view of magnetic fields across astrophysical and cosmological contexts, drawing together disparate topics that are rarely covered together. Written by the lecturers of the XXV Canary Islands Winter School, it offers a self-contained introduction to cosmic magnetic fields on a range of scales. The connections between the behaviours of magnetic fields in these varying contexts are particularly emphasised, from the relatively small and close ranges of the Sun, planets and stars, to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, as well as on cosmological scales. Aimed at young researchers and graduate students, this up-to-date review uniquely brings together a subject often tackled by disconnected communities, conveying the latest advances as well as highlighting the limits of our current understandi...

  12. Generation of low-frequency electric and magnetic fields during large- scale chemical and nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adushkin, V.V. [Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Dynamics of the Geospheres; Dubinya, V.A.; Karaseva, V.A.; Soloviev, S.P.; Surkov, V.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    We discuss the main parameters of the electric field in the surface layer of the atmosphere and the results of the investigations of the natural electric field variations. Experimental investigations of the electromagnetic field for explosions in air are presented. Electromagnetic signals generated by underground nuclear and chemical explosions are discussed and explosions for 1976--1991 are listed. Long term anomalies of the earth`s electromagnetic field in the vicinity of underground explosions were also investigated. Study of the phenomenon of the irreversible shock magnetization showed that in the zone nearest to the explosion the quasistatic magnetic field decreases in inverse proportion to the distance.

  13. Interacting large-scale magnetic fields and ionized gas in the W50/SS433 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnes, J. S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Purcell, C.; Sun, X. H.; Haverkorn, M.; Lenc, E.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; Akahori, T.

    2017-06-01

    The W50/SS433 system is an unusual Galactic outflow-driven object of debatable origin. We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array to observe a new 198 pointing mosaic, covering 3° × 2°, and present the highest-sensitivity full-Stokes data of W50 to date using wide-field, wide-band imaging over a 2 GHz bandwidth centred at 2.1 GHz. We also present a complementary Hα mosaic created using the Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric Hα Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane. The magnetic structure of W50 is consistent with the prevailing hypothesis that the nebula is a reanimated shell-like supernova remnant (SNR), which has been re-energized by the jets from SS433. We observe strong depolarization effects that correlate with diffuse Hα emission, likely due to spatially varying Faraday rotation measure (RM) fluctuations of ≥48-61 rad m-2 on scales ≤4.5-6 pc. We also report the discovery of numerous, faint, Hα filaments that are unambiguously associated with the central region of W50. These thin filaments are suggestive of an SNR's shock emission, and almost all have a radio counterpart. Furthermore, an RM-gradient is detected across the central region of W50, which we interpret as a loop magnetic field with a symmetry axis offset by ≈90° to the east-west jet-alignment axis, and implying that the evolutionary processes of both the jets and the SNR must be coupled. A separate RM-gradient is associated with the termination shock in the eastern ear, which we interpret as a ring-like field located where the shock of the jet interacts with the circumstellar medium. Future optical observations will be able to use the new Hα filaments to probe the kinematics of the shell of W50, potentially allowing for a definitive experiment on W50's formation history.

  14. Near-Earth Magnetic Field Effects of Large-Scale Magnetospheric Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Hermann; Xiong, Chao; Olsen, Nils

    2017-01-01

    Magnetospheric currents play an important role in the electrodynamics of near-Earth space. This has been the topic of many space science studies. Here we focus on the magnetic fields they cause close to Earth. Their contribution to the geomagnetic field is the second largest after the core field...

  15. Magnetic field amplification by small-scale dynamo action: dependence on turbulence models and Reynolds and Prandtl numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik; Federrath, Christoph; Klessen, Ralf; Banerjee, Robi

    2012-02-01

    The small-scale dynamo is a process by which turbulent kinetic energy is converted into magnetic energy, and thus it is expected to depend crucially on the nature of the turbulence. In this paper, we present a model for the small-scale dynamo that takes into account the slope of the turbulent velocity spectrum v(ℓ)proportional ℓ([symbol see text])V}, where ℓ and v(ℓ) are the size of a turbulent fluctuation and the typical velocity on that scale. The time evolution of the fluctuation component of the magnetic field, i.e., the small-scale field, is described by the Kazantsev equation. We solve this linear differential equation for its eigenvalues with the quantum-mechanical WKB approximation. The validity of this method is estimated as a function of the magnetic Prandtl number Pm. We calculate the minimal magnetic Reynolds number for dynamo action, Rm_{crit}, using our model of the turbulent velocity correlation function. For Kolmogorov turbulence ([symbol see text] = 1/3), we find that the critical magnetic Reynolds number is Rm(crit) (K) ≈ 110 and for Burgers turbulence ([symbol see text] = 1/2) Rm(crit)(B) ≈ 2700. Furthermore, we derive that the growth rate of the small-scale magnetic field for a general type of turbulence is Γ proportional Re((1-[symbol see text])/(1+[symbol see text])) in the limit of infinite magnetic Prandtl number. For decreasing magnetic Prandtl number (down to Pm >/~ 10), the growth rate of the small-scale dynamo decreases. The details of this drop depend on the WKB approximation, which becomes invalid for a magnetic Prandtl number of about unity.

  16. The Maximum Entropy Limit of Small-scale Magnetic Field Fluctuations in the Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorobets, A. Y.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; van Noort, M.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Schmidt, W.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Knölker, M.

    2017-11-01

    The observed magnetic field on the solar surface is characterized by a very complex spatial and temporal behavior. Although feature-tracking algorithms have allowed us to deepen our understanding of this behavior, subjectivity plays an important role in the identification and tracking of such features. In this paper, we continue studies of the temporal stochasticity of the magnetic field on the solar surface without relying either on the concept of magnetic features or on subjective assumptions about their identification and interaction. We propose a data analysis method to quantify fluctuations of the line-of-sight magnetic field by means of reducing the temporal field’s evolution to the regular Markov process. We build a representative model of fluctuations converging to the unique stationary (equilibrium) distribution in the long time limit with maximum entropy. We obtained different rates of convergence to the equilibrium at fixed noise cutoff for two sets of data. This indicates a strong influence of the data spatial resolution and mixing-polarity fluctuations on the relaxation process. The analysis is applied to observations of magnetic fields of the relatively quiet areas around an active region carried out during the second flight of the Sunrise/IMaX and quiet Sun areas at the disk center from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite.

  17. Magnetic Field Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...

  18. Large-scale magnetic fields, curvature fluctuations and the thermal history of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that gravitating magnetic fields affect the evolution of curvature perturbations in a way that is reminiscent of a pristine non-adiabatic pressure fluctuation. The gauge-invariant evolution of curvature perturbations is used to constrain the magnetic power spectrum. Depending on the essential features of the thermodynamic history of the Universe, the explicit derivation of the bound is modified. The theoretical uncertainty in the constraints on the magnetic energy spectrum is assessed by comparing the results obtained in the case of the conventional thermal history with the estimates stemming from less conventional (but phenomenologically allowed) post-inflationary evolutions.

  19. Cosmic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kronberg, Philipp P

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields are important in the Universe and their effects contain the key to many astrophysical phenomena that are otherwise impossible to understand. This book presents an up-to-date overview of this fast-growing topic and its interconnections to plasma processes, astroparticle physics, high energy astrophysics, and cosmic evolution. The phenomenology and impact of magnetic fields are described in diverse astrophysical contexts within the Universe, from galaxies to the filaments and voids of the intergalactic medium, and out to the largest redshifts. The presentation of mathematical formulae is accessible and is designed to add insight into the broad range of topics discussed. Written for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics and related disciplines, this volume will inspire readers to devise new ways of thinking about magnetic fields in space on galaxy scales and beyond.

  20. Mathematical formulation to predict the harmonics of the superconducting Large Hadron Collider magnets. II. Dynamic field changes and scaling laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Sammut

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A superconducting particle accelerator like the LHC (Large Hadron Collider at CERN, can only be controlled well if the effects of the magnetic field multipoles on the beam are compensated. The demands on a control system solely based on beam feedback may be too high for the requirements to be reached at the specified bandwidth and accuracy. Therefore, we designed a suitable field description for the LHC (FIDEL as part of the machine control baseline to act as a feed-forward magnetic field prediction system. FIDEL consists of a physical and empirical parametric field model based on magnetic measurements at warm and in cryogenic conditions. The performance of FIDEL is particularly critical at injection when the field decays, and in the initial part of the acceleration when the field snaps back. These dynamic components are both current and time dependent and are not reproducible from cycle to cycle since they also depend on the magnet powering history. In this paper a qualitative and quantitative description of the dynamic field behavior substantiated by a set of scaling laws is presented.

  1. Meridional component of the large-scale magnetic field at minimum and characteristics of the subsequent solar activity cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obridko, V. N.; Shelting, B. D.

    2017-10-01

    The polar magnetic field near the cycle minimum is known to correlate with the height of the next sunspot maximum. There is reason to believe that the hemispheric coupling can play an important role in forming the next cycle. The meridional component of the large-scale magnetic field can be one of the hemispheric coupling indices. For our analysis we have used the reconstructed data on the large-scale magnetic field over 1915-1986. We show that in several cycles not only the height but also the general course of the cycle can be described in this way about 6 years in advance. This coupling has been confirmed by the currently available data from 1976 to 2016, but the ratio of the meridional field to the total absolute value of the field vector has turned out to be a more promising parameter. In this paper it was calculated at a height of ˜70 Mm above the photosphere. The date of the forthcoming minimum is estimated using this parameter to be mid-2018; using the global field as a forecast parameter gives a later date of the minimum, early 2020.

  2. Fractal multi-scale nature of solar/stellar magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Abramenko, Valentina I.

    2013-01-01

    An abstract mathematical concept of fractal organization of certain complex objects received significant attention in astrophysics during last decades. The concept evolved into a broad field including multi-fractality and intermittency, percolation theory, self-organized criticality, theory of catastrophes, etc. Such a strong mathematical and physical approach provide new possibilities for exploring various aspects of astrophysics. In particular, in the solar and stellar magnetism, multi-frac...

  3. Microstructures and rheological properties of tilapia fish-scale collagen hydrogels with aligned fibrils fabricated under magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Hirota, N; Okuda, M; Takeguchi, M; Kobayashi, H; Hanagata, N; Ikoma, T

    2011-02-01

    Tilapia fish-scale type I atelocollagen hydrogels with aligned fibril structures were fabricated under a strong magnetic field of 6 or 12 T using two different methods. In the first method, a solution of acid-soluble collagen was neutralized with phosphate buffer saline and maintained in the magnetic field at 28°C for 3h. Under these conditions fibrogenesis occurs, and a hydrogel is formed. The hydrogel was subsequently crosslinked with ethyl-dimethylcarbodiimide (EDC). In the second method, the hydrogels were formed as described above, but in the absence of an applied magnetic field. Only after being crosslinked with EDC were these gels exposed to the magnetic field (28°C for 3h). Both methods led to alignment of the collagen fibrils perpendicular to the magnetic direction, the extent of which depended on the duration of magnetic treatment. Even after EDC treatment, collagen fibrils can align, indicating that crosslinking has taken place within fibrils. Both sorts of aligned hydrogels exhibited similar rheological properties with higher storage and loss moduli than were observed with unoriented gels. The hydrogels treated at 6 T had the best rheological properties. The decrease in tangent angle phase delta indicated that the ratio of elasticity to viscosity was greater in the crosslinked than in the non-crosslinked hydrogels. Atomic force microscopy images showed that magnetic treatment had no effect on the nanostructure of collagen fibrils. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements indicated that collagen hydrogels with and without magnetic treatment had the same denaturation temperature, 48°C, while EDC crosslinking increased the denaturation temperature to 62°C. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Experimental Demonstration of Magnetic Reconnection in a Laboratory Scale with Guide Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsue; Egedal, Jan; Olsen, Joe; Endrizzi, Douglass; Wallace, John; TREX Team

    2017-10-01

    Through a process called magnetic reconnection, the opposing solar wind and Earth magnetic fields annihilate and allow energetic solar particles to enter the magnetosphere. This energetic plasma can cause major disturbances to satellite communication networks and navigation systems, as well as electrical power grids. To better understand this process and prevent significant economic losses, NASA has launched the MMS Mission in 2015, a cluster of spacecraft which directly probes the reconnection sites in the magnetosphere. Though in situ measurements of reconnection in space are essential to our understanding of the process, the mission comes at a cost of over 1 billion. Thus, smaller laboratory experiments become essential to compliment the data acquired by MMS at relatively low cost. The Terrestrial Reconnection Experiment (TREX) currently aims to probe a similar configuration to dayside reconnection by adding a toroidal guide magnetic field, where under the right conditions, high frequency turbulent fluctuations are expected. Using a set of fast Langmuir probes to diagnose the fluctuations, the global structure of the plasma turbulence can be reconstructed. In this poster, an overview of the upgraded experiment and design progress of the fast Lprobe will be provided. NSF/DOE award DE-SC0013032.

  5. Facility Measures Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honess, Shawn B.; Narvaez, Pablo; Mcauley, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Partly automated facility measures and computes steady near magnetic field produced by object. Designed to determine magnetic fields of equipment to be installed on spacecraft including sensitive magnetometers, with view toward application of compensating fields to reduce interfernece with spacecraft-magnetometer readings. Because of its convenient operating features and sensitivity of its measurements, facility serves as prototype for similar facilities devoted to magnetic characterization of medical equipment, magnets for high-energy particle accelerators, and magnetic materials.

  6. A comparison of small-scale magnetic fluctuations in the Region 1 and 2 field-aligned current systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Bryant, M. S.; Ridley, C. G.; Shen, Y.; Yang, L.; Clausen, L. B. N.; McWilliams, K. A.; Murphy, K. R.; Mann, I. R.; Ozeke, L. G.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.; Waters, C. L.

    2017-03-01

    By determining the location and size of the Region 1 (R1) and Region 2 (R2) large-scale field-aligned currents (FACs) from Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment data, we are able to study the small-scale magnetic fluctuations observed by the Swarm satellites embedded within the large-scale FACs. A statistical comparison of R1 and R2 high-frequency fluctuations is presented in terms of different solar wind conditions and geomagnetic activities. We find that (1) the amplitude of high-frequency fluctuations in both R1 and R2 increases as the large-scale R1 and R2 FACs intensify; (2) high-frequency fluctuations in R1 peak near dayside dawn and dusk, while those in R2 peak around noon; (3) the location of the largest high-frequency fluctuations in R1 shifts in local time in response to IMF By, indicating a connection between the R1 fluctuation and the driving solar wind most likely explained by magnetic reconnection; and (4) high-frequency fluctuations in R2 are enhanced in a small region near local noon and respond clearly to nightside drivers, as characterized by the auroral electrojet index. Our analysis shows that the intensity of R1 and R2 high-frequency magnetic fluctuations is directly connected to the intensity of FACs, which implies that the magnetic fluctuations are closely related to the magnetospheric processes that drive them.

  7. Plasma β Scaling of Anisotropic Magnetic Field Fluctuations in the Solar Wind Flux Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Aveek; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Ebrahimi, Fatima

    2014-03-01

    Based on various observations, it has been suggested that at 1 AU, solar wind consists of "spaghetti"-like magnetic field structures that have the magnetic topology of flux tubes. It is also observed that the plasma fluctuation spectra at 1 AU show a plasma β dependence. Reconciling these two sets of observations and using the Invariance Principle, Bhattacharjee et al. suggested that the plasma inside every flux tube may become unstable with respect to pressure-driven instabilities and gives rise to fluctuation spectra that depend on the local plasma β. The present work is the first direct numerical simulation of such a flux tube. We solve the full magnetohydrodynamic equations using the DEBS code and show that if the plasma inside the flux tube is driven unstable by spatial inhomogeneities in the background plasma pressure, the observed nature of the fluctuating power spectra agrees reasonably well with observations, as well as the analytical prediction of Bhattacharjee et al.

  8. Plasma β scaling of anisotropic magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind flux tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Aveek [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Ebrahimi, Fatima, E-mail: aveek.sarkar@unh.edu, E-mail: amitava@princeton.edu, E-mail: ebrahimi@princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Based on various observations, it has been suggested that at 1 AU, solar wind consists of 'spaghetti'-like magnetic field structures that have the magnetic topology of flux tubes. It is also observed that the plasma fluctuation spectra at 1 AU show a plasma β dependence. Reconciling these two sets of observations and using the Invariance Principle, Bhattacharjee et al. suggested that the plasma inside every flux tube may become unstable with respect to pressure-driven instabilities and gives rise to fluctuation spectra that depend on the local plasma β. The present work is the first direct numerical simulation of such a flux tube. We solve the full magnetohydrodynamic equations using the DEBS code and show that if the plasma inside the flux tube is driven unstable by spatial inhomogeneities in the background plasma pressure, the observed nature of the fluctuating power spectra agrees reasonably well with observations, as well as the analytical prediction of Bhattacharjee et al.

  9. Evidence for Helical Magnetic fields in Kiloparsec-Scale AGN Jets and the Action of a Cosmic Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabuzda, D. C.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Contopulos, I.; Kazanas, D.

    2012-01-01

    A search for transverse kiloparsec-scale gradients in Faraday rotation-measure (RM) maps of extragalactic radio sources in the literature has yielded 6 AGNs displaying continuous, monotonic RM gradients across their jets, oriented roughly orthogonal to the local jet direction. The most natural interpretation of such transverse RM gradients is that they are caused by the systematic change in the line-of-sight components of helical magnetic fields associated with these jets. All the identified transverse RM gradients increase in the counterclockwise (CCW) direction on the sky relative to the centers of these AGNs. Taken together with the results of Contopoulos et al. who found evidence for a predominance of clockwise (CW) transverse RM gradients across parsec-scale (VLBI) jets, this provides new evidence for preferred orientations of RM gradients due to helical jet magnetic fields, with a reversal from CW in the inner jets to CCW farther from the centers of activity. This can be explained by the "Poynting-Robertson cosmic-battery" mechanism, which can generate helical magnetic fields with a. characteristic "twist," which are expelled with the jet outflows. If the Poynting-Robertson battery mechanism is not operating, an alternative mechanism must be identified, which is able to explain the 'predominance of CW /CCW RM gradients on parsec/kiloparsec scales.

  10. Magnetic Field Grid Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Properties Calculator will computes the estimated values of Earth's magnetic field(declination, inclination, vertical component, northerly...

  11. Magnetic fields and coronal heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, L.; Maxson, C.; Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G. S.; Serio, S.

    1980-01-01

    General considerations concerning the scaling properties of magnetic-field-related coronal heating mechanisms are used to build a two-parameter model for the heating of closed coronal regions. The model predicts the way in which coronal temperature and electron density are related to photospheric magnetic field strength and the size of the region, using the additional constraint provided by the scaling law of Rosner, Tucker, and Vaiana. The model duplicates the observed scaling of total thermal energy content with total longitudinal flux; it also predicts a relation between the coronal energy density (or pressure) and the longitudinal field strength modified by the region scale size.

  12. Can Primordial Magnetic Fields Seeded by Electroweak Strings Cause an Alignment of Quasar Axes on Cosmological Scales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltis, Robert; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2010-10-01

    The decay of nontopological electroweak strings may leave an observable imprint in the Universe today in the form of primordial magnetic fields. Protogalaxies preferentially tend to form with their axis of rotation parallel to an external magnetic field, and, moreover, an external magnetic field produces torque which tends to align the galaxy axis with the magnetic field. We demonstrate that the shape of a magnetic field left over from two looped electroweak strings can explain the observed nontrivial alignment of quasar polarization vectors and make predictions for future observations.

  13. The Heliospheric Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew J. Owens

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The heliospheric magnetic field (HMF is the extension of the coronal magnetic field carried out into the solar system by the solar wind. It is the means by which the Sun interacts with planetary magnetospheres and channels charged particles propagating through the heliosphere. As the HMF remains rooted at the solar photosphere as the Sun rotates, the large-scale HMF traces out an Archimedean spiral. This pattern is distorted by the interaction of fast and slow solar wind streams, as well as the interplanetary manifestations of transient solar eruptions called coronal mass ejections. On the smaller scale, the HMF exhibits an array of waves, discontinuities, and turbulence, which give hints to the solar wind formation process. This review aims to summarise observations and theory of the small- and large-scale structure of the HMF. Solar-cycle and cycle-to-cycle evolution of the HMF is discussed in terms of recent spacecraft observations and pre-spaceage proxies for the HMF in geomagnetic and galactic cosmic ray records.

  14. Non-scaling fixed field alternating gradient permanent magnet cancer therapy accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trbojevic, Dejan

    2017-05-23

    A non-scaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator includes a racetrack shape including a first straight section connected to a first arc section, the first arc section connected to a second straight section, the second straight section connected to a second arc section, and the second arc section connected to the first straight section; an matching cells configured to match particle orbits between the first straight section, the first arc section, the second straight section, and the second arc section. The accelerator includes the matching cells and an associated matching procedure enabling the particle orbits at varying energies between an arc section and a straight section in the racetrack shape.

  15. Resonant magnetic fields from inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, Christian T; Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Urban, Federico R

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel scenario to generate primordial magnetic fields during inflation induced by an oscillating coupling of the electromagnetic field to the inflaton. This resonant mechanism has two key advantages over previous proposals. First of all, it generates a narrow band of magnetic fields at any required wavelength, thereby allaying the usual problem of a strongly blue spectrum and its associated backreaction. Secondly, it avoids the need for a strong coupling as the coupling is oscillating rather than growing or decaying exponentially. Despite these major advantages, we find that the backreaction is still far too large during inflation if the generated magnetic fields are required to have a strength of ${\\cal O}(10^{-15}\\, \\Gauss)$ today on observationally interesting scales. We provide a more general no-go argument, proving that this problem will apply to any model in which the magnetic fields are generated on subhorizon scales and freeze after horizon crossing.

  16. Relativistic electrons and magnetic fields of the M87 jet on the ∼10 Schwarzschild radii scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kino, M. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedukdae-ro, Yusong, Daejon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Takahara, F. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Hada, K. [INAF—Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Doi, A. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, 229-8510 Sagamihara (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    We explore energy densities of the magnetic fields and relativistic electrons in the M87 jet. Since the radio core at the jet base is identical to the optically thick surface against synchrotron self-absorption (SSA), the observing frequency is identical to the SSA turnover frequency. As a first step, we assume the radio core has a simple uniform sphere geometry. Using the observed angular size of the radio core measured by the Very Long Baseline Array at 43 GHz, we estimate the energy densities of magnetic fields (U{sub B} ) and relativistic electrons (U{sub e} ) on the basis of the standard SSA formula. Imposing the condition that the Poynting power and kinetic power of relativistic electrons should be smaller than the total power of the jet, we find that (1) the allowed range of the magnetic field strength (B {sub tot}) is 1 G ≤ B {sub tot} ≤ 15 G and that (2) 1 × 10{sup –5} ≤ U{sub e} /U{sub B} ≤ 6 × 10{sup 2} holds. The uncertainty of U{sub e} /U{sub B} comes from the strong dependence on the angular size of the radio core and the minimum Lorentz factor of non-thermal electrons (γ {sub e,min}) in the core. It is still unsettled whether resultant energetics are consistent with either the magnetohydrodynamic jet or the kinetic power dominated jet even on the ∼10 Schwarzschild radii scale.

  17. Evidence for a toroidal magnetic-field component in 5C 4.114 on kiloparsec scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabuzda, Denise C.; Knuettel, Sebastian; Bonafede, Annalisa

    2015-11-01

    Context. A monotonic, statistically significant gradient in the observed Faraday rotation measure (RM) across the jet of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) reflects a corresponding gradient in the electron density and/or line-of-sight magnetic (B) field in the region of Faraday rotation. For this reason, such gradients may indicate the presence of a toroidal B field component, possibly associated with a helical jet B field. Although transverse RM gradients have been reported across a number of parsec-scale AGN jets, the same is not true on kiloparsec scales, suggesting that other (e.g. random) magnetic-field components usually dominate on these larger scales. Aims: We wished to identify clear candidates for monotonic, transverse RM gradients across AGN jet and lobe structures on scales larger than those probed thus far, and estimate their statistical significances. Methods: We identified an extended, monotonic transverse Faraday-rotation gradient across the northern lobe of a previously published Very Large Array (kiloparsec-scale) RM image of 5C 4.114. We reanalyzed these VLA data in order to determine the significance of this RM gradient. Results: The RM gradient across the northern kiloparsec-scale lobe structure of 5C 4.114 has a statistical significance of about 4σ. There is also a somewhat less prominent monotonic transverse Faraday-rotation gradient across the southern jet/lobe (narrower range of distances from the core, significance ≃ 3σ). Other parts of the Faraday-rotation distribution observed across the source are patchy and show no obvious order. Conclusions: This suggests that we are observing a random RM component associated with the foreground material in the cluster in which the radio source is located and through which it is viewed, superposed on a more ordered RM component that arises in the immediate vicinity of the AGN jets. We interpret the transverse RM gradient as reflecting the systematic variations of the line-of-sight component of a

  18. Imaginary time propagation code for large-scale two-dimensional eigenvalue problems in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukko, P. J. J.; Räsänen, E.

    2013-03-01

    We present a code for solving the single-particle, time-independent Schrödinger equation in two dimensions. Our program utilizes the imaginary time propagation (ITP) algorithm, and it includes the most recent developments in the ITP method: the arbitrary order operator factorization and the exact inclusion of a (possibly very strong) magnetic field. Our program is able to solve thousands of eigenstates of a two-dimensional quantum system in reasonable time with commonly available hardware. The main motivation behind our work is to allow the study of highly excited states and energy spectra of two-dimensional quantum dots and billiard systems with a single versatile code, e.g., in quantum chaos research. In our implementation we emphasize a modern and easily extensible design, simple and user-friendly interfaces, and an open-source development philosophy. Catalogue identifier: AENR_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11310 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 97720 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ and Python. Computer: Tested on x86 and x86-64 architectures. Operating system: Tested under Linux with the g++ compiler. Any POSIX-compliant OS with a C++ compiler and the required external routines should suffice. Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes, with OpenMP. RAM: 1 MB or more, depending on system size. Classification: 7.3. External routines: FFTW3 (http://www.fftw.org), CBLAS (http://netlib.org/blas), LAPACK (http://www.netlib.org/lapack), HDF5 (http://www.hdfgroup.org/HDF5), OpenMP (http://openmp.org), TCLAP (http://tclap.sourceforge.net), Python (http://python.org), Google Test (http://code.google.com/p/googletest/) Nature of problem: Numerical calculation

  19. Organic magnetic field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCamey, Dane; Boehme, Christoph

    2017-01-24

    An organic, spin-dependent magnetic field sensor (10) includes an active stack (12) having an organic material with a spin-dependence. The sensor (10) also includes a back electrical contact (14) electrically coupled to a back of the active stack (12) and a front electrical contact (16) electrically coupled to a front of the active stack (12). A magnetic field generator (18) is oriented so as to provide an oscillating magnetic field which penetrates the active stack (12).

  20. Hybrid magnet devices for molecule manipulation and small scale high gradient-field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, David E [El Cerrito, CA; Hong, Seok-Cheol [Seoul, KR; Cozzarelli, legal representative, Linda A.; Pollard, Martin J [El Cerrito, CA; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R [Berkeley, CA

    2009-01-06

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are hybrid magnetic tweezers able to exert approximately 1 nN of force to 4.5 .mu.m magnetic bead. The maximum force was experimentally measured to be .about.900 pN which is in good agreement with theoretical estimations and other measurements. In addition, a new analysis scheme that permits fast real-time position measurement in typical geometry of magnetic tweezers has been developed and described in detail.

  1. Reconstructing magnetic fields of spiral galaxies from radiopolarimetric observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shneider, Carl

    2015-01-01

    We live in a magnetic universe with magnetic fields spanning an enormous range of spatial and temporal scales. In particular, magnetic fields at the scale of a galaxy are known as galactic magnetic fields and are the focus of this PhD thesis. These galactic magnetic fields are very important since

  2. Formal mathematical solutions of the force-free equations, spontaneous discontinuities, and dissipation in large-scale magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. N.

    1990-01-01

    Direct integration of the force-free field equation del x B = alpha B, in the simple case of the local deformation of a laminar field, produces field configurations containing tangential discontinuities (current sheets). Whereas continuous solutions allow only restricted field topologies, the discontinuities provide the necessary release from those restrictions in more general topologies. Magnetic fields in nature are strongly deformed by convection, so as to contain significant internal discontinuities. The bipolar magnetic fields containing the active X-ray corona of the sun are a case in point. It appears that the dissipation caused by the discontinuities may be the primary heat source producing the X-ray corona.

  3. Electric & Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reading Introduction Electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) are invisible areas of energy, often referred to as radiation , ... Abstract ] Staff Directory Freedom of Information Act OIG Web Policies Request Translation Services Employment Verification Contact Us ...

  4. Evidence for a single stochastic physical process for fast solar wind magnetic field magnitude fluctuations at 1AU across `turbulent' and `1/f' temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Kiyani, K. H.

    2010-12-01

    The power spectral density of magnetic field components in the fast solar wind on magnetohydrodynamic scales typically shows two power law regions, identified with an inertial range of turbulence, and at lower frequencies, a ~1/f range of coronal origin. The power spectral density of field magnitude shows a single power law region across these scales. We present the first scale-by-scale quantitative comparison of the averaged statistical properties of magnetic field magnitude and component fluctuations over timescales of ~2 minutes to 5.6 hours observed in-situ in the fast quiet solar wind at solar minimum at 1AU with the ACE spacecraft. Fluctuations in the field components show an 'inertial range' of scaling up to ~30 minutes and beyond this, uncorrelated Gaussian statistics. In contrast, the magnetic field magnitude fluctuations show a single scaling behaviour up to 5 hours and are non-Gaussian over this entire range of scales. Thus unlike for the components, a single stochastic process could account for the fluctuations in field magnitude over both the inertial range and 1/f range of timescales the fast solar wind.

  5. Cosmological magnetic fields - V

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The field tensor is observer-independent, while the electric and magnetic ... Thus the electric field in the particle frame vanishes: Щ = 0. In the observer's frame, with four velocity. Щ = Щ + Ъ , where Ъ is the relative velocity (Ъ Щ = 0) and we neglect ... The key equation is (8), which is the induction equation in covariant form.

  6. Low-frequency scaling of the standard and mixed magnetic field and Müller integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bogaert, Ignace

    2014-02-01

    The standard and mixed discretizations for the magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) and the Müller integral equation (MUIE) are investigated in the context of low-frequency (LF) scattering problems involving simply connected scatterers. It is proved that, at low frequencies, the frequency scaling of the nonsolenoidal part of the solution current can be incorrect for the standard discretization. In addition, it is proved that the frequency scaling obtained with the mixed discretization is correct. The reason for this problem in the standard discretization scheme is the absence of exact solenoidal currents in the rotated RWG finite element space. The adoption of the mixed discretization scheme eliminates this problem and leads to a well-conditioned system of linear equations that remains accurate at low frequencies. Numerical results confirm these theoretical predictions and also show that, when the frequency is lowered, a finer and finer mesh is required to keep the accuracy constant with the standard discretization. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  7. ISR Radial Field Magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    There were 37 (normal) + 3 (special) Radial Field magnets in the ISR to adjust vertically the closed orbit. Gap heights and strengths were 200 mm and .12 Tm in the normal magnets, 220 mm and .18 Tm in the special ones. The core length was 430 mm in both types. Due to their small length as compared to the gap heights the end fringe field errors were very important and had to be compensated by suitably shaping the poles. In order to save on cables, as these magnets were located very far from their power supplies, the coils of the normal type magnets were formed by many turns of solid cpper conductor with some interleaved layers of hollow conductor directly cooled by circulating water

  8. Micron-scale mapping of megagauss magnetic fields using optical polarimetry to probe hot electron transport in petawatt-class laser-solid interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Gourab; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Robinson, A P L; Blackman, D; Booth, N; Culfa, O; Dance, R J; Gizzi, L A; Gray, R J; Green, J S; Koester, P; Kumar, G Ravindra; Labate, L; Lad, Amit D; Lancaster, K L; Pasley, J; Woolsey, N C; Rajeev, P P

    2017-08-21

    The transport of hot, relativistic electrons produced by the interaction of an intense petawatt laser pulse with a solid has garnered interest due to its potential application in the development of innovative x-ray sources and ion-acceleration schemes. We report on spatially and temporally resolved measurements of megagauss magnetic fields at the rear of a 50-μm thick plastic target, irradiated by a multi-picosecond petawatt laser pulse at an incident intensity of ~1020 W/cm2. The pump-probe polarimetric measurements with micron-scale spatial resolution reveal the dynamics of the magnetic fields generated by the hot electron distribution at the target rear. An annular magnetic field profile was observed ~5 ps after the interaction, indicating a relatively smooth hot electron distribution at the rear-side of the plastic target. This is contrary to previous time-integrated measurements, which infer that such targets will produce highly structured hot electron transport. We measured large-scale filamentation of the hot electron distribution at the target rear only at later time-scales of ~10 ps, resulting in a commensurate large-scale filamentation of the magnetic field profile. Three-dimensional hybrid simulations corroborate our experimental observations and demonstrate a beam-like hot electron transport at initial time-scales that may be attributed to the local resistivity profile at the target rear.

  9. Galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    This course-tested textbook conveys the fundamentals of magnetic fields and relativistic plasma in diffuse cosmic media, with a primary focus on phenomena that have been observed at different wavelengths. Theoretical concepts are addressed wherever necessary, with derivations presented in sufficient detail to be generally accessible.In the first few chapters the authors present an introduction to various astrophysical phenomena related to cosmic magnetism, with scales ranging from molecular clouds in star-forming regions and supernova remnants in the Milky Way, to clusters of galaxies. Later c

  10. Magnetic fields in diffuse media

    CERN Document Server

    Pino, Elisabete; Melioli, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the current knowledge of magnetic fields in diffuse astrophysical media. Starting with an overview of 21st century instrumentation to observe astrophysical magnetic fields, the chapters cover observational techniques, origin of magnetic fields, magnetic turbulence, basic processes in magnetized fluids, the role of magnetic fields for cosmic rays, in the interstellar medium and for star formation. Written by a group of leading experts the book represents an excellent overview of the field. Nonspecialists will find sufficient background to enter the field and be able to appreciate the state of the art.

  11. Magnetic Fields And Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qizhou

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic fields can have a significant effect on the formation and evolution of molecular clouds and the formation of stars. The presence of strong magnetic fields restricts the motion of gas along the magnetic field lines. Therefore, it resists gravitational collapse, hinders mass accretion and suppresses fragmentation. While magnetic fields are an integral part of modern theory of interstellar medium and star formation, their direct measurements have been challenging. In this talk, I'll review recent progress on the observational front of magnetic fields. The emphasis will be on linear polarization of interstellar dust to probe the plane of sky component of magnetic fields.

  12. Small-scale electron density and magnetic-field structures in the wake of an ultraintense laser pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liseikina, T V; Califano, F; Vshivkov, V A; Pegoraro, F; Bulanov, S V

    1999-11-01

    We investigate the interaction of a high intensity ultrashort laser pulse with an underdense collisionless plasma in the regime where the Langmuir wake wave excited behind the laser pulse is loaded by fast particle beams, formed during the wake wave breaking. The beam loading causes the deterioration of the central part of the wake wave near the pulse axis, and the formation of bunches of sharply focalized ultrarelativistic electrons. The bunches of electrons generate a fast propagating magnetic field, which we interpret in terms of the magnetic component of the Lienard-Wiechert potential of a moving electric charge.

  13. Atom-surface interaction at the nanometre scale: van der Waals-Zeeman transitions in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamda, M.; Boustimi, M.; Bocvarski, V.; Taillandier-Loize, T.; Dutier, G.; Perales, F.; Baudon, J.; Ducloy, M.

    2012-04-01

    van der Waals-Zeeman transitions between magnetic states of metastable rare-gas atoms Ar*, Kr* and Xe* (3P2) induced by a solid surface in the presence of a magnetic field, are investigated theoretically and experimentally. By use of a Zeeman slower, metastable argon atoms with various velocities ranging from 170 to 560 m/s allow us to investigate the small impact parameter range (3-7 nm) within which these transitions occur, as well as the effect of atom polarisation on the sharing out of the M states.

  14. Coronal Magnetic Field Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegelmann, Thomas; Petrie, Gordon J. D.; Riley, Pete

    2017-09-01

    Coronal magnetic field models use photospheric field measurements as boundary condition to model the solar corona. We review in this paper the most common model assumptions, starting from MHD-models, magnetohydrostatics, force-free and finally potential field models. Each model in this list is somewhat less complex than the previous one and makes more restrictive assumptions by neglecting physical effects. The magnetohydrostatic approach neglects time-dependent phenomena and plasma flows, the force-free approach neglects additionally the gradient of the plasma pressure and the gravity force. This leads to the assumption of a vanishing Lorentz force and electric currents are parallel (or anti-parallel) to the magnetic field lines. Finally, the potential field approach neglects also these currents. We outline the main assumptions, benefits and limitations of these models both from a theoretical (how realistic are the models?) and a practical viewpoint (which computer resources to we need?). Finally we address the important problem of noisy and inconsistent photospheric boundary conditions and the possibility of using chromospheric and coronal observations to improve the models.

  15. Two populations of the solar magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obridko, V. N.; Livshits, I. M.; Sokoloff, D. D.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamo theory suggests that there are two types of solar dynamo, namely the conventional mean-field dynamo, which produces large- and small-scale magnetic fields involved in the activity cycle, and also the small-scale dynamo, which produces a cycle independent small-scale magnetic field. The relative contribution of the two mechanisms to solar magnetism remains a matter of scientific debate, which includes the opinion that the contribution of the small-scale dynamo is negligible. Here, we consider several tracers of magnetic activity that separate cycle-dependent contributions to the background solar magnetic field from those that are independent of the cycle. We call background fields the magnetic fields outside active regions and give further development of this concept. The main message of our paper is that background fields include two relative separate populations. The background fields with a strength up to 100 Mx cm-2 are very poorly correlated with the sunspot numbers and vary little with the phase of the cycle. In contrast, stronger magnetic fields demonstrate pronounced cyclic behaviour. We discuss how this result can be included in the above-mentioned concepts of solar dynamo studies.

  16. Magnetic fields around black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, David A. G.

    Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our

  17. Generating Long Scale-Length Plasma Jets Embedded in a Uniform, Multi-Tesla Magnetic-Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Mario; Kuranz, Carolyn; Rasmus, Alex; Klein, Sallee; Fein, Jeff; Belancourt, Patrick; Drake, R. P.; Pollock, Brad; Hazi, Andrew; Park, Jaebum; Williams, Jackson; Chen, Hui

    2013-10-01

    Collimated plasma jets emerge in many classes of astrophysical objects and are of great interest to explore in the laboratory. In many cases, these astrophysical jets exist within a background magnetic field where the magnetic pressure approaches the plasma pressure. Recent experiments performed at the Jupiter Laser Facility utilized a custom-designed solenoid to generate the multi-tesla fields necessary to achieve proper magnetization of the plasma. Time-gated interferometry, Schlieren imaging, and proton radiography were used to characterize jet evolution and collimation under varying degrees of magnetization. Experimental results will be presented and discussed. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-NA0001840, by the National Laser User Facility Program, grant number DE-NA0000850, by the Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC, grant number DEFC52-08NA28616, and by NASA through Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship grant number PF3-140111 awarded by the Chandra X-ray Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for NASA under contract NAS8-03060.

  18. The Martian magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the Martian magnetic field measurements and the criticisms made of them. The measurements of the Mars 2, 3, and 5 spacecraft were interpreted by Dolginov et al. (1976, 1978) to be consistent with an intrinsic planetary magnetic moment of 2.5 times 10 to the 22nd power gauss cu cm, basing this result on the apparent size of the obstacle responsible for deflecting the solar wind and an apparent encounter of the spacecraft with the planetary field. It is shown that if the dependence of the Martian magnetic moment on the rotation rate was linear, the estimate of the moment would be far larger than reported by Dolginov et al. An upper limit of 250 km is calculated for the dynamo radius using the similarity law, compared with 500 km obtained by Dolginov et al. It is concluded that the possible strength of a Martian dynamo is below expectations, and it is likely that the Mars dynamo is not presently operative.

  19. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  20. Magnetic Field Topology in Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.

    2000-01-01

    We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.

  1. Magnetic fields and massive star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ching, Tao-Chung; Chen, How-Huan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Girart, Josep M.; Juárez, Carmen [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Liu, Hauyu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Rao, Ramprasad; Lai, Shih-Ping [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Frau, Pau [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Alfonso XII, 3 E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Li, Hua-Bai [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Padovani, Marco [Laboratoire de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, UMR 8112 du CNRS, École Normale Supérieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Bontemps, Sylvain [OASU/LAB-UMR5804, CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, F-33270 Floirac (France); Csengeri, Timea, E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu [Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-09-10

    Massive stars (M > 8 M {sub ☉}) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 μm obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of ≲0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within 40° of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the outflow axis appears to be randomly oriented with respect to the magnetic field in the core. This result suggests that at the scale of accretion disks (≲ 10{sup 3} AU), angular momentum and dynamic interactions possibly due to close binary or multiple systems dominate over magnetic fields. With this unprecedentedly large sample of massive clumps, we argue on a statistical basis that magnetic fields play an important role during the formation of dense cores at spatial scales of 0.01-0.1 pc in the context of massive star and cluster star formation.

  2. On turbulent diffusion of magnetic fields and the loss of magnetic flux from stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainshtein, Samuel I.; Rosner, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The turbulent diffusion of magnetic fields in astrophysical objects, and the processes leading to magnetic field flux loss from such objects are discussed with attention to the suppression of turbulent diffusion by back-reaction of magnetic fields on small spatial scales, and on the constraint imposed on magnetic flux loss by flux-freezing within stars. Turbulent magnetic diffusion can be suppressed even for very weak large-scale magnetic fields, so that 'standard' turbulent diffusion is incapable of significant magnetic flux destruction within a star. Finally, magnetic flux loss via winds is shown to be generally ineffective, no matter what the value of the effective magnetic Reynolds number is.

  3. Observing Interstellar and Intergalactic Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J. L.

    2017-08-01

    Observational results of interstellar and intergalactic magnetic fields are reviewed, including the fields in supernova remnants and loops, interstellar filaments and clouds, Hii regions and bubbles, the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, galaxy clusters, and the cosmic web. A variety of approaches are used to investigate these fields. The orientations of magnetic fields in interstellar filaments and molecular clouds are traced by polarized thermal dust emission and starlight polarization. The field strengths and directions along the line of sight in dense clouds and cores are measured by Zeeman splitting of emission or absorption lines. The large-scale magnetic fields in the Milky Way have been best probed by Faraday rotation measures of a large number of pulsars and extragalactic radio sources. The coherent Galactic magnetic fields are found to follow the spiral arms and have their direction reversals in arms and interarm regions in the disk. The azimuthal fields in the halo reverse their directions below and above the Galactic plane. The orientations of organized magnetic fields in nearby galaxies have been observed through polarized synchrotron emission. Magnetic fields in the intracluster medium have been indicated by diffuse radio halos, polarized radio relics, and Faraday rotations of embedded radio galaxies and background sources. Sparse evidence for very weak magnetic fields in the cosmic web is the detection of the faint radio bridge between the Coma cluster and A1367. Future observations should aim at the 3D tomography of the large-scale coherent magnetic fields in our Galaxy and nearby galaxies, a better description of intracluster field properties, and firm detections of intergalactic magnetic fields in the cosmic web.

  4. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubrig, S.; González, J. F.; Ilyin, I.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have...... failed to detect magnetic fields, indicating an upper limit on the longitudinal field between 8 and 15G. In these LSD studies, assumptions were made that all spectral lines are identical in shape and can be described by a scaled mean profile. Aims. We re-analyse the available spectropolarimetric material...

  5. Intermittent character of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Roberto; Carbone, Vincenzo; Chapman, Sandra; Hnat, Bogdan; Noullez, Alain; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca

    2007-03-01

    Interplanetary magnetic field magnitude fluctuations are notoriously more intermittent than velocity fluctuations in both fast and slow wind. This behavior has been interpreted in terms of the anomalous scaling observed in passive scalars in fully developed hydrodynamic turbulence. In this paper, the strong intermittent nature of the interplanetary magnetic field is briefly discussed comparing results performed during different phases of the solar cycle. The scaling properties of the interplanetary magnetic field magnitude show solar cycle variation that can be distinguished in the scaling exponents revealed by structure functions. The scaling exponents observed around the solar maximum coincide, within the errors, to those measured for passive scalars in hydrodynamic turbulence. However, it is also found that the values are not universal in the sense that the solar cycle variation may be reflected in dependence on the structure of the velocity field.

  6. Observations of Cool-Star Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansgar Reiners

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cool stars like the Sun harbor convection zones capable of producing substantial surface magnetic fields leading to stellar magnetic activity. The influence of stellar parameters like rotation, radius, and age on cool-star magnetism, and the importance of the shear layer between a radiative core and the convective envelope for the generation of magnetic fields are keys for our understanding of low-mass stellar dynamos, the solar dynamo, and also for other large-scale and planetary dynamos. Our observational picture of cool-star magnetic fields has improved tremendously over the last years. Sophisticated methods were developed to search for the subtle effects of magnetism, which are difficult to detect particularly in cool stars. With an emphasis on the assumptions and capabilities of modern methods used to measure magnetism in cool stars, I review the different techniques available for magnetic field measurements. I collect the analyses on cool-star magnetic fields and try to compare results from different methods, and I review empirical evidence that led to our current picture of magnetic fields and their generation in cool stars and brown dwarfs.

  7. Missed joint induced by thermoelectric magnetic field in electron-beam welding dissimilar metals—Experiment and scale analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, P. S.; Wen, Chih-Wei

    2002-10-01

    A missed joint, resulting from an induced thermoelectric magnetism in welding dissimilar metals with a high-intensity electron beam, is experimentally and analytically investigated. Election-beam welding is a very useful process for joining a wide range of dissimilar metals, which may be difficult or impossible to weld by other techniques. Certain combinations of materials, unfortunately, readily give rise to a missed-joint defect because of thermoelectric-magnetic deflection of the beam. Combinations of dissimilar metals chosen for this study are low-carbon steel and type 304 stainless steel, low-carbon steel and Ni-Cu alloy, and type 304 stainless steel and Ni-Cu alloy. The experimental results find agreement with a previous study showing that the electron beam deflects toward the metal with a larger Seebeck coefficient (denoted by metal 1). A general and algebraic expression for predicting deflection angle as a function of dimensionless beam power, accelerating voltage-to-Seebeck electromotive force (EMF) parameter, Peclet and Prandtl numbers, and electrical conductivity ratio between metals 1 and 2 has been derived from a scale analysis for the first time. The predicted results agree well with experimental data obtained from the literature, this work, and three-dimensional theoretical prediction.

  8. Primordial magnetic fields from metric perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Maroto, A L

    2001-01-01

    We study the amplification of electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations induced by the evolution of scalar metric perturbations at the end of inflation. Such perturbations break the conformal invariance of Maxwell equations in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds and allow the growth of magnetic fields on super-Hubble scales. We estimate the strength of the fields generated by this mechanism on galactic scales and compare the results with the present bounds on the galactic dynamo seed fields.

  9. Laboratory formation of a scaled protostellar jet by coaligned poloidal magnetic field: recent results and new exeprimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Tommaso; Revet, Guilhem; Higginson, Drew; Béard, Jérome; Burdonov, K.; Chen, Sophia; Khagani, D.; Khiar, B.; Naughton, K.; Pikuz, S.; Riconda, Caterina; Riquier, R.; Soloviev, A.; Willi, O.; Portugall, O.; Pépin, Henry; Ciardi, Andrea; Fuchs, Julien; Albertazzi, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    Accretion shocks in Young Stellar Objects (YSO) are a subject of great interest in astrophysics; they exhibit intense magnetic activity and are surrounded by an accretion disk from which matter falls down onto the stellar surface in the form of columns following the magnetic lines (B ~ kG) at the free-fall velocity (100-500 km/s). As a column impacts the stellar surface, a radiative shock is created which heats up the infalling flow. As a consequence, a new reverse shock forms and some oscillations are expected in the emitted radiation as a proof of this periodic dynamic, but no periodicity has yet been detected in observations.To understand the reasons for this apparent inconsistency, we have recently developped an experimental setup [B. Albertazzi et al. Science 346, 325 (2014)] in which a plasma flow (generated by a high energy laser: 1013 W/cm2 - 0.6 ns pulse) is confined inside a poloidal magnetic field (20 T). This jet has an aspect ratio >10, a temperature of tens of eV, an electron density of 1018 cm-3 and propagates at 700 km/s as show by our previous numerical work [A. Ciardi et al. Physical Review Letters, 110 (2013)]. To investigate the accretion dynamics, the jet acts as the accretion column and hits a secondary target acting as the stellar surface. We will present the recent results on generation and dynamics of the jet and the new experimental results of this configuration, namely of a supersonic reverse shock traveling within the accretion column with a speed of 100 km/s, representing a Mach number of ~ 30, and the observation of increased density structures along the edges of the interaction. This will be discussed in the light of 3D-magneto-hydrodynamic simulations which parametric variations allow to understand how the various plasma parameters affect the accretion.

  10. Probing Magnetic Fields of Early Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    How do magnetic fields form and evolve in early galaxies? A new study has provided some clever observations to help us answer this question.The Puzzle of Growing FieldsDynamo theory is the primary model describing how magnetic fields develop in galaxies. In this picture, magnetic fields start out as weak seed fields that are small and unordered. These fields then become ordered and amplified by large-scale rotation and turbulence in galaxy disks and halos, eventually leading to the magnetic fields we observe in galaxies today.Schematic showinghow to indirectly measure protogalactic magnetic fields. The measured polarization of a background quasar is altered by the fields in a foreground protogalaxy. Click for a closer look! [Farnes et al. 2017/Adolf Schaller/STSCI/NRAO/AUI/NSF]To test this model, we need observations of the magnetic fields in young protogalaxies. Unfortunately, we dont have the sensitivity to be able to measure these fields directly but a team of scientists led by Jamie Farnes (Radboud University in the Netherlands) have come up with a creative alternative.The key is to find early protogalaxies that absorb the light of more distant background objects. If a protogalaxy lies between us and a distant quasar, then magnetic fields of the protogalaxy if present will affect the polarization measurements of the background quasar.Observing Galactic Building BlocksTop: Redshift distribution for the background quasars in the authors sample. Bottom: Redshift distribution for the foreground protogalaxies the authors are exploring. [Farnes et al. 2017]Farnes and collaborators examined two types of foreground protogalaxies: Damped Lyman-Alpha Absorbers (DLAs) and Lyman Limit Systems (LLSs). They obtained polarimetric data for a sample of 114 distant quasars with nothing in the foreground (the control sample), 19 quasars with DLAs in the foreground, and 27 quasars with LLSs in the foreground. They then used statistical analysis techniques to draw conclusions about

  11. Magnetically modified biocells in constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, E.G.; Panina, L.K. [Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kolikov, V.A., E-mail: kolikov1@yandex.ru [Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power of the RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bogomolova, E.V. [Botanical Institute of the RAS after V.L.Komarov, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Snetov, V.N. [Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power of the RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Cherepkova, I.A. [Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kiselev, A.A. [Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power of the RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-01

    Paper addresses the inverse problem in determining the area, where the external constant magnetic field captures the biological cells modified by the magnetic nanoparticles. Zero velocity isolines, in area where the modified cells are captured by the magnetic field were determined by numerical method for two locations of the magnet. The problem was solved taking into account the gravitational field, magnetic induction, density of medium, concentration and size of cells, and size and magnetization of nanoparticles attached to the cell. Increase in the number of the nanoparticles attached to the cell and decrease in the cell’ size, enlarges the area, where the modified cells are captured and concentrated by the magnet. Solution is confirmed by the visible pattern formation of the modified cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae. - Highlights: • The inverse problem was solved for finding zero velocity isolines of magnetically modified biological cells. • Solution of the inverse problem depends on the size of cells and the number of nanoparticles attached to the single cell. • The experimental data are in agreement with theoretical solution.

  12. Magnetic response to applied electrostatic field in external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, T.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); University of Florida, Department of Physics, Gainesville, FL (United States); Gitman, D.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Shabad, A.E. [P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-15

    We show, within QED and other possible nonlinear theories, that a static charge localized in a finite domain of space becomes a magnetic dipole, if it is placed in an external (constant and homogeneous) magnetic field in the vacuum. The magnetic moment is quadratic in the charge, depends on its size and is parallel to the external field, provided the charge distribution is at least cylindrically symmetric. This magneto-electric effect is a nonlinear response of the magnetized vacuum to an applied electrostatic field. Referring to the simple example of a spherically symmetric applied field, the nonlinearly induced current and its magnetic field are found explicitly throughout the space; the pattern of the lines of force is depicted, both inside and outside the charge, which resembles that of a standard solenoid of classical magnetostatics. (orig.)

  13. Nonlinear energy dissipation of magnetic nanoparticles in oscillating magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Aquino, D. [ERC Incorporated, Air Force Research Laboratory, 10 E. Saturn Blvd., Edwards AFB, CA 93524 (United States); Rinaldi, C., E-mail: carlos.rinaldi@bme.ufl.edu [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, PO Box 116131, Gainesville, FL 32611-6131 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The heating of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions subjected to alternating magnetic fields enables a variety of emerging applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia and triggered drug release. Rosensweig (2002) [25] obtained a model for the heat dissipation rate of a collection of non-interacting particles. However, the assumptions made in this analysis make it rigorously valid only in the limit of small applied magnetic field amplitude and frequency (i.e., values of the Langevin parameter that are much less than unity and frequencies below the inverse relaxation time). In this contribution we approach the problem from an alternative point of view by solving the phenomenological magnetization relaxation equation exactly for the case of arbitrary magnetic field amplitude and frequency and by solving a more accurate magnetization relaxation equation numerically. We also use rotational Brownian dynamics simulations of non-interacting magnetic nanoparticles subjected to an alternating magnetic field to estimate the rate of energy dissipation and compare the results of the phenomenological theories to the particle-scale simulations. The results are summarized in terms of a normalized energy dissipation rate and show that Rosensweig's expression provides an upper bound on the energy dissipation rate achieved at high field frequency and amplitude. Estimates of the predicted dependence of energy dissipation rate, quantified as specific absorption rate (SAR), on magnetic field amplitude and frequency, and particle core and hydrodynamic diameter, are also given. - Highlights: • Rosensweig's model for SAR was extended to high fields. • The MRSh relaxation equation was used to predict SAR at high fields. • Rotational Brownian dynamics simulations were used to predict SAR. • The results of these models were compared. • Predictions of effect of size and field conditions on SAR are presented.

  14. On Scale and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadish, David

    2017-01-01

    is being undertaken with the adoption of interventionist strategies in urban agricultural practices like seed bombing and guerrilla gardening. At the same time, there is a proliferation of media-connected and miniature autonomous drones and robotics. Might this combination be the foundation for a novel......This paper explores thematic parallels between artistic and agricultural practices in the postwar period to establish a link to media art and cultural practices that are currently emerging in urban agriculture. Industrial agriculture has roots in the post-WWII abundance of mechanical and chemical......-scale agricultural systems that range from spreading pests and diseases to poor global distribution of concentrated regional food wealth. That the conversion of vegetatively diverse farmland into monochromatic fields was popularized at the same time as the arrival of colour field paintings like Barnett Newman...

  15. NMR in pulsed magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in pulsed magnetic fields up to 30.4 T focused on 1H and 93Nb nuclei are reported. Here we discuss the advantage and limitation of pulsed field NMR and why this technique is able to become a promising research tool. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Magnetic Fields of Massive Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the subject of magnetic fields on stars, with a focus on hotter stars. Basic astrophysical concepts are explained, including: spectroscopy, stellar classification, general structure and evolution of stars. The Zeeman effect and how absorption line splitting  is used to detect and measure magnetic fields is explained. The properties of a prominent type of magnetic massive star, Ap-stars, are delved into. These stars have very stable, global, roughly dipolar mag...

  17. The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.

    2014-01-01

    The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a quantization uncertainty of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05%. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers - multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes - to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.

  18. Scaling laws in magnetized plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldyrev, Stanislav [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-06-28

    Interactions of plasma motion with magnetic fields occur in nature and in the laboratory in an impressively broad range of scales, from megaparsecs in astrophysical systems to centimeters in fusion devices. The fact that such an enormous array of phenomena can be effectively studied lies in the existence of fundamental scaling laws in plasma turbulence, which allow one to scale the results of analytic and numerical modeling to the sized of galaxies, velocities of supernovae explosions, or magnetic fields in fusion devices. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provides the simplest framework for describing magnetic plasma turbulence. Recently, a number of new features of MHD turbulence have been discovered and an impressive array of thought-provoking phenomenological theories have been put forward. However, these theories have conflicting predictions, and the currently available numerical simulations are not able to resolve the contradictions. MHD turbulence exhibits a variety of regimes unusual in regular hydrodynamic turbulence. Depending on the strength of the guide magnetic field it can be dominated by weakly interacting Alfv\\'en waves or strongly interacting wave packets. At small scales such turbulence is locally anisotropic and imbalanced (cross-helical). In a stark contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, which tends to ``forget'' global constrains and become uniform and isotropic at small scales, MHD turbulence becomes progressively more anisotropic and unbalanced at small scales. Magnetic field plays a fundamental role in turbulent dynamics. Even when such a field is not imposed by external sources, it is self-consistently generated by the magnetic dynamo action. This project aims at a comprehensive study of universal regimes of magnetic plasma turbulence, combining the modern analytic approaches with the state of the art numerical simulations. The proposed study focuses on the three topics: weak MHD turbulence, which is relevant for laboratory devices

  19. Magnetic Field Measurements in Beam Guiding Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Henrichsen, K N

    1998-01-01

    Electromagnets used as beam guiding elements in particle accelerators and colliders require very tight tole-rances on their magnetic fields and on their alignment along the particle path. This article describes the methods and equipment used for magnetic measurements in beam transport magnets. Descriptions are given of magnetic resonance techniques, various induction coil methods, Hall generator measurements, the fluxgate magnetometer as well as the recently developed method of beam based alignment. References of historical nature as well as citations of recent work are given. The present commercial availability of the different sensors and asso-ciated equipment is indicated. Finally we shall try to analyze possible future needs for developments in those fields.

  20. Cosmological magnetic fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetic fields are observed not only in stars, but in galaxies, clusters, and even high redshift Lyman- systems. In principle, these fields could play an important role in structure formation and also affect the anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB). The study of cosmological magnetic fields aims ...

  1. High Magnetic Fields in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, U. E.; Gilch, P.

    Recent applications of large ( 1 T - 30 T) magnetic fields in modern chemical research are reviewed. Magnetic field effects of chemical relevance appear on the levels of quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and oscopic forces. Quantum mechanical magnetic field effects are governed by the Zeeman interaction and are borne out as static and dynamic effects in spectroscopy and in chemical kinetics. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy and magnetic fluorescence quenching in the gas phase serve to illustrate the former, while radical pair spin chemistry is representative of the latter. The principles of the radical pair mechanism are outlined and high-field applications are illustrated in some detail for photo-induced electron transfer reactions of some transition metal complexes. Thermodynamic effects concern the magnetization of chemical samples, which is the focus of magnetochemistry or — more modern — molecular magnetism, and the equilibrium of chemical reactions. Representative examples of both aspects are described. Finally, the exploitation of orientational forces caused by the magnetic anisotropy of larger particles (from omolecules to micro-crystals) is exemplified. Crystal growth in a magnetic field may hold a potential for achieving better control of the quality of protein crystals for structural analysis.

  2. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  3. Low Cost Magnetic Field Controller

    CERN Document Server

    Malafronte, Alexandre A

    2005-01-01

    The Physics Institute of the University of São Paulo (IFUSP) is building a continuous wave (cw) racetrack microtron. This machine has several dipole magnets, like the first and second stage recirculators, and a number of smaller ones in the transport line. These magnets must produce very stable magnetic fields to allow the beam to recirculate along very precise orbits and paths. Furthermore, the fields must be reproducible with great accuracy to allow an easier setup of the machine, though the effects of hysteresis tend to jeopardize the reproducibility. If the magnetic field is chosen by setting the current in the coils, temperature effects over the magnet and power supply tend to change the field. This work describes an inexpensive magnetic field controller that allows a direct measure of the magnetic field through an Hall probe. It includes a microcontroller running a feedback algorithm to control the power supply, in order to keep the field stable and reproducible. The controller can also execu...

  4. Constraints on primordial magnetic fields from inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2016-03-01

    We present generic bounds on magnetic fields produced from cosmic inflation. By investigating field bounds on the vector potential, we constrain both the quantum mechanical production of magnetic fields and their classical growth in a model independent way. For classical growth, we show that only if the reheating temperature is as low as Treh lesssim 102 MeV can magnetic fields of 10-15 G be produced on Mpc scales in the present universe. For purely quantum mechanical scenarios, even stronger constraints are derived. Our bounds on classical and quantum mechanical scenarios apply to generic theories of inflationary magnetogenesis with a two-derivative time kinetic term for the vector potential. In both cases, the magnetic field strength is limited by the gravitational back-reaction of the electric fields that are produced simultaneously. As an example of quantum mechanical scenarios, we construct vector field theories whose time diffeomorphisms are spontaneously broken, and explore magnetic field generation in theories with a variable speed of light. Transitions of quantum vector field fluctuations into classical fluctuations are also analyzed in the examples.

  5. Proton imaging of stochastic magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, A. F. A.; Graziani, C.; Tzeferacos, P.; White, T. G.; Lamb, D. Q.; Gregori, G.; Schekochihin, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent laser-plasma experiments (Fox et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 111, 2013, 225002; Huntington et al., Nat. Phys., vol. 11(2), 2015, 173-176 Tzeferacos et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 24(4), 2017a, 041404; Tzeferacos et al., 2017b, arXiv:1702.03016 [physics.plasm-ph]) report the existence of dynamically significant magnetic fields, whose statistical characterisation is essential for a complete understanding of the physical processes these experiments are attempting to investigate. In this paper, we show how a proton-imaging diagnostic can be used to determine a range of relevant magnetic-field statistics, including the magnetic-energy spectrum. To achieve this goal, we explore the properties of an analytic relation between a stochastic magnetic field and the image-flux distribution created upon imaging that field. This `Kugland image-flux relation' was previously derived (Kugland et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. vol. 83(10), 2012, 101301) under simplifying assumptions typically valid in actual proton-imaging set-ups. We conclude that, as with regular electromagnetic fields, features of the beam's final image-flux distribution often display a universal character determined by a single, field-scale dependent parameter - the contrast parameter s/{\\mathcal{M}}lB$ - which quantifies the relative size of the correlation length B$ of the stochastic field, proton displacements s$ due to magnetic deflections and the image magnification . For stochastic magnetic fields, we establish the existence of four contrast regimes, under which proton-flux images relate to their parent fields in a qualitatively distinct manner. These are linear, nonlinear injective, caustic and diffusive. The diffusive regime is newly identified and characterised. The nonlinear injective regime is distinguished from the caustic regime in manifesting nonlinear behaviour, but as in the linear regime, the path-integrated magnetic field experienced by the beam can be extracted uniquely. Thus, in the linear and

  6. Galactic and Intergalactic Magnetic Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Ulrich; Fletcher, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This course-tested textbook conveys the fundamentals of magnetic fields and relativistic plasma in diffuse cosmic media, with a primary focus on phenomena that have been observed at different wavelengths...

  7. ISR split-field magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The experimental apparatus used at intersection 4 around the Split-Field Magnet by the CERN-Bologna Collaboration (experiment R406). The plastic scintillator telescopes are used for precise pulse-height and time-of-flight measurements.

  8. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benn, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Denver, T.; Espley, J.; Jorgensen, J. L.; Jorgensen, P. S.; Lawton, P.; Malinnikova, A.; Merayo, J. M.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Smith, E. J.

    2017-11-01

    The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter's planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor suites, each consisting of a tri-axial Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located imaging sensors mounted on an ultra-stable optical bench. The imaging system sensors are part of a subsystem that provides accurate attitude information (to ˜20 arcsec on a spinning spacecraft) near the point of measurement of the magnetic field. The two sensor suites are accommodated at 10 and 12 m from the body of the spacecraft on a 4 m long magnetometer boom affixed to the outer end of one of 's three solar array assemblies. The magnetometer sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics boards within the magnetometer electronics package mounted inside Juno's massive radiation shielded vault. The imaging sensors are controlled by a fully hardware redundant electronics package also mounted within the radiation vault. Each magnetometer sensor measures the vector magnetic field with 100 ppm absolute vector accuracy over a wide dynamic range (to 16 Gauss = 1.6 × 106 nT per axis) with a resolution of ˜0.05 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range (±1600 nT per axis). Both magnetometers sample the magnetic field simultaneously at an intrinsic sample rate of 64 vector samples per second. The magnetic field instrumentation may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. The attitude determination system compares images with an on-board star catalog to provide attitude solutions (quaternions) at a rate of up to 4 solutions per second, and may be configured to acquire images of selected targets for science and engineering analysis. The system tracks and catalogs objects that pass through the imager field of

  9. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benn, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Denver, T.; Espley, J.; Jorgensen, J. L.; Jorgensen, P. S.; Lawton, P.; Malinnikova, A.; Merayo, J. M.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Smith, E. J.

    2017-02-01

    The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter's planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor suites, each consisting of a tri-axial Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located imaging sensors mounted on an ultra-stable optical bench. The imaging system sensors are part of a subsystem that provides accurate attitude information (to ˜20 arcsec on a spinning spacecraft) near the point of measurement of the magnetic field. The two sensor suites are accommodated at 10 and 12 m from the body of the spacecraft on a 4 m long magnetometer boom affixed to the outer end of one of 's three solar array assemblies. The magnetometer sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics boards within the magnetometer electronics package mounted inside Juno's massive radiation shielded vault. The imaging sensors are controlled by a fully hardware redundant electronics package also mounted within the radiation vault. Each magnetometer sensor measures the vector magnetic field with 100 ppm absolute vector accuracy over a wide dynamic range (to 16 Gauss = 1.6 × 106 nT per axis) with a resolution of ˜0.05 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range (±1600 nT per axis). Both magnetometers sample the magnetic field simultaneously at an intrinsic sample rate of 64 vector samples per second. The magnetic field instrumentation may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. The attitude determination system compares images with an on-board star catalog to provide attitude solutions (quaternions) at a rate of up to 4 solutions per second, and may be configured to acquire images of selected targets for science and engineering analysis. The system tracks and catalogs objects that pass through the imager field of

  10. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benna, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Denver, T.; Espley, J.; Jorgensen, J. L.; Jorgensen, P. S.; Lawton, P.; Malinnikova, A.; Merayo, J. M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter's planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor suites, each consisting of a tri-axial Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located imaging sensors mounted on an ultra-stable optical bench. The imaging system sensors are part of a subsystem that provides accurate attitude information (to approx. 20 arcsec on a spinning spacecraft) near the point of measurement of the magnetic field. The two sensor suites are accommodated at 10 and 12 m from the body of the spacecraft on a 4 m long magnetometer boom affixed to the outer end of one of 's three solar array assemblies. The magnetometer sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics boards within the magnetometer electronics package mounted inside Juno's massive radiation shielded vault. The imaging sensors are controlled by a fully hardware redundant electronics package also mounted within the radiation vault. Each magnetometer sensor measures the vector magnetic field with 100 ppm absolute vector accuracy over a wide dynamic range (to 16 Gauss = 1.6 x 10(exp. 6) nT per axis) with a resolution of approx. 0.05 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range (+/-1600 nT per axis). Both magnetometers sample the magnetic field simultaneously at an intrinsic sample rate of 64 vector samples per second. The magnetic field instrumentation may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. The attitude determination system compares images with an on-board star catalog to provide attitude solutions (quaternions) at a rate of up to 4 solutions per second, and may be configured to acquire images of selected targets for science and engineering analysis. The system tracks and catalogs objects that pass through

  11. Small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S

    2012-12-01

    The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude, fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbulence indicated by the slope of the turbulence spectrum v(ℓ)∝ℓ^{ϑ}, where v(ℓ) is the eddy velocity at a scale ℓ. We explore turbulent spectra ranging from incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence with ϑ=1/3 to highly compressible Burgers turbulence with ϑ=1/2. In this work, we analyze the properties of the small-scale dynamo for low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, which denotes the ratio of the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, to the hydrodynamical one, Re. We solve the Kazantsev equation, which describes the evolution of the small-scale magnetic field, using the WKB approximation. In the limit of low magnetic Prandtl numbers, the growth rate is proportional to Rm^{(1-ϑ)/(1+ϑ)}. We furthermore discuss the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_{crit}, which is required for small-scale dynamo action. The value of Rm_{crit} is roughly 100 for Kolmogorov turbulence and 2700 for Burgers. Furthermore, we discuss that Rm_{crit} provides a stronger constraint in the limit of low Pm than it does for large Pm. We conclude that the small-scale dynamo can operate in the regime of low magnetic Prandtl numbers if the magnetic Reynolds number is large enough. Thus, the magnetic field amplification on small scales can take place in a broad range of physical environments and amplify week magnetic seed fields on short time scales.

  12. Do magnetic fields enhance turbulence at low magnetic Reynolds number?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothérat, Alban; Klein, Rico

    2017-06-01

    Imposing a magnetic field on a turbulent flow of electrically conducting fluid incurs the Joule effect. A current paradigm is that the corresponding dissipation increases with the intensity of the magnetic field and as a result turbulent fluctuations are all the more damped as the magnetic field is strong. While this idea finds apparent support in the phenomenology of decaying turbulence, measurements of turbulence in duct flows and other, more complex configurations have produced seemingly contradicting results. The root of the controversy is that magnetic fields promote sufficient scale-dependent anisotropy to profoundly reorganize the structure of turbulence, so their net effect cannot be understood in terms of the additional dissipation only. Here we show that when turbulence is forced in a magnetic field that acts on turbulence itself rather than on the mechanisms that generate it, the field promotes large, nearly two-dimensional structures capturing sufficient energy to offset the loss due to Joule dissipation, with the net effect of increasing the intensity of turbulent fluctuations. This change of paradigm potentially carries important consequences for systems as diverse as the liquid cores of planets, accretion disks, and a wide range of metallurgical and nuclear engineering applications.

  13. The University of Michigan Centimeter-Band All Stokes Blazar Monitoring Program: Single-Dish Polarimetry as a Probe of Parsec-Scale Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Margo; Aller, Hugh; Hughes, Philip

    2017-11-01

    The University of Michigan 26-m paraboloid was dedicated to obtaining linear polarization and total flux density observations of blazars from the mid-1960s until June 2012 providing an unprecedented record tracking centimeter-band variability over decades at 14.5, 8.0, and 4.8 GHz for both targeted objects and members of flux-limited samples. In the mid-1970s through the mid-1980s, and during the last decade of the program, observations were additionally obtained of circular polarization for a small sample of radio-bright (S>5Jy), active sources. Key program results include evidence supporting class-dependent differences in the magnetic field geometry of BL Lac and QSO jets, identification of linear polarization changes temporally associated with flux outbursts supporting a shock-in-jet scenario, and determination of the spectral evolution of the Stokes V amplitude and polarity for testing proposed models. Recent radiative transfer modeling during large flares supports a jet scenario with a kinetically-dominated, relativistic flow at parsec scales with embedded turbulent magnetic fields and dynamically-weak ordered components which may be helical; the circular polarization observations are consistent with linear-to-circular mode conversion within this turbulent jet environment.

  14. Nanometric alternating magnetic field generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, A P; Tejo, F; Vidal-Silva, N; Escrig, J

    2017-07-05

    In this work we introduce an alternating magnetic field generator in a cylindrical nanostructure. This field appears due to the rotation of a magnetic domain wall located at some position, generating a magnetic region that varies its direction of magnetization alternately, thus inducing an alternating magnetic flux in its vicinity. This phenomenon occurs due to the competition between a spin-polarized current and a magnetic field, which allows to control both the angular velocity and the pinning position of the domain wall. As proof of concept, we study the particular case of a diameter-modulated nanowire with a spin-polarized current along its axis and the demagnetizing field produced by its modulation. This inhomogeneous field allows one to control the angular velocity of the domain wall as a function of its position along the nanowire allowing frequencies in the GHz range to be achieved. This generator could be used in telecommunications for devices in the range of radiofrequencies or, following Faraday's induction law, could also induce an electromotive force and be used as a movable alternate voltage source in future nanodevices.

  15. Magnetic fields in superconducting neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, S K

    2013-02-15

    The interior of a neutron star is likely to be predominantly a mixture of superfluid neutrons and superconducting protons. This results in the quantization of the star's magnetic field into an array of thin flux tubes, producing a macroscopic force very different from the Lorentz force of normal matter. We show that in an axisymmetric superconducting equilibrium the behavior of a magnetic field is governed by a single differential equation. Solving this, we present the first self-consistent superconducting neutron star equilibria with poloidal and mixed poloidal-toroidal fields and also give the first quantitative results for the corresponding magnetically induced distortions to the star. The poloidal component is dominant in all our configurations. We suggest that the transition from normal to superconducting matter in a young neutron star may cause a large-scale field rearrangement.

  16. Magnetic Fields and Galactic Star Formation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loo, Sven; Tan, Jonathan C.; Falle, Sam A. E. G.

    2015-02-01

    The regulation of galactic-scale star formation rates (SFRs) is a basic problem for theories of galaxy formation and evolution: which processes are responsible for making observed star formation rates so inefficient compared to maximal rates of gas content divided by dynamical timescale? Here we study the effect of magnetic fields of different strengths on the evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) within a kiloparsec patch of a disk galaxy and resolving scales down to ≃ 0.5 pc. Including an empirically motivated prescription for star formation from dense gas ({{n}H}\\gt {{10}5} c{{m}-3}) at an efficiency of 2% per local free-fall time, we derive the amount of suppression of star formation by magnetic fields compared to the nonmagnetized case. We find GMC fragmentation, dense clump formation, and SFR can be significantly affected by the inclusion of magnetic fields, especially in our strongest investigated B-field case of 80 μG. However, our chosen kiloparsec-scale region, extracted from a global galaxy simulation, happens to contain a starbursting cloud complex that is only modestly affected by these magnetic fields and likely requires internal star formation feedback to regulate its SFR.

  17. The Acceleration of High-energy Protons at Coronal Shocks: The Effect of Large-scale Streamer-like Magnetic Field Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangliang; Guo, Fan; Giacalone, Joe; Li, Hui; Chen, Yao

    2017-12-01

    Recent observations have shown that coronal shocks driven by coronal mass ejections can develop and accelerate particles within several solar radii in large solar energetic particle (SEP) events. Motivated by this, we present an SEP acceleration study that including the process in which a fast shock propagates through a streamer-like magnetic field with both closed and open field lines in the low corona region. The acceleration of protons is modeled by numerically solving the Parker transport equation with spatial diffusion both along and across the magnetic field. We show that particles can be sufficiently accelerated to up to several hundred MeV within 2-3 solar radii. When the shock propagates through a streamer-like magnetic field, particles are more efficiently accelerated compared to the case with a simple radial magnetic field, mainly due to perpendicular shock geometry and the natural trapping effect of closed magnetic fields. Our results suggest that the coronal magnetic field configuration is an important factor for producing large SEP events. We further show that the coronal magnetic field configuration strongly influences the distribution of energetic particles, leading to different locations of source regions along the shock front where most high-energy particles are concentrated. This work may have strong implications for SEP observations. The upcoming Parker Solar Probe will provide in situ observations for the distribution of energetic particles in the coronal shock region, and test the results of the study.

  18. Three - dimensional magnetic field observation vessel using magnetic fluid

    OpenAIRE

    櫻井, 勇良

    2011-01-01

    In this study, an observation vessel which could depict magnetic field distributions in threedimensionswas produced. The magnetic field observation vessel was made by putting magnetic fluid and water in a transparent square shaped glass container. Observation of both permanent magnet andelectromagnets was carried out. The movement of the magnetic fluid is different depending on the placement of the magnetic poles. The magnetic fluid showed a tendency to gather near each magnetic pole, when it...

  19. The origin, evolution and signatures of primordial magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2016-07-01

    The universe is magnetized on all scales probed so far. On the largest scales, galaxies and galaxy clusters host magnetic fields at the micro Gauss level coherent on scales up to ten kpc. Recent observational evidence suggests that even the intergalactic medium in voids could host a weak  ∼  10(-16) Gauss magnetic field, coherent on Mpc scales. An intriguing possibility is that these observed magnetic fields are a relic from the early universe, albeit one which has been subsequently amplified and maintained by a dynamo in collapsed objects. We review here the origin, evolution and signatures of primordial magnetic fields. After a brief summary of magnetohydrodynamics in the expanding universe, we turn to magnetic field generation during inflation and phase transitions. We trace the linear and nonlinear evolution of the generated primordial fields through the radiation era, including viscous effects. Sensitive observational signatures of primordial magnetic fields on the cosmic microwave background, including current constraints from Planck, are discussed. After recombination, primordial magnetic fields could strongly influence structure formation, especially on dwarf galaxy scales. The resulting signatures on reionization, the redshifted 21 cm line, weak lensing and the Lyman-α forest are outlined. Constraints from radio and γ-ray astronomy are summarized. Astrophysical batteries and the role of dynamos in reshaping the primordial field are briefly considered. The review ends with some final thoughts on primordial magnetic fields.

  20. The Magnetic Field of Planet Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulot, G.; Finlay, Chris; Constable, C. G.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth is by far the best documented magnetic field of all known planets. Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of its characteristics and properties, thanks to the convergence of many different approaches and to the remarkable fact that surface rocks...... yr) to the longest (virtually the age of the Earth) time scales are finally reviewed, underlining the respective roles of the magnetohydodynamics at work in the core, and of the slow dynamic evolution of the planet as a whole....

  1. A deep dynamo generating Mercury's magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ulrich R

    2006-12-21

    Mercury has a global magnetic field of internal origin and it is thought that a dynamo operating in the fluid part of Mercury's large iron core is the most probable cause. However, the low intensity of Mercury's magnetic field--about 1% the strength of the Earth's field--cannot be reconciled with an Earth-like dynamo. With the common assumption that Coriolis and Lorentz forces balance in planetary dynamos, a field thirty times stronger is expected. Here I present a numerical model of a dynamo driven by thermo-compositional convection associated with inner core solidification. The thermal gradient at the core-mantle boundary is subadiabatic, and hence the outer region of the liquid core is stably stratified with the dynamo operating only at depth, where a strong field is generated. Because of the planet's slow rotation the resulting magnetic field is dominated by small-scale components that fluctuate rapidly with time. The dynamo field diffuses through the stable conducting region, where rapidly varying parts are strongly attenuated by the skin effect, while the slowly varying dipole and quadrupole components pass to some degree. The model explains the observed structure and strength of Mercury's surface magnetic field and makes predictions that are testable with space missions both presently flying and planned.

  2. Study of marine magnetic field

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.

    ,000nT near the magnetic poles. The dip of the geomagnetic field in the northern hemisphere is downward (+ ve ) towards the north and in the southern hemisphere is upwards (- ve ). This dip is vertical at the magnetic poles and horizontal... synergistic attitude. Essentially, interpretation is a process of trying to reconcile various types of evidence into a complete geologically understandable picture. In practice, by integrating results of other methods, the interpreter derives a...

  3. Indoor localization using magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar

    Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing

  4. Magnetic field of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws

  5. Consistency relation for cosmic magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, R. K.; Sloth, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields. DOI......If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large scale structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show...... that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out...

  6. Magnetic fields in turbulent quark matter and magnetar bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    We analyze the magnetic field evolution in dense quark matter with unbroken chiral symmetry, which can be found inside quark and hybrid stars. The magnetic field evolves owing to the chiral magnetic effect in the presence of the electroweak interaction between quarks. In our study, we also take into account the magnetohydrodynamic turbulence effects in dense quark matter. We derive the kinetic equations for the spectra of the magnetic helicity density and the magnetic energy density as well as for the chiral imbalances. On the basis of the numerical solution of these equations, we find that turbulence effects are important for the behavior of small scale magnetic fields. It is revealed that, under certain initial conditions, these magnetic fields behave similarly to the electromagnetic flashes of some magnetars. We suggest that fluctuations of magnetic fields, described in frames of our model, which are created in the central regions of a magnetized compact star, can initiate magnetar bursts.

  7. Split Field magnet at the I4 ISR intersection

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The Split-Field Magnet (SFM) at I4 had an unconventional topology, consisting of two dipole magnets of opposite polarity. It formed the heart of the first general facility at the ISR. It had a useful magnetic field volume of 28 m3 and a field in the median plane of 1.14 T. With a gap height of 1.1 m and length of 10.5 m, the magnet weighed about 1000 t. The SFM spectrometer featured the first large-scale application of MWPCs (about 70,000 wires), which filled the main magnet, visible here in 1974, and the two large compensator magnets.

  8. Magnetic field generation in relativistic shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, J.; Achterberg, A. [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (Germany). Sterrekundig Instituut

    2005-06-01

    Linear theory of the Weibel instability cannot explain magnetic field generation in relativistic shock fronts in electron-proton plasmas. The fireball model far Gamma-ray Burst afterglows requires a magnetic field in similar shock fronts between the fireball and the surrounding matter to explain the detected nonthermal afterglow radiation. We consider an analytical model of post-shock protons penetrating the hot post-shock electron plasma. The linear Weibel instability produces magnetic fields through self-enhancing current channels. Perturbations with a length-scale comparable to the electron skin depth reach the high est magnetic field before the linear theory breaks down. The electrons quench the linear proton instability so that it cannot randomize the proton velocity distribution and only converts a small fraction of the available kinetic energy of the protons into magnetic fields. We conclude that the linear Weibel instability that dominates in pair plasmas is relatively unimportant in electron-proton plasmas and that non-linear processes are probably much more important.

  9. Electric field control of Skyrmions in magnetic nanodisks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Kanai, S.; Fukami, S.; Ohno, H.

    2016-04-01

    The control of magnetic Skyrmions confined in a nanometer scale disk using electric field pulses is studied by micromagnetic simulation. A stable Skyrmion can be created and annihilated by an electric field pulse depending on the polarity of the electric field. Moreover, the core direction of the Skyrmion can be switched using the same electric field pulses. Such creation and annihilation of Skyrmions, and its core switching do not require any magnetic field and precise control of the pulse length. This unconventional manipulation of magnetic texture using electric field pulses allows a robust way of controlling magnetic Skyrmions in nanodiscs, a path toward building ultralow power memory devices.

  10. Multi-field/-scale interactions of turbulence with neoclassical tearing mode magnetic islands in the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardóczi, L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Bañón Navarro, A.; Sung, C.; Carter, T. A.; La Haye, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Petty, C. C.; Chrystal, C.; Jenko, F.

    2017-05-01

    We present the first localized measurements of long and intermediate wavelength turbulent density fluctuations ( n ˜ ) and long wavelength turbulent electron temperature fluctuations ( T˜ e ) modified by m /n =2 /1 Neoclassical Tearing Mode (NTM) islands (m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively). These long and intermediate wavelengths correspond to the expected Ion Temperature Gradient and Trapped Electron Mode scales, respectively. Two regimes have been observed when tracking n ˜ during NTM evolution: (1) small islands are characterized by a steep Te radial profile and turbulence levels comparable to those of the background; (2) large islands have a flat Te profile and reduced turbulence level at the O-point. Radially outside the large island, the Te profile is steeper and the turbulence level increased compared to the no or small island case. Reduced turbulence at the O-point compared to the X-point leads to a 15% modulation of n˜ 2 across the island that is nearly in phase with the Te modulation. Qualitative comparisons to the GENE non-linear gyrokinetic code are promising with GENE replicating the observed scaling of turbulence modification with island size. These results are significant as they allow the validation of gyrokinetic simulations modeling the interaction of these multi-scale phenomena.

  11. Magnetic Fields in the Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The Milky Way is magnetized. Invisible magnetic fields thread the Galaxy on all scales and play a vital but still poorly understood role in regulating flows of gas in the interstellar medium and the formation of stars. I will present highlights from my thesis work on magnetic fields in the diffuse interstellar gas and in accretion disks. At high Galactic latitudes, diffuse neutral hydrogen is organized into an intricate network of slender linear features. I will show that these neutral hydrogen “fibers” are extremely well aligned with the ambient magnetic field as traced by both starlight polarization (Clark et al. 2014) and Planck 353 GHz polarized dust emission (Clark et al. 2015). The structure of the neutral interstellar medium is more tightly coupled to the magnetic field than previously known. Because the orientation of neutral hydrogen is an independent predictor of the local dust polarization angle, our work provides a new tool in the search for inflationary gravitational wave B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background, which is currently limited by dust foreground contamination. Magnetic fields also drive accretion in astrophysical disks via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). I analytically derive the behavior of this instability in the weakly nonlinear regime and show that the saturated state of the instability depends on the geometry of the background magnetic field. The analytical model describes the behavior of the MRI in a Taylor-Couette flow, a set-up used by experimentalists in the ongoing quest to observe MRI in the laboratory (Clark & Oishi 2016a, 2016b).

  12. Primordial Magnetic Fields, Right Electrons, and the Abelian Anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Joyce, M

    1997-01-01

    In the standard model there are charges with abelian anomaly only (e.g. right-handed electron number) which are effectively conserved in the early universe until some time shortly before the electroweak scale. A state at finite chemical potential of such a charge, possibly arising due to asymmetries produced at the GUT scale, is unstable to the generation of hypercharge magnetic field. We argue that quite large magnetic fields ($\\sim 10^{23}$ gauss at $T\\sim 3$ TeV with typical inhomogeneity scale up to $\\sim interest, potentially acting as seeds for amplification to larger scale magnetic fields through non-linear mechanisms.

  13. Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Sushan

    2017-09-01

    This article briefly reviews our current understanding of the evolution of magnetic fields in neutron stars, which basically defines the evolutionary pathways between different observational classes of neutron stars. The emphasis here is on the evolution in binary systems and the newly emergent classes of millisecond pulsars.

  14. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benn, Mathias; Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby

    2017-01-01

    , and may be configured to acquire images of selected targets for science and engineering analysis. The system tracks and catalogs objects that pass through the imager field of view and also provides a continuous record of radiation exposure. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide...

  15. Magnetic fields in Neutron Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viganò, D.; Pons, J.A.; Miralles, J.A.; Rea, N.; Cenarro, A.J.; Figueras, F.; Hernández-Monteagudo, J.; Bueno, T.; Valdivielso, L.

    2015-01-01

    Isolated neutron stars show a diversity in timing and spectral properties, which has historically led to a classification in different sub-classes. The magnetic field plays a key role in many aspects of the neutron star phenomenology: it regulates the braking torque responsible for their timing

  16. Magnetic Fields in the Solar Convection Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Fan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Active regions on the solar surface are generally thought to originate from a strong toroidal magnetic field generated by a deep seated solar dynamo mechanism operating at the base of the solar convection zone. Thus the magnetic fields need to traverse the entire convection zone before they reach the photosphere to form the observed solar active regions. Understanding this process of active region flux emergence is therefore a crucial component for the study of the solar cycle dynamo. This article reviews studies with regard to the formation and rise of active region scale magnetic flux tubes in the solar convection zone and their emergence into the solar atmosphere as active regions.

  17. Pulsed-coil magnet systems for applying uniform 10–30 T fields to centimeter-scale targets on Sandia's Z facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovang, D. C., E-mail: dcrovan@sandia.gov; Lamppa, D. C.; Cuneo, M. E.; Owen, A. C.; McKenney, J.; Johnson, D. W.; Radovich, S.; Kaye, R. J.; McBride, R. D.; Alexander, C. S.; Awe, T. J.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Haill, T. A.; Jones, P. A.; Argo, J. W.; Dalton, D. G.; Robertson, G. K.; Waisman, E. M.; Sinars, D. B. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); and others

    2014-12-15

    Sandia has successfully integrated the capability to apply uniform, high magnetic fields (10–30 T) to high energy density experiments on the Z facility. This system uses an 8-mF, 15-kV capacitor bank to drive large-bore (5 cm diameter), high-inductance (1–3 mH) multi-turn, multi-layer electromagnets that slowly magnetize the conductive targets used on Z over several milliseconds (time to peak field of 2–7 ms). This system was commissioned in February 2013 and has been used successfully to magnetize more than 30 experiments up to 10 T that have produced exciting and surprising physics results. These experiments used split-magnet topologies to maintain diagnostic lines of sight to the target. We describe the design, integration, and operation of the pulsed coil system into the challenging and harsh environment of the Z Machine. We also describe our plans and designs for achieving fields up to 20 T with a reduced-gap split-magnet configuration, and up to 30 T with a solid magnet configuration in pursuit of the Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion concept.

  18. Building Magnetic Fields in White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-03-01

    white dwarf forms a solid, oxygen-rich core with a liquid, carbon-rich mantle thats Rayleigh-Taylor unstable: as crystallization continues, the solids continue to sink out of the mantle.By analytically modeling this process, Isern and collaborators demonstrate that the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in the convective mantle can drive a dynamo large enough to generate the magnetic field strengths weve observed in white dwarfs.Magnetic field density as a function of the dynamo energy density. The plots show Earth and Jupiter (black dots), T Tauri stars (cyan), M dwarf stars (magenta), and two types of white dwarfs (blue and red). Do these lie on the same scaling relation? [Isern et al. 2017]A Universal Process?This setup the solid core with an unstable liquid mantle on top is exactly the structure expected to occur in planets such as Earth and Jupiter. These planets magnetic fields are similarly thought to be generated by convective dynamos powered by the cooling and chemical separation of their interiors and the process can also be scaled up to account for the magnetic fields of fully convective objects like T Tauri stars, as well.If white-dwarf magnetic fields are generated by the same type of dynamo, this may be a universal process for creating magnetic fields in astrophysical objects though other processes may well be at work too.CitationJordi Isern et al 2017 ApJL 836 L28. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa5eae

  19. A magnetic field compatible graphene transmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, James G.; Uilhoorn, Willemijn; de Jong, Damaz; Borsoi, Francesco; van der Enden, Kian; Goswami, Srijit; Cassidy, Maja; Kouwenhoven, Leo. P.

    Hybrid circuit QED is a key tool for readout and scaling of both semiconductor-based spin and topological quantum computing schemes. However, traditional approaches to circuit QED are incompatible with the strong external magnetic fields required for these qubits. Here we present measurements of a hybrid graphene-based transmon operating at 1 T. The device consists of coplanar waveguide resonators where the NbTiN thin film is patterned with a dense anti-dot lattice to trap Abriskov vortices, resulting in internal quality factors Qi >10^5 up to 6 T. Furthermore, the atomically thin nature of graphene in combination with the high critical field of its superconducting contacts makes it an ideal system for tolerating strong parallel magnetic fields. We combine these circuit elements to realize a magnetic field compatible transmon qubit. An external gate allows us to change the Josephson energy, and study the corresponding change in the resonator-qubit interaction in the dispersive regime. Two tone spectroscopy reveals a gate-tunable qubit peak at 1T. These experiments open up the possibility of fast charge parity measurements in high magnetic fields for readout of Majorana qubits..

  20. Elasticity of a magnetic fluid in a strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polunin, V. M.; Ryapolov, P. A.; Platonov, V. B.; Sheldeshova, E. V.; Karpova, G. V.; Aref'ev, I. M.

    2017-07-01

    Complex measurements of the following elastic-magnetic parameters of a magnetic fluid suspended by magnetic levitation within a horizontal tube in a strong magnetic field were performed: the oscillation frequency and decay coefficient; the static, ponderomotive, and dynamic elasticity coefficients; the fluid displacement under hydrostatic pressure; magnetization curve; and the magnetic field strength and gradient. Calculations based on a model of ponderomotive elasticity with correction for the resistance of a viscous fluid in motion and on the fluid column displacement for two magnetic fluid samples agree well with the experimental magnetization curve. The discussed technique holds promise for research into magnetophoresis and nanoparticle aggregation in magnetic colloids.

  1. Inflating Kahler moduli and primordial magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Aparicio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the production of primordial magnetic fields in inflationary models in type IIB string theory where the role of the inflaton is played by a Kahler modulus. We consider various possibilities to realise the Standard Model degrees of freedom in this setting and explicitly determine the time dependence of the inflaton coupling to the Maxwell term in the models. Using this we determine the strength and scale dependence of the magnetic fields generated during inflation. The usual “strong coupling problem” for primordial magnetogenesis manifests itself by cycle sizes approaching the string scale; this appears in a certain class of fibre inflation models where the standard model is realised by wrapping D7-branes on cycles in the geometric regime.

  2. Inflating Kahler moduli and primordial magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparicio, Luis, E-mail: laparici@ictp.it [Abdus Salam ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Maharana, Anshuman, E-mail: anshumanmaharana@hri.res.in [Harish Chandra Research Institute, HBNI, Chattnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India)

    2017-05-10

    We study the production of primordial magnetic fields in inflationary models in type IIB string theory where the role of the inflaton is played by a Kahler modulus. We consider various possibilities to realise the Standard Model degrees of freedom in this setting and explicitly determine the time dependence of the inflaton coupling to the Maxwell term in the models. Using this we determine the strength and scale dependence of the magnetic fields generated during inflation. The usual “strong coupling problem” for primordial magnetogenesis manifests itself by cycle sizes approaching the string scale; this appears in a certain class of fibre inflation models where the standard model is realised by wrapping D7-branes on cycles in the geometric regime.

  3. The large-scale dynamics of magnetic helicity

    CERN Document Server

    Linkmann, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter we investigate the dynamics of magnetic helicity in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent flows focusing at scales larger than the forcing scale. Our results show a non-local inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, which occurs directly from the forcing scale into the largest scales of the magnetic fields. We also observe that no magnetic helicity and no energy is transferred to an intermediate range of scales sufficiently smaller than the container size and larger than the forcing scale. Thus, the statistical properties of this range of scales, which increases with scale separation, is shown to be described to a large extent by the zero-flux solutions of the absolute statistical equilibrium theory exhibited by the truncated ideal MHD equations.

  4. Radiative diagnostics for sub-Larmor scale magnetic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    Radiative diagnostics of high-energy density plasmas is addressed in this paper. We propose that the radiation produced by energetic particles in small-scale magnetic field turbulence, which can occur in laser-plasma experiments, collisionless shocks, and during magnetic reconnection, can be used to deduce some properties of the turbulent magnetic field. Particles propagating through such turbulence encounter locally strong magnetic fields, but over lengths much shorter than a particle gyroradius. Consequently, the particle is accelerated but not deviated substantially from a straight line path. We develop the general jitter radiation solutions for this case and show that the resulting radiation is directly dependent upon the spectral distribution of the magnetic field through which the particle propagates. We demonstrate the power of this approach in considering the radiation produced by particles moving through a region in which a (Weibel-like) filamentation instability grows magnetic fields randomly orient...

  5. Ultracold plasma dynamics in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianli

    Plasmas, often called the fourth state of matter and the most common one in the universe, have parameters varying by many orders of magnitude, from temperature of a few hundred kelvin in the Earth's ionosphere to 10 16 K in the magnetosphere of a pulsar. Ultracold plasmas, produced by photoionizing a sample of laser-cooled and trapped atoms near the ionization limit, have extended traditional neutral plasma parameters by many orders of magnitude, to electron temperatures below 1 K and ion temperatures in the tens of muK to a few Kelvin, and densities of 105 cm -3 to 1010 cm-3. These plasmas thus provide a testing ground to study basic plasma theory in a clean and simple system with or without a magnetic field. Previous studies of ultracold plasmas have primarily concentrated on temperature measurements, collective modes and expansion dynamics in the absence of magnetic fields. This thesis presents the first study of ultracold plasma dynamics in a magnetic field. The presence of a magnetic field during the expansion can initiate various phenomena, such as plasma confinement and plasma instabilities. While the electron temperatures are very low in ultracold plasmas, we need only tens of Gauss of magnetic field to observe significant effects on the expansion dynamics. To probe the ultraocold plasma dynamics in a magnetic field, we developed a new diagnostic - projection imaging, which images the ion distribution by extracting the ions with a high voltage pulse onto a position-sensitive detector. Early in the lifetime of the plasma (explosion of the dense ion cloud. For later times, we measure the 2-D Gaussian width of the ion image, obtaining the transverse expansion velocity as a function of magnetic field (up to 70 G), and observe that the transverse expansion velocity scales as B-1/2, explained by a nonlinear ambipolar diffusion model that involes anisotropic diffusion in two different directions. We also present the first observation of a plasma instability in an

  6. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benn, Mathias; Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby

    2017-01-01

    suites, each consisting of a tri-axial Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located imaging sensors mounted on an ultra-stable optical bench. The imaging system sensors are part of a subsystem that provides accurate attitude information (to ∼20 arcsec on a spinning spacecraft) near...... the point of measurement of the magnetic field. The two sensor suites are accommodated at 10 and 12 m from the body of the spacecraft on a 4 m long magnetometer boom affixed to the outer end of one of ’s three solar array assemblies. The magnetometer sensors are controlled by independent and functionally...... second. The magnetic field instrumentation may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. The attitude determination system compares images with an on-board star catalog to provide attitude solutions (quaternions) at a rate of up to 4 solutions per second...

  7. Field-induced magnetic order in quantum spin liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, S; Olshanii, M; Haas, S

    2001-11-12

    We study magnetic-field-induced three-dimensional ordering transitions in low-dimensional quantum spin liquids, such as weakly coupled, antiferromagnetic spin- 1/2 Heisenberg dimers and ladders. Using stochastic series expansion quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we obtain the critical scaling exponents which dictate the power-law dependence of the transition temperature on the magnetic field. These are compared with recent experiments on candidate materials and with predictions for the Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons. The critical exponents deviate from isotropic mean-field theory and exhibit different scaling behavior at the lower and upper critical magnetic fields.

  8. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubrig, S.; González, J. F.; Ilyin, I.; Korhonen, H.; Schöller, M.; Savanov, I.; Arlt, R.; Castelli, F.; Lo Curto, G.; Briquet, M.; Dall, T. H.

    2012-11-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have failed to detect magnetic fields, indicating an upper limit on the longitudinal field between 8 and 15 G. In these LSD studies, assumptions were made that all spectral lines are identical in shape and can be described by a scaled mean profile. Aims: We re-analyse the available spectropolarimetric material by applying the moment technique on spectral lines of inhomogeneously distributed elements separately. Furthermore, we present new determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field for the HgMn star HD 65949 and the hotter analog of HgMn stars, the PGa star HD 19400, using FORS 2 installed at the VLT. We also give new measurements of the eclipsing system AR Aur with a primary star of HgMn peculiarity, which were obtained with the SOFIN spectropolarimeter installed at the Nordic Optical Telescope. Methods: We downloaded from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) archive the publically available HARPS spectra for eight HgMn stars and one normal and one superficially normal B-type star obtained in 2010. Out of this sample, three HgMn stars belong to spectroscopic double-lined systems. The application of the moment technique to the HARPS and SOFIN spectra allowed us to study the presence of the longitudinal magnetic field, the crossover effect, and quadratic magnetic fields. Results for the HgMn star HD 65949 and the PGa star HD 19400 are based on a linear regression analysis of low-resolution spectra obtained with FORS 2 in spectropolarimetric mode. Results: Our measurements of the magnetic field with the moment technique using spectral lines of several elements separately reveal the presence of a weak longitudinal magnetic field, a quadratic magnetic field, and the

  9. On the increase of the “non-uniform” scaling of the magnetic field variations before the M{sub w}9.0 earthquake in Japan in 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skordas, E. S., E-mail: eskordas@phys.uoa.gr [Solid State Section and Solid Earth Physics Institute, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos 157 84, Athens (Greece)

    2014-06-01

    By applying Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) to the time series of the geomagnetic data recorded at three measuring stations in Japan, Rong et al. in 2012 recently reported that anomalous magnetic field variations were identified well before the occurrence of the disastrous Tohoku M{sub w}9.0 earthquake that occurred on 11 March 2011 in Japan exhibiting increased “non-uniform” scaling behavior. Here, we provide an explanation for the appearance of this increase of “non-uniform” scaling on the following grounds: These magnetic field variations are the ones that accompany the electric field variations termed Seismic Electric Signals (SES) activity which have been repeatedly reported that precede major earthquakes. DFA as well as multifractal DFA reveal that the latter electric field variations exhibit scaling behavior as shown by analyzing SES activities observed before major earthquakes in Greece. Hence, when these variations are superimposed on a background of pseudosinusoidal trend, their long range correlation properties—quantified by DFA—are affected resulting in an increase of the “non-uniform” scaling behavior. The same is expected to hold for the former magnetic field variations. This explanation is strengthened by recent findings showing that the fluctuations of the order parameter of seismicity exhibited an unprecedented minimum almost two months before the Tohoku earthquake occurrence which is characteristic for an almost simultaneous emission of Seismic Electric Signals activity.

  10. Interaction between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, J. G.; Liu, X. Y.; Chen, H. H.; Deng, R. D.; Yan, Q. X.

    2016-02-01

    A new formula for the interaction force between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field is derived taking their mutual magnetic interaction into consideration and used to simulate their relative motion. Results show that when the angle β between the direction of external magnetic field and the centerline of two magnetic dipoles is 0 ° or 90 °, magnetic dipoles approach each other or move away from each other in a straight line, respectively. And the time required for them to contact each other from the initial position is related to the specific susceptibility and the diameter of magnetic particles, medium viscosity and magnetic field strength. When β is between 0 ° and 90 °, magnetic dipole pair performs approximate elliptical motion, and the motion trajectory is affected by the specific susceptibility, diameter and medium viscosity but not magnetic field strength. However, time required for magnetic dipoles to complete the same motion trajectory is shorter when adopting stronger magnetic field. Moreover, the subsequent motion trajectory of magnetic dipoles is ascertained once the initial position is set in a predetermined motion trajectory. Additionally, magnetic potential energy of magnetic dipole pairs is transformed into kinetic energy and friction energy during the motion.

  11. Interaction between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Ku

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new formula for the interaction force between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field is derived taking their mutual magnetic interaction into consideration and used to simulate their relative motion. Results show that when the angle β between the direction of external magnetic field and the centerline of two magnetic dipoles is 0 ° or 90 °, magnetic dipoles approach each other or move away from each other in a straight line, respectively. And the time required for them to contact each other from the initial position is related to the specific susceptibility and the diameter of magnetic particles, medium viscosity and magnetic field strength. When β is between 0 ° and 90 °, magnetic dipole pair performs approximate elliptical motion, and the motion trajectory is affected by the specific susceptibility, diameter and medium viscosity but not magnetic field strength. However, time required for magnetic dipoles to complete the same motion trajectory is shorter when adopting stronger magnetic field. Moreover, the subsequent motion trajectory of magnetic dipoles is ascertained once the initial position is set in a predetermined motion trajectory. Additionally, magnetic potential energy of magnetic dipole pairs is transformed into kinetic energy and friction energy during the motion.

  12. Effects of magnetic fields on fibrinolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaka, M.; Ueno, S.; Tsuda, H.

    1994-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the possible effects of magnetic fields on the fibrinolytic process. Fibrin dissolution was observed and the fibrinolytic activities were evaluated. First, fibrinolytic processes in magnetic fields were investigated by the fibrin plate method. We gathered solutions from the dissolved fibrin, and measured mean levels of fibrin degradation products (FDPs) in solutions. Mean levels of FDPs exposed to 8 T magnetic fields were higher than those not exposed to fields. Second, we carried out an experiment to understand how fibrin oriented in a magnetic field dissolves. FDPs in solutions of dissolved fibrins in fibrin plates were assayed. The result was that fibrin gels formed in a magnetic field at 8 T were more soluble than those not formed in a magnetic field. A model based on the diamagnetic properties of macromolecules was explained, and changes of protein concentrations in a solution in gradient magnetic fields were predicted.

  13. Localized magnetic fields in arbitrary directions using patterned nanomagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Robert P G; Schneble, R Jeff; Kataoka, Masaya; Ford, Christopher J B; Kasama, Takeshi; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Feinberg, Joshua M; Harrison, Richard J; Barnes, Crispin H W; Tse, Desmond H Y; Trypiniotis, Theodossis; Bland, J Anthony C; Anderson, David; Jones, Geb A C; Pepper, Michael

    2010-05-12

    Control of the local magnetic fields desirable for spintronics and quantum information technology is not well developed. Existing methods produce either moderately small local fields or one field orientation. We present designs of patterned magnetic elements that produce remanent fields of 50 mT (potentially 200 mT) confined to chosen, submicrometer regions in directions perpendicular to an external initializing field. A wide variety of magnetic-field profiles on nanometer scales can be produced with the option of applying electric fields, for example, to move a quantum dot between regions where the magnetic-field direction or strength is different. We have confirmed our modeling by measuring the fields in one design using electron holography.

  14. Magnetic field measuring system for remapping the ORIC magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosko, S.W.; Hudson, E.D.; Lord, R.S.; Hensley, D.C.; Biggerstaff, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility will integrate a new 25 MV tandem electrostatic acccelerator into the existing cyclotron laboratory which includes the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). Computations of ion paths for beam injection from the new tandem into ORIC require field mapping in the regions traversed by the beam. Additional field data is also desired for the higher levels (approx.19 kG) now used for most heavy ion beams. The magnetic field measurement system uses 39 flip coil/current integrator sets with computer controlled data scanning. The coils are spaced radially at 1 inch intervals in an arm which can be rotated azimuthally in 2 degree increments. The entire flip coil assembly can be shifted to larger radii to measure fields beyond the pole boundary. Temperature stabilization of electronic circuitry permits a measurement resolution of +-1 gauss over a dynamic range of +-25,000 gauss. The system will process a scan of 8000 points in about one hour.

  15. On the generation of 'strong' magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainshtein, S. I.; Parker, E. N.; Rosner, R.

    1993-01-01

    We rediscuss the nature of magnetic field generation in astrophysical systems. We show that as a result of ineffective three-dimensional turbulent diffusion in the presence of strong azimuthal magnetic fields, the standard dynamo equations are not likely to provide a reasonable description of magnetic dynamos in systems such as late-type stars and galaxies. Instead, we propose a new set of dynamo equations, which take into account the modifications of turbulent diffusion by strong magnetic fields.

  16. The rate of separation of magnetic lines of force in a random magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The mixing of magnetic lines of force, as represented by their rate of separation, as a function of distance along the magnetic field, is considered with emphasis on neighboring lines of force. This effect is particularly important in understanding the transport of charged particles perpendicular to the average magnetic field. The calculation is carried out in the approximation that the separation changes by an amount small compared with the correlation scale normal to the field, in a distance along the field of a few correlation scales. It is found that the rate of separation is very sensitive to the precise form of the power spectrum. Application to the interplanetary and interstellar magnetic fields is discussed, and it is shown that in some cases field lines, much closer together than the correlation scale, separate at a rate which is effectively as rapid as if they were many correlation lengths apart.

  17. Generating the optimal magnetic field for magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Smith, Anders

    2016-01-01

    In a magnetic refrigeration device the magnet is the single most expensive component, and therefore it is crucially important to ensure that an effective magnetic field as possible is generated using the least amount of permanent magnets. Here we present a method for calculating the optimal...... remanence distribution for any desired magnetic field. The method is based on the reciprocity theorem, which through the use of virtual magnets can be used to calculate the optimal remanence distribution. Furthermore, we present a method for segmenting a given magnet design that always results...... in the optimal segmentation, for any number of segments specified. These two methods are used to determine the optimal magnet design of a 12-piece, two-pole concentric cylindrical magnet for use in a continuously rotating magnetic refrigeration device....

  18. Deformation of Water by a Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijun; Dahlberg, E. Dan

    2011-01-01

    After the discovery that superconducting magnets could levitate diamagnetic objects, researchers became interested in measuring the repulsion of diamagnetic fluids in strong magnetic fields, which was given the name "The Moses Effect." Both for the levitation experiments and the quantitative studies on liquids, the large magnetic fields necessary…

  19. Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this…

  20. Improving the magnetic field homogeneity by varying magnetic field structure in a geophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Li; Wang, Wentao; Yao, Zhenjing; Gao, Qiang; Han, Zhiming

    2018-01-01

    The magnetic field structure is a key factor that affects performance of the magneto-electric geophone. In order to enhance the magnetic field homogeneity and magnetic induction intensity of the magnetic field structure, this paper proposes a new magnetic field structure. It consists of two cylindrical permanent magnets: an H-type magnetic boot and an external magnetic yoke. The proposed magnetic field structure can broaden the range of a uniform magnetic field and increase the magnetic field intensity of working air-gap. To confirm the validity of the design, the finite element analysis and real measurement experiments were conducted. The finite element simulations using the ANASYS Electromagnetics Suite 17.2.0 showed that the air-gap magnetic induction intensity is increased and the work space with a uniform magnetic field is broadened. Meanwhile, the output voltage of the coil is increased, and the harmonic distortion rate of output voltage is reduced. According to the real measurement experimental results, compared with the traditional magnetic field structure, the uniform range of the magnetic field is improved 23% in the entire air-gap path, and the magnetic induction intensity enhances 24% over the proposed new magnetic field structure.

  1. Large scale motions of Neptune's bow shock: Evidence for control of the shock position by the rotation phase of Neptune's magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Smith, Charles W.; Kurth, William S.; Gurnett, Donald A.; Moses, Stewart L.

    1991-01-01

    The Voyager 2 spacecraft observed high levels of Langmuir waves before the inbound crossing of Neptune's bow shock, thereby signifying magnetic connection of the bow shock. The Langmuir waves occurred in multiple bursts throughout two distinct periods separated by an 85 minute absence of wave activity. The times of onsets, peaks, and disappearances of the waves were used together with the magnetic field directions and spacecraft position, to perform a 'remote-sensing' analysis of the shape and location of Neptune's bow shock prior to the inbound bow shock crossing. The bow shock is assumed to have a parabolidal shape with a nose location and flaring parameter determined independently for each wave event. The remote-sensing analysis give a shock position consistent with the time of the inbound shock crossing. The flaring parameter of the shock remains approximately constant throughout each period of wave activity but differs by a factor of 10 between the two periods. The absence of waves between two periods of wave activity coincides with a large rotation of the magnetic field and a large increase in the solar wind ram pressure' both these effects lead to magnetic disconnection of the spacecraft from shock. The planetwards motion of the shock's nose from 38.5 R(sub N) to 34.5 R(sub N) during the second time period occurred while the solar wind ram pressure remained constant to within 15 percent. This second period of planetwards motion of the shock is therefore strong evidence for Neptune's bow shock moving in response to the rotation of Neptune's oblique, tilted magnetic dipole. Normalizing the ram pressure, the remotely-sensed shock moves sunwards during the first wave period and planetwards in the second wave period. The maximum standoff distance occurs while the dipole axis is close to being perpendicular to the Sun-Neptune direction. The remote-sensing analysis provides strong evidence that the location of Neptune's bow shock is controlled by Neptune's rotation

  2. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  3. A Dynamic Model of Mercury's Magnetospheric Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Haje; Johnson, Catherine L.; Philpott, Lydia; Tsyganenko, Nikolai A.; Anderson, Brian J.

    2017-10-01

    Mercury's solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field environment is highly dynamic, and variations in these external conditions directly control the current systems and magnetic fields inside the planetary magnetosphere. We update our previous static model of Mercury's magnetic field by incorporating variations in the magnetospheric current systems, parameterized as functions of Mercury's heliocentric distance and magnetic activity. The new, dynamic model reproduces the location of the magnetopause current system as a function of systematic pressure variations encountered during Mercury's eccentric orbit, as well as the increase in the cross-tail current intensity with increasing magnetic activity. Despite the enhancements in the external field parameterization, the residuals between the observed and modeled magnetic field inside the magnetosphere indicate that the dynamic model achieves only a modest overall improvement over the previous static model. The spatial distribution of the residuals in the magnetic field components shows substantial improvement of the model accuracy near the dayside magnetopause. Elsewhere, the large-scale distribution of the residuals is similar to those of the static model. This result implies either that magnetic activity varies much faster than can be determined from the spacecraft's passage through the magnetosphere or that the residual fields are due to additional external current systems not represented in the model or both. Birkeland currents flowing along magnetic field lines between the magnetosphere and planetary high-latitude regions have been identified as one such contribution.

  4. A Dynamic Model of Mercury's Magnetospheric Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Haje; Johnson, Catherine L; Philpott, Lydia; Tsyganenko, Nikolai A; Anderson, Brian J

    2017-10-28

    Mercury's solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field environment is highly dynamic, and variations in these external conditions directly control the current systems and magnetic fields inside the planetary magnetosphere. We update our previous static model of Mercury's magnetic field by incorporating variations in the magnetospheric current systems, parameterized as functions of Mercury's heliocentric distance and magnetic activity. The new, dynamic model reproduces the location of the magnetopause current system as a function of systematic pressure variations encountered during Mercury's eccentric orbit, as well as the increase in the cross-tail current intensity with increasing magnetic activity. Despite the enhancements in the external field parameterization, the residuals between the observed and modeled magnetic field inside the magnetosphere indicate that the dynamic model achieves only a modest overall improvement over the previous static model. The spatial distribution of the residuals in the magnetic field components shows substantial improvement of the model accuracy near the dayside magnetopause. Elsewhere, the large-scale distribution of the residuals is similar to those of the static model. This result implies either that magnetic activity varies much faster than can be determined from the spacecraft's passage through the magnetosphere or that the residual fields are due to additional external current systems not represented in the model or both. Birkeland currents flowing along magnetic field lines between the magnetosphere and planetary high-latitude regions have been identified as one such contribution.

  5. A Dynamic Model of Mercury's Magnetospheric Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, H.; Johnson, C. L.; Philpott, L. C.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Anderson, B. J.

    2017-09-01

    Mercury's solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field environment is highly dynamic, and variations in these external conditions directly control the current systems and magnetic fields inside the planetary magnetosphere. We update our previous static model of Mercury's magnetic field [Korth et al., 2015] by incorporating variations in the magnetospheric current systems, parameterized as functions of Mercury's heliocentric distance and magnetic activity [Anderson et al., 2013]. The new, dynamic model reproduces the location of the magnetopause current system as a function of systematic pressure variations encountered during Mercury's eccentric orbit, as well as the increase in the cross-tail current intensity with increasing magnetic activity. Despite the enhancements in the external field parameterization, the residuals between the observed and modeled magnetic field inside the magnetosphere indicate that the dynamic model achieves only a modest overall improvement over the previous static model. The spatial distribution of the residuals in the magnetic field components shows substantial improvement of the model accuracy near the dayside magnetopause. Elsewhere, the large-scale distribution of the residuals is similar to those of the static model. This result implies either that magnetic activity varies much faster than can be determined from the spacecraft's passage through the magnetosphere or that the residual fields are due to additional external current systems not represented in the model or both. Birkeland currents flowing along magnetic field lines between the magnetosphere and planetary high latitude regions have been identified as one such contribution.

  6. Dynamic shielding of the magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAU, M.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of the methods used to control and compensate the direct and alternative magnetic fields. Two frequently used methods in the electromagnetic compatibility of the complex biomagnetism installations were analyzed. The two methods refer to the use of inductive magnetic field sensors (only for alternative fields and of fluxgate magnetometers as active transducers which measures both the direct and alternative components of the magnetic field. The applications of the dynamic control of the magnetic field are: control of the magnetic field of the military ships, control of parasite magnetic field produced by power transformers and the electrical networks, protection of the mass spectrometers, electronic microscopes, SQUID and optical pumping magnetometers for applications in biomagnetism.

  7. Demagnetizing fields in active magnetic regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Smith, Anders

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic material in an externally applied magnetic field will in general experience a spatially varying internal magnetic field due to demagnetizing effects. When the performance of active magnetic regenerators (AMRs) is evaluated using numerical models the internal field is often assumed...... to be spatially constant and equal to the applied field, thus neglecting the demagnetizing field. Furthermore, the experimental magnetocaloric properties used (adiabatic temperature change, isothermal entropy change and specific heat) are often not corrected for demagnetization. The demagnetizing field in an AMR...... is in general both a function of the overall shape of the regenerator and its morphology (packed particles, parallel plates etc.) as well as the magnetization of the material. Due to the pronounced temperature dependence of the magnetization near the Curie temperature, the demagnetization field is also...

  8. Field free line magnetic particle imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Erbe, Marlitt

    2014-01-01

    Marlitt Erbe provides a detailed introduction into the young research field of Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) and field free line (FFL) imaging in particular. She derives a mathematical description of magnetic field generation for FFL imaging in MPI. To substantiate the simulation studies on magnetic FFL generation with a proof-of-concept, the author introduces the FFL field demonstrator, which provides the world's first experimentally generated rotated and translated magnetic FFL field complying with the requirements for FFL reconstruction. Furthermore, she proposes a scanner design of consi

  9. Seminal magnetic fields from inflato-electromagnetic inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Membiela, Federico Agustin; Bellini, Mauricio [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-10-15

    We extend some previous attempts to explain the origin and evolution of primordial magnetic fields during inflation induced from a 5D vacuum. We show that the usual quantum fluctuations of a generalized 5D electromagnetic field cannot provide us with the desired magnetic seeds. We show that special fields without propagation on the extra non-compact dimension are needed to arrive at appreciable magnetic strengths. We also identify a new magnetic tensor field B{sub ij} in this kind of extra dimensional theory. Our results are in very good agreement with observational requirements, in particular from TeV blazars and CMB radiation limits we see that primordial cosmological magnetic fields should be close to scale invariance. (orig.)

  10. Leakage magnetic field of BLDCM based on Comsol multiphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Wen, Jiabao; Wang, Wen; Sun, Jinghua

    2017-04-01

    The measurement of geomagnetic field conducted by underwater robot is widely used during cruise, however, it is often influenced by the strong electromagnetic interference of the other large-scale electronic equipment on the robot itself. The leakage magnetic field of high-power brushless DC motor (BLDCM) has been identified as one of the main interference source. To obtain accurate geomagnetic data, it is necessary to analyze the magnetic field characteristics of the leakage field of BLDCM. In this paper, we build a two-dimensional BLDCM model. In addition, we present the rotor's leakage magnetic field when the BLDCM is static, dynamic leakage magnetic field of the stator and rotor when BLDCM is working and the near-field characteristic of BLDCM's leakage magnetic field. Finally, this paper studies the relationship between the frequency of the magnetic field change and the speed of the BLDCM, which can be used to eliminate the AC interference magnetic field. Therefore the measuring accuracy of the geomagnetic field can be improved.

  11. Magnetic field mapper based on rotating coils

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2087244; Arpaia, Pasquale

    This thesis presents a magnetic field mapper based on rotating coils. The requirements, the architecture, the conceptual design, and the prototype for straight magnets were shown. The proposed system is made up of a rotating coil transducer and a train-like system for longitudinal motion and positioning inside magnet bore. The mapper allows a localized measurement of magnetic fields and the variation of the harmonic multipole content in the magnet ends. The proof-of-principle demonstration and the experimental characterization of the rotating-coil transducer specifically conceived for mapping validated the main objective of satisfying the magnetic measurement needs of the next generation of compact accelerators.

  12. Strongly interacting matter in magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Landsteiner, Karl; Schmitt, Andreas; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2013-01-01

    The physics of strongly interacting matter in an external magnetic field is presently emerging as a topic of great cross-disciplinary interest for particle, nuclear, astro- and condensed matter physicists. It is known that strong magnetic fields are created in heavy ion collisions, an insight that has made it possible to study a variety of surprising and intriguing phenomena that emerge from the interplay of quantum anomalies, the topology of non-Abelian gauge fields, and the magnetic field. In particular, the non-trivial topological configurations of the gluon field induce a non-dissipative electric current in the presence of a magnetic field. These phenomena have led to an extended formulation of relativistic hydrodynamics, called chiral magnetohydrodynamics. Hitherto unexpected applications in condensed matter physics include graphene and topological insulators. Other fields of application include astrophysics, where strong magnetic fields exist in magnetars and pulsars. Last but not least, an important ne...

  13. Pressure, Chaotic Magnetic Fields and MHD Equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.R. Hudson & N. Nakajima

    2010-05-12

    Analyzes of plasma behavior often begin with a description of the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium, this being the simplest model capable of approximating macroscopic force balance. Ideal force balance is when the pressure gradient is supported by the Lorentz force, ∇p = j x B. We discuss the implications of allowing for a chaotic magnetic field on the solutions to this equation. We argue that the solutions are pathological and not suitable for numerical calculations. If the pressure and magnetic Field are continuous, the only non-trivial solutions have an uncountable infinity of discontinuities in the pressure gradient and current. The problems arise from the arbitrarily small length scales in the structure of the field, and the consequence of ideal force balance that the pressure is constant along the Field-lines, B • ∇p = 0. A simple method to ameliorate the singularities is to include a small but Finite perpendicular diffusion. A self-consistent set of equilibrium equations is described and some algorithmic approaches aimed at solving these equations are discussed.

  14. High magnetic fields science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Miura, Noboru

    2003-01-01

    This three-volume book provides a comprehensive review of experiments in very strong magnetic fields that can only be generated with very special magnets. The first volume is entirely devoted to the technology of laboratory magnets: permanent, superconducting, high-power water-cooled and hybrid; pulsed magnets, both nondestructive and destructive (megagauss fields). Volumes 2 and 3 contain reviews of the different areas of research where strong magnetic fields are an essential research tool. These volumes deal primarily with solid-state physics; other research areas covered are biological syst

  15. DC-based magnetic field controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.; Morgan, J.P.

    1994-05-31

    A magnetic field controller is described for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a Hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage. 1 fig.

  16. DC-based magnetic field controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.; Morgan, John P,.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic field controller for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage.

  17. Synchrotron Applications of High Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This workshop aims at discussing the scientific potential of X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy in magnetic fields above 30 T. Pulsed magnetic fields in the range of 30 to 40 T have recently become available at Spring-8 and the ESRF (European synchrotron radiation facility). This document gathers the transparencies of the 6 following presentations: 1) pulsed magnetic fields at ESRF: first results; 2) X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction experiments by using mini-coils: applications to valence state transition and frustrated magnet; 3) R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4}: an ideal system to be studied in X-ray under high magnetic field?; 4) high field studies at the Advanced Photon Source: present status and future plans; 5) synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies under extreme conditions; and 6) projects for pulsed and steady high magnetic fields at the ESRF.

  18. Coronal rain in magnetic bipolar weak fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Fang, X.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We intend to investigate the underlying physics for the coronal rain phenomenon in a representative bipolar magnetic field, including the formation and the dynamics of coronal rain blobs. Methods: With the MPI-AMRVAC code, we performed three dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with strong heating localized on footpoints of magnetic loops after a relaxation to quiet solar atmosphere. Results: Progressive cooling and in-situ condensation starts at the loop top due to radiative thermal instability. The first large-scale condensation on the loop top suffers Rayleigh-Taylor instability and becomes fragmented into smaller blobs. The blobs fall vertically dragging magnetic loops until they reach low-β regions and start to fall along the loops from loop top to loop footpoints. A statistic study of the coronal rain blobs finds that small blobs with masses of less than 1010 g dominate the population. When blobs fall to lower regions along the magnetic loops, they are stretched and develop a non-uniform velocity pattern with an anti-parallel shearing pattern seen to develop along the central axis of the blobs. Synthetic images of simulated coronal rain with Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly well resemble real observations presenting dark falling clumps in hot channels and bright rain blobs in a cool channel. We also find density inhomogeneities during a coronal rain "shower", which reflects the observed multi-stranded nature of coronal rain. Movies associated to Figs. 3 and 7 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Solar magnetic fields - The generation of emerging flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, L.; Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G. S.; Weiss, N. O.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray observations have provided information about magnetic fields on the sun, and the implications of these observations are discussed. The pattern of small-scale flux emergence is quite different from that of active regions. It is inferred that the small-scale fields originate fairly high in the convective zone, while the fields in active regions have a deeper origin. The small-scale turbulent fields are only loosely related to the fields that define the normal solar cycle. The way in which dynamo models must be modified in the light of these results is indicated.

  20. Dynamics of magnetic bubbles in acoustic and magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Quinto-Su, Pedro A; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2009-01-16

    We report on shelled bubbles that can be manipulated with magnetic fields. The magnetic shell consists of self-assembled magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic susceptibility of the bubbles is proportional to the surface area, chi_{b}=(9+/-3x10;{-6} m)r;{2} where r is the radius. Magnetic bubbles are compressible in moderate acoustic fields. A bubble with a radius of 121 mum oscillates in resonance in a sound field of 27 kHz with a peak-to-peak radial amplitude of 1.7 mum. The bubble oscillations induce a microstreaming flow with a toroidal vortex at the upper pole of the bubble. Further findings are the longevity of the magnetic bubbles and the ease of manipulation with standard magnets.

  1. Magnetic field measurements and mapping techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    These lectures will present an overview of the most common techniques used for the measurement of magnetic field in accelerator magnets. The formalism for a harmonic description of the magnetic field will be presented, including a discussion of harmonics allowed under various types of symmetries in the magnet. The harmonic coil technique for measurement of field harmonics will be covered in depth. Using examples from recent projects, magnetic measurements will be shown to be a powerful tool for monitoring magnet production. Measurements of magnetic axis using extensions of the harmonic coil technique, as well as other techniques, such as the colloidal cell and stretched wire, will be covered. Topics of interest in superconducting magnets, such as time decay and snapback, requiring relatively fast measurements of the harmonics, will also be described.

  2. Operating a magnetic nozzle helicon thruster with strong magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kazunori, E-mail: kazunori@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    A pulsed axial magnetic field up to ∼2.8 kG is applied to a 26-mm-inner-diameter helicon plasma thruster immersed in a vacuum chamber, and the thrust is measured using a pendulum target. The pendulum is located 30-cm-downstream of the thruster, and the thruster rf power and argon flow rate are fixed at 1 kW and 70 sccm (which gives a chamber pressure of 0.7 mTorr). The imparted thrust increases as the applied magnetic field is increased and saturates at a maximum value of ∼9.5 mN for magnetic field above ∼2 kG. At the maximum magnetic field, it is demonstrated that the normalized plasma density, and the ion flow energy in the magnetic nozzle, agree within ∼50% and of 10%, respectively, with a one-dimensional model that ignores radial losses from the nozzle. This magnetic nozzle model is combined with a simple global model of the thruster source that incorporates an artificially controlled factor α, to account for radial plasma losses to the walls, where α = 0 and 1 correspond to zero losses and no magnetic field, respectively. Comparison between the experiments and the model implies that the radial losses in the thruster source are experimentally reduced by the applied magnetic field to about 10% of that obtained from the no magnetic field model.

  3. Magnetic field evolution in tidal disruption events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnerot, Clément; Price, Daniel J.; Lodato, Giuseppe; Rossi, Elena M.

    2017-08-01

    When a star gets tidally disrupted by a supermassive black hole, its magnetic field is expected to pervade its debris. In this paper, we study this process via smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the disruption and early debris evolution including the stellar magnetic field. As the gas stretches into a stream, we show that the magnetic field evolution is strongly dependent on its orientation with respect to the stretching direction. In particular, an alignment of the field lines with the direction of stretching induces an increase of the magnetic energy. For disruptions happening well within the tidal radius, the star compression causes the magnetic field strength to sharply increase by an order of magnitude at the time of pericentre passage. If the disruption is partial, we find evidence for a dynamo process occurring inside the surviving core due to the formation of vortices. This causes an amplification of the magnetic field strength by a factor of ˜10. However, this value represents a lower limit since it increases with numerical resolution. For an initial field strength of 1 G, the magnetic field never becomes dynamically important. Instead, the disruption of a star with a strong 1 MG magnetic field produces a debris stream within which magnetic pressure becomes similar to gas pressure a few tens of hours after disruption. If the remnant of one or multiple partial disruptions is eventually fully disrupted, its magnetic field could be large enough to magnetically power the relativistic jet detected from Swift J1644+57. Magnetized streams could also be significantly thickened by magnetic pressure when it overcomes the confining effect of self-gravity.

  4. Energy flux determines magnetic field strength of planets and stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ulrich R.; Holzwarth, Volkmar; Reiners, Ansgar

    2009-01-01

    The magnetic fields of Earth and Jupiter, along with those of rapidly rotating, low-mass stars, are generated by convection-driven dynamos that may operate similarly (the slowly rotating Sun generates its field through a different dynamo mechanism). The field strengths of planets and stars vary over three orders of magnitude, but the critical factor causing that variation has hitherto been unclear. Here we report an extension of a scaling law derived from geodynamo models to rapidly rotating stars that have strong density stratification. The unifying principle in the scaling law is that the energy flux available for generating the magnetic field sets the field strength. Our scaling law fits the observed field strengths of Earth, Jupiter, young contracting stars and rapidly rotating low-mass stars, despite vast differences in the physical conditions of the objects. We predict that the field strengths of rapidly rotating brown dwarfs and massive extrasolar planets are high enough to make them observable.

  5. The Magnetic Field of the Earth's Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébault, Erwan; Purucker, Michael; Whaler, Kathryn A.; Langlais, Benoit; Sabaka, Terence J.

    2010-08-01

    The lithospheric contribution to the Earth's magnetic field is concealed in magnetic field data that have now been measured over several decades from ground to satellite altitudes. The lithospheric field results from the superposition of induced and remanent magnetisations. It therefore brings an essential constraint on the magnetic properties of rocks of the Earth's sub-surface that would otherwise be difficult to characterize. Measuring, extracting, interpreting and even defining the magnetic field of the Earth's lithosphere is however challenging. In this paper, we review the difficulties encountered. We briefly summarize the various contributions to the Earth's magnetic field that hamper the correct identification of the lithospheric component. Such difficulties could be partially alleviated with the joint analysis of multi-level magnetic field observations, even though one cannot avoid making compromises in building models and maps of the magnetic field of the Earth's lithosphere at various altitudes. Keeping in mind these compromises is crucial when lithospheric field models are interpreted and correlated with other geophysical information. We illustrate this discussion with recent advances and results that were exploited to infer statistical properties of the Earth's lithosphere. The lessons learned in measuring and processing Earth's magnetic field data may prove fruitful in planetary exploration, where magnetism is one of the few remotely accessible internal properties.

  6. MMS Observations of Ion-Scale Magnetic Island in the Magnetosheath Turbulent Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S. Y.; Sahraoui, F.; Retino, A.; Contel, O. Le; Yuan, Z. G.; Chasapis, A.; Aunai, N.; Breuillard, H.; Deng, X. H.; Zhou, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, first observations of ion-scale magnetic island from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission in the magnetosheath turbulent plasma are presented. The magnetic island is characterized by bipolar variation of magnetic fields with magnetic field compression, strong core field, density depletion, and strong currents dominated by the parallel component to the local magnetic field. The estimated size of magnetic island is about 8 di, where di is the ion inertial length. Distinct particle behaviors and wave activities inside and at the edges of the magnetic island are observed: parallel electron beam accompanied with electrostatic solitary waves and strong electromagnetic lower hybrid drift waves inside the magnetic island and bidirectional electron beams, whistler waves, weak electromagnetic lower hybrid drift waves, and strong broadband electrostatic noise at the edges of the magnetic island. Our observations demonstrate that highly dynamical, strong wave activities and electron-scale physics occur within ion-scale magnetic islands in the magnetosheath turbulent plasma..

  7. The strongest magnetic fields in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, A; Falanga, M; Lyutikov, M; Mereghetti, S; Piran, T; Treumann, RA

    2016-01-01

    This volume extends the ISSI series on magnetic fields in the Universe into the domain of what are by far the strongest fields in the Universe, and stronger than any field that could be produced on Earth. The chapters describe the magnetic fields in non-degenerate strongly magnetized stars, degenerate stars (such as white dwarfs and neutron stars), exotic members called magnetars, and in their environments, as well as magnetic fields in the environments of black holes. These strong fields have a profound effect on the behavior of matter, visible in particular in highly variable processes like radiation in all known wavelengths, including Gamma-Ray bursts. The generation and structure of such strong magnetic fields and effects on the environment are also described.

  8. Magnetic field optimization of permanent magnet undulators for arbitrary polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrdt, J.; Frentrup, W.; Gaupp, A.; Scheer, M.; Englisch, U.

    2004-01-01

    Techniques for improving the magnetic field quality of APPLE II undulators are discussed. Individual block characterization including the inhomogeneities of the magnetization permits a precise prediction of field integrals as required for sorting. Specific shimming procedures adapted to the magnetic design of APPLE II undulators have to be employed in order to meet the stringent requirements of insertion devices in third generation synchrotron radiation sources as demonstrated for BESSY.

  9. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  10. Solar Force-free Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wiegelmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure and dynamics of the solar corona is dominated by the magnetic field. In most areas in the corona magnetic forces are so dominant that all non-magnetic forces like plasma pressure gradient and gravity can be neglected in the lowest order. This model assumption is called the force-free field assumption, as the Lorentz force vanishes. This can be obtained by either vanishing electric currents (leading to potential fields or the currents are co-aligned with the magnetic field lines. First we discuss a mathematically simpler approach that the magnetic field and currents are proportional with one global constant, the so-called linear force-free field approximation. In the generic case, however, the relation between magnetic fields and electric currents is nonlinear and analytic solutions have been only found for special cases, like 1D or 2D configurations. For constructing realistic nonlinear force-free coronal magnetic field models in 3D, sophisticated numerical computations are required and boundary conditions must be obtained from measurements of the magnetic field vector in the solar photosphere. This approach is currently of large interests, as accurate measurements of the photospheric field become available from ground-based (for example SOLIS and space-born (for example Hinode and SDO instruments. If we can obtain accurate force-free coronal magnetic field models we can calculate the free magnetic energy in the corona, a quantity which is important for the prediction of flares and coronal mass ejections. Knowledge of the 3D structure of magnetic field lines also help us to interpret other coronal observations, e.g., EUV images of the radiating coronal plasma.

  11. The Interplanetary Magnetic Field and Solar Wind Driven Magnetospheric Reconfiguration

    OpenAIRE

    Savov, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic disturbances are associated with electric currents as it is well checked at laboratory room scales and described by the Maxwell's equations of electromagnetic field. The analysis of spacecraft observations for more than a quarter of a century failed to provide a self-consistent three-dimensional picture of the solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo generated magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems. The proposed solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) driven reconfi...

  12. Significance of stellar magnetic field measurements obtained with the photographic technique: the spurious magnetic field of the supergiant Canopus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stift, M.J.

    1987-09-01

    A number of straightforward statistical tests are proposed, aimed at establishing the significance of stellar magnetic field measurements obtained with the photographic technique of a previous author. The power of these methods is illustrated with three Ap stars for which the presence of a magnetic field can be established at an exceedingly high significance level. Application to the supergiant Canopus on the contrary gives no support to the claims for the detection of a kilogauss surface field. Further investigations involving classical scaling and an error analysis of the MSHIFT correlation method favour the view that instrumental instabilities are at the origin of the apparent magnetic variations in Canopus.

  13. Control of magnetism by electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, Fumihiro; Tokura, Yoshinori; Ohno, Hideo

    2015-03-01

    The electrical manipulation of magnetism and magnetic properties has been achieved across a number of different material systems. For example, applying an electric field to a ferromagnetic material through an insulator alters its charge-carrier population. In the case of thin films of ferromagnetic semiconductors, this change in carrier density in turn affects the magnetic exchange interaction and magnetic anisotropy; in ferromagnetic metals, it instead changes the Fermi level position at the interface that governs the magnetic anisotropy of the metal. In multiferroics, an applied electric field couples with the magnetization through electrical polarization. This Review summarizes the experimental progress made in the electrical manipulation of magnetization in such materials, discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms, and finally presents the future prospects of the field.

  14. The effect of Birkeland currents on magnetic field topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroomian, Vahe; Lyons, Larry R.; Schulz, Michael

    1996-01-01

    A technique was developed for the inclusion of large scale magnetospheric current systems in magnetic field models. The region 1 and 2 Birkeland current systems are included in the source surface model of the terrestrial magnetosphere. The region 1 and 2 Birkeland currents are placed in the model using a series of field aligned, infinitely thin wire segments. The normal component of the magnetic field from these currents is calculated on the surface of the magnetopause and shielded using image current carrying wires placed outside of the magnetosphere. It is found that the inclusion of the Birkeland currents in the model results in a northward magnetic field in the near-midnight tail, leading to the closure of previously open flux in the tail, and a southward magnetic field in the flanks. A sunward shift in the separatrix is observed.

  15. Earth magnetism a guided tour through magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Wallace H

    2001-01-01

    An introductory guide to global magnetic field properties, Earth Magnetism addresses, in non-technical prose, many of the frequently asked questions about Earth''s magnetic field. Magnetism surrounds and penetrates our Earth in ways basic science courses can rarely address. It affects navigation, communication, and even the growth of crystals. As we observe and experience an 11-year solar maximum, we may witness spectacular satellite-destroying solar storms as they interact with our magnetic field. Written by an acknowledged expert in the field, this book will enrich courses in earth science, atmospheric science, geology, meteorology, geomagnetism, and geophysics. Contains nearly 200 original illustrations and eight pages of full-color plates.* Largely mathematics-free and with a wide breadth of material suitable for general readers* Integrates material from geomagnetism, paleomagnetism, and solar-terrestrial space physics.* Features nearly 200 original illustrations and 4 pages of colour plates

  16. Prospects for x-ray polarimetry measurements of magnetic fields in magnetized liner inertial fusion plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Alan G; Gilmore, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments, where a metal liner is imploded to compress a magnetized seed plasma may generate peak magnetic fields ∼10(4) T (100 Megagauss) over small volumes (∼10(-10)m(3)) at high plasma densities (∼10(28)m(-3)) on 100 ns time scales. Such conditions are extremely challenging to diagnose. We discuss the possibility of, and issues involved in, using polarimetry techniques at x-ray wavelengths to measure magnetic fields under these extreme conditions.

  17. Duality between magnetic field and rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhunushaliev, V. [Department of Physics and Microelectric Engineering, KRSU, Kievskaya Str. 44, Bishkek 720021 (Kyrgyzstan)]. E-mail: dzhun@hotmail.kg

    2004-10-21

    It is shown that in 5D Kaluza-Klein theory there are everywhere regular wormhole-like solutions in which the magnetic field at the center is the origin of a rotation on the peripheral part of these solutions. The time on the peripheral part is topologically non-trivial and magnetic field is suppressed in comparison with the electric one.

  18. Helical Magnetic Fields in AGN Jets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We establish a simple model to describe the helical magnetic fields in AGN jets projected on the sky plane and the line-of-sight. This kind of profile has been detected in the polarimetric VLBI observation of many blazar objects, suggesting the existence of helical magnetic fields in these sources.

  19. Magnetic Fields at the Center of Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Philippe; Hui, Kaleonui; Goldman, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    In this note we synthesize and extend expressions for the magnetic field at the center of very short and very long current-carrying coils. Elementary physics textbooks present the following equation for the magnetic field inside a very long current-carrying coil (solenoid): B[subscript sol] = µ[subscript 0] (N/L) I, (1) where I is the current, N…

  20. Classical theory of electric and magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Roland H

    1971-01-01

    Classical Theory of Electric and Magnetic Fields is a textbook on the principles of electricity and magnetism. This book discusses mathematical techniques, calculations, with examples of physical reasoning, that are generally applied in theoretical physics. This text reviews the classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, Maxwell's Equations, Lorentz Force, and Faraday's Law of Induction. The book also focuses on electrostatics and the general methods for solving electrostatic problems concerning images, inversion, complex variable, or separation of variables. The text also explains ma

  1. Magnetic Fields in the Solar Convection Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yuhong

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of the dynamic evolution of magnetic flux tubes in the solar convection zone are reviewed with focus on emerging flux tubes responsible for the formation of solar active regions. The current prevailing picture is that active regions on the solar surface originate from strong toroidal magnetic fields generated by the solar dynamo mechanism at the thin tachocline layer at the base of the solar convection zone. Thus the magnetic fields need to traverse the entire convection zone before they reach the photosphere to form the observed solar active regions. This review discusses results with regard to the following major topics: 1. the equilibrium properties of the toroidal magnetic fields stored in the stable overshoot region at the base of the convection zone, 2. the buoyancy instability associated with the toroidal magnetic fields and the formation of buoyant magnetic flux tubes, 3. the rise of emerging flux loops through the solar convective envelope as modeled by the thin flux tube calculations which infer that the field strength of the toroidal magnetic fields at the base of the solar convection zone is significantly higher than the value in equipartition with convection, 4. the minimum twist needed for maintaining cohesion of the rising flux tubes, 5. the rise of highly twisted kink unstable flux tubes as a possible origin of d -sunspots, 6. the evolution of buoyant magnetic flux tubes in 3D stratified convection, 7. turbulent pumping of magnetic flux by penetrative compressible convection, 8. an alternative mechanism for intensifying toroidal magnetic fields to significantly super-equipartition field strengths by conversion of the potential energy associated with the superadiabatic stratification of the solar convection zone, and finally 9. a brief overview of our current understanding of flux emergence at the surface and post-emergence evolution of the subsurface magnetic fields.

  2. Orienting Paramecium with intense static magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, James M., Jr.; Guevorkian, Karine; Quindel, Carl

    2004-03-01

    Recent experiments on cell division suggest the application of intense static magnetic fields as a novel tool for the manipulation of biological systems [1]. The magnetic field appears to couple to the intrinsic anisotropies in the diamagnetic components of the cells. Here, we present measurements of the intrinsic average diamagnetic anisotropy of the whole single celled ciliate, Paramecium Caudatum. Magnetic fields, 2.5 T Paramecium Caudatum that were suspended in a density matched medium. The organisms align with their long axis parallel to the applied magnetic field. Their intrinsic diamagnetic anisotropy is 3x10-11 in cgs units. We will discuss the implications of these results for employing magnetic fields to probe the behavior of swimming Paramecium. [1] J. M. Valles, Jr. et al., Expt. Cell Res.274, 112-118 (2002).

  3. Surface singularities of nanorod laden droplets in magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornev, Konstantin; Tokarev, Alexander; Lee, Wah-Keat

    2013-11-01

    Magnetic nanorods are attractive materials enabling assembly, ordering, control, and reconfiguration of different magnetic lattices within milliseconds in milliTesla magnetic fields. In this talk we will show a new physical principle of self-assembly of magnetic nanorods into singular cusps at the droplet surface. These singularities can be formed on demand not deforming the entire droplets by taking advantage of the magneto-static interactions between nanorods in non-uniform magnetic field. Using X-ray phase contrast imaging and scaling analysis we will explain the behavior of magnetic nematics and their interactions with the droplet surface. The authors are grateful for the financial support of the National Science Foundation through Grant EFRI 0937985, and of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research through Grant FA9550-12-1-0459.

  4. Gyrokinetic treatment of a grazing angle magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Geraldini, Alessandro; Militello, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    We develop a gyrokinetic treatment for ions in the magnetic presheath, close to the plasma-wall boundary. We focus on magnetic presheaths with a small magnetic field to wall angle, $\\alpha \\ll 1$. Characteristic lengths perpendicular to the wall in such a magnetic presheath scale with the typical ion Larmor orbit size, $\\rho_{\\text{i}}$. The smallest scale length associated with variations parallel to the wall is taken to be across the magnetic field, and ordered $l = \\rho_{\\text{i}} / \\delta$, where $ \\delta \\ll 1$ is assumed. The scale lengths along the magnetic field line are assumed so long that variations associated with this direction are neglected. These orderings are consistent with what we expect close to the divertor target of a tokamak. We allow for a strong electric field $\\vec{E}$ in the direction normal to the electron repelling wall, with strong variation in the same direction. The large change of the electric field over an ion Larmor radius distorts the orbit so that it is not circular. We sol...

  5. Producing ultrastrong magnetic fields in neutron star mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D J; Rosswog, S

    2006-05-05

    We report an extremely rapid mechanism for magnetic field amplification during the merger of a binary neutron star system. This has implications for the production of the short class of gamma-ray bursts, which recent observations suggest may originate in such mergers. In detailed magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the merger process, the fields are amplified by Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities beyond magnetar field strength and may therefore represent the strongest magnetic fields in the universe. The amplification occurs in the shear layer that forms between the neutron stars and on a time scale of only 1 millisecond, that is, long before the remnant can collapse into a black hole.

  6. Formation of magnetically anisotropic composite films at low magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi Zahedi, Maryam; Ennen, Inga; Marchi, Sophie; Barthel, Markus J.; Hütten, Andreas; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Fragouli, Despina

    2017-04-01

    We present a straightforward two-step technique for the fabrication of poly (methyl methacrylate) composites with embedded aligned magnetic chains. First, ferromagnetic microwires are realized in a poly (methyl methacrylate) solution by assembling iron nanoparticles in a methyl methacrylate solution under heat in an external magnetic field of 160 mT. The simultaneous thermal polymerization of the monomer throughout the wires is responsible for their permanent linkage and stability. Next, the polymer solution containing the randomly dispersed microwires is casted on a solid substrate in the presence of a low magnetic field (20-40 mT) which induces the final alignment of the microwires into long magnetic chains upon evaporation of the solvent. We prove that the presence of the nanoparticles assembled in the form of microwires is a key factor for the formation of the anisotropic films under low magnetic fields. In fact, such low fields are not capable of driving and assembling dispersed magnetic nanoparticles in the same type of polymer solutions. Hence, this innovative approach can be utilized for the synthesis of magnetically anisotropic nanocomposite films at low magnetic fields.

  7. Magnetic-field-controlled reconfigurable semiconductor logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sungjung; Kim, Taeyueb; Shin, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ju Young; Hong, Jinki; Song, Jin Dong; Chang, Joonyeon; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Rhie, Kungwon; Han, Suk Hee; Shin, Kyung-Ho; Johnson, Mark

    2013-02-07

    Logic devices based on magnetism show promise for increasing computational efficiency while decreasing consumed power. They offer zero quiescent power and yet combine novel functions such as programmable logic operation and non-volatile built-in memory. However, practical efforts to adapt a magnetic device to logic suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio and other performance attributes that are not adequate for logic gates. Rather than exploiting magnetoresistive effects that result from spin-dependent transport of carriers, we have approached the development of a magnetic logic device in a different way: we use the phenomenon of large magnetoresistance found in non-magnetic semiconductors in high electric fields. Here we report a device showing a strong diode characteristic that is highly sensitive to both the sign and the magnitude of an external magnetic field, offering a reversible change between two different characteristic states by the application of a magnetic field. This feature results from magnetic control of carrier generation and recombination in an InSb p-n bilayer channel. Simple circuits combining such elementary devices are fabricated and tested, and Boolean logic functions including AND, OR, NAND and NOR are performed. They are programmed dynamically by external electric or magnetic signals, demonstrating magnetic-field-controlled semiconductor reconfigurable logic at room temperature. This magnetic technology permits a new kind of spintronic device, characterized as a current switch rather than a voltage switch, and provides a simple and compact platform for non-volatile reconfigurable logic devices.

  8. Protein detection with magnetic nanoparticles in a rotating magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckhoff, Jan; Lak, Aidin; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A detection scheme based on magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) dynamics in a rotating magnetic field for a quantitative and easy-to-perform detection of proteins is illustrated. For the measurements, a fluxgate-based setup was applied, which measures the MNP dynamics, while a rotating magnetic field is generated. The MNPs exhibit single iron oxide cores of 25 nm and 40 nm diameter, respectively, as well as a protein G functionalized shell. IgG antibodies were utilized as binding target molecules for the physical proof-of-concept. The measurement results were fitted with a theoretical model describing the magnetization dynamics in a rotating magnetic field. The established detection scheme allows quantitative determination of proteins even at a concentration lower than of the particles. The observed differences between the two MNP types are discussed on the basis of logistic functions.

  9. Tight coupling expansion and fully inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    The tight coupling expansion, appropriately generalized to include large-scale magnetic fields, allows the estimate of the brightness perturbations of CMB anisotropies for typical wavelengths that are larger than the Hubble radius after matter-radiation equality. After discussing the basic features of the the pre-decoupling initial conditions in the presence of fully inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the tight coupling expansion is studied both analytically and numerically. From the requirement that the amplitudes and phases of Sakharov oscillations are (predominantly) adiabatic and from the inferred value of the plateau in the temperature autocorrelation, the effects of the magnetized contribution can be systematically investigated and constrained.

  10. Streaming current magnetic fields in a charged nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Abraham; Taheri, Peyman; Kostiuk, Larry W.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields induced by currents created in pressure driven flows inside a solid-state charged nanopore were modeled by numerically solving a system of steady state continuum partial differential equations, i.e., Poisson, Nernst-Planck, Ampere and Navier-Stokes equations (PNPANS). This analysis was based on non-dimensional transport governing equations that were scaled using Debye length as the characteristic length scale, and applied to a finite length cylindrical nano-channel. The comparison of numerical and analytical studies shows an excellent agreement and verified the magnetic fields density both inside and outside the nanopore. The radially non-uniform currents resulted in highly non-uniform magnetic fields within the nanopore that decay as 1/r outside the nanopore. It is worth noting that for either streaming currents or streaming potential cases, the maximum magnetic field occurred inside the pore in the vicinity of nanopore wall, as opposed to a cylindrical conductor that carries a steady electric current where the maximum magnetic fields occur at the perimeter of conductor. Based on these results, it is suggested and envisaged that non-invasive external magnetic fields readouts generated by streaming/ionic currents may be viewed as secondary electronic signatures of biomolecules to complement and enhance current DNA nanopore sequencing techniques. PMID:27833119

  11. TRIANGULATION OF THE INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Richardson, J. D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Burlaga, L. F. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Determining the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field (LISMF) is important for understanding the heliosphere’s global structure, the properties of the interstellar medium, and the propagation of cosmic rays in the local galactic medium. Measurements of interstellar neutral atoms by Ulysses for He and by SOHO/SWAN for H provided some of the first observational insights into the LISMF direction. Because secondary neutral H is partially deflected by the interstellar flow in the outer heliosheath and this deflection is influenced by the LISMF, the relative deflection of H versus He provides a plane—the so-called B–V plane in which the LISMF direction should lie. Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) subsequently discovered a ribbon, the center of which is conjectured to be the LISMF direction. The most recent He velocity measurements from IBEX and those from Ulysses yield a B–V plane with uncertainty limits that contain the centers of the IBEX ribbon at 0.7–2.7 keV. The possibility that Voyager 1 has moved into the outer heliosheath now suggests that Voyager 1's direct observations provide another independent determination of the LISMF. We show that LISMF direction measured by Voyager 1 is >40° off from the IBEX ribbon center and the B–V plane. Taking into account the temporal gradient of the field direction measured by Voyager 1, we extrapolate to a field direction that passes directly through the IBEX ribbon center (0.7–2.7 keV) and the B–V plane, allowing us to triangulate the LISMF direction and estimate the gradient scale size of the magnetic field.

  12. Triangulation of the Interstellar Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Richardson, J. D.; Burlaga, L. F.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.

    2015-11-01

    Determining the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field (LISMF) is important for understanding the heliosphere’s global structure, the properties of the interstellar medium, and the propagation of cosmic rays in the local galactic medium. Measurements of interstellar neutral atoms by Ulysses for He and by SOHO/SWAN for H provided some of the first observational insights into the LISMF direction. Because secondary neutral H is partially deflected by the interstellar flow in the outer heliosheath and this deflection is influenced by the LISMF, the relative deflection of H versus He provides a plane—the so-called B-V plane in which the LISMF direction should lie. Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) subsequently discovered a ribbon, the center of which is conjectured to be the LISMF direction. The most recent He velocity measurements from IBEX and those from Ulysses yield a B-V plane with uncertainty limits that contain the centers of the IBEX ribbon at 0.7-2.7 keV. The possibility that Voyager 1 has moved into the outer heliosheath now suggests that Voyager 1's direct observations provide another independent determination of the LISMF. We show that LISMF direction measured by Voyager 1 is >40° off from the IBEX ribbon center and the B-V plane. Taking into account the temporal gradient of the field direction measured by Voyager 1, we extrapolate to a field direction that passes directly through the IBEX ribbon center (0.7-2.7 keV) and the B-V plane, allowing us to triangulate the LISMF direction and estimate the gradient scale size of the magnetic field.

  13. Hyperfine magnetic fields in substituted Finemet alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzózka, K., E-mail: k.brzozka@uthrad.pl [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland); Sovák, P. [P.J. Šafárik University, Institute of Physics (Slovakia); Szumiata, T.; Gawroński, M.; Górka, B. [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the hyperfine fields of Finemet-type alloys in form of ribbons, substituted alternatively by Mn, Ni, Co, Al, Zn, V or Ge of various concentration. The comparative analysis of magnetic hyperfine fields was carried out which enabled to understand the role of added elements in as-quenched as well as annealed samples. Moreover, the influence of the substitution on the mean direction of the local hyperfine magnetic field was examined.

  14. Manipulating Cells with Static Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, J. M.; Guevorkian, K.

    2005-07-01

    We review our investigations of the use of static magnetic fields, B, for manipulating cells and cellular processes. We describe how B fields modify the cell division pattern of frog embryos and consequently can be used to probe the pattern determinants. We also observe that magnetic fields modify the swimming behavior of Paramecium Caudatum. We describe these modifications and their potential application to investigations of their swimming behavior.

  15. Write field asymmetry in perpendicular magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Bai, Daniel Z.; Lin, Ed; Mao, Sining

    2012-04-01

    We present a systematic study of write field asymmetry by using micromagnetic modeling for a perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) writer structure. Parameters investigated include initial magnetization condition, write current amplitude, write current frequency, and initial write current polarity. It is found that the write current amplitude and frequency (data rate) are the dominant factors that impact the field asymmetry. Lower write current amplitude and higher write current frequency will deteriorate the write field asymmetry, causing recording performance (such as bit error rate) degradation.

  16. History of Solar Magnetic Fields Since George Ellery Hale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    2017-09-01

    As my own work on the Sun's magnetic field started exactly 50 years ago at Crimea in the USSR, I have been a participant in the field during nearly half the time span since Hale's discovery in 1908 of magnetic fields in sunspots. The present historical account is accompanied by photos from my personal slide collection, which show a number of the leading personalities who advanced the field in different areas: measurement techniques, from photographic to photoelectric and imaging methods in spectro-polarimetry; theoretical foundations of MHD and the origin of cosmic magnetic fields (birth of dynamo theory); the quest for increased angular resolution from national projects to international consortia (for instruments both on ground and in space); introduction of the Hanle effect in astrophysics and the Second Solar Spectrum as its playground; small-scale nature of the field, the fundamental resolution limit, and transcending it by resolution-independent diagnostics.

  17. MICE Spectrometer Solenoid Magnetic Field Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonova, M. [Fermilab

    2013-09-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate ionization cooling in a muon beam. Its goal is to measure a 10% change in transverse emittance of a muon beam going through a prototype Neutrino Factory cooling channel section with an absolute measurement accuracy of 0.1%. To measure emittances, MICE uses two solenoidal spectrometers, with Solenoid magnets designed to have 4 T fields, uniform at 3 per mil level in the tracking volumes. Magnetic field measurements of the Spectrometer Solenoid magnet SS2, and analysis of coil parameters for input into magnet models will be discussed.

  18. Magnetic field correlations in kinematic two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacher, J; Schumacher, Joerg; Eckhardt, Bruno

    1999-01-01

    The scaling properties of the second order magnetic structure function $D_2^{(B)}(r)$ and the corresponding magnetic correlation function $C_2^{(B)}(r)$ are derived for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the kinematic regime where the ratio of kinetic energy to magnetic energy is much larger than one. In this regime the magnetic flux function $\\psi$ can be treated as a passive scalar advected in a two-dimensional turbulent flow. Its structure function $D_2^{(\\psi)}(r)$ and the one for the magnetic field $D_2^{(B)}(r)$ are connected by an exact relation. We calculate $D_2^{(\\psi)}(r)$ and thus $D_2^{(B)}(r)$ within geometric measure theory over a wide range of scales $r$ and magnetic Prandtl numbers $Pr_m$. The magnetic field correlations follow a $r^{-4/3}$--scaling law and show an anticorrelation at the beginning of the Batchelor regime indicative of the formation of strongly filamented current sheets. Differences to the full dynamic regime, where the ratio of kinetic to magnetic energies is s...

  19. Tuning bacterial hydrodynamics with magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, C. J.; Mumper, E.; Brown, E. E.; Brangham, J. T.; Lower, B. H.; Lower, S. K.; Yang, F. Y.; Sooryakumar, R.

    2017-06-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a group of motile prokaryotes that synthesize chains of lipid-bound, magnetic nanoparticles called magnetosomes. This study exploits their innate magnetism to investigate previously unexplored facets of bacterial hydrodynamics at surfaces. Through use of weak, uniform, external magnetic fields and local, micromagnetic surface patterns, the relative strength of hydrodynamic, magnetic, and flagellar force components is tuned through magnetic control of the bacteria's orientation. The resulting swimming behaviors provide a means to experimentally determine hydrodynamic parameters and offer a high degree of control over large numbers of living microscopic entities. The implications of this controlled motion for studies of bacterial motility near surfaces and for micro- and nanotechnology are discussed.

  20. Efficient magnetic fields for supporting toroidal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landreman, Matt, E-mail: mattland@umd.edu [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Boozer, Allen H. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The magnetic field that supports tokamak and stellarator plasmas must be produced by coils well separated from the plasma. However, the larger the separation, the more difficult it is to produce a given magnetic field in the plasma region, so plasma configurations should be chosen that can be supported as efficiently as possible by distant coils. The efficiency of an externally generated magnetic field is a measure of the field's shaping component magnitude at the plasma compared to the magnitude near the coils; the efficiency of a plasma equilibrium can be measured using the efficiency of the required external shaping field. Counterintuitively, plasma shapes with low curvature and spectral width may have low efficiency, whereas plasma shapes with sharp edges may have high efficiency. Two precise measures of magnetic field efficiency, which correctly identify such differences in difficulty, will be examined. These measures, which can be expressed as matrices, relate the externally produced normal magnetic field on the plasma surface to the either the normal field or current on a distant control surface. A singular value decomposition (SVD) of either matrix yields an efficiency ordered basis for the magnetic field distributions. Calculations are carried out for both tokamak and stellarator cases. For axisymmetric surfaces with circular cross-section, the SVD is calculated analytically, and the range of poloidal and toroidal mode numbers that can be controlled to a given desired level is determined. If formulated properly, these efficiency measures are independent of the coordinates used to parameterize the surfaces.

  1. Electric-field guiding of magnetic skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, Pramey; Yu, Guoqiang; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Wang, Kang L.

    2015-10-01

    We theoretically study equilibrium and dynamic properties of nanosized magnetic skyrmions in thin magnetic films with broken inversion symmetry, where an electric field couples to magnetization via spin-orbit coupling. Based on a symmetry-based phenomenology and micromagnetic simulations we show that this electric-field coupling, via renormalizing the micromagnetic energy, modifies the equilibrium properties of the skyrmion. This change, in turn, results in a significant alteration of the current-induced skyrmion motion. Particularly, the speed and direction of the skyrmion can be manipulated by designing a desired energy landscape electrically, which we describe within Thiele's analytical model and demonstrate in micromagnetic simulations including electric-field-controlled magnetic anisotropy. We additionally use this electric-field control to construct gates for controlling skyrmion motion exhibiting a transistorlike and multiplexerlike function. The proposed electric-field effect can thus provide a low-energy electrical knob to extend the reach of information processing with skyrmions.

  2. Magnetic field evolution in neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, F.; Reisenegger, A.; Valdivia, J. A.

    2017-07-01

    Neutron stars contain the strongest magnetic fields known in the Universe. Using numerical simulations restricted to axially symmetric geometry, we study the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the interior of an isolated neutron star under the effect of ambipolar diffusion, i.e. the drift of the magnetic field and the charged particles relative to the neutrons. We model the stellar interior as an electrically neutral fluid composed of neutrons, protons and electrons; these species can be converted into each other by weak interactions (beta decays), suffer binary collisions, and be affected by each other's macroscopic electromagnetic fields. We show that, in the restricted case of pure ambipolar diffusion, neglecting weak interactions, the magnetic fields evolves towards a stable MHD equilibria configuration, in the timescales analytically expected.

  3. Energy partition, scale by scale, in magnetic Archimedes Coriolis weak wave turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhi, A.; Baklouti, F. S.; Godeferd, F.; Lehner, T.; Cambon, C.

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic Archimedes Coriolis (MAC) waves are omnipresent in several geophysical and astrophysical flows such as the solar tachocline. In the present study, we use linear spectral theory (LST) and investigate the energy partition, scale by scale, in MAC weak wave turbulence for a Boussinesq fluid. At the scale k-1, the maximal frequencies of magnetic (Alfvén) waves, gravity (Archimedes) waves, and inertial (Coriolis) waves are, respectively, VAk ,N , and f . By using the induction potential scalar, which is a Lagrangian invariant for a diffusionless Boussinesq fluid [Salhi et al., Phys. Rev. E 85, 026301 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.026301], we derive a dispersion relation for the three-dimensional MAC waves, generalizing previous ones including that of f -plane MHD "shallow water" waves [Schecter et al., Astrophys. J. 551, L185 (2001), 10.1086/320027]. A solution for the Fourier amplitude of perturbation fields (velocity, magnetic field, and density) is derived analytically considering a diffusive fluid for which both the magnetic and thermal Prandtl numbers are one. The radial spectrum of kinetic, Sκ(k ,t ) , magnetic, Sm(k ,t ) , and potential, Sp(k ,t ) , energies is determined considering initial isotropic conditions. For magnetic Coriolis (MC) weak wave turbulence, it is shown that, at large scales such that VAk /f ≪1 , the Alfvén ratio Sκ(k ,t ) /Sm(k ,t ) behaves like k-2 if the rotation axis is aligned with the magnetic field, in agreement with previous direct numerical simulations [Favier et al., Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. (2012)] and like k-1 if the rotation axis is perpendicular to the magnetic field. At small scales, such that VAk /f ≫1 , there is an equipartition of energy between magnetic and kinetic components. For magnetic Archimedes weak wave turbulence, it is demonstrated that, at large scales, such that (VAk /N ≪1 ), there is an equipartition of energy between magnetic and potential components, while at small scales (VAk /N ≫1

  4. Primordial magnetic fields in hybrid inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A C; Davis, Anne Christine; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos

    1997-01-01

    We show that, during hybrid inflation, a primordial magnetic field can be created, sufficiently strong to seed the galactic dynamo and generate the observed galactic magnetic fields. Considering the inflaton dominated regime, our field is produced by the Higgs--field gradients, resulting from a grand unified phase transition. The evolution of the field is followed from its creation through to the epoch of structure formation, subject to the relevant constraints. We find that it is always possible to create a magnetic field of sufficient magnitude, provided the phase transition occurs during the final 15 e-foldings of the inflationary period. the achieved field can be coherent over large distances and, for some parameter space, it is strong enough to dispense with the galactic dynamo.

  5. Magnetic Field Control of Combustion Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barmina I.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies and mathematical modelling of the effects of magnetic field on combustion dynamics at thermo-chemical conversion of biomass are carried out with the aim of providing control of the processes developing in the reaction zone of swirling flame. The joint research of the magnetic field effect on the combustion dynamics includes the estimation of this effect on the formation of the swirling flame dynamics, flame temperature and composition, providing analysis of the magnetic field effects on the flame characteristics. The results of experiments have shown that the magnetic field exerts the influence on the flow velocity components by enhancing a swirl motion in the flame reaction zone with swirl-enhanced mixing of the axial flow of volatiles with cold air swirl, by cooling the flame reaction zone and by limiting the thermo-chemical conversion of volatiles. Mathematical modelling of magnetic field effect on the formation of the flame dynamics confirms that the electromagnetic force, which is induced by the electric current surrounding the flame, leads to field-enhanced increase of flow vorticity by enhancing mixing of the reactants. The magnetic field effect on the flame temperature and rate of reactions leads to conclusion that field-enhanced increase of the flow vorticity results in flame cooling by limiting the chemical conversion of the reactants.

  6. Environmental magnetic fields: Influences on early embryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, I.L.; Hardman, W.E.; Winters, W.D.; Zimmerman, S.; Zimmerman, A.M. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (United States))

    1993-04-01

    A 10-mG, 50 to 60-Hz magnetic field is in the intensity and frequency range that people worldwide are often exposed to in homes and in the workplace. Studies about the effects of 50- to 100-Hz electromagnetic fields on various species of animal embryos (fish, chick, fly, sea urchin, rat, and mouse) indicate that early stages of embryonic development are responsive to fluctuating magnetic fields. Chick, sea urchin, and mouse embryos are responsive to magnetic field intensities of 10-100 mG. Results from studies on sea urchin embryos indicate that exposure to conditions of rotating 60-Hz magnetic fields, e.g., similar to those in our environment, interferes with cell proliferation at the morula stage in a manner dependent on field intensity. The cleavage stages, prior to the 64-cell stage, were not delayed by this rotating 60-Hz magnetic field suggesting that the ionic surges, DNA replication, and translational events essential for early cleavage stages were not significantly altered. Studies of histone synthesis in early sea urchin embryos indicated that the rotating 60-Hz magnetic field decreased zygotic expression of early histone genes at the morula stage and suggests that this decrease in early histone production was limiting to cell proliferation. Whether these comparative observations from animal development studies will be paralleled by results from studies of human embryogenesis, as suggested by some epidemiology studies, has yet to be established. 38 refs.

  7. Energy transfers and magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rohit Raj

    2013-12-01

    In this letter we investigate the dynamics of magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo by studying energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers. We perform dynamo simulations for the magnetic Prandtl number Pm = 20 on 10243 grid using the pseudospectral method. We demonstrate that the magnetic energy growth is caused by nonlocal energy transfers from the large-scale or forcing-scale velocity field to small-scale magnetic field. The peak of these energy transfers moves towards lower wave numbers as dynamo evolves, which is the reason why the integral scale of the magnetic field increases with time. The energy transfers U2U (velocity to velocity) and B2B (magnetic to magnetic) are forward and local. Copyright © EPLA, 2013.

  8. Oscillations of Magnetic Fluid Column in Strong Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polunin, V. M.; Storozhenko, A. M.; Platonov, V. B.; Lobova, O. V.; Ryapolov, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers the results of measuring the elastic parameters (ponderomotive elasticity coefficient, oscillation frequency, attenuation coefficient) of the oscillatory system with an inertial element that is a magnetic fluid column retained in a tube due to magnetic levitation in a strong magnetic field. Elasticity is provided by the ponderomotive force which affects the upper and lower thin layers of the fluid column. Measurement results of vibration parameters of the oscillatory system can be useful for the investigations of magnetophoresis and aggregation of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids.

  9. Radiation dosimetry in magnetic fields with Farmer-type ionization chambers: determination of magnetic field correction factors for different magnetic field strengths and field orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindeldreier, C K; Schrenk, O; Bakenecker, A; Kawrakow, I; Burigo, L; Karger, C P; Greilich, S; Pfaffenberger, A

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine magnetic field correction factors that are needed for dosimetry in hybrid devices for MR-guided radiotherapy for Farmer-type ionization chambers for different magnetic field strengths and field orientations. The response of six custom-built Farmer-type chambers irradiated at a 6 MV linac was measured in a water tank positioned in a magnet with magnetic field strengths between 0.0 T and 1.1 T. Chamber axis, beam and magnetic field were perpendicular to each other and both magnetic field directions were investigated. EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulations were compared to the measurements and simulations with different field orientations were performed. For all geometries, magnetic field correction factors, [Formula: see text], and perturbation factors were calculated. A maximum increase of 8.8% in chamber response was measured for the magnetic field perpendicular to chamber and beam axis. The measured chamber response could be reproduced by adjusting the dead volume layer near the chamber stem in the Monte Carlo simulations. For the magnetic field parallel to the chamber axis or parallel to the beam, the simulated response increased by 1.1% at maximum for field strengths up to 1.1 T. A complex dependence of the response was found on chamber radius, magnetic field strength and orientation of beam, chamber axis and magnetic field direction. Especially for magnetic fields perpendicular to beam and chamber axis, the exact sensitive volume has to be considered in the simulations. To minimize magnetic field correction factors and the influence of dead volumes on the response of Farmer chambers, a measurement set-up with the magnetic field parallel to the chamber axis or parallel to the beam is recommended for dosimetry.

  10. Effect of magnetic field inhomogeneity on ion cyclotron motion coherence at high magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, Gleb; Kostyukevich, Yury; Hendrickson, Christopher L; Blakney, Greg T; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional code based on the particle-in-cell algorithm modified to account for the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field was applied to determine the effect of Z(1), Z(2), Z(3), Z(4), X, Y, ZX, ZY, XZ(2) YZ(2), XY and X(2)-Y(2) components of an orthogonal magnetic field expansion on ion motion during detection in an FT-ICR cell. Simulations were performed for magnetic field strengths of 4.7, 7, 14.5 and 21 Tesla, including experimentally determined magnetic field spatial distributions for existing 4.7 T and 14.5 T magnets. The effect of magnetic field inhomogeneity on ion cloud stabilization ("ion condensation") at high numbers of ions was investigated by direct simulations of individual ion trajectories. Z(1), Z(2), Z(3) and Z(4) components have the largest effect (especially Z(1)) on ion cloud stability. Higher magnetic field strength and lower m/z demand higher relative magnetic field homogeneity to maintain cloud coherence for a fixed time period. The dependence of mass resolving power upper limit on Z(1) inhomogeneity is evaluated for different magnetic fields and m/z. The results serve to set the homogeneity requirements for various orthogonal magnetic field components (shims) for future FT-ICR magnet design.

  11. Magnetic monopoles in field theory and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajantie, Arttu

    2012-12-28

    The existence of magnetic monopoles is predicted by many theories of particle physics beyond the standard model. However, in spite of extensive searches, there is no experimental or observational sign of them. I review the role of magnetic monopoles in quantum field theory and discuss their implications for particle physics and cosmology. I also highlight their differences and similarities with monopoles found in frustrated magnetic systems.

  12. High Field Pulse Magnets with New Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Lesch, B.; Cochran, V. G.; Eyssa, Y.; Tozer, S.; Mielke, C. H.; Rickel, D.; van Sciver, S. W.; Schneider-Muntau, H. J.

    2004-11-01

    High performance pulse magnets using the combination of CuNb conductor and Zylon fiber composite reinforcement with bore sizes of 24, 15 and 10 mm have been designed, manufactured and tested to destruction. The magnets successfully reached the peak fields of 64, 70 and 77.8 T respectively with no destruction. Failures occurred near the end flanges at the layer. The magnet design, manufacturing and testing, and the mode of the failure are described and analyzed.

  13. Light Polarization Using Ferrofluids and Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Tufaile

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting an experimental setup based on polarized light, enabling the visualization of the magnetic field of magnetic assemblies using a Hele-Shaw cell filled with ferrofluids. We have simulated the observed patterns with hypergeometric polynomials.

  14. Magnetic Field Amplification and Blazar Flares

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xuhui; Chatterjee, Ritaban; Fossati, Giovanni; Pohl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    .... On the other hand, recent advances in SNRs observations and plasma simulations both reveal that magnetic field downstream of astrophysical shocks can be largely amplified beyond simple shock compression...

  15. Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2002-07-29

    Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode.

  16. Split-Field Magnet facility upgraded

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    The Split Field Magnet (SFM) was the largest spectrometer for particles from beam-beam collisions in the ISR. It could determine particle momenta in a large solid angle, but was designed mainly for the analysis of forward travelling particles.As the magnet was working on the ISR circulating beams, its magnetic field had to be such as to restore the correct proton orbit.The SFM, therefore, produced zero field at the crossing point and fields of opposite signs upstream and downstream of it and was completed by 2 large and 2 small compensator magnets. The gradient effects were corrected by magnetic channels equipped with movable flaps. The useful magnetic field volume was 28 m3, the induction in the median plane 1.14 T, the gap heigth 1.1 m, the length 10.5 m, the weight about 1000 ton. Concerning the detectors, the SFM was the first massive application of multiwire proportional chambers (about 70000 wires) which filled the main and the large compensator magnets. In 1976 an improved programme was started with tw...

  17. Core Processes: Earth's eccentric magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Earth’s magnetic field is characterized by a puzzling hemispheric asymmetry. Calculations of core dynamo processes suggest that lopsided growth of the planet’s inner core may be part of the cause.......Earth’s magnetic field is characterized by a puzzling hemispheric asymmetry. Calculations of core dynamo processes suggest that lopsided growth of the planet’s inner core may be part of the cause....

  18. Electric and magnetic fields in cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wowk, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Electromagnetic warming has a long history in cryobiology as a preferred method for recovering large tissue masses from cryopreservation, especially from cryopreservation by vitrification. It is less well-known that electromagnetic fields may be able to influence ice formation during cryopreservation by non-thermal mechanisms. Both theory and published data suggest that static and oscillating electric fields can respectively promote or inhibit ice formation under certain conditions. Evidence is less persuasive for magnetic fields. Recent claims that static magnetic fields smaller than 1 mT can improve cryopreservation by freezing are specifically questioned. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement of dynamic magnetization induced by a pulsed field: Proposal for a new rock magnetism method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuto eKodama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new method for measuring transient magnetization of natural samples induced by a pulsed field with duration of 11 ms using a pulse magnetizer. An experimental system was constructed, consisting of a pair of differential sensing coils connected with a high-speed digital oscilloscope for data acquisition. The data were transferred to a computer to obtain an initial magnetization curve and a descending branch of a hysteresis loop in a rapidly changing positive field. This system was tested with synthetic samples (permalloy ribbon, aluminum plate, and nickel powder as well as two volcanic rock samples. Results from the synthetic samples showed considerable differences from those measured by a quasi-static method using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. These differences were principally due to the time-dependent magnetic properties or to electromagnetic effects, such as magnetic viscosity, eddy current loss, or magnetic relaxation. Results from the natural samples showed that the transient magnetization–field curves were largely comparable to the corresponding portions of the hysteresis loops. However, the relative magnetization (scaled to the saturation magnetization at the end of a pulse was greater than that measured by a VSM. This discrepancy, together with the occurrence of rapid exponential decay after a pulse, indicates magnetic relaxations that could be interpreted in terms of domain wall displacement. These results suggest that with further developments, the proposed technique can become a useful tool for characterizing magnetic particles contained in a variety of natural materials.

  20. Controlled actuation of alternating magnetic field-sensitive tunable hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Santaneel; Cai, Tong

    2010-10-01

    The feasibility of using tunable magnetic nano-particles embedded in cylindrical hydrogel materials for guided actuation via controlled modulation of oscillating magnetic field and frequency is investigated. Ferromagnetic nano-particles (Fe3O4) encapsulated within a thermo-sensitive polymer network [-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)] were polymerized inside 1.5 mm diameter capillary tubes. Inside alternating magnetic field (25-70 Oe, 150-280 kHz), the polymer monolith quickly bends along the longitudinal axis. The bending behaviour of the polymer monolith was influenced by the following factors: (a) mechanical strength of the monolith, (b) ac field-induced temperature regulation and (c) the surface evaporation. The equilibrium bending angle reached a maximum value of 74° at 30 Oe, 200 kHz, between 15% and 35% relative humidity conditions. In addition, we found that micro-scale monolith (300 µm diameter) exhibited significantly faster actuation response compared with the 1500 µm diameter hydrogel cylinder. Both de-swelling efficiency and volumetric transition temperature were not affected due to the nano-magnet incorporation. As ac magnetic field-induced controlled modulation can directly transform the absorbed energy into bending and shrinkage simultaneously for temperature sensitive polymers, i.e. the absorbed energy is converted into mechanical work, this novel approach may lead to a new category of magnetically responsive polymeric structures for potential applications in the field of smart gel-based devices, such as micro-sensors and actuators, and particularly in biomedical fields.

  1. Postaccretion magnetic field evolution of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E. J.; Chanmugam, G.

    1995-01-01

    We present the first calculations of magnetic field evolution following accretion-induced field reduction which demonstrate the possibility of subsequent surface magnetic field growth. Assuming the preaccretion field is pushed down or advected below the accreting material, we show that significant diffusion of the suppressed field back to the surface can occur within a Galactic age approximately 10(exp 10) yr. This produces surface fields characteristic of standard pulsars if the total mass transferred is below a critical value delta M(sub c) approximately 0.04 solar masses. We then show how this provides a natural explanation for the existence of old pulsars with high inferred surface dipole fields which are still observable. Using our results in conjunction with a model for accretion-induced field reduction we predict the evolution of a binary pulsar's spin and magnetic field through its postaccretion lifetime. This analysis also provides a qualitative explanation for a recent suggestion that the magnetic fields and spins of recycled pulsars have a bimodal distribution.

  2. Combustion instability mitigation by magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocher, Agnes; Pitsch, Heinz; Gomez, Thomas; Bonnety, Jérôme; Legros, Guillaume

    2017-06-01

    The present interdisciplinary study combines electromagnetics and combustion to unveil an original and basic experiment displaying a spontaneous flame instability that is mitigated as the non-premixed sooting flame experiences a magnetic perturbation. This magnetic instability mitigation is reproduced by direct numerical simulations to be further elucidated by a flow stability analysis. A key role in the stabilization process is attributed to the momentum and thermochemistry coupling that the magnetic force, acting mainly on paramagnetic oxygen, contributes to sustain. The spatial local stability analysis based on the numerical simulations shows that the magnetic field tends to reduce the growth rates of small flame perturbations.

  3. Use of along-track magnetic field differences in lithospheric field modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that first differences of polar orbiting satellite magnetic data in the along-track direction can be used to obtain high resolution models of the lithospheric field. Along-track differences approximate the north–south magnetic field gradients for non-polar latitudes. In a test case......, using 2 yr of low altitude data from the CHAMP satellite, we show that use of along-track differences of vector field data results in an enhanced recovery of the small scale lithospheric field, compared to the use of the vector field data themselves. We show that the along-track technique performs....... Experiments in modelling the Earth's lithospheric magnetic field with along-track differences are presented here as a proof of concept. We anticipate that use of such along-track differences in combination with east–west field differences, as are now provided by the Swarm satellite constellation...

  4. On a Correlation between the Ionospheric Electric Field and the Time Derivative of the Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Ilma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A correlation of the ionospheric electric field and the time derivative of the magnetic field was noticed over thirty years ago and has yet to be explained. Here we report on another set of examples during the superstorm of November 2004. The electric field in the equatorial ionosphere, measured with the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar, exhibited a 3 mV/m electric field pulse that was not seen in the interplanetary medium. It was, however, accompanied by a correlation with the time derivative of the magnetic field measured at two points in Peru. Our inclination was to assume that the field was inductive. However, the time scale of the pulse was too short for the magnetic field to penetrate the crust of the Earth. This means that the area threaded by ∂B/∂t was too small to create the observed electric field by induction. We suggest that the effect was caused by a modulation of the ring current location relative to the Earth due to the electric field. This electric field is required, as the magnetic field lines are considered frozen into the plasma in the magnetosphere. The closer location of the ring current to the Earth in turn increased the magnetic field at the surface.

  5. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werfel, Frank N., E-mail: werfel@t-online.de [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Rittergut Adelwitz 16, 04886 Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany); Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Rittergut Adelwitz 16, 04886 Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems. ► Multi-seeded YBCO bulks joint the way for large-scale application. ► Levitation platforms demonstrate “superconductivity” to a great public audience (100 years anniversary). ► HTS magnetic bearings show forces up to 1 t. ► Modular HTS maglev vacuum cryostats are tested for train demonstrators in Brazil, China and Germany. -- Abstract: ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN{sub 2} and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500–3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN{sub 2} allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

  6. Wuhan pulsed high magnetic field center

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Liang; Peng, Tao; Ding, Honfa; Han, Xiaotao; Ding, Tonghai; Chen, Jin; Wang, Junfeng; Xie, Jianfeng; Wang, Shaoliang; Duan, Xianzhong; Wang, Cheng; Herlach, Fritz; Vanacken, Johan; Pan, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Wuhan pulsed high magnetic field facility is under development. Magnets of bore sizes from 12 to 34 mm with the peak field in the range of 50 to 80 T have been designed. The pulsed power supplies consists of a 12 MJ, 25 kV capacitor bank and a 100 MVA/100 MJ flywheel pulse generator. A prototype 1 MJ, 25 kV capacitor bank is under construction. Five magnets wound with CuNb wire and copper wire reinforced internally with Zylon fiber composites and externally with stainless steel shells have be...

  7. Superfluid 3He in a Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Y.

    1980-03-01

    The exact self-consistent solutions of the p-wave, spin triplet pairing hamiltonian in a magnetic field of arbitrary strength are found by applying the method of the 5-dimensional spin. The solutions are of non-unitary type and reduce to the ABM state and the BW state in the weak limit of the magnetic field. The unitary transformation which diagonalizes the hamiltonian including Zeeman energy is given explicitly. We get the formulae of the magnetization of 3He-A and 3He-B. The results are valid at any temperature.

  8. Tracing Magnetic Fields with Spectroscopic Channel Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarian, A.; Yuen, Ka Ho

    2018-01-01

    We identify velocity channel map intensities as a new way to trace magnetic fields in turbulent media. This work makes use of both the modern theory of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, which predicts that magnetic eddies are aligned with the local direction of the magnetic field, and also the theory of spectral line position–position–velocity (PPV) statistics, which describes how velocity and density fluctuations are mapped onto PPV space. In particular, we use the fact that the fluctuations of the intensity of thin channel maps are mostly affected by the turbulent velocity, while the thick maps are dominated by density variations. We study how contributions of the fundamental MHD modes affect the Velocity Channel Gradients (VChGs), and demonstrate that the VChGs arising from Alfvén and slow modes are aligned perpendicular to the local direction of the magnetic field, while the VChGs produced by the fast mode are aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The dominance of Alfvén and slow modes in interstellar media will therefore allow reliable magnetic field tracing using the VChGs. We explore ways of identifying self-gravitating regions that do not require polarimetric information. In addition, we also introduce a new measure, termed “Reduced Velocity Centroids” (RVCGs), and compare its abilities with those of VChGs. We employed VChGs in analyzing GALFA 21 cm data and successfully compared the magnetic field directions with the Planck polarization observations. The applications of the suggested techniques include both tracing the magnetic field in diffuse interstellar media and star-forming regions, and removing the galactic foreground in the framework of cosmological polarization studies.

  9. NIST Undulator Magnetic Field Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Denbeaux, G.; Madey, J. M. J.; Straub, K. D.

    1997-05-01

    A 3.64 m undulator was constructed by the Brobeck Division of Maxwell Laboratories for FEL experiments at NIST in Washington, DC. The Duke University FEL Lab has since acquired the undulator for use as a soft x-ray source. We report on our effort to transform the undulator into a high performance soft x-ray insertion device through careful characterization of the existing magnet blocks, sorting and trimming.

  10. Acceleration of the charged particles due to chaotic scattering in the combined black hole gravitational field and asymptotically uniform magnetic field

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Kološ, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To test the role of large-scale magnetic fields in accretion processes, we study the dynamics of the charged test particles in the vicinity of a black hole immersed into an asymptotically uniform magnetic field...

  11. Triggering for Magnetic Field Measurements of the LCLS Undulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, Kirsten

    2010-12-13

    A triggering system for magnetic field measurements of the LCLS undulators has been built with a National Instruments PXI-1002 and a Xylinx FPGA board. The system generates single triggers at specified positions, regardless of encoder sensor jitter about a linear scale.

  12. Misalignment of magnetic fields and outflows in protostellar cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Carpenter, John M.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Fiege, Jason D.; Franzmann, Erica; Hakobian, Nicholas S.; Heiles, Carl; Houde, Martin; Hughes, A. Meredith; Jameson, Katherine; Kwon, Woojin; Lamb, James W.; Looney, Leslie W.; Matthews, Brenda C.; Mundy, Lee; Pillai, Thushara; Pound, Marc W.; Stephens, Ian W.; Tobin, John J.; Vaillancourt, John E.; Volgenau, N. H.; Wright, Melvyn C. H.

    2013-01-01

    We present results of lambda 1.3 mm dust-polarization observations toward 16 nearby, low-mass protostars, mapped with similar to 2 ''.5 resolution at CARMA. The results show that magnetic fields in protostellar cores on scales of similar to 1000 AU are not tightly aligned with outflows from the

  13. Superconductivity in Strong Magnetic Field (Greater Than Upper Critical Field)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessema, G.X.; Gamble, B.K.; Skove, M.J.; Lacerda, A.H.; Mielke, C.H.

    1998-08-22

    The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, funded by the National Science Foundation and other US federal Agencies, has in recent years built a wide range of magnetic fields, DC 25 to 35 Tesla, short pulse 50 - 60 Tesla, and quasi-continuous 60 Tesla. Future plans are to push the frontiers to 45 Tesla DC and 70 to 100 Tesla pulse. This user facility, is open for national and international users, and creates an excellent tool for materials research (metals, semiconductors, superconductors, biological systems ..., etc). Here we present results of a systematic study of the upper critical field of a novel superconducting material which is considered a promising candidate for the search for superconductivity beyond H{sub c2} as proposed by several new theories. These theories predict that superconductors with low carrier density can reenter the superconducting phase beyond the conventional upper critical field H{sub c2}. This negates the conventional thinking that superconductivity and magnetic fields are antagonistic.

  14. Comparison of adjustable permanent magnetic field sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders

    2010-01-01

    A permanent magnet assembly in which the flux density can be altered by a mechanical operation is often significantly smaller than comparable electromagnets and also requires no electrical power to operate. In this paper five permanent magnet designs in which the magnetic flux density can...... and the direction of the magnetic field are measured and compared with numerical simulation and a good agrement is found....... be altered are analyzed using numerical simulations, and compared based on the generated magnetic flux density in a sample volume and the amount of magnet material used. The designs are the concentric Halbach cylinder, the two half Halbach cylinders, the two linear Halbach arrays and the four and six rod...

  15. Binary Colloidal Superlattices Assembled by Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellen, Benjamin

    2013-03-01

    Colloidal particle superlattices represent a fascinating class of complex materials which in many cases have corollary structures at the atomic scale. These complex systems thus not only help elucidate the principles of materials assembly in nature, but further provide design criteria for fabrication of novel materials at the macroscopic scale. Methods for assembling colloidal particle superlattices include controlled drying, ionic interactions, and dipolar interactions. However, a general pathway for producing a wider variety of colloidal crystals remains a fundamental challenge. Here we demonstrate a versatile colloidal assembly system in which the design rules can be tuned to yield over 20 different pre-programmed lattice structures, including kagome, honeycomb, square tiles, as well as a variety of chain and ring configurations. We tune the crystal type by controlling the relative concentrations and interaction strengths between spherical superparamagnetic and diamagnetic particles. An external magnetic field causes like particles to repel and unlike particles to attract. The combination of our experimental observations with potential energy calculations of various lattice structures suggest that the lowest energy lattice configuration is determined by two parameters, namely the dipole moment and relative concentration of each particle type. Triangle MRSEC DMR-1121107, NSFC 51150110161

  16. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic field response sensors designed as passive inductor- capacit or circuits produce magnetic field responses whose harmonic frequenci es correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power to the sensing element is acquired using Faraday induc tion. A radio frequency antenna produces the time varying magnetic fi eld used for powering the sensor, as well as receiving the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation architecture for disce rning changes in sensor's response frequency, resistance and amplitud e is integral to the method thus enabling a variety of measurements. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method, thus eliminat ing the need to have a data acquisition channel dedicated to each se nsor. The method does not require the sensors to be in proximity to a ny form of acquisition hardware. A vast array of sensors can be used as interchangeable parts in an overall sensing system.

  17. Magnetic Field Amplification in Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Siyao; Lazarian, Alex

    2017-12-01

    Based on the new findings on the turbulent dynamo in Xu & Lazarian, we examine the magnetic field amplification in the context of supernova remnants. Due to the strong ion-neutral collisional damping in the weakly ionized interstellar medium, the dynamo in the preshock turbulence remains in the damping kinematic regime, which leads to a linear-in-time growth of the magnetic field strength. The resultant magnetic field structure enables effective diffusion upstream and shock acceleration of cosmic rays to energies above the “knee.” Differently, the nonlinear dynamo in the postshock turbulence leads to a linear-in-time growth of the magnetic energy due to the turbulent magnetic diffusion. Given a weak initial field strength in the postshock region, the magnetic field saturates at a significant distance from the shock front as a result of the inefficiency of the nonlinear dynamo. This result is in a good agreement with existing numerical simulations and well explains the X-ray spots detected far behind the shock front.

  18. Magnetic nanoparticles for applications in oscillating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeraphatdit, Chorthip [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Enzymatic and thermochemical catalysis are both important industrial processes. However, the thermal requirements for each process often render them mutually exclusive: thermochemical catalysis requires high temperature that denatures enzymes. One of the long-term goals of this project is to design a thermocatalytic system that could be used with enzymatic systems in situ to catalyze reaction sequences in one pot; this system would be useful for numerous applications e.g. conversion of biomass to biofuel and other commodity products. The desired thermocatalytic system would need to supply enough thermal energy to catalyze thermochemical reactions, while keeping the enzymes from high temperature denaturation. Magnetic nanoparticles are known to generate heat in an oscillating magnetic field through mechanisms including hysteresis and relaxational losses. We envisioned using these magnetic nanoparticles as the local heat source embedded in sub-micron size mesoporous support to spatially separate the particles from the enzymes. In this study, we set out to find the magnetic materials and instrumental conditions that are sufficient for this purpose. Magnetite was chosen as the first model magnetic material in this study because of its high magnetization values, synthetic control over particle size, shape, functionalization and proven biocompatibility. Our experimental designs were guided by a series of theoretical calculations, which provided clues to the effects of particle size, size distribution, magnetic field, frequency and reaction medium. Materials of theoretically optimal size were synthesized, functionalized, and their effects in the oscillating magnetic field were subsequently investigated. Under our conditions, the materials that clustered e.g. silica-coated and PNIPAM-coated iron oxides exhibited the highest heat generation, while iron oxides embedded in MSNs and mesoporous iron oxides exhibited the least bulk heating. It is worth noting that the specific

  19. Magnetic vortex nucleation modes in static magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Vaňatka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic vortex nucleation process in nanometer- and micrometer-sized magnetic disks undergoes several phases with distinct spin configurations called the nucleation states. Before formation of the final vortex state, small submicron disks typically proceed through the so-called C-state while the larger micron-sized disks proceed through the more complicated vortex-pair state or the buckling state. This work classifies the nucleation states using micromagnetic simulations and provides evidence for the stability of vortex-pair and buckling states in static magnetic fields using magnetic imaging techniques and electrical transport measurements. Lorentz Transmission Electron Microscopy and Magnetic Transmission X-ray Microscopy are employed to reveal the details of spin configuration in each of the nucleation states. We further show that it is possible to unambiguously identify these states by electrical measurements via the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect. Combination of the electrical transport and magnetic imaging techniques confirms stability of a vortex-antivortex-vortex spin configuration which emerges from the buckling state in static magnetic fields.

  20. Electric/magnetic field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Jr., Robert A.; Popek, Marc [Las Vegas, NV

    2009-01-27

    A UNLV novel electric/magnetic dot sensor includes a loop of conductor having two ends to the loop, a first end and a second end; the first end of the conductor seamlessly secured to a first conductor within a first sheath; the second end of the conductor seamlessly secured to a second conductor within a second sheath; and the first sheath and the second sheath positioned adjacent each other. The UNLV novel sensor can be made by removing outer layers in a segment of coaxial cable, leaving a continuous link of essentially uncovered conductor between two coaxial cable legs.

  1. Enhancement of sedimentation and coagulation with static magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Marcin; Dębowski, Marcin; Hajduk, Anna; Rusanowska, Paulina

    2017-11-01

    The static magnetic field can be an alternative method for wastewater treatment. It has been proved that this physical factor, accelerates the biochemical processes, catalyzes advanced oxidation, intensifies anaerobic and aerobic processes or reduces swelling of activated sludge. There are also reports proving the positive impact of the static magnetic field on the coagulation and sedimentation, as well as the conditioning and dewatering of sludge. In order to be applied in larger scale the published results should be verified and confirmed. In the studies, the enhancement of sedimentation by the static magnetic field was observed. The best sedimentation was noted in the experiment, where magnetizers were placed on activated sludge bioreactor and secondary settling tank. No effect of the static magnetic field on coagulation with the utilization of PIX 113 was observed. However, the static magnetic field enhanced coagulation with the utilization of PAX-XL9. The results suggest that increased sedimentation of colloids and activated sludge, can in practice mean a reduction in the size of the necessary equipment for sedimentation with an unchanged efficiency of the process.

  2. Magnetic fields, radicals and cellular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Ryan D

    2017-01-01

    Some effects of low-intensity magnetic fields on the concentration of radicals and their influence on cellular functions are reviewed. These fields have been implicated as a potential modulator of radical recombination rates. Experimental evidence has revealed a tight coupling between cellular function and radical pair chemistry from signaling pathways to damaging oxidative processes. The effects of externally applied magnetic fields on biological systems have been extensively studied, and the observed effects lack sufficient mechanistic understanding. Radical pair chemistry offers a reasonable explanation for some of the molecular effects of low-intensity magnetic fields, and changes in radical concentrations have been observed to modulate specific cellular functions. Applied external magnetic fields have been shown to induce observable cellular changes such as both inhibiting and accelerating cell growth. These and other mechanisms, such as cell membrane potential modulation, are of great interest in cancer research due to the variations between healthy and deleterious cells. Radical concentrations demonstrate similar variations and are indicative of a possible causal relationship. Radicals, therefore, present a possible mechanism for the modulation of cellular functions such as growth or regression by means of applied external magnetic fields.

  3. Solar Magnetic Fields J. O. Stenflo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    how magnetic fields break the symmetry of coherently superposed quantum states. (Schrödinger cat states) and cause partial decoherence that increases with the strength of the field. This discovery played a key role in clarifying and understanding the central concept of linear superposition of quantum states in the early ...

  4. Teaching Representation Translations with Magnetic Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, Wilson Andrew; McCaskey, Timothy; Nasser, Luis

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory exercise designed to help students translate between different field representations. It starts with students qualitatively mapping field lines for various bar magnet configurations and continues with a Hall probe experiment in which students execute a series of scaffolded tasks, culminating in the prediction and…

  5. Magnetic Field Strength Evaluation Yu. S. Yefimov

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A great number of articles are devoted to the study of mag- netic field in cosmic objects. Important contributions to the study of magnetic fields .... However, the flare activity (especially periodical) presents some difficulties in this model. To eliminate these problems, Camenzind & Krockenberger (1992) suggested.

  6. Opening the cusp. [using magnetic field topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooker, N. U.; Toffoletto, F. R.; Gussenhoven, M. S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the magnetic field topology (determined by the superposition of dipole, image, and uniform fields) for mapping the cusp to the ionosphere. The model results are compared to both new and published observations and are then used to map the footprint of a flux transfer event caused by a time variation in the merging rate. It is shown that the cusp geometry distorts the field lines mapped from the magnetopause to yield footprints with dawn and dusk protrusions into the region of closed magnetic flux.

  7. Acceleration of superparamagnetic particles with magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stange, R., E-mail: Robert.stange@tu-dresden.de; Lenk, F.; Bley, T.; Boschke, E.

    2017-04-01

    High magnetic capture efficiency in the context of Biomagnetic Separation (BMS) using superparamagnetic particles (SMPs) requires efficient mixing and high relative velocities between cellular and other targets and SMPs. For this purpose, batch processes or microfluidic systems are commonly used. Here, we analyze the characteristics of an in-house developed batch process experimental setup, the Electromagnetic Sample Mixer (ESM) described earlier. This device uses three electromagnets to increase the relative velocity between SMPs and targets. We carry out simulations of the magnetic field in the ESM and in a simpler paradigmatic setup, and thus were able to calculate the force field acting on the SMPs and to simulate their relative velocities and fluid dynamics due to SMP movement. In this way we were able to show that alternate charging of the magnets induces a double circular stream of SMPs in the ESM, resulting in high relative velocities of SMPs to the targets. Consequently, due to the conservation of momentum, the fluid experiences an acceleration induced by the SMPs. We validated our simulations by microscopic observation of the SMPs in the magnetic field, using a homemade apparatus designed to accommodate a long working-distance lens. By comparing the results of modeling this paradigmatic setup with the experimental observations, we determined that the velocities of the SMPs corresponded to the results of our simulations. - Highlights: • Investigation of a batch process setup for complex forming at Biomagnetic Separation. • Simulation of fluid flow characteristics in this Electro Magnetic Samplemixer. • Simulation of relative velocities between magnetic particles and fluid in the setup. • Simulation of fluid flow induced by the acceleration of magnet particles. • Validation of magnetic fields and flow characteristics in paradigmatic setups. • Reached relative velocity is higher than the sedimentation velocity of the particles • Alternating

  8. The apparent decay of pulsar magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukov, A.; Astashenok, A.; Karpov, S.; Beskin, G.

    2017-12-01

    Neutron stars are extremely strong cosmic magnets which fields are expected to decay with time. Here we report on the simple test of this process. Adopting a novel approach, we have estimated surface magnetic fields B for 76 radiopulsars (the most numerous subclass of the known isolated neutron stars) which ages t are known independently. Focusing on the accurate evaluation of the precision of both quantities, we determined a significant power-law trend B(t) ∝ t ‑β with index β = 0.19 - 0.06 + 0.05 at 95% C.L. The effects of the observational selection turn this value into the upper limit for the intrinsic field decay rate. If so, then neutron star crusts are close to the “impurity-free crystals”, which results in a relatively slow magnetic fields decay.

  9. Neutron Scattering and High Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, Barry L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stone, Matthew B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The workshop “Neutron Scattering and High Magnetic Fields” was held September 4-5, 2014 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The workshop was held in response to a recent report by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences entitled “High Magnetic Field Science and Its Application in the United States: Current Status and Future Directions.”1 This report highlights the fact that neutron scattering measurements carried out in high magnetic fields provide important opportunities for new science. The workshop explored the range of the scientific discoveries that could be enabled with neutron scattering measurements at high fields (25 Tesla or larger), the various technologies that might be utilized to build specialized instruments and sample environment equipment to enable this research at ORNL, and possible routes to funding and constructing these facilities and portable high field sample environments.

  10. Micrometer-scale magnetic imaging of geological samples using a quantum diamond microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, D. R.; Fu, R. R.; Kehayias, P.; Le Sage, D.; Lima, E. A.; Weiss, B. P.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2017-08-01

    Remanent magnetization in geological samples may record the past intensity and direction of planetary magnetic fields. Traditionally, this magnetization is analyzed through measurements of the net magnetic moment of bulk millimeter to centimeter sized samples. However, geological samples are often mineralogically and texturally heterogeneous at submillimeter scales, with only a fraction of the ferromagnetic grains carrying the remanent magnetization of interest. Therefore, characterizing this magnetization in such cases requires a technique capable of imaging magnetic fields at fine spatial scales and with high sensitivity. To address this challenge, we developed a new instrument, based on nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, which enables direct imaging of magnetic fields due to both remanent and induced magnetization, as well as optical imaging, of room-temperature geological samples with spatial resolution approaching the optical diffraction limit. We describe the operating principles of this device, which we call the quantum diamond microscope (QDM), and report its optimized image-area-normalized magnetic field sensitivity (20 µTṡµm/Hz1/2), spatial resolution (5 µm), and field of view (4 mm), as well as trade-offs between these parameters. We also perform an absolute magnetic field calibration for the device in different modes of operation, including three-axis (vector) and single-axis (projective) magnetic field imaging. Finally, we use the QDM to obtain magnetic images of several terrestrial and meteoritic rock samples, demonstrating its ability to resolve spatially distinct populations of ferromagnetic carriers.

  11. Counterclockwise Magnetic Fields in the Norma Spiral Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J. L.; Manchester, R. N.; Lyne, A. G.; Qiao, G. J.

    2002-05-01

    Pulsars provide unique probes of the large-scale interstellar magnetic field in the Galactic disk. Up to now, the limited Galactic distribution of the known pulsar population has restricted these investigations to within a few kiloparsecs of the Sun. The Parkes multibeam pulsar survey has discovered many more-distant pulsars, which enables us for the first time to explore the magnetic field in most of the nearby half of the Galactic disk. Here we report the detection of counterclockwise magnetic fields in the Norma spiral arm using pulsar rotation measures. The fields are coherent in direction over a linear scale of ~5 kpc along the arm and have a strength of -4.4+/-0.9 μG. The magnetic field between the Carina-Sagittarius and Crux-Scutum arms is confirmed to be coherent from l~45deg to l~305deg over a length of ~10 kpc. These results strengthen arguments for a bisymmetric spiral model for the field configuration in the Galactic disk.

  12. Magnetic field strength and reproducibility of neodymium magnets useful for transcranial static magnetic field stimulation of the human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadulla, Casto; Foffani, Guglielmo; Oliviero, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    The application of transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) in humans reduces the excitability of the motor cortex for a few minutes after the end of stimulation. However, when tSMS is applied in humans, the cortex is at least 2 cm away, so most of the strength of the magnetic field will not reach the target. The main objective of the study was to measure the strength and reproducibility of static magnetic fields produced by commercial neodymium magnets. We measured the strength and reproducibility of static magnetic fields produced by four different types of neodymium cylindrical magnets using a magnetic field-to-voltage transducer. Magnetic field strength depended on magnet size. At distances magnetic field strength was affected by the presence of central holes (potentially useful for recording electroencephalograms). At distances >1.5 cm, the measurements made on the cylinder axis and 1.5 cm off the axis were comparable. The reproducibility of the results (i.e., the consistency of the field strength across magnets of the same size) was very high. These measurements offer a quantitative empirical reference for developing devices useful for tSMS protocols in both humans and animals. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.

  13. Field Models in Electricity and Magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Barba, Paolo Di; Wiak, S

    2008-01-01

    Covering the development of field computation in the past forty years, Field Models in Electricity and Magnetism intends to be a concise, comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to field models in electricity and magnetism, ranging from basic theory to numerical applications. The approach assumed throughout the whole book is to solve field problems directly from partial differential equations in terms of vector quantities. Theoretical issues are illustrated by practical examples. In particular, a single example is solved by different methods so that, by comparison of results, limitations and advantages of the various methods are made clear. The subjects of the synthesis of fields and of the optimal design of devices, which are growing in research and so far have not been adequately covered in textbooks, are developed in addition to more classical subjects of analysis. Topics covered include: vector fields: electrostatics, magnetostatics, steady conduction; analytical methods for solving boundary-value probl...

  14. ALIGNMENT BETWEEN FLATTENED PROTOSTELLAR INFALL ENVELOPES AND AMBIENT MAGNETIC FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Nicholas L.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Novak, Giles [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Davidson, Jacqueline A. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Goldsmith, Paul F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 264-782, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Houde, Martin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Kwon, Woojin; Looney, Leslie W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Li Zhiyun [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Matthews, Brenda [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Peng Ruisheng [Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, 111 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Vaillancourt, John E. [SOFIA Science Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-11, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Volgenau, Nikolaus H. [California Institute of Technology, Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Big Pine, CA 93513 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    We present 350 {mu}m polarization observations of four low-mass cores containing Class 0 protostars: L483, L1157, L1448-IRS2, and Serp-FIR1. This is the second paper in a larger survey aimed at testing magnetically regulated models for core-collapse. One key prediction of these models is that the mean magnetic field in a core should be aligned with the symmetry axis (minor axis) of the flattened young stellar object inner envelope (aka pseudodisk). Furthermore, the field should exhibit a pinched or hourglass-shaped morphology as gravity drags the field inward toward the central protostar. We combine our results for the four cores with results for three similar cores that were published in the first paper from our survey. An analysis of the 350 {mu}m polarization data for the seven cores yields evidence of a positive correlation between mean field direction and pseudodisk symmetry axis. Our rough estimate for the probability of obtaining by pure chance a correlation as strong as the one we found is about 5%. In addition, we combine together data for multiple cores to create a source-averaged magnetic field map having improved signal-to-noise ratio, and this map shows good agreement between mean field direction and pseudodisk axis (they are within 15 Degree-Sign ). We also see hints of a magnetic pinch in the source-averaged map. We conclude that core-scale magnetic fields appear to be strong enough to guide gas infall, as predicted by the magnetically regulated models. Finally, we find evidence of a positive correlation between core magnetic field direction and bipolar outflow axis.

  15. A Scaling Law for the Snapback in Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Bauer, P; Haverkamp, M; Pieloni, T; Sanfilippo, S; Velev, G

    2005-01-01

    The decay of the sextupole component in the bending dipoles during injection and the subsequent snapback at the start of beam acceleration are issues of common concern for all superconducting colliders built or in construction. Recent studies performed on LHC and Tevatron dipole magnets revealed many similarities in the snapback characteristics. Some are expected, e.g. the effect of operational history. One particular similarity, however, is striking and is the subject of this paper. It appears that there is a simple linear relation between the amount of sextupole drift during the decay and the magnet current (or field) change during the ramp required to resolve the snapback. It is surprising that the linear correlation between snapback amplitude and snapback field holds very well for all magnets of the same family (e.g. Tevatron or LHC dipoles). In this paper we present the data collected to date and discuss a simple theory that explains the scaling found.

  16. Induction of cell death by magnetic particles in response to a gradient magnetic field inside a uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Jaramillo, Carlos David; Pérez-Portilla, Adriana Patricia; Serrano-Olmedo, José Javier; Ramos-Gómez, Milagros

    2017-10-01

    A new instrument based on a magnetic force produced by an alternating magnetic field gradient, which is obtained through Maxwell coils, inside a constant field magnet has been designed and used to produce cell death. We have determined the interaction of microparticles and cells under different conditions such as incubation time with microparticles, particle size, magnetic field exposition time, and different current waveforms at different frequencies to produce a magnetic field gradient. We determined that the highest rate of cell death occurs at a frequency of 1 Hz with a square waveform and 1 h of irradiation. This method could be of great interest to remove cancer cells due mainly to the alterations in stiffness observed in the membranes of the tumor cells. Cancer cells can be eliminated in response to the forces caused by the movement of magnetic nanoparticles of the appropriate size under the application of a specific magnetic field. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Plasma Equilibria With Stochastic Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krommes, J. A.; Reiman, A. H.

    2009-05-01

    Plasma equilibria that include regions of stochastic magnetic fields are of interest in a variety of applications, including tokamaks with ergodic limiters and high-pressure stellarators. Such equilibria are examined theoretically, and a numerical algorithm for their construction is described.^2,3 % The balance between stochastic diffusion of magnetic lines and small effects^2 omitted from the simplest MHD description can support pressure and current profiles that need not be flattened in stochastic regions. The diffusion can be described analytically by renormalizing stochastic Langevin equations for pressure and parallel current j, with particular attention being paid to the satisfaction of the periodicity constraints in toroidal configurations with sheared magnetic fields. The equilibrium field configuration can then be constructed by coupling the prediction for j to Amp'ere's law, which is solved numerically. A. Reiman et al., Pressure-induced breaking of equilibrium flux surfaces in the W7AS stellarator, Nucl. Fusion 47, 572--8 (2007). J. A. Krommes and A. H. Reiman, Plasma equilibrium in a magnetic field with stochastic regions, submitted to Phys. Plasmas. J. A. Krommes, Fundamental statistical theories of plasma turbulence in magnetic fields, Phys. Reports 360, 1--351.

  18. Magnetic field effect on spoke behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnilica, Jaroslav; Slapanska, Marta; Klein, Peter; Vasina, Petr

    2016-09-01

    The investigations of the non-reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge using high-speed camera imaging, optical emission spectroscopy and electrical probes showed that plasma is not homogeneously distributed over the target surface, but it is concentrated in regions of higher local plasma density called spokes rotating above the erosion racetrack. Magnetic field effect on spoke behaviour was studied by high-speed camera imaging in HiPIMS discharge using 3 inch titanium target. An employed camera enabled us to record two successive images in the same pulse with time delay of 3 μs between them, which allowed us to determine the number of spokes, spoke rotation velocity and spoke rotation frequency. The experimental conditions covered pressure range from 0.15 to 5 Pa, discharge current up to 350 A and magnetic fields of 37, 72 and 91 mT. Increase of the magnetic field influenced the number of spokes observed at the same pressure and at the same discharge current. Moreover, the investigation revealed different characteristic spoke shapes depending on the magnetic field strength - both diffusive and triangular shapes were observed for the same target material. The spoke rotation velocity was independent on the magnetic field strength. This research has been financially supported by the Czech Science Foundation in frame of the project 15-00863S.

  19. Reducing blood viscosity with magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R; Huang, K

    2011-07-01

    Blood viscosity is a major factor in heart disease. When blood viscosity increases, it damages blood vessels and increases the risk of heart attacks. Currently, the only method of treatment is to take drugs such as aspirin, which has, however, several unwanted side effects. Here we report our finding that blood viscosity can be reduced with magnetic fields of 1 T or above in the blood flow direction. One magnetic field pulse of 1.3 T lasting ~1 min can reduce the blood viscosity by 20%-30%. After the exposure, in the absence of magnetic field, the blood viscosity slowly moves up, but takes a couple of hours to return to the original value. The process is repeatable. Reapplying the magnetic field reduces the blood viscosity again. By selecting the magnetic field strength and duration, we can keep the blood viscosity within the normal range. In addition, such viscosity reduction does not affect the red blood cells' normal function. This technology has much potential for physical therapy.

  20. Magnetic Field Observations at Purcell, Oklahoma Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, P. J. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gibson, J. P. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The campaign “Magnetic Field Observations at Purcell, Oklahoma” installed a ground-based magnetometer at Purcell’s U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility boundary installation at the Kessler Atmospheric and Ecological Field Station, University of Oklahoma, to measure local magnetic field variations. It is a part of the nine stations of the Mid-continent MAgnetoseismic Chain (McMAC) placed as close to the 330° magnetic longitude as possible. This is the meridian in the world where land covers the greatest continuous range in magnetic latitude. Figure 1 shows the map of the magnetometer stations along the 330th magnetic meridian, including the Purcell (PCEL) station. The main scientific objective of the campaign is to detect the field line resonance (FLR) frequencies of the magnetic field line connected to the Purcell station. This magnetic field line extends from Purcell to the outer space at distances as far as 2 Earth radii (RE). To accurately identify FLR frequencies, however, simultaneous measurements at slightly different latitudes along the same meridian are necessary to allow the use of the cross-phase technique. This consideration explains the arrangement to operate magnetometers at the Americus (AMER) and Richardson (RICH) stations nearby. The measured resonant frequency can infer the plasma mass density along the field line through the method of normal-mode magnetoseismology. The magnetometer at the Purcell station can detect many other types of magnetic field fluctuations associated with the changes in the electric currents in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere, which by large are affected by the solar activity. In other words, the magnetic field data collected by this campaign are also useful for understanding space weather phenomena. The magnetometer was installed at Purcell’s ARM boundary facility in March 27, 2006. The construction of the triaxial fluxgate magnetometer used by the

  1. Mechanism of magnetic field effect in cryptochrome

    CERN Document Server

    Solov'yov, Ilia A

    2011-01-01

    Creatures as varied as mammals, fish, insects, reptiles, and migratory birds have an intriguing `sixth' sense that allows them to distinguish north from south by using the Earth's intrinsic magnetic field. Yet despite decades of study, the physical basis of this magnetic sense remains elusive. A likely mechanism is furnished by magnetically sensitive radical pair reactions occurring in the retina, the light-sensitive part of the eyes. A photoreceptor, cryptochrome, has been suggested to endow birds with magnetoreceptive abilities as the protein has been shown to exhibit the biophysical properties required for an animal magnetoreceptor to operate properly. Here, we propose a concrete light-driven reaction cycle in cryptochrome that lets a magnetic field influence the signaling state of the photoreceptor. The reaction cycle ties together transient absorption and electron-spin-resonance observations with known facts on avian magnetoreception. Our analysis establishes the feasibility of cryptochrome to act as a g...

  2. Directed colloidal self-assembly in toggled magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, James W; Bauer, Jonathan L; Liu, Yifei; Furst, Eric M

    2014-02-28

    Suspensions of paramagnetic colloids are driven to phase separate and self-assemble by a toggled magnetic field. Initially, all suspensions form network structures that span the sample cell. When the magnetic field is toggled, this network structure coarsens diffusively for a time that scales exponentially with frequency. Beyond this break through time, suspensions cease diffusive coarsening and undergo an apparent instability. The magnetic field drives suspensions to condense into dispersed, domains of bodycentered tetragonal crystals. Within these domains the crystalline order depends on the pulse frequency. Because the scaling of the break through time with respect to frequency is exponential, the steady state limit corresponding to an infinite pulse frequency is kinetically arrested and the equilibrium state is unreachable. These experiments show that there is an out-of-equilibrium pathway that can be used to escape a kinetically arrested state as well as a diverging time scale for phase separation as the critical frequency for condensation is approached. Rather than fine tuning the strength of the interactions among particles, a simple annealing scheme - toggling of the magnetic field - is used to create a broad envelope for assembly of ordered particle structures.

  3. High magnetic field magnetization of a new triangular lattice antiferromagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, H. D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Stritzinger, Laurel Elaine Winter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harrison, Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-23

    In CsV(MoO4)2, the magnetic V3+ ions with octahedral oxygen-coordination form a geometrically frustrated triangular lattice. So fare, there is no magnetic properties reported on it. Recently, we successfully grew single crystals of CsV(MoO4)2 by using flux method. The susceptibility shows a sharp drop around 24 K, representing a long range magnetic ordering. To understand the physical properties of this new triangular lattice antiferromagnet (TLAF), we pursued high field magnetization measurements to answer two questions: (i) what is the saturation field, which will be very useful to calculate the exchange interaction of the system? (ii) Will it exhibit spin state transition, such as the up up down phase with 1/3-saturation moment as other TLAFs? Recently, we performed VSM measurements in Cell 8, Tallahassee, NHMFL, the results show that the magnetization reaches 0.38 MuB at 34 T, which is just 19% of the full moment of 2 MuB for V3+ (3d2) ions. Apparently we need higher field to reach 1/3 value or full moment.

  4. Streaming flows produced by oscillating interface of magnetic fluid adsorbed on a permanent magnet in alternating magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, S.; Ito, M.; Ishimoto, Y.; Nix, S.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes microstreaming flows generated by oscillating interface of magnetic fluid adsorbed on a circular cylindrical permanent magnet in alternating magnetic field. The interface of magnetic fluid adsorbed on the NdFeB magnet responds to the external alternating magnetic flied as harmonic oscillation. The directions of alternating magnetic field are parallel and antiparallel to the magnetic field of permanent magnet. The oscillation of magnetic fluid interface generates streaming flow around the magnet-magnetic fluid element in water. Microstreaming flows are observed with a high-speed video camera analysis system. The flow pattern generated by magnetic fluid motion depends on the Keulegan-Carpenter number and the Reynolds number.

  5. Magnetic resonance signal moment determination using the Earth's magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Fridjonsson, Einar Orn

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a method to manipulate magnetic resonance data such that the moments of the signal spatial distribution are readily accessible. Usually, magnetic resonance imaging relies on data acquired in so-called k-space which is subsequently Fourier transformed to render an image. Here, via analysis of the complex signal in the vicinity of the centre of k-space we are able to access the first three moments of the signal spatial distribution, ultimately in multiple directions. This is demonstrated for biofouling of a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane module, rendering unique information and an early warning of the onset of fouling. The analysis is particularly applicable for the use of mobile magnetic resonance spectrometers; here we demonstrate it using an Earth\\'s magnetic field system.

  6. Solar Flare Magnetic Fields and Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, George

    2012-01-01

    This volume is devoted to the dynamics and diagnostics of solar magnetic fields and plasmas in the Sun’s atmosphere. Five broad areas of current research in Solar Physics are presented: (1) New techniques for incorporating radiation transfer effects into three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic models of the solar interior and atmosphere, (2) The connection between observed radiation processes occurring during flares and the underlying flare energy release and transport mechanisms, (3) The global balance of forces and momenta that occur during flares, (4) The data-analysis and theoretical tools needed to understand and assimilate vector magnetogram observations and (5) Connecting flare and CME phenomena to the topological properties of the magnetic field in the Solar Atmosphere. The role of the Sun’s magnetic field is a major emphasis of this book, which was inspired by a workshop honoring Richard C. (Dick) Canfield.  Dick has been making profound contributions to these areas of research over a long and pro...

  7. Lunar magnetic permeability, magnetic fields, and electrical conductivity temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    In the time period 1969-1972 a total of five magnetometers were deployed on the lunar surface during four Apollo missions. Data from these instruments, along with simultaneous measurements from other experiments on the moon and in lunar orbit, were used to study properties of the lunar interior and the lunar environment. The principal scientific results from analyses of the magnetic field data are discussed. The results are presented in the following main categories: (1) lunar electrical conductivity, temperature, and structure; (2) lunar magnetic permeability, iron abundance, and core size limits; (3) the local remnant magnetic fields, their interaction with the solar wind, and a thermoelectric generator model for their origin. Relevant publications and presented papers are listed.

  8. Theoretical predictions for spatially-focused heating of magnetic nanoparticles guided by magnetic particle imaging field gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhavalikar, Rohan [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, 1030 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Rinaldi, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.rinaldi@bme.ufl.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, 1030 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, 1275 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles in alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) transfer some of the field's energy to their surroundings in the form of heat, a property that has attracted significant attention for use in cancer treatment through hyperthermia and in developing magnetic drug carriers that can be actuated to release their cargo externally using magnetic fields. To date, most work in this field has focused on the use of AMFs that actuate heat release by nanoparticles over large regions, without the ability to select specific nanoparticle-loaded regions for heating while leaving other nanoparticle-loaded regions unaffected. In parallel, magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has emerged as a promising approach to image the distribution of magnetic nanoparticle tracers in vivo, with sub-millimeter spatial resolution. The underlying principle in MPI is the application of a selection magnetic field gradient, which defines a small region of low bias field, superimposed with an AMF (of lower frequency and amplitude than those normally used to actuate heating by the nanoparticles) to obtain a signal which is proportional to the concentration of particles in the region of low bias field. Here we extend previous models for estimating the energy dissipation rates of magnetic nanoparticles in uniform AMFs to provide theoretical predictions of how the selection magnetic field gradient used in MPI can be used to selectively actuate heating by magnetic nanoparticles in the low bias field region of the selection magnetic field gradient. Theoretical predictions are given for the spatial decay in energy dissipation rate under magnetic field gradients representative of those that can be achieved with current MPI technology. These results underscore the potential of combining MPI and higher amplitude/frequency actuation AMFs to achieve selective magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) guided by MPI. - Highlights: • SAR predictions based on a field-dependent magnetization relaxation model.

  9. Magnetic field homogeneity for neutron EDM experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Melissa

    2016-09-01

    The neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) is an observable which, if non-zero, would violate time-reversal symmetry, and thereby charge-parity symmetry of nature. New sources of CP violation beyond those found in the standard model of particle physics are already tightly constrained by nEDM measurements. Our future nEDM experiment seeks to improve the precision on the nEDM by a factor of 30, using a new ultracold neutron (UCN) source that is being constructed at TRIUMF. Systematic errors in the nEDM experiment are driven by magnetic field inhomogeneity and instability. The goal field inhomogeneity averaged over the experimental measurement cell (order of 1 m) is 1 nT/m, at a total magnetic field of 1 microTesla. This equates to roughly 10-3 homogeneity. A particularly challenging aspect of the design problem is that nearby magnetic materials will also affect the magnetic inhomogeneity, and this must be taken into account in completing the design. This poster will present the design methodology and status of the main coil for the experiment where we use FEA software (COMSOL) to simulate and analyze the magnetic field. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council.

  10. High Field Magnetization of Tb Single Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roeland, L. W.; Cock, G. J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1975-01-01

    The magnetization of Tb single crystals was measured in magnetic fields to 34T along the hard direction at temperature of 1.8, 4.2, 65.5 and 77K, and along with easy direction at 4.2 and 77K. The data are compared with the results of a self-consistent spin wave calculation using a phenomenologica...... data on Tb. The conduction-electron polarization at zero field and temperature is (0.33+or-0.05) mu B/ion, and the susceptibility is greater than the Pauli susceptibility calculated from the band-structure.......The magnetization of Tb single crystals was measured in magnetic fields to 34T along the hard direction at temperature of 1.8, 4.2, 65.5 and 77K, and along with easy direction at 4.2 and 77K. The data are compared with the results of a self-consistent spin wave calculation using a phenomenological...... Hamiltonian including isotropic exchange interactions, effective single-ion anisotropy and magnetoelastic contributions. The parameters of this Hamiltonian were determined by fitting the theoretical results for the spin wave dispersion and energy gap as a function of temperature and magnetic field to existing...

  11. High magnetic field ohmically decoupled non-contact technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgen, John [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard [Oak Ridge, TN; Ludtka, Gail [Oak Ridge, TN; Jaramillo, Roger [Knoxville, TN

    2009-05-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for high magnetic field ohmically decoupled non-contact treatment of conductive materials in a high magnetic field. A method includes applying a high magnetic field to at least a portion of a conductive material; and applying an inductive magnetic field to at least a fraction of the conductive material to induce a surface current within the fraction of the conductive material, the surface current generating a substantially bi-directional force that defines a vibration. The high magnetic field and the inductive magnetic field are substantially confocal, the fraction of the conductive material is located within the portion of the conductive material and ohmic heating from the surface current is ohmically decoupled from the vibration. An apparatus includes a high magnetic field coil defining an applied high magnetic field; an inductive magnetic field coil coupled to the high magnetic field coil, the inductive magnetic field coil defining an applied inductive magnetic field; and a processing zone located within both the applied high magnetic field and the applied inductive magnetic field. The high magnetic field and the inductive magnetic field are substantially confocal, and ohmic heating of a conductive material located in the processing zone is ohmically decoupled from a vibration of the conductive material.

  12. Multi-scale structures of turbulent magnetic reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T. K. M., E-mail: takuma.nakamura@oeaw.ac.at; Nakamura, R.; Narita, Y.; Baumjohann, W. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz 8042 (Austria); Daughton, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We have analyzed data from a series of 3D fully kinetic simulations of turbulent magnetic reconnection with a guide field. A new concept of the guide filed reconnection process has recently been proposed, in which the secondary tearing instability and the resulting formation of oblique, small scale flux ropes largely disturb the structure of the primary reconnection layer and lead to 3D turbulent features [W. Daughton et al., Nat. Phys. 7, 539 (2011)]. In this paper, we further investigate the multi-scale physics in this turbulent, guide field reconnection process by introducing a wave number band-pass filter (k-BPF) technique in which modes for the small scale (less than ion scale) fluctuations and the background large scale (more than ion scale) variations are separately reconstructed from the wave number domain to the spatial domain in the inverse Fourier transform process. Combining with the Fourier based analyses in the wave number domain, we successfully identify spatial and temporal development of the multi-scale structures in the turbulent reconnection process. When considering a strong guide field, the small scale tearing mode and the resulting flux ropes develop over a specific range of oblique angles mainly along the edge of the primary ion scale flux ropes and reconnection separatrix. The rapid merging of these small scale modes leads to a smooth energy spectrum connecting ion and electron scales. When the guide field is sufficiently weak, the background current sheet is strongly kinked and oblique angles for the small scale modes are widely scattered at the kinked regions. Similar approaches handling both the wave number and spatial domains will be applicable to the data from multipoint, high-resolution spacecraft observations such as the NASA magnetospheric multiscale (MMS) mission.

  13. Characterizing Soil Cracking at the Field Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical characterization of the soil cracking has always been a major challenge in scaling soil water interaction to the field level. This scaling would allow for the soil water flow in the field to be modeled in two distinct pools: across the soil matrix and in preferential flows thus tackling maj...

  14. Reduction of a Ship's Magnetic Field Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, John

    2008-01-01

    Decreasing the magnetic field signature of a naval vessel will reduce its susceptibility to detonating naval influence mines and the probability of a submarine being detected by underwater barriers and maritime patrol aircraft. Both passive and active techniques for reducing the magnetic signatures produced by a vessel's ferromagnetism, roll-induced eddy currents, corrosion-related sources, and stray fields are presented. Mathematical models of simple hull shapes are used to predict the levels of signature reduction that might be achieved through the use of alternate construction materials. Al

  15. Parallel magnetic field suppresses dissipation in superconducting nanostrips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Glatz, Andreas; Kimmel, Gregory J.; Aranson, Igor S.; Thoutam, Laxman R.; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Berdiyorov, Golibjon R.; Peeters, François M.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2017-11-13

    The motion of Abrikosov vortices in type-II superconductors results in a finite resistance in the presence of an applied electric current. Elimination or reduction of the resistance via immobilization of vortices is the "holy grail" of superconductivity research. Common wisdom dictates that an increase in the magnetic field escalates the loss of energy since the number of vortices increases. Here we show that this is no longer true if the magnetic field and the current are applied parallel to each other. Our experimental studies on the resistive behavior of a superconducting Mo0.79Ge0.21 nanostrip reveal the emergence of a dissipative state with increasing magnetic field, followed by a pronounced resistance drop, signifying a reentrance to the superconducting state. Large-scale simulations of the 3D time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model indicate that the intermediate resistive state is due to an unwinding of twisted vortices. When the magnetic field increases, this instability is suppressed due to a better accommodation of the vortex lattice to the pinning configuration. Our findings show that magnetic field and geometrical confinement can suppress the dissipation induced by vortex motion and thus radically improve the performance of superconducting materials.

  16. Skyrmion motion driven by oscillating magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyoung-Woong; Kim, Duck-Ho; Je, Soong-Geun; Chun, Byong Sun; Kim, Wondong; Qiu, Z Q; Choe, Sug-Bong; Hwang, Chanyong

    2016-02-05

    The one-dimensional magnetic skyrmion motion induced by an electric current has attracted much interest because of its application potential in next-generation magnetic memory devices. Recently, the unidirectional motion of large (20 μm in diameter) magnetic bubbles with two-dimensional skyrmion topology, driven by an oscillating magnetic field, has also been demonstrated. For application in high-density memory devices, it is preferable to reduce the size of skyrmion. Here we show by numerical simulation that a skyrmion of a few tens of nanometres can also be driven by high-frequency field oscillations, but with a different direction of motion from the in-plane component of the tilted oscillating field. We found that a high-frequency field for small skyrmions can excite skyrmion resonant modes and that a combination of different modes results in a final skyrmion motion with a helical trajectory. Because this helical motion depends on the frequency of the field, we can control both the speed and the direction of the skyrmion motion, which is a distinguishable characteristic compared with other methods.

  17. Magnetic clouds and force-free fields with constant alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlaga, L. F.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic clouds observed at 1 AU are modeled as cylindrically symmetric, constant alpha force-free magnetic fields. The model satisfactorily explains the types of variations of the magnetic field direction that are observed as a magnetic cloud moves past a spacecraft in terms of the possible orientations of the axis of a magnetic cloud. The model also explains why the magnetic field strength is observed to be higher inside a magnetic cloud than near its boundaries. However, the model predicts that the magnetic field strength profile should be symmetric with respect to the axis of the magnetic cloud, whereas observations show that this is not generally the case.

  18. Biomaterials and Magnetic fields for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Mazuruk, Konstanty

    2003-01-01

    The field of biomaterials has emerged as an important topic in the purview of NASA s new vision of research activities in the Microgravity Research Division. Although this area has an extensive track record in the medical field as borne out by the routine use of polymeric sutures, implant devices, and prosthetics, novel applications such as tissue engineering, artificial heart valves and controlled drug delivery are beginning to be developed. Besides the medical field, biomaterials and bio-inspired technologies are finding use in a host of emerging interdisciplinary fields such as self-healing and self-assembling structures, biosensors, fuel systems etc. The field of magnetic fluid technology has several potential applications in medicine. One of the emerging fields is the area of controlled drug delivery, which has seen its evolution from the basic oral delivery system to pulmonary to transdermal to direct inoculations. In cancer treatment by chemotherapy for example, targeted and controlled drug delivery has received vast scrutiny and substantial research and development effort, due to the high potency of the drugs involved and the resulting requirement to keep the exposure of the drugs to surrounding healthy tissue to a minimum. The use of magnetic particles in conjunction with a static magnetic field allows smart targeting and retention of the particles at a desired site within the body with the material transport provided by blood perfusion. Once so located, the therapeutical aspect (radiation, chemotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) of the treatment, now highly localized, can be implemented.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging without field cycling at less than earth's magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Joo; Shim, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Kiwoong; Yu, Kwon Kyu; Hwang, Seong-min

    2015-03-01

    A strong pre-polarization field, usually tenths of a milli-tesla in magnitude, is used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in ordinary superconducting quantum interference device-based nuclear magnetic resonance/magnetic resonance imaging experiments. Here, we introduce an experimental approach using two techniques to remove the need for the pre-polarization field. A dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) technique enables us to measure an enhanced resonance signal. In combination with a π / 2 pulse to avoid the Bloch-Siegert effect in a micro-tesla field, we obtained an enhanced magnetic resonance image by using DNP technique with a 34.5 μT static external magnetic field without field cycling. In this approach, the problems of eddy current and flux trapping in the superconducting pickup coil, both due to the strong pre-polarization field, become negligible.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging without field cycling at less than earth's magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong-Joo, E-mail: sj.lee@kriss.re.kr; Shim, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Kiwoong; Yu, Kwon Kyu; Hwang, Seong-min [Center for Biosignals, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), 267 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-09

    A strong pre-polarization field, usually tenths of a milli-tesla in magnitude, is used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in ordinary superconducting quantum interference device-based nuclear magnetic resonance/magnetic resonance imaging experiments. Here, we introduce an experimental approach using two techniques to remove the need for the pre-polarization field. A dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) technique enables us to measure an enhanced resonance signal. In combination with a π/2 pulse to avoid the Bloch-Siegert effect in a micro-tesla field, we obtained an enhanced magnetic resonance image by using DNP technique with a 34.5 μT static external magnetic field without field cycling. In this approach, the problems of eddy current and flux trapping in the superconducting pickup coil, both due to the strong pre-polarization field, become negligible.

  1. Magnetic field measurements on the sun and implications for stellar magnetic field observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, W.H.; Giampapa, M.S.; Worden, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Results of solar magnetic field measurements in plages, sunspot umbrae, and sunspot penumbrae using high spectral resolution, unpolarized infrared H band spectral data are presented. A Fourier deconvolution analysis scheme similar to that utilized for stellar magnetic field measurements is adopted. As an example, a field strength of 3240 + or - 450 G is determined in a sunspot umbra combined with a value of 2000 + or - 180 G in the associated penumbra. These values are compared with a direct measurement of the spot umbra and penumbra field strengths based on the observed separation of the Zeeman components of the magnetically sensitive lines. Possible origins for the discrepancy between the results inferred by these two different techniques are discussed. The Fourier analysis results confirm the widespread occurrence of kilogauss level fields in the solar photosphere. The implications of the solar results for stellar magnetic field measurements are considered. 45 references.

  2. Magnetic Fields Around the Heliosphere: Theory vs Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelov, Nikolai

    2016-07-01

    Voyager in situ measurements of the magnetic field around the heliosphere are the source of invaluable information about the interface between the solar wind (SW) and local interstellar medium (LISM). On the other hand, they are quite challenging for theoretical analysis unless accompanied by remote observations of neutral atoms the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) and Ulysses missions. Of particular interest is the fine structure of the heliopause due to its instability and possible magnetic reconnection. Both phenomena may have contributed to the remarkable changes in the galactic and anomalous cosmic ray fluxes observed by Voyager 1 within a one-month period of 2012 after which the spacecraft penetrated into the LISM. Draping of the heliopause by the interstellar magnetic field affects the position of the bright ribbon of enhanced ENA flux observed by IBEX on the celestial sphere and 2-3 kHz radio emission caused by shock propagation through the outer heliosheath observed by Voyager 1. Interstellar magnetic field determines the structure of the bow wave in front of the heliopause. Moreover, magnetic fields define the orientation and shape of the heliotail, the features of which have been observed by IBEX. Recent numerical simulations show that the details of the large-scale interstellar magnetic field modification caused by the presence of the heliotail may be the source of the observed 1-10 TeV cosmic ray anisotropy studied in detail in numerous air shower measurements around the world. In this paper, an overview will be given of the recent theoretical and simulations results describing the magnetic field distribution around the heliosphere. The objective of the talk is to connect observational and theoretical results, and outline challenges that are going to inspire the heliospheric community in the coming years.

  3. Magnetic field dependence of the atomic collapse state in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, D.; Ramezani Masir, M.; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-01-01

    Quantum electrodynamics predicts that heavy atoms (Z > Zc ≈ 170 ) will undergo the process of atomic collapse where electrons sink into the positron continuum and a new family of so-called collapsing states emerges. The relativistic electrons in graphene exhibit the same physics but at a much lower critical charge (Zc ≈ 1 ) which has made it possible to confirm this phenomenon experimentally. However, there exist conflicting predictions on the effect of a magnetic field on atomic collapse. These theoretical predictions are based on the continuum Dirac–Weyl equation, which does not have an exact analytical solution for the interplay of a supercritical Coulomb potential and the magnetic field. Approximative solutions have been proposed, but because the two effects compete on similar energy scales, the theoretical treatment varies depending on the regime which is being considered. These limitations are overcome here by starting from a tight-binding approach and computing exact numerical results. By avoiding special limit cases, we found a smooth evolution between the different regimes. We predict that the atomic collapse effect persists even after the magnetic field is activated and that the critical charge remains unchanged. We show that the atomic collapse regime is characterized: (1) by a series of Landau level anticrossings and (2) by the absence of \\sqrt{B} scaling of the Landau levels with regard to magnetic field strength.

  4. Mercury's Internal Magnetic Field: Modeling Core Fields with Smooth Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, H.; Johnson, C. L.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Purucker, M. E.; Solomon, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    MESSENGER's second flyby (M2) of Mercury on 6 October 2008 will provide significantly improved geographical sampling of the planet's internal magnetic field over previous measurements. Latitudinal coverage and spacecraft altitudes will be similar to those during MESSENGER's first encounter (M1), but the spacecraft trajectory will be displaced by about 180° in longitude, yielding the first magnetic measurements in the western hemisphere. We investigate spatial structure in Mercury's internal magnetic field by applying methods from inverse theory to construct low-degree-and-order spherical harmonic models. External fields predicted by a parameterized magnetospheric model are subtracted from the vector field observations. The approach takes into account noise contributions from long-wavelength uncertainties in the external field models, unexplained short-wavelength features, and spacecraft attitude errors. We investigate the effect of different regularization (smoothness) constraints on our inversions. Analyses of data from M1 and the two Mariner 10 flybys that penetrated the magnetosphere yield a preferred spherical harmonic solution to degree and order eight with the centered, axial dipole term g10 dominating. The model shows structure at low and mid-latitude regions near the flybys. Terms predicted by an analytical model for long- wavelength crustal fields - namely g10, g30 and g32 - are present, but their relative amplitudes are not consistent with such a field. We conclude that structure in our models is dominated by core, rather than by crustal, fields. We also investigate, through simulations, field morphologies that are recoverable while the spacecraft is in orbit about Mercury, under the assumption that the long-wavelength contributions from external sources can be accurately modeled and removed. Although the elliptical orbit of MESSENGER will impede the recovery of southern hemisphere structure, we obtain excellent recovery of the dipole field and of

  5. Magnetic fields and density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salsbury Jr., Freddie [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-02-01

    A major focus of this dissertation is the development of functionals for the magnetic susceptibility and the chemical shielding within the context of magnetic field density functional theory (BDFT). These functionals depend on the electron density in the absence of the field, which is unlike any other treatment of these responses. There have been several advances made within this theory. The first of which is the development of local density functionals for chemical shieldings and magnetic susceptibilities. There are the first such functionals ever proposed. These parameters have been studied by constructing functionals for the current density and then using the Biot-Savart equations to obtain the responses. In order to examine the advantages and disadvantages of the local functionals, they were tested numerically on some small molecules.

  6. Super-strong Magnetic Field in Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Sakurai, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Sunspots are the most notable structure on the solar surface with strong magnetic fields. The field is generally strongest in a dark area (umbra), but sometimes stronger fields are found in non-dark regions, such as a penumbra and a light bridge. The formation mechanism of such strong fields outside umbrae is still puzzling. Here we report clear evidence of the magnetic field of 6250 G, which is the strongest field among Stokes I profiles with clear Zeeman splitting ever observed on the Sun. The field was almost parallel to the solar surface and located in a bright region sandwiched by two opposite-polarity umbrae. Using a time series of spectral data sets, we discuss the formation process of the super-strong field and suggest that this strong field region was generated as a result of compression of one umbra pushed by the horizontal flow from the other umbra, such as the subduction of the Earth’s crust in plate tectonics.

  7. Physics of semiconductors in high magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Miura, Noboru

    2008-01-01

    This book summarizes most of the fundamental physical phenomena which semiconductors and their modulated structures exhibit in high magnetic fields. Readers can learn not only the basic theoretical background but also the present state of the art from the most advanced data in this rapidly growing research area.

  8. Manifestations of Magnetic Field Inhomogeneities Lawrence Rudnick

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Both observations and simulations reveal large inhomo- geneities in magnetic field distributions in diffuse plasmas. Incorporating these inhomogeneities into various calculations can significantly change the inferred physical conditions. In extragalactic sources, e.g., these can compromise analyses of spectral ...

  9. Passive levitation in alternating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Louis [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd [Albuquerque, NM; Aronson, Eugene A [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-06-16

    Stable levitation of an object in an alternating magnetic field can be achieved by eliminating coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object. Stable levitation can also be achieved by varying the coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object, while maintaining one or more of the rotational and translational forces steady in time.

  10. Strain sensors for high field pulse magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Christian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zheng, Yan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Easton, Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an investigation into several strain sensing technologies that are being considered to monitor mechanical deformation within the steel reinforcement shells used in high field pulsed magnets. Such systems generally operate at cryogenic temperatures to mitigate heating issues that are inherent in the coils of nondestructive, high field pulsed magnets. The objective of this preliminary study is to characterize the performance of various strain sensing technologies at liquid nitrogen temperatures (-196 C). Four sensor types are considered in this investigation: fiber Bragg gratings (FBG), resistive foil strain gauges (RFSG), piezoelectric polymers (PVDF), and piezoceramics (PZT). Three operational conditions are considered for each sensor: bond integrity, sensitivity as a function of temperature, and thermal cycling effects. Several experiments were conducted as part of this study, investigating adhesion with various substrate materials (stainless steel, aluminum, and carbon fiber), sensitivity to static (FBG and RFSG) and dynamic (RFSG, PVDF and PZT) load conditions, and sensor diagnostics using PZT sensors. This work has been conducted in collaboration with the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), and the results of this study will be used to identify the set of sensing technologies that would be best suited for integration within high field pulsed magnets at the NHMFL facility.

  11. Cylindrical isentropic compression by ultrahigh magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhuowei; Luo, Hao; Zhang, Hengdi; Zhao, Shichao; Tang, Xiaosong; Tong, Yanjin; Song, Zhenfei; Tan, Fuli; Zhao, Jianheng; Sun, Chengwei

    2014-05-01

    The cylindrical isentropic compression by ultrahigh magnetic field (MC-1) is a kind of unique high energy density technique. It has characters like ultrahigh pressure and low temperature rising, and would have widely used in areas like high pressure physics, new material synthesis and ultrahigh magnetic field physics. The Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (IFP, CAEP) has begun the experiment since 2011 and a primary experimental device had been set-up. In the experiments, a seed magnetic field of 5 Tesla were set-up first and compressed by a stainless steel liner which is driven by high explosive initiated synchronously. The internal diameter of the liner is 97 mm, and its thickness is 1.5 mm. The movement of liner was recorded optically and a typical turnaround phenomenon was observed. From the photography results the liner was compressed smoothly and evenly and its average velocity was about 5-6 km/s. In the experiment a axial magnetic field of over 1400 Tesla has been recorded. The MC-1 process was numerical simulated by 1D MHD code MC11D and the simulations are in accord with the experiments.

  12. Field modeling for transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielscher, Axel; Antunes, Andre; Saturnino, Guilherme B

    2015-01-01

    Electric field calculations based on numerical methods and increasingly realistic head models are more and more used in research on Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). However, they are still far from being established as standard tools for the planning and analysis in practical applications...

  13. Magnetic Fields inside Extremely Fast Shock Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of my research on magnetic fields in extremely fast shock waves has been to predict the properties of shock waves that move almost with the speed of light. These shocks are created in the tenuous interstellar medium by catastrophic events such as the explosion of stars many times

  14. ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet reached nominal field

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

     On 9 November the barrel toroid magnet reached its nominal field of 4 teslas, with an electrical current of 21 000 amperes (21 kA) passing through the eight superconducting coils as shown on this graph

  15. Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection…

  16. Enhanced microactuation with magnetic field curing of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The incorporation of nanoparticles of iron in a natural rubber matrix leads to flexible magnetorheolog- ical (MR) materials. Rod-shaped MR elastomers based on natural rubber and nanosized iron have been moulded both with and without the application of an external magnetic field during curing. These MR elastomer rods ...

  17. Enhanced microactuation with magnetic field curing of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The incorporation of nanoparticles of iron in a natural rubber matrix leads to flexible magnetorheological (MR) materials. Rod-shaped MR elastomers based on natural rubber and nanosized iron have been moulded both with and without the application of an external magnetic field during curing. These MR elastomer rods ...

  18. Magnetic Field Structure in Relativistic Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jermak Helen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic jets are ubiquitous when considering an accreting black hole. Two of the most extreme examples of these systems are blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs, the jets of which are thought to be threaded with a magnetic field of unknown structure. The systems are made up of a black hole accreting matter and producing, as a result, relativistic jets of plasma from the poles of the black hole. Both systems are viewed as point sources from Earth, making it impossible to spatially resolve the jet. In order to explore the structure of the magnetic field within the jet we take polarisation measurements with the RINGO polarimeters on the world’s largest fully autonomous, robotic optical telescope: The Liverpool Telescope. Using the polarisation degree and angle measured by the RINGO polarimeters it is possible to distinguish between global magnetic fields created in the central engine and random tangled magnetic fields produced locally in shocks. We also monitor blazar sources regularly during quiescence with periods of flaring monitored more intensively. Reported here are the early polarisation results for GRBs 060418 and 090102, along with future prospects for the Liverpool Telescope and the RINGO polarimeters.

  19. Rotational Rectification of an Alternating Magnetic Field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 5. Rotational Rectification of an Alternating Magnetic Field. N Kumar. Classroom Volume 18 Issue 5 May 2013 pp 458-467. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/05/0458-0467 ...

  20. Spintronics r.f. oscillator driven by magnetic field feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulapurkar, Ashwin; Dixit, Dinesh; Konishi, Katsunori; Tomy, C. V.; Suzuki, Yoshishige

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) can be used as nano-scale rf oscillators using spin-transfer torque effect. Here we present an alternative novel mechanism of ``magnetic field feedback'' for driving MTJs into precessional states. To realize this effect, MTJ needs to be fabricated on top of a co-planar wave-guide. A dc current is passed through MTJ to produce a fluctuating voltage across it as a combination of thermal fluctuations of free layer and magneto-resistance effect. This voltage is applied across co-planar wave-guide to create a fluctuating magnetic field which acts on the free layer to enhance its fluctuations. If the dc current exceeds a critical value, precessional states of free layer are excited. We have derived expression for the critical current using lineralized LLG equation, modified to include the ``feedback'' magnetic field. We have verified the feedback effect by numerical simulation of stochastic LLG equation including random magnetic field: we find that the damping of the free layer can be increased/decreased by applying -ve/ +ve dc current. Simulations show that by applying dc current more than critical current, large amplitude oscillations with high quality factors are possible.

  1. MISALIGNMENT OF MAGNETIC FIELDS AND OUTFLOWS IN PROTOSTELLAR CORES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Heiles, Carl; Meredith Hughes, A. [Astronomy Department and Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Bolatto, Alberto D.; Jameson, Katherine; Mundy, Lee; Pound, Marc W. [Astronomy Department and Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Carpenter, John M.; Lamb, James W.; Pillai, Thushara [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Crutcher, Richard M.; Hakobian, Nicholas S.; Kwon, Woojin; Looney, Leslie W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Fiege, Jason D.; Franzmann, Erica [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Houde, Martin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Matthews, Brenda C., E-mail: chat@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Rd., Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); and others

    2013-05-10

    We present results of {lambda}1.3 mm dust-polarization observations toward 16 nearby, low-mass protostars, mapped with {approx}2.''5 resolution at CARMA. The results show that magnetic fields in protostellar cores on scales of {approx}1000 AU are not tightly aligned with outflows from the protostars. Rather, the data are consistent with scenarios where outflows and magnetic fields are preferentially misaligned (perpendicular), or where they are randomly aligned. If one assumes that outflows emerge along the rotation axes of circumstellar disks, and that the outflows have not disrupted the fields in the surrounding material, then our results imply that the disks are not aligned with the fields in the cores from which they formed.

  2. Mercury's Surface Magnetic Field Determined from Proton-Reflection Magnetometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Reka M.; Johnson, Catherine L.; Anderson, Brian J.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Raines, Jim M.; Lillis, Robert J.; Korth, Haje; Slavin, James A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Solar wind protons observed by the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit about Mercury exhibit signatures of precipitation loss to Mercury's surface. We apply proton-reflection magnetometry to sense Mercury's surface magnetic field intensity in the planet's northern and southern hemispheres. The results are consistent with a dipole field offset to the north and show that the technique may be used to resolve regional-scale fields at the surface. The proton loss cones indicate persistent ion precipitation to the surface in the northern magnetospheric cusp region and in the southern hemisphere at low nightside latitudes. The latter observation implies that most of the surface in Mercury's southern hemisphere is continuously bombarded by plasma, in contrast with the premise that the global magnetic field largely protects the planetary surface from the solar wind.

  3. Internal dipolar field and soft magnons in periodic nanocomposite magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belemuk, A. M.; Chui, S. T.

    2017-07-01

    We study spin wave excitations in a three-dimensional nanocomposite magnet of exchange coupled hard (SmCo5) and soft (FeCo) phases. The dipolar interaction splits the spin wave energies into the upper and lower branches of the spin wave manifold. When the amount of the soft phase is increased the energy of low-lying spin excitations is considerably softened due to two reasons: (i) the low- lying mode locked into the soft phase region with a spin wave gap at k = 0 which scales approximately proportional to the anisotropy constant of the soft phase and (ii) the internal dipolar field which comes from magnetic charges forming at hard-soft boundaries with normals parallel to the magnetization displaces the spin wave manifold toward the lower energies. With adding more soft phase the spin wave gap closes and the system moves to another ground state characterized by the magnetization mismatch between spins of the hard and soft phases.

  4. Performance of a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster with Magnetic Field Generated by Permanent Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2008-01-01

    While Hall thrusters can operate at high efficiency at kW power levels, it is difficult to construct one that operates over a broad envelope down to 100W while maintaining an efficiency of 45- 55%. Scaling to low power while holding the main dimensionless parameters constant requires a decrease in the thruster channel size and an increase in the magnetic field strength. Increasing the magnetic field becomes technically challenging since the field can saturate the miniaturized inner components of the magnetic circuit and scaling down the magnetic circuit leaves very little room for magnetic pole pieces and heat shields. An alternative approach is to employ a cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) geometry. Laboratory model CHTs have operated at power levels ranging from the order of 50 Watts up to 1 kW. These thrusters exhibit performance characteristics which are comparable to conventional, annular Hall thrusters of similar size. Compared to the annular Hall thruster, the CHT has a lower insulator surface area to discharge chamber volume ratio. Consequently, there is the potential for reduced wall losses in the channel of a CHT, and any reduction in wall losses should translate into lower channel heating rates and reduced erosion. This makes the CHT geometry promising for low-power applications. Recently, a CHT that uses permanent magnets to produce the magnetic field topology was tested. This thruster has the promise of reduced power consumption over previous CHT iterations that employed electromagnets. Data are presented for two purposes: to expose the effect different controllable parameters have on the discharge and to summarize performance measurements (thrust, Isp, efficiency) obtained using a thrust stand. These data are used to gain insight into the thruster's operation and to allow for quantitative comparisons between the permanent magnet CHT and the electromagnet CHT.

  5. Crystal Fields and the Magnetic Properties of Praseodymium and Neodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Torben; Lebech, Bente; Nielsen, Mourits

    1970-01-01

    The magnetic properties of Pr and Nd single crystals have been studied by neutron-diffraction and susceptibility measurements. In contrast to earlier results on polycrystals, monocrystalline Pr is found not to be magnetically ordered, because of crystal field effects, but a magnetic field induces...... a large moment. Anisotropic effective exchange results in a large magnetic anisotropy. The complex magnetic structure of Nd is substantially modified by a magnetic field....

  6. SOLAR CYCLE VARIATION OF THE INTER-NETWORK MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Chunlan; Wang, Jingxiu, E-mail: cljin@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2015-06-20

    The solar inter-network magnetic field is the weakest component of solar magnetism, but it contributes most of the solar surface magnetic flux. The study of its origin has been constrained by the inadequate tempospatial resolution and sensitivity of polarization observations. With dramatic advances in spatial resolution and detecting sensitivity, the solar spectropolarimetry provided by the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode in an interval from the solar minimum to maximum of cycle 24 opens an unprecedented opportunity to study the cyclic behavior of the solar inter-network magnetic field. More than 1000 Hinode magnetograms observed from 2007 January to 2014 August are selected in the study. It has been found that there is a very slight correlation between sunspot number and magnetic field at the inter-network flux spectrum. From solar minimum to maximum of cycle 24, the flux density of the solar inter-network field is invariant, at 10 ± 1 G. The observations suggest that the inter-network magnetic field does not arise from flux diffusion or flux recycling of solar active regions, thereby indicating the existence of a local small-scale dynamo. Combining the full-disk magnetograms observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager and the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager in the same period, we find that the area ratio of the inter-network region to the full disk of the Sun apparently decreases from solar minimum to maximum but always exceeds 60%, even in the phase of solar maximum.

  7. Theory of strong intrinsic mixing of particle suspensions in vortex magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James E

    2009-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that a type of triaxial magnetic field we call a vortex field can induce strong mixing in a magnetic particle suspension. A vortex triaxial field consists of a rotating magnetic field in a horizontal plane, with a dc field applied normal to this. The mixing torque is found to be independent of the field frequency and fluid viscosity over a broad range; scales as the square of the applied field; and is strongest for a balanced triaxial field-one in which the root-mean-square amplitudes of the three field components are equal. In this paper we show that these anomalous effects are consistent with the formation of volatile particle chains that have a precessionlike motion. Theoretical results are given for both particle chains and magnetic rods for arbitrary vortex field angles. A key conclusion is that the mixing torque is independent of particle size, making this mixing technique scale adaptive, and thus suitable for microfluidics applications.

  8. The Sun's Global Photospheric and Coronal Magnetic Fields: Observations and Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Mackay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review, our present day understanding of the Sun’s global photospheric and coronal magnetic fields is discussed from both observational and theoretical viewpoints. Firstly, the large-scale properties of photospheric magnetic fields are described, along with recent advances in photospheric magnetic flux transport models. Following this, the wide variety of theoretical models used to simulate global coronal magnetic fields are described. From this, the combined application of both magnetic flux transport simulations and coronal modeling techniques to describe the phenomena of coronal holes, the Sun’s open magnetic flux and the hemispheric pattern of solar filaments is discussed. Finally, recent advances in non-eruptive global MHD models are described. While the review focuses mainly on solar magnetic fields, recent advances in measuring and modeling stellar magnetic fields are described where appropriate. In the final section key areas of future research are identified.

  9. A Linear Magnetic Field Scan Driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quine, Richard W; Czechowski, Tomasz; Eaton, Gareth R

    2009-02-01

    A linear magnetic field scan driver was developed to provide a rapidly scanning magnetic field for use in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The driver consists of two parts: a digitally synthesized ramp waveform generator and a power amplifier to drive the magnetic field coils. Additionally, the driver provides a trigger signal to a data collection digitizer that is synchronized to the ramp waveform. The driver can also drive an arbitrary current waveform supplied from an external source. The waveform generator is computer controlled through a serial data interface. Additional functions are controlled by the user from the driver front panel. The frequency and amplitude of the waveform are each separately controlled with 12-bit resolution (one part in 4,096). Several versions of the driver have been built with different frequency and amplitude ranges. Frequencies range from 500 to 20,000 Hz. Field sweep amplitudes range up to 80 G(pp). This article also gives a brief description of the field coils that are driven by the driver.

  10. Dynamic nuclear polarization at high magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Thorsten; Debelouchina, Galia T; Bajaj, Vikram S; Hu, Kan-Nian; Joo, Chan-Gyu; Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody L; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R; van der Wel, Patrick C A; Herzfeld, Judith; Temkin, Richard J; Griffin, Robert G

    2008-02-07

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a method that permits NMR signal intensities of solids and liquids to be enhanced significantly, and is therefore potentially an important tool in structural and mechanistic studies of biologically relevant molecules. During a DNP experiment, the large polarization of an exogeneous or endogeneous unpaired electron is transferred to the nuclei of interest (I) by microwave (microw) irradiation of the sample. The maximum theoretical enhancement achievable is given by the gyromagnetic ratios (gamma(e)gamma(l)), being approximately 660 for protons. In the early 1950s, the DNP phenomenon was demonstrated experimentally, and intensively investigated in the following four decades, primarily at low magnetic fields. This review focuses on recent developments in the field of DNP with a special emphasis on work done at high magnetic fields (> or =5 T), the regime where contemporary NMR experiments are performed. After a brief historical survey, we present a review of the classical continuous wave (cw) DNP mechanisms-the Overhauser effect, the solid effect, the cross effect, and thermal mixing. A special section is devoted to the theory of coherent polarization transfer mechanisms, since they are potentially more efficient at high fields than classical polarization schemes. The implementation of DNP at high magnetic fields has required the development and improvement of new and existing instrumentation. Therefore, we also review some recent developments in microw and probe technology, followed by an overview of DNP applications in biological solids and liquids. Finally, we outline some possible areas for future developments.

  11. Dynamics of a magnetic active Brownian particle under a uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Urquiza, Glenn C.; Córdova-Figueroa, Ubaldo M.

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a magnetic active Brownian particle undergoing three-dimensional Brownian motion, both translation and rotation, under the influence of a uniform magnetic field is investigated. The particle self-propels at a constant speed along its magnetic dipole moment, which reorients due to the interplay between Brownian and magnetic torques, quantified by the Langevin parameter α . In this work, the time-dependent active diffusivity and the crossover time (τcross)—from ballistic to diffusive regimes—are calculated through the time-dependent correlation function of the fluctuations of the propulsion direction. The results reveal that, for any value of α , the particle undergoes a directional (or ballistic) propulsive motion at very short times (t ≪τcross ). In this regime, the correlation function decreases linearly with time, and the active diffusivity increases with it. It the opposite time limit (t ≫τcross ), the particle moves in a purely diffusive regime with a correlation function that decays asymptotically to zero and an active diffusivity that reaches a constant value equal to the long-time active diffusivity of the particle. As expected in the absence of a magnetic field (α =0 ), the crossover time is equal to the characteristic time scale for rotational diffusion, τrot. In the presence of a magnetic field (α >0 ), the correlation function, the active diffusivity, and the crossover time decrease with increasing α . The magnetic field regulates the regimes of propulsion of the particle. Here, the field reduces the period of time at which the active particle undergoes a directional motion. Consequently, the active particle rapidly reaches a diffusive regime at τcross≪τrot . In the limit of weak fields (α ≪1 ), the crossover time decreases quadratically with α , while in the limit of strong fields (α ≫1 ) it decays asymptotically as α-1. The results are in excellent agreement with those obtained by Brownian dynamics

  12. Controlled actuation of alternating magnetic field-sensitive tunable hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Santaneel [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, MO 63701 (United States); Cai Tong, E-mail: sghosh@semo.ed [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States)

    2010-10-20

    The feasibility of using tunable magnetic nano-particles embedded in cylindrical hydrogel materials for guided actuation via controlled modulation of oscillating magnetic field and frequency is investigated. Ferromagnetic nano-particles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) encapsulated within a thermo-sensitive polymer network [-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)] were polymerized inside 1.5 mm diameter capillary tubes. Inside alternating magnetic field (25-70 Oe, 150-280 kHz), the polymer monolith quickly bends along the longitudinal axis. The bending behaviour of the polymer monolith was influenced by the following factors: (a) mechanical strength of the monolith, (b) ac field-induced temperature regulation and (c) the surface evaporation. The equilibrium bending angle reached a maximum value of 74{sup 0} at 30 Oe, 200 kHz, between 15% and 35% relative humidity conditions. In addition, we found that micro-scale monolith (300 {mu}m diameter) exhibited significantly faster actuation response compared with the 1500 {mu}m diameter hydrogel cylinder. Both de-swelling efficiency and volumetric transition temperature were not affected due to the nano-magnet incorporation. As ac magnetic field-induced controlled modulation can directly transform the absorbed energy into bending and shrinkage simultaneously for temperature sensitive polymers, i.e. the absorbed energy is converted into mechanical work, this novel approach may lead to a new category of magnetically responsive polymeric structures for potential applications in the field of smart gel-based devices, such as micro-sensors and actuators, and particularly in biomedical fields.

  13. Crystal field interactions studied by high-field magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwanski, R.J.; Franse, J.J.M. (Van der Waals-Zeeman Lab., Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1992-03-01

    The effect of crystalline electric field (CEF) interactions of the 4f ions on the magnetization process is reviewed for some intermetallic compounds. Special emphasis is given to metamagnetic transitions. The transitions in Ho{sub 2}Co{sub 17} are exchange-driven transitions associated with the formation of a non-collinear magnetic structure in contrast to the transition found in DyCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2} that is of a level-crossing type. The transition found in Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B results from a competition between lower and higher order crystal field terms. The formation of the rare earth moment under the action of CEF and exchange interactions as well as of external fields is analyzed. (orig.).

  14. The equatorial asymmetry of a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnyak, M. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    Solution of the inverse problem for Parker's one-dimensional mean-field dynamo model in a thin spherical layer is considered. The method allows the spatial distribution of energy sources, the α- and Ω-effects, to be found provided specified constraints occur on the solution. The highest ratio of the magnetic energies for the Northern and Southern hemispheres is discussed as such a constraint. The method is a modification of the Monte-Carlo technique; it is convenient for parallel computations and based on minimization of the cost function that characterizes the deviation of the model solution properties from the desired ones. The calculations show that the ratio of the energies in the hemispheres may exceed an order of magnitude for both poloidal and toroidal components of the magnetic energy. The ratio depends on the distance of the effective zone of the generation of the magnetic field from the equator and the number of harmonics in the spectrum. The greater this distance is and the higher the number of harmonics is, the stronger the magnetic field asymmetry can be.

  15. Navigation: Bat orientation using Earth's magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Richard A.; Thorup, Kasper; Vonhof, Maarten J.

    2006-01-01

    Bats famously orientate at night by echolocation 1 , but this works over only a short range, and little is known about how they navigate over longer distances 2 . Here we show that the homing behaviour of Eptesicus fuscus, known as the big brown bat, can be altered by artificially shifting...... the Earth's magnetic field, indicating that these bats rely on a magnetic compass to return to their home roost. This finding adds to the impressive array of sensory abilities possessed by this animal for navigation in the dark....

  16. Scaling law for voltage-current curve of a superconductor tape with a power-law dependence of electric field on a magnetic-field-dependent sheet current density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Du-Xing

    2017-07-01

    Systematic theoretical study on the voltage (V) vs. current (I) curves of high-Tc superconductor (HTS) thin tapes has not been done till now, although their measurements are frequently used for determining critical current Ic at electric field E ≡ V /lv =Ec =10-4 V/m, lv being the voltage tap distance. On the other hand, it is well recognized that such tapes obey a power-law dependence of local electric field on local sheet current density with a Kim-model critical sheet current density, from which the V vs. I curve may be calculated as a function of current ramp rate R. Such calculations are carried out in the present work with a scaling law deduced, which states that if E/Ec vs. I/Ic is a solution at given apparent power-law exponent na and R/Ec, then this R/Ec multiplied by a constant C leads to another solution with E/Ec and I/Ic multiplied by C and C1/na , respectively. In the help of the scaling law, condition-dependent V vs. I may be studied systematically and completely based on a limited amount of numerical computations and V - I curve measurements may be performed under properly controlled conditions to become a more powerful tool for HTS research.

  17. Topological insulator in a helicoidal magnetization field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagraczyński, S.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Dugaev, V. K.; Jia, C.-L.; Ernst, A.; Komnik, A.; Berakdar, J.

    2016-11-01

    A key feature of topological insulators is the robustness of the electron energy spectrum. At a surface of a topological insulator, the Dirac point is protected by the characteristic symmetry of the system. The breaking of the symmetry opens a gap in the energy spectrum. Therefore, topological insulators are very sensitive to magnetic fields, which can open a gap in the electronic spectrum. Concerning "internal" magnetic effects, for example, the situation with doped magnetic impurities, is not trivial. A single magnetic impurity is not enough to open the band gap, while in the case of a ferromagnetic chain of deposited magnetic impurities the Dirac point is lifted. However, a much more interesting case is when localized magnetic impurities form a chiral spin order. Our first principle density functional theory calculations have shown that this is the case for Fe deposited on the surface of a Bi2Se3 topological insulator. But not only magnetic impurities can form a chiral helicoidal spin texture. An alternative way is to use chiral multiferroics (prototype material is LiCu2O2 ) that induce a proximity effect. The theoretical approach we present here is valid for both cases. We observed that opposite to a ferromagnetically ordered case, a chiral spin order does not destroy the Dirac point. We also observed that the energy gap appears at the edges of the new Brillouin zone. Another interesting result concerns the spin dynamics. We derived an equation for the spin density dynamics with a spin current and relaxation terms. We have shown that the motion of the conductance electron generates a magnetic torque and exerts a certain force on the helicoidal texture.

  18. Neutrino transition magnetic moments and the solar magnetic field on the light of the Kamland evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Antonelli, V; Picariello, M; Pulido, J; Torrente-Lujan, E

    2003-01-01

    We present here a recopilation of recent results about the possibility of detecting solar electron antineutrinos produced by solar core and convective magnetic fields. These antineutrinos are predicted by spin-flavor oscillations at a significant rate even if this mechanism is not the leading solution to the SNP. Using the recent Kamland results and assuming a concrete model for antineutrino production by spin-flavor precession in the convective zone based on chaotic magnetic fields,we obtain bounds on the flux of solar antineutrinos, on the average conversion neutrino-antineutrino probability and on intrinsic neutrino magnetic moment. In the most conservative case, $\\mu\\lsim 2.5\\times 10^{-11} \\mu_B$ (95% CL). When studying the effects of a core magnetic field, we find in the weak limit a scaling of the antineutrino probability with respect to the magnetic field profile in the sense that the same probability function can be reproduced by any profile with a suitable peak field value. In this way the solar ele...

  19. Effects of magnetic order on the superconducting length scales and critical fields in single crystal ErNi2B2C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammel, P.L.; Barber, B.P.; Ramirez, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The flux line form factor in small angle neutron scattering and transport data determines the superconducting length scares and critical fields in single crystal ErNi2B2C. For H parallel to c, the coherence length xi increases and the penetration depth lambda decreases when crossing T-N = 6.0 K...

  20. Magnetic field assisted programming of particle shapes and patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenwen; Yao, Yuyu; Klassen, John S; Serpe, Michael J

    2015-09-28

    Anisotropic particles have generated an enormous amount of research interest due to their applications for drug delivery, electronic displays and as micromotors. However, up till now, there is no single protocol capable of generating particles of "patchy" composition with a variety of well-defined and predictable shapes. To address this, in this submission we dispersed magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in a non-magnetic fluid containing monomer and crosslinker. This solution was added to the surface of Teflon, which was submerged in the solvent 2,2,4-trimethylpentane. Under these conditions a round, stable droplet was formed on the Teflon. Upon exposure to a permanent magnet, the MNPs self-assembled into clusters with a variety shapes and sizes. The shape and size of the clusters depended on the magnetic field strength, which we controlled by systematically varying the distance between the magnet and the droplet. Interestingly, the shape of the liquid droplet was also influenced by the magnetic field. Upon polymerization, the MNP patterns and the droplet shape was preserved. We also show that very complex MNP patterns and particle shapes could be generated by controlling the distance between the drop and both a magnet above and below the droplet. In this case, the resulting patterns depended on whether the magnets were attracting or repelling each other, which was capable of changing the field lines that the MNPs align with. Overall, this approach is capable of generating particles with predictable MNP patterns and particle shapes without the use of any templates or complex synthetic steps. Furthermore, by using a sprayer (or similar approaches, e.g., ink jet printing) this technique can be easily scaled up to produce many complex anisotropic particles in a short amount of time.

  1. Non-Hydrogenic Rydberg Atoms in Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    P. A., DANDO; T. S., MONTEIRO; W., JANS; W., SCHWEIZER; Department of Mathematics, Royal Holloway, University of London; Lehrstuhl fur Theoretische Astrophysik, University Tubingen

    1994-01-01

    The classical and quantal dynamics of non-hydrogenic Rydberg atoms in magnetic fields are investigated. Previous attempts to infer classical behaviour from quantum properties produced conflicting results: at low scaled energies (ε=-0.5) the nearest-neighbour statistics (NNS) were found to be at the chaotic (Wigner) limit while quantum phase-space distributions suggested a high degree of regularity. Here the classical limit is investigated directly by solving the equations of motion of the Dia...

  2. Asymmetry of the ion diffusion region Hall electric and magnetic fields during guide field reconnection: observations and comparison with simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, J P; Shay, M A; Phan, T D; Øieroset, M

    2010-05-21

    In situ measurements of magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail are presented showing that even a moderate guide field (20% of the reconnecting field) considerably distorts ion diffusion region structure. The Hall magnetic and electric fields are asymmetric and shunted away from the current sheet; an appropriately scaled particle-in-cell simulation is found to be in excellent agreement with the data. The results show the importance of correctly accounting for the effects of the magnetic shear when attempting to identify and study magnetic reconnection diffusion regions in nature.

  3. Magnetic field and radiative transfer modelling of a quiescent prominence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunár, S.; Schwartz, P.; Dudík, J.; Schmieder, B.; Heinzel, P.; Jurčák, J.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to analyse the multi-instrument observations of the June 22, 2010 prominence to study its structure in detail, including the prominence-corona transition region and the dark bubble located below the prominence body. Methods: We combined results of the 3D magnetic field modelling with 2D prominence fine structure radiative transfer models to fully exploit the available observations. Results: The 3D linear force-free field model with the unsheared bipole reproduces the morphology of the analysed prominence reasonably well, thus providing useful information about its magnetic field configuration and the location of the magnetic dips. The 2D models of the prominence fine structures provide a good representation of the local plasma configuration in the region dominated by the quasi-vertical threads. However, the low observed Lyman-α central intensities and the morphology of the analysed prominence suggest that its upper central part is not directly illuminated from the solar surface. Conclusions: This multi-disciplinary prominence study allows us to argue that a large part of the prominence-corona transition region plasma can be located inside the magnetic dips in small-scale features that surround the cool prominence material located in the dip centre. We also argue that the dark prominence bubbles can be formed because of perturbations of the prominence magnetic field by parasitic bipoles, causing them to be devoid of the magnetic dips. Magnetic dips, however, form thin layers that surround these bubbles, which might explain the occurrence of the cool prominence material in the lines of sight intersecting the prominence bubbles. Movie and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Validation of the CMS Magnetic Field Map

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00096921; Amapane, N.; Ball, A.; Curé, B.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Mulders, M.; Calvelli, V.; Hervé, A.; Loveless, R.

    2014-10-26

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector, designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive features include a 4-T superconducting solenoid with 6-m-diameter by 12.5-m-length free bore, enclosed inside a 10,000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. The return yoke consists of five dodecagonal three-layered barrel wheels and four end-cap disks at each end comprised of steel blocks up to 620 mm thick, which serve as the absorber plates of the muon detection system. To measure the field in and around the steel, a system of 22 flux loops and 82 three-dimensional (3-D) Hall sensors is installed on the return yoke blocks. A TOSCA 3-D model of the CMS magnet is developed to describe the magnetic field everywhere outside the tracking volume measured with the field-mapping machine. The magnetic field description is compared with the measurements and discussed.

  5. Measurement of the CMS Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00096921; Bergsma, F.; Campi, D.; Cure, B.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Herve, A.; Korienek, J.; Linde, F.; Lindenmeyer, C.; Loveless, R.; Mulders, M.; Nebel, T.; Smith, R.P.; Stickland, D.; Teafoe, G.; Veillet, L.; Zimmerman, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of the magnetic field in the tracking volume inside the superconducting coil of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector under construction at CERN is done with a fieldmapper designed and produced at Fermilab. The fieldmapper uses 10 3-D B-sensors (Hall probes) developed at NIKHEF and calibrated at CERN to precision 0.05% for a nominal 4 T field. The precise fieldmapper measurements are done in 33840 points inside a cylinder of 1.724 m radius and 7 m long at central fields of 2, 3, 3.5, 3.8, and 4 T. Three components of the magnetic flux density at the CMS coil maximum excitation and the remanent fields on the steel-air interface after discharge of the coil are measured in check-points with 95 3-D B-sensors located near the magnetic flux return yoke elements. Voltages induced in 22 flux-loops made of 405-turn installed on selected segments of the yoke are sampled online during the entire fast discharge (190 s time-constant) of the CMS coil and integrated offline to provide a measurement of the...

  6. Magnetic Fields in Population III Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, Matthew J.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Abel, Tom; Bryan, Greg

    2012-02-22

    We study the buildup of magnetic fields during the formation of Population III star-forming regions, by conducting cosmological simulations from realistic initial conditions and varying the Jeans resolution. To investigate this in detail, we start simulations from identical initial conditions, mandating 16, 32 and 64 zones per Jeans length, and studied the variation in their magnetic field amplification. We find that, while compression results in some amplification, turbulent velocity fluctuations driven by the collapse can further amplify an initially weak seed field via dynamo action, provided there is sufficient numerical resolution to capture vortical motions (we find this requirement to be 64 zones per Jeans length, slightly larger than, but consistent with previous work run with more idealized collapse scenarios). We explore saturation of amplification of the magnetic field, which could potentially become dynamically important in subsequent, fully-resolved calculations. We have also identified a relatively surprising phenomena that is purely hydrodynamic: the higher-resolved simulations possess substantially different characteristics, including higher infall-velocity, increased temperatures inside 1000 AU, and decreased molecular hydrogen content in the innermost region. Furthermore, we find that disk formation is suppressed in higher-resolution calculations, at least at the times that we can follow the calculation. We discuss the effect this may have on the buildup of disks over the accretion history of the first clump to form as well as the potential for gravitational instabilities to develop and induce fragmentation.

  7. Electric breakdown potentials under longitudinal magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Aparicio V, L.F.; Soberon V P, F. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Lima (Peru). Seccion Fisica. Grupo de Investigacion en Plasmas. E-mail: plasma@pucp.edu.pe

    1998-07-01

    A study of a DC ionization potential with longitudinal magnetic fields in a parallel plate configuration is presented. A variation of the well known Paschen curve is studied for two different separation distances (2.0 and 6.7 cm) between the electrodes; more than orders of magnitude in pressures (1.4 x 10{sup -2} to 40 mbar); and magnetic fields up to 250 Gauss. The differences between the curves with and without B field are explained by the fluid model only by means of perpendicular mobility ({mu}) and diffusion (D) coefficients, cyclotron frequencies ({omega}{sub c}), Larmor radii (r-L) and collision frequencies v{sup =}{pi}{sup -1} with neutrals, independently of whether they produce ionization or not. Some inversions or crossings of the electric behavior between the right and left branch of different modified Paschen curves are due to the increasing collision frequencies and anomalous coefficients producing lower ionization potentials than the established ones in the absence of magnetic fields. (author)

  8. Magnetic field generation by intermittent convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertovskih, R.; Rempel, E. L.; Chimanski, E. V.

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic field generation in three-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection of an electrically conducting fluid is studied numerically by fixing the Prandtl number at P = 0.3 and varying the Rayleigh number (Ra) as a control parameter. A recently reported route to hyperchaos involving quasiperiodic regimes, crises and chaotic intermittent attractors is followed, and the critical magnetic Prandtl number (Pmc) for dynamo action is determined as a function of Ra. A mechanism for the onset of intermittency in the magnetic energy is described, the most beneficial convective regimes for dynamo action in this transition to weak turbulence are identified, and the impact of intermittency on the dependence of Pmc on Ra is discussed.

  9. Magnetic field generation by intermittent convection

    CERN Document Server

    Chertovskih, R; Chimanski, E V

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic field generation by convective flows in transition to weak turbulence is studied numerically. By fixing the Prandtl number at P=0.3 and varying the Rayleigh number (Ra) as a control parameter in three-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection of an electrically conducting fluid, a recently reported route to hyperchaos involving quasiperiodic regimes, crises and chaotic intermittent attractors is followed, and the critical magnetic Prandtl number ($P_m^c$) for dynamo action is determined as a function of Ra. A mechanism for the onset of on-off intermittency in the magnetic energy is described, the most beneficial convective regimes for dynamo action are identified, and how intermittency affects the dependence of $P_m^c$ on Ra is discussed.

  10. Homogenous BSCCO-2212 Round Wires for Very High Field Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Scott Campbell

    2012-06-30

    stress limitation of J{sub E} at the operating conditions, resistive transition index (n-value) sufficiently high to meet the field decay requirements (in persistent magnets), piece lengths long enough to wind coils, and acceptably low costs. HEP has traditionally used very high current magnets made from Rutherford cables, and the ability to be cabled is another key advantage. Very high on the list of materials able to fulfill the requirements above is Bi-2212 round wire. Both cables and high field coils on a small scale have been demonstrated using this material. By contrast, YBCO is a single-filament tape that is not easy to cable. As shown in Figure 1 these tapes are highly anisotropic in their current density. In the good orientation the performance is considerably better than Bi-2212, however at the highest fields measured, the isotropic current behavior of 2212 exceeds the bad orientation of YBCO.

  11. Anisotropies in magnetic field evolution and local Lyapunov exponents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, X.Z.; Boozer, A.H.

    2000-01-13

    The natural occurrence of small scale structures and the extreme anisotropy in the evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a conducting flow is interpreted in terms of the properties of the local Lyapunov exponents along the various local characteristic (un)stable directions for the Lagrangian flow trajectories. The local Lyapunov exponents and the characteristic directions are functions of Lagrangian coordinates and time, which are completely determined once the flow field is specified. The characteristic directions that are associated with the spatial anisotropy of the problem, are prescribed in both Lagrangian and Eulerian frames. Coordinate transformation techniques are employed to relate the spatial distributions of the magnetic field, the induced current density, and the Lorentz force, which are usually followed in Eulerian frame, to those of the local Lyapunov exponents, which are naturally defined in Lagrangian coordinates.

  12. Feynman's Proof and Non-Elastic Displacement Fields: Relationship Between Magnetic Field and Defects Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nozomu; Yamasaki, Kazuhito

    2016-12-01

    We consider the relationship between the magnetic field and the non-elastic displacement field including defects, from the viewpoints of non-commutativity of the positions and non-commutativity of the derivatives. The former non-commutativity is related to the magnetic field by Feynman's proof (1948), and the latter is related to the defect fields by the continuum theory of defects. We introduce the concept of differential geometry to the non-elastic displacement field and derive an extended relation that includes basic equations, such as Gauss's law for magnetism and the conservation law for dislocation density. The relation derived in this paper also extends the first Bianchi identity in linear approximation to include the effect of magnetism. These findings suggest that Feynman's approach with a non-elastic displacement field is useful for understanding the relationship between magnetism and non-elastic mechanics.

  13. The primaeval lunar magnetic field - Its relevance to the interpretation of planetary fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runcorn, S. K.

    1992-08-01

    An overview is given regarding the evidence that the moon once had a general magnetic field, and its implications are considered with respect to planets such as Mars, Venus, Uranus, and Neptune. Attention is given to evidence of remanent magnetization in lunar samples, and satellite magnetic surveys are discussed. It is argued that planetary field strengths vary with evolutionary factors and that 'scaling laws' are inappropriate for interpreting planetary fields. The idea is considered that the dynamos of Mars and Venus may have shut down as in the case of the moon, and the off-center dipoles of Uranus and Neptune suggest the presence of local dynamos. It is proposed that the dipole inclinations of Uranus and Neptune can be explained by local dipoles that align along the angular rotation component perpendicular to the shell.

  14. Improving Magnet Designs With High and Low Field Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders

    2011-01-01

    A general scheme for increasing the difference in magnetic flux density between a high and a low magnetic field region by removing unnecessary magnet material is presented. This is important in, e.g., magnetic refrigeration where magnet arrays have to deliver high field regions in close proximity...... to low field regions. Also, a general way to replace magnet material with a high permeability soft magnetic material where appropriate is discussed. As an example, these schemes are applied to a two dimensional concentric Halbach cylinder design resulting in a reduction of the amount of magnet material...

  15. Ferrofluid drops in rotating magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, A V; Morozov, K I; Bauke, H

    2003-01-01

    Drops of a ferrofluid floating in a non-magnetic liquid of the same density and spun by a rotating magnetic field are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The parameters for the experiment are chosen such that different stationary drop shapes including non-axis-symmetric configurations could be observed. Within an approximate theoretical analysis the character of the occurring shape bifurcations, the different stationary drop forms, as well as the slow rotational motion of the drop is investigated. The results are in qualitative, and often quantitative agreement, with the experimental findings. It is also shown that a small eccentricity of the rotating field may have a substantial impact on the rotational motion of the drop.

  16. Large-scale Flow and Transport of Magnetic Flux in the Solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. Horizontal large-scale velocity field describes horizontal displacement of the photospheric magnetic flux in zonal and meridian directions. The flow systems of solar plasma, constructed according to the velocity field, create the large-scale cellular-like patterns with up-flow in the center and the down-flow on the ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging at Ultrahigh Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğurbil, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of 4 T human systems in three academic laboratories circa 1990, rapid progress in imaging and spectroscopy studies in humans at 4 T and animal model systems at 9.4 T have led to the introduction of 7 T and higher magnetic fields for human investigation at about the turn of the century. Work conducted on these platforms has demonstrated the existence of significant advantages in SNR and biological information content at these ultrahigh fields, as well as the presence of numerous challenges. Primary difference from lower fields is the deviation from the near field regime; at the frequencies corresponding to hydrogen resonance conditions at ultrahigh fields, the RF is characterized by attenuated traveling waves in the human body, which leads to image nonuniformities for a given sample-coil configuration because of interferences. These nonuniformities were considered detrimental to the progress of imaging at high field strengths. However, they are advantageous for parallel imaging for signal reception and parallel transmission, two critical technologies that account, to a large extend, for the success of ultrahigh fields. With these technologies, and improvements in instrumentation and imaging methods, ultra-high fields have provided unprecedented gains in imaging of brain function and anatomy, and started to make inroads into investigation of the human torso and extremities. As extensive as they are, these gains still constitute a prelude to what is to come given the increasingly larger effort committed to ultrahigh field research and development of ever better instrumentation and techniques. PMID:24686229

  18. Mitigated-force carriage for high magnetic field environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtka, Gerard M.; Ludtka, Gail M.; Wilgen, John B.; Murphy, Bart L.

    2015-05-19

    A carriage for high magnetic field environments includes a plurality of work-piece separators disposed in an operable relationship with a work-piece processing magnet having a magnetic field strength of at least 1 Tesla for supporting and separating a plurality of work-pieces by a preselected, essentially equal spacing, so that, as a first work-piece is inserted into the magnetic field, a second work-piece is simultaneously withdrawn from the magnetic field, so that an attractive magnetic force imparted on the first work-piece offsets a resistive magnetic force imparted on the second work-piece.

  19. Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    1997-01-01

    ) is evaluated using diagrammatic techniques. The transresistivity is given by an integral over energy and momentum transfer weighted by the product of the screened interlayer interaction and the phase space for scattering events. We demonstrate, by a numerical analysis of the transresistivity, that for well......-resolved Landau levels the interplay between these two factors leads to characteristic features in both the magnetic field and the temperature dependence of rho(21). Numerical results are compared with recent experiments....

  20. Flatland Electrons in High Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayegan, M.

    This paper provides a review of recent developments in the physics of two-dimensional carrier systems in perpendicular magnetic fields. The emphasis is on many-body phenomena in very clean GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, probed via magnetotransport measurements. Topics that are discussed include the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, Wigner crystallization, composite Fermions, Skyrmions, stripe and bubble phases in single layer systems, and electron-hole pairing and Bose-Einstein condensation in interacting bilayer systems.

  1. Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Magnetic Field Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    grid of magnetic field intensities at an altitude of five kilometers above mean sea level. 3 1.1.3 Storms. Storms adeptly applied a terrain navigation...the multi-magnetometer platform is non-ferrous (i.e., plastic , wood, aluminum, etc.) such that the platform interferes with the calibration as little as...birds, loggerhead turtles , and lobsters, the ability is part of their anatomy. In humans however, the ability is not innate and has been learned and

  2. Quantum Coherence and Random Fields at Mesoscopic Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, Thomas F. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We seek to explore and exploit model, disordered and geometrically frustrated magnets where coherent spin clusters stably detach themselves from their surroundings, leading to extreme sensitivity to finite frequency excitations and the ability to encode information. Global changes in either the spin concentration or the quantum tunneling probability via the application of an external magnetic field can tune the relative weights of quantum entanglement and random field effects on the mesoscopic scale. These same parameters can be harnessed to manipulate domain wall dynamics in the ferromagnetic state, with technological possibilities for magnetic information storage. Finally, extensions from quantum ferromagnets to antiferromagnets promise new insights into the physics of quantum fluctuations and effective dimensional reduction. A combination of ac susceptometry, dc magnetometry, noise measurements, hole burning, non-linear Fano experiments, and neutron diffraction as functions of temperature, magnetic field, frequency, excitation amplitude, dipole concentration, and disorder address issues of stability, overlap, coherence, and control. We have been especially interested in probing the evolution of the local order in the progression from spin liquid to spin glass to long-range-ordered magnet.

  3. Electron transport in argon in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness; Makabe

    2000-09-01

    An investigation of electron transport in argon in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields is carried out over a wide range of values of electric and magnetic field strengths. Values of mean energy, ionization rate, drift velocity, and diffusion tensor are reported here. Two unexpected phenomena arise; for certain values of electric and magnetic field we find regions where the swarm mean energy decreases with increasing electric fields for a fixed magnetic field and regions where swarm mean energy increases with increasing magnetic field for a fixed electric field.

  4. Reversible electric-field-eriven magnetic domain-wall motion

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Kévin; Van de Wiele, Ben; Shirahata, Yasuhiro; Hämäläinen, Sampo; Taniyama, Tomoyasu; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Control of magnetic domain-wall motion by electric fields has recently attracted scientific attention because of its potential for magnetic logic and memory devices. Here, we report on a new driving mechanism that allows for magnetic domain-wall motion in an applied electric field without the concurrent use of a magnetic field or spin-polarized electric current. The mechanism is based on elastic coupling between magnetic and ferroelectric domain walls in multiferroic heterostructures. Pure el...

  5. Large-scale dynamo growth rates from numerical simulations and implications for mean-field theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiwan; Blackman, Eric G; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2013-05-01

    Understanding large-scale magnetic field growth in turbulent plasmas in the magnetohydrodynamic limit is a goal of magnetic dynamo theory. In particular, assessing how well large-scale helical field growth and saturation in simulations match those predicted by existing theories is important for progress. Using numerical simulations of isotropically forced turbulence without large-scale shear with its implications, we focus on several additional aspects of this comparison: (1) Leading mean-field dynamo theories which break the field into large and small scales predict that large-scale helical field growth rates are determined by the difference between kinetic helicity and current helicity with no dependence on the nonhelical energy in small-scale magnetic fields. Our simulations show that the growth rate of the large-scale field from fully helical forcing is indeed unaffected by the presence or absence of small-scale magnetic fields amplified in a precursor nonhelical dynamo. However, because the precursor nonhelical dynamo in our simulations produced fields that were strongly subequipartition with respect to the kinetic energy, we cannot yet rule out the potential influence of stronger nonhelical small-scale fields. (2) We have identified two features in our simulations which cannot be explained by the most minimalist versions of two-scale mean-field theory: (i) fully helical small-scale forcing produces significant nonhelical large-scale magnetic energy and (ii) the saturation of the large-scale field growth is time delayed with respect to what minimalist theory predicts. We comment on desirable generalizations to the theory in this context and future desired work.

  6. Enhancement of electric and magnetic wave fields at density gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Reiniusson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We use Freja satellite data to investigate irregular small-scale density variations. The observations are made in the auroral region at about 1000-1700 km. The density variations are a few percent, and the structures are found to be spatial down to a scale length of a few ion gyroradii. Irregular density variations are often found in an environment of whistler mode/lower hybrid waves and we show that at the density gradients both the electric and magnetic wave fields are enhanced.

  7. Static Magnetic Field Therapy: A Critical Review of Treatment Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha P. Colbert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Static magnetic field (SMF therapy, applied via a permanent magnet attached to the skin, is used by people worldwide for self-care. Despite a lack of established SMF dosage and treatment regimens, multiple studies are conducted to evaluate SMF therapy effectiveness. Our objectives in conducting this review are to: (i summarize SMF research conducted in humans; (ii critically evaluate reporting quality of SMF dosages and treatment parameters and (iii propose a set of criteria for reporting SMF treatment parameters in future clinical trials. We searched 27 electronic databases and reference lists. Only English language human studies were included. Excluded were studies of electromagnetic fields, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnets placed on acupuncture points, animal studies, abstracts, posters and editorials. Data were extracted on clinical indication, study design and 10 essential SMF parameters. Three reviewers assessed quality of reporting and calculated a quality assessment score for each of the 10 treatment parameters. Fifty-six studies were reviewed, 42 conducted in patient populations and 14 in healthy volunteers. The SMF treatment parameters most often and most completely described were site of application, magnet support device and frequency and duration of application. Least often and least completely described were characteristics of the SMF: magnet dimensions, measured field strength and estimated distance of the magnet from the target tissue. Thirty-four (61% of studies failed to provide enough detail about SMF dosage to permit protocol replication by other investigators. Our findings highlight the need to optimize SMF dosing parameters for individual clinical conditions before proceeding to a full-scale clinical trial.

  8. Magnetic reversal frequency scaling in dynamos with thermochemical convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Peter; Amit, Hagay

    2014-05-01

    Scaling relationships are derived for the frequency of magnetic polarity reversals in numerical dynamos powered by thermochemical convection. We show that the average number of reversals per unit of time scales with the local Rossby number Rol of the convection. With uniform core-mantle boundary (CMB) heat flux, polarity reversals are absent below a critical value Rol_crit ~ 0.05, beyond which reversal frequency increases approximately linearly with Rol. The relative standard deviation of the dipole intensity fluctuations increases with reversal frequency and Rol. With heterogeneous CMB heat flux that models the large-scale seismic heterogeneity in Earth's lower mantle, reversal frequency also exhibits linear dependence on Rol, and increases approximately as the square root of the amplitude of the CMB heterogeneity. Applied to the history of the geodynamo, these results imply that outer core convection was relatively weak with low CMB heat flux and RolRol_crit during magnetic superchrons and relatively vigorous with higher, more heterogeneous CMB heat flux and Rol>Rol_crit when geomagnetic reversals were frequent. They also suggest that polarity reversals may have been commonplace in the early history of other terrestrial planets. We find that zonal heterogeneity in CMB heat flux produces special effects. Close to Rol_crit, enhanced equatorial cooling at the CMB increases reversal frequency by concentrating magnetic field at low latitudes, whereas far beyond Rol_crit, enhanced polar cooling at the CMB increases reversal frequency by amplifying outer core convection.

  9. Study on the temperature characteristics of LPFG magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaocheng; Wang, Haitong; Xin, Zhao

    2015-02-01

    This paper carries out theoretical research and numerical simulation on the temperature characteristics of LPFG magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluids. The simulation results show that the change of ambient temperature can make coupling resonance wavelength of the long period fiber grating drift, change the refractive index of magnetic fluids, which affects the measurement precision of the magnetic field. Our research has a certain significance for the practical application of LPFG magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluids.

  10. Field-ball milling induced anisotropy in magnetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poudyal, Narayan [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Altuncevahir, Baki [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Chakka, Vamsi [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Chen Kanghua [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Black, Truman D [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Liu, J Ping [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ding, Yong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Wang Zhonglin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2004-12-21

    Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} particles of submicrometre sizes have been prepared by ball milling in a magnetic field. Structural and magnetic characterization reveal that these submicrometre particles milled in a magnetic field, consisting of nanosize grains, exhibit strong magnetic anisotropy compared with the particles milled without a magnetic field. Based on in situ observations of the field-ball milling in a transparent container, the mechanism of field-induced anisotropy in the nanostructured hard magnetic particles is discussed. (rapid communication)

  11. Titan's magnetic field signature during the first Cassini encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Heiko; Neubauer, Fritz M; Dougherty, Michele K; Achilleos, Nicholas; André, Nicolas; Arridge, Christopher S; Bertucci, Cesar; Jones, Geraint H; Khurana, Krishan K; Russell, Christopher T; Wennmacher, Alexandre

    2005-05-13

    The magnetic field signature obtained by Cassini during its first close encounter with Titan on 26 October 2004 is presented and explained in terms of an advanced model. Titan was inside the saturnian magnetosphere. A magnetic field minimum before closest approach marked Cassini's entry into the magnetic ionopause layer. Cassini then left the northern and entered the southern magnetic tail lobe. The magnetic field before and after the encounter was approximately constant for approximately 20 Titan radii, but the field orientation changed exactly at the location of Titan's orbit. No evidence of an internal magnetic field at Titan was detected.

  12. Development of magnetic-field-driven artificial cilium array with magnetic orientation in each cilium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marume, Ryuma; Tsumori, Fujio; Kudo, Kentaro; Osada, Toshiko; Shinagawa, Kazunari

    2017-06-01

    Artificial cilia actuated by an applied magnetic field have been developed. In our previous report, we demonstrated actuated cilia of a few millimeters scale, which were fabricated by cutting a magnetic elastomer sheet. The fabricated artificial cilia worked similarly to natural cilia; however, they had a much larger structure than natural ones, and showed difficulty for use in pumping systems in micro-total analysis systems (µTAS) fields. Thus, our goal is further miniaturization. In this study, we introduce a new process of fabricating smaller pillar structures with a magnetic orientation in each pillar by ultraviolet (UV) laser machining. We also give different orientations to groups of pillars by the alternate laser machining of the mold and casting processes.

  13. Magnetic fields and wind variability in massive stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnerr, R.S.; Henrichs, H.F.; Hamann, W.-R.; Feldmeier, A.; Oskinova, L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the thesis work of Schnerr (2007) entitled "Magnetic fields and mass loss in massive stars", which aimed at a better understanding of the impact of magnetic fields on the winds of massive stars.

  14. Physics in Strong Magnetic Fields Near Neutron Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are the behaviors of particles and energies in the magnetic fields of neutron stars. Different types of possible research using neutron stars as a laboratory for the study of strong magnetic fields are proposed. (CW)

  15. A Magnetic Resonance Measurement Technique for Rapidly Switched Gradient Magnetic Fields in a Magnetic Resonance Tomograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bartušek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for measuring of the gradient magnetic field in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR tomography, which is one of the modern medical diagnostic methods. A very important prerequisite for high quality imaging is a gradient magnetic field in the instrument with exactly defined properties. Nuclear magnetic resonance enables us to measure the pulse gradient magnetic field characteristics with high accuracy. These interesting precise methods were designed, realised, and tested at the Institute of Scientific Instruments (ISI of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The first of them was the Instantaneous Frequency (IF method, which was developed into the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo (IFSE and the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo Series (IFSES methods. The above named methods are described in this paper and their a comparison is also presented.

  16. Detection of the change of a magnetic field in the environment by magnetic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyatkov, D.; Yurchenko, A.; Yurchenko, V.

    2017-08-01

    The experimental results of the magnetic field sensor based on various materials are presented. In article the possibility of use of magnetic fluid as a sensitive element of the magnetic field sensor is considered. The importance of current tasks deals with the search of the perspective magnetic substances susceptible to weak magnetic field. The operation principle of the sensor is based on change in the capacity of the condenser with magnetic active medium caused by the magnetic field. The complex organization of magnetic particles into chain aggregates was considered. The principle of measuring the condenser capacity is described. The experimental results are promising for future application.

  17. Stochastic particle acceleration at shocks in the presence of braided magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, J. G.; Duffy, P.; Gallant, Y. A.

    1996-01-01

    The theory of diffusive acceleration of energetic particles at shock fronts assumes charged particles undergo spatial diffusion in a uniform magnetic field. If, however, the magnetic field is not uniform, but has a stochastic or braided structure, the transport of charged particles across the average direction of the field is more complicated. Assuming quasi-linear behaviour of the field lines, the particles undergo sub-diffusion on short time scales. We derive the propagator for such motion,...

  18. Magnetic Field Amplification and Blazar Flares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xuhui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent multiwavelength observations of PKS 0208-512 by SMARTS, Fermi, and Swift revealed that γ-ray and optical light curves of this flat spectrum radio quasars are highly correlated, but with an exception of one large optical flare having no corresponding gamma-ray activity or even detection. On the other hand, recent advances in SNRs observations and plasma simulations both reveal that magnetic field downstream of astrophysical shocks can be largely amplified beyond simple shock compression. These amplifications, along with their associated particle acceleration, might contribute to blazar flares, including the peculiar flare of PKS 0208-512. Using our time dependent multizone blazar emission code, we evaluate several scenarios that may represent such phenomena. This code combines Monte Carlo method that tracks the radiative processes including inverse Compton scattering, and Fokker-Planck equation that follows the cooling and acceleration of particles. It is a comprehensive time dependent code that fully takes into account the light travel time effects. In this study, both the changes of the magnetic field and acceleration efficiency are explored as the cause of blazar flares. Under these assumption, synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton scenarios produce distinct features that favor the external Compton scenario. The optical flares with/without gamma-ray counterparts can be explained by different allocations of energy between the magnetization and particle acceleration, which in turn can be affected by the relative orientation between the magnetic field and the shock flow. We compare the details of the observations and simulation, and highlight what implications this study has on our understanding of relativistic jets.

  19. Pacemaker interference by magnetic fields at power line frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Trevor W; Caputa, Kris; Stuchly, Maria A; Shepard, Richard B; Kavet, Robert; Sastre, Antonio

    2002-03-01

    Human exposure to external 50/60-Hz electric and magnetic fields induces electric fields within the body. These induced fields can cause interference with implanted pacemakers. In the case of exposure to magnetic fields, the pacemaker leads are subject to induced electromotive forces, with current return paths being provided by the conducting body tissues. Modern computing resources used in conjunction with millimeter-scale human body conductivity models make numerical modeling a viable technique for examining any such interference. In this paper, an existing well-verified scalar-potential finite-difference frequency-domain code is modified to handle thin conducting wires embedded in the body. The effects of each wire can be included numerically by a simple modification to the existing code. Results are computed for two pacemaker lead insertion paths, terminating at either atrial or ventricular electrodes in the heart. Computations are performed for three orthogonal 60-Hz magnetic field orientations. Comparison with simplified estimates from Faraday's law applied directly to extracorporeal loops representing unipolar leads underscores problems associated with this simplified approach. Numerically estimated electromagnetic interference (EMI) levels under the worst case scenarios are about 40 microT for atrial electrodes, and 140 microT for ventricular electrodes. These methods could also be applied to studying EMI with other implanted devices such as cardiac defibrillators.

  20. Introduction to the solar magnetic field measurements in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanyong

    2017-04-01

    The solar magnetic field measurement is always an enormous challenge to the solar community. We firstly overview the history of solar magnetic field measurement since last early century and analyze the difficulty and progress of pratical methods. Then we introduce an infrared system for the accurate measurement of solar magnetic field (AIMS) under development, which is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China and also the current ongoing space & Ground based projects to measure the solar magnetic field in China.

  1. Interaction of Mutually Perpendicular Magnetic Fields in HTSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev Aleksandr Fedorovich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article a problem of interaction of the crossed magnetic fields in superconductors is considered. Superconducting materials have nonlinear magnetic properties. It allows using a non-linear magnetic susceptibility for measurement of feeble magnetic fields. We place a wire of superconducting material in a constant parallel uniform magnetic field. Then we let through a wire the alternating current leak. Interaction of mutual and perpendicular variation magnetic fields, with adequate accuracy is described by Ginzburg-Landau's equations. Approximate solution of the written equations is received. The component of a magnetic field parallel to a wire contains a variable component. Frequency of a variable component of the magnetic field is equal to the doubled current frequency. Amplitude of the variable component of the magnetic field is proportional to strength of the constant magnetic field. The experimental installation for research of interaction of mutually perpendicular magnetic fields is created. The cylinder from HTSC of ceramics of the YBa2Cu3O7-x was used as a sensor. Dependence of amplitude of the second harmonica of a variation magnetic field on strength of a constant magnetic field is received.

  2. Suppressing drift chamber diffusion without magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Martoff, C J; Ohnuki, T; Spooner, N J C; Lehner, M

    2000-01-01

    The spatial resolution in drift chamber detectors for ionizing radiation is limited by diffusion of the primary electrons. A strong magnetic field along the drift direction is often applied (Fancher et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 161 (1979) 383) because it suppresses the transverse diffusion, improving the resolution but at considerable increase in cost and complexity. Here we show that transverse track diffusion can be strongly suppressed without any magnetic field. This is achieved by using a gas additive which reversibly captures primary ionization electrons, forming negative ions. The ions drift with thermal energies even at very high drift fields and low pressures (E/P=28.5 V/cm torr), and the diffusion decreases with increasing drift field. Upon arrival at the avalanche region of the chamber the negative ions are efficiently stripped and ordinary avalanche gain is obtained. Using this technique, r.m.s. transverse diffusion less than 200 mu m has been achieved over a 15 cm drift path at 40 torr with ze...

  3. Magnetic fields in Planetary Nebulae: paradigms and related MHD frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Eric G.

    2009-04-01

    Many, if not all, post AGB stellar systems swiftly transition from a spherical to a powerful aspherical pre-planetary nebula (pPNE) outflow phase before waning into a PNe. The pPNe outflows require engine rotational energy and a mechanism to extract this energy into collimated outflows. Just radiation and rotation are insufficient but a symbiosis between rotation, differential rotation and large scale magnetic fields remains promising. Present observational evidence for magnetic fields in evolved stars is suggestive of dynamically important magnetic fields, but both theory and observation are rife with research opportunity. I discuss how magnetohydrodynamic outflows might arise in pPNe and PNe and distinguish different between approaches that address shaping vs. those that address both launch and shaping. Scenarios involving dynamos in single stars, binary driven dynamos, or accretion engines cannot be ruled out. One appealing paradigm involves accretion onto the primary post-AGB white dwarf core from a low mass companion whose decaying accretion supply rate owers first the pPNe and then the lower luminosity PNe. Determining observational signatures of different MHD engines is a work in progress. Accretion disk theory and large scale dynamos pose many of their own fundamental challenges, some of which I discuss in a broader context.

  4. Planck 2015 results. XIX. Constraints on primordial magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Chluba, J.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Florido, E.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shiraishi, M.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-01-01

    We predict and investigate four types of imprint of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies: the impact of PMFs on the CMB spectra; the effect on CMB polarization induced by Faraday rotation; magnetically-induced non-Gaussianities; and the magnetically-induced breaking of statistical isotropy. Overall, Planck data constrain the amplitude of PMFs to less than a few nanogauss. In particular, individual limits coming from the analysis of the CMB angular power spectra, using the Planck likelihood, are $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}< 4.4$ nG (where $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}$ is the comoving field amplitude at a scale of 1 Mpc) at 95% confidence level, assuming zero helicity, and $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}< 5.6$ nG when we consider a maximally helical field. For nearly scale-invariant PMFs we obtain $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}<2.1$ nG and $B_{1\\,\\mathrm{Mpc}}<0.7$ nG if the impact of PMFs on the ionization history of the Universe is included in the analysis...

  5. Measuring magnetic field vector by stimulated Raman transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenli; Wei, Rong, E-mail: weirong@siom.ac.cn; Lin, Jinda; Wang, Yuzhu [Key Laboratory for Quantum Optics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Dong, Richang; Zou, Fan; Chen, Tingting [Key Laboratory for Quantum Optics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-03-21

    We present a method for measuring the magnetic field vector in an atomic fountain by probing the line strength of stimulated Raman transitions. The relative line strength for a Λ-type level system with an existing magnetic field is theoretically analyzed. The magnetic field vector measured by our proposed method is consistent well with that by the traditional bias magnetic field method with an axial resolution of 6.1 mrad and a radial resolution of 0.16 rad. Dependences of the Raman transitions on laser polarization schemes are also analyzed. Our method offers the potential advantages for magnetic field measurement without requiring additional bias fields, beyond the limitation of magnetic field intensity, and extending the spatial measurement range. The proposed method can be widely used for measuring magnetic field vector in other precision measurement fields.

  6. From the Gyration of Electrons to Cosmic Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Employing Bohr's quantum theory, the author deduces three limits, which correspond to the magnetic fields of white dwarfs, neutron stars and the strongest in the universe. The author discusses the possible origins of magnetic fields due to collapse of stars, which produces a magnetic field of 10[superscript 8] T. Although the complete analysis…

  7. Fluorescent lamp with static magnetic field generating means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Philip E.; Maya, Jakob

    1987-01-01

    A fluorescent lamp wherein magnetic field generating means (e.g., permanent magnets) are utilized to generate a static magnetic field across the respective electrode structures of the lamp such that maximum field strength is located at the electrode's filament. An increase in efficacy during operation has been observed.

  8. Magnetic Field in the Gravitationally Stratified Coronal Loops

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We study the effect of gravitational stratification on the estimation of magnetic fields in the coronal loops. By using the method of MHD seismology of kink waves for the estimation of magnetic field of coronal loops, we derive a new formula for the magnetic field considering the effect of gravitational ...

  9. NASA Computational Case Study: Modeling Planetary Magnetic and Gravitational Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, David G.; Vinas, Adolfo F.

    2014-01-01

    In this case study, we model a planet's magnetic and gravitational fields using spherical harmonic functions. As an exercise, we analyze data on the Earth's magnetic field collected by NASA's MAGSAT spacecraft, and use it to derive a simple magnetic field model based on these spherical harmonic functions.

  10. Superconducting Sphere in an External Magnetic Field Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, Sergey N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give the intelligible procedure for undergraduate students to grasp proof of the fact that the magnetic field outside the hollow superconducting sphere (superconducting shell) coincides with the field of a point magnetic dipole both when an uniform external magnetic field is applied as when a ferromagnetic sphere…

  11. Josephson tunnel junctions in a magnetic field gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Koshelets, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    We measured the magnetic field dependence of the critical current of high-quality Nb-based planar Josephson tunnel junctions in the presence of a controllable nonuniform field distribution. We found skewed and slowly changing magnetic diffraction patterns quite dissimilar from the Fraunhofer-like...... be suppressed by an asymmetric magnetic field profile. © 2011 American Institute of Physics....

  12. PHASE GRADIENT METHOD OF MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ptitsyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of electric and hybrid vehicles demands real time magnetic field control, for instance, for fire and electromagnetic safety. The article deals with a method of magnetic field measurements onboard electric cars taking into account peculiar features of these fields. The method is based on differential methods of measurements, and minimizes the quantity of magnetic sensors.

  13. Fluorescent lamp with static magnetic field generating means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, P.E.; Maya, J.

    1987-09-08

    A fluorescent lamp wherein magnetic field generating means (e.g., permanent magnets) are utilized to generate a static magnetic field across the respective electrode structures of the lamp such that maximum field strength is located at the electrode's filament. An increase in efficacy during operation has been observed. 2 figs.

  14. Molecular structure and motion in zero field magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvie, T.P.

    1989-10-01

    Zero field magnetic resonance is well suited for the determination of molecular structure and the study of motion in disordered materials. Experiments performed in zero applied magnetic field avoid the anisotropic broadening in high field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. As a result, molecular structure and subtle effects of motion are more readily observed.

  15. Evolution of the magnetic field in neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakov, M. E.; Kantor, E. M.; Ofengeim, D. D.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a general method to self-consistently study the quasistationary evolution of the magnetic field in the cores of neutron stars. The traditional approach to this problem is critically revised. Our results are illustrated by calculation of the typical timescales for the magnetic field dissipation as functions of temperature and the magnetic field strength.

  16. Seismic Study of Magnetic Field in the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetic field in the solar interior contributes to the even order splitting coefficients, but it is not possible to separate the effect of magnetic field from those due to other deviations from spherical symmetry. Results obtained using GONG and MDI data are discussed. Limits on possible magnetic field in the solar core and in the ...

  17. Precise measurements and shimming of magnetic field gradients in the low field regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allmendinger, Fabian; Schmidt, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Grasdijk, Olivier; Jungmann, Klaus; Willmann, Lorenz [University of Groningen (Netherlands); Heil, Werner; Karpuk, Sergei; Repetto, Maricel; Sobolev, Yuri; Zimmer, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Krause, Hans-Joachim; Offenhaeuser, Andreas [Peter Gruenberg Institut, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Collaboration: MIXed-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    For many experiments at the precision frontier of fundamental physics, the accurate measurement and knowledge of magnetic field gradients in particular in the low field regime (<μT) is a necessity: On the one hand, in the search for an Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of free neutrons or atoms, field gradients contribute to geometric-phase-induced false EDM signals for particles in traps. On the other hand, clock comparison experiments like the {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe spin clock experiment suffer from gradients, since the coherent T{sub 2}*-time of free spin precession, and thus the measurement sensitivity, scales ∝ ∇ vector B{sup -2}. Here we report on a new and very effective method, to shim and to measure tiny magnetic field gradients in the range of pT/cm by using effective T{sub 2}*-measurement sequences in varying the currents of trim coils of known geometry.

  18. Higher topological invariants of magnetic field lines: observational aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illarionov, Egor; Smirnov, Alexander; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Sokoloff, Dmitry; Akhmet'ev, Peter

    Topology of magnetic field lines is directly involved in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theorems and equations. Being an invariant of motion in ideal MHD conditions, the magnetic field-line topology is a natural obstacle to the relaxation of magnetic field into a current-free (potential) field and contrariwise limits a dynamo generation. Usage of these conservational laws and writing of numerical relations require a quantification of topology. One of the simplest existing measures of magnetic topology is the mutual magnetic helicity, that expresses the combined action of interaction and linkage between different magnetic field lines. For practical purposes there exists the revised concept of relative magnetic helicity, that allows to estimate the complexity of field-line topology in case of open volume, i.e. when magnetic lines cross the boundaries of given 3D region. At the same time this concept remains a simple interpretation of linkage number in terms of individual lines. Our point however is that magnetic helicity is far from being unique or comprehensive quantification of magnetic field-line topology. To improve the situation we introduce a set of higher invariants which extends the idea of relative helicity and provides a new means to describe the magnetic field-line topology. To practically study the possibility of implementation of higher topological invariants we reconstruct several moments of mutual helicity from observed solar vector magnetograms with extrapolated magnetic field above the photosphere and discuss to what extent such knowledge could be instructive for understanding of the solar magnetic field evolution.

  19. Resolved magnetic-field structure and variability near the event horizon of Sagittarius A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D; Fish, Vincent L; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Marrone, Daniel P; Plambeck, Richard L; Wardle, John F C; Akiyama, Kazunori; Asada, Keiichi; Beaudoin, Christopher; Blackburn, Lindy; Blundell, Ray; Bower, Geoffrey C; Brinkerink, Christiaan; Broderick, Avery E; Cappallo, Roger; Chael, Andrew A; Crew, Geoffrey B; Dexter, Jason; Dexter, Matt; Freund, Robert; Friberg, Per; Gold, Roman; Gurwell, Mark A; Ho, Paul T P; Honma, Mareki; Inoue, Makoto; Kosowsky, Michael; Krichbaum, Thomas P; Lamb, James; Loeb, Abraham; Lu, Ru-Sen; MacMahon, David; McKinney, Jonathan C; Moran, James M; Narayan, Ramesh; Primiani, Rurik A; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Rogers, Alan E E; Rosenfeld, Katherine; SooHoo, Jason; Tilanus, Remo P J; Titus, Michael; Vertatschitsch, Laura; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wright, Melvyn; Young, Ken H; Zensus, J Anton; Ziurys, Lucy M

    2015-12-04

    Near a black hole, differential rotation of a magnetized accretion disk is thought to produce an instability that amplifies weak magnetic fields, driving accretion and outflow. These magnetic fields would naturally give rise to the observed synchrotron emission in galaxy cores and to the formation of relativistic jets, but no observations to date have been able to resolve the expected horizon-scale magnetic-field structure. We report interferometric observations at 1.3-millimeter wavelength that spatially resolve the linearly polarized emission from the Galactic Center supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*. We have found evidence for partially ordered magnetic fields near the event horizon, on scales of ~6 Schwarzschild radii, and we have detected and localized the intrahour variability associated with these fields. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. The Cluster magnetic field investigation: Scientific objectives and instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Dunlop, M. W.; Southwood, D. J.; Thomlinson, J. G.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Musmann, G.; Luehr, H.; Acuna, M. H.; Fairfield, D. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Cluster magnetic field investigation is presented. Cluster represents a qualitatively new type of space mission which will provide, for the first time, a three dimensional view of small scale plasma processes and structures in the different regions in and around the Earth's magnetosphere. Concepts of data analysis needed to interpret the four spacecraft magnetic field data in terms of magnetospheric processes and structures are outlined. The instrument itself, a vital component of the scientific payload, follows a long tradition of fluxgate magnetometers on space missions, yet represents an evolution in terms of built in functions and reliability. A detailed description of the instrument is given with emphasis on those aspects that are unique to the mission.

  1. Magnetic fields and star formation: New techniques and instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezareh, Talayeh

    correlation in velocity dispersion of the coexisting interstellar molecules H13CN and H13CO + and the turbulent energy dissipation scale in the DR21(OH) star-forming region. Our analysis suggests the presence of ambipolar diffusion that helps the process of turbulent energy dissipation, but at a different length scale for ions compared to the neutrals. We use our observational data and also the result from the work in Chapter 2 to calculate a turbulent ambipolar diffusion length scale L' ≃ 17 mpc and a strength of ≃ 1.7 mG for the plane of the sky component of the magnetic field in DR21(OH). Chapter 4 describes a new Four-Stokes-Parameter spectral line Polarimeter (FSP-Pol) that we designed and built for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). The purpose of this instrument is to perform measurements of the Zeeman and Goldreich-Kylafis effects in molecular spectral lines. FSPPol is currently optimized for observation in the 200--260 GHz range and measures all four Stokes parameters, I, Q, U , and V. The very low level of instrument polarization allowed us to measure a polarization fraction of a few percent in the spectral line wings of CO (J = 2 → 1) in Orion KL/IRc2, which is consistent with previous observations. We also used FSP-Pol to study the Zeeman effect in the N = 2 → 1 transition of CN in DR21(OH) for the first time. At this point we cannot report a Zeeman detection to estimate the strength of the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field, but more observations are ongoing. Keywords: magnetic fields, turbulence, astrochemistry, star formation, astronomical instrumentation, polarimeters, data analysis, submillimeter, DR21(OH), molecules

  2. Nanoparticle impacts reveal magnetic field induced agglomeration and reduced dissolution rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschulik, Kristina; Compton, Richard G

    2014-07-21

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are used in a variety of magnetic field-assisted chemical and medical applications, yet little of their fate during magnetic field interrogation is known. Here, fundamental and new insights in this are gained by cathodic particle coulometry. This methodology is used to study individual Fe3O4 NPs in the presence and absence of a magnetic field. It is first noticed that no major NP agglomeration occurs in the absence of a magnetic field even in a suspension of high ionic strength. In contrast, a significant magnetic field-induced agglomeration of NPs is observed in a magnetic field. A second new finding is that the dissolution of Fe3O4 NPs is strongly inhibited in a magnetic field. This is explained as a result of the magnetic field gradient force trapping the released Fe(2+) ions near the surface of a magnetized Fe3O4 NP and thus hindering the mass-transport controlled NP dissolution. Consequently, fundamental magnetic field effects are measured and quantified on both the single NP scale and in suspension and two novel effects are discovered.

  3. Axial magnetic field injection in magnetized liner inertial fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Adams, M. B.; Davies, J. R.; Seyler, C. E.

    2017-10-01

    MagLIF is a fusion concept using a Z-pinch implosion to reach thermonuclear fusion. In current experiments, the implosion is driven by the Z-machine using 19 MA of electrical current with a rise time of 100 ns. MagLIF requires an initial axial magnetic field of 30 T to reduce heat losses to the liner wall during compression and to confine alpha particles during fusion burn. This field is generated well before the current ramp starts and needs to penetrate the transmission lines of the pulsed-power generator, as well as the liner itself. Consequently, the axial field rise time must exceed hundreds of microseconds. Any coil capable of being submitted to such a field for that length of time is inevitably bulky. The space required to fit the coil near the liner, increases the inductance of the load. In turn, the total current delivered to the load decreases since the voltage is limited by driver design. Yet, the large amount of current provided by the Z-machine can be used to produce the required 30 T field by tilting the return current posts surrounding the liner, eliminating the need for a separate coil. However, the problem now is the field penetration time, across the liner wall. This paper discusses why skin effect arguments do not hold in the presence of resistivity gradients. Numerical simulations show that fields larger than 30 T can diffuse across the liner wall in less than 60 ns, demonstrating that external coils can be replaced by return current posts with optimal helicity.

  4. Magnetic field generation in Rayleigh-Taylor unstable inertial confinement fusion plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Dimonte, Guy; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2012-04-20

    Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities (RTI) in inertial confinement fusion implosions are expected to generate magnetic fields. A Hall-MHD model is used to study the field generation by 2D single-mode and multimode RTI in a stratified two-fluid plasma. Self-generated magnetic fields are predicted and these fields grow as the RTI progresses via the ∇n(e)×∇T(e) term in the generalized Ohm's law. Scaling studies are performed to determine the growth of the self-generated magnetic field as a function of density, acceleration, Atwood number, and perturbation wavelength.

  5. Practical methods for generating alternating magnetic fields for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Michael G.; Howe, Christina M.; Bono, David C.; Perreault, David J.; Anikeeva, Polina

    2017-08-01

    Alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) cause magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to dissipate heat while leaving surrounding tissue unharmed, a mechanism that serves as the basis for a variety of emerging biomedical technologies. Unfortunately, the challenges and costs of developing experimental setups commonly used to produce AMFs with suitable field amplitudes and frequencies present a barrier to researchers. This paper first presents a simple, cost-effective, and robust alternative for small AMF working volumes that uses soft ferromagnetic cores to focus the flux into a gap. As the experimental length scale increases to accommodate animal models (working volumes of 100s of cm3 or greater), poor thermal conductivity and volumetrically scaled core losses render that strategy ineffective. Comparatively feasible strategies for these larger volumes instead use low loss resonant tank circuits to generate circulating currents of 1 kA or greater in order to produce the comparable field amplitudes. These principles can be extended to the problem of identifying practical routes for scaling AMF setups to humans, an infrequently acknowledged challenge that influences the extent to which many applications of MNPs may ever become clinically relevant.

  6. Electric field controlled magnetic anisotropy in a single molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyazin, Alexander S; van den Berg, Johan W G; Osorio, Edgar A; van der Zant, Herre S J; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos P; Leijnse, Martin; Wegewijs, Maarten R; May, Falk; Hofstetter, Walter; Danieli, Chiara; Cornia, Andrea

    2010-09-08

    We have measured quantum transport through an individual Fe(4) single-molecule magnet embedded in a three-terminal device geometry. The characteristic zero-field splittings of adjacent charge states and their magnetic field evolution are observed in inelastic tunneling spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the molecule retains its magnetic properties and, moreover, that the magnetic anisotropy is significantly enhanced by reversible electron addition/subtraction controlled with the gate voltage. Single-molecule magnetism can thus be electrically controlled.

  7. submitter Generalized Harmonic Analysis of Computed and Measured Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Auchmann, B; Petrone, C; Russenschuck, S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a generalized approach for the harmonic analysis of the magnetic field in accelerator magnets. This analysis is based on the covariant components of the computed or measured magnetic flux density. The multipole coefficients obtained in this way can be used for magnet optimization and field reconstruction in the interior of circular and elliptical boundaries in the bore of straight magnets.

  8. Influence of magnetization on the applied magnetic field in various AMR regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira, A.; de Larochelambert, T.; Espanet, C.

    2017-01-01

    of less than 2% in the calculation of internal magnetic fields at temperatures above the Curie point of gadolinium. Below the Curie point, a stronger magnetization of the cylinders and spheres leads to a larger deviation which can reach 8% when using uniform demagnetizing factors for internal magnetic......The aim of this work is to assess the influence of a magnetic sample on the applied magnetic field inside the air gap of a magnetic circuit. Different magnetic sources including an electromagnet, a permanent magnet in a soft ferromagnetic toroidal yoke, as well as 2D and 3D Halbach cylinders...... field calculations....

  9. Estimating the Magnetic Field Strength in Hot Jupiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Rakesh K. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, 20 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Thorngren, Daniel P., E-mail: rakesh_yadav@fas.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    A large fraction of known Jupiter-like exoplanets are inflated as compared to Jupiter. These “hot” Jupiters orbit close to their parent star and are bombarded with intense starlight. Many theories have been proposed to explain their radius inflation and several suggest that a small fraction of the incident starlight is injected into the planetary interior, which helps to puff up the planet. How will such energy injection affect the planetary dynamo? In this Letter, we estimate the surface magnetic field strength of hot Jupiters using scaling arguments that relate energy available in planetary interiors to the dynamo-generated magnetic fields. We find that if we take into account the energy injected in the planetary interior that is sufficient to inflate hot Jupiters to observed radii, then the resulting dynamo should be able generate magnetic fields that are more than an order of magnitude stronger than the Jovian values. Our analysis highlights the potential fundamental role of the stellar light in setting the field strength in hot Jupiters.

  10. TURBULENT AMPLIFICATION AND STRUCTURE OF THE INTRACLUSTER MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresnyak, Andrey [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Miniati, Francesco [Physics Dept., ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-01

    We compare DNS calculations of homogeneous isotropic turbulence with the statistical properties of intracluster turbulence from the Matryoshka Run and find remarkable similarities between their inertial ranges. This allowed us to use the time-dependent statistical properties of intracluster turbulence to evaluate dynamo action in the intracluster medium, based on earlier results from a numerically resolved nonlinear magneto-hydrodynamic turbulent dynamo. We argue that this approach is necessary (a) to properly normalize dynamo action to the available intracluster turbulent energy and (b) to overcome the limitations of low Re affecting current numerical models of the intracluster medium. We find that while the properties of intracluster magnetic field are largely insensitive to the value and origin of the seed field, the resulting values for the Alfvén speed and the outer scale of the magnetic field are consistent with current observational estimates, basically confirming the idea that the magnetic field in today’s galaxy clusters is a record of its past turbulent activity.

  11. Probing correlations of early magnetic fields using mu-distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganc, Jonathan; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2014-01-01

    The damping of a non-uniform magnetic field between the redshifts of about $10^4$ and $10^6$ injects energy into the photon-baryon plasma and causes the CMB to deviate from a perfect blackbody spectrum, producing a so-called $\\mu$-distortion. We can calculate the correlation $\\langle\\mu T......\\rangle$ of this distortion with the temperature anisotropy $T$ of the CMB to search for a correlation $\\langle B^2\\zeta\\rangle$ between the magnetic field $B$ and the curvature perturbation $\\zeta$; knowing the $\\langle B^2\\zeta\\rangle$ correlation would help us distinguish between different models of magnetogenesis. Since......_{\\text{NL}}$). We find that a PIXIE-like CMB experiments has a signal to noise $S/N\\approx 1.0 \\times b_{\\text{NL}} (\\tilde B_\\mu/10\\text{ nG})^2$, where $\\tilde B_\\mu$ is the magnetic field's strength on $\\mu$-distortion scales normalized to today's redshift; thus, a 10 nG field would be detectable with $b...

  12. Effect of a weak transverse magnetic field on the microstructure in directionally solidified peritectic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Lu, Zhenyuan; Fautrelle, Yves; Gagnoud, Annie; Moreau, Rene; Ren, Zhongming

    2016-11-01

    Effect of a weak transverse magnetic field on the microstructures in directionally solidified Fe-Ni and Pb-Bi peritectic alloys has been investigated experimentally. The results indicate that the magnetic field can induce the formation of banded and island-like structures and refine the primary phase in peritectic alloys. The above results are enhanced with increasing magnetic field. Furthermore, electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA) analysis reveals that the magnetic field increases the Ni solute content on one side and enhances the solid solubility in the primary phase in the Fe-Ni alloy. The thermoelectric (TE) power difference at the liquid/solid interface of the Pb-Bi peritectic alloy is measured in situ, and the results show that a TE power difference exists at the liquid/solid interface. 3 D numerical simulations for the TE magnetic convection in the liquid are performed, and the results show that a unidirectional TE magnetic convection forms in the liquid near the liquid/solid interface during directional solidification under a transverse magnetic field and that the amplitude of the TE magnetic convection at different scales is different. The TE magnetic convections on the macroscopic interface and the cell/dendrite scales are responsible for the modification of microstructures during directional solidification under a magnetic field.

  13. Cosmological Magnetic Fields from Gauge-Mediated Supersymmetry-Breaking Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kandus, A; Mazzitelli, F D; Wagner, C E M; Kandus, Alejandra; Calzetta, Esteban A.; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.; Wagner, Carlos E. M.

    2000-01-01

    We study the generation of primordial magnetic fields, coherent over cosmologically interesting scales, by cosmological creation of charged scalar particles during the reheating period. We show that magnetic fields consistent with those detected by observation may obtained if the particle mean life mechanism to minimal gauge mediated supersymmetry-breaking models, in the case in which the lightest stau \\tilde\\tau_1 is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle. We show that, for a large range of phenomenologically acceptable values of the supersymmetry-breaking scale \\sqrt{F}, the generated primordial magnetic field can be strong enough to seed the galactic dynamo.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF INFLUENCE OF SEPARATOR MAGNETIC SYSTEM CONFIGURATION WITH PERMANENT MAGNETS ON MAGNETIC FIELD DISTRIBUTION IN WORKING AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gerlici

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To carry out research the influence of magnetic system configuration (shape and size of the permanent magnets on magnetic field spatial distribution in working area of new structure design magnetic separator with active front surface by numerical methods. Methodology. We have applied the magnetic field numerical simulation for permanent magnets system in absence of electrical current in magnetostatic approximation. We have solved the problem by using finite element method. Research of permanent magnets cross-sectional shape influence made in the two-dimensional formulation using software package Elcut. Research of magnetic field induction spatial (three-dimensional distribution in new construction magnetic separator working area is conducted using software package COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a. Results. Magnetic flux density maximum in the immediate vicinity of permanent magnet surface provide magnets with spherical and trapezoidal cross-sectional shape. At a distance from pole surface, where the separation process working, magnetic field density produced by trapezoidal and spherical cross section magnets, substantially lower in comparison with rectangular magnets. Rectangular and rectangular with beveled corners cross-section shape magnets create approximately same magnetic field intensity not significantly different in weight. Analysis of the spatial distribution of magnetic field induction in the working area of a new construction magnetic separator has shown that a strong magnetic field with high magnetic flux density gradient value is formed in the interpolar working volume. Originality. For the first time research of magnetic flux density distribution in working area of new construction magnetic separator is conducted. Developed device feature is complex spatial distribution of magnetic field. Practical value. Results of research can be used for selection of rational parameters of separator magnetic system. Received results also can be

  15. Magnetic Fields Induced in the Solid Earth and Oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, Alexei; Olsen, Nils

    Electromagnetic induction in the Earth's interior is an important contributor to the near-Earth magnetic field. Oceans play a special role in the induction, due to their relatively high conductance of large lateral variability. Electric currents that generate secondary magnetic fields are induced...... in the oceans by two different sources: by time varying external magnetic fields, and by motion of the conducting ocean water through the Earth's main magnetic field. Significant progress in the accurate and detailed prediction of magnetic fields induced by these sources has been achieved during the last years...

  16. Rotating-frame gradient fields for magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance in low fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Louis-Serge; Pines, Alexander; Demas, Vasiliki

    2014-01-21

    A system and method for Fourier encoding a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal is disclosed. A static magnetic field B.sub.0 is provided along a first direction. An NMR signal from the sample is Fourier encoded by applying a rotating-frame gradient field B.sub.G superimposed on the B.sub.0, where the B.sub.G comprises a vector component rotating in a plane perpendicular to the first direction at an angular frequency .omega.in a laboratory frame. The Fourier-encoded NMR signal is detected.

  17. NUMERICAL MODELING THE INTERACTION OF A MAGNETIC FIELD WITH A CYLINDRICAL MAGNETIC FLUID LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Polevikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined method of finite differences and boundary elements is applied to solve a nonlinear conjugate problem of magnetostatics describing, the interaction of a uniform magnetic field with a cylindrical magnetic fluid layer. Magnetic permeability of the fluid is considered to be a non-linearly dependent on the magnetic field intensity. Shielding properties of a cylindrical thick-walled magneticfluid layer, depending on the external magnetic field intensity, are investigated. A shielding effectiveness factor is calculated.

  18. Focus on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Sakka, Noriyuki Hirota, Shigeru Horii and Tsutomu Ando

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, interest in the applications of feeble (diamagnetic and paramagnetic magnetic materials has grown, whereas the popularity of ferromagnetic materials remains steady and high. This trend is due to the progress of superconducting magnet technology, particularly liquid-helium-free superconducting magnets that can generate magnetic fields of 10 T and higher. As the magnetic energy is proportional to the square of the applied magnetic field, the magnetic energy of such 10 T magnets is in excess of 10 000 times that of conventional 0.1 T permanent magnets. Consequently, many interesting phenomena have been observed over the last decade, such as the Moses effect, magnetic levitation and the alignment of feeble magnetic materials. Researchers in this area are widely spread around the world, but their number in Japan is relatively high, which might explain the success of magnetic field science and technology in Japan.Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science. The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3, which was held on 14–16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan, focused on various topics including magnetic field effects on chemical, physical, biological, electrochemical, thermodynamic and hydrodynamic phenomena; magnetic field effects on the crystal growth and processing of materials; diamagnetic levitation, the magneto-Archimedes effect, spin chemistry, magnetic orientation, control of structure by magnetic fields, magnetic separation and purification, magnetic-field-induced phase transitions, properties of materials in high magnetic fields, the development of NMR and MRI, medical applications of magnetic fields, novel magnetic phenomena, physical property measurement by magnetic fields, and the generation of high magnetic fields.This focus issue compiles 13 key papers selected from the proceedings

  19. Measurement of the ATLAS solenoid magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksa, M; Giudici, P-A; Kehrli, A; Losasso, M; Pons, X; Sandaker, H; Miyagawa, P S; Snow, S W; Hart, J C; Chevalier, L

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is a general purpose detector designed to explore a wide range of physics at the Large Hadron Collider. At the centre of ATLAS is a tracking detector in a 2 T solenoidal magnetic field. This paper describes the machine built to map the field, the data analysis methods, the final results, and their estimated uncertainties. The remotely controlled mapping machine used pneumatic motors with feedback from optical encoders to scan an array of Hall probes over the field volume and log data at more than 20 000 points in a few hours. The data were analysed, making full use of the physical constraints on the field and of our knowledge of the solenoid coil geometry. After a series of small corrections derived from the data itself, the resulting maps were fitted with a function obeying Maxwell's equations. The fit residuals had an r.m.s. less than 0.5 mT and the systematic error on the measurement of track sagitta due to the field uncertainty was estimated to be in the range 0.02 % to 0.12 % depending on the track...

  20. A 77 K MOS magnetic field detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R S; Torres, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, Puebla (Mexico); Garcia, P.J. [Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz (Mexico); Gutierrez, E.A. [Motorola, Puebla (Mexico)

    2001-12-01

    An integrated MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor)-compatible magnetic field detector (split-drain MAGFET) for operation at liquid-nitrogen temperature LNT (77 K) is presented. The measured relative magnetic sensibility (S{sub a}) is approximately 14%/T (double the value ever reported) using a non-optimized MAGFET structure (W/L) = (100 mm/125 mm). The cryo-magnetic structure was tested without a built-in preamplifier. It presents a power consumption of the order of mW. [Spanish] A traves de este articulo se presenta un detector de campo magnetico (split-drain MAGFET), basado en el transistor de efecto de campo MOS (metal-oxido-semiconductor), y totalmente compatible con procesos de fabricacion de circuitos integrados CMOS. La operacion optima de este detector es a temperaturas criogenicas. Aqui se presentan los resultados experimentales de la caracterizacion de una estructura no optimizada con dimensiones (W / L) = (100 mm/125 mm) a la temperatura del nitrogeno liquido (77 K). La sensibilidad relativa medida es de cerca del 14 % T, casi el doble del valor maximo antes reportado en la literatura. El dispositivo se midio sin un pre-amplificador integrado, mostrando un consumo de potencia del orden de microwatts.

  1. The mechanisms of the effects of magnetic fields on cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrachuk, A.

    The evolution of organisms in conditions of the Earth magnetism results in close dependence of their functioning on the properties of the Earth magnetic field. The magnetic conditions in space flight differ from those on the Earth (e.g. much smaller values of magnetic filed) that effect various processes in living organisms. Meanwhile the mechanisms of interaction of magnetic fields with cell structures are poorly understood and systemized. The goal of the present work is to analyze and estimate the main established mechanisms of "magnetic fields - cell" interaction. Due to variety and complexity of the effects the analysis is mainly restricted to biological effects of the static magnetic field at a cellular level. 1) Magnetic induction. Static magnetic fields exert forces on moving ions in solution (e.g., electrolytes), giving rise to induced electric fields and currents. This effect may be especially important when the currents changed due to the magnetic field application are participating in some receptor functions of cells (e.g. plant cells). 2) Magneto-mechanical effect of reorientation. Uniform static magnetic fields produce torques on certain molecules with anisotropic magnetic properties, which results in their reorientation and spatial ordering. Since the structures of biological cells are magnetically and mechanically inhomogeneous, the application of a homogeneous magnetic field may cause redistribution of stresses within cells, deformation of intracellular structures, change of membrane permeability, etc. 3) Ponderomotive effects. Spatially non-uniform magnetic field exerts ponderomotive force on magnetically non-uniform cell structures. This force is proportional to the gradient of the square of magnetic field and the difference of magnetic susceptibilities of the component of the cell and its environment. 4) Biomagnetic effects. Magnetic fields can exert torques and translational forces on ferromagnetic structures, such as magnetite and ferritins

  2. Influence of magnetization on the applied magnetic field in various AMR regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira, A.; de Larochelambert, T.; Espanet, C.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the influence of a magnetic sample on the applied magnetic field inside the air gap of a magnetic circuit. Different magnetic sources including an electromagnet, a permanent magnet in a soft ferromagnetic toroidal yoke, as well as 2D and 3D Halbach cylinders...

  3. Estimation of the Influence on the LHC Beam of Parasitic Magnetic Fields Resulting from Magnet Interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Völlinger, C

    2008-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is equipped with 1232 main superconducting dipole magnets, 474 superconducting quadrupole magnets and more than 7400 superconducting corrector magnets that are distributed around the eight sectors of the accelerator. Each of the magnets is powered via superconducting power cables, the so-called main busbars for the main magnets and auxiliary busbars for the corrector magnets. Within the main magnets, the field produced by the superconducting busbars is shielded by the magnet's iron yoke. However, in the numerous magnet interconnections, the busbars are magnetically unshielded with respect to the beam pipes and produce parasitic fields that can affect the beam. Extensive analyses have been carried out in the past to assess the field quality of the individual magnets and its influence on the two counter-rotating beams. However, no detailed evaluation of the influence of the parasitic fields of the main and auxiliary busbars and their effect on beam optics had been performed so fa...

  4. Plasma opening switch with extrinsic magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgachev, G; Maslennikov, D

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. We have demonstrated in series of experiments that plasma opening switch (POS) switching voltage (UPOS) is defined by energy density (w) deposited in the POS plasma. If we then consider a plasma erosion mainly responsible for the effect of POS switching (the erosion effect could be described by Hall or Child-Langmuir models) the energy density (w) could be measured as a function of a system "macro-parameter" such as the initial charging voltage of the capacity storage system (the Marx pulsed voltage generator) UMarx. The POS voltage in this case could be given by UPOS"aw=aUMarx4/7, where a is a constant. This report demonstrates that for the high-impedance POS which has limited charge density transferred through the POS plasma a"2.5 (MV3/7) with no external magnetic field applied. The use of the extrinsic magnetic field allows to increase a up to 3.6 (MV3/7) and to achieve higher voltages at the opening phase - UPOS=3.6UMarx4/7. To verify this approach set of experimental ...

  5. Resolving magnetic field line stochasticity and parallel thermal transport in MHD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Y.; Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics

    1998-12-31

    Heat transport along braided, or chaotic magnetic field lines is a key to understand the disruptive phase of tokamak operations, both the major disruption and the internal disruption (sawtooth oscillation). Recent sawtooth experimental results in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have inferred that magnetic field line stochasticity in the vicinity of the q = 1 inversion radius plays an important role in rapid changes in the magnetic field structures and resultant thermal transport. In this study, the characteristic Lyapunov exponents and spatial correlation of field line behaviors are calculated to extract the characteristic scale length of the microscopic magnetic field structure (which is important for net radial global transport). These statistical values are used to model the effect of finite thermal transport along magnetic field lines in a physically consistent manner.

  6. Reversible electric-field control of magnetization at oxide interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuellar, F. A.; Liu, Y. H.; Salafranca, J.; Nemes, N.; Iborra, E.; Sanchez-Santolino, G.; Varela, M.; Hernandez, M. Garcia; Freeland, J. W.; Zhernenkov, M.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Okamoto, S.; Pennycook, S. J.; Bibes, M.; Barthélémy, A.; te Velthuis, S. G. E.; Sefrioui, Z.; Leon, C.; Santamaria, J.

    2014-06-23

    Electric field control of magnetism has remained a major challenge which would greatly impact data storage technology. Although progress in this direction has been recently achieved, reversible magnetization switching by an electric field requires the assistance of a bias magnetic field. In this work, we take advantage of the novel electronic phenomena emerging at interfaces between correlated oxides and demonstrate reversible, voltage-driven magnetization switching without magnetic field. Sandwiching a (non superconducting) cuprate between two manganese oxide layers, we find a novel form of magnetoelectric coupling arising from the orbital reconstruction at the interface between interfacial Mn spins and localized states in the CuO2 planes. This results in a ferromagnetic coupling between the manganite layers that can be controlled by a voltage. Consequently, the devices can be electrically toggled between two magnetization states (and corresponding spin-dependent resistance states in magnetic tunnel junctions) in the absence of a magnetic field.

  7. Reversible electric-field control of magnetization at oxide interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, F A; Liu, Y H; Salafranca, J; Nemes, N; Iborra, E; Sanchez-Santolino, G; Varela, M; Garcia Hernandez, M; Freeland, J W; Zhernenkov, M; Fitzsimmons, M R; Okamoto, S; Pennycook, S J; Bibes, M; Barthélémy, A; te Velthuis, S G E; Sefrioui, Z; Leon, C; Santamaria, J

    2014-06-23

    Electric-field control of magnetism has remained a major challenge which would greatly impact data storage technology. Although progress in this direction has been recently achieved, reversible magnetization switching by an electric field requires the assistance of a bias magnetic field. Here we take advantage of the novel electronic phenomena emerging at interfaces between correlated oxides and demonstrate reversible, voltage-driven magnetization switching without magnetic field. Sandwiching a non-superconducting cuprate between two manganese oxide layers, we find a novel form of magnetoelectric coupling arising from the orbital reconstruction at the interface between interfacial Mn spins and localized states in the CuO2 planes. This results in a ferromagnetic coupling between the manganite layers that can be controlled by a voltage. Consequently, magnetic tunnel junctions can be electrically toggled between two magnetization states, and the corresponding spin-dependent resistance states, in the absence of a magnetic field.

  8. Internal Magnetic Field, Temperature and Density Measurements on Magnetized HED plasmas using Pulsed Polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Roger J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-10-20

    The goals were to collaborate with the MSX project and make the MSX platform reliable with a performance where pulsed polarimetry would be capable of adding a useful measurement and then to achieve a first measurement using pulsed polarimetry. The MSX platform (outside of laser blow off plasmas adjacent to magnetic fields which are low beta) is the only device that can generate high-beta magnetized collisionless supercritical shocks, and with a large spatial size of ~10 cm. Creating shocks at high Mach numbers and investigating the dynamics of the shocks was the main goal of the project. The MSX shocks scale to astrophysical magnetized shocks and potentially throw light on the generation of highly energetic particles via a mechanism like the Fermi process.

  9. Direct measurement of internal magnetic fields in natural sands using scanning SQUID microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walbrecker, Jan O; Kalisky, Beena; Grombacher, Denys; Kirtley, John; Moler, Kathryn A; Knight, Rosemary

    2014-05-01

    NMR experiments are ideally carried out in well-controlled magnetic fields. When samples of natural porous materials are studied, the situation can be complicated if the sample itself contains magnetic components, giving rise to internal magnetic fields in the pore space that modulate the externally applied fields. If not properly accounted for, the internal fields can lead to misinterpretation of relaxation, diffusion, or imaging data. To predict the potential effect of internal fields, and develop effective mitigation strategies, it is important to develop a quantitative understanding of the magnitude and distribution of internal fields occurring in natural porous media. To develop such understanding, we employ scanning SQUID microscopy, a technique that can detect magnetic field variations very accurately at high spatial resolution (∼3μm). We prepared samples from natural unconsolidated aquifer material, and scanned areas of about 200×200μm in a very low background magnetic field of ∼2μT. We found large amplitude variations with a magnitude of about 2mT, across a relatively long spatial scale of about 200μm, that are associated with a large magnetic grain (>50μm radius) with a strong magnetic remanence. We also detected substantial variations exceeding 60μT on small spatial scales of about ∼10μm. We attribute these small-scale variations to very fine-grained magnetic material. Because we made our measurements at very low background field, the observed variations are not induced by the background field but due to magnetic remanence. Consequently, the observed internal fields will affect even low-field NMR experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. First Use of Synoptic Vector Magnetograms for Global Nonlinear, Force-Free Coronal Magnetic Field Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, T.; Wiegelmann, T.; Gosain, S.; MacNeice, P.; Pevtsov, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere is generally thought to provide the energy for much of the activity seen in the solar corona, such as flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), etc. To overcome the unavailability of coronal magnetic field measurements, photospheric magnetic field vector data can be used to reconstruct the coronal field. Currently, there are several modelling techniques being used to calculate three-dimensional field lines into the solar atmosphere. Aims. For the first time, synoptic maps of a photospheric-vector magnetic field synthesized from the vector spectromagnetograph (VSM) on Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) are used to model the coronal magnetic field and estimate free magnetic energy in the global scale. The free energy (i.e., the energy in excess of the potential field energy) is one of the main indicators used in space weather forecasts to predict the eruptivity of active regions. Methods. We solve the nonlinear force-free field equations using an optimization principle in spherical geometry. The resulting threedimensional magnetic fields are used to estimate the magnetic free energy content E(sub free) = E(sub nlfff) - E(sub pot), which is the difference of the magnetic energies between the nonpotential field and the potential field in the global solar corona. For comparison, we overlay the extrapolated magnetic field lines with the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations by the atmospheric imaging assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Results. For a single Carrington rotation 2121, we find that the global nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) magnetic energy density is 10.3% higher than the potential one. Most of this free energy is located in active regions.

  11. Scale invariance and scaling law of Thomson backscatter spectra by electron moving in laser-magnetic resonance regime

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Yi-Jia; Wan, Feng; Sang, Hai-Bo; Xie, Bai-Song

    2016-01-01

    The Thomson scattering spectra by an electron moving in the laser-magnetic resonance acceleration regime are computed numerically and analytically. The dependence of fundamental frequency on the laser intensity and magnetic resonance parameter is examined carefully. By calculating the emission of a single electron in a circularly polarized plane-wave laser field and constant external magnetic field, the scale invariance of the radiation spectra is evident in terms of harmonic orders. The scaling law of backscattered spectra are exhibited remarkably for the laser intensity as well for the initial axial momentum of the electron when the cyclotron frequency of the electron approaches the laser frequency. The results indicate that the magnetic resonance parameter plays an important role on the strength of emission. And the rich features of scattering spectra found may be applicable to the radiation source tunability.

  12. Persistence of magnetic field driven by relativistic electrons in a plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Flacco, A; Lifschitz, A; Sylla, F; Kahaly, S; Veltcheva, M; Silva, L O; Malka, V

    2015-01-01

    The onset and evolution of magnetic fields in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas is determined by several mechanisms, including instabilities, dynamo effects and ultra-high energy particle flows through gas, plasma and interstellar-media. These processes are relevant over a wide range of conditions, from cosmic ray acceleration and gamma ray bursts to nuclear fusion in stars. The disparate temporal and spatial scales where each operates can be reconciled by scaling parameters that enable to recreate astrophysical conditions in the laboratory. Here we unveil a new mechanism by which the flow of ultra-energetic particles can strongly magnetize the boundary between the plasma and the non-ionized gas to magnetic fields up to 10-100 Tesla (micro Tesla in astrophysical conditions). The physics is observed from the first time-resolved large scale magnetic field measurements obtained in a laser wakefield accelerator. Particle-in-cell simulations capturing the global plasma and field dynamics over the full plasma le...

  13. FOREWORD: Focus on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields Focus on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Yoshio; Hirota, Noriyuki; Horii, Shigeru; Ando, Tsutomu

    2009-03-01

    Recently, interest in the applications of feeble (diamagnetic and paramagnetic) magnetic materials has grown, whereas the popularity of ferromagnetic materials remains steady and high. This trend is due to the progress of superconducting magnet technology, particularly liquid-helium-free superconducting magnets that can generate magnetic fields of 10 T and higher. As the magnetic energy is proportional to the square of the applied magnetic field, the magnetic energy of such 10 T magnets is in excess of 10 000 times that of conventional 0.1 T permanent magnets. Consequently, many interesting phenomena have been observed over the last decade, such as the Moses effect, magnetic levitation and the alignment of feeble magnetic materials. Researchers in this area are widely spread around the world, but their number in Japan is relatively high, which might explain the success of magnetic field science and technology in Japan. Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science. The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3), which was held on 14-16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan, focused on various topics including magnetic field effects on chemical, physical, biological, electrochemical, thermodynamic and hydrodynamic phenomena; magnetic field effects on the crystal growth and processing of materials; diamagnetic levitation, the magneto-Archimedes effect, spin chemistry, magnetic orientation, control of structure by magnetic fields, magnetic separation and purification, magnetic-field-induced phase transitions, properties of materials in high magnetic fields, the development of NMR and MRI, medical applications of magnetic fields, novel magnetic phenomena, physical property measurement by magnetic fields, and the generation of high magnetic fields. This focus issue compiles 13 key papers selected from the proceedings of MAP3. Other

  14. The origin of the strongest magnetic fields in dwarfs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. White dwarfs have frozen in magnetic fields ranging from below the measurable limit of about 3 × 103 to 109 G. White dwarfs with surface magnetic fields in excess of 1 MG are found as isolated single stars and relatively more often in magnetic cataclysmic variables. Some 1253 white dwarfs with a detached ...

  15. Linear electric field effects in magnetic anisotropy and ferromagnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, George T.

    1980-01-01

    The concept, theory and measurement of electric-field-dependent macroscopic magnetic anisotropy energies are reviewed with examples involving magnetite and lithium ferrite. Also discussed are applications to the elucidation of magnetization processes, the determination of magnetic symmetry and the shifting of a ferromagnetic resonance with an applied electric field.

  16. Water flow patterns induced by bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subjected to alternating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Seiichi, E-mail: sudo@akita-pu.ac.jp [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Ebinokuchi 84-4, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuki [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Nix, Stephanie [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Ebinokuchi 84-4, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of water flow induced by the bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subject to an external alternating magnetic field. The magnetic fluid bridge is formed in the space between a pair of identical coaxial cylindrical permanent magnets submerged in water. The direction of alternating magnetic field is parallel /antiparallel to the magnetic field produced by two permanent magnets. The magnetic fluid bridge responds to the external alternating magnetic field with harmonic oscillation. The oscillation of magnetic fluid bridge generates water flow around the bridge. Water flow is visualized using a thin milk film at the container bottom. Water flows are observed with a high-speed video camera analysis system. The experimental results show that the flow pattern induced by the bridge oscillation depends on the Keulegan–Carpenter number.

  17. Quantum diffusion of magnetic fields in a numerical worldline approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gies, Holger; Gies, Holger; Langfeld, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    We propose a numerical technique for calculating effective actions of electromagnetic backgrounds based on the worldline formalism. As a conceptually simple example, we consider scalar electrodynamics in three dimensions to one-loop order. Beyond the constant-magnetic-field case, serving as a benchmark test, we analyze the effective action of a step-function-like magnetic field -- a configuration that is inaccessible to derivative expansions. We observe magnetic-field diffusion, i.e., nonvanishing magnetic action density at space points near the magnetic step where the classical field vanishes.

  18. Kinetic simulation technique for plasma flow in strong external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersohn, Frans H.; Sheehan, J. P.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Shebalin, John V.

    2017-12-01

    A technique for the kinetic simulation of plasma flow in strong external magnetic fields was developed which captures the compression and expansion of plasma bound to a magnetic flux tube as well as forces on magnetized particles within the flux tube. This quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) method resolves a single spatial dimension while modeling two-dimensional effects. The implementation of this method in a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code was verified with newly formulated test cases which include two-particle motion and particle dynamics in a magnetic mirror. Results from the Q1D method and fully two dimensional simulations were compared and error analyses performed verifying that the Q1D model reproduces the fully 2D results in the correct regimes. The Q1D method was found to be valid when the hybrid Larmor radius was less than 10% of the magnetic field scale length for magnetic field guided plasma expansions and less than 1% of the magnetic field scale length for a plasma in a converging-diverging magnetic field. The simple and general Q1D method can readily be incorporated in standard 1D PIC codes to capture multi-dimensional effects for plasma flow along magnetic fields in parameter spaces currently inaccessible by fully kinetic methods.

  19. Application of Magnetic Markers for Precise Measurement of Magnetic Fields in Ramped Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael; Lindroos, M

    1999-01-01

    For precise measurements of the magnetic field in ramped machines, different magnetic markers are in use. The best known are peaking strips, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) probes and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) probes. Their operational principles and limitations are explained and some examples of recent and new applications are given. A fuller theoretical description is given of the lesser-known Ferrimagnetic Resonance (FMR) probe and its practical application. The essential purpose of these magnetic markers is the in situ calibration of either on-line magnetic field measurements (e.g. via a magnetic pick-up coil) or field predictions (e.g. using a magnet model).

  20. Optical investigation of effective permeability of dilute magnetic dielectrics with magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Ananya, E-mail: banerjee.ananya2008@gmail.com; Sarkar, A. [Dept. of Physics, Bijoy Krishna Girls’ College, 5/3 M.G. Road, Howrah 711101, W.B. (India)

    2016-05-06

    The prime objective of this paper is to investigate the magnetic nature of dilute magnetic dielectrics (DMD) under variation of external magnetic field. The said variation is studied over developed nano-sized Gadolinium Oxide as a DMD system. The observed experimental field variation of the effective magnetic permeability is analyzed results of optical experiment. The experiment records the variation of Brewster angle of incident polarized LASER beam from the surface of developed DMD specimen with applied out of plane external magnetic field. The effective refractive index and hence relative magnetic permeability were estimated following electro-magnetic theory. The overall results obtained and agreement between theory and experiment are good.

  1. An active antenna for ELF magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, John F.; Spaniol, Craig

    1994-01-01

    The work of Nikola Tesla, especially that directed toward world-wide electrical energy distribution via excitation of the earth-ionosphere cavity resonances, has stimulated interest in the study of these resonances. Not only are they important for their potential use in the transmission of intelligence and electrical power, they are important because they are an integral part of our natural environment. This paper describes the design of a sensitive, untuned, low noise active antenna which is uniquely suited to modern earth-ionosphere cavity resonance measurements employing fast-Fourier transform techniques for near-real-time data analysis. It capitalizes on a little known field-antenna interaction mechanism. Recently, the authors made preliminary measurements of the magnetic fields in the earth-ionosphere cavity. During the course of this study, the problem of designing an optimized ELF magnetic field sensor presented itself. The sensor would have to be small, light weight (for portable use), and capable of detecting the 5-50 Hz picoTesla-level signals generated by the natural excitations of the earth-ionosphere cavity resonances. A review of the literature revealed that past researchers had employed very large search coils, both tuned and untuned. Hill and Bostick, for example, used coils of 30,000 turns wound on high permeability cores of 1.83 m length, weighing 40 kg. Tuned coils are unsuitable for modern fast-Fourier transform data analysis techniques which require a broad spectrum input. 'Untuned' coils connected to high input impedance voltage amplifiers exhibit resonant responses at the resonant frequency determined by the coil inductance and the coil distributed winding capacitance. Also, considered as antennas, they have effective areas equal only to their geometrical areas.

  2. A program to study the Earth's magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    GP President-Elect Ron Merrill has appointed a steering committee to develop a new initiative for a program to study the earth's magnetic field. In addition to Merrill, who will serve as chair, and Kenneth Verosub (University of California, Davis) who will be vice-chair, the committee includes George Backus (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.), Ned Benton (University of Colorado, Boulder), Rob Coe (University of California, Santa Cruz), and Dennis Kent (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.). The objective of the new program would be to develop a better description of the behavior of the geomagnetic field on all time scales and to use this description to increase our understanding of the physical processes that govern the generation of the geomagnetic field. The program would have three areas of emphasis: the present and recent field and its secular variation, the paleo-field and its variation on various time scales, and the core processes that produce the field.

  3. Dynamic Elasticity of a Magnetic Fluid Column in a Strong Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polunin, V. M.; Ryapolov, P. A.; Shel'deshova, E. V.; Kuz'ko, A. E.; Aref'ev, I. M.

    2017-07-01

    The elastomagnetic parameters of a magnetic fluid kept by magnetic levitation in a tube placed horizontally in a strong magnetic field are measured, including the oscillation frequency, the ponderomotive and dynamic elasticity coefficients, the magnetization curve, and the magnetic field strength and its gradient. Results of calculations for the model of ponderomotive elasticity for the examined sample of the magnetic fluid corrected for the resistance of the moving viscous fluid are in good agreement with the experimental magnetization curve. The described method is of interest for a study of magnetophoresis, nanoparticle aggregations, viscosity, and their time dependences in magnetic colloids.

  4. Dissipation of Magnetic Fields in Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    ASHLEY JAMES BRANSGROVE

    2017-01-01

    Neutron stars are the smallest, densest stars in the universe, and are the strongest known magnets. There are more than 2000 known neutron stars in our galaxy, and the oldest ones are much weaker magnets than their younger counterparts. It is thought that neutron stars can become less magnetized over long periods of time, just like regular magnets can wear out, and lose their magnetism. This thesis uses numerical simulations to model how neutron stars can lose their magnetism, and compares th...

  5. Geodynamo models: Tools for understanding properties of Earth's magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ulrich R.

    2011-08-01

    Self-consistent models of the dynamo process in the Earth's core have reached a state where they can be used to understand specific morphological and temporal properties of the geomagnetic field. Even though several parameters in the models are far from Earth values, systematic parameter studies resulted in scaling laws that suggest that the dynamical regime in the models is not dissimilar to that in the core dynamo. In some dynamo models the magnetic field shows a close similarity with the structure of the geomagnetic field at the core-mantle boundary and the models are used to infer the underlying flow pattern inside the core. They support the concept of convection columns aligned with the rotation axis that concentrate magnetic flux into four strong lobes near ±65° latitude, and of rising plumes at the poles that are associated with low magnetic flux and westward vortex motion in the polar cap regions. Predictions for the field strength inside Earth's core from dynamo models and inferences from observations of short-term changes of the field and changes in Earth's rotation seem to converge at values of a few milliTesla. Dynamo models support the idea that the inhomogeneous thermal structure of the lower mantle has a significant influence on the dynamo and leads to a breaking of the longitudinal symmetry in the long-term geomagnetic field. In a limited range of control parameters the models show dipole polarity reversals that agree in detail with what is known about geomagnetic reversals, although the precise reversal mechanism in the models remains an open question.

  6. Novel concepts in near-field optics: from magnetic near-field to optical forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Honghua

    Driven by the progress in nanotechnology, imaging and spectroscopy tools with nanometer spatial resolution are needed for in situ material characterizations. Near-field optics provides a unique way to selectively excite and detect elementary electronic and vibrational interactions at the nanometer scale, through interactions of light with matter in the near-field region. This dissertation discusses the development and applications of near-field optical imaging techniques, including plasmonic material characterization, optical spectral nano-imaging and magnetic field detection using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM), and exploring new modalities of optical spectroscopy based on optical gradient force detection. Firstly, the optical dielectric functions of one of the most common plasmonic materials---silver is measured with ellipsometry, and analyzed with the Drude model over a broad spectral range from visible to mid-infrared. This work was motivated by the conflicting results of previous measurements, and the need for accurate values for a wide range of applications of silver in plasmonics, optical antennas, and metamaterials. This measurement provides a reference for dielectric functions of silver used in metamaterials, plasmonics, and nanophotonics. Secondly, I implemented an infrared s-SNOM instrument for spectroscopic nano-imaging at both room temperature and low temperature. As one of the first cryogenic s-SNOM instruments, the novel design concept and key specifications are discussed. Initial low-temperature and high-temperature performances of the instrument are examined by imaging of optical conductivity of vanadium oxides (VO2 and V2O 3) across their phase transitions. The spectroscopic imaging capability is demonstrated on chemical vibrational resonances of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and other samples. The third part of this dissertation explores imaging of optical magnetic fields. As a proof-of-principle, the magnetic

  7. Magnetostructural transitions in a frustrated magnet at high fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurkan, V; Zherlitsyn, S; Felea, V; Yasin, S; Skourski, Yu; Deisenhofer, J; von Nidda, H-A Krug; Lemmens, P; Wosnitza, J; Loidl, A

    2011-06-17

    Ultrasound and magnetization studies of bond-frustrated ZnCr(2)S(4) spinel are performed in static magnetic fields up to 18 T and in pulsed fields up to 62 T. At temperatures below the antiferromagnetic transition at T(N1)≈14  K, the sound velocity as a function of the magnetic field reveals a sequence of steps followed by plateaus indicating a succession of crystallographic structures with constant stiffness. At the same time, the magnetization evolves continuously with a field up to full magnetic polarization without any plateaus in contrast to geometrically frustrated chromium oxide spinels. The observed high-field magnetostructural states are discussed within a H-T phase diagram taking into account the field and temperature evolution of three coexisting spin structures and subsequent lattice transformations induced by the magnetic field.

  8. A permanent magnet device for producing variable high magnetic field in three dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, C S; Chang, P C; Chen, H H; Chang, C H; Huang Ming Hsiung

    2000-01-01

    By combining four parallel rows of permanent magnet blocks, a magnet device that can produce variable high magnetic field in three dimensions has been designed. In this device, the magnetic field direction and strength can be varied by shifting the four rows along their longitudinal direction and by varying the magnet gap between the top and bottom rows. With a magnet gap of 10 mm, the magnetic field strength at the center of the device is about 1.4 T along the longitudinal and two transverse directions. This device can be utilized in X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and X-ray magnetic linear dichroism experiments as well as in other applications where a variable high magnetic field in three dimensions is needed.

  9. Alignment of molecular materials in high magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christianen, P.C.M.; Shklyarevskiy, O.I.; Boamfa, M.I.; Maan, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The potential of using high magnetic fields to align functional molecular materials is discussed, illustrated by magnetic orientation of two different types of materials. Alignment of side chain polymer liquid crystals leads to macroscopically ordered, transparant and strongly birefringent material.

  10. Science in a Box. Magnets III: Force Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents ideas to help elementary school educators teach their students about magnetic force fields by observing how iron filings line up around magnets. The article lists materials needed and offers a student page with suggested student activities. (SM)

  11. A quantum mechanical approach to establishing the magnetic field orientation from a maser Zeeman profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. A.; Gray, M. D.; Robishaw, T.; Caswell, J. L.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.

    2014-06-01

    Recent comparisons of magnetic field directions derived from maser Zeeman splitting with those derived from continuum source rotation measures have prompted new analysis of the propagation of the Zeeman split components, and the inferred field orientation. In order to do this, we first review differing electric field polarization conventions used in past studies. With these clearly and consistently defined, we then show that for a given Zeeman splitting spectrum, the magnetic field direction is fully determined and predictable on theoretical grounds: when a magnetic field is oriented away from the observer, the left-hand circular polarization is observed at higher frequency and the right-hand polarization at lower frequency. This is consistent with classical Lorentzian derivations. The consequent interpretation of recent measurements then raises the possibility of a reversal between the large-scale field (traced by rotation measures) and the small-scale field (traced by maser Zeeman splitting).

  12. Accretion and magnetic field structure in AM Herculis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, D. T.; Ferrario, Lilia

    2000-04-01

    Detailed spectroscopic studies of the magnetic white dwarfs in the AM Herculis type systems have shown that in most systems the magnetic white dwarf has two dominant poles with field strengths that differ by a factor ˜1.5-2 indicating non dipolar field structures. In all but the highest field system AR UMa, phase locking appears to be maintained through magneto-static interactions between the magnetic field of the white dwarf and the dynamo generated magnetic field of the secondary star.

  13. Parametric Resonances of a Conductive Pipe Driven by an Alternating Magnetic Field in the Presence of a Static Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, Guillermo; Ladera, Celso L.

    2012-01-01

    The parametric oscillations of an oscillator driven electromagnetically are presented. The oscillator is a conductive pipe hung from a spring, and driven by the oscillating magnetic field of a surrounding coil in the presence of a static magnetic field. It is an interesting case of parametric oscillations since the pipe is neither a magnet nor a…

  14. ENHANCED MAGNETIC COMPRESSIBILITY AND ISOTROPIC SCALE INVARIANCE AT SUB-ION LARMOR SCALES IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyani, K. H.; Fauvarque, O. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Sahraoui, F. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Observatoire de Saint-Maur, F-94107 Saint-Maur-Des-Fosses (France); Khotyaintsev, Yu. V., E-mail: k.kiyani@imperial.ac.uk [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-01-20

    The anisotropic nature of solar wind magnetic turbulence fluctuations is investigated scale by scale using high cadence in situ magnetic field measurements from the Cluster and ACE spacecraft missions. The data span five decades in scales from the inertial range to the electron Larmor radius. In contrast to the inertial range, there is a successive increase toward isotropy between parallel and transverse power at scales below the ion Larmor radius, with isotropy being achieved at the electron Larmor radius. In the context of wave-mediated theories of turbulence, we show that this enhancement in magnetic fluctuations parallel to the local mean background field is qualitatively consistent with the magnetic compressibility signature of kinetic Alfven wave solutions of the linearized Vlasov equation. More generally, we discuss how these results may arise naturally due to the prominent role of the Hall term at sub-ion Larmor scales. Furthermore, computing higher-order statistics, we show that the full statistical signature of the fluctuations at scales below the ion Larmor radius is that of a single isotropic globally scale-invariant process distinct from the anisotropic statistics of the inertial range.

  15. Enhanced Magnetic Compressibility and Isotropic Scale Invariance at Sub-ion Larmor Scales in Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyani, K. H.; Chapman, S. C.; Sahraoui, F.; Hnat, B.; Fauvarque, O.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.

    2013-01-01

    The anisotropic nature of solar wind magnetic turbulence fluctuations is investigated scale by scale using high cadence in situ magnetic field measurements from the Cluster and ACE spacecraft missions. The data span five decades in scales from the inertial range to the electron Larmor radius. In contrast to the inertial range, there is a successive increase toward isotropy between parallel and transverse power at scales below the ion Larmor radius, with isotropy being achieved at the electron Larmor radius. In the context of wave-mediated theories of turbulence, we show that this enhancement in magnetic fluctuations parallel to the local mean background field is qualitatively consistent with the magnetic compressibility signature of kinetic Alfvén wave solutions of the linearized Vlasov equation. More generally, we discuss how these results may arise naturally due to the prominent role of the Hall term at sub-ion Larmor scales. Furthermore, computing higher-order statistics, we show that the full statistical signature of the fluctuations at scales below the ion Larmor radius is that of a single isotropic globally scale-invariant process distinct from the anisotropic statistics of the inertial range.

  16. Reversible Electric-Field-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kévin J. A. Franke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Control of magnetic domain-wall motion by electric fields has recently attracted scientific attention because of its potential for magnetic logic and memory devices. Here, we report on a new driving mechanism that allows for magnetic domain-wall motion in an applied electric field without the concurrent use of a magnetic field or spin-polarized electric current. The mechanism is based on elastic coupling between magnetic and ferroelectric domain walls in multiferroic heterostructures. Pure electric-field-driven magnetic domain-wall motion is demonstrated for epitaxial Fe films on BaTiO_{3} with in-plane and out-of-plane polarized domains. In this system, magnetic domain-wall motion is fully reversible and the velocity of the walls varies exponentially as a function of out-of-plane electric-field strength.

  17. Self-magnetic-leakage field detection using magneto-optical sensor technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegemann Robert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of spontaneous magnetic stray field signals has been reported to be a promising tool for capturing macro-scale information of deformation states, defects and stress concentration zones in a material structure. This paper offers a new method for self-magnetic leakage field detection using a magneto-optical (MO hand-held microscope. Its sensor has a dynamic field range between ±0.05 and ±2 kA/m and a lateral optical resolution of approx. 10 μm. We examined flat tensile test specimens of metastable austenitic steel AISI 304. Static tensile tests were repeatedly interrupted at various predetermined states of strain and the magnetic information was measured by the MO system. Comparative measurements using a high-precision magnetic field GMR-sensor, verify the outstanding capability of the MO microscope regarding spatial resolution of magnetic fields.

  18. Planck 2015 results. XIX. Constraints on primordial magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chluba, J.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Florido, E.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Shiraishi, M.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We compute and investigate four types of imprint of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies: the impact of PMFs on the CMB temperature and polarization spectra, which is related to their contribution to cosmological perturbations; the effect on CMB polarization induced by Faraday rotation; the impact of PMFs on the ionization history; magnetically-induced non-Gaussianities and related non-zero bispectra; and the magnetically-induced breaking of statistical isotropy. We present constraints on the amplitude of PMFs that are derived from different Planck data products, depending on the specific effect that is being analysed. Overall, Planck data constrain the amplitude of PMFs to less than a few nanoGauss, with different bounds that depend on the considered model. In particular, individual limits coming from the analysis of the CMB angular power spectra, using the Planck likelihood, are B1 Mpc < 4.4 nG (where B1 Mpc is the comoving field amplitude at a scale of 1 Mpc) at 95% confidence level, assuming zero helicity. By considering the Planck likelihood, based only on parity-even angular power spectra, we obtain B1 Mpc < 5.6 nG for a maximally helical field. For nearly scale-invariant PMFs we obtain B1 Mpc < 2.0 nG and B1 Mpc < 0.9 nG if the impact of PMFs on the ionization history of the Universe is included in the analysis. From the analysis of magnetically-induced non-Gaussianity, we obtain three different values, corresponding to three applied methods, all below 5 nG. The constraint from the magnetically-induced passive-tensor bispectrum is B1 Mpc < 2.8 nG. A search for preferred directions in the magnetically-induced passive bispectrum yields B1 Mpc < 4.5 nG, whereas the compensated-scalar bispectrum gives B1 Mpc < 3 nG. The analysis of the Faraday rotation of CMB polarization by PMFs uses the Planck power spectra in EE and BB at 70 GHz and gives B1 Mpc < 1380 nG. In our final analysis, we

  19. Magnetic Field Effects on CaCO3 Precipitation Process in Hard Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Saksono

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic treatment is applied as physical water treatment for scale prevention especially CaCO3, from hard water in piping equipment by reducing its hardness.Na2CO3 and CaCl2 solution sample was used in to investigate the magnetic fields influence on the formation of particle of CaCO3. By changing the strength of magnetic fields, exposure time and concentration of samples solution, this study presents quantitative results of total scale deposit, total precipitated CaCO3 and morphology of the deposit. This research was run by comparing magnetically and non-magnetically treated  samples. The results showed an increase of deposits formation rate and total number of precipitated CaCO3 of magnetically treated samples. The increase of concentration solution sample will also raised the deposit under magnetic  field. Microscope images showed a greater number but smaller size of CaCO3 deposits form in magnetically treated samples, and aggregation during the processes. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis showed that magnetically samples were dominated by calcite. But, there was a significant decrease of calcite’s peak intensities from magnetized  samples that indicated the decrease of the amount of calcite and an increase of total amorphous of deposits. This result  showed that magnetization of hard water leaded to the decreasing of ion Ca2+ due to the increasing of total CaCO3 precipitation process.

  20. Measurement of magnetic field fluctuations and diamagnetic currents within a laser ablation plasma interacting with an axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, S.; Horioka, K.; Okamura, M.

    2017-10-01

    The guiding of laser ablation plasmas with axial magnetic fields has been used for many applications, since its effectiveness has been proven empirically [L. Gray et al., J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 6628 (1982); J. Wolowski, Laser Part. Beams 20(01), 113 (2002); M. Okamura et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A510 (2010); Y. Tsui et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(15), 1953 (1997); C. Pagano and J. Lunney, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(30), 305202 (2010)]. For more sophisticated and complicated manipulations of the plasma flow, the behavior of the magnetic field during the interaction and the induced diamagnetic current in the plasma plume needs to be clearly understood. To achieve the first milestone for establishing magnetic plasma manipulation, we measured the spatial and temporal fluctuations of the magnetic field caused by the diamagnetic current. We showed that the small fluctuations of the magnetic field can be detected by using a simple magnetic probe. We observed that the field penetrates to the core of the plasma plume. The diamagnetic current estimated from the magnetic field had temporal and spatial distributions which were confirmed to be correlated with the transformation of the plasma plume. Our results show that the measurement by the magnetic probe is an effective method to observe the temporal and spatial distributions of the magnetic field and diamagnetic current. The systematic measurement of the magnetic field variations is a valuable method to establish the magnetic field manipulation of the laser ablation plasma.

  1. Theory of electrolyte crystallization in magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Hans Erik Lundager

    2007-01-01

    is negligible, if not absent, the key property is likely to be the spin of protons which, by virtue of their half-integral spin, are fermions. An effect on crystal growth kinetics has been demonstrated, and the apparent effect on nucleation concerns the growth rate of nuclei. We are thus dealing with surface...... to a neighbouring anion, which then becomes doubly protonized. If the two protons are in the same spin state, the Pauli principle requires that one of them enter a state of higher energy, which enhances the activation energy and reduces the rate of the process, but even with opposite spins the incoming proton must...... enter an excited state due to its momentum. Spin relaxation in magnetic field may remove hindrances to proton transfer. The theory is supported by numerical results from model calculations....

  2. Magnetic field response sensor for conductive media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant Douglas (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A magnetic field response sensor comprises an inductor placed at a fixed separation distance from a conductive surface to address the low RF transmissivity of conductive surfaces. The minimum distance for separation is determined by the sensor response. The inductor should be separated from the conductive surface so that the response amplitude exceeds noise level by a recommended 10 dB. An embodiment for closed cavity measurements comprises a capacitor internal to said cavity and an inductor mounted external to the cavity and at a fixed distance from the cavity's wall. An additional embodiment includes a closed cavity configuration wherein multiple sensors and corresponding antenna are positioned inside the cavity, with the antenna and inductors maintained at a fixed distance from the cavity's wall.

  3. The review of cellular effects of a static magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Miyakoshi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of static magnetic fields at the cellular level are reviewed. Past studies have shown that a static magnetic field alone does not have a lethal effect on the basic properties of cell growth and survival under normal culture conditions, regardless of its magnetic density. It has also been shown that cell cycle distribution is not influenced by extremely strong static magnetic fields (up to a maximum of 10 tesla (T. A further area of interest is whether static magnetic fields cause DNA damage, which can be evaluated by determination of the frequency of micronucleus formation. The presence or absence of such micronuclei can confirm whether a particular treatment damages cellular DNA. This method has been used to confirm that a static magnetic field alone has no such effect. However, the frequency of micronucleus formation changes significantly when certain treatments (for example, X-irradiation and mitomycin C are given during exposure to a strong static magnetic field. It has also been reported that treatment with trace amounts of ferrous ions in the cell culture medium and exposure to a static magnetic field increases DNA damage, which is detected using the comet assay. Several reports suggest that a strong static magnetic field may affect the ion transport and the gene expression. In addition, many studies have found a strong magnetic field can induce orientation phenomena in cell culture.

  4. First Computation of Parasitic Fields in LHC Dipole Magnet Interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Devred, Arnaud; Boncompagni, Yann; Ferapontov, V; Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre; Russenschuck, Stephan; Sahner, T; Völlinger, C

    2006-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), now under construction at CERN, will rely on about 1600 main superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets and over 7400 superconducting corrector magnets distributed around the eight sectors of the machine. Each magnet type is powered by dedicated superconducting busbars running along the sectors and mounted on the iron yokes of the main dipole and quadruple magnets. In the numerous magnet interconnects, the busbars are not magnetically shielded from the beam pipes and produce parasitic fields that can affect beam optics. We review the 3-D models that have been developed with ROXIE to compute the parasitic fields and we discuss their potential impacts on machine performance.

  5. Examination of Biological Effects of Magnetic Field Concealed by Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Nakamura, T.

    Response of biological systems against combined environment of zero-gravity and zero-magnetic field should be examined as the baseline to investigate biological effects of magnetic field that might be concealed by gravity. Space offers unique opportunities to conduct such study because long term microgravity is available for the scientific use. However, magnetic environment has been neither well controlled nor documented both in space and ground based experiments. Biological specimen is exposed to the various magnetic field of Earth during the revolutions in orbit. The profile of magnetic field varying in time depends on the orbital parameters and attitude of the space platform. Furthermore, the onboard 1 G control group is subjected to centrifugation spinning where magnetic field varies differently from the microgravity experiment group. It can not be accepted as the 1 G control in terms of magnetic environment. We propose experiment set up to shield exotic magnetic field experienced in orbiting space experiment platform. Thin film of amorphous metal or alloys has shielding capability, and is feasible to implement for space experimentation. In order to simulate zero-gravity and zero-magnetic field on ground, we developed a 3D- clinostat that equips a magnetic shielding layer for specimen. In order to evaluate effects of normal magnetic field of Earth, steady magnetic field is induced at the site of specimen inside the shield layer either in orbit or on 3D-clinostat. To fill the matrix of experimental design, 1 G control under the magnetic shielded condition, and 1 G control that is exposed to the normal field should be taken. Degree of magnetic shielding magnitude required for plant studies and other issues were examined by the preliminary experiments using a 3D-clinostat for the studies of etiolated seedlings.

  6. Ion and impurity transport in turbulent, anisotropic magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrea, M; Petrisor, I [Department of Physics, Association Euratom-MEdC, Romania, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza str. 13, Craiova (Romania); Isliker, H; Vogiannou, A; Vlahos, L [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Thessaloniki, Association Euratom-Hellenic Republic, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Weyssow, B [Physique Statistique-Plasmas, Association Euratom-Etat Belge, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2011-08-15

    We investigate ion and impurity transport in turbulent, possibly anisotropic, magnetic fields. The turbulent magnetic field is modeled as a correlated stochastic field, with Gaussian distribution function and prescribed spatial auto-correlation function, superimposed onto a strong background field. The (running) diffusion coefficients of ions are determined in the three-dimensional environment, using two alternative methods, the semi-analytical decorrelation trajectory (DCT) method, and test-particle simulations. In a first step, the results of the test-particle simulations are compared with and used to validate the results obtained from the DCT method. For this purpose, a drift approximation was made in slab geometry, and relatively good qualitative agreement between the DCT method and the test-particle simulations was found. In a second step, the ion species He, Be, Ne and W, all assumed to be fully ionized, are considered under ITER-like conditions, and the scaling of their diffusivities is determined with respect to varying levels of turbulence (varying Kubo number), varying degrees of anisotropy of the turbulent structures and atomic number. In a third step, the test-particle simulations are repeated without drift approximation, directly using the Lorentz force, first in slab geometry, in order to assess the finite Larmor radius effects, and second in toroidal geometry, to account for the geometric effects. It is found that both effects are important, most prominently the effects due to toroidal geometry and the diffusivities are overestimated in slab geometry by an order of magnitude.

  7. Particle simulation in stochastic magnetic fields at tokamak edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. C.; Nishimura, Y.; Cheng, C. Z.

    2013-10-01

    An orbit following simulation code is developed incorporating magnetic perturbation. While magnetic field lines can exhibit stochastic behavior in the presence of incommensurate magnetic perturbations, the particle motions are also influenced by the mirror force and the perturbed electric fields. Remnants of lowest order magnetic islands can also play an important role in regulating the particle and heat transport. Effective perpendicular transport can be enhanced in the presence of trapped particles; how the mirror force influences the transport in stochastic magnetic fields is examined. This work is supported by National Science Council of Taiwan, NSC 100-2112-M-006-021-MY3 and NCKU Top University Project.

  8. Measurements of Magnetic Field Convection in Spherical Liquid Sodium Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, W. J.; Reighard, A. B.; Trucksess, C. D.; Brown, M. R.

    1998-11-01

    We have performed magnetic field measurements both inside and outside a 0.15 m diameter sphere of flowing liquid sodium. Experiments have been conducted in both smooth (laminar flow) and corrugated (turbulent flow) Pyrex spheres. A teflon stirrer generates a non-axisymmetric MHD flow with a magnetic Reynold's number boxcar averager with pick-up loops are used to measure magnetic fields in the flow. Preliminary results indicate evidence of both toroidal and poloidal convection of the magnetic field (internally and externally); total magnetic flux remains approximately fixed. Results will be compared with TRIM MHD computer simulations.

  9. Mechanism and Simulation of Generating Pulsed Strong Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Chuang; Deng, Ai-Dong; Gu, Zhuo-Wei; Luo, Hao

    2014-10-01

    A strong magnetic field (over 1000 T) was recently experimentally produced at the Academy of Engineering Physics in China. The theoretical methods, which include a simple model and MHD code, are discussed to investigate the physical mechanism and dynamics of generating the strong magnetic field. The analysis and simulation results show that nonlinear magnetic diffusion contributes less as compared to the linear magnetic diffusion. This indicates that the compressible hydrodynamic effect and solid imploding compression may have a large influence on strong magnetic field generation.

  10. Homogeneous Magnetic Field Source For Attenuated Total Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesňák Michal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the study of two-dimensional magnetic field distribution used for an analysis of samples containing magnetically active films by means of the Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR method. The design of a proposed electromagnet and the magnetic field model computation are presented together with the results obtained from magnetic field distribution measurement. The ATR method can provide information about a thin film thickness, refractive index, and attenuation in addition to the perfunctory coupling of an optical wave into and off a waveguide [1, 2]. The prism coupling conditions are determined for magnetic structures with induced anisotropy.

  11. Magnetic fields, special relativity and potential theory elementary electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Kilmister, C W

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic Fields, Special Relativity and Potential Theory is an introduction to electromagnetism, special relativity, and potential theory, with emphasis on the magnetic field of steady currents (magnetostatics). Topics covered range from the origin of the magnetic field and the magnetostatic scalar potential to magnetization, electromagnetic induction and magnetic energy, and the displacement current and Maxwell's equations. This volume is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of magnetostatics, followed by a chapter on the methods of solving potential problems drawn from elec

  12. Localized magnetic fields in arbitrary directions using patterned nanomagnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNeil, Robert P G; Schneble, Jeff; Kataoka, Masaya

    2010-01-01

    Control of the local magnetic fields desirable for spintronics and quantum information technology is not well developed. Existing methods produce either moderately small local fields or one held orientation. We present designs of patterned magnetic elements that produce remanent fields of 50 mT (...

  13. Dynamics of paramagnetic squares in uniform magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Di; He, Peng; Zeng, Yongchao; Biswal, Sibani Lisa, E-mail: biswal@rice.edu

    2016-11-01

    The magnetic forces between paramagnetic squares cannot be calculated using a classic dipolar model because the magnetic field distribution is not uniform within square particles. Here, we present the calculation of magnetic forces and torques on paramagnetic squares in a uniform 2-D magnetic field using a Laplace's equation solver. With these calculations, we simulate the variations in equilibrium configurations as a function of number of interacting squares. For example, a single square orients with its diagonal directed to the external field while a system of multiple squares will assemble into chain-like structures with their edges directed to the external field. Unlike chains of spherical magnetic particles, that easily stagger themselves to aggregate, chains consisting of magnetic squares are unable to aggregate due to interchain repulsion. - Highlights: • Numerical calculations demonstrate that the orientation dynamics of a magnetic square or rectangle is highly dependent on the magnetic field distribution within the particle and its interactions with neighboring particles. • A paramagnetic square acquires an asymmetric field distribution that results in a torque that rotates it so that its diagonal aligns with the magnetic field. • Chains of magnetic square particles will not combine into bundles as observed in chains of magnetic disk particles.

  14. Granular cells in the presence of magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčák, J.; Lemmerer, B.; van Noort, M.

    2017-10-01

    We present a statistical study of the dependencies of the shapes and sizes of the photospheric convective cells on the magnetic field properties. This analysis is based on a 2.5 hour long SST observations of active region NOAA 11768. We have blue continuum images taken with a cadence of 5.6 sec that are used for segmentation of individual granules and 270 maps of spectropolarimetric CRISP data allowing us to determine the properties of the magnetic field along with the line-of-sight velocities. The sizes and shapes of the granular cells are dependent on the the magnetic field strength, where the granules tend to be smaller in regions with stronger magnetic field. In the presence of highly inclined magnetic fields, the eccentricity of granules is high and we do not observe symmetric granules in these regions. The mean up-flow velocities in granules as well as the granules intensities decrease with increasing magnetic field strength.

  15. Multi-Scale Investigation of Sheared Flows In Magnetized Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward, Jr., Thomas [Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL (United States)

    2014-09-19

    Flows parallel and perpendicular to magnetic fields in a plasma are important phenomena in many areas of plasma science research. The presence of these spatially inhomogeneous flows is often associated with the stability of the plasma. In fusion plasmas, these sheared flows can be stabilizing while in space plasmas, these sheared flows can be destabilizing. Because of this, there is broad interest in understanding the coupling between plasma stability and plasma flows. This research project has engaged in a study of the plasma response to spatially inhomogeneous plasma flows using three different experimental devices: the Auburn Linear Experiment for Instability Studies (ALEXIS) and the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) stellarator devices at Auburn University, and the Space Plasma Simulation Chamber (SPSC) at the Naval Research Laboratory. This work has shown that there is a commonality of the plasma response to sheared flows across a wide range of plasma parameters and magnetic field geometries. The goal of this multi-device, multi-scale project is to understand how sheared flows established by the same underlying physical mechanisms lead to different plasma responses in fusion, laboratory, and space plasmas.

  16. Magnetic Field Applications in Semiconductor Crystal Growth and Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Grugel, Richard; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Traveling Magnetic Field (TMF) technique, recently proposed to control meridional flow in electrically conducting melts, is reviewed. In particular, the natural convection damping capability of this technique has been numerically demonstrated with the implication of significantly improving crystal quality. Advantages of the traveling magnetic field, in comparison to the more mature rotating magnetic field method, are discussed. Finally, results of experiments with mixing metallic alloys in long ampoules using TMF is presented

  17. A Study of Thermocurrent Induced Magnetic Fields in ILC Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Anthony C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Cooley, Victoria [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-03-31

    The case of axisymmetric ILC-type cavities with titanium helium vessels is investigated. A first-order estimate for magnetic field within the SRF current layer is presented. The induced magnetic field is found to be not more than 1.4x10-8 Tesla = 0.14 milligauss for the case of axial symmetry. Magnetic fields due to symmetry breaking effects are discussed.

  18. Pulsar magnetospheric convulsions induced by an external magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    The canonical pulsar magnetosphere contains a bubble of closed magnetic field lines that is separated from the open lines by current sheets, and different branches of such sheets intersect at a critical line on the light cylinder (LC). The LC is located far away from the neutron star, and the pulsar's intrinsic magnetic field at that location is much weaker than the commonly quoted numbers applicable to the star surface. The magnetic field surrounding supermassive black holes that reside in g...

  19. Temperature compensated current sensor using reference magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-10-09

    A method is described to provide temperature compensation and self-calibration of a current sensor based on a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. A reference magnetic field generated within the current sensor housing is detected by a separate but identical magnetic field sensor and is used to correct variations in the output signal due to temperature variations and aging.

  20. Electric field driven switching of individual magnetic skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Pin-Jui; Kubetzka, André; Finco, Aurore; Romming, Niklas; von Bergmann, Kirsten; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Controlling magnetism with electric fields is a key challenge to develop future energy-efficient devices, however, the switching between inversion symmetric states, e.g. magnetization up and down as used in current technology, is not straightforward, since the electric field does not break time-reversal symmetry. Here, we demonstrate that local electric fields can be used to reversibly switch between a magnetic skyrmion and the ferromagnetic state. These two states are topologically inequival...