WorldWideScience

Sample records for scale electricity storage

  1. Prospects for large scale electricity storage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Ekman, Claus; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2010-01-01

    In a future power systems with additional wind power capacity there will be an increased need for large scale power management as well as reliable balancing and reserve capabilities. Different technologies for large scale electricity storage provide solutions to the different challenges arising w...

  2. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable

  3. Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    Electricity storage is needed on an unprecedented scale to sustain the ongoing transition of electricity generation from fossil fuels to intermittent renewable energy sources like wind and solar power. Today pumped hydro is the only commercially viable large-scale electricity storage technology......-scale electricity storage with a round-trip efficiency exceeding 70% and an estimated storage cost around 3 b kW-1 h-1, i.e., comparable to pumped hydro and much better than previously proposed technologies...

  4. Correction: Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2017-01-01

    Correction for ‘Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4’ by S. H. Jensen et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2471–2479.......Correction for ‘Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4’ by S. H. Jensen et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2471–2479....

  5. Survey and analysis of selected jointly owned large-scale electric utility storage projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine and document the issues surrounding the curtailment in commercialization of large-scale electric storage projects. It was sensed that if these issues could be uncovered, then efforts might be directed toward clearing away these barriers and allowing these technologies to penetrate the market to their maximum potential. Joint-ownership of these projects was seen as a possible solution to overcoming the major barriers, particularly economic barriers, of commercializaton. Therefore, discussions with partners involved in four pumped storage projects took place to identify the difficulties and advantages of joint-ownership agreements. The four plants surveyed included Yards Creek (Public Service Electric and Gas and Jersey Central Power and Light); Seneca (Pennsylvania Electric and Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company); Ludington (Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, and Bath County (Virginia Electric Power Company and Allegheny Power System, Inc.). Also investigated were several pumped storage projects which were never completed. These included Blue Ridge (American Electric Power); Cornwall (Consolidated Edison); Davis (Allegheny Power System, Inc.) and Kttatiny Mountain (General Public Utilities). Institutional, regulatory, technical, environmental, economic, and special issues at each project were investgated, and the conclusions relative to each issue are presented. The major barriers preventing the growth of energy storage are the high cost of these systems in times of extremely high cost of capital, diminishing load growth and regulatory influences which will not allow the building of large-scale storage systems due to environmental objections or other reasons. However, the future for energy storage looks viable despite difficult economic times for the utility industry. Joint-ownership can ease some of the economic hardships for utilites which demonstrate a need for energy storage.

  6. Valuation framework for large scale electricity storage in a case with wind curtailment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loisel, Rodica; Mercier, Arnaud; Gatzen, Christoph; Elms, Nick; Petric, Hrvoje

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the value of large scale applications of electricity storage in selected European power systems in the context of wind generation confronted with a grid bottleneck. It analyzes the market value to 2030 of two storage technologies, assuming the market situation projected for Germany and France. The analysis assesses the evolution of storage economics based on the net present value of cash flows. Sensitivities to market and regulatory drivers of value are assessed, e.g. electricity price spreads, ancillary services revenues, wind curtailment and the level of carbon prices. The paper concludes by suggesting possible ways to improve the competitiveness of electricity storage, such as research and development and deployment programmes, and changes to the design of power markets and regulatory arrangements to enable storage owners to better capture the benefits of storage. Such changes would allow electricity storage, where economically viable, to play a critical role in establishing a future sustainable European power system. - Research highlights: →CAES and PHS are not cost-effective for current market design in France and Germany → Market reforms are run to reward bottleneck avoiding and ancillary reserves → Storage is profitable when all potential socio-economic benefits are aggregated → R and D and D programs for storage improvement are economically and socially justified.

  7. Wind power impacts and electricity storage - a time scale perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Meibom, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Integrating large amounts of wind power in energy systems poses balancing challenges due to the variable and only partly predictable nature of wind. The challenges cover different time scales from intra-hour, intra-day/day-ahead to several days and seasonal level. Along with flexible electricity...... demand options, various electricity storage technologies are being discussed as candidates for contributing to large-scale wind power integration and these also differ in terms of the time scales at which they can operate. In this paper, using the case of Western Denmark in 2025 with an expected 57% wind...... power penetration, wind power impacts on different time scales are analysed. Results show consecutive negative and high net load period lengths indicating a significant potential for flexibility measures capable of charging/activating demand and discharging/inactivating demand in periods of 1 h to one...

  8. Carbon dioxide emissions effects of grid-scale electricity storage in a decarbonizing power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael T.; Jaramillo, Paulina; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2018-01-01

    While grid-scale electricity storage (hereafter ‘storage’) could be crucial for deeply decarbonizing the electric power system, it would increase carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in current systems across the United States. To better understand how storage transitions from increasing to decreasing system CO2 emissions, we quantify the effect of storage on operational CO2 emissions as a power system decarbonizes under a moderate and strong CO2 emission reduction target through 2045. Under each target, we compare the effect of storage on CO2 emissions when storage participates in only energy, only reserve, and energy and reserve markets. We conduct our study in the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) system and use a capacity expansion model to forecast generator fleet changes and a unit commitment and economic dispatch model to quantify system CO2 emissions with and without storage. We find that storage would increase CO2 emissions in the current ERCOT system, but would decrease CO2 emissions in 2025 through 2045 under both decarbonization targets. Storage reduces CO2 emissions primarily by enabling gas-fired generation to displace coal-fired generation, but also by reducing wind and solar curtailment. We further find that the market in which storage participates drives large differences in the magnitude, but not the direction, of the effect of storage on CO2 emissions.

  9. Status of electrical energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the status of electrical storage systems in the light of the growing use of renewable energy sources and distributed generation (DG) in meeting emission targets and in the interest of the UK electricity supply industry. Examples of storage technologies, their applications and current status are examined along with technical issues and possible activities by UK industries. Details are given of development opportunities in the fields of flow cells, advanced batteries - lithium batteries, high temperature batteries, flywheels, and capacitors. Power conversion systems and system integration, the all-electric ship project, and compressed air energy storage are discussed. Opportunities for development and deployment, small scale systems, demonstration programmes, and research and development issues are considered. An outline of the US Department of Energy Storage programme is given in the Annex to the report.

  10. MRI device – alternative for electrical energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molokáč, Š.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known, that the electrical energy storage in the large scale is basically difficult process. Such a process is marked by the energy losses, as the conversion of electrical energy into another form, is most frequently for example mechanical, and then back to the primary electrical form. Though, the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES technology offers the energy storage in an unchanged form, which is advantageous primarily in the achieved efficiency. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI devices, commonly used in the medical facilities are based on the application of superconducting magnet. After its rejection from operation, there is possibility of using such devices for energy storage purposes. Additionally, such a technology of storage is also ecological.

  11. Energy storage for electrical systems in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Freeman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage is becoming increasingly important as renewable generation sources such as Wind Turbine and Photo Voltaic Solar are added to the mix in electrical power generation and distribution systems. The paper discusses the basic drivers for energy storage and provides brief descriptions of the various energy storage technologies available. The information summarizes current technical tradeoffs with different storage approaches and identifies issues surrounding deployment of large scale energy storage systems.

  12. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Alexander, E-mail: ajw36@cam.ac.uk [Hopkinson Laboratory, Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge. CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-22

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on “sensible heat” storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  13. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Project summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report summarises the work to date, the current situation and the future direction of a project carried out by Regenesys Technology Ltd. (RGN) to investigate the benefits of electrochemical energy storage for power generators using renewable energy sources focussing on wind energy. The background to the study is traced covering the progress of the Regenesys energy storage technology, and the milestones achieved and lessons learnt. Details are given of the planned renewable-store-market interface to allow renewable generators optimise revenue under the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) and help in the connection of the renewable energy to the electric grid system. The four integrated work programmes of the project are described and involve a system study examining market penetration of renewable generators, a technical study into connection of renewable generators and energy storage, a small scale demonstration, and a pilot scale energy storage plant at Little Barton in Cambridgeshire. Problems leading to the closure of the project are discussed

  14. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the work to date, the current situation and the future direction of a project carried out by Regenesys Technology Ltd. (RGN) to investigate the benefits of electrochemical energy storage for power generators using renewable energy sources focussing on wind energy. The background to the study is traced covering the progress of the Regenesys energy storage technology, and the milestones achieved and lessons learnt. Details are given of the planned renewable-store-market interface to allow renewable generators optimise revenue under the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) and help in the connection of the renewable energy to the electric grid system. The four integrated work programmes of the project are described and involve a system study examining market penetration of renewable generators, a technical study into connection of renewable generators and energy storage, a small scale demonstration, and a pilot scale energy storage plant at Little Barton in Cambridgeshire. Problems leading to the closure of the project are discussed.

  15. Third Generation Flywheels for electric storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, Michael, R.; Fiske, O. James

    2008-02-29

    Electricity is critical to our economy, but growth in demand has saturated the power grid causing instability and blackouts. The economic penalty due to lost productivity in the US exceeds $100 billion per year. Opposition to new transmission lines and power plants, environmental restrictions, and an expected $100 billion grid upgrade cost have slowed system improvements. Flywheel electricity storage could provide a more economical, environmentally benign alternative and slash economic losses if units could be scaled up in a cost effective manner to much larger power and capacity than the present maximum of a few hundred kW and a few kWh per flywheel. The goal of this project is to design, construct, and demonstrate a small-scale third generation electricity storage flywheel using a revolutionary architecture scalable to megawatt-hours per unit. First generation flywheels are built from bulk materials such as steel and provide inertia to smooth the motion of mechanical devices such as engines. They can be scaled up to tens of tons or more, but have relatively low energy storage density. Second generation flywheels use similar designs but are fabricated with composite materials such as carbon fiber and epoxy. They are capable of much higher energy storage density but cannot economically be built larger than a few kWh of storage capacity due to structural and stability limitations. LaunchPoint is developing a third generation flywheel — the "Power Ring" — with energy densities as high or higher than second generation flywheels and a totally new architecture scalable to enormous sizes. Electricity storage capacities exceeding 5 megawatt-hours per unit appear both technically feasible and economically attractive. Our design uses a new class of magnetic bearing – a radial gap “shear-force levitator” – that we discovered and patented, and a thin-walled composite hoop rotated at high speed to store kinetic energy. One immediate application is power grid

  16. Grid scale energy storage in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crotogino, Fritz; Donadei, Sabine [KBB Underground Technologies GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Fossil energy sources require some 20% of the annual consumption to be stored to secure emergency cover, peak shaving, seasonal balancing, etc. Today the electric power industry benefits from the extreme high energy density of fossil fuels. This is one important reason why the German utilities are able to provide highly reliable grid operation at a electric power storage capacity at their pumped hydro power stations of less then 1 hour (40 GWh) related to the total load in the grid - i.e. only 0,06% related to natural gas. Along with the changeover to renewable wind based electricity production this ''outsourcing'' of storage services to fossil fuels will decline. One important way out will be grid scale energy storage. The present discussion for balancing short term wind and solar power fluctuations focuses primarily on the installation of Compressed Air Energy Storages (CAES) in addition to existing pumped hydro plants. Because of their small energy density, these storage options are, however, generally not suitable for balancing for longer term fluctuations in case of larger amounts of excess wind power or even seasonal fluctuations. Underground hydrogen storages, however, provide a much higher energy density because of chemical energy bond - standard practice since many years. The first part of the article describes the present status and performance of grid scale energy storages in geological formations, mainly salt caverns. It is followed by a compilation of generally suitable locations in Europe and particularly Germany. The second part deals with first results of preliminary investigations in possibilities and limits of offshore CAES power stations. (orig.)

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of pumped thermal electricity storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Alexander; Parks, Geoff; Markides, Christos N.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater need for electricity storage. Although there are many existing and emerging storage technologies, most have limitations in terms of geographical constraints, high capital cost or low cycle life, and few are of sufficient scale (in terms of both power and storage capacity) for integration at the transmission and distribution levels. This paper is concerned with a relatively new concept which will be referred to here as Pumped Thermal Electricity Storage (PTES), and which may be able to make a significant contribution towards future storage needs. During charge, PTES makes use of a high temperature ratio heat pump to convert electrical energy into thermal energy which is stored as ‘sensible heat’ in two thermal reservoirs, one hot and one cold. When required, the thermal energy is then converted back to electricity by effectively running the heat pump backwards as a heat engine. The paper focuses on thermodynamic aspects of PTES, including energy and power density, and the various sources of irreversibility and their impact on round-trip efficiency. It is shown that, for given compression and expansion efficiencies, the cycle performance is controlled chiefly by the ratio between the highest and lowest temperatures in each reservoir rather than by the cycle pressure ratio. The sensitivity of round-trip efficiency to various loss parameters has been analysed and indicates particular susceptibility to compression and expansion irreversibility

  18. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utilities and fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the University of Wisconsin are developing superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is being developed. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch systems and 1-to-2-s slow energy transfer tokamak systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of a SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given of a reference design for a 10-GWh unit for load leveling, of a 30-MJ coil proposed for system stabilization, and of tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are presented. The common technology base for the various storage systems is discussed

  19. Storage the electric power: yes, it is indispensable and it is possible. Why, where, how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the main characteristics of various electric power storage methods and their application domains. The large-scale storages include the hydraulic systems, those using compressed air, the batteries or those implementing a thermal way. The small-scale storages are electrochemical as the accumulators, the super-capacitors, mechanical as the flywheel, magnetic or also by the hydrogen use. The first part presents the necessity of the electric power storage, the second part the places of these storage. The third part details the forms of storage. (A.L.B.)

  20. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy, and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld. Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers and hydrogen storage. These technologies have diff erent technical characteristics and economic parameters that determine their usability. This paper presents two concepts of an electricity storage tank with a storage capacity of at least 50 MWh, using the BES battery energy storage and CAES compressed air energy storage technologies.

  1. Efficient electricity storage with a battolyser, an integrated Ni-Fe battery and electrolyser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, F.M.; Weninger, B.; Middelkoop, J.; Ooms, F.G.B.; Schreuders, H.

    2017-01-01

    Grid scale electricity storage on daily and seasonal time scales is required to accommodate increasing amounts of renewable electricity from wind and solar power. We have developed for the first time an integrated battery-electrolyser ('battolyser') that efficiently stores electricity as a

  2. Alternatives to electricity for transmission and annual-scale firming - Storage for diverse, stranded, renewable energy resources: hydrogen and ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighty, William

    2010-09-15

    The world's richest renewable energy resources 'of large geographic extent and high intensity' are stranded: far from end-users with inadequate or nonexistent gathering and transmission systems to deliver energy. Output of most renewables varies greatly, at time scales of seconds-seasons: energy capture assets operate at low capacity factor; energy delivery is not 'firm'. New electric transmission systems, or fractions thereof, dedicated to renewables, suffer the same low CF: substantial stranded capital assets, increasing the cost of delivered renewable-source energy. Electricity storage cannot affordably firm large renewables at annual scale. Gaseous hydrogen and anhydrous ammonia fuels can: attractive alternatives.

  3. Pricing and Application of Electric Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jialin

    Electric storage provides a vehicle to store power for future use. It contributes to the grids in multiple aspects. For instance, electric storage is a more effective approach to provide electricity ancillary services than conventional methods. Additionally, electric storage, especially fast-responding units, allows owners to implement high-frequency power transactions in settings such as the 5-min real-time trading market. Such high-frequency power trades were limited in the past. However, as technology advances, the power markets have evolved. For instance, the California Independent System Operator now supports the 5-min real-time trading and the hourly day-ahead ancillary services bidding. Existing valuation models of electric storage were not designed to accommodate these recent market developments. To fill this gap, I focus on the fast-responding grid-level electric storage that provides both the real-time trading and the day-ahead ancillary services bidding. To evaluate such an asset, I propose a Monte Carlo Simulation-based valuation model. The foundation of my model is simulations of power prices. This study develops a new simulation model of electric prices. It is worth noting that, unlike existing models, my proposed simulation model captures the dependency of the real-time markets on the day-ahead markets. Upon such simulations, this study investigates the pricing and the application of electric storage at a 5-min granularity. Essentially, my model is a Dynamic Programming system with both endogenous variables (i.e., the State-of-Charge of electric storage) and exogenous variables (i.e., power prices). My first numerical example is the valuation of a fictitious 4MWh battery. Similarly, my second example evaluates the application of two units of 2MWh batteries. By comparing these two experiments, I investigate the issues related to battery configurations, such as the impacts of splitting storage capability on the valuation of electric storage.

  4. Storage requirement in the electrical grid; Speicherbedarf im Stromnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Philipp [Technische Univ. Muenchen (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik (IfE)

    2011-07-01

    In its energy strategy, the German Government formulates an ambitious goal: the portion of power production from renewable energy sources by 2050 is 80 % of the gross electricity consumption. The necessary expansion of renewable energies increasingly will lead to a supply of renewable energies that exceeds the current demand. The quantification of the economically sensible potential of energy storages for the next few decades depends not only on the expansion of renewable energies but also on the development of frameworks in the area of conventional power generation and the electricity market. The contribution under consideration reports on the potential for large-scale storage in Germany for different paths of development in the electricity industry.

  5. Electrically conductive carbon nanofiber/paraffin wax composites for electric thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kun; Han Baoguo; Yu Xun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/paraffin wax composite is found to be a promising electric thermal storage material. ► The thermal storage capacity of CNF/paraffin wax composite is five times of traditional electric thermal storage material. ► CNF is shown to be an effective conductive filler for the composite. - Abstract: The research of electric thermal storage (ETS) has attracted a lot of attention recently, which converts off-peak electrical energy into thermal energy and release it later at peak hours. In this study, new electric thermal storage composites are developed by employing paraffin wax as thermal storage media and carbon nanofiber (CNF) as conductive fillers. Electric heating and thermal energy release performances of the CNF/paraffin wax composites are experimentally investigated. Experimental results show that, when the composites are heated to about 70 °C, the developed electrically conductive CNF/paraffin wax composites present a thermal storage capacity of about 280 kJ/kg, which is five times of that of traditional thermal storage medium such as ceramic bricks (54 kJ/kg). The CNF/paraffin wax composites can also effectively store the thermal energy and release the thermal energy in later hours.

  6. Electric energy storage - Overview of technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boye, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage is a challenging and costly process, as electricity can only be stored by conversion into other forms of energy (e.g. potential, thermal, chemical or magnetic energy). The grids must be precisely balanced in real time and it must be made sure that the cost of electricity is the lowest possible. Storage of electricity has many advantages, in centralized mass storages used for the management of the transmission network, or in decentralized storages of smaller dimensions. This article presents an overview of the storage technologies: mechanical storage in hydroelectric and pumped storage power stations, compressed air energy storage (CAES), flywheels accumulating kinetic energy, electrochemical batteries with various technologies, traditional lead acid batteries, lithium ion, sodium sulfur (NaS) and others, including vehicle to grid, sensible heat thermal storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), super-capacitors, conversion into hydrogen... The different technologies are compared in terms of cost and level of maturity. The development of intermittent renewable energies will result in a growing need for mechanisms to regulate energy flow and innovative energy storage solutions seem well positioned to develop. (author)

  7. Grid scale energy storage in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crotogino, F.; Donadei, S.

    2011-05-15

    Fossil energy sources require some 20% of the annual consumption to be stored to secure emergency cover, cold winter supply, peak shaving, seasonal swing, load management and energy trading. Today the electric power industry benefits from the extreme high energy density of fossil and nuclear fuels. This is one important reason why e.g. the German utilities are able to provide highly reliable grid operation at a electric power storage capacity at their pumped hydro power stations of less then 1 hour (40 GWh) related to the total load in the grid - i.e. only 0,06% compared to 20% for natural gas. Along with the changeover to renewable wind-and to a lesser extent PV-based electricity production this 'outsourcing' of storage services to fossil and nuclear fuels will decline. One important way out will be grid scale energy storage in geological formations. The present discussion, research projects and plans for balancing short term wind and solar power fluctuations focus primarily on the installation of Compressed Air Energy Storages (CAES) if the capacity of existing pumped hydro plants cannot be expanded, e.g. because of environmental issues or lack of suitable topography. Because of their small energy density, these storage options are, however, generally less suitable for balancing for longer term fluctuations in case of larger amounts of excess wind power, wind flaws or even seasonal fluctuations. One important way out are large underground hydrogen storages which provide a much higher energy density because of chemical energy bond. Underground hydrogen storage is state of the art since many years in Great Britain and in the USA for the (petro-) chemical industry. (Author)

  8. Winter electricity supply and seasonal storage deficit in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro; Monay, Blaise; Dujardin, Jérôme; Schaefli, Bettina; Schleiss, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Switzerland electricity production depends at 60% on hydropower, most of the remainder coming from nuclear power plants. The ongoing energy transition foresees an increase in renewable electricity production of solar photovoltaic, wind and geothermal origin to replace part of nuclear production; hydropower, in its several forms, will continue to provide the backbone and the guarantee of the instantaneous and permanent stability of the electric system. One of the key elements of any future portfolio of electricity mix with higher shares of intermittent energy sources like wind and solar are fast energy storage and energy deployment solutions. Hydropower schemes with pumping capabilities are eligible for storage at different time scales, whereas high-head storage hydropower schemes have already a cornerstone role in today's grid operation. These hydropower storage schemes have also been doing what can be labelled as "seasonal energy storage" in different extents, storing abundant flows in the wet season (summer) to produce electricity in the dry (winter) alpine season. Some of the existing reservoirs are however under sized with regards to the available water inflows and either spill over or operate as "run-of-the-river" which is economically suboptimal. Their role in seasonal energy transfer could increase through storage capacity increase (by dam heightening, by new storage dams in the same catchment). Inversely, other reservoirs that already store most of the wet season inflow might not fill up in the future in case inflows decrease due to climate changes; these reservoirs might then have extra storage capacity available to store energy from sources like solar and wind, if water pumping capacity is added or increased. The present work presents a comprehensive methodology for the identification of the seasonal storage deficit per catchment considering todays and future hydrological conditions with climate change, applied to several landmark case studies in

  9. Biological conversion of hydrogen to electricity for energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamanev, Dimitre; Pupkevich, Victor; Penev, Kalin; Glibin, Vassili; Gohil, Jay; Vajihinejad, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    Energy storage is currently one of the most significant problems associated with mass-scale usage of renewable (i.e. wind and solar) power sources. The use of hydrogen as an energy storage medium is very promising, but is hampered by the lack of commercially available hydrogen-to-electricity (H2e) converters. Here we are presenting the first commercially viable, biologically based technology for H2e conversion named the BioGenerator. It is a microbial fuel cell based on electron consumption resulting from the respiration of chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms. The results obtained during the scale-up study of the BioGenerator showed a maximum specific current of 1.35 A/cm 2 , maximum power density of 1800 W/m 2 and stable electricity generation over a period spanning longer than four years. The largest unit studied so far has a volume of 600 L and a power output of 0.3 kW. - Highlights: • A commercially viable biological convertor of H 2 to electricity (BioGenerator) is proposed. • It has a short-term commercial potential and its economic analysis is quite promising. • The BioGenerator is the first commercially viable bio-technology for energy storage. • It is a power generation technology of which has a negative CO 2 emission.

  10. Storage and the electricity forward premium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Stratford; Popova, Julia

    2008-01-01

    We develop and test a model describing the influence of natural gas storage inventories on the electricity forward premium. The model is constructed by linking the effect of gas storage constraints on the higher moments of the distribution of electricity prices to an established model of the effect of those moments on the forward premium. The model predicts a sharply negative effect of gas storage inventories on the electricity forward premium when demand for electricity is high and space-heating demand for gas is low. Empirical results, based on PJM data, strongly support the model. (author)

  11. Opportunities for electricity storage in deregulating markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, F.; Jenkin, T.; Murphy, D.

    1999-01-01

    This article addresses the value of electricity storage and its ability to take advantage of emerging energy arbitrage opportunities: buying power when it is inexpensive, and reselling it at a higher price. The focus of this article is on electricity markets and the opportunities they present for a merchant storage device, rather than on storage technologies themselves. There are a number of existing and emerging storage technologies: pumped hydro, various batteries, compressed air energy storage (CAES), superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), flywheels--even conventional hydro has storage-like properties. However, all these technologies operated on the same basic principle of exploiting short-term differentials in electricity prices: buy low, sell high (a strategy that is actually meaningful in electricity markets, unlike in financial markets). The object of this article is to develop and demonstrate a means for assessing the potential value of storage in different electricity markets, rather than to attempt to assess the prospects of a particular technology. The approach taken here is to look at price data from a number of actual electricity markets to determine what opportunities they might offer to a generic storage device. A storage technology is described here by its basic performance parameters--charge and generate capacity, energy inventory limits, and efficiency--which are sufficient to assess the basic economic potential of storage in a given market. The authors look primarily at US markets, but also compare and contrast findings with the situation in foreign markets in the U.K., Norway, Canada, and Australia, and discuss how market structure can influence the value of storage. Moreover, the authors use empirically observed relationships between hourly and 5 x 16 blocked prices to infer a rule for adjusting the value of storage assets in regions where only blocked price information is available

  12. Mixed Solutions of Electrical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents electrical energy storage solutions using electricbatteries and supercapacitors powered from photovoltaic solarmodules, with possibilities of application in electric and hybrid vehicles.The future development of electric cars depends largely on electricalenergy storage solutions that should provide a higher range of roadand operating parameters comparable to those equipped with internalcombustion engines, that eliminate pollution.

  13. Controllable and affordable utility-scale electricity from intermittent wind resources and compressed air energy storage (CAES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, Alfred

    2007-01-01

    World wind energy resources are substantial, and in many areas, such as the US and northern Europe, could in theory supply all of the electricity demand. However, the remote or challenging location (i.e. offshore) and especially the intermittent character of the wind resources present formidable barriers to utilization on the scale required by a modern industrial economy. All of these technical challenges can be overcome. Long distance transmission is well understood, while offshore wind technology is being developed rapidly. Intermittent wind power can be transformed to a controllable power source with hybrid wind/compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. The cost of electricity from such hybrid systems (including transmission) is affordable, and comparable to what users in some modern industrial economies already pay for electricity. This approach to intermittent energy integration has many advantages compared to the current strategy of forcing utilities to cope with supply uncertainty and transmission costs. Above all, it places intermittent wind on an equal technical footing with every other generation technology, including nuclear power, its most important long-term competitor

  14. Electricity storage - A challenge for energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, Jean-Baptiste; Nekrasov, Andre; Pastor, Emmanuel; Benefice, Emmanuel; Brincourt, Thierry; Cagnac, Albannie; Brisse, Annabelle; Jeandel, Elodie; Lefebvre, Thierry; Penneau, Jean-Francois; Radvanyi, Etienne; Delille, Gautier; Hinchliffe, Timothee; Lancel, Gilles; Loevenbruck, Philippe; Soler, Robert; Stevens, Philippe; Torcheux, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    After a presentation of the energetic context and of its issues, this collective publication proposes presentations of various electricity storage technologies with a distinction between direct storage, thermal storage and hydrogen storage. As far as direct storage is concerned, the following options are described: pumped energy transfer stations or PETS, compressed air energy storage or CAES, flywheels, various types of electrochemical batteries (lead, alkaline, sodium, lithium), metal air batteries, redox flow batteries, and super-capacitors. Thermal storage comprises power-to-heat and heat-to-power technologies. Hydrogen can be stored under different forms (compressed gas, liquid), in saline underground cavities, or by using water electrolysis and fuel cells. The authors propose an overview of the different services provided by energy storage to the electricity system, and discuss the main perspectives and challenges for tomorrow's storage (electric mobility, integration of renewable energies, electrification of isolated areas, scenarios of development)

  15. Determinants of the energy storage capacity of electric vehicles; Determinanten des Energiespeicherpotentials von Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, S.; Westermann, D. [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). FG EEV; Agsten, M. [Fraunhofer IOSB, Ilmenau (Germany). Institutsteil Angewandte Systemtechnik (AST)

    2012-07-01

    Future power systems have to meet the challenge of uncontrollable, decentralized generation through increasing renewable. Utilize energy storage to harmonize the load with fluctuating generation is an option. On the other hand in today's markets large scale energy storage systems are hard to find. The reason is assumed in the high costs. Electric vehicle utilization with smart charging could be an alternative solution, due to the secondary use of the electric vehicles battery when not used for driving. This paper will describe the electric vehicle storage capability which determinants influence the storage potential Therefore a model based approach will be provided, which is based on the experiences of a field test (''MINI-E-Berlin powered by Vattenfall''). (orig.)

  16. Managing Wind-based Electricity Generation and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yangfang

    Among the many issues that profoundly affect the world economy every day, energy is one of the most prominent. Countries such as the U.S. strive to reduce reliance on the import of fossil fuels, and to meet increasing electricity demand without harming the environment. Two of the most promising solutions for the energy issue are to rely on renewable energy, and to develop efficient electricity storage. Renewable energy---such as wind energy and solar energy---is free, abundant, and most importantly, does not exacerbate the global warming problem. However, most renewable energy is inherently intermittent and variable, and thus can benefit greatly from coupling with electricity storage, such as grid-level industrial batteries. Grid storage can also help match the supply and demand of an entire electricity market. In addition, electricity storage such as car batteries can help reduce dependence on oil, as it can enable the development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, and Battery Electric Vehicles. This thesis focuses on understanding how to manage renewable energy and electricity storage properly together, and electricity storage alone. In Chapter 2, I study how to manage renewable energy, specifically wind energy. Managing wind energy is conceptually straightforward: generate and sell as much electricity as possible when prices are positive, and do nothing otherwise. However, this leads to curtailment when wind energy exceeds the transmission capacity, and possible revenue dilution when current prices are low but are expected to increase in the future. Electricity storage is being considered as a means to alleviate these problems, and also enables buying electricity from the market for later resale. But the presence of storage complicates the management of electricity generation from wind, and the value of storage for a wind-based generator is not entirely understood. I demonstrate that for such a combined generation and storage system the optimal policy does not

  17. The value of electricity storage in energy-only electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, D.; Forcey, T.; Sandiford, M.

    2015-12-01

    Price volatility and the prospect of increasing renewable energy generation have raised interest in the potential opportunities for storage technologies in energy-only electricity markets. In this paper we explore the value of a price-taking storage device in such a market, the National Electricity Market (NEM) in Australia. Our analysis suggests that under optimal operation, there is little value in having more than six hours of storage in this market. However, the inability to perfectly forecast wholesale prices, particularly extreme price spikes, may warrant some additional storage. We found that storage devices effectively provide a similar service as peak generators (such as Open Cycle Gas Turbines) and are similarly dependent on and exposed to extreme price events, with revenue for a merchant generator highly skewed to a few days of the year. In contrast to previous studies, this results in the round trip efficiency of the storage being relatively insignificant. Financing using hedging strategies similar to a peak generator effectively reduces the variability of revenue and exposure of storage to extreme prices. Our case study demonstrates that storage may have a competitive advantage over other peaking generators on the NEM, due to its ability to earn revenue outside of extreme peak events. As a consequence the outlook for storage options on the NEM is dependent on volatility, in turn dependent on capacity requirements. Further to this, increased integration of renewable energy may both depend on storage and improve the outlook for storage in technologies in electricity markets.

  18. Vehicle to grid: electric vehicles as an energy storage solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nicholas; Wells, Nicole; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Kempton, Willett M.

    2013-05-01

    With increased focus on intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaics, there comes a rising need for large-scale energy storage. The vehicle to grid (V2G) project seeks to meet this need using electric vehicles, whose high power capacity and existing power electronics make them a promising energy storage solution. This paper will describe a charging system designed by the V2G team that facilitates selective charging and backfeeding by electric vehicles. The system consists of a custom circuit board attached to an embedded linux computer that is installed both in the EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment) and in the power electronics unit of the vehicle. The boards establish an in-band communication link between the EVSE and the vehicle, giving the vehicle internet connectivity and the ability to make intelligent decisions about when to charge and discharge. This is done while maintaining compliance with existing charging protocols (SAEJ1772, IEC62196) and compatibility with standard "nonintelligent" cars and chargers. Through this system, the vehicles in a test fleet have been able to successfully serve as portable temporary grid storage, which has implications for regulating the electrical grid, providing emergency power, or supplying power to forward military bases.

  19. Energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  20. Development of energy storage system for DC electric rolling stock applying electric double layer capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekijima, Y.; Kudo, Y.; Inui, M. [Central Japan Railway Co., Aichi (Japan); Monden, Y.; Toda, S.; Aoyama, I. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    This paper provided details of an energy storage system designed for use with DC electric rolling stock through the application of an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). The EDLC was selected due to its long life-span and its low operational costs. Testing was conducted to assess the system's basic control function, acceleration using stored energy, and behaviour during regenerative brake failure. A control circuit chip was used in the DC electric rolling stock on an inverter of the energy storage system. Tests confirmed that the control method was effective for actual rolling stocks. A full-scale energy storage system for installation on series 313 locomotives was then constructed. Braking energy was generated only from a regenerative brake. In case of brake failure, braking energy was generated from an air brake was well as an electric brake. Data from a field test conducted at the Tokaido and Chuo railway lines showed a capacity of 0.6 kWh. The EDLC was used to reduce peak air brake energy. It was concluded that storing 0.28 kW of brake energy in the EDLC can reduce peaks of air brake energy in high speed ranges. Experimental equipment was used to confirm use of the system with 0.56 kWh of EDLC, the average energy of air brake used in regenerative energy failure. 1 tab., 10 figs.

  1. Electricity storage. The problematic of alternative energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauet, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    After having evoked the increasing share of renewable energies in electricity production in Europe and the associated investments, the author outlines the main problems associated with renewable energy: their intermittency, and the fact that they are submitted to quick and important variations which must be managed by the grid. He also evokes economic and financial problems (high taxes in Germany and in France, mandatory purchase mechanisms leading to absurd situations and having consequences on the electricity market). The author discusses the issue of energy storage: storage is expensive and its cost will increase that of the produced energy. However, storage can be interesting if its cost is covered by the income generated by the provided services. Some solutions already exist: pumped-storage power station (PSPS), remotely controlled electric-storage water heaters. The author presents and comments the services which storage can provide: smoothing, spare energy supply, and supply quality. He outlines the importance of a technical-economic analysis for the choice of the best storage solution, but also the need to change the business model

  2. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  3. Electricity Storage and the Hydrogen-Chlorine Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugolo, Jason Steven

    Electricity storage is an essential component of the transforming energy marketplace. Its absence at any significant scale requires that electricity producers sit ready to respond to every flick of a switch, constantly adjusting power production to meet demand. The dispatchable electricity production technologies that currently enable this type of market are growing unpopular because of their carbon emissions. Popular methods to move away from fossil fuels are wind and solar power. These sources also happen to be the least dispatchable. Electricity storage can solve that problem. By overproducing during sunlight to store energy for evening use, or storing during windy periods for delivery in future calm ones, electricity storage has the potential to allow intermittent renewable sources to constitute a large portion of our electricity mix. I investigate the variability of wind in Chapter 2, and show that the variability is not significantly reduced by geographically distributing power production over the entire country of the Netherlands. In Chapter 3, I calculate the required characteristics of a linear-response, constant activity storage technology to map wind and solar production scenarios onto several different supply scenarios for a range of specified system efficiencies. I show that solid electrode batteries have two orders of magnitude too little energy per unit power to be well suited for renewable balancing and emphasize the value of the modular separation between the power and energy components of regenerative fuel cell technologies. In Chapter 4 I introduce the regenerative hydrogen-chlorine fuel cell (rHCFC), which is a specific technology that shows promise for the above applications. In collaboration with Sustainable Innovations, we have made and tested 6 different rHCFCs. In order to understand the relative importance of the different inefficiencies in the rHCFC, Chapter 5 introduces a complex temperature and concentration dependent model of the r

  4. Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, have vast potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions in the electric sector. Climate change concerns, state initiatives including renewable portfolio standards, and consumer efforts are resulting in increased deployments of both technologies. Both solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind energy have variable and uncertain (sometimes referred to as intermittent) output, which are unlike the dispatchable sources used for the majority of electricity generation in the United States. The variability of these sources has led to concerns regarding the reliability of an electric grid that derives a large fraction of its energy from these sources as well as the cost of reliably integrating large amounts of variable generation into the electric grid. In this report, we explore the role of energy storage in the electricity grid, focusing on the effects of large-scale deployment of variable renewable sources (primarily wind and solar energy).

  5. A storage ring experiment to detect a proton electric dipole moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastassopoulos, V. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26500 Rio-Patras, Greece; Andrianov, S. [Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Control Processes, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; Baartman, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T2A3, Canada; Baessler, S. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA; Bai, M. [Institut für Kernphysik and JARA-Fame, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany; Benante, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Berz, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA; Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Bowcock, T. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Brown, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Casey, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA; Conte, M. [Physics Department and INFN Section of Genoa, 16146 Genoa, Italy; Crnkovic, J. D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; D’Imperio, N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Fanourakis, G. [Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics NCSR Demokritos, GR-15310 Aghia Paraskevi Athens, Greece; Fedotov, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Fierlinger, P. [Technical University München, Physikdepartment and Excellence-Cluster “Universe,” Garching, Germany; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Gaisser, M. O. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Giomataris, Y. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France; Grosse-Perdekamp, M. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA; Guidoboni, G. [University of Ferrara, INFN of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; Hacıömeroğlu, S. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Hoffstaetter, G. [Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Incagli, M. [Physics Department, University and INFN Pisa, Pisa, Italy; Ivanov, A. [Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Control Processes, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; Kawall, D. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA; Kim, Y. I. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; King, B. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Koop, I. A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia; Lazarus, D. M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Lebedev, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA; Lee, M. J. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Lee, S. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Lee, Y. H. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Lehrach, A. [Institut für Kernphysik and JARA-Fame, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany; RWTH Aachen University and JARA-Fame, III. Physikalisches Institut B, Physikzentrum, 52056 Aachen, Germany; Lenisa, P. [University of Ferrara, INFN of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; Levi Sandri, P. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, I-00044 Frascati, Rome, Italy; Luccio, A. U. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Lyapin, A. [Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, United Kingdom; MacKay, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Maier, R. [Institut für Kernphysik and JARA-Fame, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany; Makino, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA; Malitsky, N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Marciano, W. J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Meng, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Metodiev, E. M. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Harvard College, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA; Miceli, L. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Moricciani, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Univ. di Roma “Tor Vergata” and INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; Morse, W. M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Nagaitsev, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA; Nayak, S. K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Orlov, Y. F. [Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; Ozben, C. S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469, Turkey; Park, S. T. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Pesce, A. [University of Ferrara, INFN of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; Petrakou, E. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Pile, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Podobedov, B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Polychronakos, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Pretz, J. [RWTH Aachen University and JARA-Fame, III. Physikalisches Institut B, Physikzentrum, 52056 Aachen, Germany; Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Ramberg, E. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA; Raparia, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Rathmann, F. [Institut für Kernphysik and JARA-Fame, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany; Rescia, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Kamal Sayed, H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Semertzidis, Y. K. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Senichev, Y. [Institut für Kernphysik and JARA-Fame, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany; Sidorin, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region, Russia; Silenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region, Russia; Research Institute for Nuclear Problems of Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus; Simos, N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Stahl, A. [RWTH Aachen University and JARA-Fame, III. Physikalisches Institut B, Physikzentrum, 52056 Aachen, Germany; Stephenson, E. J. [Indiana University Center for Spacetime Symmetries, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA; Ströher, H. [Institut für Kernphysik and JARA-Fame, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany; Syphers, M. J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA; Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115, USA; Talman, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Talman, R. M. [Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; Tishchenko, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Touramanis, C. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Venanzoni, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, I-00044 Frascati, Rome, Italy; Vetter, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA; Vlassis, S. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26500 Rio-Patras, Greece; Won, E. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Physics Department, Korea University, Seoul 02841, South Korea; Zavattini, G. [University of Ferrara, INFN of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; Zelenski, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Zioutas, K. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26500 Rio-Patras, Greece

    2016-11-01

    A new experiment is described to detect a permanent electric dipole moment of the proton with a sensitivity of $10^{-29}e\\cdot$cm by using polarized "magic" momentum $0.7$~GeV/c protons in an all-electric storage ring. Systematic errors relevant to the experiment are discussed and techniques to address them are presented. The measurement is sensitive to new physics beyond the Standard Model at the scale of 3000~TeV.

  6. A storage ring experiment to detect a proton electric dipole moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassopoulos, V; Andrianov, S; Baartman, R; Baessler, S; Bai, M; Benante, J; Berz, M; Blaskiewicz, M; Bowcock, T; Brown, K; Casey, B; Conte, M; Crnkovic, J D; D'Imperio, N; Fanourakis, G; Fedotov, A; Fierlinger, P; Fischer, W; Gaisser, M O; Giomataris, Y; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Guidoboni, G; Hacıömeroğlu, S; Hoffstaetter, G; Huang, H; Incagli, M; Ivanov, A; Kawall, D; Kim, Y I; King, B; Koop, I A; Lazarus, D M; Lebedev, V; Lee, M J; Lee, S; Lee, Y H; Lehrach, A; Lenisa, P; Levi Sandri, P; Luccio, A U; Lyapin, A; MacKay, W; Maier, R; Makino, K; Malitsky, N; Marciano, W J; Meng, W; Meot, F; Metodiev, E M; Miceli, L; Moricciani, D; Morse, W M; Nagaitsev, S; Nayak, S K; Orlov, Y F; Ozben, C S; Park, S T; Pesce, A; Petrakou, E; Pile, P; Podobedov, B; Polychronakos, V; Pretz, J; Ptitsyn, V; Ramberg, E; Raparia, D; Rathmann, F; Rescia, S; Roser, T; Kamal Sayed, H; Semertzidis, Y K; Senichev, Y; Sidorin, A; Silenko, A; Simos, N; Stahl, A; Stephenson, E J; Ströher, H; Syphers, M J; Talman, J; Talman, R M; Tishchenko, V; Touramanis, C; Tsoupas, N; Venanzoni, G; Vetter, K; Vlassis, S; Won, E; Zavattini, G; Zelenski, A; Zioutas, K

    2016-11-01

    A new experiment is described to detect a permanent electric dipole moment of the proton with a sensitivity of 10 -29 e ⋅ cm by using polarized "magic" momentum 0.7 GeV/c protons in an all-electric storage ring. Systematic errors relevant to the experiment are discussed and techniques to address them are presented. The measurement is sensitive to new physics beyond the standard model at the scale of 3000 TeV.

  7. Electricity storage by gas pumping. An introduction to thermodynamic storage processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruer, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    To date, Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS) is practically the only technology used to store large quantities of electricity. There are however other ways to achieve the same goal. There are not yet well known, because the interest for large scale storage is quite new A complete family of storage technologies can be defined as 'Thermodynamic Storage Systems'. Their only common factor is that a gas is pumped and expanded in the process. If the gas is air taken from the atmosphere and discharged to it, the system is said 'an open system'. This is already developed in the form of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). Different embodiments are possible, following the way the heat gene - rated during the compression stage is conserved. The compressed air is generally stored in underground caverns created in deep salt formations. 2 installations are presently operating and many projects are envisaged. if the gas circulates in closed loop within the plant, the system is said 'a closed system' In this case, the energy is stored as heat and/or cold at different temperature levels. A great variety of technologies can be imagined and are under development, using different gases (e.g. argon, CO 2 ) and different temperature ranges. PHS and CAES require specific sites for water reservoirs or underground caverns. The dosed systems can be installed basically anywhere. (author)

  8. Electric utility transmission and distribution upgrade deferral benefits from modular electricity storage : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Inc., Livermore, CA)

    2009-06-01

    The work documented in this report was undertaken as part of an ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Electricity Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study characterizes one especially attractive value proposition for modular electricity storage (MES): electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) upgrade deferral. The T&D deferral benefit is characterized in detail. Also presented is a generalized framework for estimating the benefit. Other important and complementary (to T&D deferral) elements of possible value propositions involving MES are also characterized.

  9. Search for electric dipole moments in storage rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenisa Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The JEDI collaboration aims at making use of storage ring to provide the most precise measurement of the electric dipole moments of hadrons. The method makes exploits a longitudinal polarized beam. The existence an electric dipole moment would generate a torque slowly twisting the particle spin out of plan of the storage ring into the vertical direction. The observation of non zero electric dipole moment would represent a clear sign of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Feasiblity tests are presently undergoing at the COSY storage ring Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany, to develop the novel techniques to be implemented in a future dedicated storage ring.

  10. Economics of Energy Storage. An analysis of the administrative consequences of electricity storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wals, A.F.; Hendriks, R.H.

    2004-03-01

    This report discusses the administrative aspects connected to the introduction of electricity storage in the energy system. First, the macro-economic aspects of utilizing storage facilities are discussed, and the possible benefits of storage in the electricity system are summarized. Next, the discussion focuses on the administrative aspects. In particular, the regulation system of the Dutch electricity market is reviewed, paying particular attention to the market design in connection with Distribution Network Operators. A number of relevant aspects are discussed, such as the incentives for the Operators to optimize network performance, as well as the means available to the Operators to stimulate third parties to do so. Finally, the perspectives for storage operators to enter directly on the different power markets are treated. Generally, one can conclude that the administrative aspects for storage facilities leave room for improvement

  11. Surplus from and storage of electricity generated by intermittent sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Friedrich

    2016-12-01

    Data from the German electricity system for the years 2010, 2012, 2013, and 2015 are used and scaled up to a 100% supply by intermittent renewable energy sources (iRES). In the average, 330GW wind and PV power are required to meet this 100% target. A back-up system is necessary with the power of 89% of peak load. Surplus electricity accrues at high power levels. Curtailing surplus power to a large extent is found to be uneconomic. Demand-side management will suffer from the strong day-to-day variation of available surplus energy. A day storage is ineffective because of the day-night correlation of surplus power during winter. A seasonal storage loses its character when transformation losses are considered because it can contribute only after periods with excessive surplus production. The option of an oversized iRES system to feed the storage is also not effective because, in this case, energy can be taken directly from the large iRES supply, making storage superfluous. The capacities to be installed stress the difficulty to base heat supply and mobility also on iRES generated electricity in the future. As the German energy transition replaces one CO2-free electricity supply system by another one, no major reduction in CO2 emission can be expected till 2022, when the last nuclear reactor will be switched off. By 2022, an extremely oversized power supply system has to be created, which can be expected to continue running down spot-market electricity prices. The continuation of the economic response -to replace expensive gas fuel by cheap lignite- causes an overall increase in CO2 emission. The German GHG emission targets for 2020 and beyond are therefore in jeopardy.

  12. DOE/EPRI Electricity Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, Abbas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Technology and Systems; Huff, Georgianne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Technology and Systems; Currier, Aileen B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Technology and Systems; Hernandez, Jacquelynne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Technology and Systems; Bender, Donald Arthur [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kaun, Benjamin C. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Rastler, Dan M. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Chen, Stella Bingqing [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Cotter, Andrew L. [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bradshaw, Dale T. [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Gauntlett, William D. [AECOM Technical Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eyer, James [Clean Energy States Alliance, Montpelier, VT (United States); Olinsky-Paul, Todd [Clean Energy States Alliance, Montpelier, VT (United States); Ellison, Michelle [E& I Consulting, Oakland, CA (United States); Schoenung, Susan [Longitude 122 West, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Electricity Storage Handbook (Handbook) is a how-to guide for utility and rural cooperative engineers, planners, and decision makers to plan and implement energy storage projects. The Handbook also serves as an information resource for investors and venture capitalists, providing the latest developments in technologies and tools to guide their evaluations of energy storage opportunities. It includes a comprehensive database of the cost of current storage systems in a wide variety of electric utility and customer services, along with interconnection schematics. A list of significant past and present energy storage projects is provided for a practical perspective. This Handbook, jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute in collaboration with the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, is published in electronic form at www.sandia.gov/ess.

  13. Mountaineer Commerical Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deanna Gilliland; Matthew Usher

    2011-12-31

    The Final Technical documents all work performed during the award period on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. This report presents the findings and conclusions produced as a consequence of this work. As identified in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0002673, AEP's objective of the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (MT CCS II) project is to design, build and operate a commercial scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) system capable of treating a nominal 235 MWe slip stream of flue gas from the outlet duct of the Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system at AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant (Mountaineer Plant), a 1300 MWe coal-fired generating station in New Haven, WV. The CCS system is designed to capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the incoming flue gas using the Alstom Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) and compress, transport, inject and store 1.5 million tonnes per year of the captured CO{sub 2} in deep saline reservoirs. Specific Project Objectives include: (1) Achieve a minimum of 90% carbon capture efficiency during steady-state operations; (2) Demonstrate progress toward capture and storage at less than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE); (3) Store CO{sub 2} at a rate of 1.5 million tonnes per year in deep saline reservoirs; and (4) Demonstrate commercial technology readiness of the integrated CO{sub 2} capture and storage system.

  14. Technical-economic analysis of electric energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Florian; Curuia, Marian; Brad, Sebastian; Anghel, Mihai; Stefanescu, Ioan

    2009-01-01

    Fluctuations in electric energy consumption and changes that affected last years the electric energy market, as well, entail perturbations in transport and distribution systems due to outrunning of their current physical capacities. Consequently, storing the electric energy in buffer systems appears to be a must owing to its strategic and economical importance. Indeed, it can enhance firmly the capacity of fulfilling the electric energy demands in real time and so, avoiding the blackout events caused by disruptions in power supply . Also, of great importance is the role of energy storing systems as backing ancillaries for promoting variable or uncertain renewable sources (like photovoltaic or wind sources). The Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is a promising system of direct storing of electricity by means of magnetic energy deposing in a short-circuited superconducting loop. However difficulties related to the use o superconducting systems and cryogenic temperatures (concerning construction and maintenance) hinder at present the application of SMES systems on a scale larger than some particular applications. Actually, owing to the lack of alternative solutions the rather high costs are accepted in such cases

  15. The role of electricity storage and hydrogen technologies in enabling global low-carbon energy transitions

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, M.; Johnson, N.; Strubegger, M.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have noted the importance of electricity storage and hydrogen technologies for enabling large-scale variable renewable energy (VRE) deployment in long-term climate change mitigation scenarios. However, global studies, which typically use integrated assessment models, assume a fixed cost trajectory for storage and hydrogen technologies; thereby ignoring the sensitivity of VRE deployment and/or mitigation costs to uncertainties in future storage and hydrogen technology costs. Y...

  16. DOE/EPRI Electricity Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, Abbas Ali [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huff, Georgianne [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Currier, Aileen B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kaun, Benjamin C [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rastler, Dan M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chen, Stella Bingqing [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cotter, Andrew L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bradshaw, Dale T. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauntlett, William D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Electricity Storage Handbook (Handbook) is a how - to guide for utility and rural cooperative engineers, planners, and decision makers to plan and implement energy storage projects. The Handbook also serves as an information resource for investors and venture capitalists, providing the latest developments in technologies and tools to guide their evaluation s of energy storage opportunities. It includes a comprehensive database of the cost of current storage systems in a wide variety of electric utility and customer services, along with interconnection schematics. A list of significant past and present energy storage projects is provided for a practical perspective . This Handbook, jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute in collaboration with the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, is published in electronic form at www.sandia.gov/ess. This Handbook is best viewed online.

  17. Development of a High-Fidelity Model for an Electrically Driven Energy Storage Flywheel Suitable for Small Scale Residential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa E. Amiryar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems (ESS are key elements that can be used to improve electrical system efficiency by contributing to balance of supply and demand. They provide a means for enhancing the power quality and stability of electrical systems. They can enhance electrical system flexibility by mitigating supply intermittency, which has recently become problematic, due to the increased penetration of renewable generation. Flywheel energy storage systems (FESS are a technology in which there is gathering interest due to a number of advantages offered over other storage solutions. These technical qualities attributed to flywheels include high power density, low environmental impact, long operational life, high round-trip efficiency and high cycle life. Furthermore, when configured in banks, they can store MJ levels of energy without any upper limit. Flywheels configured for grid connected operation are systems comprising of a mechanical part, the flywheel rotor, bearings and casings, and the electric drive part, inclusive of motor-generator (MG and power electronics. This contribution focusses on the modelling and simulation of a high inertia FESS for energy storage applications which has the potential for use in the residential sector in more challenging situations, a subject area in which there are few publications. The type of electrical machine employed is a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM and this, along with the power electronics drive, is simulated in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. A brief description of the flywheel structure and applications are given as a means of providing context for the electrical modelling and simulation reported. The simulated results show that the system run-down losses are 5% per hour, with overall roundtrip efficiency of 88%. The flywheel speed and energy storage pattern comply with the torque variations, whilst the DC-bus voltage remains constant and stable within ±3% of the rated voltage, regardless of

  18. Financial analysis of utility scale photovoltaic plants with battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolf, Viktor; Papastergiou, Konstantinos D.

    2013-01-01

    Battery energy storage is a flexible and responsive form of storing electrical energy from Renewable generation. The need for energy storage mainly stems from the intermittent nature of solar and wind energy sources. System integrators are investigating ways to design plants that can provide more stable output power without compromising the financial performance that is vital for investors. Network operators on the other side set stringent requirements for the commissioning of new generation, including preferential terms for energy providers with a well-defined generation profile. The aim of this work is to highlight the market and technology drivers that impact the feasibility of battery energy storage in a Utility-scale solar PV project. A simulation tool combines a battery cycling and lifetime model with a solar generation profile and electricity market prices. The business cases of the present market conditions and a projected future scenario are analyzed. - Highlights: • Generation shifting with batteries allows PV projects to generate additional revenues. • Battery lifetime, lifecycles and price are less relevant than electricity market prices. • Installed battery capacity of up to 50% of the daily PV energy boosts project economy. • A 25% higher premium for energy storage could improve NPV by approximately 65%

  19. Electricity storage. A solution for wind power integration? Study on the economic and institutional aspects of the implementation of electricity storage for the integration of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, R.H.

    2004-06-01

    In today's society a power outage can lead to major financial damage. It is therefore of high importance that the electricity system is reliable and that customers can rely on high security of supply. To prevent power outages, the electricity system has to be in balance continuously: supply and load have to be equal. Currently the majority of the electricity generation is done by conventional power plants of which the operation schedule is fully controllable. This means that these plants can be operated in such a way that electricity demand, which varies during the day, can be met continuously. The integration of a large share of wind power in the electricity supply system however, can lead to problems with respect to the balancing of the electricity system. This is caused by the fact that wind power has an intermittent character. Its production fluctuates and is uncertain: it therefore cannot be used to follow the varying load. Electricity storage could contribute to the integration of wind power in the electricity supply system. Storage systems can decouple the timing of generation and consumption of electricity and can therefore compensate for the fluctuations in wind power production. This investigation aims at identifying what problems the integration of a large share of wind power will cause and how electricity storage can resolve these problems. Subsequently, the implementation costs of storage systems for the identified applications will be investigated. Finally, the current regulatory environment will be discussed to evaluate whether it is geared to the implementation of electricity storage. Therefore, the following research question is formulated: Under which technological and institutional preconditions will it be advantageous to implement electricity storage systems, in combination with wind farms, in the next 20 years? To answer the research question the following subquestions have been formulated: (1) What are the implications of the market design on

  20. Characterisation of electrical energy storage technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes Ferreira, H.M.; Garde, R.; Fulli, G.; Kling, W.L.; Pecas Lopes, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the current situation with the unprecedented deployment of clean technologies for electricity generation, it is natural to expect that storage will play an important role in electricity networks. This paper provides a qualitative methodology to select the appropriate technology or mix of

  1. Ten questions to Jean Dhers on the storage of electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The authors proposes a comprehensive set of technical and economical data and information on electricity storage: the reasons to store energy (autonomous, stationary and network applications), the different types and advantages of energy storages with reversible power, the means to massively store electricity to exploit in on the network (description, uses and comparison of pumping energy transfer station, energy storage under the form of compressed air), the inertial storage (storage of kinetic energy accumulated in a flywheel, and its applications), the importance of storage with electrochemical batteries (reversible storage, evolution of batteries in ground transports, main economic sectors for batteries), fuel cells, the role of energy storage by power capacitors, the perspectives of super capacitors in a near future (comparison of their performance with those of batteries, possible applications), the use of electromagnetic storage of electricity (description, advantages, drawbacks and applications of superconducting magnet energy storage or SMES), and how the research on electric power storage is organised

  2. Considerations on the need for electricity storage requirements: Power versus energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belderbos, Andreas; Virag, Ana; D’haeseleer, William; Delarue, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • General storage principles are analyzed. • Storage units have different limitations (power versus energy). • Storage power and energy are required, dependent on residual profile. • Relationship between residual profile and optimal storage portfolio is derived. • Broadly applicable rules regarding optimal storage investments are presented. - Abstract: Different storage technologies enable an increasing share of variable renewable generation in the electricity system by reducing the temporal mismatch between generation and demand. Two storage ratings are essential to time-shift delivery of electricity to loads: electric power, or instantaneous electricity flow [W], and electric energy, or power integrated over time [Wh]. An optimal storage portfolio is likely composed of multiple technologies, each having specific power and energy ratings. This paper derives and explains the link between the shape of the time-varying demand and generation profiles and the amount of desirably installed storage capacity, both energy and power. An analysis is performed for individual storage technologies first, showing a link between the necessary power and energy capacity and the demand and generation profile. Then combinations of storage technologies are analyzed to reveal their mutual interaction in a storage portfolio. Results show an increase in desirability for storage technologies with low cost power ratings when the mismatch between generation and demand occurs in daily to weekly cycles. Storage technologies with low cost energy ratings are preferred when this mismatch occurs in monthly to seasonal cycles. The findings of this work can help energy system planners and policy makers to explain results from generation expansion planning studies and to isolate the storage benefits accountable to temporal arbitrage in broader electricity storage studies.

  3. Equivalent electricity storage capacity of domestic thermostatically controlled loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sossan, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    A method to quantify the equivalent storage capacity inherent the operation of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) is developed. Equivalent storage capacity is defined as the amount of power and electricity consumption which can be deferred or anticipated in time with respect to the baseline consumption (i.e. when no demand side event occurs) without violating temperature limits. The analysis is carried out for 4 common domestic TCLs: an electric space heating system, freezer, fridge, and electric water heater. They are simulated by applying grey-box thermal models identified from measurements. They describe the heat transfer of the considered TCLs as a function of the electric power consumption and environment conditions. To represent typical TCLs operating conditions, Monte Carlo simulations are developed, where models inputs and parameters are sampled from relevant statistical distributions. The analysis provides a way to compare flexible demand against competitive storage technologies. It is intended as a tool for system planners to assess the TCLs potential to support electrical grid operation. In the paper, a comparison of the storage capacity per unit of capital investment cost is performed considering the selected TCLs and two grid-connected battery storage systems (a 720 kVA/500 kWh lithium-ion unit and 15 kVA/120 kWh Vanadium flow redox) is performed. - Highlights: • The equivalent storage capacity of domestic TCLs is quantified • A comparison with battery-based storage technologies is performed • We derive metrics for system planners to plan storage in power system networks • Rule-of-thumb cost indicators for flexible demand and battery-based storage

  4. Impacts of compressed air energy storage plant on an electricity market with a large renewable energy portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, A.; Díaz Lobera, I.

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy generation is expected to continue to increase globally due to renewable energy targets and obligations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Some renewable energy sources are variable power sources, for example wind, wave and solar. Energy storage technologies can manage the issues associated with variable renewable generation and align non-dispatchable renewable energy generation with load demands. Energy storage technologies can play different roles in each of the step of the electric power supply chain. Moreover, large scale energy storage systems can act as renewable energy integrators by smoothing the variability. Compressed air energy storage is one such technology. This paper examines the impacts of a compressed air energy storage facility in a pool based wholesale electricity market in a power system with a large renewable energy portfolio

  5. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-03-03

    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode.

  6. AB Levitator and Electricity Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The author researched this new idea - support of flight by any aerial vehicles at significant altitude solely by the magnetic field of the planet. It is shown that current technology allows humans to create a light propulsion (AB engine) which does not depend on air, water or ground terrain. Simultaniosly, this revolutionary thruster is a device for the storage of electricity which is extracted and is replenished (during braking) from/into the storage with 100 percent efficiency. The relative...

  7. Thermal energy storage for electricity-driven space heating in a day-ahead electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pensini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) in a space heating (SH) application was investigated. The study aimed to determine the economic benefits of introducing TES into an electricity-driven SH system under a day-ahead electricity market. The performance of the TES was assessed by comparing the cost...... of electricity in a system with a TES unit to the case where no storage is in use and the entire heat requirement is fulfilled by purchasing electricity according to the actual load. The study had two goals: 1. Determining how the size – in terms of electricity input (Pmax) and energy capacity (Emax...

  8. High temperature electrical energy storage: advances, challenges, and frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xinrong; Salari, Maryam; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-10-24

    With the ongoing global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emission and dependence on oil, electrical energy storage (EES) devices such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors have become ubiquitous. Today, EES devices are entering the broader energy use arena and playing key roles in energy storage, transfer, and delivery within, for example, electric vehicles, large-scale grid storage, and sensors located in harsh environmental conditions, where performance at temperatures greater than 25 °C are required. The safety and high temperature durability are as critical or more so than other essential characteristics (e.g., capacity, energy and power density) for safe power output and long lifespan. Consequently, significant efforts are underway to design, fabricate, and evaluate EES devices along with characterization of device performance limitations such as thermal runaway and aging. Energy storage under extreme conditions is limited by the material properties of electrolytes, electrodes, and their synergetic interactions, and thus significant opportunities exist for chemical advancements and technological improvements. In this review, we present a comprehensive analysis of different applications associated with high temperature use (40-200 °C), recent advances in the development of reformulated or novel materials (including ionic liquids, solid polymer electrolytes, ceramics, and Si, LiFePO 4 , and LiMn 2 O 4 electrodes) with high thermal stability, and their demonstrative use in EES devices. Finally, we present a critical overview of the limitations of current high temperature systems and evaluate the future outlook of high temperature batteries with well-controlled safety, high energy/power density, and operation over a wide temperature range.

  9. Electric Vehicle Based Battery Storages for Large Scale Wind Power Integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    In the recent years, the electric vehicles (EVs) have drawn great attention world wide as a feasible solution for clean transportation. The electric vehicle technology is not new as it was introduced in the mid 19th century. The low battery capacity, driving range and superior gasoline cars had...... resulted in the demise of electric cars in the 1930s. However, with the advancement of new high density battery technologies and power electronic converters, it is now viable to produce electric cars of higher efficiency and driving range. The performance and durability of the battery technology...... is improving on a rapid scale and the battery cost is also reducing which could enable the electric cars to be competitive in the market. The electric vehicles could also benefit the electricity sector in supporting more renewable energy which is also one of the most important driving forces in its promotion...

  10. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  11. Customized electric power storage device for inclusion in a collective microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinett, III, Rush D.; Wilson, David G.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2016-02-16

    An electric power storage device is described herein, wherein the electric power storage device is included in a microgrid. The electric power storage device has at least one of a charge rate, a discharge rate, or a power retention capacity that has been customized for a collective microgrid. The collective microgrid includes at least two connected microgrids. The at least one of the charge rate, the discharge rate, or the power retention capacity of the electric power storage device is computed based at least in part upon specified power source parameters in the at least two connected microgrids and specified load parameters in the at least two connected microgrids.

  12. Solar Thermoelectricity via Advanced Latent Heat Storage: A Cost-Effective Small-Scale CSP Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Rea, J.; Olsen, Michele L.; Oshman, C.; Hardin, C.; Alleman, Jeff; Sharp, J.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Hoeschele, G.; Parilla, Philip A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, Eric S.; Ginley, David S.

    2017-06-27

    We are developing a novel concentrating solar electricity-generating technology that is both modular and dispatchable. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) uses concentrated solar flux to generate high-temperature thermal energy, which directly converts to electricity via thermoelectric generators (TEGs), stored within a phase-change material (PCM) for electricity generation at a later time, or both allowing for simultaneous charging of the PCM and electricity generation. STEALS has inherent features that drive its cost-competitive scale to be much smaller than current commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Most obvious is modularity of the solid-state TEG, which favors smaller scales in the kilowatt range as compared to CSP steam turbines, which are minimally 50 MWe for commercial power plants. Here, we present techno-economic and market analyses that show STEALS can be a cost-effective electricity-generating technology with particular appeal to small-scale microgrid applications. We evaluated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for STEALS and for a comparable photovoltaic (PV) system with battery storage. For STEALS, we estimated capital costs and the LCOE as functions of the type of PCM including the use of recycled aluminum alloys, and evaluated the cost tradeoffs between plasma spray coatings and solution-based boron coatings that are applied to the wetted surfaces of the PCM subsystem. We developed a probabilistic cost model that accounts for uncertainties in the cost and performance inputs to the LCOE estimation. Our probabilistic model estimated LCOE for a 100-kWe STEALS system that had 5 hours of thermal storage and 8-10 hours of total daily power generation. For these cases, the solar multiple for the heliostat field varied between 1.12 and 1.5. We identified microgrids as a likely market for the STEALS system. We characterized microgrid markets in terms of nominal power, dispatchability, geographic location, and

  13. Solar thermoelectricity via advanced latent heat storage: A cost-effective small-scale CSP application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzmaier, G. C.; Rea, J.; Olsen, M. L.; Oshman, C.; Hardin, C.; Alleman, J.; Sharp, J.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Hoeschele, G.; Parilla, P. A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, E. S.; Ginley, D. S.

    2017-06-01

    We are developing a novel concentrating solar electricity-generating technology that is both modular and dispatchable. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) uses concentrated solar flux to generate high-temperature thermal energy, which directly converts to electricity via thermoelectric generators (TEGs), stored within a phase-change material (PCM) for electricity generation at a later time, or both allowing for simultaneous charging of the PCM and electricity generation. STEALS has inherent features that drive its cost-competitive scale to be much smaller than current commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Most obvious is modularity of the solid-state TEG, which favors smaller scales in the kilowatt range as compared to CSP steam turbines, which are minimally 50 MWe for commercial power plants. Here, we present techno-economic and market analyses that show STEALS can be a cost-effective electricity-generating technology with particular appeal to small-scale microgrid applications. We evaluated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for STEALS and for a comparable photovoltaic (PV) system with battery storage. For STEALS, we estimated capital costs and the LCOE as functions of the type of PCM including the use of recycled aluminum alloys, and evaluated the cost tradeoffs between plasma spray coatings and solution-based boron coatings that are applied to the wetted surfaces of the PCM subsystem. We developed a probabilistic cost model that accounts for uncertainties in the cost and performance inputs to the LCOE estimation. Our probabilistic model estimated LCOE for a 100-kWe STEALS system that had 5 hours of thermal storage and 8-10 hours of total daily power generation. For these cases, the solar multiple for the heliostat field varied between 1.12 and 1.5. We identified microgrids as a likely market for the STEALS system. We characterized microgrid markets in terms of nominal power, dispatchability, geographic location, and

  14. Customized electric power storage device for inclusion in a microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Wilson, David; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2017-08-01

    An electric power storage device included in a microgrid is described herein. The electric power storage device has at least one of a charge rate, a discharge rate, or a power retention capacity that has been customized for the microgrid. The at least one of the charge rate, the discharge rate, or the power retention capacity of the electric power storage device is computed based at least in part upon specified power source parameters in the microgrid and specified load parameters in the microgrid.

  15. A novel business model for aggregating the values of electricity storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xian; Delarue, Erik; D'haeseleer, William; Glachant, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Electricity storage is considered as a valuable source of flexibility with applications covering the whole electricity value chain. Most of the existing evaluation methods for electricity storage are conceived for one specific use of the storage, which often leads to the conclusion that the investment on storage does not pay off. However, the value of storage cannot be properly estimated without taking into account the possibility of aggregating the services that storage can offer to different actors. This paper proposes a new business model that allows aggregating multiple revenue streams of electricity storage in a systematic way. The model consists in coordinating a series of auctions in which the right to utilize the storage unit is auctioned upon different time horizons. In the mean time, non-conflicting usage of storage by the actors in these different auctions is ensured. The functioning of the model is demonstrated by a case study. The results show that a storage unit can achieve higher return on investment in the manner proposed in the business model. - Research highlights: → Aggregation of the benefits of storage is necessary for the cost recovery of storage facilities. → The use of storage needs to be coordinated among different actors and upon different time horizons. → The aggregation of values of storage can be achieved by implementing an auction chain. → The model proposes a viable way to aggregate both regulated and deregulated values of storage.

  16. Technical-economic study of electricity storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harriche, Farah; Souletis, Romain; Carrette, Bertille; Jarry, Gregory; Dereuddre, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    This study first reports an analysis of all services which could be provided by storage to the French electric power system. It proposes an overview of existing technologies, a comparison of their technical characteristics, and a synthesis of technologies which are the most suited to the main services. The author then discusses some regulatory evolutions which are necessary for a good development of the power storage sector in France. An economic scenario is then proposed for the development of storage by 2030. The author indicates expected capacities for each technologies and possible valorisations

  17. Methodology to determine the technical performance and value proposition for grid-scale energy storage systems :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Loose, Verne William; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Trudnowski, Daniel J.

    2012-12-01

    As the amount of renewable generation increases, the inherent variability of wind and photovoltaic systems must be addressed in order to ensure the continued safe and reliable operation of the nation's electricity grid. Grid-scale energy storage systems are uniquely suited to address the variability of renewable generation and to provide other valuable grid services. The goal of this report is to quantify the technical performance required to provide di erent grid bene ts and to specify the proper techniques for estimating the value of grid-scale energy storage systems.

  18. High to ultra-high power electrical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Stefanie A; Banerjee, Parag; Rubloff, Gary W; Lee, Sang Bok

    2011-12-14

    High power electrical energy storage systems are becoming critical devices for advanced energy storage technology. This is true in part due to their high rate capabilities and moderate energy densities which allow them to capture power efficiently from evanescent, renewable energy sources. High power systems include both electrochemical capacitors and electrostatic capacitors. These devices have fast charging and discharging rates, supplying energy within seconds or less. Recent research has focused on increasing power and energy density of the devices using advanced materials and novel architectural design. An increase in understanding of structure-property relationships in nanomaterials and interfaces and the ability to control nanostructures precisely has led to an immense improvement in the performance characteristics of these devices. In this review, we discuss the recent advances for both electrochemical and electrostatic capacitors as high power electrical energy storage systems, and propose directions and challenges for the future. We asses the opportunities in nanostructure-based high power electrical energy storage devices and include electrochemical and electrostatic capacitors for their potential to open the door to a new regime of power energy.

  19. Parametric studies and optimisation of pumped thermal electricity storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTigue, Joshua D.; White, Alexander J.; Markides, Christos N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PTES is modelled by cycle analysis and a Schumann-style model of the thermal stores. • Optimised trade-off surfaces show a flat efficiency vs. energy density profile. • Overall roundtrip efficiencies of around 70% are not inconceivable. - Abstract: Several of the emerging technologies for electricity storage are based on some form of thermal energy storage (TES). Examples include liquid air energy storage, pumped heat energy storage and, at least in part, advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Compared to other large-scale storage methods, TES benefits from relatively high energy densities, which should translate into a low cost per MW h of storage capacity and a small installation footprint. TES is also free from the geographic constraints that apply to hydro storage schemes. TES concepts for electricity storage rely on either a heat pump or refrigeration cycle during the charging phase to create a hot or a cold storage space (the thermal stores), or in some cases both. During discharge, the thermal stores are depleted by reversing the cycle such that it acts as a heat engine. The present paper is concerned with a form of TES that has both hot and cold packed-bed thermal stores, and for which the heat pump and heat engine are based on a reciprocating Joule cycle, with argon as the working fluid. A thermodynamic analysis is presented based on traditional cycle calculations coupled with a Schumann-style model of the packed beds. Particular attention is paid to the various loss-generating mechanisms and their effect on roundtrip efficiency and storage density. A parametric study is first presented that examines the sensitivity of results to assumed values of the various loss factors and demonstrates the rather complex influence of the numerous design variables. Results of an optimisation study are then given in the form of trade-off surfaces for roundtrip efficiency, energy density and power density. The optimised designs show a

  20. A comment on 'Storage and the electricity forward premium'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloys van Treslong, Adriaan; Huisman, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the robustness of the results found by Douglas and Popova (2008). They examine the electricity forward premium in relation to gas storage inventories and find that, although electricity is not directly storable, electricity forward premiums are lower when gas storage inventories are higher, especially on days with high temperatures. Douglas and Popova (2008) derive their results from a forward premium model that is an extension of the Bessembinder and Lemmon (2002) model. We examine whether the gas storage inventory results hold under a different specification of the forward risk premium. Our results support the results found by Douglas and Popova (2008) and show that their results are not influenced by the specification of the forward premium model. (author)

  1. Using energy storage for strategic advantage in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurwitch, J.W.; Symons, P.

    1998-01-01

    Energy storage products are emerging for use in power quality, electric transmission and distribution, and renewable energy applications. Despite this emergence into high-value markets, widespread market penetration will only occur when the value of the services that energy storage products can deliver are clearly delineated. The emergence of competitive electricity markets will more clearly define the flexible benefits of energy storage devices. This paper presents a summary of the ESA's position of the status of energy storage technologies, the market barriers, and steps the ESA is undertaking to reduce these barriers. (author)

  2. Progress in electrical energy storage system:A critical review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haisheng Chen; Thang Ngoc Cong; Wei Yang; Chunqing Tan; Yongliang Li; Yulong Ding

    2009-01-01

    Electrical energy storage technologies for stationary applications are reviewed.Particular attention is paid to pumped hydroelectric storage,compressed air energy storage,battery,flow battery,fuel cell,solar fuel,superconducting magnetic energy storage, flywheel, capacitor/supercapacitor,and thermal energy torage.Comparison is made among these technologies in terms of technical characteris-tics,applications and deployment status.

  3. Global distribution of grid connected electrical energy storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Buss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of grid connected electrical energy storage systems worldwide, based on public available data. Technologies considered in this study are pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES, compressed air energy storage (CAES, sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS, lead-acid batteries, redox-flow batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd and lithium-ion batteries. As the research indicates, the worldwide installed capacity of grid connected electrical energy storage systems is approximately 154 GW. This corresponds to a share of 5.5 % of the worldwide installed generation capacity. Furthermore, the article gives an overview of the historical development of installed and used storage systems worldwide. Subsequently, the focus is on each considered technology concerning the current storage size, number of plants and location. In summary it can be stated, PHES is the most commonly used technology worldwide, whereas electrochemical technologies are increasingly gaining in importance. Regarding the distribution of grid connected storage systems reveals the share of installed storage capacity is in Europe and Eastern Asia twice as high as in North America.

  4. Sizing energy storage systems to make PV tradable in the Iberian electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltram, H.; Perez, E.; Aparicio, N.; Vidal, R.; Belenguer, E. [Universitat Jaume I (UJI), Castello de la Plana (Spain). Electrical Engineering Area; Piqueres, T. [Energia Solar Aplicada (ESA), Valencia (Spain). Technical Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The work presented in this paper is intended to provide some reference values for the ratings required by an energy storage system, to be integrated in a large-scale PV power plant placed at any location of the Iberian Peninsula, to operate it according to an energy management strategy (EMS) whic allowed its participation in the Iberian electricity market while minimizing the economic penalties. The proposed EMS produces a constant-by-hours power reference to be tracked by the PV plant with storage and, in that way, mitigate the stochastic nature of the PV production. This operation mode will enable PV power plants to take part reliably in the different electricity markets, profiting the intraday market sessions to continuously refine the power production commitment. Different configurations of the EMS are analysed, introducing on each of them different meteorologically-based adjustments which allow minimizing the energy capacity required by the storage system. The proposals are analysed through one-year long simulations which use real-world data and PV power forecasting models extracted from solar databases. (orig.)

  5. NV energy electricity storage valuation :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benefit the operations of NV Energy, and assesses whether those benefits are likely to justify the cost of the storage system. To determine the impact of grid-level storage, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority ("BA") as projected for 2020 was created. Storage was found to add value primarily through the provision of regulating reserve. Certain storage resources were found likely to be cost-effective even without considering their capacity value, as long as their effectiveness in providing regulating reserve was taken into account. Giving fast resources credit for their ability to provide regulating reserve is reasonable, given the adoption of FERC Order 755 ("Pay-for-performance"). Using a traditional five-minute test to determine how much a resource can contribute to regulating reserve does not adequately value fast-ramping resources, as the regulating reserve these resources can provide is constrained by their installed capacity. While an approximation was made to consider the additional value provided by a fast-ramping resource, a more precise valuation requires an alternate regulating reserve methodology. Developing and modeling a new regulating reserve methodology for NV Energy was beyond the scope of this study, as was assessing the incremental value of distributed storage.

  6. The impact of large-scale energy storage requirements on the choice between electricity and hydrogen as the major energy carrier in a non-fossil renewables-only scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Converse, Alvin O.

    2006-01-01

    The need for large-scale storage, when the energy source is subject to periods of low-energy generation, as it would be in a direct solar or wind energy system, could be the factor which justifies the choice of hydrogen, rather than electricity, as the principal energy carrier. It could also be the 'Achilles heel' of a solar-based sustainable energy system, tipping the choice to a nuclear breeder system

  7. Storage the electric power: yes, it is indispensable and it is possible. Why, where, how; Stocker l'electricite: oui, c'est indispensable, et c'est possible. Pourquoi, ou, comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document describes the main characteristics of various electric power storage methods and their application domains. The large-scale storages include the hydraulic systems, those using compressed air, the batteries or those implementing a thermal way. The small-scale storages are electrochemical as the accumulators, the super-capacitors, mechanical as the flywheel, magnetic or also by the hydrogen use. The first part presents the necessity of the electric power storage, the second part the places of these storage. The third part details the forms of storage. (A.L.B.)

  8. Wind power integration with heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles - Energy systems analysis and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedegaard, K.

    2013-09-15

    Denmark by about 300-600 MW, corresponding to the size of a large power plant. This can be achieved when investing in socio-economically feasible heat storages complementing the heat pumps. The potential for reducing the required investments in peak/reserve capacities is crucial for the feasibility of the heat storages. Intelligent heat storage in the building structure is identified as socio-economically feasible in 20-75 % of the houses with heat pump installations, depending on the cost of control equipment in particular. Investment in control equipment, enabling utilisation of existing hot water tanks for flexible heat pump operation, is found socio-economically feasible in about 20-70 % of the houses. In contrast, heat accumulation tanks are not competitive, due to their higher investments costs. Further analyses investigate the system effects of a gradual large-scale implementation of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Germany towards 2030. When charged/discharged intelligently, the electric vehicles can, in the long term, facilitate larger wind power investments, while they in the short term in many cases are likely to result in increased coal-based electricity generation. The electric vehicles can contribute significantly to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, while system costs are generally increased, due to assumed investments in the costly BEVs. The need for peak/reserve capacities can be reduced through the use of vehicle-to-grid capability. Competing flexibility measures, such as large heat pumps, electric boilers, and thermal storages in the district heating system, have also been included in the energy systems analyses. These technologies can together facilitate increased wind power investments and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the same order of magnitude as a large-scale implementation of electric vehicles. Overall, it is concluded that individual heat pumps, flexibility

  9. Magnetic bearing flywheels for electric storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poubeau, P C

    1981-01-01

    A magnetic bearing flywheel was designed. In order to have a simple, reliable system, magnetic suspension with a single servoloop for one degree of freedom of the rotor was used, four other degrees of freedom being controlled passively and the sixth one, corresponding to the rotation axis. The motor that transfers electric energy to the rotor is of the ironless brushless dc type with electronic commutation. It is operated alternatively for accelerating the wheel and then as a generator for delivering the stored energy. The use of high stress composite materials in the rotor greatly increases the operational limits of this equipment. Key characteristics of kinetic energy storage are mentioned along with a wide range of applications. Besides energy storage for satellites, these include power smoothing for solar and wind energy systems as well as backup power supplies, e.g., for electric vehicles.

  10. Kinetic energy storage of off-peak electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L.A.; Oldaker, I.E.; Stermscheg, J.

    1975-09-01

    The concept of using large flywheels to store off-peak electricity has been considered. The development of high strength composite materials has made possible improvements in the energy storage capacity of such devices. The problems involved in designing large flywheels and their economic advantages over alternative means of energy storage are discussed. The economic arguments are based on the present or near future capabilities and costs of structural composite materials. The flywheel costs turn out to be considerably higher than for many alternative schemes including advanced batteries, gas turbine generators and pumped storage schemes. (author)

  11. Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) EFRC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) EFRC is a multi-institutional research center, one of 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers established by the...

  12. Comparative Study of Electric Energy Storages and Thermal Energy Auxiliaries for Improving Wind Power Integration in the Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjuan Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In regards to the cogeneration system in Northern China, mainly supported by combined heat and power (CHP plants, it usually offers limited operation flexibility due to the joint production of electric and thermal power. For that large-scale wind farms included in the cogeneration system, a large amount of wind energy may have to be wasted. To solve this issue, the utilization of the electric energy storages and the thermal energy auxiliaries are recommended, including pumped hydro storage (PHS, compressed air energy storage (CAES, hydrogen-based energy storage (HES, heat storage (HS, electric boilers (EB, and heat pumps (HP. This paper proposes a general evaluation method to compare the performance of these six different approaches for promoting wind power integration. In consideration of saving coal consumption, reducing CO2 emissions, and increasing investment cost, the comprehensive benefit is defined as the evaluation index. Specifically, a wind-thermal conflicting expression (WTCE is put forward to simplify the formulation of the comprehensive benefit. Further, according to the cogeneration system of the West Inner Mongolia (WIM power grid, a test system is modelled to perform the comparison of the six different approaches. The results show that introducing the electric energy storages and the thermal energy auxiliaries can both contribute to facilitating wind power integration, and the HP can provide the best comprehensive benefit.

  13. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winiarski, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carmichael, Robert T. [Cadeo Group, Washington D. C. (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  14. Electric Machine Topologies in Energy Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, Juan De; Oliveira, Janaina Goncalves de

    2010-01-01

    Energy storage development is essential if intermittent renewable energy generation is to increase. Pumped hydro, CAES and flywheels are environmentally friendly and economical storage alternatives that required electric motor/generators. The popularization of power electronics is relatively new and therefore the technology is still under development. There is not a clear winner when comparing technologies and therefore the optimal alternative depends on the specific requirements of the appli...

  15. Simulation of electricity supply of an Atlantic island by offshore wind turbines and wave energy converters associated with a medium scale local energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babarit, A.; Clement, A.H.; Duclos, G.; Ben Ahmed, H.; Debusschere, V.; Multon, B.; Robin, G.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of sizing an electricity storage for a 5000 inhabitants island supplied by both marine renewables (offshore wind and waves) and the mainland grid is addressed by a case study based on a full year resource and consumption data. Generators, transmission lines and battery storage are accounted for through basic simplified models while the focus is put on electricity import/export budget. Self-sufficiency does not seem a reasonable goal to pursue, but partial autonomy provided by renewable sources and a medium size storage would probably be profitable to the island community. (author)

  16. Estimating the maximum potential revenue for grid connected electricity storage :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.

    2012-12-01

    The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash flow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the

  17. Electricity demand and storage dispatch modeling for buildings and implications for the smartgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Menglian; Meinrenken, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    As an enabler for demand response (DR), electricity storage in buildings has the potential to lower costs and carbon footprint of grid electricity while simultaneously mitigating grid strain and increasing its flexibility to integrate renewables (central or distributed). We present a stochastic model to simulate minute-by-minute electricity demand of buildings and analyze the resulting electricity costs under actual, currently available DR-enabling tariffs in New York State, namely a peak/offpeak tariff charging by consumed energy (monthly total kWh) and a time of use tariff charging by power demand (monthly peak kW). We then introduce a variety of electrical storage options (from flow batteries to flywheels) and determine how DR via temporary storage may increase the overall net present value (NPV) for consumers (comparing the reduced cost of electricity to capital and maintenance costs of the storage). We find that, under the total-energy tariff, only medium-term storage options such as batteries offer positive NPV, and only at the low end of storage costs (optimistic scenario). Under the peak-demand tariff, however, even short-term storage such as flywheels and superconducting magnetic energy offer positive NPV. Therefore, these offer significant economic incentive to enable DR without affecting the consumption habits of buildings' residents. We discuss implications for smartgrid communication and our future work on real-time price tariffs.

  18. Environmental performance of electricity storage systems for grid applications, a life cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.; Messagie, M.; Mertens, J.; Laget, H.; Coosemans, T.; Van Mierlo, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Large energy storage systems: environmental performance under different scenarios. • ReCiPe midpoint and endpoint impact assessment results are analyzed. • Energy storage systems can replace peak power generation units. • Energy storage systems and renewable energy have the best environmental scores. • Environmental performance of storage systems is application dependent. - Abstract: In this paper, the environmental performance of electricity storage technologies for grid applications is assessed. Using a life cycle assessment methodology we analyze the impacts of the construction, disposal/end of life, and usage of each of the systems. Pumped hydro and compressed air storage are studied as mechanical storage, and advanced lead acid, sodium sulfur, lithium-ion and nickel–sodium-chloride batteries are addressed as electrochemical storage systems. Hydrogen production from electrolysis and subsequent usage in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are also analyzed. The selected electricity storage systems mimic real world installations in terms of capacity, power rating, life time, technology and application. The functional unit is one kW h of energy delivered back to the grid, from the storage system. The environmental impacts assessed are climate change, human toxicity, particulate matter formation, and fossil resource depletion. Different electricity mixes are used in order to exemplify scenarios where the selected technologies meet specific applications. Results indicate that the performance of the storage systems is tied to the electricity feedstocks used during use stage. Renewable energy sources have lower impacts throughout the use stage of the storage technologies. Using the Belgium electricity mix of 2011 as benchmark, the sodium sulfur battery is shown to be the best performer for all the impacts analyzed. Pumped hydro storage follows in second place. Regarding infrastructure and end of life, results indicate that battery systems

  19. Energy storage for the electricity grid : benefits and market potential assessment guide : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Inc., Livermore, CA); Corey, Garth P. (KTech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-02-01

    This guide describes a high-level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric-utility-related applications. The overarching theme addressed is the concept of combining applications/benefits into attractive value propositions that include use of energy storage, possibly including distributed and/or modular systems. Other topics addressed include: high-level estimates of application-specific lifecycle benefit (10 years) in $/kW and maximum market potential (10 years) in MW. Combined, these criteria indicate the economic potential (in $Millions) for a given energy storage application/benefit. The benefits and value propositions characterized provide an important indication of storage system cost targets for system and subsystem developers, vendors, and prospective users. Maximum market potential estimates provide developers, vendors, and energy policymakers with an indication of the upper bound of the potential demand for storage. The combination of the value of an individual benefit (in $/kW) and the corresponding maximum market potential estimate (in MW) indicates the possible impact that storage could have on the U.S. economy. The intended audience for this document includes persons or organizations needing a framework for making first-cut or high-level estimates of benefits for a specific storage project and/or those seeking a high-level estimate of viable price points and/or maximum market potential for their products. Thus, the intended audience includes: electric utility planners, electricity end users, non-utility electric energy and electric services providers, electric utility regulators and policymakers, intermittent renewables advocates and developers, Smart Grid advocates and developers, storage technology and project developers, and energy storage advocates.

  20. The performance of residential micro-cogeneration coupled with thermal and electrical storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, John

    Over 80% of residential secondary energy consumption in Canada and Ontario is used for space and water heating. The peak electricity demands resulting from residential energy consumption increase the reliance on fossil-fuel generation stations. Distributed energy resources can help to decrease the reliance on central generation stations. Presently, distributed energy resources such as solar photovoltaic, wind and bio-mass generation are subsidized in Ontario. Micro-cogeneration is an emerging technology that can be implemented as a distributed energy resource within residential or commercial buildings. Micro-cogeneration has the potential to reduce a building's energy consumption by simultaneously generating thermal and electrical power on-site. The coupling of a micro-cogeneration device with electrical storage can improve the system's ability to reduce peak electricity demands. The performance potential of micro-cogeneration devices has yet to be fully realized. This research addresses the performance of a residential micro-cogeneration device and it's ability to meet peak occupant electrical loads when coupled with electrical storage. An integrated building energy model was developed of a residential micro-cogeneration system: the house, the micro-cogeneration device, all balance of plant and space heating components, a thermal storage device, an electrical storage device, as well as the occupant electrical and hot water demands. This model simulated the performance of a micro-cogeneration device coupled to an electrical storage system within a Canadian household. A customized controller was created in ESP-r to examine the impact of various system control strategies. The economic performance of the system was assessed from the perspective of a local energy distribution company and an end-user under hypothetical electricity export purchase price scenarios. It was found that with certain control strategies the micro-cogeneration system was able to improve the

  1. Design fractures and commercial potential of superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utility application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.J.; Schoenung, S.

    1986-01-01

    Historically, energy storage in the United States has been provided by a few pumped hydroelectric plants, but siting constraints and high cost severely limit the use of this option. Two other options which will soon be in use are batteries and compressed air energy storage. A fourth option, currently being developed for load leveling is Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). This paper reports the design features and estimated costs of utility scale SMES plants. For moderate discharge duration, SMES is projected to have substantially lower revenue requirements and better availability than other load leveling options. The Electric Power Research Institute has prepared a plan for commercialization which could, if aggressively pursued, lead to a demonstrated SMES technology that is available for utility commitment by the late 1990's

  2. Optimal allocation of energy storage in a co-optimized electricity market: Benefits assessment and deriving indicators for economic storage ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Venkat; Das, Trishna

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for optimally allocating storage technologies in a power system. This decision support tool helps in quantitatively answering the questions on “where to and how much to install” considering the profits from arbitrage opportunities in a co-optimized electricity market. The developed framework is illustrated on a modified IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 24 bus RTS (Reliability Test System), and the framework finds the optimal allocation solution and the revenues storage earns at each of these locations. Bulk energy storage, CAES (compressed air energy storage) is used as the representative storage technology, and the benefits of optimally allocated storage integration onto the grid are compared with transmission expansion solution. The paper also discusses about system-level indicators to identify candidate locations for economical storage ventures, which are derived based on the optimal storage allocation solution; and applies the market price based storage venture indicators on MISO (Mid-continental Independent System Operator) and PJM (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection) electricity markets. - Highlights: • Storage optimal allocation framework based on high-fidelity storage dispatch model. • Storage with transmission addresses energy and ancillary issues under high renewables. • Bulk storage earns higher revenues from co-optimization (∼10× energy only market). • Grid offers distributed opportunities for investing in a strategic mix of storage. • Storage opportunities depend on cross-arbitrage, as seen from MISO (Mid-continental Independent System Operator) and PJM (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection) markets

  3. Electric field enhanced hydrogen storage on polarizable materials substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Wang, Q.; Sun, Q.; Jena, P.; Chen, X. S.

    2010-01-01

    Using density functional theory, we show that an applied electric field can substantially improve the hydrogen storage properties of polarizable substrates. This new concept is demonstrated by adsorbing a layer of hydrogen molecules on a number of nanomaterials. When one layer of H2 molecules is adsorbed on a BN sheet, the binding energy per H2 molecule increases from 0.03 eV/H2 in the field-free case to 0.14 eV/H2 in the presence of an electric field of 0.045 a.u. The corresponding gravimetric density of 7.5 wt% is consistent with the 6 wt% system target set by Department of Energy for 2010. The strength of the electric field can be reduced if the substrate is more polarizable. For example, a hydrogen adsorption energy of 0.14 eV/H2 can be achieved by applying an electric field of 0.03 a.u. on an AlN substrate, 0.006 a.u. on a silsesquioxane molecule, and 0.007 a.u. on a silsesquioxane sheet. Thus, application of an electric field to a polarizable substrate provides a novel way to store hydrogen; once the applied electric field is removed, the stored H2 molecules can be easily released, thus making storage reversible with fast kinetics. In addition, we show that materials with rich low-coordinated nonmetal anions are highly polarizable and can serve as a guide in the design of new hydrogen storage materials. PMID:20133647

  4. The CUNY Energy Institute Electrical Energy Storage Development for Grid Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2013-03-31

    1. Project Objectives The objectives of the project are to elucidate science issues intrinsic to high energy density electricity storage (battery) systems for smart-grid applications, research improvements in such systems to enable scale-up to grid-scale and demonstrate a large 200 kWh battery to facilitate transfer of the technology to industry. 2. Background Complex and difficult to control interfacial phenomena are intrinsic to high energy density electrical energy storage systems, since they are typically operated far from equilibrium. One example of such phenomena is the formation of dendrites. Such dendrites occur on battery electrodes as they cycle, and can lead to internal short circuits, reducing cycle life. An improved understanding of the formation of dendrites and their control can improve the cycle life and safety of many energy storage systems, including rechargeable lithium and zinc batteries. Another area where improved understanding is desirable is the application of ionic liquids as electrolytes in energy storage systems. An ionic liquid is typically thought of as a material that is fully ionized (consisting only of anions and cations) and is fluid at or near room temperature. Some features of ionic liquids include a generally high thermal stability (up to 450 °C), a high electrochemical window (up to 6 V) and relatively high intrinsic conductivities. Such features make them attractive as battery or capacitor electrolytes, and may enable batteries which are safer (due to the good thermal stability) and of much higher energy density (due to the higher voltage electrode materials which may be employed) than state of the art secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Of particular interest is the use of such liquids as electrolytes in metal air batteries, where energy densities on the order of 1-2,000 Wh / kg are possible; this is 5-10 times that of existing state of the art lithium battery technology. The Energy Institute has been engaged in the

  5. An atoll for the offshore storage of the electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.

    2009-01-01

    This project proposes to use for sea the technique of pumped Storage Hydroelectric, implemented in mountain areas. The method stores energy in form of water, pumped from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation. Low-cost off-peak electric power is used to run the pumps. During periods of high electrical demand, the stored water is released through turbines. This new concept in pumped storage is to use wind turbines to drive water pumps directly, providing a more efficient process and usefully smooth out the variabilities of energy captured from the wind. (A.L.B.)

  6. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-12-12

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  7. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  8. The application of liquid air energy storage for large scale long duration solutions to grid balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES) provides large scale, long duration energy storage at the point of demand in the 5 MW/20 MWh to 100 MW/1,000 MWh range. LAES combines mature components from the industrial gas and electricity industries assembled in a novel process and is one of the few storage technologies that can be delivered at large scale, with no geographical constraints. The system uses no exotic materials or scarce resources and all major components have a proven lifetime of 25+ years. The system can also integrate low grade waste heat to increase power output. Founded in 2005, Highview Power Storage, is a UK based developer of LAES. The company has taken the concept from academic analysis, through laboratory testing, and in 2011 commissioned the world's first fully integrated system at pilot plant scale (300 kW/2.5 MWh) hosted at SSE's (Scottish & Southern Energy) 80 MW Biomass Plant in Greater London which was partly funded by a Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) grant. Highview is now working with commercial customers to deploy multi MW commercial reference plants in the UK and abroad.

  9. Seawater pumping as an electricity storage solution for photovoltaic energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfrida, Giampaolo; Secchi, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The stochastic nature of several renewable energy sources has raised the problem of designing and building storage facilities, which can help the electricity grid to sustain larger and larger contribution of renewable energy. Seawater pumped electricity storage is proposed as a good option for PV (Photovoltaic) or solar thermal power plants, located in suitable places close to the coast line. Solar radiation has a natural daily cycle, and storage reservoirs of limited capacity can substantially reduce the load to the electricity grid. Different modes of pump operation (fixed or variable speed) are considered, the preliminary sizing of the PV field and seawater reservoir is performed, and the results are comparatively assessed over a year-long simulated operation. The results show that PV pumped storage, even if not profitable in the present situation of the renewable energy Italian electricity market, is effective in decreasing the load on the transmission grid, and would possibly be attractive in the future, also in the light of developing off-grid applications. - Highlights: • A grid-connected seawater pumping system using photovoltaic power is proposed and its performance analyzed. • Year-round simulations are run with different sizes of photovoltaic field and reservoir. • An analysis is run about the profitability of the storage system, examining performance indexes and the cost of plant. • The system proposed appears near to attract the interest of the market

  10. The role of large scale storage in a GB low carbon energy future: Issues and policy challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewald, Philipp; Cockerill, Tim; Contestabile, Marcello; Pearson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Large scale storage offers the prospect of capturing and using excess electricity within a low carbon energy system, which otherwise might have to be wasted. Incorporating the role of storage into current scenario tools is challenging, because it requires high temporal resolution to reflect the effects of intermittent sources on system balancing. This study draws on results from a model with such resolution. It concludes that large scale storage could become economically viable for scenarios with high penetration of renewables. As the proportion of intermittent sources increases, the optimal type of storage shifts towards solutions with low energy related costs, even at the expense of efficiency. However, a range of uncertainties have been identified, concerning storage technology development, the regulatory environment, alternatives to storage and the stochastic uncertainty of year-on-year revenues. All of these negatively affect the cost of finance and the chances of successful market uptake. We argue, therefore, that, if the possible wider system and social benefits from the presence of storage are to be achieved, stronger and more strategic policy support may be necessary. More work on the social and system benefits of storage is needed to gauge the appropriate extent of support measures. - Highlights: → Time resolved modelling shows future potential for large scale power storage in GB. → The value of storage is highly sensitive to a range of parameters. → Uncertainty over the revenue from storage could pose a barrier to investment. → To realise wider system benefits stronger and more strategic policy support may be necessary.

  11. Optimal Overcurrent Relay Coordination in Presence of Inverter-based Wind Farms and Electrical Energy Storage Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Esmaeel Nezhad, Ali; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the coordination problem of overcurrent relays (OCRs) in presence of wind power generation and electrical energy storage (EES) systems. As the injected short-circuit current of inverter-based devices connected to the electrical grid is a function of the power electronic...... mainly matter for the EES system operating in either charging or discharging modes, as well. This paper evaluates different operation strategies considering the variations of the load demand and the presence of large-scale wind farms as well as an EES system, while validating the suggested method...

  12. The characteristics of electricity storage, renewables and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper accepts the widespread view that as electricity generation systems transition towards a greater proportion of renewables provision, there will be an increasing need for storage facilities. However, it differs from most such studies in contrasting the private incentives of a storage operator with the public desirability of bulk storage. A key factor in the context of a market such as Britain, where renewable energy largely means wind generation, is the nature of wind generation itself. The problem of wind's high variance and intermittent nature is explored. It is argued that not only is there a missing money and a missing market issue in providing secure energy supplies, there is also a missing informational issue. A key opportunity for new storage is participation in a capacity market, if the setting is right. - Highlights: • Considers both the public and private incentives for developing energy storage. • Consideration of the intermittency of wind as a factor influencing storage. • Arbitrage analysed alongside other earning streams. • Impact of market design on extent of storage.

  13. Electrical Energy Storage Systems Feasibility; the Case of Terceira Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Azores Regional Government, through the Sustainable Energy Action Plan for the Azorean Islands, assumed that by the year 2018, 60% of electricity would be generated from renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, by increasing renewable energy sources share in the electricity mix, peak energy that exceeds grid capacity cannot be used unless when considering energy storage systems. Therefore, this article aims at determining, among batteries and Pumped Hydro Systems, the most cost-effective energy storage system to deploy in Terceira Island, along with geothermal, wind, thermal and bio waste energy, while considering demand and supply constraints. It is concluded that a pumped hydro system sited in Serra do Morião-Nasce Água is the best option for storage of the excess generated energy when compared with batteries. However, further studies should analyze environmental constraints. It is demonstrated that by increasing the storage power capacity, a pumped hydro system improves its cost efficiency when compared with batteries. It is also demonstrated that, to ensure quality, economic feasibility, reliability and a reduction of external costs, it is preferable to replace fuel-oil by wind to generate electricity up to a conceivable technical limit, while building a pumped hydro system, or dumping the excess peak energy generated.

  14. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  15. Performance assessment of the PNM Prosperity electricity storage project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, Dakota [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellison, James F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bhatnagar, Dhruv [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schoenwald, David A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the technical performance of the PNM Prosperity electricity storage project, and to identify lessons learned that can be used to improve similar projects in the future. The PNM Prosperity electricity storage project consists of a 500 kW/350 kWh advanced lead-acid battery with integrated supercapacitor (for energy smoothing) and a 250 kW/1 MWh advanced lead-acid battery (for energy shifting), and is co-located with a 500 kW solar photovoltaic (PV) resource. The project received American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding. The smoothing system is e ective in smoothing intermittent PV output. The shifting system exhibits good round-trip efficiencies, though the AC-to-AC annual average efficiency is lower than one might hope. Given the current utilization of the smoothing system, there is an opportunity to incorporate additional control algorithms in order to increase the value of the energy storage system.

  16. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for diurnal load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks are being developed. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is also being developed by LASL. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch and 1-to-2-s slow tokamak energy transfer systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of an SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given for a 1-GWh reference design load-leveling unit, for a 30-MJ coil proposed stabilization unit, and for tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are also presented. The common technology base for the systems is discussed

  17. The socio-technical transition of distributed electricity storage into future networks—System value and stakeholder views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grünewald, Philipp H.; Cockerill, Timothy T.; Contestabile, Marcello; Pearson, Peter J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Whole system models for the GB electricity system suggest that distributed electricity storage has the potential to significantly reduce the system integration cost for future system scenarios. From a policy perspective, this poses the question why this value should not be realised within existing market structures. Opinion among stakeholders is divided. Some believe that storage deployment constitutes a ‘special case’ in need of policy support. Others insist that markets can provide the necessary platform to negotiate contracts, which reward storage operators for the range of services they could provide. This paper seeks to inform this debate with a process of stakeholder engagement using a perspective informed by socio-technical transition literatures. This approach allows the identification of tensions among actors in the electricity system and of possibilities for co-evolution in the deployment of storage technologies during a transition towards a low carbon electricity system. It also draws attention to policy-related challenges of technology lock-in and path dependency resulting from poor alignment of incumbent regimes with the requirements for distributed electricity storage. - Highlights: ► Electricity storage is poorly aligned with existing regimes in the electricity system. ► Stakeholders perceive electricity storage as “somebody else's problem”. ► Combining stakeholder views and transition theory provides new insight. ► Transition from network to operational benefits poses regulatory challenge. ► Value aggregation made difficult due to institutional barriers.

  18. Energy-storage technologies and electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Peter J.; Bain, Euan J.

    2008-01-01

    As the contribution of electricity generated from renewable sources (wind, wave and solar) grows, the inherent intermittency of supply from such generating technologies must be addressed by a step-change in energy storage. Furthermore, the continuously developing demands of contemporary applications require the design of versatile energy-storage/power supply systems offering wide ranges of power density and energy density. As no single energy-storage technology has this capability, systems will comprise combinations of technologies such as electrochemical supercapacitors, flow batteries, lithium-ion batteries, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) and kinetic energy storage. The evolution of the electrochemical supercapacitor is largely dependent on the development of optimised electrode materials (tailored to the chosen electrolyte) and electrolytes. Similarly, the development of lithium-ion battery technology requires fundamental research in materials science aimed at delivering new electrodes and electrolytes. Lithium-ion technology has significant potential, and a step-change is required in order to promote the technology from the portable electronics market into high-duty applications. Flow-battery development is largely concerned with safety and operability. However, opportunities exist to improve electrode technology yielding larger power densities. The main barriers to overcome with regard to the development of SMES technology are those related to high-temperature superconductors in terms of their granular, anisotropic nature. Materials development is essential for the successful evolution of flywheel technology. Given the appropriate research effort, the key scientific advances required in order to successfully develop energy-storage technologies generally represent realistic goals that may be achieved by 2050

  19. Distributed energy storage systems on the basis of electric-vehicle fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, A. Z.; Buzoverov, E. A.; Sheindlin, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Several power technologies directed to solving the problem of covering nonuniform loads in power systems are developed at the Joint Institute of High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences (JIHT RAS). One direction of investigations is the use of storage batteries of electric vehicles to compensate load peaks in the power system (V2G—vehicle-to-grid technology). The efficiency of energy storage systems based on electric vehicles with traditional energy-saving technologies is compared in the article by means of performing computations. The comparison is performed by the minimum-cost criterion for the peak energy supply to the system. Computations show that the distributed storage systems based on fleets of electric cars are efficient economically with their usage regime to 1 h/day. In contrast to traditional methods, the prime cost of regulation of the loads in the power system based on V2G technology is independent of the duration of the load compensation period (the duration of the consumption peak).

  20. Value of electrical energy storage: a comparison between commercial and system level benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Dunbar, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is a drive to transform the electricity industry in the UK from one based largely on fossil fuels to one based on low or zero carbon sources. The challenge of this transition, enabling a secure and sustainable electricity industry at an acceptable cost to consumers, has been dubbed the Energy Trilemma. Grid-connected electrical energy storage presents a potential solution to this challenge. However, the benefits of storage are split across different sectors of the electri...

  1. Fiscal 1999 report. Development of an electric power storage system using new type batteries, and development of a discrete type electric power storage technology (Survey on trend in developing batteries for electric power storage); 1999 nendo shingata denchi denryoku chozo system kaihatsu bunsangata denryoku chozo gijutsu kaihatsu hokokusho. Denryoku chozoyo denchi no kaihatsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Demand is increasing in recent years in Japan on batteries for electric power storage to respond to load variation in electric power supply. If electric power storage batteries are applied for practical use, nighttime excess power can be stored appropriately, which can be discharged during day time when the demand is increased, so that the demand variation can be handled adequately. Secondary batteries, if used, are characterized by having much greater energy density and output density because of storing the electric energy as chemical energy than in pumped-storage power generation which stores the energy as the positional energy of water. Therefore, this paper describes the surveys performed on the trend of developing the power storage batteries inside and outside the country. Section 1 shows the current status of annual load rates in other countries, and the current conception on power storage in these countries. Section 2 states the current status of practical application of power storage batteries having been developed in Germany and the U.S.A. and performed of demonstration tests. Section 3 reports the current status of developing new type power storage batteries. Section 4 describes the current status of developing the power storage batteries for power users. (NEDO)

  2. Modeling and experimental performance of an intermediate temperature reversible solid oxide cell for high-efficiency, distributed-scale electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Christopher H.; Gao, Zhan; Barnett, Scott A.; Braun, Robert J.

    2015-06-01

    Electrical energy storage is expected to be a critical component of the future world energy system, performing load-leveling operations to enable increased penetration of renewable and distributed generation. Reversible solid oxide cells, operating sequentially between power-producing fuel cell mode and fuel-producing electrolysis mode, have the capability to provide highly efficient, scalable electricity storage. However, challenges ranging from cell performance and durability to system integration must be addressed before widespread adoption. One central challenge of the system design is establishing effective thermal management in the two distinct operating modes. This work leverages an operating strategy to use carbonaceous reactant species and operate at intermediate stack temperature (650 °C) to promote exothermic fuel-synthesis reactions that thermally self-sustain the electrolysis process. We present performance of a doped lanthanum-gallate (LSGM) electrolyte solid oxide cell that shows high efficiency in both operating modes at 650 °C. A physically based electrochemical model is calibrated to represent the cell performance and used to simulate roundtrip operation for conditions unique to these reversible systems. Design decisions related to system operation are evaluated using the cell model including current density, fuel and oxidant reactant compositions, and flow configuration. The analysis reveals tradeoffs between electrical efficiency, thermal management, energy density, and durability.

  3. Electric energy storage systems for future hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, Hans; Huelshorst, Thomas [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Sauer, Dirk Uwe [Elektrochemische Energiewandlung und Speichersystemtechnik, ISEA, RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Electric energy storage systems play a key role in today's and even more in future hybrid and electric vehicles. They enable new additional functionalities like Start/Stop, regenerative braking or electric boost and pure electric drive. This article discusses properties and requirements of battery systems like power provision, energy capacity, life time as a function of the hybrid concepts and the real operating conditions of the today's and future hybrid drivetrains. Battery cell technology, component sizing, system design, operating strategy safety measures and diagnosis, modularity and vehicle integration are important battery development topics. A final assessment will draw the conclusion that future drivetrain concepts with higher degree of electrician will be significantly dependent on the progress of battery technology. (orig.)

  4. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  5. Estimating the value of electricity storage in PJM. Arbitrage and some welfare effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Denholm, Paul; Jenkin, Thomas; Weiss, Jurgen

    2009-01-01

    Significant increases in prices and price volatility of natural gas and electricity have raised interest in the potential economic opportunities for electricity storage. In this paper, we analyze the arbitrage value of a price-taking storage device in PJM (power transmission organization in the USA) during the six-year period from 2002 to 2007, to understand the impact of fuel prices, transmission constraints, efficiency, storage capacity, and fuel mix. The impact of load-shifting for larger amounts of storage, where reductions in arbitrage are offset by shifts in consumer and producer surplus as well as increases in social welfare from a variety of sources, is also considered. (author)

  6. Electric Vehicle Based Battery Storages for Future Power System Regulation Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    supplying the reserve power requirements. This limited regulation services from conventional generators in the future power system calls for other new reserve power solutions like Electric Vehicle (EV) based battery storages. A generic aggregated EV based battery storage for long-term dynamic load frequency...

  7. Impact of small-scale storage systems on the photovoltaic penetration potential at the municipal scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Camargo, Luis; Dorner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The yearly cumulated technical energy generation potential of grid-connected roof-top photovoltaic power plants is significantly larger than the demand of domestic buildings in sparsely populated municipalities in central Europe. However, an energy balance with cumulated annual values does not deliver the right picture about the actual potential for photovoltaics since these run on a highly variable energy source as solar radiation. The mismatch between the periods of generation and demand creates hard limitations for the deployment of the theoretical energy generation potential of roof-top photovoltaics. The actual penetration of roof-top photovoltaic is restricted by the energy quality requirements of the grid and/or the available storage capacity for the electricity production beyond the coverage of own demands. In this study we evaluate in how far small-scale storage systems can contribute to increment the grid-connected roof-top photovoltaic penetration in domestic buildings at a municipal scale. To accomplish this, we calculate, in a first step, the total technical roof-top photovoltaic energy generation potential of a municipality in a high spatiotemporal resolution using a procedure that relies on geographic information systems. Posteriorly, we constrain the set of potential photovoltaic plants to the ones that would be necessary to cover the total yearly demand of the municipality. We assume that photovoltaic plants with the highest yearly yield are the ones that should be installed. For this sub-set of photovoltaic plants we consider five scenarios: 1) no storage 2) one 7 kWh battery is installed in every building with a roof-top photovoltaic plant 3) one 10 kWh battery is installed in every building with a roof-top photovoltaic plant 4) one 7 kWh battery is installed in every domestic building in the municipality 5) one 10 kWh battery is installed in every domestic building in the municipality. Afterwards we evaluate the energy balance of the

  8. Design and analysis of electrical energy storage demonstration projects on UK distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.F.; Wade, N.S.; Jiang, T.; Taylor, P.C.; Hashiesh, F.; Michel, M.; Miller, D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Results of an EES system demonstration project carried out in the UK. • Approaches to the design of trials for EES and observation on their application. • A formalised methodology for analysis of smart grids trials. • Validated models of energy storage. • Capability of EES to connect larger quantities of heat pumps and PV is evaluated. - Abstract: The UK government’s CO 2 emissions targets will require electrification of much of the country’s infrastructure with low carbon technologies such as photovoltaic panels, electric vehicles and heat pumps. The large scale proliferation of these technologies will necessitate major changes to the planning and operation of distribution networks. Distribution network operators are trialling electrical energy storage (EES) across their networks to increase their understanding of the contribution that it can make to enable the expected paradigm shift in generation and consumption of electricity. In order to evaluate a range of applications for EES, including voltage control and power flow management, installations have taken place at various distribution network locations and voltage levels. This article reports on trial design approaches and their application to a UK trial of an EES system to ensure broad applicability of the results. Results from these trials of an EES system, low carbon technologies and trial distribution networks are used to develop validated power system models. These models are used to evaluate, using a formalised methodology, the impact that EES could have on the design and operation of future distribution networks

  9. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (7)Development and Practical Application of Sodium-Sulfur Battery for Electric Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachi, Hideki

    Sodium-Sulfur battery (NAS battery), which has more than 3 times of energy density compared with the conventional lead-acid battery and can be compactly established, has a great installation effects as a distributed energy storage system in the urban area which consumes big electric power. For the power company, NAS battery contributes to the load leveling, the supply capability up at the peak period, the efficient operation of the electric power equipment and the reduction of the capital expenditure. And for the customer, it is possible to enjoy the reduction of the electricity charges by utilizing nighttime electric power and the securing of a security. The contribution to the highly sophisticated information society where the higher electric power quality is desired, mainly office buildings and factories by the progress of IT, is very big. Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) developed the elementary technology of NAS battery from 1984 and ended the development of practical battery which has long-term durability and the safety and the performance verification of the megawatt scale. Finally TEPCO accomplished the practical application and commercialization of the stationary energy storage technology by NAS battery. In this paper, we introduces about conquered problems until practical application and commercialization.

  10. Potential of reversible solid oxide cells as electricity storage system

    OpenAIRE

    Di Giorgio, Paolo; Desideri, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Electrical energy storage (EES) systems allow shifting the time of electric power generation from that of consumption, and they are expected to play a major role in future electric grids where the share of intermittent renewable energy systems (RES), and especially solar and wind power plants, is planned to increase. No commercially available technology complies with all the required specifications for an efficient and reliable EES system. Reversible solid oxide cells (ReSOC) working in both ...

  11. Lyapunov based control of hybrid energy storage system in electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, H.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a Lyapunov based control principle in a hybrid energy storage system for electric vehicle. The storage system consists on fuel cell (FC) as a main power source and a supercapacitor (SC) as an auxiliary power source. The power stage of energy conversion consists on a boost...

  12. Method for analysing the adequacy of electric power systems with wind power plants and energy storages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perzhabinsky Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, renewable energy sources and energy storage devices are actively introduced into electric power systems. We developed method to analyze the adequacy of these electric power systems. The method takes into account the uncertainty of electricity generation by wind power plants and the processes of energy storage. The method is based on the Monte Carlo method and allowed to use of long-term meteorological data in open access. The performed experimental research of electrical power system is constructed on the basis of the real technical and meteorological data. The method allows to estimate of effectiveness of introducing generators based on renewable energy sources and energy storages in electric power systems.

  13. Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage In a Restructured Electricity Marketplace, A Study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IANNUCCI, JOE; EYER, JIM; BUTLER, PAUL C.

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the second phase of a project entitled ''Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace''. During part one of the effort, nine ''Stretch Scenarios'' were identified. They represented innovative and potentially significant uses of electric energy storage. Based on their potential to significantly impact the overall energy marketplace, the five most compelling scenarios were identified. From these scenarios, five specific ''Storage Market Opportunities'' (SMOs) were chosen for an in-depth evaluation in this phase. The authors conclude that some combination of the Power Cost Volatility and the T&D Benefits SMOs would be the most compelling for further investigation. Specifically, a combination of benefits (energy, capacity, power quality and reliability enhancement) achievable using energy storage systems for high value T&D applications, in regions with high power cost volatility, makes storage very competitive for about 24 GW and 120 GWh during the years of 2001 and 2010.

  14. A Hybrid Multilevel Storage Architecture for Electric Power Dispatching Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hu; Huang, Bibin; Hong, Bowen; Hu, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Electric power dispatching is the center of the whole power system. In the long run time, the power dispatching center has accumulated a large amount of data. These data are now stored in different power professional systems and form lots of information isolated islands. Integrating these data and do comprehensive analysis can greatly improve the intelligent level of power dispatching. In this paper, a hybrid multilevel storage architecture for electrical power dispatching big data is proposed. It introduces relational database and NoSQL database to establish a power grid panoramic data center, effectively meet power dispatching big data storage needs, including the unified storage of structured and unstructured data fast access of massive real-time data, data version management and so on. It can be solid foundation for follow-up depth analysis of power dispatching big data.

  15. Development and Implementation of a Battery-Electric Light-Duty Class 2a Truck including Hybrid Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeyer, Phillip J.

    This dissertation addresses two major related research topics: 1) the design, fabrication, modeling, and experimental testing of a battery-electric light-duty Class 2a truck; and 2) the design and evaluation of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for this and other vehicles. The work begins with the determination of the truck's peak power and wheel torque requirements (135kW/4900Nm). An electric traction system is then designed that consists of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine, two-speed gearbox, three-phase motor drive, and LiFePO4 battery pack. The battery pack capacity is selected to achieve a driving range similar to the 2011 Nissan Leaf electric vehicle (73 miles). Next, the demonstrator electric traction system is built and installed in the vehicle, a Ford F150 pickup truck, and an extensive set of sensors and data acquisition equipment is installed. Detailed loss models of the battery pack, electric traction machine, and motor drive are developed and experimentally verified using the driving data. Many aspects of the truck's performance are investigated, including efficiency differences between the two-gear configuration and the optimal gear selection. The remainder focuses on the application of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) to electric vehicles. First, the electric truck is modeled with the addition of an ultracapacitor pack and a dc/dc converter. Rule-based and optimal battery/ultracapacitor power-split control algorithms are then developed, and the performance improvements achieved for both algorithms are evaluated for operation at 25°C. The HESS modeling is then extended to low temperatures, where battery resistance increases substantially. To verify the accuracy of the model-predicted results, a scaled hybrid energy storage system is built and the system is tested for several drive cycles and for two temperatures. The HESS performance is then modeled for three variants of the vehicle design, including the

  16. Compressed Air Energy Storage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salgi, Georges Garabeth; Lund, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    is analysed with regard to the Danish energy system. In Denmark, wind power supplies 20% of the electricity demand and 50% is produced by combined heat and power (CHP). The operation of CAES requires high electricity price volatility. However, in the Nordic region, large hydro capacities have so far kept......Compressed air energy storage system (CAES) is a technology which can be used for integrating more fluctuating renewable energy sources into the electricity supply system. On a utility scale, CAES has a high feasibility potential compared to other storage technologies. Here, the technology...

  17. A study on the performance valuation of small size water storage electric boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Joung Gun; Shin, Jae Ho; Bae, Chul Whan; Suh, Jeong Se; Chung, Han Shik; Jeong, Hyo Min

    2003-01-01

    We was made 150L a water storage electric boiler and obtained various performances of the storage, radiant and keeping by experimentation. The storage performance is that the heat were off about 50 minutes after heating start. Then the temperature of outlet was arrived the stead state at 91 deg. C and the storage performance was appeared 93.64%. In the radiant performance, the water temperature was decreased from 90 .deg. C to 44.8 deg. C after 960 minutes. Then the calorific value changed from 675kcal/h to 72kcal/h and the temperature decreased about 50%. The keeping performance showed mean temperature, 67.06 .deg. C according to progress 800 minutes and the maximum temperature drop were 0.2 .deg. C. By the results of the performance valuation, the water storage electric boiler was verified fitted quality on the test prescription of KERI (Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute.)

  18. The future cost of electrical energy storage based on experience rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, O.; Hawkes, A.; Gambhir, A.; Staffell, I.

    2017-08-01

    Electrical energy storage could play a pivotal role in future low-carbon electricity systems, balancing inflexible or intermittent supply with demand. Cost projections are important for understanding this role, but data are scarce and uncertain. Here, we construct experience curves to project future prices for 11 electrical energy storage technologies. We find that, regardless of technology, capital costs are on a trajectory towards US$340 ± 60 kWh-1 for installed stationary systems and US$175 ± 25 kWh-1 for battery packs once 1 TWh of capacity is installed for each technology. Bottom-up assessment of material and production costs indicates this price range is not infeasible. Cumulative investments of US$175-510 billion would be needed for any technology to reach 1 TWh deployment, which could be achieved by 2027-2040 based on market growth projections. Finally, we explore how the derived rates of future cost reduction influence when storage becomes economically competitive in transport and residential applications. Thus, our experience-curve data set removes a barrier for further study by industry, policymakers and academics.

  19. Techno-economic Modeling of the Integration of 20% Wind and Large-scale Energy Storage in ERCOT by 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldick, Ross; Webber, Michael; King, Carey; Garrison, Jared; Cohen, Stuart; Lee, Duehee

    2012-12-21

    This study's objective is to examine interrelated technical and economic avenues for the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) grid to incorporate up to and over 20% wind generation by 2030. Our specific interests are to look at the factors that will affect the implementation of both high level of wind power penetration (> 20% generation) and installation of large scale storage.

  20. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Overview report of combined energy storage and renewable generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The first part of the paper briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various forms of renewable energy sources with respect to the United Kingdom. It discusses the intermittent nature of wind and solar power and the less intermittent nature of hydro power and energy from biomass. The need to store energy generated, particularly from the intermittent sources, is discussed with special reference to electric batteries and pumped storage. If the energy cannot be stored and delivered when required, then the commercial viability of the source will be adversely affected - the economics and how this fits with NETA are discussed briefly. The second part of the paper is an overview of some relevant literature discussing (a) how the problems of fluctuating supplies may be managed, (b) an analytical assessment of the contribution from wind farms, (c) how fluctuations in wind power can be smoothed using sodium-sulfur batteries, (d) how small generators can get together and reduce trading costs and imbalance exposure under NETA, (e) the benefits of large-scale energy storage to network management and embedded generation, (f) distribution networks, (g) embedded generation and network management issues and (h) costs and benefits of embedded generation. The work was carried out as part of the DTI New and Renewable Energy Programme managed by Future Energy Solutions.

  1. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Overview report of combined energy storage and renewable generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The first part of the paper briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various forms of renewable energy sources with respect to the United Kingdom. It discusses the intermittent nature of wind and solar power and the less intermittent nature of hydro power and energy from biomass. The need to store energy generated, particularly from the intermittent sources, is discussed with special reference to electric batteries and pumped storage. If the energy cannot be stored and delivered when required, then the commercial viability of the source will be adversely affected - the economics and how this fits with NETA are discussed briefly. The second part of the paper is an overview of some relevant literature discussing (a) how the problems of fluctuating supplies may be managed, (b) an analytical assessment of the contribution from wind farms, (c) how fluctuations in wind power can be smoothed using sodium-sulfur batteries, (d) how small generators can get together and reduce trading costs and imbalance exposure under NETA, (e) the benefits of large-scale energy storage to network management and embedded generation, (f) distribution networks, (g) embedded generation and network management issues and (h) costs and benefits of embedded generation. The work was carried out as part of the DTI New and Renewable Energy Programme managed by Future Energy Solutions

  2. Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David

    2017-07-01

    As renewable energy use expands there will be a need to develop ways to balance its variability. Storage is one of the options. Presently the main emphasis is for systems storing electrical power in advanced batteries (many of them derivatives of parallel developments in the electric vehicle field), as well as via liquid air storage, compressed air storage, super-capacitors and flywheels, and, the leader so far, pumped hydro reservoirs. In addition, new systems are emerging for hydrogen generation and storage, feeding fuel cell power production. Heat (and cold) is also a storage medium and some systems exploit thermal effects as part of wider energy management activity. Some of the more exotic ones even try to use gravity on a large scale. This short book looks at all the options, their potentials and their limits. There are no clear winners, with some being suited to short-term balancing and others to longer-term storage. The eventual mix adopted will be shaped by the pattern of development of other balancing measures, including smart-grid demand management and super-grid imports and exports.

  3. Ecological and biomedical effects of effluents from near-term electric vehicle storage battery cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    An assessment of the ecological and biomedical effects due to commercialization of storage batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles is given. It deals only with the near-term batteries, namely Pb/acid, Ni/Zn, and Ni/Fe, but the complete battery cycle is considered, i.e., mining and milling of raw materials, manufacture of the batteries, cases and covers; use of the batteries in electric vehicles, including the charge-discharge cycles; recycling of spent batteries; and disposal of nonrecyclable components. The gaseous, liquid, and solid emissions from various phases of the battery cycle are identified. The effluent dispersal in the environment is modeled and ecological effects are assessed in terms of biogeochemical cycles. The metabolic and toxic responses by humans and laboratory animals to constituents of the effluents are discussed. Pertinent environmental and health regulations related to the battery industry are summarized and regulatory implications for large-scale storage battery commercialization are discussed. Each of the seven sections were abstracted and indexed individually for EDB/ERA. Additional information is presented in the seven appendixes entitled; growth rate scenario for lead/acid battery development; changes in battery composition during discharge; dispersion of stack and fugitive emissions from battery-related operations; methodology for estimating population exposure to total suspended particulates and SO/sub 2/ resulting from central power station emissions for the daily battery charging demand of 10,000 electric vehicles; determination of As air emissions from Zn smelting; health effects: research related to EV battery technologies. (JGB)

  4. A review on technology maturity of small scale energy storage technologies★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thu-Trang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current status of energy storage technologies which have the higher potential to be applied in small scale energy systems. Small scale energy systems can be categorized as ones that are able to supply energy in various forms for a building, or a small area, or a limited community, or an enterprise; typically, they are end-user systems. Energy storage technologies are classified based on their form of energy stored. A two-step evaluation is proposed for selecting suitable storage technologies for small scale energy systems, including identifying possible technical options, and addressing techno-economic aspects. Firstly, a review on energy storage technologies at small scale level is carried out. Secondly, an assessment of technology readiness level (TRL is conducted. The TRLs are ranked according to information gathered from literature review. Levels of market maturity of the technologies are addressed by taking into account their market development stages through reviewing published materials. The TRLs and the levels of market maturity are then combined into a technology maturity curve. Additionally, market driving factors are identified by using different stages in product life cycle. The results indicate that lead-acid, micro pumped hydro storage, NaS battery, NiCd battery, flywheel, NaNiCl battery, Li-ion battery, and sensible thermal storage are the most mature technologies for small scale energy systems. In the near future, hydrogen fuel cells, thermal storages using phase change materials and thermochemical materials are expected to become more popular in the energy storage market.

  5. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karden, Eckhard; Ploumen, Serve; Fricke, Birger [Ford Research and Advanced Engineering Europe, Suesterfeldstr. 200, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Miller, Ted; Snyder, Kent [Ford Sustainable Mobility Technologies, 15050 Commerce Drive North, Dearborn, MI 48120 (United States)

    2007-05-25

    Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge usage. Lead/acid, either with liquid or absorptive glass-fibre mat electrolyte, is expected to remain the predominant battery technology for 14 V systems, including micro-hybrids, and with a cost-effective battery monitoring system for demanding applications. Advanced AGM batteries may be considered for mild or even medium hybrids once they have proven robustness under real-world conditions, particularly with respect to cycle life at partial-states-of-charge and dynamic charge acceptance. For the foreseeable future, NiMH and Li-ion are the dominating current and potential battery technologies for higher-functionality HEVs. Li-ion, currently at development and demonstration stages, offers attractive opportunities for improvements in performance and cost. Supercapacitors may be considered for pulse power applications. Aside from cell technologies, attention to the issue of system integration of the battery into the powertrain and vehicle is growing. Opportunities and challenges for potential ''battery pack'' system suppliers are discussed. (author)

  6. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Ploumen, Servé; Fricke, Birger; Miller, Ted; Snyder, Kent

    Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge usage. Lead/acid, either with liquid or absorptive glass-fibre mat electrolyte, is expected to remain the predominant battery technology for 14 V systems, including micro-hybrids, and with a cost-effective battery monitoring system for demanding applications. Advanced AGM batteries may be considered for mild or even medium hybrids once they have proven robustness under real-world conditions, particularly with respect to cycle life at partial-states-of-charge and dynamic charge acceptance. For the foreseeable future, NiMH and Li-ion are the dominating current and potential battery technologies for higher-functionality HEVs. Li-ion, currently at development and demonstration stages, offers attractive opportunities for improvements in performance and cost. Supercapacitors may be considered for pulse power applications. Aside from cell technologies, attention to the issue of system integration of the battery into the powertrain and vehicle is growing. Opportunities and challenges for potential "battery pack" system suppliers are discussed.

  7. Next generation molten NaI batteries for grid scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Leo J.; Eccleston, Alexis; Lamb, Joshua; Read, Andrew C.; Robins, Matthew; Meaders, Thomas; Ingersoll, David; Clem, Paul G.; Bhavaraju, Sai; Spoerke, Erik D.

    2017-08-01

    Robust, safe, and reliable grid-scale energy storage continues to be a priority for improved energy surety, expanded integration of renewable energy, and greater system agility required to meet modern dynamic and evolving electrical energy demands. We describe here a new sodium-based battery based on a molten sodium anode, a sodium iodide/aluminum chloride (NaI/AlCl3) cathode, and a high conductivity NaSICON (Na1+xZr2SixP3-xO12) ceramic separator. This NaI battery operates at intermediate temperatures (120-180 °C) and boasts an energy density of >150 Wh kg-1. The energy-dense NaI-AlCl3 ionic liquid catholyte avoids lifetime-limiting plating and intercalation reactions, and the use of earth-abundant elements minimizes materials costs and eliminates economic uncertainties associated with lithium metal. Moreover, the inherent safety of this system under internal mechanical failure is characterized by negligible heat or gas production and benign reaction products (Al, NaCl). Scalability in design is exemplified through evolution from 0.85 to 10 Ah (28 Wh) form factors, displaying lifetime average Coulombic efficiencies of 99.45% and energy efficiencies of 81.96% over dynamic testing lasting >3000 h. This demonstration promises a safe, cost-effective, and long-lifetime technology as an attractive candidate for grid scale storage.

  8. Electricity Storage and Renewables for Island Power. A Guide for Decision Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komor, P; Glassmire, J [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Energy is a key issue for sustainable development. In island and remote communities, where grid extension is difficult and fuel transportation and logistics are challenging and costly, renewable energy is emerging as the energy supply solution for the 21st century, ensuring reliable and secure energy supply in such communities. The deployment of renewable energy technologies is increasing globally, supported by rapidly declining prices and government policies and strategies in many countries, resulting in renewable energy solutions being the most cost-effective option in many markets today. For example, in 2011 the Special Report of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation showed that approximately 50% of new electricity generation capacity added globally between 2008 and 2009 came from renewable energy sources. Therefore, the future of renewables as the base energy source for islands and remote communities looks very bright. However, as the share of renewables in power supply increases, the natural variability of some renewable energy sources must be tackled appropriately to ensure continuous availability and efficient use of the energy generated. Successful strategies to manage this variability can encompass a range of measures, such as a balanced supply technology portfolio, geographical spread of supply, better forecasting tools, demand-side management and appropriate storage solutions. Traditionally, large scale electricity storage systems were based on pumped hydropower installations. New solutions are emerging, including affordable and long-lasting batteries. This technology field is developing rapidly and prices are falling. IRENA has developed this report as a practical guide to the available energy storage solutions and their successful applications in the context of islands communities. The report also includes various best practice cases and different scenarios and strategies. It is

  9. Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price arbitrage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, H.; Finn, P.; Mathiesen, B.V.; Leahy, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, three practical operation strategies (24Optimal, 24Prognostic, and 24Hsitrocial) are compared to the optimum profit feasible for a PHES facility with a 360 MW pump, 300 MW turbine, and a 2 GWh storage utilising price arbitrage on 13 electricity spot markets. The results indicate that almost all (∼97%) of the profits can be obtained by a PHES facility when it is optimised using the 24Optimal strategy developed, which optimises the energy storage based on the day-ahead electricity prices. However, to maximise profits with the 24Optimal strategy, the day-ahead electricity prices must be the actual prices which the PHES facility is charged or the PHES operator must have very accurate price predictions. Otherwise, the predicted profit could be significantly reduced and even become a loss. Finally, using the 24Optimal strategy, the PHES profit can surpass the annual investment repayments required. However, over the 5-year period investigated (2005-2009) the annual profit from the PHES facility varied by more than 50% on five out of six electricity markets considered. Considering the 40-year lifetime of PHES, even with low investment costs, a low interest rate, and a suitable electricity market, PHES is a risky investment without a more predictable profit. - Highlights: → Electricity generators typically operate on a market, including energy storage. → This paper assesses how energy storage can maximise its profits on a market. → Four operating strategies are assessed on 13 markets using a case study.→ One operating strategy achieves 97% of the profits feasible.→ However, the profit varies a lot depending on the market and capital costs.

  10. Assessing the stationary energy storage equivalency of vehicle-to-grid charging battery electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Zhang, Li; Wifvat, Van; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A study has been performed to understand the quantitative impact of key differences between vehicle-to-grid and stationary energy storage systems on renewable utilization, greenhouse gas emissions, and balancing fleet operation, using California as the example. To simulate the combined electricity and light-duty transportation system, a detailed electric grid dispatch model (including stationary energy storage systems) was combined with an electric vehicle charging dispatch model that incorporates conventional smart and vehicle-to-grid capabilities. By subjecting smaller amounts of renewable energy to round-trip efficiency losses and thereby increasing the efficiency of renewable utilization, it was found that vehicle-to-grid energy storage can achieve higher renewable utilization levels and reduced greenhouse gas emissions compared to stationary energy storage systems. Vehicle-to-grid energy storage, however, is not as capable of balancing the power plant fleet compared to stationary energy storage systems due to the constraints of consumer travel patterns. The potential benefits of vehicle-to-grid are strongly dependent on the availability of charging infrastructure at both home and workplaces, with potential benefits being compromised with residential charging availability only. Overall, vehicle-to-grid energy storage can provide benefits over stationary energy storage depending on the system attribute selected for improvement, a finding amenable to managing through policy. - Highlights: • Using vehicle-to-grid-based storage increases the efficiency of renewable energy utilization. • Vehicle-to-grid-based energy storage has less overall flexibility compared to stationary energy storage. • The discharge ability of vehicle-to-grid-based provides a significant benefit over one-way smart charging. • Both workplace and home charging are critical for providing vehicle-to-grid-related benefits. • Increasing charging intelligence reduces stationary energy

  11. High Tc superconducting energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werfel, Frank [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Electric energy is basic to heat and light our homes, to power our businesses and to transport people and goods. Powerful storage techniques like SMES, Flywheel, Super Capacitor, and Redox - Flow batteries are needed to increase the overall efficiency, stability and quality of electrical grids. High-Tc superconductors (HTS) possess superior physical and technical properties and can contribute in reducing the dissipation and losses in electric machines as motors and generators, in electric grids and transportation. The renewable energy sources as solar, wind energy and biomass will require energy storage systems even more as a key technology. We survey the physics and the technology status of superconducting flywheel energy storage (FESS) and magnetic energy storage systems (SMES) for their potential of large-scale commercialization. We report about a 10 kWh / 250 kW flywheel with magnetic stabilization of the rotor. The progress of HTS conductor science and technological engineering are basic for larger SMES developments. The performance of superconducting storage systems is reviewed and compared. We conclude that a broad range of intensive research and development in energy storage is urgently needed to produce technological options that can allow both climate stabilization and economic development.

  12. Research on charging and discharging control strategy for electric vehicles as distributed energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Dongqing; Tang, Pengcheng

    2018-02-01

    A large number of electric vehicles are connected to the family micro grid will affect the operation safety of the power grid and the quality of power. Considering the factors of family micro grid price and electric vehicle as a distributed energy storage device, a two stage optimization model is established, and the improved discrete binary particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to optimize the parameters in the model. The proposed control strategy of electric vehicle charging and discharging is of practical significance for the rational control of electric vehicle as a distributed energy storage device and electric vehicle participating in the peak load regulation of power consumption.

  13. Economic evaluations of fusion-based energy storage systems in an electric utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of introducing a fusion energy storage system, which consists of a fusion-fission reactor and a water-splitting process, in an electric utility was investigated. The fusion energy storage system was assumed to be run during off-peak periods in order to make use of unused, low fuel cost capacity of an electric utility. The fusion energy storage system produces both fissile fuel and hydrogen. The produced hydrogen was assumed to be transmitted through and stored in existing natural gas trunklines for later use during peak-load hours. The peaking units in the utility were assumed to burn the hydrogen. Reserve power is usually cheap on systems with heavy nuclear fission reactor installation. The system studied utilizes this cheap energy for producing expensive fuel. The thermochemical water-splitting process was employed to recover thermal energy from the fusion-fission reactor system. The cost of fusion energy storage systems as well as the value of produced fuel were calculated. In order to simulate the operations of the fusion energy storage system for a multi-year planning period, a computer program, FESUT (Fusion Energy Simulation at the University of Texas), was developed for the present study. Two year utility simulations with the fusion energy storage system were performed

  14. Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project Topical Report: Preliminary Public Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy Cerimele

    2011-09-30

    This Preliminary Public Design Report consolidates for public use nonproprietary design information on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. The report is based on the preliminary design information developed during the Phase I - Project Definition Phase, spanning the time period of February 1, 2010 through September 30, 2011. The report includes descriptions and/or discussions for: (1) DOE's Clean Coal Power Initiative, overall project & Phase I objectives, and the historical evolution of DOE and American Electric Power (AEP) sponsored projects leading to the current project; (2) Alstom's Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) carbon capture retrofit technology and the carbon storage and monitoring system; (3) AEP's retrofit approach in terms of plant operational and integration philosophy; (4) The process island equipment and balance of plant systems for the CAP technology; (5) The carbon storage system, addressing injection wells, monitoring wells, system monitoring and controls logic philosophy; (6) Overall project estimate that includes the overnight cost estimate, cost escalation for future year expenditures, and major project risks that factored into the development of the risk based contingency; and (7) AEP's decision to suspend further work on the project at the end of Phase I, notwithstanding its assessment that the Alstom CAP technology is ready for commercial demonstration at the intended scale.

  15. A statistical approach to electrical storage sizing with application to the recovery of braking energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolino, V.; Pievatolo, A.; Tironi, E.

    2011-01-01

    In the context of efficient energy use, electrical energy in electric drives plays a fundamental role. High efficiency energy storage systems permit energy recovery, peak shaving and power quality functions. Due to their cost and the importance of system integration, there is a need for a correct design based on technical-economical optimization. In this paper, a method to design a centralized storage system for the recovery of the power regenerated by a number of electric drives is presented. It is assumed that the drives follow deterministic power cycles, but shifted by an uncertain amount. Therefore the recoverable energy and, consequently, the storage size requires the optimization of a random cost function, embedding both the plant total cost and the saving due to the reduced energy consumption during the useful life of the storage. The underlying stochastic model for the power profile of the drives as a whole is built from a general Markov chain framework. A numerical example, based on Monte Carlo simulations, concerns the maximization of the recoverable potential energy of multiple bridge cranes, supplied by a unique grid connection point and a centralized supercapacitor storage system. -- Highlights: ► Recovery of braking power produced by multiple electric drives. ► Temporal power profile modeled through the multinomial distribution and Markov chains. ► Storage sizing via random cost function optimization. ► The search region for the optimization is given explicitly. ► The value of energy recovered during the useful life of the storage outweighs its cost.

  16. Modelling the long-term deployment of electricity storage in the global energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despres, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The current development of wind and solar power sources calls for an improvement of long-term energy models. Indeed, high shares of variable wind and solar productions have short- and long-term impacts on the power system, requiring the development of flexibility options: fast-reacting power plants, demand response, grid enhancement or electricity storage. Our first main contribution is the modelling of electricity storage and grid expansion in the POLES model (Prospective Outlook on Long-term Energy Systems). We set up new investment mechanisms, where storage development is based on several combined economic values. After categorising the long-term energy models and the power sector modelling tools in a common typology, we showed the need for a better integration of both approaches. Therefore, the second major contribution of our work is the yearly coupling of POLES to a short-term optimisation of the power sector operation, with the European Unit Commitment and Dispatch model (EUCAD). The two-way data exchange allows the long-term coherent scenarios of POLES to be directly backed by the short-term technical detail of EUCAD. Our results forecast a strong and rather quick development of the cheapest flexibility options: grid interconnections, pumped hydro storage and demand response programs, including electric vehicle charging optimisation and vehicle-to-grid storage. The more expensive battery storage presumably finds enough system value in the second half of the century. A sensitivity analysis shows that improving the fixed costs of batteries impacts more the investments than improving their efficiency. We also show the explicit dependency between storage and variable renewable energy sources. (author) [fr

  17. Battery energy storage systems: Assessment for small-scale renewable energy integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar C.; Garimella, Niraj [Power Systems Group, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Auckland, 38 Princes Street, Science Centre, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2010-11-15

    Concerns arising due to the variability and intermittency of renewable energy sources while integrating with the power grid can be mitigated to an extent by incorporating a storage element within the renewable energy harnessing system. Thus, battery energy storage systems (BESS) are likely to have a significant impact in the small-scale integration of renewable energy sources into commercial building and residential dwelling. These storage technologies not only enable improvements in consumption levels from renewable energy sources but also provide a range of technical and monetary benefits. This paper provides a modelling framework to be able to quantify the associated benefits of renewable resource integration followed by an overview of various small-scale energy storage technologies. A simple, practical and comprehensive assessment of battery energy storage technologies for small-scale renewable applications based on their technical merit and economic feasibility is presented. Software such as Simulink and HOMER provides the platforms for technical and economic assessments of the battery technologies respectively. (author)

  18. Experimental device for the residential heating with heat pipe and electric heat storage blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L; Boldak, I M; Domorod, L S; Rabetsky, M I; Schirokov, E I [AN Belorusskoj SSR, Minsk (Belarus). Inst. Teplo- i Massoobmena

    1992-01-01

    Residential heating using electric heat storage blocks nowadays is an actual problem from the point of view of heat recovery and nature protection. In the Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute a new residential electrical heater capable of heating chambers by controlling air temperature and heat output using heat pipes and an electric heat storage block was developed. This heater (BETA) is fed from the source of energy and during 7 h of night time accumulates energy sufficiently to heat 10 m{sup 3} during 24 h. Heating device BETA has a ceramic thermal storage block, electric heaters and a heat pipe with evaporator inside the ceramic block and constant temperature (65{sup o}C) finned condenser outside it. The condenser temperature could be controlled easily. BETA is compact, has high thermal response, accurate air temperature control and safe operation. Such types of residential heaters are necessary for heating residential and office building in the Mogilev and Gomel regions in Byelorussia which suffered after the Chernobyl catastrophe. (Author).

  19. Modelling of Hot Water Storage Tank for Electric Grid Integration and Demand Response Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, Rakesh; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    District heating (DH), based on electric boilers, when integrated into electric network has potential of flexible load with direct/indirect storage to increase the dynamic stability of the grid in terms of power production and consumption with wind and solar. The two different models of electric...

  20. Role of Pumped Storage Hydro Resources in Electricity Markets and System Operation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Botterud, A.; Milostan, C.; Krad, I.; Koritarov, V.

    2013-05-01

    The most common form of utility- sized energy storage system is the pumped storage hydro system. Originally, these types of storage systems were economically viable simply because they displace more expensive generating units. However, over time, as those expensive units became more efficient and costs declined, pumped hydro storage units no longer have the operational edge. As a result, in the current electricity market environment, pumped storage hydro plants are struggling. To offset this phenomenon, certain market modifications should be addressed. This paper will introduce some of the challenges faced by pumped storage hydro plants in today's markets and purpose some solutions to those problems.

  1. Electric energy storage systems in a market-based economy. Comparison of emerging and traditional technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazempour, S. Jalal; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Haghifam, M.R.; Yousefi, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike markets for storable commodities, electricity markets depend on the real-time balance of supply and demand. Although much of the present-day grid operate effectively without storage technologies, cost-effective ways of storing electrical energy can make the grid more efficient and reliable. This work addresses an economic comparison between emerging and traditional Electric Energy Storage (EES) technologies in a competitive electricity market. In order to achieve this goal, an appropriate Self-Scheduling (SS) approach must first be developed for each of them to determine their maximum potential of expected profit among multi-markets such as energy and ancillary service markets. Then, these technologies are economically analyzed using Internal Rate of Return (IRR) index. Finally, the amounts of needed financial supports are determined for choosing the emerging technologies when an investor would like to invest on EES technologies. Among available EES technologies, we consider NaS battery (Natrium Sulfur battery) and pumped-storage plants as emerging and traditional technologies, respectively. (author)

  2. Solar thermoelectricity via advanced latent heat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, M. L.; Rea, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Hardin, C.; Oshman, C.; Vaughn, J.; Roark, T.; Raade, J. W.; Bradshaw, R. W.; Sharp, J.; Avery, A. D.; Bobela, D.; Bonner, R.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Parilla, P. A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, E. S.; Ginley, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    We report on a new modular, dispatchable, and cost-effective solar electricity-generating technology. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) integrates several state-of-the-art technologies to provide electricity on demand. In the envisioned STEALS system, concentrated sunlight is converted to heat at a solar absorber. The heat is then delivered to either a thermoelectric (TE) module for direct electricity generation, or to charge a phase change material for thermal energy storage, enabling subsequent generation during off-sun hours, or both for simultaneous electricity production and energy storage. The key to making STEALS a dispatchable technology lies in the development of a "thermal valve," which controls when heat is allowed to flow through the TE module, thus controlling when electricity is generated. The current project addresses each of the three major subcomponents, (i) the TE module, (ii) the thermal energy storage system, and (iii) the thermal valve. The project also includes system-level and techno- economic modeling of the envisioned integrated system and will culminate in the demonstration of a laboratory-scale STEALS prototype capable of generating 3kWe.

  3. Influence of wind power, plug-in electric vehicles, and heat storages on power system investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiviluoma, Juha; Meibom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Due to rising fuel costs, the substantial price for CO 2 emissions and decreasing wind power costs, wind power might become the least expensive source of power for an increasing number of power systems. This poses the questions of how wind power might change optimal investments in other forms of power production and what kind of means could be used to increase power system flexibility in order to incorporate the variable power production from wind power in a cost-effective manner. We have analysed possible effects using an investment model that combines heat and power production and simulates electric vehicles. The model runs in an hourly time scale in order to accommodate the impact of variable power production from wind power. Electric vehicles store electricity for later use and can thus serve to increase the flexibility of the power system. Flexibility can also be upgraded by using heat storages with heat from heat pumps, electric heat boilers and combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Results show that there is great potential for additional power system flexibility in the production and use of heat. (author)

  4. Temperature/electric field scaling in Ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajjaji, Abdelowahed, E-mail: Hajjaji12@gmail.co [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique et Ferroelectricite, LGEF, INSA LYON, Bat. Gustave Ferrie, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Guyomar, Daniel; Pruvost, Sebastien [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique et Ferroelectricite, LGEF, INSA LYON, Bat. Gustave Ferrie, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Touhtouh, Samira [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, LPMC, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, 24000 El-Jadida, Maroc (Morocco); Yuse, Kaori [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique et Ferroelectricite, LGEF, INSA LYON, Bat. Gustave Ferrie, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Boughaleb, Yahia [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, LPMC, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, 24000 El-Jadida, Maroc (Morocco)

    2010-07-01

    The effects of the field amplitude (E) and temperature on the polarization and their scaling relations were investigated on rhombohedral PMN-xPT ceramics. The scaling law was based on the physical symmetries of the problem and rendered it possible to express the temperature variation ({Delta}{theta}) as an electric field equivalent {Delta}E{sub eq}=({alpha}+2{beta}xP(E,{theta}{sub 0}))x{Delta}{theta}. Consequently, this was also the case for the relationship between the entropy ({Gamma}) and polarization (P). Rhombohedral Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 0.75}Ti{sub 0.25}O{sub 3} ceramics were used for the verification. It was found that such an approach permitted the prediction of the maximal working temperature, using only purely electrical measurements. It indicates that the working temperature should not exceed 333 K. This value corresponds to the temperature maximum before the dramatic decrease of piezoelectric properties. Reciprocally, the polarization behavior under electrical field can be predicted, using only purely thermal measurements. The scaling law enabled a prediction of the piezoelectric properties (for example, d{sub 31}) under an electrical field replacing the temperature variation ({Delta}{theta}) by {Delta}E/({alpha}+2{beta}xp(E,{theta}{sub 0})). Inversely, predictions of the piezoelectric properties (d{sub 31}) as a function of temperature were permitted using purely only electrical measurements.

  5. Temperature/electric field scaling in Ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjaji, Abdelowahed; Guyomar, Daniel; Pruvost, Sebastien; Touhtouh, Samira; Yuse, Kaori; Boughaleb, Yahia

    2010-01-01

    The effects of the field amplitude (E) and temperature on the polarization and their scaling relations were investigated on rhombohedral PMN-xPT ceramics. The scaling law was based on the physical symmetries of the problem and rendered it possible to express the temperature variation (Δθ) as an electric field equivalent ΔE eq =(α+2βxP(E,θ 0 ))xΔθ. Consequently, this was also the case for the relationship between the entropy (Γ) and polarization (P). Rhombohedral Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 ) 0.75 Ti 0.25 O 3 ceramics were used for the verification. It was found that such an approach permitted the prediction of the maximal working temperature, using only purely electrical measurements. It indicates that the working temperature should not exceed 333 K. This value corresponds to the temperature maximum before the dramatic decrease of piezoelectric properties. Reciprocally, the polarization behavior under electrical field can be predicted, using only purely thermal measurements. The scaling law enabled a prediction of the piezoelectric properties (for example, d 31 ) under an electrical field replacing the temperature variation (Δθ) by ΔE/(α+2βxp(E,θ 0 )). Inversely, predictions of the piezoelectric properties (d 31 ) as a function of temperature were permitted using purely only electrical measurements.

  6. Modeling, hybridization, and optimal charging of electrical energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Yasha

    The rising rate of global energy demand alongside the dwindling fossil fuel resources has motivated research for alternative and sustainable solutions. Within this area of research, electrical energy storage systems are pivotal in applications including electrified vehicles, renewable power generation, and electronic devices. The approach of this dissertation is to elucidate the bottlenecks of integrating supercapacitors and batteries in energy systems and propose solutions by the means of modeling, control, and experimental techniques. In the first step, the supercapacitor cell is modeled in order to gain fundamental understanding of its electrical and thermal dynamics. The dependence of electrical parameters on state of charge (SOC), current direction and magnitude (20-200 A), and temperatures ranging from -40°C to 60°C was embedded in this computationally efficient model. The coupled electro-thermal model was parameterized using specifically designed temporal experiments and then validated by the application of real world duty cycles. Driving range is one of the major challenges of electric vehicles compared to combustion vehicles. In order to shed light on the benefits of hybridizing a lead-acid driven electric vehicle via supercapacitors, a model was parameterized for the lead-acid battery and combined with the model already developed for the supercapacitor, to build the hybrid battery-supercapacitor model. A hardware in the loop (HIL) setup consisting of a custom built DC/DC converter, micro-controller (muC) to implement the power management strategy, 12V lead-acid battery, and a 16.2V supercapacitor module was built to perform the validation experiments. Charging electrical energy storage systems in an efficient and quick manner, motivated to solve an optimal control problem with the objective of maximizing the charging efficiency for supercapacitors, lead-acid, and lithium ion batteries. Pontryagins minimum principle was used to solve the problems

  7. Potential of osmosis for power generation and storage of electricity; Potentiale der Osmose zur Erzeugung und Speicherung von Elektrizitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Salinity gradient energy is released during the mixing process of two solutions with different solute concentrations. With osmotic power plants it is possible to convert salinity gradient energy into electrical energy. Considering the mixing of river and ocean water, this form of energy belongs to the renewable energy sources and is to far unexploited to a large extend. This thesis presents a detailed assessment of possible fields of applications for osmotic power plants under system-analytical considerations. Beside the classical operation with river and ocean water, alternative applications and different power plant configurations are analysed. Focus of this thesis is the description of technical fundamentals, the assessment of the potential and the economics of this technology. As a result of the potential analysis for osmotic power plants in operation with river and ocean water the ecological potential on a worldwide basis sums up to 65 GW{sub el} resp. 518 TWh{sub el}/a. According to the worldwide use of electrical energy the maximum contribution of osmotic power plants would be approx. 3,1% of the worldwide electrical energy consumption. The ecological potential for Germany is calculated to 42 MW{sub el} resp. 333 GWh{sub el}/a. The costs for generating electricity of osmotic power plants operating with river (fresh) and ocean (salt) water are very site specific. Assuming suitable site conditions, the costs for generating electricity for an osmotic power plant with an installed capacity of 4 MW{sub el} are calculated to approx. 28 ct/kWh. The specific investment costs are in the range of 22.000 Euro/kW{sub el}. Potential alternative applications of osmotic power plants are present at high concentration waste streams (e.g. direct discharge of industrial waste water, mining solutions) or at salt lakes. At these sites, costs for generating elastricity in the range of approx. 5 to 10 ct/kWh are possible for large scale osmotic power plants. Overall, the amount of

  8. Electricity storages - optimised operation based on spot market prices; Stromspeicher. Optimierte Fahrweise auf Basis der Spotmarktpreise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, Dominik; Roon, Serafin von [FfE Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    With its integrated energy and climate package the last federal government set itself ambitious goals for the improvement of energy efficiency and growth of renewable energy production. These goals were confirmed by the new government in its coalition agreement. However, they can only be realised if the supply of electricity from fluctuating renewable sources can be made to coincide with electricity demand. Electricity storages are therefore an indispensable component of the future energy supply system. This article studies the optimised operation of an electricity storage based on spot market prices and the influence of wind power production up to the year 2020.

  9. Thermal analysis of near-isothermal compressed gas energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odukomaiya, Adewale; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R.; Abdelaziz, Omar; Jackson, Roderick K.; Daniel, Claus; Graham, Samuel; Momen, Ayyoub M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel, high-efficiency, scalable, near-isothermal, energy storage system is introduced. • A comprehensive analytical physics-based model for the system is presented. • Efficiency improvement is achieved via heat transfer enhancement and use of waste heat. • Energy storage roundtrip efficiency (RTE) of 82% and energy density of 3.59 MJ/m"3 is shown. - Abstract: Due to the increasing generation capacity of intermittent renewable electricity sources and an electrical grid ill-equipped to handle the mismatch between electricity generation and use, the need for advanced energy storage technologies will continue to grow. Currently, pumped-storage hydroelectricity and compressed air energy storage are used for grid-scale energy storage, and batteries are used at smaller scales. However, prospects for expansion of these technologies suffer from geographic limitations (pumped-storage hydroelectricity and compressed air energy storage), low roundtrip efficiency (compressed air energy storage), and high cost (batteries). Furthermore, pumped-storage hydroelectricity and compressed air energy storage are challenging to scale-down, while batteries are challenging to scale-up. In 2015, a novel compressed gas energy storage prototype system was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this paper, a near-isothermal modification to the system is proposed. In common with compressed air energy storage, the novel storage technology described in this paper is based on air compression/expansion. However, several novel features lead to near-isothermal processes, higher efficiency, greater system scalability, and the ability to site a system anywhere. The enabling features are utilization of hydraulic machines for expansion/compression, above-ground pressure vessels as the storage medium, spray cooling/heating, and waste-heat utilization. The base configuration of the novel storage system was introduced in a previous paper. This paper describes the results

  10. Energy recovery storage systems in electrical vehicles with batteries; Tecnicas de armazenamiento de energia em veiculos electricos a baterias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, M.; Maia, J.; Foito, D.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper are presented three energy recovery storage systems that can be used in electrical vehicles with batteries. The first storage system uses ultra capacitors that is electrical energy storage, the second system is based on superconductivity magnetic storage, and the third system uses on kinetic energy stored in flywheels. It is also presented the power electronics needed to perform the energy systems. (Author)

  11. Economic Dispatch of Electric Energy Storage with Multi-service Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a generic optimization model that explores the difficulty met by Electric Energy Storage (EES) systems when economic dispatch for multiple-service provision is requested. Such a model is further used to investigate the economic performance of an EES system which meets the 10...

  12. Baseload, industrial-scale wind power: An alternative to coal in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.J.; Williams, R.H. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Xie Shaoxiong; Zhang Shihui [Ministry of Electric Power, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This report presents a novel strategy for developing wind power on an industrial-scale in China. Oversized wind farms, large-scale electrical storage and long-distance transmission lines are integrated to deliver {open_quotes}baseload wind power{close_quotes} to distant electricity demand centers. The prospective costs for this approach to developing wind power are illustrated by modeling an oversized wind farm at Huitengxile, Inner Mongolia. Although storage adds to the total capital investment, it does not necessarily increase the cost of the delivered electricity. Storage makes it possible to increase the capacity factor of the electric transmission system, so that the unit cost for long-distance transmission is reduced. Moreover, baseload wind power is typically more valuable to the electric utility than intermittent wind power, so that storage can be economically attractive even in instances where the cost per kWh is somewhat higher than without storage. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. A Review of Energy Storage Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2010-01-01

    A brief examination into the energy storage techniques currently available for the integration of fluctuating renewable energy was carried out. These included Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage (PHES), Underground Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage (UPHES), Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES...... than PHES depending on the availability of suitable sites. FBES could also be utilised in the future for the integration of wind, but it may not have the scale required to exist along with electric vehicles. The remaining technologies will most likely be used for their current applications...

  14. Ice Storage Air-Conditioning System Simulation with Dynamic Electricity Pricing: A Demand Response Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chun Lo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal dispatch model of an ice storage air-conditioning system for participants to quickly and accurately perform energy saving and demand response, and to avoid the over contact with electricity price peak. The schedule planning for an ice storage air-conditioning system of demand response is mainly to transfer energy consumption from the peak load to the partial-peak or off-peak load. Least Squares Regression (LSR is used to obtain the polynomial function for the cooling capacity and the cost of power consumption with a real ice storage air-conditioning system. Based on the dynamic electricity pricing, the requirements of cooling loads, and all technical constraints, the dispatch model of the ice-storage air-conditioning system is formulated to minimize the operation cost. The Improved Ripple Bee Swarm Optimization (IRBSO algorithm is proposed to solve the dispatch model of the ice storage air-conditioning system in a daily schedule on summer. Simulation results indicate that reasonable solutions provide a practical and flexible framework allowing the demand response of ice storage air-conditioning systems to demonstrate the optimization of its energy savings and operational efficiency and offering greater energy efficiency.

  15. New method of measuring electric dipole moments in storage rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farley, FJM; Jungmann, K; Miller, JP; Morse, WM; Orlov, YF; Roberts, BL; Semertzidis, YK; Silenko, A; Stephenson, EJ

    2004-01-01

    A new highly sensitive method of looking for electric dipole moments of charged particles in storage rings is described. The major systematic errors inherent in the method are addressed and ways to minimize them are suggested. It seems possible to measure the muon EDM to levels that test speculative

  16. Evaluation of the use of on-board spacecraft energy storage for electric propulsion missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Palmer, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    On-board spacecraft energy storage represents an under utilized resource for some types of missions that also benefit from using relatively high specific impulse capability of electric propulsion. This resource can provide an appreciable fraction of the power required for operating the electric propulsion subsystem in some missions. The most probable mission requirement for utilization of this energy is that of geostationary satellites which have secondary batteries for operating at high power levels during eclipse. The study summarized in this report selected four examples of missions that could benefit from use of electric propulsion and on-board energy storage. Engineering analyses were performed to evaluate the mass saved and economic benefit expected when electric propulsion and on-board batteries perform some propulsion maneuvers that would conventionally be provided by chemical propulsion. For a given payload mass in geosynchronous orbit, use of electric propulsion in this manner typically provides a 10% reduction in spacecraft mass.

  17. Large-Scale Multifunctional Electrochromic-Energy Storage Device Based on Tungsten Trioxide Monohydrate Nanosheets and Prussian White.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhijie; Li, Xiaomin; Chen, Yongbo; He, Xiaoli; Xu, Xiaoke; Gao, Xiangdong

    2017-09-06

    A high-performance electrochromic-energy storage device (EESD) is developed, which successfully realizes the multifunctional combination of electrochromism and energy storage by constructing tungsten trioxide monohydrate (WO 3 ·H 2 O) nanosheets and Prussian white (PW) film as asymmetric electrodes. The EESD presents excellent electrochromic properties of broad optical modulation (61.7%), ultrafast response speed (1.84/1.95 s), and great coloration efficiency (139.4 cm 2 C -1 ). In particular, remarkable cyclic stability (sustaining 82.5% of its initial optical modulation after 2500 cycles as an electrochromic device, almost fully maintaining its capacitance after 1000 cycles as an energy storage device) is achieved. The EESD is also able to visually detect the energy storage level via reversible and fast color changes. Moreover, the EESD can be combined with commercial solar cells to constitute an intelligent operating system in the architectures, which would realize the adjustment of indoor sunlight and the improvement of physical comfort totally by the rational utilization of solar energy without additional electricity. Besides, a scaled-up EESD (10 × 11 cm 2 ) is further fabricated as a prototype. Such promising EESD shows huge potential in practically serving as electrochromic smart windows and energy storage devices.

  18. Using MRI devices for the energy storage purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Molokáč

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known, that the electrical energy storage in the large scale is basically a difficult process. Such a process is connected with energy losses, as most frequently it is the conversion of electrical energy into another form, for example mechanical, and then back to the primal electrical form. Though, the SMES technology offers the energy storage in an unchanged form, which is advantageous primarily in the achieved efficiency. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI devices, commonly used in the medical facilities are based on the basis of superconducting magnet. After its rejection from operation, (basically caused only by its „software fustiness“ and not by functional faults, there is a possibility of using such devices for the energy storage purposes. Additionally, such a technology of storage is also ecological. A research project is running at the Faculty of Mining, Ecology, Process Control and Geotechnologies (F BERG, the Department of Business and Management, in the field of using rejected MRI for energy storage purposes.

  19. The storage of electric energy: an unavoidable dimension of energy transition. Opinion of the Economic, Social and Environmental Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obadia, Alain

    2015-01-01

    After a brief synthesis, the opinion of the Council is stated. It presents the main objectives of the storage of electric energy, its main physical-chemical principles and the available technologies (gravity, compressed air energy storage, electrochemical, thermal, electric, and inertial storage), and the three main techniques: pumped-storage hydroelectricity, batteries, hydrogen. Global assessment and recommendations are discussed, notably in terms of economic and financial consequences, but also in terms of technological choices, research and development, local development, industrial cooperation, and legal framework. Appendices notably present in detail the different technologies, the operation of the electric grid in France and Europe, and some experiments

  20. Preparatory study of energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stortelder, B.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Based on a literature survey, information from other institutes and interviews with KEMA-experts a state of the art is given of small-scale, medium-scale and large-scale energy storage systems. The results of the survey can be used to optimize the electric power supply. Attention is paid to the criteria capacity, efficiency, dynamic performance, economic aspects and the environmental impacts

  1. An Empirical Model for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosewater, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scott, Paul [TransPower, Poway, CA (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Improved models of energy storage systems are needed to enable the electric grid’s adaptation to increasing penetration of renewables. This paper develops a generic empirical model of energy storage system performance agnostic of type, chemistry, design or scale. Parameters for this model are calculated using test procedures adapted from the US DOE Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage. We then assess the accuracy of this model for predicting the performance of the TransPower GridSaver – a 1 MW rated lithium-ion battery system that underwent laboratory experimentation and analysis. The developed model predicts a range of energy storage system performance based on the uncertainty of estimated model parameters. Finally, this model can be used to better understand the integration and coordination of energy storage on the electric grid.

  2. Bidding strategy for pumped-storage plant in pool-based electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanakasabapathy, P.; Shanti Swarup, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops optimal bidding strategies for a pumped-storage plant in a pool-based electricity market. In the competitive regime, when compared to simple hydroelectric generator, profit of the pumped-storage plant is maximized by operating it as a generator when market clearing price is high and as a pump when the price is low. Based on forecasted hourly market clearing price, a multistage looping algorithm to maximize the profit of a pumped-storage plant is developed, considering both the spinning and non-spinning reserve bids and meeting the technical operating constraints of the plant. The proposed model is adaptive for the nonlinear three-dimensional relationship between the power produced, the energy stored, and the head of the associated reservoir. Different operating cycles for a realistic pumped-storage plant are considered and simulation results are reported and compared. (author)

  3. The viability of balancing wind generation with large scale energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamdash, Batsaikhan; Denny, Eleanor; O'Malley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of combining wind generation and dedicated large scale energy storage on the conventional thermal plant mix and the CO 2 emissions of a power system. Different strategies are proposed here in order to explore the best operational strategy for the wind and storage system in terms of its effect on the net load. Furthermore, the economic viability of combining wind and large scale storage is studied. The empirical application, using data for the Irish power system, shows that combined wind and storage reduces the participation of mid-merit plants and increases the participation of base-load plants. Moreover, storage negates some of the CO 2 emissions reduction of the wind generation. It was also found that the wind and storage output can significantly reduce the variability of the net load under certain operational strategies and the optimal strategy depends on the installed wind capacity. However, in the absence of any supporting mechanism none of the storage devices were economically viable when they were combined with the wind generation on the Irish power system. - Research Highlights: → Energy storage would displace the peaking and mid-merit plants generations by the base-load plants generations. Energy storage may negate the CO 2 emissions reduction that is due to the increased wind generations. →Energy storage reduces the variation of the net load. →Under certain market conditions, merchant type energy storage is not viable.

  4. Chemical storage of renewable electricity in hydrocarbon fuels via H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilers, H.; Iglesias Gonzalez, M.; Schaub, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Institute I

    2012-07-01

    The increased generation of renewable electricity leads to an increasing demand for storage due to its fluctuating production. Electrical energy can be stored as chemical energy carriers e.g. in form of H{sub 2} that can be further processed to hydrocarbons. Storage in form of hydrocarbons is advantageous compared to H{sub 2} storage since (i) a higher volumetric energy density in the product can be achieved and (ii) the infrastructure for hydrocarbon distribution, storage and utilization already exists. The present contribution introduces the potential of H{sub 2} integration in upgrading/production processes to hydrocarbon fuels, based on stoichiometry and kind of carbon feedstock. Processes include petroleum refining, vegetable oil hydrogenation, production of synfuel from lignocellulosic biomass and substitute natural gas from H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}. In the case of fossil raw materials, yields per feedstock can be increased and fossil CO{sub 2} emissions decreased since fossil resources for H{sub 2} production can be avoided. In the case of biomass conversion to synfuels, product yields per biomass/hectare can be increased. If CO{sub 2} is hydrogenated to fuels, no gasification step is needed, however lower hydrocarbon product yields per H{sub 2} are achieved since CO{sub 2} has the highest oxygen content. (orig.)

  5. Combining hybrid cars and synthetic fuels with electricity generation and carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, Oscar van; Broek, Machteld van den; Turkenburg, Wim; Faaij, Andre

    2011-01-01

    We examined the co-evolution of the transportation, and electricity and heat generation sectors in the Netherlands until 2040 using a MARKAL bottom-up cost optimisation model. All scenario variants investigated indicate a switch away from crude oil-based diesel and petrol for transportation. Lowest overall CO 2 abatement cost is achieved by accommodating transportation first and using relatively expensive options for emissions reduction in electricity generation if needed. Biomass and carbon capture and storage (CCS) are used to full potential. Transportation CO 2 emissions are reduced by switching to ethanol or bio-based synthetic fuels combined with CCS, and series hybrid cars if needed. Depending on the availability of biomass and carbon storage capacity, electricity is produced from biomass, coal with CCS, or wind complemented with natural gas. Indirect greenhouse gas emissions rise to 34-54% of national emissions in 2040. The difference in annual investment required between the scenario variants with and without CO 2 emissions reductions of 68% by 2040 is 4-7 billion euro/year, or 0.5-1.2% of projected GDP. Investment costs are mostly determined by the cost of cars and electricity generation capacity. We observe competition for limited biomass supply and CO 2 storage capacity between the transportation and power sectors.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of a liquid air energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizzi, Giuseppe Leo; Manno, Michele; Tolomei, Ludovica Maria; Vitali, Ruggero Maria

    2015-01-01

    The rapid increase in the share of electricity generation from renewable energy sources is having a profound impact on the power sector; one of the most relevant effects of this trend is the increased importance of energy storage systems, which can be used to smooth out peaks and troughs of production from renewable energy sources. Besides their role in balancing the electric grid, energy storage systems may provide also several other useful services, such as price arbitrage, stabilizing conventional generation, etc.; therefore, it is not surprising that many research projects are under way in order to explore the potentials of new technologies for electric energy storage. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of a cryogenic energy storage system, based on air liquefaction and storage in an insulated vessel. This technology is attractive thanks to its independence from geographical constraints and because it can be scaled up easily to grid-scale ratings, but it is affected by a low round-trip efficiency due to the energy intensive process of air liquefaction. The present work aims to assess the efficiency of such a system and to identify if and how it can achieve an acceptable round-trip efficiency (in the order of 50–60%).

  7. Assessment of high temperature nuclear energy storage systems for the production of intermediate and peak-load electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, E.C.; Fuller, L.C.; Silverman, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    Increased cost of energy, depletion of domestic supplies of oil and natural gas, and dependence on foreign suppliers, have led to an investigation of energy storage as a means to displace the use of oil and gas presently being used to generate intermediate and peak-load electricity. Dedicated nuclear thermal energy storage is investigated as a possible alternative. An evaluation of thermal storage systems is made for several reactor concepts and economic comparisons are presented with conventional storage and peak power producing systems. It is concluded that dedicated nuclear storage has a small but possible useful role in providing intermediate and peak-load electric power

  8. Biogas infrastructure from farm-scale to regional scale, line-pack storage in biogas grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, Evert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Biogas infrastructure from farm-scale to regional scale, line-pack storage in biogas grids. The number of local and regional initiatives encouraging the production and use of regional produced energy grows. In these new developments biogas can play a role, as a producer of energy, but also in

  9. Techno-economic assessment of the need for bulk energy storage in low-carbon electricity systems with a focus on compressed air storage (CAES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei Mohamadabadi, Hossein

    Increasing electrification of the economy while decarbonizing the electricity supply is among the most effective strategies for cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in order to abate climate change. This thesis offers insights into the role of bulk energy storage (BES) systems to cut GHG emissions from the electricity sector. Wind and solar energies can supply large volumes of low-carbon electricity. Nevertheless, large penetration of these resources poses serious reliability concerns to the grid, mainly because of their intermittency. This thesis evaluates the performance of BES systems - especially compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology - for integration of wind energy from engineering and economic aspects. Analytical thermodynamic analysis of Distributed CAES (D-CAES) and Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES) suggest high roundtrip storage efficiencies ( 80% and 70%) compared to conventional CAES ( 50%). Using hydrogen to fuel CAES plants - instead of natural gas - yields a low overall efficiency ( 35%), despite its negligible GHG emissions. The techno-economic study of D-CAES shows that exporting compression heat to low-temperature loads (e.g. space heating) can enhance both the economic and emissions performance of compressed air storage plants. A case study for Alberta, Canada reveals that the abatement cost of replacing a conventional CAES with D-CAES plant practicing electricity arbitrage can be negative (-$40 per tCO2e, when the heat load is 50 km away from the air storage site). A green-field simulation finds that reducing the capital cost of BES - even drastically below current levels - does not substantially impact the cost of low-carbon electricity. At a 70% reduction in the GHG emissions intensity of the grid, gas turbines remain three times more cost-efficient in managing the wind variability compared to BES (in the best case and with a 15-minute resolution). Wind and solar thus, do not need to wait for availability of cheap BES systems to cost

  10. Subcooled compressed air energy storage system for coproduction of heat, cooling and electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabkoohsar, A.; Dremark-Larsen, M.; Lorentzen, R.; Andresen, G.B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A new configuration of compressed air energy storage system is proposed and analyzed. •This system, so-called subcooled-CAES, offers cogeneration of electricity, heat and cooling. •A pseudo-dynamic energy, exergy and economic analysis of the system for an entire year is presented. •The annual power, cooling and heat efficiencies of the system are around 31%, 32% and 92%. •The overall energy and exergy performance coefficients of the system are 1.55 and 0.48, respectively. -- Abstract: Various configurations of compressed air energy storage technology have received attention over the last years due to the advantages that this technology offers relative to other power storage technologies. This work proposes a new configuration of this technology aiming at cogeneration of electricity, heat and cooling. The new system may be very advantageous for locations with high penetration of renewable energy in the electricity grid as well as high heating and cooling demands. The latter would typically be locations with district heating and cooling networks. A thorough design, sizing and thermodynamic analysis of the system for a typical wind farm with 300 MW capacity in Denmark is presented. The results show a great potential of the system to support the local district heating and cooling networks and reserve services in electricity market. The values of power-to-power, power-to-cooling and power-to-heat efficiencies of this system are 30.6%, 32.3% and 92.4%, respectively. The exergy efficiency values are 30.6%, 2.5% and 14.4% for power, cooling and heat productions. A techno-economic comparison of this system with two of the most efficient previous designs of compressed air energy storage system proves the firm superiority of the new concept.

  11. Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Finn, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, three practical operation strategies (24Optimal, 24Prognostic, and 24Hsitrocial) are compared to the optimum profit feasible for a PHES facility with a 360 MW pump, 300 MW turbine, and a 2 GWh storage utilising price arbitrage on 13 electricity spot markets. The results indicate...... that almost all (not, vert, similar97%) of the profits can be obtained by a PHES facility when it is optimised using the 24Optimal strategy developed, which optimises the energy storage based on the day-ahead electricity prices. However, to maximise profits with the 24Optimal strategy, the day......-ahead electricity prices must be the actual prices which the PHES facility is charged or the PHES operator must have very accurate price predictions. Otherwise, the predicted profit could be significantly reduced and even become a loss. Finally, using the 24Optimal strategy, the PHES profit can surpass the annual...

  12. Grid-tied photovoltaic and battery storage systems with Malaysian electricity tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subramani, Gopinath; Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K.; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar

    2017-01-01

    Under the current energy sector framework of electricity tariff in Malaysia, commercial and industrial customers are required to pay the maximum demand (MD) charge apart from the net consumption charges every month. The maximum demand charge will contribute up to 20% of the electricity bill......, and will hence result in commercial and industrial customers focussing on alternative energy supply to minimize the billing cost. This paper aims to review the technical assessment methods of a grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV)-battery storage system-with respect to maximum demand shaving. An effective......, technical, and economic aspects of the solar PV-battery system and the Malaysian electricity tariff for commercial and industrial customers....

  13. University of Arizona Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Joseph [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Muralidharan, Krishna [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2012-12-31

    Boiled down to its essentials, the grant’s purpose was to develop and demonstrate the viability of compressed air energy storage (CAES) for use in renewable energy development. While everyone agrees that energy storage is the key component to enable widespread adoption of renewable energy sources, the development of a viable scalable technology has been missing. The Department of Energy has focused on expanded battery research and improved forecasting, and the utilities have deployed renewable energy resources only to the extent of satisfying Renewable Portfolio Standards. The lack of dispatchability of solar and wind-based electricity generation has drastically increased the cost of operation with these components. It is now clear that energy storage coupled with accurate solar and wind forecasting make up the only combination that can succeed in dispatchable renewable energy resources. Conventional batteries scale linearly in size, so the price becomes a barrier for large systems. Flow batteries scale sub-linearly and promise to be useful if their performance can be shown to provide sufficient support for solar and wind-base electricity generation resources. Compressed air energy storage provides the most desirable answer in terms of scalability and performance in all areas except efficiency. With the support of the DOE, Tucson Electric Power and Science Foundation Arizona, the Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy (AzRISE) at the University of Arizona has had the opportunity to investigate CAES as a potential energy storage resource.

  14. A chemistry and material perspective on lithium redox flow batteries towards high-density electrical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yu; Li, Yutao; Peng, Lele; Byon, Hye Ryung; Goodenough, John B; Yu, Guihua

    2015-11-21

    Electrical energy storage system such as secondary batteries is the principle power source for portable electronics, electric vehicles and stationary energy storage. As an emerging battery technology, Li-redox flow batteries inherit the advantageous features of modular design of conventional redox flow batteries and high voltage and energy efficiency of Li-ion batteries, showing great promise as efficient electrical energy storage system in transportation, commercial, and residential applications. The chemistry of lithium redox flow batteries with aqueous or non-aqueous electrolyte enables widened electrochemical potential window thus may provide much greater energy density and efficiency than conventional redox flow batteries based on proton chemistry. This Review summarizes the design rationale, fundamentals and characterization of Li-redox flow batteries from a chemistry and material perspective, with particular emphasis on the new chemistries and materials. The latest advances and associated challenges/opportunities are comprehensively discussed.

  15. Evaluating the benefits of an electrical energy storage system in a future smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, N.S.; Taylor, P.C.; Lang, P.D.; Jones, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    Interest in electrical energy storage systems is increasing as the opportunities for their application become more compelling in an industry with a back-drop of ageing assets, increasing distributed generation and a desire to transform networks into Smart Grids. A field trial of an energy storage system designed and built by ABB is taking place on a section of 11 kV distribution network operated by EDF Energy Networks in Great Britain. This paper reports on the findings from simulation software developed at Durham University that evaluates the benefits brought by operating an energy storage system in response to multiple events on multiple networks. The tool manages the allocation of a finite energy resource to achieve the most beneficial shared operation across two adjacent areas of distribution network. Simulations account for the key energy storage system parameters of capacity and power rating. Results for events requiring voltage control and power flow management show how the choice of operating strategy influences the benefits achieved. The wider implications of these results are discussed to provide an assessment of the role of electrical energy storage systems in future Smart Grids.

  16. Agent-based model for electricity consumption and storage to evaluate economic viability of tariff arbitrage for residential sector demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Menglian; Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Storage-based demand response (loadshifting) is underutilized in residential sector. • Economics (arbitrage savings versus equipment cost) are not well understood. • Stochastic demand models and real-life tariffs can illuminate economic viability. • A range of available storage options provide economically viable DR. • Daily/seasonal stochastic demand variations crucial to understanding optimum capacity. - Abstract: Demand response (DR) is one of many approaches to address temporal mismatches in demand and supply of grid electricity. More common in the commercial sector, DR usually refers to reducing consumption at certain hours or seasons, thus reducing peak demand from the grid. In the residential sector, where sophisticated appliance-level controls such as automatic dimming of lights or on-demand lowering of air conditioning are less common, building-based electricity storage to shift grid consumption from peak to off-peak times could provide DR without requiring consumers to operate their appliances on shifted or reduced schedules: Storage would be dispatched to appliances as needed while still shaving peaks on the grid. Technologically, storage and two-way-inverters are readily available to enable such residential DR. Economically, however, the situation is less clear. Specifically, are time-varying electricity tariffs available such that electricity cost reduction via arbitrage could offset manufacturing, financing, and installation costs of the required storage? To address this question we (i) devise an agent-based appliance-level stochastic model to simulate the electricity demand of an average U.S. household; (ii) loadshift the demand via simple dispatch strategies; and (iii) determine potential profits to the building owner, i.e. reduced electricity cost of the modified demand with realistic tariffs (Con Edison, NY) minus storage cost. We determine the economic viability for a range of traditional and advanced storage technologies

  17. Least cost, utility scale abatement from Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market). Part 2: Scenarios and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brear, M.J.; Jeppesen, M.; Chattopadhyay, D.; Manzie, C.; Alpcan, T.; Dargaville, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the second of a two part study that considers least cost, greenhouse gas abatement pathways for an electricity system. Part 1 of this study formulated a model for determining these abatement pathways, and applied this model to Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market) for a single reference scenario. Part 2 of this study applies this model to different scenarios and considers the policy implications. These include cases where nuclear power generation and CCS (carbon capture and storage) are implemented in Australia, which is presently not the case, as well as a more detailed examination of how an extended, RPS (renewable portfolio standard) might perform. The effect of future fuel costs and different discount rates are also examined. Several results from this study are thought to be significant. Most importantly, this study suggests that Australia already has utility scale technologies, renewable and non-renewable resources, an electricity market design and an abatement policy that permit continued progress towards deep greenhouse gas abatement in its electricity sector. In particular, a RPS (renewable portfolio standard) appears to be close to optimal as a greenhouse gas abatement policy for Australia's electricity sector for at least the next 10–15 years. - Highlights: • Considers scenarios and policy implications for Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market). • An extended form of RPS (renewable portfolio standard) appears near optimal until roughly 2030. • For up to 80% abatement, the inclusion of nuclear achieves only marginal benefit by 2050. • CCS (Carbon capture and storage) does not appear competitive with current cost estimates.

  18. Real option valuation of a decremental regulation service provided by electricity storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Dávid Zoltán; Martyr, Randall

    2017-08-13

    This paper is a quantitative study of a reserve contract for real-time balancing of a power system. Under this contract, the owner of a storage device, such as a battery, helps smooth fluctuations in electricity demand and supply by using the device to increase electricity consumption. The battery owner must be able to provide immediate physical cover, and should therefore have sufficient storage available in the battery before entering the contract. Accordingly, the following problem can be formulated for the battery owner: determine the optimal time to enter the contract and, if necessary, the optimal time to discharge electricity before entering the contract. This problem is formulated as one of optimal stopping, and is solved explicitly in terms of the model parameters and instantaneous values of the power system imbalance. The optimal operational strategies thus obtained ensure that the battery owner has positive expected economic profit from the contract. Furthermore, they provide explicit conditions under which the optimal discharge time is consistent with the overall objective of power system balancing. This paper also carries out a preliminary investigation of the 'lifetime value' aggregated from an infinite sequence of these balancing reserve contracts. This lifetime value, which can be viewed as a single project valuation of the battery, is shown to be positive and bounded. Therefore, in the long run such reserve contracts can be beneficial to commercial operators of electricity storage, while reducing some of the financial and operational risks in power system balancing.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Large-scale integration of renewable energy into international electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    has lead to excess electricity production and thus low prices on the Nord Pool electricity market. This paper describes how such problems can be avoided by the introduction of flexible energy systems including changes in the regulation of power plants and investments in heat pumps and heat storage...... it possible for the system to secure a balance between supply and demand. At the same time most European electricity systems are in the process of being transformed into competitive electricity markets. Already today, the annual share of wind power in the western part of Denmark is nearly 20 percent, which...

  20. A Simple Operating Strategy of Small-Scale Battery Energy Storages for Energy Arbitrage under Dynamic Pricing Tariffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Telaretti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Price arbitrage involves taking advantage of an electricity price difference, storing electricity during low-prices times, and selling it back to the grid during high-prices periods. This strategy can be exploited by customers in presence of dynamic pricing schemes, such as hourly electricity prices, where the customer electricity cost may vary at any hour of day, and power consumption can be managed in a more flexible and economical manner, taking advantage of the price differential. Instead of modifying their energy consumption, customers can install storage systems to reduce their electricity bill, shifting the energy consumption from on-peak to off-peak hours. This paper develops a detailed storage model linking together technical, economic and electricity market parameters. The proposed operating strategy aims to maximize the profit of the storage owner (electricity customer under simplifying assumptions, by determining the optimal charge/discharge schedule. The model can be applied to several kinds of storages, although the simulations refer to three kinds of batteries: lead-acid, lithium-ion (Li-ion and sodium-sulfur (NaS batteries. Unlike literature reviews, often requiring an estimate of the end-user load profile, the proposed operation strategy is able to properly identify the battery-charging schedule, relying only on the hourly price profile, regardless of the specific facility’s consumption, thanks to some simplifying assumptions in the sizing and the operation of the battery. This could be particularly useful when the customer load profile cannot be scheduled with sufficient reliability, because of the uncertainty inherent in load forecasting. The motivation behind this research is that storage devices can help to lower the average electricity prices, increasing flexibility and fostering the integration of renewable sources into the power system.

  1. Thermal Energy Storage for Building Load Management: Application to Electrically Heated Floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Thieblemont

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In cold climates, electrical power demand for space conditioning becomes a critical issue for utility companies during certain periods of the day. Shifting a portion or all of it to off-peak periods can help reduce peak demand and reduce stress on the electrical grid. Sensible thermal energy storage (TES systems, and particularly electrically heated floors (EHF, can store thermal energy in buildings during the off-peak periods and release it during the peak periods while maintaining occupants’ thermal comfort. However, choosing the type of storage system and/or its configuration may be difficult. In this paper, the performance of an EHF for load management is studied. First, a methodology is developed to integrate EHF in TRNSYS program in order to investigate the impact of floor assembly on the EHF performance. Then, the thermal comfort (TC of the night-running EHF is studied. Finally, indicators are defined, allowing the comparison of different EHF. Results show that an EHF is able to shift 84% of building loads to the night while maintaining acceptable TC in cold climate. Moreover, this system is able to provide savings for the customer and supplier if there is a significant difference between off-peak and peak period electricity prices.

  2. Role of storage technologies to integrate high shares of renewable electricity generation into the electricity system of Germany. Simulation and optimization; Rolle und Bedeutung der Stromspeicher bei hohen Anteilen erneuerbarer Energien in Deutschland. Speichersimulation und Betriebsoptimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Niklas

    2013-06-13

    The share of renewable electricity generation of gross electricity consumption in Germany increased from 6.8 % to about 20 % during the years of 2000 and 2011. This share will increase even more in the future. The greater part of the renewable electricity generation is characterized by significant fluctuations, which can only be planned to a limited extent. Hence, the electricity system in Germany faces the challenge to integrate an increasing amount of fluctuating renewable electricity generation. Additionally the system stability needs to be ensured, despite a decreasing capacity in conventional power plants. One option to support the integration of large amounts of renewable electricity generation and to enhance system stability is the deployment of storage technologies. The aim of this research was to analyze the role of storage technologies to integrate high shares of renewable electricity generation into the electricity system of Germany. To achieve this aim, adiabatic compressed air energy storage, diabatic compressed air energy storage and mobile battery storage systems were simulated and compared with a pumped hydro storage as the reference storage system. Key characteristics of these storage systems were modeled within a fundamental stochastic unit commitment model of the German power markets (Joint-Market-Model) in order to analyze the effect of the implementation of these storage systems on the overall cost of the electricity system. Additionally, the operation of the storages in an electricity system with high shares of renewable energy was evaluated. The results show that the integration of large shares of renewable electricity generation into the grid can only be achieved with a substantial implementation of storage systems. To integrate 50 % of renewable energy, a storage power of 27 GW and storage capacity of 245 GWh is needed. For a renewable energy share of 80 %, a storage power of 78 GW and a storage capacity of 6.3 TWh are necessary. A 100

  3. Practical aspects of the use of three-phase alternating current electric machines in electricity storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucur, Violeta

    2015-02-01

    Of three-phase alternating current electric machines, it brings into question which of them is more advantageous to be used in electrical energy storage system by pumping water. The two major categories among which are given dispute are synchronous and the asynchronous machine. To consider the synchronous machine with permanent magnet configuration because it brings advantages compared with conventional synchronous machine, first by removing the necessary additional excitation winding. From the point of view of loss of the two types of machines, the optimal adjustment of the magnetic flux density is obtained to minimize the copper loss by hysteresis and eddy currents.

  4. Conceptual design of a thermo-electrical energy storage system based on heat integration of thermodynamic cycles – Part A: Methodology and base case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morandin, Matteo; Maréchal, François; Mercangöz, Mehmet; Buchter, Florian

    2012-01-01

    The interest in large scale electricity storage (ES) with discharging time longer than 1 h and nominal power greater than 1 MW, is increasing worldwide as the increasing share of renewable energy, typically solar and wind energy, imposes severe load management issues. Thermo-electrical energy storage (TEES) based on thermodynamic cycles is currently under investigation at ABB corporate research as an alternative solution to pump hydro and compressed air energy storage. TEES is based on the conversion of electricity into thermal energy during charge by means of a heat pump and on the conversion of thermal energy into electricity during discharge by means of a thermal engine. The synthesis and the thermodynamic optimization of a TEES system based on hot water, ice storage and transcritical CO 2 cycles, is discussed in two papers. In this first paper a methodology for the conceptual design of a TEES system based on the analysis of the thermal integration between charging and discharging cycles through Pinch Analysis tools is introduced. According to such methodology, the heat exchanger network and temperatures and volumes of storage tanks are not defined a priori but are determined after the cycle parameters are optimized. For this purpose a heuristic procedure based on the interpretation of the composite curves obtained by optimizing the thermal integration between the cycles was developed. Such heuristic rules were implemented in a code that allows finding automatically the complete system design for given values of the intensive parameters of the charging and discharging cycles only. A base case system configuration is introduced and the results of its thermodynamic optimization are discussed here. A maximum roundtrip efficiency of 60% was obtained for the base case configuration assuming turbomachinery and heat exchanger performances in line with indications from manufacturers. -- Highlights: ► Energy storage based on water, ice, and transcritical CO 2 cycles is

  5. State-scale evaluation of renewable electricity policy: The role of renewable electricity credits and carbon taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Todd; Thomas, Valerie M.; Lee, Audrey J.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a state-scale version of the MARKAL energy optimization model, commonly used to model energy policy at the US national scale and internationally. We apply the model to address state-scale impacts of a renewable electricity standard (RES) and a carbon tax in one southeastern state, Georgia. Biomass is the lowest cost option for large-scale renewable generation in Georgia; we find that electricity can be generated from biomass co-firing at existing coal plants for a marginal cost above baseline of 0.2-2.2 cents/kWh and from dedicated biomass facilities for 3.0-5.5 cents/kWh above baseline. We evaluate the cost and amount of renewable electricity that would be produced in-state and the amount of out-of-state renewable electricity credits (RECs) that would be purchased as a function of the REC price. We find that in Georgia, a constant carbon tax to 2030 primarily promotes a shift from coal to natural gas and does not result in substantial renewable electricity generation. We also find that the option to offset a RES with renewable electricity credits would push renewable investment out-of-state. The tradeoff for keeping renewable investment in-state by not offering RECs is an approximately 1% additional increase in the levelized cost of electricity. - Research Highlights: →We examine state-scale impacts of a renewable electricity standard and a carbon tax. →Georgia has low electricity prices and bioenergy is the main renewable option. →A carbon tax of $50/tCO 2 does not significantly increase renewable generation. →Renewable electricity credits divert renewable investment to other states. →Keeping renewable electricity generation in-state increases electricity costs by 1%.

  6. Estimating restorable wetland water storage at landscape scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charles Nathan; Evenson, Grey R.; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Lang, Megan W.; McCarty, Greg W.; Golden, Heather E.; Lane, Charles R.; Alexander, Laurie C.

    2018-01-01

    Globally, hydrologic modifications such as ditching and subsurface drainage have significantly reduced wetland water storage capacity (i.e., volume of surface water a wetland can retain) and consequent wetland functions. While wetland area has been well documented across many landscapes and used to guide restoration efforts, few studies have directly quantified the associated wetland storage capacity. Here, we present a novel raster-based approach to quantify both contemporary and potential (i.e., restorable) storage capacities of individual depressional basins across landscapes. We demonstrate the utility of this method by applying it to the Delmarva Peninsula, a region punctuated by both depressional wetlands and drainage ditches. Across the entire peninsula, we estimated that restoration (i.e., plugging ditches) could increase storage capacity by 80%. Focusing on an individual watershed, we found that over 59% of restorable storage capacity occurs within 20 m of the drainage network, and that 93% occurs within 1 m elevation of the drainage network. Our demonstration highlights widespread ditching in this landscape, spatial patterns of both contemporary and potential storage capacities, and clear opportunities for hydrologic restoration. In Delmarva and more broadly, our novel approach can inform targeted landscape-scale conservation and restoration efforts to optimize hydrologically mediated wetland functions.

  7. Estimating electricity storage power rating and discharge duration for utility transmission and distribution deferral :a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Butler, Paul Charles; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr. (,.Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)

    2005-11-01

    This report describes a methodology for estimating the power and energy capacities for electricity energy storage systems that can be used to defer costly upgrades to fully overloaded, or nearly overloaded, transmission and distribution (T&D) nodes. This ''sizing'' methodology may be used to estimate the amount of storage needed so that T&D upgrades may be deferred for one year. The same methodology can also be used to estimate the characteristics of storage needed for subsequent years of deferral.

  8. Coil protection for a utility scale superconducting magnetic energy storage plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyd, R.J.; Schoenung, S.M.; Rogers, J.D.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Purcell, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is proposed for electric utility load leveling. Attractive costs, high diurnal energy efficiency (≥ 92%), and rapid response are advantages relative to other energy storage technologies. Recent industry-led efforts have produced a conceptual design for a 5000 MWh/1000 MW energy storage plant which is technically feasible at commercially attractive estimated costs. The SMES plant design includes a protection system which prevents damage to the magnetic coil if events require a rapid discharge of stored energy. This paper describes the design and operation of the coil protection system, which is primarily passive and uses the thermal capacity of the coil itself to absorb the stored electromagnetic energy

  9. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, Hassan; Giri, Fouad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for electric vehicle. The storage system consists of a fuel cell (FC), serving as the main power source, and a supercapacitor (SC), serving as an auxiliary power source. It also contains a power block for energy...

  10. Hybrid Electric Energy Storages: Their Specific Features and Application (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel', O. S.; Tarasenko, A. B.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents a review of various aspects related to development and practical use of hybrid electric energy storages (i.e., those uniting different energy storage technologies and devices in an integrated system) in transport and conventional and renewable power engineering applications. Such devices, which were initially developed for transport power installations, are increasingly being used by other consumers characterized by pronounced nonuniformities of their load schedule. A range of tasks solved using such energy storages is considered. It is shown that, owing to the advent of new types of energy storages and the extended spectrum of their performance characteristics, new possibilities for combining different types of energy storages and for developing hybrid systems have become available. This, in turn, opens up the possibility of making energy storages with better mass and dimension characteristics and achieving essentially lower operational costs. The possibility to secure more comfortable (base) operating modes of primary sources of energy (heat engines and renewable energy source based power installations) and to achieve a higher capacity utilization factor are unquestionable merits of hybrid energy storages. Development of optimal process circuit solutions, as well as energy conversion and control devices facilitating the fullest utilization of the properties of each individual energy storage included in the hybrid system, is among the important lines of research carried out in this field in Russia and abroad. Our review of existing developments has shown that there are no universal technical solutions in this field (the specific features of a consumer have an essential effect on the process circuit solutions and on the composition of a hybrid energy storage), a circumstance that dictates the need to extend the scope of investigations in this promising field.

  11. Potential of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells as Electricity Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Di Giorgio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy storage (EES systems allow shifting the time of electric power generation from that of consumption, and they are expected to play a major role in future electric grids where the share of intermittent renewable energy systems (RES, and especially solar and wind power plants, is planned to increase. No commercially available technology complies with all the required specifications for an efficient and reliable EES system. Reversible solid oxide cells (ReSOC working in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes could be a cost effective and highly efficient EES, but are not yet ready for the market. In fact, using the system in fuel cell mode produces high temperature heat that can be recovered during electrolysis, when a heat source is necessary. Before ReSOCs can be used as EES systems, many problems have to be solved. This paper presents a new ReSOC concept, where the thermal energy produced during fuel cell mode is stored as sensible or latent heat, respectively, in a high density and high specific heat material and in a phase change material (PCM and used during electrolysis operation. The study of two different storage concepts is performed using a lumped parameters ReSOC stack model coupled with a suitable balance of plant. The optimal roundtrip efficiency calculated for both of the configurations studied is not far from 70% and results from a trade-off between the stack roundtrip efficiency and the energy consumed by the auxiliary power systems.

  12. The value of energy storage in South Korea’s electricity market: A Hotelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia; Kleit, Andrew; Cho, Joohyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate lifetime economic potential for energy arbitrage in South Korea. • We simulate lifetime energy flows and profits for small price-taking NaS and Li-ion batteries. • We devise optimal battery operating strategy using Hotelling’s depletion rule. • Cumulative profits depend on intraday price differences and social discount rate. • At current electricity prices, neither battery generates enough arbitrage revenue to offset capital costs. - Abstract: In this study we evaluate the economic potential for energy arbitrage by simulating operation and resulting profits of a small price-taking storage device in South Korea’s electricity market. As demand for electricity continues to grow, maintaining a balanced power system at all times has become more challenging in Korea and other developed nations. Along with demand response programs and increased renewable energy utilization, energy storage devices may provide a viable way to contribute to diurnal peak demand shaving. In some parts of the U.S. storage arbitrage has proven to be profitable. Treating a battery’s ability to charge and discharge as a scarce resource, we apply the Hotelling (1931) rule to determine a strategy for maximizing the value of the battery. Results show that present market conditions in South Korea do not provide sufficient economic incentives for energy arbitrage using sodium–sulfur (NaS) or lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, with the capital cost of the storage devices exceeding potential revenues

  13. Use of superconductors for storage and discharge of electrical energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole, J.

    1968-01-01

    After recalling the elementary properties which led to superconductors being used for generating very strong magnetic fields, as well as the methods used to attain the required very low temperatures in practice, the author presents in its elementary form the principle of storage and liberation of energy. A more detailed analysis of the successive charging, trapping, storage and discharge operations shows up the different aspects of the problem and is followed by a review of the very small amount of research published up to now and also by a presentation of the original work which has been carried out in this field. It is already possible to use superconducting materials as they are (i.e. although their characteristics have been adjusted with a view only to obtain very strong magnetic fields). Much more will be obtained from superconductors when they have been correctly adapted to this new very promising application to the storage and discharge of electrical energy. (authors) [fr

  14. Optimal bidding in Turkey day ahead electricity market for wind energy and pumped storage hydro power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyhun Yıldız

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In electrical grid; when the demand power increases energy prices increase, when the demand decreases energy prices decrease. For this reason; to increase the total daily income, it is required to shift generations to the hours that high demand power values occurred. Wind Power Plants (WPP have unstable and uncontrollable generation characteristic. For this reason, energy storage systems are needed to shift the generations of WPPs in time scale. In this study, four wind power plants (WPP which are tied to the Turkish interconnected grid and a pumped hydro storage power plant (PSPP that meets the energy storage requirement of these power plants are investigated in Turkey day ahead energy market. An optimization algorithm is developed using linear programming technique to maximize the day ahead market bids of these plants which are going to generate power together. When incomes and generations of the plants that are operated with optimization strategy is analyzed, it is seen that annual income increased by 2.737% compared with WPPs ‘s alone operation and generations are substantially shifted to the high demand power occurred hours.

  15. Multi-scale theoretical investigation of hydrogen storage in covalent organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylianakis, Emmanuel; Klontzas, Emmanouel; Froudakis, George E

    2011-03-01

    The quest for efficient hydrogen storage materials has been the limiting step towards the commercialization of hydrogen as an energy carrier and has attracted a lot of attention from the scientific community. Sophisticated multi-scale theoretical techniques have been considered as a valuable tool for the prediction of materials storage properties. Such techniques have also been used for the investigation of hydrogen storage in a novel category of porous materials known as Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs). These framework materials are consisted of light elements and are characterized by exceptional physicochemical properties such as large surface areas and pore volumes. Combinations of ab initio, Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Grand Canonical Monte-Carlo (GCMC) calculations have been performed to investigate the hydrogen adsorption in these ultra-light materials. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the theoretical hydrogen storage studies that have been published after the discovery of COFs. Experimental and theoretical studies have proven that COFs have comparable or better hydrogen storage abilities than other competitive materials such as MOF. The key factors that can lead to the improvement of the hydrogen storage properties of COFs are highlighted, accompanied with some recently presented theoretical multi-scale studies concerning these factors.

  16. The Characteristic of Molten Heat Salt Storage System Utilizing Solar Energy Combined with Valley Electric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI .Jiu-ru

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the environmental pollution and energy consumption clue to the large difference between peak and valley of power grid,the molten salt heat storage system(MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric is presented for good energy saving and low emissions. The costs of MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric are greatly reduced. The law of heat transfer in molten salt heat storage technology is studied with the method of grey correlation analysis. The results show the effect of elbow sizes on surface convective heat transfer coefficient with different flow velocities.

  17. Optimisation of Storage for Concentrated Solar Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Cirocco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of non-scheduled generation from renewable electrical energy sources such concentrated solar power (CSP presents a need for enabling scheduled generation by incorporating energy storage; either via directly coupled Thermal Energy Storage (TES or Electrical Storage Systems (ESS distributed within the electrical network or grid. The challenges for 100% renewable energy generation are: to minimise capitalisation cost and to maximise energy dispatch capacity. The aims of this review article are twofold: to review storage technologies and to survey the most appropriate optimisation techniques to determine optimal operation and size of storage of a system to operate in the Australian National Energy Market (NEM. Storage technologies are reviewed to establish indicative characterisations of energy density, conversion efficiency, charge/discharge rates and costings. A partitioning of optimisation techniques based on methods most appropriate for various time scales is performed: from “whole of year”, seasonal, monthly, weekly and daily averaging to those best suited matching the NEM bid timing of five minute dispatch bidding, averaged on the half hour as the trading settlement spot price. Finally, a selection of the most promising research directions and methods to determine the optimal operation and sizing of storage for renewables in the grid is presented.

  18. The concentration gradient flow battery as electricity storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, Van W.J.; Saakes, M.; Porada, S.; Meuwissen, T.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike traditional fossil fuel plants, the wind and the sun provide power only when the renewable resource is available. To accommodate large scale use of renewable energy sources for efficient power production and utilization, energy storage systems are necessary. Here, we introduce a scalable

  19. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A.; Perron, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  20. Thermoeconomic analysis of a solar enhanced energy storage concept based on thermodynamic cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henchoz, Samuel; Buchter, Florian; Favrat, Daniel; Morandin, Matteo; Mercangöz, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Large scale energy storage may play an increasingly important role in the power generation and distribution sector, especially when large shares of renewable energies will have to be integrated into the electrical grid. Pumped-hydro is the only large scale storage technology that has been widely used. However the spread of this technology is limited by geographic constraints. In the present work, a particular implementation of a storage concept based on thermodynamic cycles, invented by ABB Switzerland ltd. Corporate Research, has been analysed thermoeconomically. A variant using solar thermal collectors is presented. It benefits from the synergy between daily variations in solar irradiance and in electricity demand. This results in an effective increase of the electric energy storage efficiency. A steady state multi-objective optimization of a 50 MW plant was done; minimizing the investment costs and maximizing the energy storage efficiency. Several types of cold storage substances have been implemented in the formulation and two different types of solar collector were investigated. A storage efficiency of 57% at a cost of 1200 USD/kW was calculated for an optimized plant using solar energy. Finally, a computation of the behaviour of the plant along the year showed a yearly availability of 84.4%. -- Highlights: ► A variant of electric energy storage based on thermodynamic cycles is presented. ► It uses solar collectors to improve the energy storage efficiency. ► An optimization minimizing capital cost and maximizing energy storage efficiency, was carried out. ► Capital costs lie between 982 and 3192 USD/kW and efficiency between 43.8% and 84.4%.

  1. The role of co-located storage for wind power producers in conventional electricity markets

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we study the problem of optimizing contract offerings for an independent wind power producer (WPP) participating in conventional day-ahead forward electricity markets for energy. As wind power is an inherently variable source of energy and is difficult to predict, we explore the extent to which co-located energy storage can be used to improve expected profit and mitigate the the financial risk associated with shorting on the offered contracts. Using a simple stochastic model for wind power production and a model for the electricity market, we show that the problem of determining optimal contract offerings for a WPP with co-located energy storage can be solved using convex programming.

  2. Southern company energy storage study :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  3. External electric field: An effective way to prevent aggregation of Mg atoms on γ-graphyne for high hydrogen storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Tang, Yong-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Due to large pores in the sheet of γ-graphyne, it should be a potential materials for energy storage applications. Our calculations might motivate active experimental efforts in designing high-efficiency hydrogen storage media. • For the first time, we use an applied external electric field to prevent Mg atoms from clustering using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. • The results demonstrate that, for Mg-G after electric field (F = 0.05 V/nm) treatment, ten H_2 molecules per Mg atom can be adsorbed and the hydrogen storage capacities reach to 10.64 wt%, with the average binding energies of 0.28 eV/H_2. - Abstract: In this article, we investigate the hydrogen storage capacity of Mg-decorated γ-graphyne (Mg-G) based on DFT calculations. Our results indicate that an external electric field can effectively prevent Mg atoms aggregating on γ-graphyne sheet. The Mg-G, after electric field (F = 0.05 V/nm) treatment, can store up to ten H_2 molecules and the hydrogen storage capacity is 10.64 wt%, with the average adsorption energy of 0.28 eV/H_2. Our calculations demonstrate that Mg-G is a potential material for hydrogen storage with high capacity and might motivate active experimental efforts in designing hydrogen storage media.

  4. Operational design and pressure response of large-scale compressed air energy storage in porous formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    With the rapid growth of energy production from intermittent renewable sources like wind and solar power plants, large-scale energy storage options are required to compensate for fluctuating power generation on different time scales. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous formations is seen as a promising option for balancing short-term diurnal fluctuations. CAES is a power-to-power energy storage, which converts electricity to mechanical energy, i.e. highly pressurized air, and stores it in the subsurface. This study aims at designing the storage setup and quantifying the pressure response of a large-scale CAES operation in a porous sandstone formation, thus assessing the feasibility of this storage option. For this, numerical modelling of a synthetic site and a synthetic operational cycle is applied. A hypothetic CAES scenario using a typical anticline structure in northern Germany was investigated. The top of the storage formation is at 700 m depth and the thickness is 20 m. The porosity and permeability were assumed to have a homogenous distribution with a value of 0.35 and 500 mD, respectively. According to the specifications of the Huntorf CAES power plant, a gas turbine producing 321 MW power with a minimum inlet pressure of 43 bars at an air mass flowrate of 417 kg/s was assumed. Pressure loss in the gas wells was accounted for using an analytical solution, which defines a minimum bottom hole pressure of 47 bars. Two daily extraction cycles of 6 hours each were set to the early morning and the late afternoon in order to bypass the massive solar energy production around noon. A two-year initial filling of the reservoir with air and ten years of daily cyclic operation were numerically simulated using the Eclipse E300 reservoir simulator. The simulation results show that using 12 wells the storage formation with a permeability of 500 mD can support the required 6-hour continuous power output of 321MW, which corresponds an energy output of 3852 MWh per

  5. Stand alone solution for generation and storage of hydrogen and electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gany, Alon; Elitzur, Shani; Valery

    2015-01-01

    A novel method enabling safe, simple, and controllable production, storage, and use of hydrogen as well as compact electric energy storage and generation via hydrogen- oxygen fuel cells has been developed. The technology indicates, in our opinion, a significant milestone in the search for practical utilization of hydrogen as an alternative energy source. It consists of an original thermal-chemical treatment / activation of aluminum powders to react spontaneously with water to produce hydrogen at regular conditions according to the reaction Al+3H 2 O=Al (OH) 3 +3/2H 2 . Only about 1-2% of lithium, based activator is applied, and any type of water including tap water, sea water and waste water may be used, making the method attractive for variety of applications. 11% of hydrogen compared to the aluminum mass can be obtained, and our experiments reveal 90% reaction yield and more. The technology has a clear advantage over batteries, providing specific electric energy of over 2 kW h/kg Al, 5-10 times greater than that of commonly used lithium-ion batteries. Combined with a fuel cell it may be particularly beneficial for stand-alone electric power generators, where there is no access to the grid. Such applications include emergency generators (e.g., in hospitals), electricity backup systems, and power generation in remote communication posts. Automotive applications may be considered as well. The technology provides green electric energy and quiet operation as well as additional heat energy resulting mainly from the exothermic aluminum-water reaction. (full text)

  6. Dual technology energy storage system applied to two complementary electricity markets using a weekly differentiated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, H.L.; Staňková, K.; Peças Lopes, J.; Slootweg, J.G.; Kling, W.L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with integration of energy storage systems into electricity markets. We explain why the energy storage systems increase flexibility of both power systems and energy markets and why such flexibility is desirable, particularly when variable renewable energy sources are being used in

  7. Analytical method to evaluate fuel consumption of hybrid electric vehicles at balanced energy content of the electric storage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katrasnik, Tomaz [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Askerceva 6, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-11-15

    Innovative analytically based method to calculate corrected fuel consumption of parallel and series hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) at balanced energy content of the electric storage devices is proposed and validated in the paper. The proposed analytical method is generally applicable and features highly accurate corrected fuel consumption results. It enables calculation of the corrected fuel consumption out of a single fuel consumption test run in a single analytic post-processing step. An additional fuel consumption test run might be needed to obtain highly accurate results if ratio of the energy content deviation of the electric storage devices to the energy used for vehicle propulsion over the test cycle is high. Proposed method enables consideration of non-linear energy flow changes and non-linear HEV component efficiency changes caused by the energy management strategy or by the component characteristics. The method therefore features highly accurate results out of the minimum number of fuel consumption test runs and thus optimizes workload for development or optimization of HEVs. The input data of the method are characteristic energy flows and efficiencies that are derived from the energy flows on selected energy paths of HEVs. (author)

  8. Ice thermal storage air conditioning system for electric load leveling; Denryoku heijunka to hyochikunetsu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigenaga, Y. [Daikin Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-08-15

    Thermal storage air conditioning system is the one to use energy stored into thermal storing materials by using night electric power and to operate effective air conditioning. Therefore, as load can be treated by the stored energy, volume of the apparatus can be reduced. And, by reduction of the consumed power at day time, it can contribute to leveling of electric power demand. In general, there are two types in the thermal storage method: one is a method to store as thermal energy, and the other is that to store as chemical energy. For conditions required for the storing materials, important elements on their actual uses are not only physical properties such as large thermal storage per unit and easy thermal in- and out-puts, but also safety, long-term reliability, and easy receiving and economics containing future. The ice thermal storage air conditioning system is classified at the viewpoint of type of ice, kind of thermal storing medium, melting method on using cooling and heating, kinds of thermal medium on cooling and heating. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Validation of a predictive model for smart control of electrical energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, Bart; van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Zhu, Lei; de Wit, Jan B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability of a relatively simple model which is based on energy conservation for model predictions as part of smart control of thermal and electric storage. The paper reviews commonly used predictive models. Model predictions of charging and

  10. Antiferroelectric polarization switching and dynamic scaling of energy storage: A Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B. Y.; Lu, Z. X.; Zhang, Y.; Xie, Y. L.; Zeng, M.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M.

    2016-05-01

    The polarization-electric field hysteresis loops and the dynamics of polarization switching in a two-dimensional antiferroelectric (AFE) lattice submitted to a time-oscillating electric field E(t) of frequency f and amplitude E0, is investigated using Monte Carlo simulation based on the Landau-Devonshire phenomenological theory on antiferroelectrics. It is revealed that the AFE double-loop hysteresis area A, i.e., the energy loss in one cycle of polarization switching, exhibits the single-peak frequency dispersion A(f), suggesting the unique characteristic time for polarization switching, which is independent of E0 as long as E0 is larger than the quasi-static coercive field for the antiferroelectric-ferroelectric transitions. However, the dependence of recoverable stored energy W on amplitude E0 seems to be complicated depending on temperature T and frequency f. A dynamic scaling behavior of the energy loss dispersion A(f) over a wide range of E0 is obtained, confirming the unique characteristic time for polarization switching of an AFE lattice. The present simulation may shed light on the dynamics of energy storage and release in AFE thin films.

  11. Impact of energy storage in buildings on electricity demand side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Waqar A.; Nair, Nirmal-Kumar C.; Farid, Mohammad M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Phase change material (PCM) application for space heating has been implemented and assessed for built environment. → Real-Time Pricing (RTP) is assessed as tool to implement Demand Side Management programs effectively. → Two buildings, with and without PCM, have been compared for space heating using RTP in functional electricity market. → PCM found to offer peak load shifting, energy conservation, and reduction in price of electricity. -- Abstract: This paper assesses impact of using phase change materials (PCM) in buildings to leverage its thermal energy storage capability. The emphasis is from an electricity demand side perspective with case studies that incorporates wholesale electricity market data of New Zealand. The results presented in this paper show that for space heating application significant advantages could be obtained using PCM built structures. These positive impacts include peak load shifting, energy conservation and reduction in peak demand for network line companies and potential reduction in electricity consumption and savings for residential customers. This paper uses a testing facility that consists of two identically designed and shaped offices built at Tamaki Campus location of the University of Auckland, New Zealand. The walls and ceilings of one office are finished with ordinary gypsum boards while the interior of the other office is finished with PCM impregnated gypsum boards. Controlled heating facility is provided in both the offices for maintaining temperature within the range of human comfort. This facility is equipped with advanced data acquisition equipment for data monitoring and archiving both locally within the offices and also remotely. Through actual observations and analysis this paper demonstrates two major impacts of DSM. First, the application of phase change material (PCM) in building environment enabling efficient thermal storage to achieve some reduction in the overall electrical energy

  12. Advances in Large-Scale Solar Heating and Long Term Storage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    According to (the) information from the European Large-Scale Solar Heating Network, (See http://www.hvac.chalmers.se/cshp/), the area of installed solar collectors for large-scale application is in Europe, approximately 8 mill m2, corresponding to about 4000 MW thermal power. The 11 plants...... the last 10 years and the corresponding cost per collector area for the final installed plant is kept constant, even so the solar production is increased. Unfortunately large-scale seasonal storage was not able to keep up with the advances in solar technology, at least for pit water and gravel storage...... of the total 51 plants are equipped with long-term storage. In Denmark, 7 plants are installed, comprising of approx. 18,000-m2 collector area with new plants planned. The development of these plants and the involved technologies will be presented in this paper, with a focus on the improvements for Danish...

  13. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Stadler, Michael; Aki, Hirohisa; Firestone, Ryan; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-01-01

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies

  14. Electric field scales at quasi-perpendicular shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Walker

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the short scale structures that are observed in the electric field during crossings of the quasi-perpendicular bow shock using data from the Cluster satellites. These structures exhibit large amplitudes, as high as 70 m Vm-1 and so make a significant contribution to the overall change in potential at the shock front. It is shown that the scale size of these short-lived electric field structures is of the order of a few cpe. The relationships between the scale size and the upstream Mach number and θBn are studied. It is found that the scale size of these structures decreases with increasing plasma β and as θBn→90°. The amplitude of the spikes remains fairly constant with increasing Ma and appears to increase as θBn→90°.

  15. Analysis for Large Scale Integration of Electric Vehicles into Power Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Xiaoru

    2011-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) provide a significant opportunity for reducing the consumption of fossil energies and the emission of carbon dioxide. With more and more electric vehicles integrated in the power systems, it becomes important to study the effects of EV integration on the power systems......, especially the low and middle voltage level networks. In the paper, the basic structure and characteristics of the electric vehicles are introduced. The possible impacts of large scale integration of electric vehicles on the power systems especially the advantage to the integration of the renewable energies...... are discussed. Finally, the research projects related to the large scale integration of electric vehicles into the power systems are introduced, it will provide reference for large scale integration of Electric Vehicles into power grids....

  16. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage as solution to electrical grid outages in Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdoulaye, D; Koalaga, Z; Zougmore, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a key solution for power outages problem experienced by many African countries and this through grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage. African grids are characterized by an insufficient power supply and frequent interruptions. Due to this fact, users who especially use classical grid-connected photovoltaic systems are unable to profit from their installation even if there is sun. In this study, we suggest the using of a grid-connected photovoltaic system with batteries storage as a solution to these problems. This photovoltaic system works by injecting the surplus of electricity production into grid and can also deliver electricity as a stand-alone system with all security needed. To achieve our study objectives, firstly we conducted a survey of a real situation of one African electrical grid, the case of Burkina Faso (SONABEL: National Electricity Company of Burkina). Secondly, as study case, we undertake a sizing, a modeling and a simulation of a grid-connected PV system with batteries storage for the LAME laboratory at the University of Ouagadougou. The simulation shows that the proposed grid-connected system allows users to profit from their photovoltaic installation at any time even if the public electrical grid has some failures either during the day or at night.

  17. Comparison study of the technical characteristics and financial analysis of electric battery storage systems for residential grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palivos, Marios; Vokas, Georgios A.; Anastasiadis, Anestis; Papageorgas, Panagiotis; Salame, Chafic

    2018-05-01

    One of the major energy issues of our days is reliable and effective energy generation and supply of electricity grids. In recent years there has been experienced a rapid development and implementation of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) worldwide. On one hand, many Gigawatts of grid-connected renewables are being installed and on the other many Megawatts of hybrid renewable systems for residential use are being installed making use of electric battery systems, in order to cover all daily energy and power needs during. New types of batteries are being developed and many companies have made great progress providing a variety of electricity storage products. The purpose of this research is firstly to highlight the necessity and also the importance of the use of energy storage systems and secondly, through detailed technical and financial simulation analysis using HOMER Pro-optimization software, to compare the technical characteristics and performance of energy storage systems by various leading companies when installed in a residential renewable energy system with a specific load and at the same time to provide the most efficient system economically. Results concerning the operation and the choice of a storage system are derived.

  18. Impact of Data Placement on Resilience in Large-Scale Object Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carns, Philip; Harms, Kevin; Jenkins, John; Mubarak, Misbah; Ross, Robert; Carothers, Christopher

    2016-05-02

    Distributed object storage architectures have become the de facto standard for high-performance storage in big data, cloud, and HPC computing. Object storage deployments using commodity hardware to reduce costs often employ object replication as a method to achieve data resilience. Repairing object replicas after failure is a daunting task for systems with thousands of servers and billions of objects, however, and it is increasingly difficult to evaluate such scenarios at scale on realworld systems. Resilience and availability are both compromised if objects are not repaired in a timely manner. In this work we leverage a high-fidelity discrete-event simulation model to investigate replica reconstruction on large-scale object storage systems with thousands of servers, billions of objects, and petabytes of data. We evaluate the behavior of CRUSH, a well-known object placement algorithm, and identify configuration scenarios in which aggregate rebuild performance is constrained by object placement policies. After determining the root cause of this bottleneck, we then propose enhancements to CRUSH and the usage policies atop it to enable scalable replica reconstruction. We use these methods to demonstrate a simulated aggregate rebuild rate of 410 GiB/s (within 5% of projected ideal linear scaling) on a 1,024-node commodity storage system. We also uncover an unexpected phenomenon in rebuild performance based on the characteristics of the data stored on the system.

  19. Nanowire modified carbon fibers for enhanced electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvo, Mohammad Arif Ishtiaque; (Bill) Tseng, Tzu-Liang; Ashiqur Rahaman Khan, Md.; Karim, Hasanul; Morton, Philip; Delfin, Diego; Lin, Yirong

    2013-09-01

    The study of electrochemical super-capacitors has become one of the most attractive topics in both academia and industry as energy storage devices because of their high power density, long life cycles, and high charge/discharge efficiency. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the development of multifunctional structural energy storage devices such as structural super-capacitors for applications in aerospace, automobiles, and portable electronics. These multifunctional structural super-capacitors provide structures combining energy storage and load bearing functionalities, leading to material systems with reduced volume and/or weight. Due to their superior materials properties, carbon fiber composites have been widely used in structural applications for aerospace and automotive industries. Besides, carbon fiber has good electrical conductivity which will provide lower equivalent series resistance; therefore, it can be an excellent candidate for structural energy storage applications. Hence, this paper is focused on performing a pilot study for using nanowire/carbon fiber hybrids as building materials for structural energy storage materials; aiming at enhancing the charge/discharge rate and energy density. This hybrid material combines the high specific surface area of carbon fiber and pseudo-capacitive effect of metal oxide nanowires, which were grown hydrothermally in an aligned fashion on carbon fibers. The aligned nanowire array could provide a higher specific surface area that leads to high electrode-electrolyte contact area thus fast ion diffusion rates. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction measurements are used for the initial characterization of this nanowire/carbon fiber hybrid material system. Electrochemical testing is performed using a potentio-galvanostat. The results show that gold sputtered nanowire carbon fiber hybrid provides 65.9% higher energy density than bare carbon fiber cloth as super-capacitor.

  20. 77 FR 7211 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Diablo Canyon Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 72-26; NRC-2011-0110] Pacific Gas and Electric Company...) issued NRC Materials License No. SNM-2511 to the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) for the Diablo.... 5. TS 3.1.2, ``Spent Fuel Storage Cask (SFSC) Heat Removal System,''--revise to allow the HI-STORM...

  1. Peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement with the superconducting flywheel energy storage in electric railway system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansang, E-mail: hslee80@kiu.ac.kr [School of Railway and Electrical Engineering, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seungmin [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-712 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yoonsung [Department of Electric and Energy Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Donghee [Department of New and Renewable Energy, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Gilsoo, E-mail: gjang@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •It is important to develop power and energy management system to save operating cost. •An 100 kWh of SFES is effective to decrease peak power and energy consumption. •Operation cost saving can be achieved using superconducting flywheel energy storage. -- Abstract: This paper proposes an application of the 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems to reduce the peak power of the electric railway system. The electric railway systems have high-power characteristics and large amount of regenerative energy during vehicles’ braking. The high-power characteristic makes operating cost high as the system should guarantee the secure capacity of electrical equipment and the low utilization rate of regenerative energy limits the significant energy efficiency improvement. In this paper, it had been proved that the peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement can be achieved by using 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems with the optimally controlled charging or discharging operations. Also, economic benefits had been assessed.

  2. Peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement with the superconducting flywheel energy storage in electric railway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hansang; Jung, Seungmin; Cho, Yoonsung; Yoon, Donghee; Jang, Gilsoo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •It is important to develop power and energy management system to save operating cost. •An 100 kWh of SFES is effective to decrease peak power and energy consumption. •Operation cost saving can be achieved using superconducting flywheel energy storage. -- Abstract: This paper proposes an application of the 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems to reduce the peak power of the electric railway system. The electric railway systems have high-power characteristics and large amount of regenerative energy during vehicles’ braking. The high-power characteristic makes operating cost high as the system should guarantee the secure capacity of electrical equipment and the low utilization rate of regenerative energy limits the significant energy efficiency improvement. In this paper, it had been proved that the peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement can be achieved by using 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems with the optimally controlled charging or discharging operations. Also, economic benefits had been assessed

  3. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  4. Sizing community energy storage systems to reduce transformer overloading with emphasis on plug-in electric vehicle loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowler, Derik Wesley

    The research objective of this study was to develop a sizing method for community energy storage systems with emphasis on preventing distribution transformer overloading due to plug-in electric vehicle charging. The method as developed showed the formulation of a diversified load profile based upon residential load data for several customers on the American Electric Power system. Once a load profile was obtained, plug-in electric vehicle charging scenarios which were based upon expected adoption and charging trends were superimposed on the load profile to show situations where transformers (in particular 25 kVA, 50 kVA, and 100 kVA) would be overloaded during peak hours. Once the total load profiles were derived, the energy and power requirements of community energy storage systems were calculated for a number of scenarios with different combinations of numbers of homes and plug-in electric vehicles. The results were recorded and illustrated into charts so that one could determine the minimum size per application. Other topics that were covered in this thesis were the state of the art and future trends in plug-in electric vehicle and battery chemistry adoption and development. The goal of the literature review was to confirm the already suspected notion that Li-ion batteries are best suited and soon to be most cost-effective solution for applications requiring small, efficient, reliable, and light-weight battery systems such as plug-in electric vehicles and community energy storage systems. This thesis also includes a chapter showing system modeling in MATLAB/SimulinkRTM. All in all, this thesis covers a wide variety of considerations involved in the designing and deploying of community energy storage systems intended to mitigate the effects of distribution transformer overloading.

  5. Ultra-Capacitor Energy Storage in a Large Hybrid Electric Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    The power requirements for inner city transit buses are characterized by power peaks about an order of magnitude larger than the average power usage of the vehicle. For these vehicles, hybrid power trains can offer significantly improved fuel economy and exhaust emissions. A critical design challenge, however, has been developing the energy storage and power management system to respond to these rapid power variations. Most hybrid vehicles today use chemical energy storage batteries to supplement the power from the fuel burning generator unit. Chemical storage batteries however, present several difficulties in power management and control. These difficulties include (1) inadequate life, (2) limited current delivery as well as absorption during regenerative braking, (3) inaccurate measurement of state of charge, and (4) stored energy safety issues. Recent advances in ultra-capacitor technology create an opportunity to address these concerns. The NASA Lewis Research Center, in cooperation with industry and academia, has developed an advanced hybrid electric transit bus using ultra-capacitors as the primary energy storage system. At over 15,000-kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using this advanced energy storage technology. Results of analyses show that the vehicle will match the performance of an equivalent conventionally powered vehicle over typical inner city drive cycles. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and analysis of power flow and vehicle performance.

  6. Further development of pyrometallurgical IME recycling process for Li-ion batteries from electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vest, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Li-ion batteries are increasingly used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), electric vehicles (EV) and stationary storage applications. Those applications are significantly different in terms of storage capacity, life cycles and charging times from consumer type batteries such as mobile phones and handheld tools. Naturally, those HEV and EV Li-ion batteries also differ significantly in chemical composition and size. Coherently, a recycling concept has been developed for HEV, EV and stationary storage Li-ion batteries. This concept is based on the existing IME-ACCUREC recycling process for consumer type batteries. This work describes the whole process development including slag design, test series in a lab-scale electric arc furnace and a 1 t scale trial in a top blown rotary converter.

  7. Peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement with the superconducting flywheel energy storage in electric railway system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hansang; Jung, Seungmin; Cho, Yoonsung; Yoon, Donghee; Jang, Gilsoo

    2013-11-01

    This paper proposes an application of the 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems to reduce the peak power of the electric railway system. The electric railway systems have high-power characteristics and large amount of regenerative energy during vehicles’ braking. The high-power characteristic makes operating cost high as the system should guarantee the secure capacity of electrical equipment and the low utilization rate of regenerative energy limits the significant energy efficiency improvement. In this paper, it had been proved that the peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement can be achieved by using 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems with the optimally controlled charging or discharging operations. Also, economic benefits had been assessed.

  8. Economic feasibility of stationary electrochemical storages for electric bill management applications: The Italian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telaretti, E.; Graditi, G.; Ippolito, M.G.; Zizzo, G.

    2016-01-01

    Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are expected to become a fundamental element of the electricity infrastructure, thanks to their ability to decouple generation and demand over time. BESSs can also be used to store electricity during low-price hours, when the demand is low, and to meet the demand during peak hours, thus leading to savings for the consumer. This work focuses on the economic viability of BESS from the point of view of the electricity customer. The analysis refers to a lithium-ion (Li-ion), an advanced lead-acid, a zinc-based, a sodium-sulphur (NaS) and a flow battery. The total investment and replacement costs are estimated in order to calculate the cumulated cash flow, the net present value (NPV) and the internal rate of return (IRR) of the investment. A parametric analysis is further carried out under two different assumptions: a) varying the difference between high and low electricity prices, b) varying the peak demand charges. The analysis reveals that some electrochemical technologies are more suitable than others for electric bill management applications, and that a profit for the customer can be reached only with a significant difference between high and low electricity prices or when high peak demand charges are applied. - Highlights: •We examine the convenience of using BESS to reduce customer electricity bill. •We make a comparison among different types of batteries for end-user applications. •We evaluate the convenience of using storage in presence of demand charges. •A parametric analysis changing the BESS cost, electricity prices and demand charges has been carried out. •A case study is performed to show the advantages/disadvantages of this approach.

  9. Electric field improved hydrogen storage of Ca-decorated monolayer MoS{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Nahong [College of Computer and Information Engineering, Henan University of Economics and Law, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Wang, Yusheng [College of Mathematics and Information Science, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Gao, Haiyan; Jiang, Weifen; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Bin [College of Mathematics and Information Science, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450011 (China); Sun, Qiang [International Joint Research Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Jia, Yu, E-mail: jiayu@zzu.edu.cn [International Joint Research Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2015-04-17

    Hydrogen storage property of Ca-decorated MoS{sub 2} is carried out using first-principles calculations. Our calculations demonstrate that the preferential binding of Ca atoms on MoS{sub 2} effectively prevent the Ca clustering. Six H{sub 2} molecules per Ca atom can be adsorbed with a desirable adsorption energy of 0.14 eV/H{sub 2}. Both hybridization of the Ca-3d and S-2s with the H-1s orbital and the polarization of the H{sub 2} molecules contribute to the hydrogen adsorption. Our results show that the external electric field can effectively tune the hydrogen adsorption energy, therefore making hydrogen storage and release reversible. - Highlights: • Ca binds with MoS{sub 2} stalely without clustering. • It can operate under ambient thermodynamic conditions. • External electric field can effectively tune the hydrogen adsorption energy.

  10. Analysis of output power and capacity reduction in electrical storage facilities by peak shift control of PV system with bifacial modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Shin’ya; Konno, Daisuke; Utsugi, Yuta; Morel, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Characteristics of a large-scale power plant using bifacial solar cell is described. • Conversion efficiency of bifacial photovoltaics obtained using 3D-CAD modeling. • Power supply of bifacial PV can be matched with demand by adjusting the orientation. - Abstract: Bifacial photovoltaics are widely investigated with the aim of reducing the amount of silicon used and increasing conversion efficiencies. The output power of bifacial photovoltaics depends on the quantity of solar radiation incident on the reverse face. Furthermore, controlling the orientation can distribute the times of peak power output in the morning and afternoon to better match the demand. In this study, the demand patterns of individual houses or the whole Hokkaido region were analyzed assuming the substitution of a conventional large-scale electric power system with one using bifacial photovoltaics. The supply–demand balances and electrical storage capacities were investigated. When comparing a large scale solar power plant (mega-solar power plant) using monofacial photovoltaics or vertical bifacial photovoltaics (in which the orientation could be adjusted), the supply–demand could be better balanced for individual houses in the latter case, thereby allowing the storage capacity to be reduced. A bifacial solar module was modeled by 3D-CAD (three dimensional computer aided design) and thermal fluid analysis. The module temperature distribution of bifacial photovoltaics was calculated with respect to the environmental conditions (wind flow, direct and diffuse solar radiation, etc.) and internal heat generation, as well as the orientation of the solar panels. Furthermore, the output power of bifacial photovoltaics can be easily obtained from the analysis result of modular temperature distribution and the relation between temperature and output power

  11. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  12. Power Flow Distribution Strategy for Improved Power Electronics Energy Efficiency in Battery Storage Systems: Development and Implementation in a Utility-Scale System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schimpe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Utility-scale battery storage systems typically consist of multiple smaller units contributing to the overall power dispatch of the system. Herein, the power distribution among these units is analyzed and optimized to operate the system with increased energy efficiency. To improve the real-life storage operation, a holistic system model for battery storage systems has been developed that enables a calculation of the energy efficiency. A utility-scale Second-Life battery storage system with a capacity of 3.3 MWh/3 MW is operated and evaluated in this work. The system is in operation for the provision of primary control reserve in combination with intraday trading for controlling the battery state of charge. The simulation model is parameterized with the system data. Results show that losses in power electronics dominate. An operational strategy improving the energy efficiency through an optimized power flow distribution within the storage system is developed. The power flow distribution strategy is based on the reduction of the power electronics losses at no-load/partial-load by minimizing their in-operation time. The simulation derived power flow distribution strategy is implemented in the real-life storage system. Field-test measurements and analysis prove the functionality of the power flow distribution strategy and reveal the reduction of the energy throughput of the units by 7%, as well as a significant reduction of energy losses in the units by 24%. The cost savings for electricity over the system’s lifetime are approximated to 4.4% of its investment cost.

  13. Application of fuel cell and electrolyzer as hydrogen energy storage system in energy management of electricity energy retailer in the presence of the renewable energy sources and plug-in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojavan, Sayyad; Zare, Kazem; Mohammadi-Ivatloo, Behnam

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Electricity retailer determines selling price to consumers in the smart grids. • Real-time pricing is determined in comparison with fixed and time-of-use pricing. • Hydrogen storage systems and plug-in electric vehicles are used for energy sources. • Optimal charging and discharging power of electrolyser and fuel cell is determined. • Optimal charging and discharging power of plug-in electric vehicles is determined. - Abstract: The plug-in electric vehicles and hydrogen storage systems containing electrolyzer, stored hydrogen tanks and fuel cell as energy storage systems can bring various flexibilities to the energy management problem. In this paper, selling price determination and energy management problem of an electricity retailer in the smart grid under uncertainties have been proposed. Multiple energy procurement sources containing pool market, bilateral contracts, distributed generation units, renewable energy sources (photovoltaic system and wind turbine), plug-in electric vehicles and hydrogen storage systems are considered. The scenario-based stochastic method is used for uncertainty modeling of pool market prices, consumer demand, temperature, irradiation and wind speed. In the proposed model, the selling price is determined and compared by the retailer in the smart grid in three cases containing fixed pricing, time-of-use pricing and real-time pricing. It is shown that the selling price determination based on real-time pricing and flexibilities of plug-in electric vehicles and hydrogen storage systems leads to higher expected profit. The proposed model is formulated as mixed-integer linear programming that can be solved under General Algebraic Modeling System. To validate the proposed model, three types of selling price determination under four case studies are utilized and the results are compared.

  14. Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2016-05-03

    Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage apparatus controller includes processing circuitry configured to access first information which is indicative of surpluses and deficiencies of electrical energy upon an electrical power system at a plurality of moments in time, access second information which is indicative of temperature of a thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time, and use the first and second information to control an amount of electrical energy which is utilized by a heating element to heat the thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time.

  15. Chance to apply energy storage systems in liberalised electricity markets. Chancen des Einsatzes von Energiespeichern im liberalisierten Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkner, P. (Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG, Augsburg (Germany). Abt. Netzbetrieb); Kuebler, B. (Piller Inc., Middletown, NY (United States))

    1999-05-17

    The liberalisation of the European and German electricity market causes an individual and customer specific evaluation of the various services offered by the single electricity supply company. In this connection energy storage systems are a modern technical device to guarantee extremely high customer demands concerning voltage quality. The following deals with the basic requirements to use energy storage systems and the possibilities that are offered by such systems. The installation of an energy storage system is compared with the classic gridbound measures to improve voltage quality. Furthermore, a non-technical attempt to settle the impact of quality deficiencies with the help of an insurance cover with a claim for compensation is discussed. (orig.)

  16. Neutron storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The report is devoted to neutron storage (NS) and describes the history of experiments on the NS development. Great attention is paid to ultracold neutron (UCN) storage. The experiments on the UCN generation, transport, spectroscopy, storage and detection are described. Experiments on searching the UCN electric-dipole moment and electric charge are continued. Possible using of UCN for studying the nanoparticles is discussed [ru

  17. Electroville: Grid-Scale Batteries: High Amperage Energy Storage Device—Energy for the Neighborhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by MIT professor Donald Sadoway, the Electroville project team is creating a community-scale electricity storage device using new materials and a battery design inspired by the aluminum production process known as smelting. A conventional battery includes a liquid electrolyte and a solid separator between its 2 solid electrodes. MIT’s battery contains liquid metal electrodes and a molten salt electrolyte. Because metals and salt don’t mix, these 3 liquids of different densities naturally separate into layers, eliminating the need for a solid separator. This efficient design significantly reduces packaging materials, which reduces cost and allows more space for storing energy than conventional batteries offer. MIT’s battery also uses cheap, earth-abundant, domestically available materials and is more scalable. By using all liquids, the design can also easily be resized according to the changing needs of local communities.

  18. Manifestations of geometric phases in a proton electric-dipole-moment experiment in an all-electric storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silenko, Alexander J.

    2017-12-01

    We consider a proton electric-dipole-moment experiment in an all-electric storage ring when the spin is frozen and local longitudinal and vertical electric fields alternate. In this experiment, the geometric (Berry) phases are very important. Due to the these phases, the spin rotates about the radial axis. The corresponding systematic error is rather important while it can be canceled with clockwise and counterclockwise beams. The geometric phases also lead to the spin rotation about the radial axis. This effect can be canceled with clockwise and counterclockwise beams as well. The sign of the azimuthal component of the angular velocity of the spin precession depends on the starting point where the spin orientation is perfect. The radial component of this quantity keeps its value and sign for each starting point. When the longitudinal and vertical electric fields are joined in the same sections without any alternation, the systematic error due to the geometric phases does not appear but another systematic effect of the spin rotation about the azimuthal axis takes place. It has opposite signs for clockwise and counterclockwise beams.

  19. A Model for Optimizing the Combination of Solar Electricity Generation, Supply Curtailment, Transmission and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Marc J. R.

    With extraordinary recent growth of the solar photovoltaic industry, it is paramount to address the biggest barrier to its high-penetration across global electrical grids: the inherent variability of the solar resource. This resource variability arises from largely unpredictable meteorological phenomena and from the predictable rotation of the earth around the sun and about its own axis. To achieve very high photovoltaic penetration, the imbalance between the variable supply of sunlight and demand must be alleviated. The research detailed herein consists of the development of a computational model which seeks to optimize the combination of 3 supply-side solutions to solar variability that minimizes the aggregate cost of electricity generated therefrom: Storage (where excess solar generation is stored when it exceeds demand for utilization when it does not meet demand), interconnection (where solar generation is spread across a large geographic area and electrically interconnected to smooth overall regional output) and smart curtailment (where solar capacity is oversized and excess generation is curtailed at key times to minimize the need for storage.). This model leverages a database created in the context of this doctoral work of satellite-derived photovoltaic output spanning 10 years at a daily interval for 64,000 unique geographic points across the globe. Underpinning the model's design and results, the database was used to further the understanding of solar resource variability at timescales greater than 1-day. It is shown that--as at shorter timescales--cloud/weather-induced solar variability decreases with geographic extent and that the geographic extent at which variability is mitigated increases with timescale and is modulated by the prevailing speed of clouds/weather systems. Unpredictable solar variability up to the timescale of 30 days is shown to be mitigated across a geographic extent of only 1500km if that geographic extent is oriented in a north

  20. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwen Fan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  1. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-09-18

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  2. Thermal System Analysis and Optimization of Large-Scale Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongguang Fu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As an important solution to issues regarding peak load and renewable energy resources on grids, large-scale compressed air energy storage (CAES power generation technology has recently become a popular research topic in the area of large-scale industrial energy storage. At present, the combination of high-expansion ratio turbines with advanced gas turbine technology is an important breakthrough in energy storage technology. In this study, a new gas turbine power generation system is coupled with current CAES technology. Moreover, a thermodynamic cycle system is optimized by calculating for the parameters of a thermodynamic system. Results show that the thermal efficiency of the new system increases by at least 5% over that of the existing system.

  3. Nuclear combined cycle gas turbines for variable electricity and heat using firebrick heat storage and low-carbon fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles; Peterson, Per F.; McDaniel, Patrick; Bindra, Hitesh

    2017-01-01

    The world is transitioning to a low-carbon energy system. Variable electricity and industrial energy demands have been met with storable fossil fuels. The low-carbon energy sources (nuclear, wind and solar) are characterized by high-capital-costs and low-operating costs. High utilization is required to produce economic energy. Wind and solar are non-dispatchable; but, nuclear is the dispatchable energy source. Advanced combined cycle gas turbines with firebrick heat storage coupled to high-temperature reactors may enable economic variable electricity and heat production with constant full-power reactor output. Such systems efficiently couple to fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) with solid fuel and clean salt coolants, molten salt reactors (MSRs) with fuel dissolved in the salt coolant and salt-cooled fusion machines. Open Brayton combined cycles allow the use of natural gas, hydrogen, other fuels and firebrick heat storage for peak electricity production with incremental heat-to-electricity efficiencies from 66 to 70+% efficient. There are closed Brayton cycle options that use firebrick heat storage but these have not been investigated in any detail. Many of these cycles couple to high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). (author)

  4. Hybrid systems to address seasonal mismatches between electricity production and demand in nuclear renewable electrical grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles

    2013-01-01

    A strategy to enable zero-carbon variable electricity production with full utilization of renewable and nuclear energy sources has been developed. Wind and solar systems send electricity to the grid. Nuclear plants operate at full capacity with variable steam to turbines to match electricity demand with production (renewables and nuclear). Excess steam at times of low electricity prices and electricity demand go to hybrid fuel production and storage systems. The characteristic of these hybrid technologies is that the economic penalties for variable nuclear steam inputs are small. Three hybrid systems were identified that could be deployed at the required scale. The first option is the gigawatt-year hourly-to-seasonal heat storage system where excess steam from the nuclear plant is used to heat rock a kilometer underground to create an artificial geothermal heat source. The heat source produces electricity on demand using geothermal technology. The second option uses steam from the nuclear plant and electricity from the grid with high-temperature electrolysis (HTR) cells to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is primarily for industrial applications; however, the HTE can be operated in reverse using hydrogen for peak electricity production. The third option uses variable steam and electricity for shale oil production. -- Highlights: •A system is proposed to meet variable hourly to seasonal electricity demand. •Variable solar and wind electricity sent to the grid. •Base-load nuclear plants send variable steam for electricity and hybrid systems. •Hybrid energy systems can economically absorb gigawatts of variable steam. •Hybrid systems include geothermal heat storage, hydrogen, and shale-oil production

  5. Energy storage and grid for electricity, gas, fuel and heat. A system-wide approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benesch, Wolfgang A. [STEAG Energy Services GmbH, Essen (Germany); Kakaras, Emmanouil [Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Europe GmbH, Duisburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Renewable energies are asked for more and more worldwide. Even though they cannot generate electricity 8760 h/a year. This can be accomplished by flexible conventional power stations as well as storage systems. Especially the storage systems have to be developed technical wise and especially economic wise. An example of an integrated approach is the methanol production with a coal fired power plant. An overview showing the technical features as well as the strategic opportunities of such kind of approach is given.

  6. A manganese-hydrogen battery with potential for grid-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Guodong; Pei, Allen; Li, Yuzhang; Liao, Lei; Wang, Hongxia; Wan, Jiayu; Liang, Zheng; Chen, Guangxu; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Jiangyan; Cui, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Batteries including lithium-ion, lead-acid, redox-flow and liquid-metal batteries show promise for grid-scale storage, but they are still far from meeting the grid's storage needs such as low cost, long cycle life, reliable safety and reasonable energy density for cost and footprint reduction. Here, we report a rechargeable manganese-hydrogen battery, where the cathode is cycled between soluble Mn2+ and solid MnO2 with a two-electron reaction, and the anode is cycled between H2 gas and H2O through well-known catalytic reactions of hydrogen evolution and oxidation. This battery chemistry exhibits a discharge voltage of 1.3 V, a rate capability of 100 mA cm-2 (36 s of discharge) and a lifetime of more than 10,000 cycles without decay. We achieve a gravimetric energy density of 139 Wh kg-1 (volumetric energy density of 210 Wh l-1), with the theoretical gravimetric energy density of 174 Wh kg-1 (volumetric energy density of 263 Wh l-1) in a 4 M MnSO4 electrolyte. The manganese-hydrogen battery involves low-cost abundant materials and has the potential to be scaled up for large-scale energy storage.

  7. Economic analysis of a new class of vanadium redox-flow battery for medium- and large-scale energy storage in commercial applications with renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming-Jia; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Xi; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new class of the vanadium redox-flow battery (VRB) is developed. • The new class of VRB is more economic. It is simple process and easy to scale-up. • There are three levels of cell stacks and electrolytes with different qualities. • The economic analysis of the VRB system for renewable energy bases is carried out. • Related polices and suggestions based on the result are provided. - Abstract: Interest in the implement of vanadium redox-flow battery (VRB) for energy storage is growing, which is widely applicable to large-scale renewable energy (e.g. wind energy and solar photo-voltaic), developing distributed generation, lowering the imbalance and increasing the usage of electricity. However, a comprehensive economic analysis of the VRB for energy storage is obscured for various commercial applications, yet it is fundamental for implementation of the VRB in commercial electricity markets. In this study, based on a new class of the VRB that was developed by our team, a comprehensive economic analysis of the VRB for large-scale energy storage is carried out. The results illustrate the economy of the VRB applications for three typical energy systems: (1) The VRB storage system instead of the normal lead-acid battery to be the uninterrupted power supply (UPS) battery for office buildings and hospitals; (2) Application of vanadium battery in household distributed photo-voltaic power generation systems; (3) The wind power and solar power stations equipped with the VRB storage systems. The economic perspectives and cost-benefit analysis of the VRB storage systems may underpin optimisation for maximum profitability. In this case, two findings are concluded. First, with the fixed capacity power or fixed discharging time, the greater profit ratio will be generated from the longer time or the larger capacity power. Second, when the profit ratio, discharging time and capacity power are all variables, it is necessary to find out the best optimisation

  8. Simulation of Porous Medium Hydrogen Storage - Estimation of Storage Capacity and Deliverability for a North German anticlinal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Bauer, S.; Pfeiffer, W. T.

    2015-12-01

    Large scale energy storage will be required to mitigate offsets between electric energy demand and the fluctuating electric energy production from renewable sources like wind farms, if renewables dominate energy supply. Porous formations in the subsurface could provide the large storage capacities required if chemical energy carriers such as hydrogen gas produced during phases of energy surplus are stored. This work assesses the behavior of a porous media hydrogen storage operation through numerical scenario simulation of a synthetic, heterogeneous sandstone formation formed by an anticlinal structure. The structural model is parameterized using data available for the North German Basin as well as data given for formations with similar characteristics. Based on the geological setting at the storage site a total of 15 facies distributions is generated and the hydrological parameters are assigned accordingly. Hydraulic parameters are spatially distributed according to the facies present and include permeability, porosity relative permeability and capillary pressure. The storage is designed to supply energy in times of deficiency on the order of seven days, which represents the typical time span of weather conditions with no wind. It is found that using five injection/extraction wells 21.3 mio sm³ of hydrogen gas can be stored and retrieved to supply 62,688 MWh of energy within 7 days. This requires a ratio of working to cushion gas of 0.59. The retrievable energy within this time represents the demand of about 450000 people. Furthermore it is found that for longer storage times, larger gas volumes have to be used, for higher delivery rates additionally the number of wells has to be increased. The formation investigated here thus seems to offer sufficient capacity and deliverability to be used for a large scale hydrogen gas storage operation.

  9. Large-scale CO2 storage — Is it feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CCS is generally estimated to have to account for about 20% of the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of CO2 storage, even if the CCS challenge is equally dependent upon finding viable international solutions to a wide range of economic, political and cultural issues. It has already been demonstrated that it is technically possible to store adequate amounts of CO2 in the subsurface (Sleipner, InSalah, Snøhvit. The large-scale storage challenge (several Gigatons of CO2 per year is more an issue of minimizing cost without compromising safety, and of making international regulations.The storage challenge may be split into 4 main parts: 1 finding reservoirs with adequate storage capacity, 2 make sure that the sealing capacity above the reservoir is sufficient, 3 build the infrastructure for transport, drilling and injection, and 4 set up and perform the necessary monitoring activities. More than 150 years of worldwide experience from the production of oil and gas is an important source of competence for CO2 storage. The storage challenge is however different in three important aspects: 1 the storage activity results in pressure increase in the subsurface, 2 there is no production of fluids that give important feedback on reservoir performance, and 3 the monitoring requirement will have to extend for a much longer time into the future than what is needed during oil and gas production. An important property of CO2 is that its behaviour in the subsurface is significantly different from that of oil and gas. CO2 in contact with water is reactive and corrosive, and may impose great damage on both man-made and natural materials, if proper precautions are not executed. On the other hand, the long-term effect of most of these reactions is that a large amount of CO2 will become immobilized and permanently stored as solid carbonate minerals. The reduced opportunity for direct monitoring of fluid samples

  10. Large-scale CO2 storage — Is it feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, H.

    2013-06-01

    CCS is generally estimated to have to account for about 20% of the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of CO2 storage, even if the CCS challenge is equally dependent upon finding viable international solutions to a wide range of economic, political and cultural issues. It has already been demonstrated that it is technically possible to store adequate amounts of CO2 in the subsurface (Sleipner, InSalah, Snøhvit). The large-scale storage challenge (several Gigatons of CO2 per year) is more an issue of minimizing cost without compromising safety, and of making international regulations.The storage challenge may be split into 4 main parts: 1) finding reservoirs with adequate storage capacity, 2) make sure that the sealing capacity above the reservoir is sufficient, 3) build the infrastructure for transport, drilling and injection, and 4) set up and perform the necessary monitoring activities. More than 150 years of worldwide experience from the production of oil and gas is an important source of competence for CO2 storage. The storage challenge is however different in three important aspects: 1) the storage activity results in pressure increase in the subsurface, 2) there is no production of fluids that give important feedback on reservoir performance, and 3) the monitoring requirement will have to extend for a much longer time into the future than what is needed during oil and gas production. An important property of CO2 is that its behaviour in the subsurface is significantly different from that of oil and gas. CO2 in contact with water is reactive and corrosive, and may impose great damage on both man-made and natural materials, if proper precautions are not executed. On the other hand, the long-term effect of most of these reactions is that a large amount of CO2 will become immobilized and permanently stored as solid carbonate minerals. The reduced opportunity for direct monitoring of fluid samples close to the

  11. Entropy, pumped-storage and energy system finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    Pumped-storage holds a key role for integrating renewable energy units with non-renewable fuel plants into large-scale energy systems of electricity output. An emerging issue is the development of financial engineering models with physical basis to systematically fund energy system efficiency improvements across its operation. A fundamental physically-based economic concept is the Scarcity Rent; which concerns the pricing of a natural resource's scarcity. Specifically, the scarcity rent comprises a fraction of a depleting resource's full price and accumulates to fund its more efficient future use. In an integrated energy system, scarcity rents derive from various resources and can be deposited to a pooled fund to finance the energy system's overall efficiency increase; allowing it to benefit from economies of scale. With pumped-storage incorporated to the system, water upgrades to a hub resource, in which the scarcity rents of all connected energy sources are denominated to. However, as available water for electricity generation or storage is also limited, a scarcity rent upon it is also imposed. It is suggested that scarcity rent generation is reducible to three (3) main factors, incorporating uncertainty: (1) water's natural renewability, (2) the energy system's intermittent components and (3) base-load prediction deviations from actual loads. For that purpose, the concept of entropy is used in order to measure the energy system's overall uncertainty; hence pumped-storage intensity requirements and generated water scarcity rents. Keywords: pumped-storage, integration, energy systems, financial engineering, physical basis, Scarcity Rent, pooled fund, economies of scale, hub resource, uncertainty, entropy Acknowledgement: This research was funded by the Greek General Secretariat for Research and Technology through the research project Combined REnewable Systems for Sustainable ENergy DevelOpment (CRESSENDO; grant number 5145)

  12. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  13. Linking electricity and water models to assess electricity choices at water-relevant scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, S; Rogers, J; Macknick, J; Lopez, A; Yates, D; Flores-Lopez, F

    2012-01-01

    Hydrology/water management and electricity generation projections have been modeled separately, but there has been little effort in intentionally and explicitly linking the two sides of the water–energy nexus. This paper describes a platform for assessing power plant cooling water withdrawals and consumption under different electricity pathways at geographic and time scales appropriate for both electricity and hydrology/water management. This platform uses estimates of regional electricity generation by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) as input to a hydrologic and water management model—the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system. In WEAP, this electricity use represents thermoelectric cooling water withdrawals and consumption within the broader, regional water resource context. Here we describe linking the electricity and water models, including translating electricity generation results from ReEDS-relevant geographies to the water-relevant geographies of WEAP. The result of this analysis is water use by the electric sector at the regional watershed level, which is used to examine the water resource implications of these electricity pathways. (letter)

  14. Heuristic Storage System Sizing for Optimal Operation of Electric Vehicles Powered by Photovoltaic Charging Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Blasius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the utilisation of PV systems for electric vehicles charging for transportation requirements of smart cities. The gap between PV power output and vehicles charging demand is highly variable. Therefore, there is a need for additional support from a public distribution grid or a storage device in order to handle the residual power. Long term measurement data retrieved from a charging station for 15 vehicles equipped with a PV system were used in the research. Low and high irradiation seasons influenced the PV output. The charging demand of electric vehicles varied over the course of a year and was correlated to weather conditions. Therefore, the sizing and performance of a supportive storage device should be evaluated in a statistical manner using long period observations.

  15. Cost-benefit assessment of energy storage for utility and customers: A case study in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, Kein Huat; Lim, Yun Seng; Morris, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy storage can replace the peaking plants. • The cost of electricity for the plants with energy storage is as competitive as fossil fuel power plants. • Energy storage can reduce CO_2 emissions and defer the reinforcement of transmissions and distributions infrastructure. • Energy storage can reduce peak demand charge for customers. - Abstract: Under the existing commercial framework of electricity in Malaysia, commercial and industrial customers are required to pay for the peak power demand charge every month. Usually, the peak demand charge can contribute up to 30% to their electricity bills due to the use of open-cycle gas power plants that deliver expensive electricity to the customers. Therefore, alternative means are sought after in order to reduce the peak demand for the customers. Distributed small-scaled energy storage can offer a good option to reduce the peak. This paper aims to identify the financial benefits of the energy storage system for utility companies and customers. An energy dispatch model is developed in HOMER to determine the cost of electricity. The model considers the heat rates of power plants in calculating the costs of electricity under different regulatory frameworks of natural gas with various prices of battery components. Apart from that, the cost-benefit for the customers under various electric tariff structures is evaluated. Four battery storage technologies, namely lead acid, vanadium redox flow, zinc-bromine, and lithium-ion are considered. The simulation results show that the storage system with lead acid batteries is more cost-effective than other battery technologies. The customers can reduce their electricity bills with the payback period of 2.8 years. The generation cost for the power system with energy storage is lower than that without energy storage. Besides, the system with energy storage has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that without energy storage. The deferral of the reinforcement of

  16. Technology-base research project for electrochemical storage report for 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarnon, F.

    1982-06-01

    The technology base research (TBR) project which provides the applied reseach base that supports all electrochemical energy storage applications: electric vehicles, electric load leveling, storage of solar electricity, and energy and resource conservation is described. The TBR identifies electrochemical technologies with the potential to satisfy stringent performance and economic requirements and transfer them to industry for further development and scale up. The TBR project consists of four major elements: electrochemical systems research, supporting research, electrochemical processes, and fuel cells for transportation. Activities in these four project elements during 1981 are summarized. Information is included on: iron-air batteries; aluminum-air batteries; lithium-metal sulfide cells; materials development for various batteries; and the characteristics of an NH3-air alkaline fuel cell in a vehicle.

  17. Electric vehicle (EV) storage supply chain risk and the energy market: A micro and macroeconomic risk management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Susanna D.

    As a cost effective storage technology for renewable energy sources, Electric Vehicles can be integrated into energy grids. Integration must be optimized to ascertain that renewable energy is available through storage when demand exists so that cost of electricity is minimized. Optimization models can address economic risks associated with the EV supply chain- particularly the volatility in availability and cost of critical materials used in the manufacturing of EV motors and batteries. Supply chain risk can reflect itself in a shortage of storage, which can increase the price of electricity. We propose a micro-and macroeconomic framework for managing supply chain risk through utilization of a cost optimization model in combination with risk management strategies at the microeconomic and macroeconomic level. The study demonstrates how risk from the EVs vehicle critical material supply chain affects manufacturers, smart grid performance, and energy markets qualitatively and quantitatively. Our results illustrate how risk in the EV supply chain affects EV availability and the cost of ancillary services, and how EV critical material supply chain risk can be mitigated through managerial strategies and policy.

  18. Pre-commercial scale preservation of garlic by gamma radiation in combination with cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramool, K.; Charoen, S.; Bunnak, J.

    1997-06-01

    Irradiation of garlic on a pilot scale and storage in cold room under commercial condition was carried out in co-operation with garlic trader in 1986-1987. Garlic bulbs from local cultivars were irradiated seven weeks after harvest with average dose of 70 Gy and stored for nine months at low (1-7 degrees C) and ambient (25-34 degrees C) temperatures. The treatment proved to be effective in controlling sprouting and in reducing weight loss and rotting. After 9 months of cold storage the weight loss and rotting of irradiated bulbs were reduced by 18 and 13 per cent. The radio inhibition process is technically feasible and economically justified as a profit can be made during the extended storage period. Small scale marketing trials of irradiated garlic conducted during and after termination of storage revealed no adverse comments from consumers

  19. The future value of electrical energy storage in the UK with generator intermittency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources increases the need for storage of electric power - the need is greatest in the case of wind power. This study looked at the potential value of power storage as a means of coping with variable power demand which, in the case of wind power, is itself intermittent. The benefits of using storage for part of the reserve needs compared with the reserve in the form of part-loaded conventional forms of generation was a feature of the study. The benefits were assessed in terms of (a) savings in fuel costs associated with balancing the systems; (b) carbon dioxide emissions, and (c) the additional amount of wind energy that can be absorbed. The work was conducted as part of the a UK DTI programme on New and Renewable Energy Sources.

  20. The future value of electrical energy storage in the UK with generator intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources increases the need for storage of electric power - the need is greatest in the case of wind power. This study looked at the potential value of power storage as a means of coping with variable power demand which, in the case of wind power, is itself intermittent. The benefits of using storage for part of the reserve needs compared with the reserve in the form of part-loaded conventional forms of generation was a feature of the study. The benefits were assessed in terms of (a) savings in fuel costs associated with balancing the systems; (b) carbon dioxide emissions, and (c) the additional amount of wind energy that can be absorbed. The work was conducted as part of the a UK DTI programme on New and Renewable Energy Sources

  1. The Future of Hydropower: Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change, Energy Prices and New Storage Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudard, Ludovic; Madani, Kaveh; Romerio, Franco

    2016-04-01

    The future of hydropower depends on various drivers, and in particular on climate change, electricity market evolution and innovation in new storage technologies. Their impacts on the power plants' profitability can widely differ in regards of scale, timing, and probability of occurrence. In this respect, the risk should not be expressed only in terms of expected revenue, but also of uncertainty. These two aspects must be considered to assess the future of hydropower. This presentation discusses the impacts of climate change, electricity market volatility and competing energy storage's technologies and quantifies them in terms of annual revenue. Our simulations integrate a glacio-hydrological model (GERM) with various electricity market data and models (mean reversion and jump diffusion). The medium (2020-50) and long-term (2070-2100) are considered thanks to various greenhouse gas scenarios (A1B, A2 and RCP3PD) and the stochastic approach for the electricity prices. An algorithm named "threshold acceptance" is used to optimize the reservoir operations. The impacts' scale, and the related uncertainties are presented for Mauvoisin, which is a storage-hydropower plant situated in the Swiss Alps, and two generic pure pumped-storage installations, which are assessed with the prices of 17 European electricity markets. The discussion will highlight the key differences between the impacts brought about by the drivers.

  2. Integration of electric vehicles with optimum sized storage for grid connected photo-voltaic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulabh Sachan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of energy storage by means of battery/EV is exceedingly expected in event of energy blackouts. Different advantages incorporate sparing the cash in purchasing top time power and support the grid when grid power is deficit against the load demand. In this paper, ideal size of energy storage in a grid associated photovoltaic (PV framework is proposed. The methodology of energy flow choice is produced with the appraisal on accessibility of PV yield control and the load demand. The energy flow decision is changed by peak and off peak hours to shorten the functional cost of the grid associated PV framework with storage. Naturally, the quantities of electric vehicles that can be associated are resolved.

  3. Emergence of a phase transition for the required amount of storage in highly renewable electricity systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Vissing; Greiner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    -up of the required amount of storage, with renewable penetration being the control parameter and average relative storage filling level being the order parameter. A singularity appears for the required storage energy capacity at a renewable penetration determined by the parameters of the storage. For an ideal...... storage with no roundtrip losses the transition occurs at 100% renewable penetration. Moreover, the required storage energy capacity is strongly enhanced by temporal correlations on the synoptic weather time scale. A Markov process is proposed, which reproduces these findings....

  4. High-performance batteries for stationary energy storage and electric-vehicle propulsion. Progress report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    Research, development, and management activities of the program on lithium--aluminum/metal sulfide batteries during April--June 1977 are described. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. The present cells, which operate at 400--450/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with a central positive electrode of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, two facing negative electrodes of lithium--aluminum alloy, and an electrolyte of molten LiCl--KCl. Testing and evaluation of industrially fabricated cells is continuing. Li--Al/FeS and Li--Al/FeS/sub 2/ cells from Eagle--Picher Industries and from Gould Inc. were tested. These tests provided information on the effects of design modifications and alternative materials for cells. Improved electrode and cell designs are being developed and tested, and the more promising designs are incorporated into the industrially fabricated cells. Among the concepts receiving major attention are carbon-bonded positive electrodes, scaled-up designs of stationary energy storage cells, additives to extend electrode lifetime, alternative electrode separators, and pellet-grid electrodes. Materials development efforts included the development of a lightweight electrical feedthrough; studies of various current-collector designs; investigation of powder separators; wettability and corrosion tests of materials for cell components; and postoperative examinations of cells. Cell chemistry studies were concerned with discharge mechanisms of FeS electrodes and with other transition-metal sulfides as positive electrode materials. Voltammetric studies were conducted to investigate the reversibility of the FeS/sub 2/ electrode. The use of calcium and magnesium alloys for the negative electrode in advanced battery systems were investigated. 8 figures, 12 tables.

  5. Study of an electrical heating system with ductless air supply and shape-stabilized PCM for thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Kunping; Zhang, Yinping; Di, Hongfa; Yang, Rui

    2007-01-01

    A kind of electrical floor heating system with a shape-stabilized phase change material (PCM) which has been studied at Tsinghua University in our previous studies, can provide space heating during the whole day and can be controlled conventionally. However, this is not suitable for office buildings where no space heating is needed at night. The effective control is very important for the heating system in such buildings. In this paper, we studied a kind of new electrical floor heating system with ductless air supply and shape-stabilized PCM for thermal storage in order to overcome the shortcomings of the passive under-floor electric heating system with thermal storage. In this paper, we investigated its thermal performance by experiments and simulation, calculated the effects of various factors and discussed the application feasibility in different climate regions. The results show that the total electrical energy consumption was shifted from the peak period to the off-peak period, which would provide significant economic benefits because of the different day and night electricity tariffs. The system can be designed by choosing PCM with proper melting temperature and be controlled by varying velocity of air supply in different conditions

  6. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO 2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  7. Survey of solar thermal energy storage subsystems for thermal/electric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C. L.

    1978-08-01

    A survey of the current technology and estimated costs of subsystems for storing the thermal energy produced by solar collectors is presented. The systems considered were capable of producing both electricity and space conditioning for three types of loads: a single-family detached residence, an apartment complex of 100 units, and a city of 30,000 residents, containing both single-family residences and apartments. Collector temperatures will be in four ranges: (1) 100 to 250/sup 0/F (used for space heating and single-cycle air conditioners and organic Rankine low-temperature turbines); (2) 300 to 400/sup 0/F (used for dual-cycle air conditioners and low-temperature turbines); (3) 400 to 600/sup 0/F (using fluids from parabolic trough collectors to run Rankine turbines); (4) 800 to 1000/sup 0/F (using fluids from heliostats to run closed-cycle gas turbines and steam Rankine turbines). The solar thermal energy subsystems will require from 60 to 36 x 10/sup 5/ kWhr (2.05 x 10/sup 5/ to 1.23 x 10/sup 10/ Btu) of thermal storage capacity. In addition to sensible heat and latent heat storage materials, several other media were investigated as potential thermal energy storage materials, including the clathrate and semiclathrate hydrates, various metal hydrides, and heat storage based on inorganic chemical reactions.

  8. Optimal Wind Energy Integration in Large-Scale Electric Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaijat, Mohammad H.

    The major concern in electric grid operation is operating under the most economical and reliable fashion to ensure affordability and continuity of electricity supply. This dissertation investigates the effects of such challenges, which affect electric grid reliability and economic operations. These challenges are: 1. Congestion of transmission lines, 2. Transmission lines expansion, 3. Large-scale wind energy integration, and 4. Phaser Measurement Units (PMUs) optimal placement for highest electric grid observability. Performing congestion analysis aids in evaluating the required increase of transmission line capacity in electric grids. However, it is necessary to evaluate expansion of transmission line capacity on methods to ensure optimal electric grid operation. Therefore, the expansion of transmission line capacity must enable grid operators to provide low-cost electricity while maintaining reliable operation of the electric grid. Because congestion affects the reliability of delivering power and increases its cost, the congestion analysis in electric grid networks is an important subject. Consequently, next-generation electric grids require novel methodologies for studying and managing congestion in electric grids. We suggest a novel method of long-term congestion management in large-scale electric grids. Owing to the complication and size of transmission line systems and the competitive nature of current grid operation, it is important for electric grid operators to determine how many transmission lines capacity to add. Traditional questions requiring answers are "Where" to add, "How much of transmission line capacity" to add, and "Which voltage level". Because of electric grid deregulation, transmission lines expansion is more complicated as it is now open to investors, whose main interest is to generate revenue, to build new transmission lines. Adding a new transmission capacity will help the system to relieve the transmission system congestion, create

  9. The future of stationary electricity storages - niche market or multi-billion Euro business?; Stationaere Stromspeicher - zukuenftiger Nischenmarkt oder Milliardengeschaeft?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatzen, Christoph [Frontier Economics Ltd., Koeln (Germany); Riechmann, Christoph [Frontier Economics Ltd, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    The transformation process from conventional electricity production to a sustainable power generation system based on renewable energy confronts market protagonists and lawmakers with huge technical and economic challenges. The rapid proliferation of wind power and photovoltaic plants in particular will raise electricity price volatility and require large investments in the expansion of transmission and distribution networks. It will also place high demands on the flexibility of the remaining electricity network, which will have to smoothen both the long and short-term fluctuations in supply from wind and photovoltaic energy. In view of the growing signs of delay in network expansion, the political leadership has taken to welcoming electricity storages as the ultimate solution to numerous challenges, as we read for example in the Energy Concept of the German Federal Government. While there may be reason for optimism, it is equally right to critically question the role that electricity storages might realistically play in the future given the need for reasonable price levels.

  10. Fabrication and analysis of small-scale thermal energy storage with conductivity enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thapa, Suvhashis; Chukwu, Sam; Khaliq, Abdul; Weiss, Leland

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Useful thermal conductivity envelope established for small scale TES. • Paraffin conductivity enhanced from .5 to 3.8 W/m K via low-cost copper insert. • Conductivity increase beyond 5 W/m K shows diminished returns. • Storage with increased conductivity lengthened thermoelectric output up to 247 s. - Abstract: The operation and useful operating parameters of a small-scale Thermal Energy Storage (TES) device that collects and stores heat in a Phase Change Material (PCM) is explored. The PCM utilized is an icosane wax. A physical device is constructed on the millimeter scale to examine specific effects of low-cost thermal conductivity enhancements that include copper foams and other metallic inserts. Numerical methods are utilized to establish useful operating range of small-scale TES devices in general, and the limits of thermal conductivity enhancement on thermoelectric operation specifically. Specific attention is paid to the manufacturability of the various constructs as well as the resulting thermal conductivity enhancement. A maximum thermal conductivity of 3.8 W/m K is achieved in experimental testing via copper foam enhancement. A simplified copper matrix achieves conductivity of 3.7 W/m K and allows significantly reduced fabrication effort. These results compare favorably to baseline wax conductivity of .5 W/m K. Power absorption is recorded of about 900 W/m 2 . Modeling reveals diminishing returns beyond 4–6 W/m K for devices on this scale. Results show the system capable of extending thermoelectric operation several minutes through the use of thermal energy storage techniques within the effective conductivity ranges

  11. Joint optimisation of arbitrage profits and battery life degradation for grid storage application of battery electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    To meet European decarbonisation targets by 2050, the electrification of the transport sector is mandatory. Most electric vehicles rely on lithium-ion batteries, because they have a higher energy/power density and longer life span compared to other practical batteries such as zinc-carbon batteries. Electric vehicles can thus provide energy storage to support the system integration of generation from highly variable renewable sources, such as wind and photovoltaics (PV). However, charging/discharging causes batteries to degradate progressively with reduced capacity. In this study, we investigate the impact of the joint optimisation of arbitrage revenue and battery degradation of electric vehicle batteries in a simplified setting, where historical prices allow for market participation of battery electric vehicle owners. It is shown that the joint optimisation of both leads to stronger gains then the sum of both optimisation strategies and that including battery degradation into the model avoids state of charges close to the maximum at times. It can be concluded that degradation is an important aspect to consider in power system models, which incorporate any kind of lithium-ion battery storage.

  12. Power-to-heat in adiabatic compressed air energy storage power plants for cost reduction and increased flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreißigacker, Volker

    2018-04-01

    The development of new technologies for large-scale electricity storage is a key element in future flexible electricity transmission systems. Electricity storage in adiabatic compressed air energy storage (A-CAES) power plants offers the prospect of making a substantial contribution to reach this goal. This concept allows efficient, local zero-emission electricity storage on the basis of compressed air in underground caverns. The compression and expansion of air in turbomachinery help to balance power generation peaks that are not demand-driven on the one hand and consumption-induced load peaks on the other. For further improvements in cost efficiencies and flexibility, system modifications are necessary. Therefore, a novel concept regarding the integration of an electrical heating component is investigated. This modification allows increased power plant flexibilities and decreasing component sizes due to the generated high temperature heat with simultaneously decreasing total round trip efficiencies. For an exemplarily A-CAES case simulation studies regarding the electrical heating power and thermal energy storage sizes were conducted to identify the potentials in cost reduction of the central power plant components and the loss in round trip efficiency.

  13. Seasonal storage and alternative carriers: A flexible hydrogen supply chain model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuß, M.; Grube, T.; Robinius, M.; Preuster, P.; Wasserscheid, P.; Stolten, D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Techno-economic model of future hydrogen supply chains. •Implementation of liquid organic hydrogen carriers into a hydrogen mobility analysis. •Consideration of large-scale seasonal storage for fluctuating renewable hydrogen production. •Implementation of different technologies for hydrogen storage and transportation. -- Abstract: A viable hydrogen infrastructure is one of the main challenges for fuel cells in mobile applications. Several studies have investigated the most cost-efficient hydrogen supply chain structure, with a focus on hydrogen transportation. However, supply chain models based on hydrogen produced by electrolysis require additional seasonal hydrogen storage capacity to close the gap between fluctuation in renewable generation from surplus electricity and fuelling station demand. To address this issue, we developed a model that draws on and extends approaches in the literature with respect to long-term storage. Thus, we analyse Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHC) and show their potential impact on future hydrogen mobility. We demonstrate that LOHC-based pathways are highly promising especially for smaller-scale hydrogen demand and if storage in salt caverns remains uncompetitive, but emit more greenhouse gases (GHG) than other gaseous or hydrogen ones. Liquid hydrogen as a seasonal storage medium offers no advantage compared to LOHC or cavern storage since lower electricity prices for flexible operation cannot balance the investment costs of liquefaction plants. A well-to-wheel analysis indicates that all investigated pathways have less than 30% GHG-emissions compared to conventional fossil fuel pathways within a European framework.

  14. Economic analysis of second use electric vehicle batteries for residential energy storage and load-levelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heymans, Catherine; Walker, Sean B.; Young, Steven B.; Fowler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The reuse of Li-ion EV batteries for energy storage systems (ESS) in stationary settings is a promising technology to support improved management of demand and supply of electricity. In this paper, MatLAB simulation of a residential energy profile and regulated cost structure is used to analyze the feasibility of and cost savings from repurposing an EV battery unit for peak-shifting. in situ residential energy storage can contribute to the implementation of a smart grid by supporting the reduction of demand during typical peak use periods. Use of an ESS increases household energy use but potentially improves economic effectiveness and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. The research supports the use of financial incentives for Li-ion battery reuse in ESS, including lower energy rates and reduced auxiliary fees. - Highlights: • EV Li-ion batteries can be reused in stationary energy storage systems (ESS). • A single ESS can shift 2 to 3 h of electricity used in a house. • While energy use increases, potential economic and environmental effectiveness improve. • ESS supports smart grid objectives. • Incentives like reduced fees are needed to encourage implementation of Li-ion battery ESS

  15. The state of energy storage in electric utility systems and its effect on renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, N S

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the state of the art of electric energy storage technologies and discusses how adding intermittent renewable energy technologies (IRETs) to a utility network affects the benefits from storage dispatch. Load leveling was the mode of storage dispatch examined in the study. However, the report recommended that other modes be examined in the future for kilowatt and kilowatt-hour optimization of storage. The motivation to install storage with IRET generation can arise from two considerations: reliability and enhancement of the value of energy. Because adding storage increases cost, reliability-related storage is attractive only if the accruing benefits exceed the cost of storage installation. The study revealed that the operation of storage should not be guided by the output of the IRET but rather by system marginal costs. Consequently, in planning studies to quantify benefits, storage should not be considered as an entity belonging to the system and not as a component of IRETS. The study also indicted that because the infusion of IRET energy tends to reduce system marginal cost, the benefits from load leveling (value of energy) would be reduced. However, if a system has storage, particularly if the storage is underutilized, its dispatch can be reoriented to enhance the benefits of IRET integration.

  16. Estimating the Quantity of Wind and Solar Required To Displace Storage-Induced Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2017-11-07

    The variable and nondispatchable nature of wind and solar generation has been driving interest in energy storage as an enabling low-carbon technology that can help spur large-scale adoption of renewables. However, prior work has shown that adding energy storage alone for energy arbitrage in electricity systems across the U.S. routinely increases system emissions. While adding wind or solar reduces electricity system emissions, the emissions effect of both renewable generation and energy storage varies by location. In this work, we apply a marginal emissions approach to determine the net system CO 2 emissions of colocated or electrically proximate wind/storage and solar/storage facilities across the U.S. and determine the amount of renewable energy required to offset the CO 2 emissions resulting from operation of new energy storage. We find that it takes between 0.03 MW (Montana) and 4 MW (Michigan) of wind and between 0.25 MW (Alabama) and 17 MW (Michigan) of solar to offset the emissions from a 25 MW/100 MWh storage device, depending on location and operational mode. Systems with a realistic combination of renewables and storage will result in net emissions reductions compared with a grid without those systems, but the anticipated reductions are lower than a renewable-only addition.

  17. Battery Storage Technologies for Electrical Applications: Impact in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Akinyele; Juri Belikov; Yoash Levron

    2017-01-01

    Batteries are promising storage technologies for stationary applications because of their maturity, and the ease with which they are designed and installed compared to other technologies. However, they pose threats to the environment and human health. Several studies have discussed the various battery technologies and applications, but evaluating the environmental impact of batteries in electrical systems remains a gap that requires concerted research efforts. This study first presents an ove...

  18. Understanding I/O workload characteristics of a Peta-scale storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Gunasekaran, Raghul [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Understanding workload characteristics is critical for optimizing and improving the performance of current systems and software, and architecting new storage systems based on observed workload patterns. In this paper, we characterize the I/O workloads of scientific applications of one of the world s fastest high performance computing (HPC) storage cluster, Spider, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). OLCF flagship petascale simulation platform, Titan, and other large HPC clusters, in total over 250 thousands compute cores, depend on Spider for their I/O needs. We characterize the system utilization, the demands of reads and writes, idle time, storage space utilization, and the distribution of read requests to write requests for the Peta-scale Storage Systems. From this study, we develop synthesized workloads, and we show that the read and write I/O bandwidth usage as well as the inter-arrival time of requests can be modeled as a Pareto distribution. We also study the I/O load imbalance problems using I/O performance data collected from the Spider storage system.

  19. Assessment of the Electrical Power Requirements for Continued Safe Storage and Waste Feed Delivery Phase One

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAY, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of the electrical distribution system to support safe storage as well as the first phase of the Waste Feed Delivery. Several recommendations are made to improve the electrical system. The ability to assure adequate Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) to the Privatization Contractor's vitrification facility is a key element in the overall Hanford cleanup schedule. An important aspect of this WFD is the availability of sufficient and appropriate electrical power in the single- and double-shell tank farms. The methodology for performing this review and the results are described

  20. Electric field detection of coherent synchrotron radiation in a storage ring generated using laser bunch slicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, I.; Shimosato, H.; Bito, M.; Furusawa, K.; Adachi, M.; Zen, H.; Kimura, S.; Katoh, M.; Shimada, M.; Yamamoto, N.; Hosaka, M.; Ashida, M.

    2012-01-01

    The electric field of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) generated by laser bunch slicing in a storage ring has been detected by an electro-optic sampling method. The gate pulses for sampling are sent through a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber. The observed electric field profile of the CSR is in good agreement with the spectrum of the CSR observed using Fourier transform far-infrared spectrometry, indicating good phase stability in the CSR. The longitudinal density profiles of electrons modulated by laser pulses were evaluated from the electric field profile.

  1. Stochastic control of smart home energy management with plug-in electric vehicle battery energy storage and photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Xiaosong; Moura, Scott; Yin, Xiaofeng; Pickert, Volker

    2016-11-01

    Energy management strategies are instrumental in the performance and economy of smart homes integrating renewable energy and energy storage. This article focuses on stochastic energy management of a smart home with PEV (plug-in electric vehicle) energy storage and photovoltaic (PV) array. It is motivated by the challenges associated with sustainable energy supplies and the local energy storage opportunity provided by vehicle electrification. This paper seeks to minimize a consumer's energy charges under a time-of-use tariff, while satisfying home power demand and PEV charging requirements, and accommodating the variability of solar power. First, the random-variable models are developed, including Markov Chain model of PEV mobility, as well as predictive models of home power demand and PV power supply. Second, a stochastic optimal control problem is mathematically formulated for managing the power flow among energy sources in the smart home. Finally, based on time-varying electricity price, we systematically examine the performance of the proposed control strategy. As a result, the electric cost is 493.6% less for a Tesla Model S with optimal stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) control relative to the no optimal control case, and it is by 175.89% for a Nissan Leaf.

  2. Solar thermal electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasemagha, Khairy Ramadan

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of modeling the thermal performance and economic feasibility of large (utility scale) and small solar thermal power plants for electricity generation. A number of solar concepts for power systems applications have been investigated. Each concept has been analyzed over a range of plant power ratings from 1 MW(sub e) to 300 MW(sub e) and over a range of capacity factors from a no-storage case (capacity factor of about 0.25 to 0.30) up to intermediate load capacity factors in the range of 0.46 to 0.60. The solar plant's economic viability is investigated by examining the effect of various parameters on the plant costs (both capital and O & M) and the levelized energy costs (LEC). The cost components are reported in six categories: collectors, energy transport, energy storage, energy conversion, balance of plant, and indirect/contingency costs. Concentrator and receiver costs are included in the collector category. Thermal and electric energy transport costs are included in the energy transport category. Costs for the thermal or electric storage are included in the energy storage category; energy conversion costs are included in the energy conversion category. The balance of plant cost category comprises the structures, land, service facilities, power conditioning, instrumentation and controls, and spare part costs. The indirect/contingency category consists of the indirect construction and the contingency costs. The concepts included in the study are (1) molten salt cavity central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-C-Salt); (2) molten salt external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Salt); (3) sodium external central receiver with sodium storage (PFCR/RE-Na); (4) sodium external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Na/Salt); (5) water/steam external central receiver with oil/rock storage (PFCR/R-E-W/S); (6) parabolic dish with stirling engine conversion and lead acid battery storage (PFDR/SLAB); (7) parabolic dish

  3. Future market: Electrical energy storage. Case study on behalf of the Federal Office for Environment Protection in the context of the research project innovative environmental policy in important fields of action; Zukunftsmarkt Elektrische Energiespeicherung. Fallstudie im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes Innovative Umweltpolitik in wichtigen Handlungsfeldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radgen, Peter [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Increased attention is currently being paid to electricity storage as a result of an energy policy which favours renewable energies. As the shares of fluctuating renewable energies (mainly wind and solar power) increase in the total electricity supply, it becomes more and more difficult to balance electricity demand and supply. This is linked to the facts that the share of controllable fossil electricity generation is decreasing (production) and, at the same time, the typically highly regionally concentrated renewable energy production is limited by the capacity of the electricity grid (distribution). Therefore energy research has recently begun focusing on grid-connected electricity storage systems. As electricity itself cannot be stored in large amounts, it is typically converted into other energy forms such as chemical energy, kinetic energy or potential energy. The most important technical data for electricity storage technologies are the specific energy [kWh/kg] and the peak power [kW/kg]. Other important features of electricity storage systems are life time, possible number of working cycles, efficiency and self discharging. Besides the traditional electricity storage systems based on pumped hydropower (limitations due to geological constraints) and lead batteries (limitations due to cost and cycle constraints) there are other storage technologies based on hydrogen, compressed air or REDOX reactions. For these three technologies a more detailed analysis has been done of the political framework conditions, the actors, and innovation indicators. This shows a significant increase in the number of patent applications for these and other storage technologies since the beginning of the 90s. On a global scale, the US and Japan are the leading countries for storage technologies in general, followed by the UK and Germany. Looking only on the European market Germany seems to lead the innovation race in the emerging storage technologies such as hydrogen, compressed air

  4. Heat transfer efficient thermal energy storage for steam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinberg, R.; Zvegilsky, D.; Epstein, M.

    2010-01-01

    A novel reflux heat transfer storage (RHTS) concept for producing high-temperature superheated steam in the temperature range 350-400 deg. C was developed and tested. The thermal storage medium is a metallic substance, Zinc-Tin alloy, which serves as the phase change material (PCM). A high-temperature heat transfer fluid (HTF) is added to the storage medium in order to enhance heat exchange within the storage system, which comprises PCM units and the associated heat exchangers serving for charging and discharging the storage. The applied heat transfer mechanism is based on the HTF reflux created by a combined evaporation-condensation process. It was shown that a PCM with a fraction of 70 wt.% Zn in the alloy (Zn70Sn30) is optimal to attain a storage temperature of 370 deg. C, provided the heat source such as solar-produced steam or solar-heated synthetic oil has a temperature of about 400 deg. C (typical for the parabolic troughs technology). This PCM melts gradually between temperatures 200 and 370 deg. C preserving the latent heat of fusion, mainly of the Zn-component, that later, at the stage of heat discharge, will be available for producing steam. The thermal storage concept was experimentally studied using a lab scale apparatus that enabled investigating of storage materials (the PCM-HTF system) simultaneously with carrying out thermal performance measurements and observing heat transfer effects occurring in the system. The tests produced satisfactory results in terms of thermal stability and compatibility of the utilized storage materials, alloy Zn70Sn30 and the eutectic mixture of biphenyl and diphenyl oxide, up to a working temperature of 400 deg. C. Optional schemes for integrating the developed thermal storage into a solar thermal electric plant are discussed and evaluated considering a pilot scale solar plant with thermal power output of 12 MW. The storage should enable uninterrupted operation of solar thermal electric systems during additional hours

  5. Battery Energy Storage Market: Commercial Scale, Lithium-ion Projects in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce; Gagnon, Pieter; Anderson, Kate; Elgqvist, Emma; Fu, Ran; Remo, Tim

    2016-10-01

    This slide deck presents current market data on the commercial scale li-ion battery storage projects in the U.S. It includes existing project locations, cost data and project cost breakdown, a map of demand charges across the U.S. and information about how the ITC and MACRS apply to energy storage projects that are paired with solar PV technology.

  6. Two-Level Control for Fast Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations with Multi Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SUN, BO; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies a hierarchical control for a fast charging station (FCS) composed of paralleled PWM rectifier and dedicated paralleled multiple flywheel energy storage systems (FESSs), in order to mitigate peak power shock on grid caused by sudden connection of electrical vehicle (EV) chargers...

  7. 78 FR 56944 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... process waste at the Humboldt Bay ISFSI will not significantly affect the quality of the human environment... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 72-27; NRC-2011-0115] Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...

  8. A Report on Simulation-Driven Reliability and Failure Analysis of Large-Scale Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Lipeng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Feiyi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oral, H. Sarp [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cao, Qing [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-11-01

    High-performance computing (HPC) storage systems provide data availability and reliability using various hardware and software fault tolerance techniques. Usually, reliability and availability are calculated at the subsystem or component level using limited metrics such as, mean time to failure (MTTF) or mean time to data loss (MTTDL). This often means settling on simple and disconnected failure models (such as exponential failure rate) to achieve tractable and close-formed solutions. However, such models have been shown to be insufficient in assessing end-to-end storage system reliability and availability. We propose a generic simulation framework aimed at analyzing the reliability and availability of storage systems at scale, and investigating what-if scenarios. The framework is designed for an end-to-end storage system, accommodating the various components and subsystems, their interconnections, failure patterns and propagation, and performs dependency analysis to capture a wide-range of failure cases. We evaluate the framework against a large-scale storage system that is in production and analyze its failure projections toward and beyond the end of lifecycle. We also examine the potential operational impact by studying how different types of components affect the overall system reliability and availability, and present the preliminary results

  9. Economic Evaluation of Energy Storage Systems and their Impact on Electricity Markets in a Smart-grid Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Dennis

    which cannot be internalized by a private agent. Therefore, only commercial applications for energy storage will be considered. In the following, storage dispatch algorithms and an evaluation framework are developed. This allows defining the benefits that a storage device can provide, including barriers and drivers to its deployment. In order to consider uncertainty in the evaluation process, several assessment methodologies are introduced and adapted to the respective context. Furthermore, the impact of storage systems on the electric grid as well as on electricity markets is analyzed. The results of this research do not only provide a better understanding about potential business cases and related income streams of storage devices to investors, but also provide deep insights into the associated risks of such an investment. Furthermore, the results allow policy makers to identify the relevant parameters for promoting storage in order to facilitate the integration of additional renewable generation capacity. Last, this document gives traditional power producers as well as grid operators a better understanding about the impact of storage installations on generation and demand patterns as well as on the possible impacts on electricity markets. None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None

  10. Combining plasma gasification and solid oxide cell technologies in advanced power plants for waste to energy and electric energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Alessandra; Minutillo, Mariagiovanna; Lubrano Lavadera, Antonio; Jannelli, Elio

    2018-03-01

    The waste to energy (WtE) facilities and the renewable energy storage systems have a strategic role in the promotion of the "eco-innovation", an emerging priority in the European Union. This paper aims to propose advanced plant configurations in which waste to energy plants and electric energy storage systems from intermittent renewable sources are combined for obtaining more efficient and clean energy solutions in accordance with the "eco-innovation" approach. The advanced plant configurations consist of an electric energy storage (EES) section based on a solid oxide electrolyzer (SOEC), a waste gasification section based on the plasma technology and a power generation section based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The plant configurations differ for the utilization of electrolytic hydrogen and oxygen in the plasma gasification section and in the power generation section. In the first plant configuration IAPGFC (Integrated Air Plasma Gasification Fuel Cell), the renewable oxygen enriches the air stream, that is used as plasma gas in the gasification section, and the renewable hydrogen is used to enrich the anodic stream of the SOFC in the power generation section. In the second plant configuration IHPGFC (Integrated Hydrogen Plasma Gasification Fuel Cell) the renewable hydrogen is used as plasma gas in the plasma gasification section, and the renewable oxygen is used to enrich the cathodic stream of the SOFC in the power generation section. The analysis has been carried out by using numerical models for predicting and comparing the systems performances in terms of electric efficiency and capability in realizing the waste to energy and the electric energy storage of renewable sources. Results have highlighted that the electric efficiency is very high for all configurations (35-45%) and, thanks to the combination with the waste to energy technology, the storage efficiencies are very attractive (in the range 72-92%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  11. Integrated electrification solution for autonomous electrical networks on the basis of RES and energy storage configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Most medium and small islands of the Aegean Archipelagos face serious infrastructure problems, strongly related with the limited electrical energy available at extremely high cost. On the other hand, the area is characterized by very high wind speeds and abundant solar energy, thus the exploitation of the available renewable energy sources (RES) may significantly contribute to the fulfillment of the local societies energy demand at minimum environmental and macroeconomic cost. However, the stochastic availability of wind energy and the variable availability of solar energy, the daily and seasonal electricity demand fluctuations, as well as the limited local electrical network capacity result in serious restrictions concerning the maximum renewable power penetration. In this context, the present paper investigates the possibility of creating a combined electricity generation facility based on the exploitation of wind or/and solar potential of an area as well as on the utilization of an appropriate energy storage configuration in order to replace the existing thermal power stations with rational investment requirements. For this purpose, the major parameters of the proposed integrated configuration are firstly calculated and its financial viability is accordingly analyzed. One of the main targets of the proposed solution is to maximize the RES exploitation of the area at a minimum electricity generation cost, while special emphasis is given in order to select the most cost-efficient energy storage device available. According to the results obtained the proposed solution is not only financially attractive but also improves the quality of the electricity offered to the local communities, substituting the expensive and heavily polluting existing thermal power stations

  12. Ideal Operation of a Photovoltaic Power Plant Equipped with an Energy Storage System on Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Järvelä

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no natural inertia in a photovoltaic (PV generator and changes in irradiation can be seen immediately at the output power. Moving cloud shadows are the dominant reason for fast PV power fluctuations taking place typically within a minute between 20 to 100% of the clear sky value roughly 100 times a day, on average. Therefore, operating a utility scale grid connected PV power plant is challenging. Currently, in many regions, renewable energy sources such as solar and wind receive feed-in tariffs that ensure a certain price for the energy. On the other hand, electricity markets operate on a supply-demand principle and a typical imbalance settlement period is one hour. This paper presents the energy, power and corresponding requirements for an energy storage system in a solar PV power plant to feed the power to the grid meeting the electricity spot markets practices. An ideal PV energy production forecast is assumed to be available to define reference powers of the system for the studied imbalance settlement periods. The analysis is done for three different PV system sizes using the existing irradiance measurements of the Tampere University of Technology solar PV power station research plant.

  13. Performance evaluation and parametric choice criteria of a Brayton pumped thermal electricity storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Juncheng; Cai, Ling; Chen, Jincan; Zhou, Yinghui

    2016-01-01

    A more realistic thermodynamic model of the pumped thermal electricity storage (PTES) system consisting of a Brayton cycle and a reverse Brayton cycle is proposed, where the internal and external irreversible losses are took into account and several important controlling parameters, e.g., the pressure ratio and heat flows of the two isobaric processes in the Brayton cycle, are introduced. Analytic expressions for the round trip efficiency and power output of the PTES system are derived. The general performance characteristics of the PTES system are revealed. The optimal relationship between the round trip efficiency and the power output is obtained. The influences of some important controlling parameters on the performance characteristics of the PTES system are discussed and the optimally operating regions of these parameters are determined. - Highlights: • A cycle model of the Brayton pumped thermal electricity storage system is proposed. • Internal and external irreversible losses are considered. • Maximum power output and efficiency of the system are calculated. • Optimum performance characteristics of the system are revealed. • Rational ranges of key controlling parameters are determined.

  14. Capture, transport and storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, B.

    2008-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gas CO2 in industrial processes and electricity production can be reduced on a large scale. Available techniques include post-combustion, pre-combustion, the oxy-fuel process, CO2 fixation in industrial processes and CO2 mineralization. In the Netherlands, plans for CO2 capture are not developing rapidly (CCS - carbon capture and storage). [mk] [nl

  15. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utility load leveling: A study of cost vs. stored energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo, C.A.; Loyd, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is a promising technology for electric utility load leveling. This paper presents the results of a study to establish the capital cost of SMES as a function of stored energy. Energy-related coil cost and total installed plant cost are given for construction in nominal soil and in competent rock. Economic comparisons are made between SMES and other storage technologies and peaking gas turbines. SMES is projected to be competitive at stored energies as low as 1000 MWh

  16. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper......, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution...... to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should...

  17. Rough surface electrical contact resistance considering scale dependent properties and quantum effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Robert L.; Crandall, Erika R.; Bozack, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of scale dependent mechanical and electrical properties on electrical contact resistance (ECR) between rough surfaces. This work attempts to build on existing ECR models that neglect potentially important quantum- and size-dependent contact and electrical conduction mechanisms present due to the asperity sizes on typical surfaces. The electrical conductance at small scales can quantize or show a stepping trend as the contact area is varied in the range of the free electron Fermi wavelength squared. This work then evaluates if these effects remain important for the interface between rough surfaces, which may include many small scale contacts of varying sizes. The results suggest that these effects may be significant in some cases, while insignificant for others. It depends on the load and the multiscale structure of the surface roughness

  18. A low-cost iron-cadmium redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.; Jiang, H. R.

    2016-10-01

    The redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies that offer a potential solution to the intermittency of renewable sources such as wind and solar. The prerequisite for widespread utilization of RFBs is low capital cost. In this work, an iron-cadmium redox flow battery (Fe/Cd RFB) with a premixed iron and cadmium solution is developed and tested. It is demonstrated that the coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the Fe/Cd RFB reach 98.7% and 80.2% at 120 mA cm-2, respectively. The Fe/Cd RFB exhibits stable efficiencies with capacity retention of 99.87% per cycle during the cycle test. Moreover, the Fe/Cd RFB is estimated to have a low capital cost of 108 kWh-1 for 8-h energy storage. Intrinsically low-cost active materials, high cell performance and excellent capacity retention equip the Fe/Cd RFB to be a promising solution for large-scale energy storage systems.

  19. Harvesting and redistributing renewable energy: on the role of gas and electricity grids to overcome intermittency through the generation and storage of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Dennis; Leach, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    If intermittent renewable energy technologies such as those based on solar, wind, wave and tidal resources are eventually to supply significant shares of total energy supplies, it is crucial that the energy storage problem is solved. There are several (long-recognised) possibilities ahead including compressed air, pumped storage, further developments in batteries, regenerable fuel cells, 'super-capacitors' and so forth. But one that is being revisited extensively by industry and research establishments is the production and storage of hydrogen from electricity at off-peak times, and in times when there would be a surplus of renewable energy, for reuse in the electricity, gas and transport markets; short-term and even seasonal and longer-term storage is technically feasible with this option. This paper looks at the costs of the option both in the near-term and the long-term relative to the current costs of electricity and natural gas supplies. While the costs of hydrogen would necessarily be greater than those of natural gas (though not disruptively so), when used in conjunction with emerging technologies for decentralised generation and combined heat and power there is scope for appreciable economies in electricity supply. A lot will depend on innovation at the systems level, and on how we operate our electricity and gas grids and regulate our electricity and gas industries. We have also suggested that we now need to experiment more, at the commercial level, and in the laboratories, with the hydrogen option

  20. Nonlinear dielectric thin films for high-power electric storage with energy density comparable with electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kui; Chen, Shuting; Rahimabady, Mojtaba; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Yu, Shuhui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock; Sritharan, Thirumany; Lu, Li

    2011-09-01

    Although batteries possess high energy storage density, their output power is limited by the slow movement of charge carriers, and thus capacitors are often required to deliver high power output. Dielectric capacitors have high power density with fast discharge rate, but their energy density is typically much lower than electrochemical supercapacitors. Increasing the energy density of dielectric materials is highly desired to extend their applications in many emerging power system applications. In this paper, we review the mechanisms and major characteristics of electric energy storage with electrochemical supercapacitors and dielectric capacitors. Three types of in-house-produced ferroic nonlinear dielectric thin film materials with high energy density are described, including (Pb(0.97)La(0.02))(Zr(0.90)Sn(0.05)Ti(0.05))O(3) (PLZST) antiferroelectric ceramic thin films, Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-)PbTiO(3) (PZN-PMN-PT) relaxor ferroelectric ceramic thin films, and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based polymer blend thin films. The results showed that these thin film materials are promising for electric storage with outstandingly high power density and fairly high energy density, comparable with electrochemical supercapacitors.

  1. Electric vehicles in imperfect electricity markets: The case of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    We use a game-theoretic model to analyze the impacts of a hypothetical fleet of plug-in electric vehicles on the imperfectly competitive German electricity market. Electric vehicles bring both additional demand and additional storage capacity to the market. We determine the effects on prices, welfare, and electricity generation for various cases with different players in charge of vehicle operations. Vehicle loading increases generator profits, but decreases consumer surplus in the power market. If excess vehicle batteries can be used for storage, welfare results are reversed: generating firms suffer from the price-smoothing effect of additional storage, whereas power consumers benefit despite increasing overall demand. Strategic players tend to under-utilize the storage capacity of the vehicle fleet, which may have negative welfare implications. In contrast, we find a market power-mitigating effect of electric vehicle recharging on oligopolistic generators. Overall, electric vehicles are unlikely to be a relevant source of market power in Germany in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: → We study the effect of electric vehicles on an imperfectly competitive electricity market. → We apply a game-theoretic model to the German market. → There is a market power-mitigating effect of vehicle loading on oligopolistic generating firms. → Consumers benefit from electric vehicles if excess battery capacity can be used for grid storage. → Electric vehicles are unlikely to be a source of market power in Germany in the near future.

  2. Comparison of control systems for the optimisation of ice storage in a dynamic real time electricity pricing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.D.; O’Mahony, M.J.; Upton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A cold thermal energy storage system model was created and validated. • Pseudo real time electricity pricing was derived to represent the smart grid. • A demand side management optimisation algorithm was developed. • Demand side management algorithm performance was compared to a standard controller. • Overall the demand side management algorithm produced modest cost savings. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the benefits of introducing a demand side management optimisation controller to a cold thermal storage ice bank. This controller consisted of an ice bank model, an air temperature forecast model and an optimisation algorithm. The financial and grid utilisation benefits produced by implementation of this controller over the current state of the art in ice bank load shifting control was tested in a day ahead real time electricity pricing forecast environment. This hypothetical real time electricity price was based on the cost of electricity in the Irish wholesale market. Multiple ice bank charge levels were simulated in order to quantify the performance of two control methods for varying operating conditions. First, the “standard controller” was based on the current modus operandi for ice bank systems where ice was generated for food cooling at night when the off-peak electricity tariff is available (00:00–08:00 h). Second, the “upgraded controller” was developed as a bespoke Demand Side Management control system for food refrigeration in a future electricity pricing environment. It consisted of a dual function load shifting optimisation algorithm, an ice bank model, and a predictive air temperature model. A preliminary study was also carried out to test the robustness of the controller’s performance in an uncertain real time electricity pricing forecast scenario. Both economic and grid management benefits were found by simulating the operation of the cold thermal storage load shifting controller in a

  3. A Control Algorithm for Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Stations Equipped with Flywheel Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a control strategy for plugin electric vehicle (PEV) fast charging station (FCS) equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS). The main role of the FESS is not to compromise the predefined charging profile of PEV battery during the provision of a hysteresis-type active...

  4. MMS Multipoint Electric Field Observations of Small-Scale Magnetic Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Katherine A.; Ergun, Robert E.; Wilder, Frederick; Burch, James; Torbert, Roy; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Russell, Christopher; Strangeway, Robert; Magnus, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale magnetic holes (MHs), local depletions in magnetic field strength, have been observed multiple times in the Earths magnetosphere in the bursty bulk flow (BBF) braking region. This particular subset of MHs has observed scale sizes perpendicular to the background magnetic field (B) less than the ambient ion Larmor radius (p(sib i)). Previous observations by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) indicate that this subset of MHs can be supported by a current driven by the E x B drift of electrons. Ions do not participate in the E x B drift due to the small-scale size of the electric field. While in the BBF braking region, during its commissioning phase, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft observed a small-scale MH. The electric field observations taken during this event suggest the presence of electron currents perpendicular to the magnetic field. These observations also suggest that these currents can evolve to smaller spatial scales.

  5. The limits to solar thermal electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The potential and limits of solar thermal power systems depend primarily on their capacity to meet electricity demand in mid-winter, and the associated cost, storage and other implications. Evidence on output and costs is analysed. Most attention is given to central receivers. Problems of low radiation levels, embodied energy costs, variability and storage are discussed and are found to set significant difficulties for large scale solar thermal supply in less than ideal latitudes and seasons. It is concluded that for solar thermal systems to meet a large fraction of anticipated global electricity demand in winter would involve prohibitive capital costs. - Highlights: • Output and capital cost data for various solar thermal technologies is examined. • Special attention is given to performance in winter. • Attention is also given to the effect of solar intermittency. • Implications for storage are considered. • It is concluded that there are significant limits to solar thermal power

  6. Fundamental Challenges for Modeling Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems at the Atomic Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Axel

    2018-04-23

    There is a strong need to improve the efficiency of electrochemical energy storage, but progress is hampered by significant technological and scientific challenges. This review describes the potential contribution of atomic-scale modeling to the development of more efficient batteries, with a particular focus on first-principles electronic structure calculations. Numerical and theoretical obstacles are discussed, along with ways to overcome them, and some recent examples are presented illustrating the insights into electrochemical energy storage that can be gained from quantum chemical studies.

  7. Energy storage. The actual challenge for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combe, Matthieu; Danielo, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    As methods of energy production are now diversified and efficient, the challenge is now their integration into the grid, and their storage. Thus, this publication first proposes a set of articles which address perspectives and realisations (or projects) related to energy storage: the challenge of modernisation of Pump Storage Power plants (PSP), the possibilities provided by power-to-gas technology to store electricity, the possibilities provided by coupling of CO 2 storage and geothermal energy. Other aspects concern electric power storage at the back end of the supply chain: the Corri-door project of 200 terminals for fast electric charging (for electric vehicles), the emergence of the domestic battery as storage mean in different counties. More prospective projects are also evoked: the use of hot water in Hawaii to store photovoltaic solar electricity and inspired projects by ENGIE and EDF, the perspective of energy storage on miniaturised chips, and a three-wheel light vehicle (Moe) using solar energy and developed by the Evovelo startup

  8. Power electronic interface circuits for batteries and ultracapacitors in electric vehicles and battery storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Robert Dean; DeDoncker, Rik Wivina Anna Adelson

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for load leveling of a battery in an electrical power system includes a power regulator coupled to transfer power between a load and a DC link, a battery coupled to the DC link through a first DC-to-DC converter and an auxiliary passive energy storage device coupled to the DC link through a second DC-to-DC converter. The battery is coupled to the passive energy storage device through a unidirectional conducting device whereby the battery can supply power to the DC link through each of the first and second converters when battery voltage exceeds voltage on the passive storage device. When the load comprises a motor capable of operating in a regenerative mode, the converters are adapted for transferring power to the battery and passive storage device. In this form, resistance can be coupled in circuit with the second DC-to-DC converter to dissipate excess regenerative power.

  9. Labelling of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettli, R.; Markard, J.

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed

  10. Planning and Prototyping for a Storage Ring Measurement of the Proton Electric Dipole Moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talman, Richard [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Electron and proton EDM's can be measured in "frozen spin" (with the beam polarization always parallel to the orbit, for example) storage rings. For electrons the "magic" kinetic energy at which the beam can be frozen is 14.5 MeV. For protons the magic kinetic energy is 230 MeV. The currently measured upper limit for the electron EDM is much smaller than the proton EDM upper limit, which is very poorly known. Nevertheless, because the storage ring will be an order of magnitude cheaper, a sensible plan is to first build an all-electric electron storage ring as a prototype. Such an electron ring was successfully built at Brookhaven, in 1954, as a prototype for their AGS ring. This leaves little uncertainty concerning the cost and performance of such a ring. (This is documentedin one of the Physical Review papers mentioned above.)

  11. Combined Solar Charging Stations and Energy Storage Units Allocation for Electric Vehicles by Considering Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefi Khanghah, Babak; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming a key feature of smart grids. EVs will be embedded in the smart grids as a mobile load-storage with probabilistic behavior. In order to manage EVs as flexible loads, charging stations (CSs) have essential roles. In this paper, a new method for optimal sitting...... are considered based on time-of-use (TOU) demand response programs (DRPs). In order to solve the optimization problem considering uncertainty of load growth, electricity price, initial state of charge of batteries and solar power generation, genetic algorithm method using Monte-Carlo simulation is used...

  12. Simulation of spin dynamics to measure electric dipole moments in storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Marcel; Lehrach, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Collaboration: JEDI-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    CP violation in the baryon sector, which is predicted by the Standard Model of Particle Physics, is too small to explain the matter and antimatter asymmetry in our universe. Permanent Electric Dipole Moments (EDMs) violate both P and T symmetries and are therefore, through the CPT theorem, also CP violating. No direct EDM measurements for protons, deuterons and light nuclei have been performed up to now. The JEDI collaboration at Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) and the BNL-EDM collaboration at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) pursue the goal to measure the EDMs of these particles in dedicated storage rings. Therefore different approaches are studied to reach an ultimate sensitivity of 10{sup -29} e.cm. A first direct measurement of the proton and deuteron EDM at a sensitivity level of 10{sup -24} e.cm will be performed in the existing conventional storage ring at FZJ, the Cooler Synchrotron COSY. Particle tracking simulations to explore the motion-correlated spin dynamics are a crucial part of feasibility studies of the planned storage ring EDM experiments. In a first step, a benchmarking of simulation codes with measurements at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY is performed.

  13. Electricity prices, large-scale renewable integration, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyritsis, Evangelos; Andersson, Jonas; Serletis, Apostolos

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of intermittent solar and wind power generation on electricity price formation in Germany. We use daily data from 2010 to 2015, a period with profound modifications in the German electricity market, the most notable being the rapid integration of photovoltaic and wind power sources, as well as the phasing out of nuclear energy. In the context of a GARCH-in-Mean model, we show that both solar and wind power Granger cause electricity prices, that solar power generation reduces the volatility of electricity prices by scaling down the use of peak-load power plants, and that wind power generation increases the volatility of electricity prices by challenging electricity market flexibility. - Highlights: • We model the impact of solar and wind power generation on day-ahead electricity prices. • We discuss the different nature of renewables in relation to market design. • We explore the impact of renewables on the distributional properties of electricity prices. • Solar and wind reduce electricity prices but affect price volatility in the opposite way. • Solar decreases the probability of electricity price spikes, while wind increases it.

  14. Coordinated operation of a neighborhood of smart households comprising electric vehicles, energy storage and distributed generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterakis, N.G.; Erdinc, O.; Pappi, I.N.; Bakirtzis, A.G.; Catalao, J.P.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal operation of a neighborhood of smart households in terms of minimizing the total energy procurement cost is analyzed. Each household may comprise several assets such as electric vehicles, controllable appliances, energy storage and distributed generation. Bi-directional

  15. Seismic Response Analysis and Test of 1/8 Scale Model for a Spent Fuel Storage Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Park, C. G.; Koo, G. H.; Seo, G. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, S. H. [Chungnam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, B. I.; Cho, Y. D. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    The seismic response tests of a spent fuel dry storage cask model of 1/8 scale are performed for an typical 1940 El-centro and Kobe earthquakes. This report firstly focuses on the data generation by seismic response tests of a free standing storage cask model to check the overturing possibility of a storage cask and the slipping displacement on concrete slab bed. The variations in seismic load magnitude and cask/bed interface friction are considered in tests. The test results show that the model gives an overturning response for an extreme condition only. A FEM model is built for the test model of 1/8 scale spent fuel dry storage cask using available 3D contact conditions in ABAQUS/Explicit. Input load for this analysis is El-centro earthquake, and the friction coefficients are obtained from the test result. Penalty and kinematic contact methods of ABAQUS are used for a mechanical contact formulation. The analysis methods was verified with the rocking angle obtained by seismic response tests. The kinematic contact method with an adequate normal contact stiffness showed a good agreement with tests. Based on the established analysis method for 1/8 scale model, the seismic response analyses of a full scale model are performed for design and beyond design seismic loads.

  16. Modeling and simulation of CO methanation process for renewable electricity storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Er-rbib, Hanaâ; Bouallou, Chakib

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach of converting renewable electricity into methane via syngas (a mixture of CO and H 2 ) and CO methanation is presented. Surplus of electricity is used to electrolyze H 2 O and CO 2 to H 2 and CO by using a SOEC (Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell). Syngas produced is then converted into methane. When high consumption peaks appear, methane is used to produce electricity. The main conversion step in this process is CO methanation. A modeling of catalytic fixed bed methanation reactor and a design of methanation unit composed of multistage adiabatic reactors are carried out using Aspen plus™ software. The model was validated by comparing the simulated results of gas composition (CH 4 , CO, CO 2 and H 2 ) with industrial data. In addition, the effects of recycle ratio on adiabatic reactor stages, outlet temperature, and H 2 and CO conversions are carefully investigated. It is found that for storing 10 MW of renewable electricity, methanation unit is composed of three adiabatic reactors with recycle loop and intermediate cooling at 553 K and 1.5 MPa. The methanation unit generates 3778.6 kg/h of steam at 523.2 K and 1 MPa (13.67 MW). - Highlights: • A catalytic fixed bed reactor of CO methanation was modeled. • The maximum relative error of the methanation reactor model is 12%. • For 10 MW storage of renewable electricity, three adiabatic reactors are required. • The recycle ratio affects the reactor outlet temperature and CO conversion

  17. Reallocating risks and returns to scale up adoption of distributed electricity resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulatilaka, Nalin; Santiago, Leonardo; Vakili, Pirooz

    2014-01-01

    Deployment of distributed electricity resources requires bringing together assets that belong to diverse and geographically diffuse owners. Using the example of distributed solar PV, we analyze the schemes used to encourage/induce owners of distributed assets to make them available for electricity generation. The dominant model in the U.S. is long term power purchase agreements (PPA) offered to owners/consumers by solar developers. We show that these agreements (mis)allocate the electricity price risk to owners/consumers and impose limitations on the scale up of distributed solar. By proper use of financial markets it is possible to shift the electricity price risk from owners/consumers to parties that are better positioned to manage it. The proposed contracts simplify the adoption decision for owners/consumers and can lead to a wider adoption. Removing barriers to scale up requires (i) eliminating the tight coupling between consumers and owners and (ii) rewarding the owners unambiguously for the assets they provide. These necessitate the transformation of the current intermediary firms into full-fledged distributed generators. We discuss the implications of such a transformation and argue that the broad outline of our analysis can be used to assess scale up schemes in other domains of distributed electricity resources as well. - Highlights: • We analyze schemes used to induce owners of distributed assets to make them available for electricity generation. • We show that power purchase agreements used in solar PV “misallocate” electricity price risk to owners/consumers. • We propose new contracts forms that shift price risk from consumers to parties that are better able to manage it. • Full-fledged distributed generators are created by unambiguously rewarding owners and de-coupling consumption/ownership. • We argue that our analysis can be used to assess scale up schemes in other domains of distributed electricity resources

  18. Conception of a heat storage system for household applications. Category: New product innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Thomas [Leuphana Univ. Lueneburg (Germany); Rammelberg, Holger U.; Roennebeck, Thomas [and others

    2012-07-01

    Almost 90% of the energy consumption of private households in Germany is used for heating. Thus, an efficient, sustainable and reliable heat management is one of the main challenges in the future. Heat storage will become a key technology when considering the daily, weekly, seasonal and unpredictable fluctuations of energy production with renewables. The storage of heat is much more volume- and energy-efficient as well as more economical than electricity storage. However, transport of heat over long distances is coupled with high losses, compared with electricity transport. Therefore, we propose the use of micro CHP in combination with volume-efficient and nearly loss-free heat storage to counteract electricity fluctuations. Focus of this contribution the conception of the large-scale project ''Thermal Battery'', funded by the European Union and the Federal State of Lower Saxony. The underlying principle is the utilization of reversible thermochemical reactions, such as dehydration and rehydration of salt hydrates for heat storage. The main goal is the development of a prototypical storage tank, which is capable of storing 80 kWh of heat with a system volume of less than 1 m{sup 3}. Importantly, the Vattenfall New Energy Services as a collaboration partner will support the development of an application-oriented heat storage device. This project is being carried out by an interdisciplinary team of engineers, chemists, physicists and environmental scientists.

  19. Deriving Scaling Factors Using a Global Hydrological Model to Restore GRACE Total Water Storage Changes for China's Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Di; Yang, Yuting; Yoshihide, Wada; Hong, Yang; Liang, Wei; Chen, Yaning; Yong, Bin; Hou, Aizhong; Wei, Jiangfeng; Chen, Lu

    2015-01-01

    This study used a global hydrological model (GHM), PCR-GLOBWB, which simulates surface water storage changes, natural and human induced groundwater storage changes, and the interactions between surface water and subsurface water, to generate scaling factors by mimicking low-pass filtering of GRACE signals. Signal losses in GRACE data were subsequently restored by the scaling factors from PCR-GLOBWB. Results indicate greater spatial heterogeneity in scaling factor from PCR-GLOBWB and CLM4.0 than that from GLDAS-1 Noah due to comprehensive simulation of surface and subsurface water storage changes for PCR-GLOBWB and CLM4.0. Filtered GRACE total water storage (TWS) changes applied with PCR-GLOBWB scaling factors show closer agreement with water budget estimates of TWS changes than those with scaling factors from other land surface models (LSMs) in China's Yangtze River basin. Results of this study develop a further understanding of the behavior of scaling factors from different LSMs or GHMs over hydrologically complex basins, and could be valuable in providing more accurate TWS changes for hydrological applications (e.g., monitoring drought and groundwater storage depletion) over regions where human-induced interactions between surface water and subsurface water are intensive.

  20. Demonstration of Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage to Support Renewable Energy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, Benjamin [Sustainx, Incorporated, Seabrook, NH (United States)

    2015-01-02

    This project develops and demonstrates a megawatt (MW)-scale Energy Storage System that employs compressed air as the storage medium. An isothermal compressed air energy storage (ICAESTM) system rated for 1 MW or more will be demonstrated in a full-scale prototype unit. Breakthrough cost-effectiveness will be achieved through the use of proprietary methods for isothermal gas cycling and staged gas expansion implemented using industrially mature, readily-available components.The ICAES approach uses an electrically driven mechanical system to raise air to high pressure for storage in low-cost pressure vessels, pipeline, or lined-rock cavern (LRC). This air is later expanded through the same mechanical system to drive the electric motor as a generator. The approach incorporates two key efficiency-enhancing innovations: (1) isothermal (constant temperature) gas cycling, which is achieved by mixing liquid with air (via spray or foam) to exchange heat with air undergoing compression or expansion; and (2) a novel, staged gas-expansion scheme that allows the drivetrain to operate at constant power while still allowing the stored gas to work over its entire pressure range. The ICAES system will be scalable, non-toxic, and cost-effective, making it suitable for firming renewables and for other grid applications.

  1. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should be disregarded but that it will be needed for other purposes in the future.

  2. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  3. Swiss pumped hydro storage potential for Germany's electricity system under high penetration of intermittent renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerwijk, Aagje J. H.; Benders, Reinerus; Davila-Martinez, Alejandro; Laugs, Gideon A. H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to cut greenhouse-gas emissions and increase energy security, the European Commission stimulates the deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources (IRES) towards 2050. In an electricity system with high shares of IRES implemented in the network, energy balancing like storage is needed

  4. The Economics of Storage, Transmission and Drought: Integrating Variable Wind Power into Spatially Separated Electricity Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scora, H.; Sopinka, A.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    To mitigate the high variability of wind and make it a more viable renewable energy source, observers recommend greater integration of spatially-separated electrical grids, with high transmission lines linking load centers, scattered wind farms and hydro storage sites. In this study, we examine the

  5. Corrections for a constant radial magnetic field in the muon g - 2 and electric-dipole-moment experiments in storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silenko, Alexander J. [Belarusian State University, Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Minsk (Belarus); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-15

    We calculate the corrections for constant radial magnetic field in muon g - 2 and electric-dipole-moment experiments in storage rings. While the correction is negligible for the current generation of g - 2 experiments, it affects the upcoming muon electric-dipole-moment experiment at Fermilab. (orig.)

  6. Energy, electricity and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.; Naudet, G.

    2008-01-01

    After an introduction recalling what energy is, the first part of this book presents the present day energy production and consumption and details more particularly the electricity 'vector' which is an almost perfect form of energy despite the fact that it is not a primary energy source: it must be generated from another energy source and no large scale storage of this energy is possible. The second part of the book is devoted to nuclear energy principles and to the related technologies. Content: 1 - What does energy mean?: the occurrence of the energy concept, the classical notion of energy, energy notion in modern physics, energy transformations, energy conservation, irreversibility of energy transformations, data and units used in the energy domain; 2 - energy production and consumption: energy systems, energy counting, reserves and potentialities of energy resources, production of primary energies, transport and storage of primary energies, energy consumption, energy saving, energy markets and prices, energy indicators; 3 - electric power: specificity of electricity and the electric system, power networks, power generation, electricity storage, power consumption and demand, power generation economics, electricity prices and market; 4 - physical principles of nuclear energy: nuclei structure and binding energy, radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear reactions used in energy generation, basics of fission reactors physics; 5 - nuclear techniques: historical overview, main reactor types used today, perspectives; 6 - fuel cycle: general considerations, uranium mining, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, back-end of the cycle, plutonium recycle in water cooled reactors; 7 - health and environmental aspects of nuclear energy: effects on ionizing radiations, basics of radiation protection, environmental impacts of nuclear energy, the nuclear wastes problem, specific risks; 8 - conclusion; 9 - appendixes (units, physics constants etc..)

  7. Plasma-electric field controlled growth of oriented graphene for energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subrata; Polaki, S. R.; Kamruddin, M.; Jeong, Sang Mun; (Ken Ostrikov, Kostya

    2018-04-01

    It is well known that graphene grows as flat sheets aligned with the growth substrate. Oriented graphene structures typically normal to the substrate have recently attracted major attention. Most often, the normal orientation is achieved in a plasma-assisted growth and is believed to be due to the plasma-induced in-built electric field, which is usually oriented normal to the substrate. This work focuses on the effect of an in-built electric field on the growth direction, morphology, interconnectedness, structural properties and also the supercapacitor performance of various configurations of graphene structures and reveals the unique dependence of these features on the electric field orientation. It is shown that tilting of growth substrates from parallel to the normal direction with respect to the direction of in-built plasma electric field leads to the morphological transitions from horizontal graphene layers, to oriented individual graphene sheets and then interconnected 3D networks of oriented graphene sheets. The revealed transition of the growth orientation leads to a change in structural properties, wetting nature, types of defect in graphitic structures and also affects their charge storage capacity when used as supercapacitor electrodes. This simple and versatile approach opens new opportunities for the production of potentially large batches of differently oriented and structured graphene sheets in one production run.

  8. Large temporal scale and capacity subsurface bulk energy storage with CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, M. O.; Fleming, M. R.; Adams, B. M.; Ogland-Hand, J.; Nelson, E. S.; Randolph, J.; Sioshansi, R.; Kuehn, T. H.; Buscheck, T. A.; Bielicki, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Decarbonizing energy systems by increasing the penetration of variable renewable energy (VRE) technologies requires efficient and short- to long-term energy storage. Very large amounts of energy can be stored in the subsurface as heat and/or pressure energy in order to provide both short- and long-term (seasonal) storage, depending on the implementation. This energy storage approach can be quite efficient, especially where geothermal energy is naturally added to the system. Here, we present subsurface heat and/or pressure energy storage with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) and discuss the system's efficiency, deployment options, as well as its advantages and disadvantages, compared to several other energy storage options. CO2-based subsurface bulk energy storage has the potential to be particularly efficient and large-scale, both temporally (i.e., seasonal) and spatially. The latter refers to the amount of energy that can be stored underground, using CO2, at a geologically conducive location, potentially enabling storing excess power from a substantial portion of the power grid. The implication is that it would be possible to employ centralized energy storage for (a substantial part of) the power grid, where the geology enables CO2-based bulk subsurface energy storage, whereas the VRE technologies (solar, wind) are located on that same power grid, where (solar, wind) conditions are ideal. However, this may require reinforcing the power grid's transmission lines in certain parts of the grid to enable high-load power transmission from/to a few locations.

  9. Wind power integration with heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles – Energy systems analysis and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten

    The fluctuating and only partly predictable nature of wind challenges an effective integration of large wind power penetrations. This PhD thesis investigates to which extent heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles can support the integration of wind power. Considering the gaps in existing...... in an energy system context. Energy systems analyses reveal that the heat pumps can even without flexible operation contribute significantly to facilitating larger wind power investments and reducing system costs, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions. When equipping the heat pumps with heat storages, only...... moderate additional benefits are achieved. Hereof, the main benefit is that the need for investing in peak/reserve capacities can be reduced through peak load shaving. It is more important to ensure flexible operation of electric vehicles than of individual heat pumps, due to differences in the load...

  10. Ramping Performance Analysis of the Kahuku Wind-Energy Battery Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Corbus, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-11-01

    High penetrations of wind power on the electrical grid can introduce technical challenges caused by resource variability. Such variability can have undesirable effects on the frequency, voltage, and transient stability of the grid. Energy storage devices can be an effective tool in reducing variability impacts on the power grid in the form of power smoothing and ramp control. Integrating anenergy storage system with a wind power plant can help smooth the variable power produced from wind. This paper explores the fast-response, megawatt-scale, wind-energy battery storage systems that were recently deployed throughout the Hawaiian islands to support wind and solar projects.

  11. Energy storage reinforces competitive business practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makansi, J.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines how the ability to ''store'' electricity can pay handsome dividends in a competitive environment. Priorities change when industries are deregulated. Indeed, new priorities are being established for electric generation--low cost, efficiency, product distinction for marketing purposes, etc. are all more critical today. Perhaps not so obvious is the fundamental role of energy storage in a fully competitive marketplace. In fact, rarely do a technology development and a changing business climate play off against each other so nicely. Consider the function of the emerging electricity broker, or power marketer. Imagine the premium that broker could command with access to a large increment of electricity--purchased at a low price--and supplied at a moment's notice for a substantially higher price. Storage of electricity would mean that the investment in excess available generation capacity to supply so-called peak demand could be avoided. It also means that electricity could be brokered like other commodities--that is purchased, stockpiled, and sold to reflect market conditions across a wider geographical region and time spain. Benefits accrue to transmission and distribution, in addition to generation. Energy storage helps to manage the increasing stress placed on the grid as a result of intermittent sources of power and large numbers of cogenerators and small power producers. On the customer side, any ratepayer large or small could, theoretically, play the spot market in electric supply with a reserve to tap in emergencies. For a parallel in other deregulated markets, recall how storage has become an important factor in natural-gas contracting. Quality of electricity also can be improved by applying storage to stabilize the grid, especially along the distribution system at substations. And the opening of vast markets for electricity consumption, such as electric vehicles, depends in large measure on electric storage

  12. Adopting small-scale production of electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengvard, Maria; Palm, Jenny (Linkoeping Univ., Dept. of Technology and Social Change, Linkoeping (Sweden)). e-mail: maria.tengvard@liu.se

    2009-07-01

    In Sweden in 2008, a 'new' concept for small-scale electricity production attracted massive media attention. This was mainly due to the efforts of Swedish company Egen El, which is marketing small-scale photovoltaics (PVs) and wind turbines to households, both homeowners and tenants. Their main selling point is simplicity: their products are so easy to install that everyone can do it. Autumn 2008 also saw IKEA announce that within three years it would market solar panels. How, then, do households perceive these products? Why would households choose to buy them? How do households think about producing their own electricity? Analysis of material based on in-depth interviews with members of 20 households reveals that environmental concerns supply the main motive for adopting PVs or micro wind power generation. In some cases, the adopting households have an extensively ecological lifestyle and such adoption represents a way to take action in the energy area. For some, this investment is symbolic: a way of displaying environmental consciousness or setting an example to others. For still others, the adoption is a protest against 'the system' with its large dominant actors or is a way to become self-sufficient. These microgeneration installations are rejected mainly on economic grounds; other motives are respect for neighbours and difficulties finding a place to install a wind turbine.

  13. Multifunctional Composites for Future Energy Storage in Aerospace Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Julian Adam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctionalization of fiber-reinforced composites, especially by adding energy storage capabilities, is a promising approach to realize lightweight structural energy storages for future transport vehicles. Compared to conventional energy storage systems, energy density can be increased by reducing parasitic masses of non-energy-storing components and by benefitting from the composite meso- and microarchitectures. In this paper, the most relevant existing approaches towards multifunctional energy storages are reviewed and subdivided into five groups by distinguishing their degree of integration and their scale of multifunctionalization. By introducing a modified range equation for battery-powered electric aircrafts, possible range extensions enabled by multifunctionalization are estimated. Furthermore, general and aerospace specific potentials of multifunctional energy storages are discussed. Representing an intermediate degree of structural integration, experimental results for a multifunctional energy-storing glass fiber-reinforced composite based on the ceramic electrolyte Li1.4Al0.4Ti1.6(PO43 are presented. Cyclic voltammetry tests are used to characterize the double-layer behavior combined with galvanostatic charge–discharge measurements for capacitance calculation. The capacitance is observed to be unchanged after 1500 charge–discharge cycles revealing a promising potential for future applications. Furthermore, the mechanical properties are assessed by means of four-point bending and tensile tests. Additionally, the influence of mechanical loads on the electrical properties is also investigated, demonstrating the storage stability of the composites.

  14. A novel iron-lead redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.; Ren, Y. X.

    2017-04-01

    The redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies for the massive utilization of intermittent renewables especially wind and solar energy. This work presents a novel redox flow battery that utilizes inexpensive and abundant Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples as redox materials. Experimental results show that both the Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples have fast electrochemical kinetics in methanesulfonic acid, and that the coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the battery are, respectively, as high as 96.2% and 86.2% at 40 mA cm-2. Furthermore, the battery exhibits stable performance in terms of efficiencies and discharge capacities during the cycle test. The inexpensive redox materials, fast electrochemical kinetics and stable cycle performance make the present battery a promising candidate for large-scale energy storage applications.

  15. Concept of a utility scale dispatch able solar thermal electricity plant with an indirect particle receiver in a single tower layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karl; Haider, Markus; Haemmerle, Martin; Steiner, Peter; Obermaier, Michael-Dario

    2016-05-01

    Flexible dispatch able solar thermal electricity plants applying state of the art power cycles have the potential of playing a vital role in modern electricity systems and even participating in the ancillary market. By replacing molten salt via particles, operation temperatures can be increased and plant efficiencies of over 45 % can be reached. In this work the concept for a utility scale plant using corundum as storage/heat transfer material is thermodynamically modeled and its key performance data are cited. A novel indirect fluidized bed particle receiver concept is presented, profiting from a near black body behavior being able to heat up large particle flows by realizing temperature cycles over 500°C. Specialized fluidized bed steam-generators are applied with negligible auxiliary power demand. The performance of the key components is discussed and a rough sketch of the plant is provided.

  16. Energy storage in Canada - Embassy report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quennehen, Sylvain

    2014-09-01

    After having outlined what is at stake in energy storage in the world (brief presentation of storage methods, overview of world electricity production and its storage challenges), and given an overview of the Canadian energy sector, this report gives an overview of the Canadian key and particularly innovating actors: main organisations, scientific research (in the fields of advanced batteries, of fuel cells, and of thermal storage), industrial sector (leaders in electricity production, in the electric or hybrid automotive sector and in the field of portable electronic devices, in the Li-ion battery sector, and in the hydrogen fuel cell sector, innovating actors in other energy storage methods). The author then discusses the innovation momentum in Canada: examples of energy storage projects by public organisations (CNRC, RNC), industrial projects in energy projects, investment dynamics

  17. Approach to Hybrid Energy Storage Systems Dimensioning for Urban Electric Buses Regarding Efficiency and Battery Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nájera

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Hybrid Energy Storage Systems (HESS, consisting of a combination of batteries and Electric Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC, for electric urban busses. The aim of the paper is to develop a methodology to determine the hybridization percentage that allows the electric bus to work with the highest efficiency while reducing battery aging, depending on the chosen topology, control strategy, and driving cycle. Three power electronic topologies are qualitatively analyzed based on different criteria, with the topology selected as the favorite being analyzed in detail. The whole system under study is comprised of the following elements: a battery pack (LiFePO4 batteries, an EDLC pack, up to two DC-DC converters (depending on the topology, and an equivalent load, which behaves as an electric bus drive (including motion resistances and inertia. Mathematical models for the battery, EDLCs, DC-DC converter, and the vehicle itself are developed for this analysis. The methodology presented in this work, as the main scientific contribution, considers performance variation (energy efficiency and battery aging and hybridization percentage (ratio between batteries and EDLCs, defined in terms of mass, using a power load profile based on standard driving cycles. The results state that there is a hybridization percentage that increases energy efficiency and reduces battery aging, maximizing the economic benefits of the vehicle, for every combination of topology, type of storage device, control strategy, and driving cycle.

  18. Corrections for a constant radial magnetic field in the muon \\varvec{g}-2 and electric-dipole-moment experiments in storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silenko, Alexander J.

    2017-10-01

    We calculate the corrections for constant radial magnetic field in muon {g}-2 and electric-dipole-moment experiments in storage rings. While the correction is negligible for the current generation of {g}-2 experiments, it affects the upcoming muon electric-dipole-moment experiment at Fermilab.

  19. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  20. Experimental study on scale removal from special-shaped conduits through underwater electrical discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Y; Wang, Z Q; Li, G F; Wu, Y; Zhou, J J

    2013-01-01

    Underwater electrical discharge technology is an innovative technique that can be used to enhance the stress intensity of water and improve the load addition. The technique enlarges the section area and compresses the surrounding water using a high-powered shock wave, which is induced by an underwater electrical discharge. This paper investigates the effectiveness of scale removal for special-shaped conduits employing underwater electrical discharge. Experimental results show that the pressure wave generated by underwater electrical discharge is capable of eliminating scale in special-shaped conduits. The data indicates that when the capacitance of the parallel-pulsed capacitors was 4 μF, the high pulsed power voltage was 33 kV and the primary discharge gap was 48 mm, the result of scale removal was remarkable. In laboratory tests, the scale of special equipment was removed to a great extent by this method. Because of its effectiveness and low cost, this method improves the practice and extends the lifetime of such equipment, and thus has potential application and economic value.

  1. Integrating large-scale cogeneration of hydrogen and electricity from wind and nuclear sources (NUWINDTM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A. I.; Duffey, R. B.

    2008-01-01

    As carbon-free fuels, hydrogen and electricity are headed for major roles in replacing hydrocarbons as the world constrains carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. This will apply particularly to the transport sector. A general trend toward electric drive on-board vehicles is already evident and hydrogen converted to electricity by a fuel cell is likely to be a major source of on-board electricity. The major car manufacturers continue to invest heavily in this option and significant government initiatives in both the USA and Canada are beginning demonstration deployments of the infrastructure needed for hydrogen refueling. However, early adoption of hydrogen as a transport fuel may well be concentrated on heavy-duty transportation: trains, ships and trucks, where battery storage of electricity is unlikely to be practical. But both hydrogen and electricity are secondary fuels and are only effective if the source of the primary energy is a low CO 2 emitter such as nuclear and wind. A competitive cost is also essential and, to achieve this, one must rely on off-peak electricity prices. This paper examines historical data for electricity prices and the actual output of the main wind farms in Ontario to show how nuclear and wind can be combined to generate hydrogen by water electrolysis at prices that are competitive with fossil-based hydrogen production. The NuWind TM concept depends on operating electrolysis cells over an extended range of current densities to accommodate the inherent variability of wind and of electricity prices as they vary in open markets. The cost of co-producing hydrogen with electricity originating from nuclear plants (80%) and from wind turbines (20%) is very close to that of production from a constantly available electricity source. In contrast, the price of hydrogen produced using electricity from wind alone is estimated to cost about $1500/tonne more than hydrogen from NuWind or nuclear alone because the electrolysis facility must be much larger

  2. A Fault-Tolerant Radiation-Robust Mass Storage Concept for Highly Scaled Flash Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Cristian M.; Trinitis, Carsten; Appel, Nicolas; Langer, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Future spacemissions will require vast amounts of data to be stored and processed aboard spacecraft. While satisfying operational mission requirements, storage systems must guarantee data integrity and recover damaged data throughout the mission. NAND-flash memories have become popular for space-borne high performance mass memory scenarios, though future storage concepts will rely upon highly scaled flash or other memory technologies. With modern flash memory, single bit erasure coding and RAID based concepts are insufficient. Thus, a fully run-time configurable, high performance, dependable storage concept, requiring a minimal set of logic or software. The solution is based on composite erasure coding and can be adjusted for altered mission duration or changing environmental conditions.

  3. Experimental Evaluation of Simple Thermal Storage Control Strategies in Low-Energy Solar Houses to Reduce Electricity Consumption during Grid On-Peak Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Ho Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in zero-energy and low-energy buildings, which have a net energy consumption (on an annual basis of almost zero. Because they can generate both electricity and thermal energy through the use of solar photovoltaic (PV and solar thermal collectors, and with the help of reduced building thermal demand, low-energy buildings can not only make a significant contribution to energy conservation on an annual basis, but also reduce energy consumption and peak demand. This study focused on electricity consumption during the on-peak period in a low-energy residential solar building and considers the use of a building’s thermal mass and thermal storage to reduce electricity consumption in summer and winter by modulation of temperature setpoints for heat pump and indoor thermostats in summer and additional use of a solar heating loop in winter. Experiments were performed at a low-energy solar demonstration house that has solar collectors, hot water storage, a ground-coupled heat pump, and a thermal storage tank. It was assumed that the on-peak periods were from 2 pm to 5 pm on hot summer days and from 5 pm to 8 pm on cold winter days. To evaluate the potential for utilizing the building’s thermal storage capacity in space cooling and heating, the use of simple control strategies on three test days in summer and two test days in the early spring were compared in terms of net electricity consumption and peak demand, which also considered the electricity generation from solar PV modules on the roof of the house.

  4. Transactive-Market-Based Operation of Distributed Electrical Energy Storage with Grid Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nazif Faqiry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a transactive energy market, distributed energy resources (DERs such as dispatchable distributed generators (DGs, electrical energy storages (EESs, distribution-scale load aggregators (LAs, and renewable energy sources (RESs have to earn their share of supply or demand through a bidding process. In such a market, the distribution system operator (DSO may optimally schedule these resources, first in a forward market, i.e., day-ahead, and in a real-time market later on, while maintaining a reliable and economic distribution grid. In this paper, an efficient day-ahead scheduling of these resources, in the presence of interaction with wholesale market at the locational marginal price (LMP, is studied. Due to inclusion of EES units with integer constraints, a detailed mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation that incorporates simplified DistFlow equations to account for grid constraints is proposed. Convex quadratic line and transformer apparent power flow constraints have been linearized using an outer approximation. The proposed model schedules DERs based on distribution locational marginal price (DLMP, which is obtained as the Lagrange multiplier of the real power balance constraint at each distribution bus while maintaining physical grid constraints such as line limits, transformer limits, and bus voltage magnitudes. Case studies are performed on a modified IEEE 13-bus system with high DER penetration. Simulation results show the validity and efficiency of the proposed model.

  5. Electrode surface engineering by atomic layer deposition: A promising pathway toward better energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal; Xia, Chuan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    high capacities and energy and power densities. These developments can extend battery life in portable devices, and open new markets such as electric vehicles and large-scale grid energy storage. It is well known that surface reactions largely determine

  6. Method for measuring the charge of electric storage batteries. Verfahren zur Messung des Ladezustandes elektrischer Akkumulatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappus, W.

    1982-03-11

    With liquid-electrolyte storage batteries, charge can be deduced from density measurement which is feasible in a simple technical way by measuring hydrostatic pressure in the electrolyte fluid. Pressure difference is detected piezo-electrically and indicated externally by a voltmeter. Gas-filled or fluid-filled bellows serve as pressure sensors.

  7. Capturing the Impact of Storage and Other Flexible Technologies on Electric System Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Elaine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoll, Brady [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Power systems of the future are likely to require additional flexibility. This has been well studied from an operational perspective, but has been more difficult to incorporate into capacity expansion models (CEMs) that study investment decisions on the decadal scale. There are two primary reasons for this. First, the necessary input data, including cost and resource projections, for flexibility options like demand response and storage are significantly uncertain. Second, it is computationally difficult to represent both investment and operational decisions in detail, the latter being necessary to properly value system flexibility, in CEMs for realistically sized systems. In this work, we extend a particular CEM, NREL's Resource Planning Model (RPM), to address the latter issue by better representing variable generation impacts on operations, and then adding two flexible technologies to RPM's suite of investment decisions: interruptible load and utility-scale storage. This work does not develop full suites of input data for these technologies, but is rather methodological and exploratory in nature. We thus exercise these new investment decisions in the context of exploring price points and value streams needed for significant deployment in the Western Interconnection by 2030. Our study of interruptible load finds significant variation by location, year, and overall system conditions. Some locations find no system need for interruptible load even with low costs, while others build the most expensive resources offered. System needs can include planning reserve capacity needs to ensure resource adequacy, but there are also particular cases in which spinning reserve requirements drive deployment. Utility-scale storage is found to require deep cost reductions to achieve wide deployment and is found to be more valuable in some locations with greater renewable deployment. Differences between more solar- and wind-reliant regions are also found: Storage

  8. Development of fuel and energy storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Development of fuel cell power plants is intended of high-efficiency power generation using such fuels with less air pollution as natural gas, methanol and coal gas. The closest to commercialization is phosphoric acid fuel cells, and the high in efficiency and rich in fuel diversity is molten carbonate fuel cells. The development is intended to cover a wide scope from solid electrolyte fuel cells to solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells. For new battery power storage systems, development is focused on discrete battery energy storage technologies of fixed type and mobile type (such as electric vehicles). The ceramic gas turbine technology development is purposed for improving thermal efficiency and reducing pollutants. Small-scale gas turbines for cogeneration will also be developed. Development of superconduction power application technologies is intended to serve for efficient and stable power supply by dealing with capacity increase and increase in power distribution distance due to increase in power demand. In the operations to improve the spread and general promotion systems for electric vehicles, load leveling is expected by utilizing and storing nighttime electric power. Descriptions are given also on economical city systems which utilize wide-area energy. 30 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Laboratory scale tests of electrical impedence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binley, A; Daily, W; LaBredcque, D; Ramirez, A.

    1998-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomographs (magnitude and phase) of known, laboratory-scale targets are reported. Three methods are used to invert electrical impedance data and their tomographs compared. The first method uses an electrical resistance tomography (ERT) algonthm (designed for DC resistivity inversion) to perform impedance magnitude inversion and a linearized perturbation approach (PA) to invert the imaginary part. The second approximate method compares ERT magnitude inversions at two frequencies and uses the frequency effect (FE) to compute phase tomographs. The third approach, electrrcal impedance tomography (EIT), employs fully complex algebra to account for the real and imaginary components of electrical impedance data. The EIT approach provided useful magnitude and phase images for the frequency range of 0.0625 to 64 Hz; images for higher frequencies were not reliable. Comparisons of the ERT and EIT magnitude images show that both methods provided equivalent results for the water blank, copper rod and PVC rod targets. The EIT magnitude images showed better spatial resolutron for a sand-lead mixture target. Phase images located anomalies of both high and low contrast IP and provided better spatial resolution than the magnitude images. When IP was absent from the data, the EIT algorithm reconstructed phase values consistent with the data noise levels

  10. Contemporary energy storage sources. Energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manev, Veselin

    2011-01-01

    The development of renewable energy system for electricity production is impede because of needs to be stabilized with nearly equivalent installed power of energy storage devices. The development of more electrical energy storage facilities will be extremely important for electricity generation in the future. Using hydro pumping, combined with a long life and fast charge/discharge rate, highly efficient contemporary power energy storage as Altairnano lithium ion battery, currently is seems to be the best solution for fast penetration rate of wind and solar energy systems

  11. New technology and possible advances in energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, John

    2008-01-01

    Energy storage technologies may be electrical or thermal. Electrical energy stores have an electrical input and output to connect them to the system of which they form part, while thermal stores have a thermal input and output. The principal electrical energy storage technologies described are electrochemical systems (batteries and flow cells), kinetic energy storage (flywheels) and potential energy storage, in the form of pumped hydro and compressed air. Complementary thermal storage technologies include those based on the sensible and latent heat capacity of materials, which include bulk and smaller-capacity hot and cold water storage systems, ice storage, phase change materials and specific bespoke thermal storage media. For the majority of the storage technologies considered here, the potential for fundamental step changes in performance is limited. For electrochemical systems, basic chemistry suggests that lithium-based technologies represent the pinnacle of cell development. This means that the greatest potential for technological advances probably lies in the incremental development of existing technologies, facilitated by advances in materials science, engineering, processing and fabrication. These considerations are applicable to both electrical and thermal storage. Such incremental developments in the core storage technologies are likely to be complemented and supported by advances in systems integration and engineering. Future energy storage technologies may be expected to offer improved energy and power densities, although, in practice, gains in reliability, longevity, cycle life expectancy and cost may be more significant than increases in energy/powerdensity per se

  12. Energy storage. A challenge for energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, Jean-Baptiste; Nekrasov, Andre; Pastor, Emmanuel; Benefice, Emmanuel; Brincourt, Thierry; Brisse, Annabelle; Cagnac, Albannie; Delille, Gauthier; Hinchliffe, Timothee; Lancel, Gilles; Jeandel, Elodie; Lefebvre, Thierry; Loevenbruck, Philippe; Penneau, Jean-Francois; Soler, Robert; Stevens, Philippe; Radvanyi, Etienne; Torcheux, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    Written by several EDF R and D engineers, this book aims at presenting an overview of knowledge and know-how of EDF R and D in the field of energy storage, and at presenting the different technologies and their application to electric power systems. After a description of the context related to a necessary energy transition, the authors present the numerous storage technologies. They distinguish direct storage of power (pumped storage water stations, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, the various electrochemical batteries, metal-air batteries, redox flow batteries, superconductors), thermal storage (power to heat, heat to power) and hydrogen storage (storage under different forms), and propose an overview of the situation of standardisation of storage technologies. In the next part, they give an overview of the main services provided by storage to the electric power system: production optimisation, frequency adjustment, grid constraint resolution, local smoothing of PV and wind production, supply continuity. The last part discusses perspectives regarding the role of tomorrow's storage in the field of electrical mobility, for emerging markets, and with respect to different scenarios

  13. Fabrication and characterization of stearic acid/polyaniline composite with electrical conductivity as phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Ji, Hui; Shi, Huan; Zhang, Ting; Xia, TianDong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Stearic acid/polyaniline composite PCM with electrical conductivity was fabricated. • Stearic acid acted as thermal energy storage media and doping acid. • Latent heats of SA/PANI are as high as the same type composites. • Improved electrical conductivity of capsules is 0.7042 S cm −1 . - Abstract: This paper presents the experimental investigation on the thermal properties and electrical conductivity of the new microencapsulated phase change material by entrapping of stearic acid (SA) into PANI (polyaniline) shell through self-assembly method. Experimental results reveal that PANI nuclei grew on the surface of SA, and then copied its original morphological structure and finally exhibited peony flower-like morphology. The two components have good compatibility and have no chemical reaction both in the process of fabrication and subsequent use, while hydrogen bondings between the imino groups and carboxyl groups exist. The maximum mass fraction of stearic acid loaded in SA/PANI is determined as high as 62.1 wt% without seepage of melted SA from capsules. Due to the secondary doping with carboxyl group, the composite phase change material embedded with SA exhibits improved electrical conductivity from 0.3968 S cm −1 to 0.7042 S cm −1 when compared to PANI. The phase change temperatures and latent heats of SA/PANI are measured to be 55.6 °C and 113.02 J/g for melting and, 50.8 °C and 112.58 J/g for freezing, respectively. TG analysis test revealed that the prepared SA/PANI composite PCM has high thermal durability in working temperature range. Moreover, the results of DSC, FT-IR, TG, conductivity investigation and thermal cycling test are all show that the thermal reliability and electrical conductivity of the SA/APNI have imperceptible changes. In total, the additional electrical conductivity, high heat storage potential and good thermal reliability and stability facilitated SA/PANI to be considered as a viable candidate for thermal

  14. A Study of Demand Response Effect of Thermal Storage Air-Conditioning Systems in Consideration of Electricity Market Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omagari, Yuko; Sugihara, Hideharu; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    This paper evaluates the economic impact of the introduction of customer-owned Thermal Storage Air-conditioning (TSA) systems, in an electricity market, from the viewpoint of the load service entity. We perform simulations on the condition that several thousand customers install TSA systems and shift peak demand in an electricity market by one percent. Our numerical results indicate that the purchase cost of the LSE was reduced through load management of customers with TSA systems. The introduction of TSA systems also reduced the volatility of market clearing price and reduced the whole-trade cost in an electricity market.

  15. Development of a new electric battery electric power storage system. Results of the 12-year R and D; Shingata denchi denryoku chozo system kaihatsu. 12 nenkan no kenkyu kaihatsu no seika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The paper described the results of the R and D which have been continued for 12 years on a new electric battery electric power storage system (load leveling function). The electric batteries for study were Na-S, Zn-Cl, Zn-Br, and redox type. Charge/discharge operation of 211 times was conducted of a pilot plant with a Na-S battery 1,000kW and 8-hour capacity. The overall efficiency of system was 71.5-76.0%, and the energy efficiency of battery was 86%. As a whole, the performance was able to be confirmed which can fulfil a developmental target. The system overall efficiency of 65.9% and battery efficiency of 76.1% were obtained. The experiment on battery life was carried out at plant together with the pilot operation. The mean life of Na-S battery was estimated at 800 cycles, and that of Zn-Br battery at 500-800 cycles. The effectiveness of the new electric battery electric power storage system was technically verified. For the future commercialization, studies on the following are needed: enhancement of reliability, easiness in maintenance/inspection, size reduction, cost reduction, etc. (NEDO)

  16. A Novel Hybrid-Fuel Storage System of Compressed Air Energy for China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Compressed air energy storage (CAES is a large-scale technology that provides long-duration energy storage. It is promising for balancing the large-scale penetration of intermittent and dispersed sources of power, such as wind and solar power, into electric grids. The existing CAES plants utilize natural gas (NG as fuel. However, China is rich in coal but is deficient in NG; therefore, a hybrid-fuel CAES is proposed and analyzed in this study. Based on the existing CAES plants, the hybrid-fuel CAES incorporates an external combustion heater into the power generation subsystem to heat the air from the recuperator and the air from the high-pressure air turbine. Coal is the fuel for the external combustion heater. The overall efficiency and exergy efficiency of the hybrid-fuel CAES are 61.18% and 59.84%, respectively. Given the same parameters, the cost of electricity (COE of the hybrid-fuel CAES, which requires less NG, is $5.48/MW∙h less than that of the gas-fuel CAES. Although the proposed CAES requires a relatively high investment in the current electricity system in North China, the proposed CAES will be likely to become competitive in the market, provided that the energy supplies are improved and the large scale grid-connection of wind power is realized.

  17. A comparison of electricity and hydrogen production systems with CO2 capture and storage. Part B: Chain analysis of promising CCS options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, K.J.; van Troost, M.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X; Turkenburg, W.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416355

    2007-01-01

    Promising electricity and hydrogen production chains with CO2 capture, transport and storage (CCS) and energy carrier transmission, distribution and end-use are analysed to assess (avoided) CO2 emissions, energy production costs and CO2 mitigation costs. For electricity chains, the performance is

  18. Analysis of an underground electric heating system with short-term energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadan, B.H. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-12-31

    The principal commercially active heat storage application in which concrete is used as the storage medium is in the use of subfloor electric heaters embedded in a layer of sand. The resistance heaters are energized when utility offpeak rates are in effect. The sand bed and the concrete floor are then heated to some predetermined temperature, and the floor releases heat slowly and remains warm during the subsequent period of high demand. Analysis of the slab-heating system for varying design parameters, such as the depth of the placement of the heaters, the sand properties, the energy input, and the insulation thickness, was considered. The system was also optimized based on life-cycle costs. The suitability of using this system for heating a warehouse in four representative cities in the United States was also considered The response of the system was found to be greatly influenced by the depth of the placement of the heaters, the sand`s moisture content, and the heating strategy. Optimum insulation levels were determined for the prototypical building in all four of the representative cities. Because of the difficulty of controlling the energy release from the heating mats, this system may not be suitable for heating residential and office buildings but may be more appropriate for heating maintenance and storage facilities.

  19. Electrically tuned super-capacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Tazima S.; Grebel, Haim

    2015-01-01

    Fast charging and discharging of large amounts of electrical energy make super-capacitors ideal for short-term energy storage [1-5]. In its simplest form, the super-capacitor is an electrolytic capacitor made of an anode and a cathode immersed in an electrolyte. As for an ordinary capacitor, minimizing the charge separation distance and increasing the electrode area increase capacitance. In super-capacitors, charge separation is of nano-meter scale at each of the electrode interface (the Helm...

  20. Storage Integration in Energy Systems: A New Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure-Schuyer, Aurelie

    2016-06-01

    Energy storage is partly an 'old story' and a new one. Energy storage is an essential stabilizing factor in existing electrical systems. Looking forward, energy storage is being considered as a key element of the transformation of energy systems, given the higher shares of renewable generation integrating the systems and demand-side management offered to end-customers. Today, the cost of electricity produced from battery storage is approaching parity with electricity bought from the grid. For this trend to gain strength and energy storage to be part of new business models, energy policies and regulatory frameworks need to be adapted. (author)

  1. In-bed accountability of tritium in production scale metal hydride storage beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    An ''in-bed accountability'' (IBA) flowing gas calorimetric measurement method has been developed and implemented to eliminate the need to remove tritium from production scale metal hydride storage beds for inventory measurement purposes. Six-point tritium IBA calibration curves have been completed for two, 390 gram tritium metal hydride storage beds. The calibration curves for the two tritium beds are similar to those obtained from the ''cold'' test program. Tritium inventory errors at the 95 percent confidence level ranged from ± 7.3 to 8.6 grams for the cold test results compared to ± 4.2 to 7.5 grams obtained for the two tritium calibrated beds

  2. Assessment of hydrogen storage systems as a means of integrating electricity from renewable energies; Bewertung von Wasserstoffspeichersystemen zur Integration von Strom aus erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelis, Julia; Genoese, Fabio; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Hydrogen storage is a possible option for an improved integration of renewable energies into the electricity supply system. Similarly to other technical storage options it is faced with the challenge of having to be economically viable. Compared with other storage media hydrogen has the virtue of being versatile. This has a significant impact on assessments of its profitability.

  3. The Role of Energy Storage in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bandyopadhyay, Gopal K.; Finley, C.; Koritarov, V. S.; Molburg, J. C.; Wang, J.; Zhao, Fuli; Brackney, L.; Florita, A. R.

    2010-09-30

    Motivation and Background of Study This project was motivated by the need to understand the full value of energy storage (thermal and electric energy storage) in commercial buildings, the opportunity of benefits for building operations and the potential interactions between a building and a smart grid infrastructure. On-site or local energy storage systems are not new to the commercial building sector; they have been in place in US buildings for decades. Most building-scale storage technologies are based on thermal or electrochemical storage mechanisms. Energy storage technologies are not designed to conserve energy, and losses associated with energy conversion are inevitable. Instead, storage provides flexibility to manage load in a building or to balance load and generation in the power grid. From the building owner's perspective, storage enables load shifting to optimize energy costs while maintaining comfort. From a grid operations perspective, building storage at scale could provide additional flexibility to grid operators in managing the generation variability from intermittent renewable energy resources (wind and solar). To characterize the set of benefits, technical opportunities and challenges, and potential economic values of storage in a commercial building from both the building operation's and the grid operation's view-points is the key point of this project. The research effort was initiated in early 2010 involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify these opportunities from a commercial buildings perspective. This report summarizes the early discussions, literature reviews, stakeholder engagements, and initial results of analyses related to the overall role of energy storage in commercial buildings. Beyond the summary of roughly eight months of effort by the laboratories, the report attempts to substantiate the importance of

  4. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability:A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Coffey, Brian; Aki, Hirohisa

    2008-12-01

    In past work, Berkeley Lab has developed the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). Given end-use energy details for a facility, a description of its economic environment and a menu of available equipment, DER-CAM finds the optimal investment portfolio and its operating schedule which together minimize the cost of meeting site service, e.g., cooling, heating, requirements. Past studies have considered combined heat and power (CHP) technologies. Methods and software have been developed to solve this problem, finding optimal solutions which take simultaneity into account. This project aims to extend on those prior capabilities in two key dimensions. In this research storage technologies have been added as well as power quality and reliability (PQR) features that provide the ability to value the additional indirect reliability benefit derived from Consortium for Electricity Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid capability. This project is intended to determine how attractive on-site generation becomes to a medium-sized commercial site if economical storage (both electrical and thermal), CHP opportunities, and PQR benefits are provided in addition to avoiding electricity purchases. On-site electrical storage, generators, and the ability to seamlessly connect and disconnect from utility service would provide the facility with ride-through capability for minor grid disturbances. Three building types in both California and New York are assumed to have a share of their sensitive electrical load separable. Providing enhanced service to this load fraction has an unknown value to the facility, which is estimated analytically. In summary, this project began with 3 major goals: (1) to conduct detailed analysis to find the optimal equipment combination for microgrids at a few promising commercial building hosts in the two favorable markets of California and New York; (2) to extend the analysis capability of DER-CAM to include both heat and

  5. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  6. Long-term energy and climate implications of carbon capture and storage deployment strategies in the US coal-fired electricity fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathre, Roger; Masanet, Eric

    2012-09-04

    To understand the long-term energy and climate implications of different implementation strategies for carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the US coal-fired electricity fleet, we integrate three analytical elements: scenario projection of energy supply systems, temporally explicit life cycle modeling, and time-dependent calculation of radiative forcing. Assuming continued large-scale use of coal for electricity generation, we find that aggressive implementation of CCS could reduce cumulative greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2), CH(4), and N(2)O) from the US coal-fired power fleet through 2100 by 37-58%. Cumulative radiative forcing through 2100 would be reduced by only 24-46%, due to the front-loaded time profile of the emissions and the long atmospheric residence time of CO(2). The efficiency of energy conversion and carbon capture technologies strongly affects the amount of primary energy used but has little effect on greenhouse gas emissions or radiative forcing. Delaying implementation of CCS deployment significantly increases long-term radiative forcing. This study highlights the time-dynamic nature of potential climate benefits and energy costs of different CCS deployment pathways and identifies opportunities and constraints of successful CCS implementation.

  7. Assessment of Future Whole-System Value of Large-Scale Pumped Storage Plants in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Teng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impacts and benefits of the pumped storage plant (PSP and its upgrade to variable speed on generation and transmission capacity requirements, capital costs, system operating costs and carbon emissions in the future European electricity system. The combination of a deterministic system planning tool, Whole-electricity System Investment Model (WeSIM, and a stochastic system operation optimisation tool, Advanced Stochastic Unit Commitment (ASUC, is used to analyse the whole-system value of PSP technology and to quantify the impact of European balancing market integration and other competing flexible technologies on the value of the PSP. Case studies on the Pan-European system demonstrate that PSPs can reduce the total system cost by up to €13 billion per annum by 2050 in a scenario with a high share of renewables. Upgrading the PSP to variable-speed drive enhances its long-term benefits by 10–20%. On the other hand, balancing market integration across Europe may potentially reduce the overall value of the variable-speed PSP, although the effect can vary across different European regions. The results also suggest that large-scale deployment of demand-side response (DSR leads to a significant reduction in the value of PSPs, while the value of PSPs increases by circa 18% when the total European interconnection capacity is halved. The benefit of PSPs in reducing emissions is relatively negligible by 2030 but constitutes around 6–10% of total annual carbon emissions from the European power sector by 2050.

  8. Posibilities of electric power storage from renewable sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Bača

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of all currently commercially available options of energy storage in the power distributionnetwork. The paper puts forward arguments for energy storage in the distribution network as well as requirements that must be metby the relevant energy storage systems. The paper describes 7 technologies allowing the solution of energy storage problems, includingtheir basic principles and summarizing benefits and drawbacks of individual solutions.

  9. Metal oxide-carbon composites for energy conversion and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Sanjaya Dulip

    The exponential growth of the population and the associated energy demand requires the development of new materials for sustainable energy conversion and storage. Expanding the use of renewable energy sources to generate electricity is still not sufficient enough to fulfill the current energy demand. Electricity generation by wind and solar is the most promising alternative energy resources for coal and oil. The first part of the dissertation addresses an alternative method for preparing TiO2 nanotube based photoanodes for DSSCs. This would involve smaller diameter TiO2 nanotubes (˜10 nm), instead of nanoparticles or electrochemically grown larger nanotubes. Moreover, TiO2 nanotube-graphene based photocatalysts were developed to treat model pollutants. In the second part of this dissertation, the development of electrical energy storage systems, which provide high storage capacity and power output using low cost materials are discussed. Among different types of energy storage systems, batteries are the most convenient method to store electrical energy. However, the low power performance of batteries limits the application in different types of electrical energy storage. The development of electrical energy storage systems, which provide high storage capacity and power output using low cost materials are discussed.

  10. Improved grid operation through power smoothing control strategies utilizing dedicated energy storage at an electric vehicle charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Thomas; Holjevac, Ninoslav; Bremdal, Bernt A.

    2016-01-01

    project (Flex-ChEV) supported by the ERA-Net Smart Grid FP7 program. The principal asset of the proposed charging station (CS) is a dedicated Energy Storage System (ESS) to compensate for adverse effects on the grid caused by peak charging demand and which could impose severe trials for the local DSO....... Furthermore, CS of this kind could serve multiple business purposes in a smart grid. It can serve as a hub for seamless integration of local renewable and distributed energy resources, it can provide added flexibility for the local grid through different ancillary services and it can act as an efficient......This paper addresses the principal service aspects for electric vehicles (EV), as well as issues related to energy storage design, charging station integration into power system and load management issues. It builds on the research conducted in the Flexible Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure...

  11. The search for electric dipole moments of light ions in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathmann, Frank; Saleev, Artem; Nikolaev, N N

    2013-01-01

    The Standard Model (SM) of Particle Physics is not capable of accounting for the apparent matter-antimatter asymmetry of our universe. Physics beyond the SM is required and is searched for by (i) employing highest energies (e.g., at LHC), and (ii) striving for ultimate precision and sensitivity (e.g., in the search for electric dipole moments (EDMs)). Permanent EDMs of particles violate both time reversal (T) and parity (P) invariance, and are via the CPT-theorem also CP-violating. Finding an EDM would be a strong indication for physics beyond the SM, and reducing upper limits further provides crucial tests for any corresponding theoretical model, e.g., SUSY. Direct searches for proton and deuteron EDMs bear the potential to reach sensitivities beyond 10 −29 e·cm. For an all-electric proton storage ring, this goal is pursued by the US-based srEDM collaboration [1], while the newly founded Jülich-based JEDI collaboration [2] is pursuing an approach using a combined electric-magnetic lattice, which shall provide access to the EDMs of protons, deuterons, and 3 He ions in the same machine. In addition, JEDI has recently proposed making a direct measurement of the proton and/or deuteron EDM at COSY using resonant techniques involving Wien filters

  12. The air quality and human health effects of integrating utility-scale batteries into the New York State electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Elisabeth A.; Apt, Jay; Lave, Lester B.; Walawalkar, Rahul; Adams, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    In a restructured electricity market, utility-scale energy storage technologies such as advanced batteries can generate revenue by charging at low electricity prices and discharging at high prices. This strategy changes the magnitude and distribution of air quality emissions and the total carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. We evaluate the social costs associated with these changes using a case study of 500 MW sodium-sulfur battery installations with 80% round-trip efficiency. The batteries displace peaking generators in New York City and charge using off-peak generation in the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) electricity grid during the summer. We identify and map charging and displaced plant types to generators in the NYISO. We then convert the emissions into ambient concentrations with a chemical transport model, the Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (PMCAM x ). Finally, we transform the concentrations into their equivalent human health effects and social benefits and costs. Reductions in premature mortality from fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) result in a benefit of 4.5 cents kWh -1 and 17 cents kWh -1 from displacing a natural gas and distillate fuel oil fueled peaking plant, respectively, in New York City. Ozone (O 3 ) concentrations increase due to decreases in nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emissions, although the magnitude of the social cost is less certain. Adding the costs from charging, displacing a distillate fuel oil plant yields a net social benefit, while displacing the natural gas plant has a net social cost. With the existing base-load capacity, the upstate population experiences an increase in adverse health effects. If wind generation is charging the battery, both the upstate charging location and New York City benefit. At $20 per tonne of CO 2 , the costs from CO 2 are small compared to those from air quality. We conclude that storage could be added to existing electricity grids as part of an integrated

  13. The air quality and human health effects of integrating utility-scale batteries into the New York State electricity grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Elisabeth A.; Apt, Jay; Walawalkar, Rahul; Adams, Peter J.; Lave, Lester B.

    In a restructured electricity market, utility-scale energy storage technologies such as advanced batteries can generate revenue by charging at low electricity prices and discharging at high prices. This strategy changes the magnitude and distribution of air quality emissions and the total carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. We evaluate the social costs associated with these changes using a case study of 500 MW sodium-sulfur battery installations with 80% round-trip efficiency. The batteries displace peaking generators in New York City and charge using off-peak generation in the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) electricity grid during the summer. We identify and map charging and displaced plant types to generators in the NYISO. We then convert the emissions into ambient concentrations with a chemical transport model, the Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (PMCAM x). Finally, we transform the concentrations into their equivalent human health effects and social benefits and costs. Reductions in premature mortality from fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) result in a benefit of 4.5 ¢ kWh -1 and 17 ¢ kWh -1 from displacing a natural gas and distillate fuel oil fueled peaking plant, respectively, in New York City. Ozone (O 3) concentrations increase due to decreases in nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions, although the magnitude of the social cost is less certain. Adding the costs from charging, displacing a distillate fuel oil plant yields a net social benefit, while displacing the natural gas plant has a net social cost. With the existing base-load capacity, the upstate population experiences an increase in adverse health effects. If wind generation is charging the battery, both the upstate charging location and New York City benefit. At 20 per tonne of CO 2, the costs from CO 2 are small compared to those from air quality. We conclude that storage could be added to existing electricity grids as part of an integrated strategy from a

  14. Electrically-controlled nonlinear switching and multi-level storage characteristics in WOx film-based memory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, W. J.; Wang, J. B.; Zhong, X. L.

    2018-05-01

    Resistive switching random access memory (RRAM) is considered as a promising candidate for the next generation memory due to its scalability, high integration density and non-volatile storage characteristics. Here, the multiple electrical characteristics in Pt/WOx/Pt cells are investigated. Both of the nonlinear switching and multi-level storage can be achieved by setting different compliance current in the same cell. The correlations among the current, time and temperature are analyzed by using contours and 3D surfaces. The switching mechanism is explained in terms of the formation and rupture of conductive filament which is related to oxygen vacancies. The experimental results show that the non-stoichiometric WOx film-based device offers a feasible way for the applications of oxide-based RRAMs.

  15. Entropy, pricing and productivity of pumped-storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Tyralis, Hristos; Tzouka, Katerina

    2016-04-01

    Pumped-storage constitutes today a mature method of bulk electricity storage in the form of hydropower. This bulk electricity storability upgrades the economic value of hydropower as it may mitigate -or even neutralize- stochastic effects deriving from various geophysical and socioeconomic factors, which produce numerous load balance inefficiencies due to increased uncertainty. Pumped-storage further holds a key role for unifying intermittent renewable (i.e. wind, solar) units with controllable non-renewable (i.e. nuclear, coal) fuel electricity generation plants into integrated energy systems. We develop a set of indicators for the measurement of performance of pumped-storage, in terms of the latter's energy and financial contribution to the energy system. More specifically, we use the concept of entropy in order to examine: (1) the statistical features -and correlations- of the energy system's intermittent components and (2) the statistical features of electricity demand prediction deviations. In this way, the macroeconomics of pumped-storage emerges naturally from its statistical features (Karakatsanis et al. 2014). In addition, these findings are combined to actual daily loads. Hence, not only the amount of energy harvested from the pumped-storage component is expected to be important, but the harvesting time as well, as the intraday price of electricity varies significantly. Additionally, the structure of the pumped-storage market proves to be a significant factor as well for the system's energy and financial performance (Paine et al. 2014). According to the above, we aim at postulating a set of general rules on the productivity of pumped-storage for (integrated) energy systems. Keywords: pumped-storage, storability, economic value of hydropower, stochastic effects, uncertainty, energy systems, entropy, intraday electricity price, productivity References 1. Karakatsanis, Georgios et al. (2014), Entropy, pricing and macroeconomics of pumped-storage systems

  16. Impact of Electric Vehicles as Distributed Energy Storage in Isolated Systems: The Case of Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ramírez Díaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolated regions are highly dependent on fossil fuels. The use of endogenous sources and the improvement in energy efficiency in all of the consumption activities are the two main ways to reduce the dependence of petroleum-derived fuels. Tenerife offers an excellent renewable resource (hours of sun and wind. However, the massive development of these technologies could cause important operational problems within the electric power grids, because of the small size of the system. In this paper, we explore the option of coupling an electric vehicle fleet as a distributed energy storage system to increase the participation of renewables in an isolated power system, i.e., Tenerife Island. A model simulator has been used to evaluate five key outputs, that is the renewable share, the energy spilled, the CO2 emissions, the levelized cost of generating electricity and fuel dependence, under alternative scenarios. Comparing to the current situation, combining a gradual renewable installed capacity and the introduction of an electric vehicle fleet using alternative charging strategies, a total of 30 different scenarios have been evaluated. Results shows that the impact of 50,000 electric vehicles would increase the renewable share in the electricity mix of the island up to 30%, reduce CO2 emissions by 27%, the total cost of electric generation by 6% and the oil internal market by 16%.

  17. Electronic Spin Storage in an Electrically Readable Nuclear Spin Memory with a Lifetime >100 Seconds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCamey, D. R.; Van Tol, J.; Morley, G. W.; Boehme, C.

    2010-12-01

    Electron spins are strong candidates with which to implement spintronics because they are both mobile and able to be manipulated. The relatively short lifetimes of electron spins, however, present a problem for the long-term storage of spin information. We demonstrated an ensemble nuclear spin memory in phosphorous-doped silicon, which can be read out electrically and has a lifetime exceeding 100 seconds. The electronic spin information can be mapped onto and stored in the nuclear spin of the phosphorus donors, and the nuclear spins can then be repetitively read out electrically for time periods that exceed the electron spin lifetime. We discuss how this memory can be used in conjunction with other silicon spintronic devices.

  18. Particulars in design of the electrical part of the Kiev Pumped-Storage Electric Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brimerberg, V P

    1976-01-01

    The Kiev Pumped-Storage Electric Power Plant is the first such installation in the Soviet Union. The power capacity of the plant is 225 MW. There are six vertical hydraulic generators: three are connected to vertical pump-turbines and operate as motor-generators; the other three are connected to vertical radial-axial hydraulic turbines and operate as generators only. Each generator is a type SVO 733/130-36 with power of 45.6 MVA. The active power load is 83.5 MW, reactive--75.1, and total--112.5 MVA. The installation can be used for 500 h/yr at maximum power, producing 110 million kWh. During the high-water period, the plant is used daily for about 100 days, covering the peak of the load schedule of the southern power system. During the low-water period the plant is used as needed. During the slack hours at night the system operates in the pump mode for about 1400 h/yr, using 160 million kWh. During the remainder of the day the generators work as synchronous compensators with a total load on each of 36,500 kvar. Electrical circuits and a cross section of the generator are given. An explanation is also given of the grounding precautions taken to ensure an equipotential field at all points of the installation where personnel may be located.

  19. 90–100% renewable electricity for the South West Interconnected System of Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bin; Blakers, Andrew; Stocks, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Rapidly increasing penetration of renewables, primarily wind and photovoltaics (PV), is causing a move away from fossil fuel in the Australian electric power industry. This study focuses on the South West Interconnected System in Western Australia. Several high (90% and 100%) renewables penetration scenarios have been modelled, comprising wind and PV supplemented with a small amount of biogas, and compared with a “like-for-like” fossil-fuel replacement scenario. Short-term off-river (closed cycle) pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is utilised in some simulations as a large-scale conventional storage technology. The scenarios are examined by using a chronological dispatch model. An important feature of the modelling is that only technologies that have been already deployed on a large scale (>150 gigawatts) are utilised. This includes wind, PV and PHES. The modelling results demonstrate that 90–100% penetration by wind and PV electricity is compatible with a balanced grid. With the integration of off-river PHES, 90% renewables penetration is able to provide low-carbon electricity at competitive prices. Pumped hydro also facilitates a 100% renewables scenario which produces zero greenhouse gas emissions with attractive electricity prices. A sensitivity analysis shows the most important factors in the system cost are discount rate and wind turbine cost. - Highlights: • Short-term off-river pumped hydro energy storage (STORES). • 90–100% renewables for a large-scale self-contained power system. • PV and wind serves 80–90% of the total energy. • 90% renewables system costs $116 ($103)/MWh using 2016 (2030) prices.

  20. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  1. Operation of heat pumps for smart grid integrated buildings with thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finck, C.J.; Li, R.; Zeiler, W.

    2017-01-01

    A small scale office building consisting of radiant heating, a heat pump, and a water thermal energy storage tank is implemented in an optimal control framework. The optimal control aims to minimize operational electricity costs of the heat pump based on real-time power spot market prices. Optimal

  2. Distributed Generation Integration in the Electric Grid: Energy Storage System for Frequency Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Delfanti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years generation from renewable energy sources (RESs has grown considerably in European electrical networks. Transmission system operators are greatly concerned about the impact of RESs on the operational security and efficiency of their networks and more in general of the ENTSO-E interconnected system. Grid codes are to be revised in order to harmonise the rules regarding the connection of RES power plants. A main issue concerns frequency control: frequency is greatly affected by RESs intermittency and its deviations must be limited as much as possible in order to guarantee a suitable level of power quality. To improve frequency stability, in the future, Grid codes could extend frequency control requirements also to RES units, whereas today they are applied only to conventional power plants. Energy storage systems can be a possible solution to increase the flexibility and performance of RES power plants: they allow generators to modulate their power injections without wasting renewable energy. In this paper, the authors studied the suitability of extending frequency control to RES units integrating them with energy storage systems. In particular, the paper focuses on the impact of frequency control on the storage lifetime by analysing the power charge/discharge in response to real frequency oscillations.

  3. Modeling electric load and water consumption impacts from an integrated thermal energy and rainwater storage system for residential buildings in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upshaw, Charles R.; Rhodes, Joshua D.; Webber, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydronic integrated rainwater thermal storage (ITHERST) system concept presented. • ITHERST system modeled to assess peak electric load shifting and water savings. • Case study shows 75% peak load reduction and 9% increase in energy consumption. • Potable rainwater collection could provide ∼50–90% of water used for case study. - Abstract: The United States’ built environment is a significant direct and indirect consumer of energy and water. In Texas, and other parts of the Southern and Western US, air conditioning loads, particularly from residential buildings, contribute significantly to the peak electricity load on the grid, straining transmission. In parallel, water resources in these regions are strained by growing populations and shrinking supplies. One potential method to address both of these issues is to develop integrated thermal energy and auxiliary water (e.g. rainwater, greywater, etc.) storage and management systems that reduce peak load and freshwater consumption. This analysis focuses on a proposed integrated thermal energy and rainwater storage (ITHERST) system that is incorporated into a residential air-source chiller/heat pump with hydronic distribution. This paper describes a step-wise hourly thermodynamic model of the thermal storage system to assess on-peak performance, and a daily volume-balance model of auxiliary water collection and consumption to assess water savings potential. While the model is generalized, this analysis uses a case study of a single family home in Austin, Texas to illustrate its capabilities. The results indicate this ITHERST system could reduce on-peak air conditioning electric power demand by over 75%, with increased overall electric energy consumption of approximately 7–9%, when optimally sized. Additionally, the modeled rainwater collection reduced municipal water consumption by approximately 53–89%, depending on the system size.

  4. Investigation of Electricity Generation by Using Gamma Radiation from Spent Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung Yim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the electric power generation with scale spent fuel. OrigenArp has analyzed gamma radiation environment of spent fuel assembly, MCNPX has analyzed the scintillator behavior, and experimental work has analyzed the electric output of photovoltaic cell. Gamma radiation environment analysis result indicates gamma source rapidly decreases for the early storage period. Scintillator analysis result calculates the photon flux distribution which enters photovoltaic cell. Photovoltaic cell experiment calculates electric current, voltage current generation per each system unit. Generated electric power can be used to cope with existing safety system (i.e. storage monitoring system) under severe accident or to operate security system under external invasion situation (i.e. passive physical barrier system). Several researchers have shown that converting radiation energy into electric energy is possible. Karl Scharf studied the direct electric conversion of radiation energy by using photovoltaic cells. Researchers in University of Massachusetts Lowell have studied radiation-electric energy conversion by using gadolinium oxide scintillator and dye sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) and N. Horuichi et al. studied radiation-electric energy conversion by using inorganic scintillators and amorphous and crystal photovoltaic cells

  5. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  6. Nucleon electric dipole moments in high-scale supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisano, Junji; Kobayashi, Daiki; Kuramoto, Wataru; Kuwahara, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electron and nucleons are promising probes of the new physics. In generic high-scale supersymmetric (SUSY) scenarios such as models based on mixture of the anomaly and gauge mediations, gluino has an additional contribution to the nucleon EDMs. In this paper, we studied the effect of the CP-violating gluon Weinberg operator induced by the gluino chromoelectric dipole moment in the high-scale SUSY scenarios, and we evaluated the nucleon and electron EDMs in the scenarios. We found that in the generic high-scale SUSY models, the nucleon EDMs may receive the sizable contribution from the Weinberg operator. Thus, it is important to compare the nucleon EDMs with the electron one in order to discriminate among the high-scale SUSY models.

  7. Nucleon electric dipole moments in high-scale supersymmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisano, Junji [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI),Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8584 (Japan); Kobayashi, Daiki; Kuramoto, Wataru; Kuwahara, Takumi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-11-12

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electron and nucleons are promising probes of the new physics. In generic high-scale supersymmetric (SUSY) scenarios such as models based on mixture of the anomaly and gauge mediations, gluino has an additional contribution to the nucleon EDMs. In this paper, we studied the effect of the CP-violating gluon Weinberg operator induced by the gluino chromoelectric dipole moment in the high-scale SUSY scenarios, and we evaluated the nucleon and electron EDMs in the scenarios. We found that in the generic high-scale SUSY models, the nucleon EDMs may receive the sizable contribution from the Weinberg operator. Thus, it is important to compare the nucleon EDMs with the electron one in order to discriminate among the high-scale SUSY models.

  8. Copper vanadate nanowires-based MIS capacitors: Synthesis, characterization, and their electrical charge storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2013-07-14

    Copper vanadate (CVO) nanowires were grown on Si/SiO2 substrates by thermal annealing technique. A thin film of a CVO precursor at 550 C under an ambient atmosphere could also be prepared. The electrical properties of the nanowires embedded in the dielectrical layer were examined by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The C-V curves for Au/CVO nanowires embedded in an hafnium oxide layer/SiO2/p-Si capacitor at 298 K showed a clockwise hysteresis loop when the gate bias was swept cyclically. The hysteresis characteristics were studied further at different frequencies, which clearly indicated that the traps in the nanowires have a large charging-discharging time and thus the as-synthesized nanowires can be utilized for electrical charge storage devices. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  9. Copper vanadate nanowires-based MIS capacitors: synthesis, characterization, and their electrical charge storage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahid, Muhammad, E-mail: shahid@skku.edu [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Material Science and Engineering (Saudi Arabia); Nafady, Ayman [King Saud University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (Saudi Arabia); Shakir, Imran; Rana, Usman Ali; Sarfraz, Mansoor [King Saud University, Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET) Center, College of Engineering (Saudi Arabia); Warsi, Muhammad Farooq [The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Department of Chemistry (Pakistan); Hussain, Rafaqat [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies (Malaysia); Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem [Bahauddin Zakaryia University, Institute of Chemical Sciences (Pakistan)

    2013-08-15

    Copper vanadate (CVO) nanowires were grown on Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates by thermal annealing technique. A thin film of a CVO precursor at 550 Degree-Sign C under an ambient atmosphere could also be prepared. The electrical properties of the nanowires embedded in the dielectrical layer were examined by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The C-V curves for Au/CVO nanowires embedded in an hafnium oxide layer/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si capacitor at 298 K showed a clockwise hysteresis loop when the gate bias was swept cyclically. The hysteresis characteristics were studied further at different frequencies, which clearly indicated that the traps in the nanowires have a large charging-discharging time and thus the as-synthesized nanowires can be utilized for electrical charge storage devices.

  10. Copper vanadate nanowires-based MIS capacitors: Synthesis, characterization, and their electrical charge storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad; Nafady, Ayman; Shakir, Imran; Rana, Usman Ali; Sarfraz, Mansoor M.; Warsi, Muhammad Farooq; Hussain, Rafaqat; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem

    2013-01-01

    Copper vanadate (CVO) nanowires were grown on Si/SiO2 substrates by thermal annealing technique. A thin film of a CVO precursor at 550 C under an ambient atmosphere could also be prepared. The electrical properties of the nanowires embedded in the dielectrical layer were examined by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The C-V curves for Au/CVO nanowires embedded in an hafnium oxide layer/SiO2/p-Si capacitor at 298 K showed a clockwise hysteresis loop when the gate bias was swept cyclically. The hysteresis characteristics were studied further at different frequencies, which clearly indicated that the traps in the nanowires have a large charging-discharging time and thus the as-synthesized nanowires can be utilized for electrical charge storage devices. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  11. Battery charging characteristics in small scaled photovoltaic system using resonant DC-DC converter with electric isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, H.; Kimura, G.; Shioya, M.

    1990-01-01

    The solar energy has been drawing attention of the whole world as a clean and infinite energy, since the globe resource, the globe ecology and so on came into question. The wide applications of the solar energy are being expected in a range from electric power plants to household systems. But the output power induced in the photovoltaic modules is influenced by an intensity of the solar radiation, a temperature of the solar cells and so on, so the various useful forms of the solar energy are being proposed for a purpose of stable power supply. a system described in this paper is a small scaled photovoltaic system with storage batteries. This paper describes the theoretical analyses of the photovoltaic system using a resonant DC-DC converter in order to clarify a desirable circuit condition, besides the experimental results of the battery charging characteristics are presented

  12. Lab-scale experiment of a closed thermochemical heat storage system including honeycomb heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fopah-Lele, Armand; Rohde, Christian; Neumann, Karsten; Tietjen, Theo; Rönnebeck, Thomas; N'Tsoukpoe, Kokouvi Edem; Osterland, Thomas; Opel, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    A lab-scale thermochemical heat storage reactor was developed in the European project “thermal battery” to obtain information on the characteristics of a closed heat storage system, based on thermochemical reactions. The present type of storage is capable of re-using waste heat from cogeneration system to produce useful heat for space heating. The storage material used was SrBr 2 ·6H 2 O. Due to agglomeration or gel-like problems, a structural element was introduced to enhance vapour and heat transfer. Honeycomb heat exchanger was designed and tested. 13 dehydration-hydration cycles were studied under low-temperature conditions (material temperatures < 100 °C) for storage. Discharging was realized at water vapour pressure of about 42 mbar. Temperature evolution inside the reactor at different times and positions, chemical conversion, thermal power and overall efficiency were analysed for the selected cycles. Experimental system thermal capacity and efficiency of 65 kWh and 0.77 are respectively obtained with about 1 kg of SrBr 2 ·6H 2 O. Heat transfer fluid recovers heat at a short span of about 43 °C with an average of 22 °C during about 4 h, acceptable temperature for the human comfort (20 °C on day and 16 °C at night). System performances were obtained for a salt bed energy density of 213 kWh·m 3 . The overall heat transfer coefficient of the honeycomb heat exchanger has an average value of 147 W m −2  K −1 . Though promising results have been obtained, ameliorations need to be made, in order to make the closed thermochemical heat storage system competitive for space heating. - Highlights: • Lab-scale thermochemical heat storage is designed, constructed and tested. • The use of honeycomb heat exchanger as a heat and vapour process enhancement. • Closed system (1 kg SrBr 2 ·6H 2 O) able to give back 3/4 of initial thermal waste energy. • System storage capacity and thermal efficiency are respectively 65 kWh and 0.77.

  13. Method of electric powertrain matching for battery-powered electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Guobao; Xiong, Lu; Zhang, Lijun; Yu, Zhuoping

    2013-05-01

    The current match method of electric powertrain still makes use of longitudinal dynamics, which can't realize maximum capacity for on-board energy storage unit and can't reach lowest equivalent fuel consumption as well. Another match method focuses on improving available space considering reasonable layout of vehicle to enlarge rated energy capacity for on-board energy storage unit, which can keep the longitudinal dynamics performance almost unchanged but can't reach lowest fuel consumption. Considering the characteristics of driving motor, method of electric powertrain matching utilizing conventional longitudinal dynamics for driving system and cut-and-try method for energy storage system is proposed for passenger cars converted from traditional ones. Through combining the utilization of vehicle space which contributes to the on-board energy amount, vehicle longitudinal performance requirements, vehicle equivalent fuel consumption level, passive safety requirements and maximum driving range requirement together, a comprehensive optimal match method of electric powertrain for battery-powered electric vehicle is raised. In simulation, the vehicle model and match method is built in Matlab/simulink, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) is chosen as a test condition. The simulation results show that 2.62% of regenerative energy and 2% of energy storage efficiency are increased relative to the traditional method. The research conclusions provide theoretical and practical solutions for electric powertrain matching for modern battery-powered electric vehicles especially for those converted from traditional ones, and further enhance dynamics of electric vehicles.

  14. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odru, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book proposes a broad overview of the technologies developed in the domains of on-board electricity storage (batteries, super-capacitors, flywheels), stationary storage (hydraulic dams, compressed air, batteries and hydrogen), and heat storage (sensible, latent and sorption) together with their relative efficiency, their expected developments and what advantages they can offer. Eminent specialists of this domain have participated to the redaction of this book, all being members of the Tuck's Foundation 'IDees' think tank. (J.S.)

  15. Contribution to the study of scaling mechanisms. Application to electric anti-scaling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duigou, Alain

    1982-01-01

    In order to precisely study scaling mechanisms, this research thesis first aims at a deeper understanding of natural waters and their equilibriums by developing the Legrand and Poirier graphical method, and then studies the conditions for obtaining deposited products by electrolytic way on metal substrates the surface condition of which allows a better monitoring of the first stages of the phenomenon. The author also addresses the determination of an operating principle for electrical anti-scaling systems, and the development of a test method for the assessment of their efficiency. The author also identifies some rules allowing this efficiency to be improved in the case of natural waters

  16. Overview of current development in electrical energy storage technologies and the application potential in power system operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong; Dooner, Mark; Clarke, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An overview of the state-of-the-art in Electrical Energy Storage (EES) is provided. • A comprehensive analysis of various EES technologies is carried out. • An application potential analysis of the reviewed EES technologies is presented. • The presented synthesis to EES technologies can be used to support future R and D and deployment. - Abstract: Electrical power generation is changing dramatically across the world because of the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to introduce mixed energy sources. The power network faces great challenges in transmission and distribution to meet demand with unpredictable daily and seasonal variations. Electrical Energy Storage (EES) is recognized as underpinning technologies to have great potential in meeting these challenges, whereby energy is stored in a certain state, according to the technology used, and is converted to electrical energy when needed. However, the wide variety of options and complex characteristic matrices make it difficult to appraise a specific EES technology for a particular application. This paper intends to mitigate this problem by providing a comprehensive and clear picture of the state-of-the-art technologies available, and where they would be suited for integration into a power generation and distribution system. The paper starts with an overview of the operation principles, technical and economic performance features and the current research and development of important EES technologies, sorted into six main categories based on the types of energy stored. Following this, a comprehensive comparison and an application potential analysis of the reviewed technologies are presented

  17. A dynamic optimization-based architecture for polygeneration microgrids with tri-generation, renewables, storage systems and electrical vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, Stefano; Delfino, Federico; Pampararo, Fabio; Robba, Michela; Rossi, Mansueto

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We describe two national special projects on smart grid. • We developed dynamic decision model based on a MPC architecture. • We developed an optimization model for microgrids, for a specific case study. - Abstract: An overall architecture, or Energy Management System (EMS), based on a dynamic optimization model to minimize operating costs and CO 2 emissions is formalized and applied to the University of Genova Savona Campus test-bed facilities consisting of a Smart Polygeneration Microgrid (SPM) and a Sustainable Energy Building (SEB) connected to such microgrid. The electric grid is a three phase low voltage distribution system, connecting many different technologies: three cogeneration micro gas turbines fed by natural gas, a photovoltaic field, three cogeneration Concentrating Solar Powered (CSP) systems (equipped with Stirling engines), an absorption chiller equipped with a storage tank, two types of electrical storage based on batteries technology (long term Na–Ni and short term Li-Ion ion), two electric vehicles charging stations, other electrical devices (inverters and smart metering systems), etc. The EMS can be used both for microgrids approximated as single bus bar (or one node) and for microgrids in which all buses are taken into account. The optimal operation of the microgrid is based on a central controller that receives forecasts and data from a SCADA system and that can schedule all dispatchable plants in the day ahead or in real time through an approach based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). The architecture is tested and applied to the case study of the Savona Campus

  18. Scale economies in a series of generic interim SNF storage facilities - 15104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a micro-economic, cost-engineering model of a centralized (Generic Interim Storage Facility - GISF) facility to monitor LWR irradiated fuel with particular attention to scale economies (e.g., to compare the likely costs at a power plant site or at regional, national and international facilities). This paper is based on the cost estimates of the Private Fuel Services Facility (PFSF) on the Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians' Reservation in Utah, licensed by the US NRC in 2006 to centralize storage of 40.000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) for 20 to 40 years. Assuming movement of the 40.000 MTHM every 40 years to a new facility, the levelized costs are 144 dollars/kg without high security and physical protection, and 208 dollars/kg with high security through 2111 (assuming disposal within a century), or about 0.50 dollars/MWh to 0.75 dollars/MWh depending on the burnup and thermal efficiency of the nuclear power plant. This cost estimate is generalized to explore scale economies for facilities with and without high security and physical protection. There are declining levelized costs with increasing size to 120.000 MTHM without high security, and to 500.000 MTHM with high security, i.e., the higher the level of security, the stronger the economies of scale. (author)

  19. Operation of Modern Distribution Power Systems in Competitive Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao

    , DG units, loads and electricity price are studied. Further, the effect of energy storage systems will be considered, and an optimal operation strategy for energy storage devices in a large scale wind power system in the electricity market is proposed. The western Danish power system, which has large...... strategy for trading wind power in the Danish short-term electricity market in order to minimize the imbalance costs for regulation. A load optimization method based on spot price for demand side management in Denmark is proposed in order to save the energy costs for 3 types of typical Danish consumers...... maximum profit of the BESS is proposed. Two kinds of BESS, based on polysulfide-bromine (PSB) and vanadium redox (VRB) battery technologies, are studied. Optimal operation strategies of PEV in the spot market are then proposed in order to decrease the energy cost for PEV owners. Furthermore...

  20. Potential reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from the use of electric energy storage on a power generation unit/organic Rankine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mago, Pedro J.; Luck, Rogelio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A power generation organic Rankine cycle with electric energy storage is evaluated. • The potential carbon dioxide emissions reduction of the system is evaluated. • The system performance is evaluated for a building in different climate zones. • The system emissions and cost are compared with those of conventional systems. • Use of carbon emissions cap and trade programs on the system is evaluated. - Abstract: This paper evaluates the potential carbon dioxide emissions reduction from the implementation of electric energy storage to a combined power generation unit and an organic Rankine cycle relative to a conventional system that uses utility gas for heating and utility electricity for electricity needs. Results indicate that carbon dioxide emission reductions from the operation of the proposed system are directly correlated to the ratio of the carbon dioxide emission conversion factor for electricity to that of the fuel. The location where the system is installed also has a strong influence on the potential of the proposed system to save carbon dioxide emissions. Finally, it is shown that by using carbon emissions cap and trade programs, it is possible to establish a frame of reference to compare/exchange operational cost gains with carbon dioxide emission reductions/gains.

  1. Design and Testing of a Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mingyu [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; WolfeIV, Edward [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; Craig, Timothy [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Without the waste heat available from the engine of a conventional automobile, electric vehicles (EVs) must provide heat to the cabin for climate control using energy stored in the vehicle. In current EV designs, this energy is typically provided by the traction battery. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required to heat the EV cabin can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, the driving range of an EV can be reduced very significantly during winter months, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs to achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to the EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The system uses the stored latent heat of an advanced phase change material (PCM) to provide cabin heating. The PCM is melted while the EV is connected to the electric grid for charging of the electric battery, and the stored energy is subsequently transferred to the cabin during driving. To minimize thermal losses when the EV is parked for extended periods, the PCM is encased in a high performance insulation system. The electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) was designed to provide enough thermal energy to heat the EV s cabin for approximately 46 minutes, covering the entire daily commute of a typical driver in the U.S.

  2. Study of the potential of energy storage - Investigation report - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Arnaud; Fournie, Laurent; Girardeau, Pierre; Chammas, Maxime; Tarel, Guillaume; Chiche, Alice; De Freminville; Pierre; Lacroix, Olivier; Rakotojaona, Loic; Payen, Luc; Riu, Delphine; Kerouedan, Anne-Fleur

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess, for France and its overseas territories, the potential of energy storage by 2030, and to identify the technological sectors which are the most economically relevant. A global surplus has been calculated, as well as the benefit from additional storage capacities. This benefit has been compared with cost predictions by 2030 for different storage technologies. Economically viable powers and types of energy storages are assessed with respect to different scenarios, and impacts in terms of associated jobs are assessed. The document reports and discusses the surplus assessment for the community, describes the various services provided by energy storage, presents the modelling scenarios and hypotheses, discusses the main results of valorisation for the community, presents the various energy storage technologies (gravity, thermodynamic, electrochemical, electrostatic, inertial, latent thermal, thermo-chemical, and power to gas), presents business models and deployment potential for different applications (mass storage of electricity in France, electricity storage in a non-connected area, decentralised electricity storage as a response to grid congestion, valorisation of an electricity storage, thermal storage on a heat network, cold storage, management of diffuse demand of hot water), and discusses implications regarding employment

  3. Modular, scalable EV powertrains for mobile energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, L. [Rapid Electric Vehicles Technologies, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Rapid Electric Vehicles (REV) develops powertrains and control systems for 100 percent electric bi-directional charging ancillary power vehicles (APVs). APV fleet vehicles are used for the purpose of mobile energy storage and are necessary for scaling energy and power according to customer demand. REV is currently using OEM frames and bodies. This presentation discussed REV's OEM strategy and its progression towards advanced APVs. The product development timeline for front wheel drive systems was also presented. Several products were also discussed, including a modular all-electric front wheel drive; an ACX2.0 to Burlington Hydro; testing of ACX2.5 systems, vehicles near completion; and a V2x demonstration. The presentation discussed each of these products in detail. Other topics that were presented included modular solutions; strategic partnerships; electric vehicle performance and requirements; and an ACX-3 drive system study. tabs., figs.

  4. Superconducting magnetic energy storage, possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bace, M.; Knapp, V.

    1981-01-01

    Energy storage is of great importance for the exploitation of new energy sources as well as for the better utilisation of conventional ones. Several proposals in recent years have suggested that superconducting magnets could be used as energy storage in large electricity networks. It is a purpose of this note to point out that the requirements which have to be met by energy storage in a large electricity network place serious limitation on the possible use of superconducting energy storage. (author)

  5. Large-Scale Demonstration of Liquid Hydrogen Storage with Zero Boiloff for In-Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bryant, C. B.; Flachbart, R. H.; Holt, K. A.; Johnson, E.; Hedayat, A.; Hipp, B.; Plachta, D. W.

    2010-01-01

    Cryocooler and passive insulation technology advances have substantially improved prospects for zero-boiloff cryogenic storage. Therefore, a cooperative effort by NASA s Ames Research Center, Glenn Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was implemented to develop zero-boiloff concepts for in-space cryogenic storage. Described herein is one program element - a large-scale, zero-boiloff demonstration using the MSFC multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB). A commercial cryocooler was interfaced with an existing MHTB spray bar mixer and insulation system in a manner that enabled a balance between incoming and extracted thermal energy.

  6. Control of systematic uncertainties in the storage ring search for an electric dipole moment by measuring the electric quadrupole moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Magiera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of electric dipole moment (EDM for light hadrons with use of a storage ring have been proposed. The expected effect is very small, therefore various subtle effects need to be considered. In particular, interaction of particle’s magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment with electromagnetic field gradients can produce an effect of a similar order of magnitude as that expected for EDM. This paper describes a very promising method employing an rf Wien filter, allowing to disentangle that contribution from the genuine EDM effect. It is shown that both these effects could be separated by the proper setting of the rf Wien filter frequency and phase. In the EDM measurement the magnitude of systematic uncertainties plays a key role and they should be under strict control. It is shown that particles’ interaction with field gradients offers also the possibility to estimate global systematic uncertainties with the precision necessary for an EDM measurement with the planned accuracy.

  7. Control of systematic uncertainties in the storage ring search for an electric dipole moment by measuring the electric quadrupole moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiera, Andrzej

    2017-09-01

    Measurements of electric dipole moment (EDM) for light hadrons with use of a storage ring have been proposed. The expected effect is very small, therefore various subtle effects need to be considered. In particular, interaction of particle's magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment with electromagnetic field gradients can produce an effect of a similar order of magnitude as that expected for EDM. This paper describes a very promising method employing an rf Wien filter, allowing to disentangle that contribution from the genuine EDM effect. It is shown that both these effects could be separated by the proper setting of the rf Wien filter frequency and phase. In the EDM measurement the magnitude of systematic uncertainties plays a key role and they should be under strict control. It is shown that particles' interaction with field gradients offers also the possibility to estimate global systematic uncertainties with the precision necessary for an EDM measurement with the planned accuracy.

  8. Electrical conductivity testing of corn seeds as influenced by temperature and period of storage

    OpenAIRE

    Fessel,Simone Aparecida; Vieira,Roberval Daiton; Cruz,Mara Cristina Pessoa da; Paula,Rinaldo Cesar de; Panobianco,Maristela

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of temperature (10, 20, 30, 20/10 and 30/10ºC) and period of storage on electrical conductivity (EC) in four seed lots of corn (Zea mays L.), as well as the mineral composition of the soaking solution. EC test determines indirectly the integrity of seed membrane systems, and is used for the assessment of seed vigor, because this test detects the seed deterioration process since its early phase. The research comprised determinations o...

  9. Wind turbine cost of electricity and capacity factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Wind turbines are currently designed to minimize the cost of electricity at the wind turbine (the busbar cost) in a given wind regime, ignoring constraints on the capacitor factor (the ratio of the average power output to the maximum power output). The trade-off between these two quantities can be examined in a straightforward fashion; it is found that the capacitor factor can be increased by a factor of 1.3 above its value at the cost minimum for a 10 percent increase in the cost of electricity. This has important implications for the large scale integration of wind electricity on utility grids where the cost of transmission and storage may be a significant fraction of the cost of delivered electricity. (Author)

  10. Energy modeling and analysis for optimal grid integration of large-scale variable renewables using hydrogen storage in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Otsuki, Takashi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    Although the extensive introduction of VRs (variable renewables) will play an essential role to resolve energy and environmental issues in Japan after the Fukushima nuclear accident, its large-scale integration would pose a technical challenge in the grid management; as one of technical countermeasures, hydrogen storage receives much attention, as well as rechargeable battery, for controlling the intermittency of VR power output. For properly planning renewable energy policies, energy system modeling is important to quantify and qualitatively understand its potential benefits and impacts. This paper analyzes the optimal grid integration of large-scale VRs using hydrogen storage in Japan by developing a high time-resolution optimal power generation mix model. Simulation results suggest that the installation of hydrogen storage is promoted by both its cost reduction and CO 2 regulation policy. In addition, hydrogen storage turns out to be suitable for storing VR energy in a long period of time. Finally, through a sensitivity analysis of rechargeable battery cost, hydrogen storage is economically competitive with rechargeable battery; the cost of both technologies should be more elaborately recognized for formulating effective energy policies to integrate massive VRs into the country's power system in an economical manner. - Highlights: • Authors analyze hydrogen storage coupled with VRs (variable renewables). • Simulation analysis is done by developing an optimal power generation mix model. • Hydrogen storage installation is promoted by its cost decline and CO 2 regulation. • Hydrogen storage is suitable for storing VR energy in a long period of time. • Hydrogen storage is economically competitive with rechargeable battery

  11. The perspectives for the use of hydrogen for electricity storage considering the foreign experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blacharski Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, the European Union has seen a rapid increase in installed capacity of generating units based on renewable energy sources (RES. The most significant increase in installed capacity was recorded in 2015, in wind farms and solar PV installations. One of the most serious is the volatile character of RES on a time basis. Therefore, for a further expected increase in the use of RES and their effectiveness improvements, investments are needed allowing for electricity to be stored. One of the electricity storage options is to use excess electricity in order to produce hydrogen by electrolysis of water. Although this process plays a marginal role in obtaining hydrogen on a worldwide basis due to high costs, experience in recent years has shown that periodically low (negative electricity prices, developing on the power exchanges in the situation where there is surplus electricity available, affect economic requirements for hydrogen production technologies. The paper shows activities undertaken by European countries (mainly Germany aiming at making it possible for hydrogen to be stored in the natural gas grids. A particular attention is given to material resource issues and possible operational problems that might arise while blending natural gas with hydrogen into the grid. The experiences of selected European countries are of particular interest from the Polish perspective, having regard to significant increase of RES in electricity generation during the last few years and adopted objectives for the growing importance of RES in the Poland’s energy balance.

  12. Batch scale storage of sprouting foods by irradiation combined with natural low temperature; pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.O.; Kwon, J.H.; Yang, H.S.; Byun, M.W.; Lee, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    In order to develop the commercial storage method of potatoes by irradiation combined with natural low temperature, two varieties of potatoes, Irish cobbler and Shimabara were stored at natural low temperature storage room (450x650x250cm; year round temperature change, 2-17 degC; 70-85% R.H.) on a batch scale followed by irradiation with optimum dose level. Irish cobbler and Shimabara were 100% sprouted after 3 months storage in control, whereas in 15Krad irradiated group, sprouting was completely inhibited at Irish cobbler for 9 months storage, and at Shimabara for 12 months. The extent of loss due to rot attack after 9 months storage was 6% in control, 6-8% in 10-15Krad irradiated group at Irish cobbler and weight loss was 16.5% in control, 5.1-5.6% in irradiated group, whereas rotting rate of Shimabara after 12 months storage was 100% in control, 15% in irradiated group and the weight loss of its was 12.6% in control, 7.3-7.4% in irradiated group. The moisture content in whole storage period of two varieties were 72-82% without remarkable changes. The total sugar and ascorbic acid contents were slightly decreased according to the dose increase and elapse of storage period, whereas reducing sugar content was increased. Irish cobbler was 90% markrtable after 9 months storage and 85% in Shimabara after 12 months storage. (Author)

  13. Multidimensional materials and device architectures for future hybrid energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Dunn, Bruce; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-09-01

    Electrical energy storage plays a vital role in daily life due to our dependence on numerous portable electronic devices. Moreover, with the continued miniaturization of electronics, integration of wireless devices into our homes and clothes and the widely anticipated `Internet of Things', there are intensive efforts to develop miniature yet powerful electrical energy storage devices. This review addresses the cutting edge of electrical energy storage technology, outlining approaches to overcome current limitations and providing future research directions towards the next generation of electrical energy storage devices whose characteristics represent a true hybridization of batteries and electrochemical capacitors.

  14. Vehicle-to-Grid Power in Danish Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems is often constrained by the variable nature of their output. This demands for the services of storing the electricity generated from most of the renewable energy sources. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power could use the inherent energy storage of electric...... vehicles and its quick response time to balance and stabilize a power system with fluctuating power. This paper outlines the use of battery electric vehicles in supporting large-scale integration of renewable energy in the Danish electric power systems. The reserve power requirements for a high renewable...... energy penetration could be met by an amount of V2G based electric vehicles less than 10% of the total vehicle need in Denmark. The participation of electric vehicle in ancillary services would earn significant revenues to the vehicle owner. The power balancing services of electric vehicles...

  15. Numerical analysis of magnetic field in superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamaru, Y.; Amemiya, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is more useful than the other systems of electric energy storage because of larger stored energy and higher efficiency. The other systems are the battery, the flywheel, the pumped-storage power station. Some models of solenoid type SMES are designed in U.S.A. and Japan. But a high magnetic field happens by the large scale SMES in the living environment, and makes the erroneous operations of the computer display, the pacemaker of the heart and the electronic equipments. We study some fit designs of magnetic shielding of the solenoidal type SMES for reduction of the magnetic field in living environment. When some superconducting shielding coils are over the main storage coil, magnetic field reduces remarkably than the case of non shielding coil. The calculated results of the magnetic field are obtained y the finite element method

  16. The impact of carbon capture and storage on a decarbonized German power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiecker, S.; Eickholt, V.; Weber, C.

    2014-01-01

    The European energy policy is substantially driven by the target to reduce the CO 2 -emissions significantly and to mitigate climate change. Nevertheless European power generation is still widely based on fossil fuels. The carbon capture and storage technology (CCS) could be part of an approach to achieve ambitious CO 2 reduction targets without large scale transformations of the existing energy system. In this context the paper investigates on how far the CCS-technology could play a role in the European and most notably in the German electricity generation sector. To account for all the interdependencies with the European neighboring countries, the embedding of the German electricity system is modeled using a stochastic European electricity market model (E2M2s). After modeling the European side constraints, the German electricity system is considered in detail with the stochastic German Electricity market model (GEM2s). The focus is thereby on the location of CCS plant sites, the structure of the CO 2 -pipeline network and the regional distribution of storage sites. Results for three different European energy market scenarios are presented up to the year 2050. Additionally, the use of CCS with use of onshore and offshore sites is investigated. - Highlights: • We present a model framework for the evaluation of carbon capture and storage (CCS). • Different scenarios to analyze regional differences within Germany. • Interdependencies between CO 2 bound and demand are the main influencing factors. • A comprehensive investment in CCS power plants is not likely in the next decades. • Storage sites are no restricting factor but public acceptance is a crucial point

  17. Technology Performance Report: Duke Energy Notrees Wind Storage Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, Jeff [Duke Energy Renewables, Charlotte, NC (United States); Mohler, David [Duke Energy Renewables, Charlotte, NC (United States); Gibson, Stuart [Duke Energy Renewables, Charlotte, NC (United States); Clanin, Jason [Duke Energy Renewables, Charlotte, NC (United States); Faris, Don [Duke Energy Renewables, Charlotte, NC (United States); Hooker, Kevin [Duke Energy Renewables, Charlotte, NC (United States); Rowand, Michael [Duke Energy Renewables, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Duke Energy Renewables owns and operates the Notrees Wind Farm in west Texas’s Ector and Winkler counties. The wind farm, which was commissioned in April 2009, has a total capacity of 152.6 MW generated by 55 Vestas V82 turbines, one Vestas 1-V90 experimental turbine, and 40 GE 1.5-MW turbines. The Vestas V82 turbines have a generating capacity of 1.65 MW each, the Vestas V90 turbine has a generating capacity of 1.86 MW, and the GE turbines have a generating capacity of 1.5 MW each. The objective of the Notrees Wind Storage Demonstration Project is to validate that energy storage increases the value and practical application of intermittent wind generation and is commercially viable at utility scale. The project incorporates both new and existing technologies and techniques to evaluate the performance and potential of wind energy storage. In addition, it could serve as a model for others to adopt and replicate. Wind power resources are expected to play a significant part in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from electric power generation by 2030. However, the large variability and intermittent nature of wind presents a barrier to integrating it within electric markets, particularly when competing against conventional generation that is more reliable. In addition, wind power production often peaks at night or other times when demand and electricity prices are lowest. Energy storage systems can overcome those barriers and enable wind to become a valuable asset and equal competitor to conventional fossil fuel generation.

  18. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). Results of a technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, T.; Juengst, K.P.; Brandl, V.; Maurer, W.; Nieke, E.

    1995-05-01

    The authors report on results of a Technology Assessment study commissioned by the German Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) technology with respect to the economical, political and organization structures in the Federal Republic of Germany. The main focus of the study was on the technical and economic potential of large-scale SMES for diurnal load levelling applications. It was shown that there is no demand for the development of large SMES in Germany in the short and medium term. A second range of applications investigated is storage of electric energy for immediate delivery or consumption of electric power in case of need or for periodic power supply within the range of seconds. Due to its excellent dynamic properties SMES has substantial advantages over conventional storage technologies in this field. For those so-called dynamic applications SMES of small and medium energy capacity are needed. It was shown that SMES may be economically attractive for the provision of spinning reserve capacity in electrical networks, in particular cases for power quality applications (uninterruptable power supply, UPS) and for the compensation of cyclic loads, as well as in some market niches. The use of SMES for storage of recuperated energy in electrical railway traction systems has been proven to be uneconomical. Mobile SMES applications are unrealistic due to technical and size limitations. In SMES systems the energy is stored in a magnetic field. Biological objects as well as technical systems in the vicinity of a SMES plant are exposed to this field. The knowledge on impacts of magnetic fields on sensitive technical systems as well as on living organisms and especially on effects on human health is rather small and quite uncertain. (orig./MM) [de

  19. Electric vehicles and large-scale integration of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Hu, Weihao; Lund, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    with this imbalance and to reduce its high dependence on oil production. For this reason, it is interesting to analyse the extent to which transport electrification can further the renewable energy integration. This paper quantifies this issue in Inner Mongolia, where the share of wind power in the electricity supply...... was 6.5% in 2009 and which has the plan to develop large-scale wind power. The results show that electric vehicles (EVs) have the ability to balance the electricity demand and supply and to further the wind power integration. In the best case, the energy system with EV can increase wind power...... integration by 8%. The application of EVs benefits from saving both energy system cost and fuel cost. However, the negative consequences of decreasing energy system efficiency and increasing the CO2 emission should be noted when applying the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (HFCV). The results also indicate...

  20. Performance of a full-scale ITER metal hydride storage bed in comparison with requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloglazov, S.; Glugla, M.; Fanghaenel, E.; Perevezentsev, A.; Wagner, R.

    2008-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen isotopes as metal hydride is the technique chosen for the ITER Tritium Plant Storage and Delivery System (SDS). A prototype storage bed of a full-scale has been designed, manufactured and intensively tested at the Tritium Laboratory, addressing main performance parameters specified for the ITER application. The main requirements for the hydrogen storage bed are a strict physical limitation of the tritium storage capacity (currently 70 g T 2 ), a high supply flow rate of hydrogen isotopes, in-situ calorimetry capabilities with an accuracy of 1 g and a fully tritium compatible design. The pressure composition isotherm of the ZrCo hydrogen system, as a reference material for ITER, is characterised by significant slope. As a result technical implementation of the ZrCo hydride bed in the SDS system requires further considerations. The paper presents the experience from the operation of ZrCo getter bed including loading/de-loading operation, calorimetric loop performance, and active gas cooling of the bed for fast absorption operation. The implications of hydride material characteristics on the SDS system configuration and design are discussed. (authors)

  1. Electricity network limitations on large-scale deployment of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, R.J.

    1999-07-01

    This report sought to identify limitation on large scale deployment of wind energy in the UK. A description of the existing electricity supply system in England, Scotland and Wales is given, and operational aspects of the integrated electricity networks, licence conditions, types of wind turbine generators, and the scope for deployment of wind energy in the UK are addressed. A review of technical limitations and technical criteria stipulated by the Distribution and Grid Codes, the effects of system losses, and commercial issues are examined. Potential solutions to technical limitations are proposed, and recommendations are outlined.

  2. Extended used Fuel Storage: EPRI Perspective and Collaboration Initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, John; Waldrop, Keith

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes three main activities the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is undertaking to establish the technical bases for extended (long-term) storage: the Extended Storage Collaboration Program (ESCP); inspection of stainless steel (SS) used fuel dry storage canisters currently in service; and a proposed data collection from a full-scale, bolted lid, metal cask containing high burnup (>45 GWd/MTU) used fuel (the 'Demo'). ESCP is a voluntary organization focused on information sharing and providing the opportunity for more formal collaboration. The SS canister inspection program involves visual examination, canister surface temperature measurements, and collection of contaminants accumulating on the canister surfaces during operation. The Demo program involves the use of a specially instrumented lid allowing for the introduction of thermocouples inside the loaded cask as was as providing the ability to collect cask cavity gas samples. (authors)

  3. Integrative monitoring of water storage variations at the landscape-scale with an iGrav superconducting gravimeter in a field enclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntner, A.; Reich, M.; Mikolaj, M.; Creutzfeldt, B.; Schroeder, S.; Wziontek, H.

    2017-12-01

    In spite of the fundamental role of the landscape water balance for the Earth's water and energy cycles, monitoring the water balance and related storage dynamics beyond the point scale is notoriously difficult due to the multitude of flow and storage processes and their spatial heterogeneity. We present the first outdoor deployment of an iGrav superconducting gravimeter (SG) in a minimized field enclosure on a wet-temperate grassland site for integrative monitoring of water storage changes. It is shown that the system performs similarly precise as SGs that have hitherto been deployed in observatory buildings, but with higher sensitivity to hydrological variations in the surroundings of the instrument. Gravity variations observed by the field setup are almost independent of the depth below the terrain surface where water storage changes occur, and thus the field SG system directly observes the total water storage change in an integrative way. We provide a framework to single out the water balance components actual evapotranspiration and lateral subsurface discharge from the gravity time series on annual to daily time scales. With about 99% and 85% of the gravity signal originating within a radius of 4000 and 200 meter around the instrument, respectively, the setup paves the road towards gravimetry as a continuous hydrological field monitoring technique for water storage dynamics at the landscape scale.

  4. Radioactive gas storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Eiji; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns a device of ionizing radioactive gases to be processed in gaseous nuclear fission products in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, etc., and injecting them into metal substrates for storage. The device comprises a vessel for a tightly closed type outer electrode in which gases to be processed are introduced, an electrode disposed to the inside of the vessel and the target material, a high DC voltage power source for applying high voltage to the electrodes, etc. There are disposed a first electric discharging portion for preparting discharge plasma for ion injection of different electrode distance and a second electric discharging portion for causing stable discharge between the vessel and the electrode. The first electric discharging portion for the ion injection provides an electrode distance suitable to acceleration sputtering and the second electric discharging portion is used for stable discharge. Accordingly, if the gas pressure in the radioactive gas storage device is reduced by the external disturbance, etc., since the second electric discharging portion satisfies the electric discharging conditions, the device can continue electric discharge. (K.M.)

  5. Cost-efficient demand-pull policies for multi-purpose technologies – The case of stationary electricity storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battke, Benedikt; Schmidt, Tobias S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A definition of multi-purpose technologies (MPTs) is proposed. • Opportunities for a cost-efficient demand-pull policy strategy for MPTs are derived. • The multi-purpose character of stationary electricity storage (SES) is shown. • An exemplary profitability assessment of one SES technology supports the argument. - Abstract: Stationary electricity storage technologies (SES) allow to increase the shares of intermittent renewable energy technologies in electricity networks. As SES currently exhibit high costs, policy makers have started introducing demand-pull policies in order to foster their diffusion and drive these technologies further down the learning curve. However, as observed in the case of renewable energy technologies, demand-pull policies for technologies can come at high costs in cases where the profitability gap that needs to be covered by the policy support is large. Yet, SES can create value in multiple distinct applications in the power system – making it a “multi-purpose technology”. We argue that policy makers can make use of the multi-purpose character of SES to limit costs of demand-pull policies. We propose a policy strategy which grants support based on the profitability gap in the different applications, thereby moving down the learning curve efficiently. To support our argumentation, we firstly conduct a comprehensive literature review of SES applications exemplifying the multi-purpose character of these technologies. Second, we assess the profitability of one SES technology (vanadium redox flow battery) in five SES applications, highlighting a strong variation of the profitability gap across these applications

  6. Smart use of storage potentials of electric vehicles for renewable energy generation in the built environment : A design scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Timmeren, A.; Bauer, T.C.; Silvester, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, results are reported of a technology assessment of use of electrical vehicles for energy storage (of renewable sources), their integration in the built environment and attached required power and charging systems for the Netherlands. This was done as part of the DIEMIGO project on

  7. Large-scale electrophysiology: acquisition, compression, encryption, and storage of big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Bower, Mark R; Stengel, Keith A; Worrell, Gregory A; Stead, Matt

    2009-05-30

    The use of large-scale electrophysiology to obtain high spatiotemporal resolution brain recordings (>100 channels) capable of probing the range of neural activity from local field potential oscillations to single-neuron action potentials presents new challenges for data acquisition, storage, and analysis. Our group is currently performing continuous, long-term electrophysiological recordings in human subjects undergoing evaluation for epilepsy surgery using hybrid intracranial electrodes composed of up to 320 micro- and clinical macroelectrode arrays. DC-capable amplifiers, sampling at 32kHz per channel with 18-bits of A/D resolution are capable of resolving extracellular voltages spanning single-neuron action potentials, high frequency oscillations, and high amplitude ultra-slow activity, but this approach generates 3 terabytes of data per day (at 4 bytes per sample) using current data formats. Data compression can provide several practical benefits, but only if data can be compressed and appended to files in real-time in a format that allows random access to data segments of varying size. Here we describe a state-of-the-art, scalable, electrophysiology platform designed for acquisition, compression, encryption, and storage of large-scale data. Data are stored in a file format that incorporates lossless data compression using range-encoded differences, a 32-bit cyclically redundant checksum to ensure data integrity, and 128-bit encryption for protection of patient information.

  8. Economic feasibility of pipe storage and underground reservoir storage options for power-to-gas load balancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budny, Christoph; Madlener, Reinhard; Hilgers, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of cost effectiveness of power-to-gas and storage of H 2 and renewable methane. • NPV analysis and Monte Carlo simulation to address fuel and electricity price risks. • Gas sale is compared with power and gas market arbitrage and balancing market gains. • Power-to-gas for linking the balancing markets for power and gas is not profitable. • Pipe storage is the preferred option for temporal arbitrage and balancing energy. - Abstract: This paper investigates the economic feasibility of power-to-gas (P2G) systems and gas storage options for both hydrogen and renewable methane. The study is based on a techno-economic model in which the net present value (NPV) method and Monte Carlo simulation of risks and price forward curves for the electricity and the gas market are used. We study three investment cases: a Base Case where the gas is directly sold in the market, a Storage & Arbitrage Case where temporal arbitrage opportunities between the electricity and the gas market are exploited, and a Storage & Balancing Case where the balancing markets (secondary reserve market for electricity, external balancing market for natural gas) are addressed. The optimal type and size of different centralized and decentralized storage facilities are determined and compared with each other. In a detailed sensitivity and cost analysis, we identify the key factors which could potentially improve the economic viability of the technological concepts assessed. We find that the P2G system used for bridging the balancing markets for power and gas cannot be operated profitably. For both, temporal arbitrage and balancing energy, pipe storage is preferred. Relatively high feed-in tariffs (100 € MW −1 for hydrogen, 130 € MW −1 for methane) are required to render pipe storage for P2G economically viable

  9. Ionospheric response to variable electric fields in small-scale auroral structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Lanchester

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available High time and space resolution optical and radar measurements have revealed the influence of electric fields on E-region electron density profiles in small-scale auroral structures. Large electric fields are present adjacent to auroral filaments produced by monoenergetic electron fluxes. The ionisation profiles measured within and beside the auroral filaments show the effects of plasma convection due to electric fields as well as the consequences of the response time to large and dynamic fluxes of energetic electrons. Without high-resolution optical measurements, the interpretation of the radar data is limited.Key words. Auroral ionosphere · Ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions · EISCAT

  10. Ionospheric response to variable electric fields in small-scale auroral structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Lanchester

    Full Text Available High time and space resolution optical and radar measurements have revealed the influence of electric fields on E-region electron density profiles in small-scale auroral structures. Large electric fields are present adjacent to auroral filaments produced by monoenergetic electron fluxes. The ionisation profiles measured within and beside the auroral filaments show the effects of plasma convection due to electric fields as well as the consequences of the response time to large and dynamic fluxes of energetic electrons. Without high-resolution optical measurements, the interpretation of the radar data is limited.

    Key words. Auroral ionosphere · Ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions · EISCAT

  11. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui Jia

    2010-06-08

    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  12. Novel electrical energy storage system based on reversible solid oxide cells: System design and operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, C. H.; Kazempoor, P.; Braun, R. J.

    2015-02-01

    Electrical energy storage (EES) is an important component of the future electric grid. Given that no other widely available technology meets all the EES requirements, reversible (or regenerative) solid oxide cells (ReSOCs) working in both fuel cell (power producing) and electrolysis (fuel producing) modes are envisioned as a technology capable of providing highly efficient and cost-effective EES. However, there are still many challenges and questions from cell materials development to system level operation of ReSOCs that should be addressed before widespread application. This paper presents a novel system based on ReSOCs that employ a thermal management strategy of promoting exothermic methanation within the ReSOC cell-stack to provide thermal energy for the endothermic steam/CO2 electrolysis reactions during charging mode (fuel producing). This approach also serves to enhance the energy density of the stored gases. Modeling and parametric analysis of an energy storage concept is performed using a physically based ReSOC stack model coupled with thermodynamic system component models. Results indicate that roundtrip efficiencies greater than 70% can be achieved at intermediate stack temperature (680 °C) and elevated stack pressure (20 bar). The optimal operating condition arises from a tradeoff between stack efficiency and auxiliary power requirements from balance of plant hardware.

  13. Microbial electrosynthesis: a novel strategy for flexible energy storage from electricity surplus and greenhouse gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    of the fluctuating electricity generated from renewable sources and to mitigate therelease of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Although MES is attracting a lot of attention and hasbeen studied intensively during the last five years, advances related to the engineering and the biologyof this process are required...... for pilot plant scale and commercialization. If MES reaches its fullpotential, it will serve as a highly flexible and tunable approach for the conversion of electrical energyinto chemical energy, generating valuable products especially from surplus electricity and CO2....

  14. Integration and Validation of a Thermal Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mingyu [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; Craig, Timothy [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; Wolfe, Edward [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; LaClair, Tim J. [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Levin, Michael [Ford Motor Company; Demitroff, Danrich [Ford Motor Company; Shaikh, Furqan [Ford Motor Company

    2017-03-01

    It is widely recognized in the automotive industry that, in very cold climatic conditions, the driving range of an Electric Vehicle (EV) can be reduced by 50% or more. In an effort to minimize the EV range penalty, a novel thermal energy storage system has been designed to provide cabin heating in EVs and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) by using an advanced phase change material (PCM). This system is known as the Electrical PCM-based Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) [1, 2]. When the EV is connected to the electric grid to charge its traction battery, the ePATHS system is also “charged” with thermal energy. The stored heat is subsequently deployed for cabin comfort heating during driving, for example during commuting to and from work.The ePATHS system, especially the PCM heat exchanger component, has gone through substantial redesign in order to meet functionality and commercialization requirements. The final system development for EV implementation has occurred on a mid-range EV and has been evaluated for its capability to extend the driving range. Both simulated driving in a climatic tunnel and actual road testing have been carried out. The ePATHS has demonstrated its ability to supply the entire cabin heating needs for a round trip commute totaling 46 minutes, including 8 hours of parking, at an ambient temperature of -10°C.

  15. The economics of using plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery packs for grid storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Scott B.; Whitacre, J.F.; Apt, Jay

    2010-01-01

    We examine the potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours. Ancillary services such as frequency regulation are not considered here because only a small number of vehicles will saturate that market. Hourly electricity prices in three U.S. cities were used to arrive at daily profit values, while the economic losses associated with battery degradation were calculated based on data collected from A123 Systems LiFePO 4 /Graphite cells tested under combined driving and off-vehicle electricity utilization. For a 16 kWh (57.6 MJ) vehicle battery pack, the maximum annual profit with perfect market information and no battery degradation cost ranged from ∝US$140 to $250 in the three cities. If the measured battery degradation is applied, however, the maximum annual profit (if battery pack replacement costs fall to $5000 for a 16 kWh battery) decreases to ∝10-120. It appears unlikely that these profits alone will provide sufficient incentive to the vehicle owner to use the battery pack for electricity storage and later off-vehicle use. We also estimate grid net social welfare benefits from avoiding the construction and use of peaking generators that may accrue to the owner, finding that these are similar in magnitude to the energy arbitrage profit. (author)

  16. Sorption heat storage for long-term low-temperature applications: A review on the advancements at material and prototype scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scapino, L.; Zondag, H.A.; Van Bael, J.; Diriken, J.; Rindt, C.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Sorption heat storage has the potential to store large amounts of thermal energy from renewables and other distributed energy sources. This article provides an overview on the recent advancements on long-term sorption heat storage at material- and prototype- scales. The focus is on applications

  17. Energy storage systems: a strategic road-book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Dealing with the development and deployment of thermal and electric energy storage systems, this report first identifies four main challenges: to take environmental challenges into account during all the storage system life (design, production, use, end of life), to integrate the issue of economic valorization of the device into its design phase, to promote the development of standards, to make an institutional and legal framework emerge. It defines the geographical scope and the time horizon for the development of these systems. It evokes research and development programs in the United States, Japan, China, Germany and the European Union. These programs concern: mobile electric storage systems, electric storage systems in support of energy networks and renewable energies, heat storage systems. The authors outline that business models are now favourable to the deployment of storage systems. They discuss some key technological and economical parameters. They propose some prospective visions by 2050 with different possible orientations for this sector. They also identify and discuss the possible technological and socio-economical obstacles, research priorities, and stress the importance of implementing experimental platforms and research demonstrators

  18. Electric cars as mobile power storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, B.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the use of electric cars as a means of optimising the use of renewable energy sources. Charging the cars' batteries during periods when cheap electricity prices prevail and then using excess capacity to supply the mains with electricity during periods of peak demand is discussed. The possible use of wind for power generation is discussed and a system proposed by a leading supplier of electrical apparatus and systems is examined. Two examples of electric cars and associated power chains are looked at and tests in everyday practice are described

  19. Optimization under uncertainty of a biomass-integrated renewable energy microgrid with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yingying; Jenkins, Bryan M.; Kornbluth, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    Deterministic constrained optimization and stochastic optimization approaches were used to evaluate uncertainties in biomass-integrated microgrids supplying both electricity and heat. An economic linear programming model with a sliding time window was developed to assess design and scheduling...... of biomass combined heat and power (BCHP) based microgrid systems. Other available technologies considered within the microgrid were small-scale wind turbines, photovoltaic modules (PV), producer gas storage, battery storage, thermal energy storage and heat-only boilers. As an illustrative example, a case...... study was examined for a conceptual utility grid-connected microgrid application in Davis, California. The results show that for the assumptions used, a BCHP/PV with battery storage combination is the most cost effective design based on the assumed energy load profile, local climate data, utility tariff...

  20. A central solar-industrial waste heat heating system with large scale borehole thermal storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.; Yang, X.; Xu, L.; Torrens, I.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new research of seasonal thermal storage is introduced. This study aims to maximize the utilization of renewable energy source and industrial waste heat (IWH) for urban district heating systems in both heating and non-heating seasons through the use of large-scale seasonal thermal

  1. Storing energy for cooling demand management in tropical climates: A techno-economic comparison between different energy storage technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Carducci, Francesco; Sze, Jia Yin; Balamurugan, Nagarajan; Romagnoli, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of energy storage in cooling applications. Cold energy storage technologies addressed are: Li-Ion batteries (Li-Ion EES), sensible heat thermal energy storage (SHTES); phase change material (PCM TES), compressed air energy storage (CAES) and liquid air energy storage (LAES). Batteries and CAES are electrical storage systems which run the cooling systems; SHTES and PCM TES are thermal storage systems which directly store cold energy; LAES is assessed as a hybrid storage system which provides both electricity (for cooling) and cold energy. A hybrid quantitative-qualitative comparison is presented. Quantitative comparison was investigated for different sizes of daily cooling energy demand and three different tariff scenarios. A techno-economic analysis was performed to show the suitability of the different storage systems at different scales. Three parameters were used (Pay-back period, Savings-per-energy-unit and levelized-cost-of-energy) to analyze and compare the different scenarios. The qualitative analysis was based on five comparison criteria (Complexity, Technology Readiness Level, Sustainability, Flexibility and Safety). Results showed the importance of weighing the pros and cons of each technology to select a suitable cold energy storage system. Techno-economic analysis highlighted the fundamental role of tariff scenario: a greater difference between peak and off-peak electricity tariff leads to a shorter payback period of each technology. - Highlights: • Techno-economic evaluation of energy storage solutions for cooling applications. • Comparison between five energy storage (EES, SHTES, PCM, CAES, LAES) is performed. • Qualitative and quantitative performance parameters were used for the analysis. • LAES/PCM can be valid alternatives to more established technologies EES, SHTES, CAES. • Tariffs, price arbitrage and investment cost play a key role in energy storage spread.

  2. Stochastic simulation of power systems with integrated renewable and utility-scale storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeilh, Yannick

    The push for a more sustainable electric supply has led various countries to adopt policies advocating the integration of renewable yet variable energy resources, such as wind and solar, into the grid. The challenges of integrating such time-varying, intermittent resources has in turn sparked a growing interest in the implementation of utility-scale energy storage resources ( ESRs), with MWweek storage capability. Indeed, storage devices provide flexibility to facilitate the management of power system operations in the presence of uncertain, highly time-varying and intermittent renewable resources. The ability to exploit the potential synergies between renewable and ESRs hinges on developing appropriate models, methodologies, tools and policy initiatives. We report on the development of a comprehensive simulation methodology that provides the capability to quantify the impacts of integrated renewable and ESRs on the economics, reliability and emission variable effects of power systems operating in a market environment. We model the uncertainty in the demands, the available capacity of conventional generation resources and the time-varying, intermittent renewable resources, with their temporal and spatial correlations, as discrete-time random processes. We deploy models of the ESRs to emulate their scheduling and operations in the transmission-constrained hourly day-ahead markets. To this end, we formulate a scheduling optimization problem (SOP) whose solutions determine the operational schedule of the controllable ESRs in coordination with the demands and the conventional/renewable resources. As such, the SOP serves the dual purpose of emulating the clearing of the transmission-constrained day-ahead markets (DAMs ) and scheduling the energy storage resource operations. We also represent the need for system operators to impose stricter ramping requirements on the conventional generating units so as to maintain the system capability to perform "load following'', i

  3. Energy Storage and Distributed Energy Generation Project, Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwank, Johannes; Mader, Jerry; Chen, Xiaoyin; Mi, Chris; Linic, Suljo; Sastry, Ann Marie; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Thompson, Levi; Varde, Keshav

    2008-03-31

    This report serves as a Final Report under the “Energy Storage and Distribution Energy Generation Project” carried out by the Transportation Energy Center (TEC) at the University of Michigan (UM). An interdisciplinary research team has been working on fundamental and applied research on: -distributed power generation and microgrids, -power electronics, and -advanced energy storage. The long-term objective of the project was to provide a framework for identifying fundamental research solutions to technology challenges of transmission and distribution, with special emphasis on distributed power generation, energy storage, control methodologies, and power electronics for microgrids, and to develop enabling technologies for novel energy storage and harvesting concepts that can be simulated, tested, and scaled up to provide relief for both underserved and overstressed portions of the Nation’s grid. TEC’s research is closely associated with Sections 5.0 and 6.0 of the DOE "Five-year Program Plan for FY2008 to FY2012 for Electric Transmission and Distribution Programs, August 2006.”

  4. Heterogeneous grain-scale response in ferroic polycrystals under electric field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniels, John E.; Majkut, Marta; Cao, Qingua

    2016-01-01

    -ray diffraction (3D-XRD) is used to resolve the non-180° ferroelectric domain switching strain components of 191 grains from the bulk of a polycrystalline electro-ceramic that has undergone an electric-field-induced phase transformation. It is found that while the orientation of a given grain relative...... to the field direction has a significant influence on the phase and resultant domain texture, there are large deviations from the average behaviour at the grain scale. It is suggested that these deviations arise from local strain and electric field neighbourhoods being highly heterogeneous within the bulk...

  5. Electrical current at micro-/macro-scale of undoped and nitrogen-doped MWPECVD diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicala, G.; Velardi, L.; Senesi, G. S.; Picca, R. A.; Cioffi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Chemical, structural, morphological and micro-/macro-electrical properties of undoped and nitrogen-(N-)doped diamond films are determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) and two points technique for I-V characteristics, respectively. The characterization results are very useful to examine and understand the relationship among these properties. The effect of the nitrogen incorporation in diamond films is investigated through the evolution of the chemical, structural, morphological and topographical features and of the electrical behavior. The distribution of the electrical current is first assessed at millimeter scale on the surface of diamond films and then at micrometer scale on small regions in order to establish the sites where the carriers preferentially move. Specifically, the SCM images indicate a non-uniform distribution of carriers on the morphological structures mainly located along the grain boundaries. A good agreement is found by comparing the electrical currents at the micro- and macro-scale. This work aims to highlight phenomena such as photo- and thermionic emission from N-doped diamond useful for microelectronic engineering.

  6. The role of the underground for massive storage of energy: a preliminary glance of the French case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigane, Pascal; Gentier, Sylvie; Bader, Anne-Gaelle; Beccaletto, Laurent; Bellenfant, Gael

    2014-05-01

    The question of storing energy in France has become of primary importance since the launch of a road map from the government which places in pole position this topic among seven major milestones to be challenged in the context of the development of innovative technology in the country. The European objective to reach 20% of renewables in the energy market, from which a large part would come from wind and solar power generation, raises several issues regarding the capacity of the grid to manage the various intermittent energy sources in line with the variability of the public demand and offer. These uncertainties are highly influenced by unpredictable weather and economic fluctuations. To facilitate the large-scale integration of variable renewable electricity sources in grids, massive energy storage is needed. In that case, electric energy storage techniques involving the use of underground are often under consideration as they offer a large storage capacity volume with a adapted potential of confining and the space required for the implantation. Among the panel of massive storage technologies, one can find (i) the Underground Pumped Hydro-Storage (UPHS) which are an adaptation of classical Pumped Hydro Storage system often connected with dam constructions, (ii) the compressed air storage (CAES) and (iii) the hydrogen storage from conversion of electricity into H2 and O2 by electrolysis. UPHS concept is based on using the potential energy between two water reservoirs positioned at different heights. Favorable natural locations like mountainous areas or cliffs are spatially limited given the geography of the territory. This concept could be extended with the integration of one of these reservoirs in an underground cavities (specifically mined or reuse of preexisting mines) to increase opportunities on the national territory. Massive storage based on compression and relaxation of air (CAES) requires high volume and confining pressure around the storage that exists

  7. Reducing the energy penalty costs of postcombustion CCS systems with amine-storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Hoppock, David C

    2012-01-17

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) can significantly reduce the amount of CO(2) emitted from coal-fired power plants but its operation significantly reduces the plant's net electrical output and decreases profits, especially during times of high electricity prices. An amine-based CCS system can be modified adding amine-storage to allow postponing 92% of all its energy consumption to times of lower electricity prices, and in this way has the potential to effectively reduce the cost of CO(2) capture by reducing the costs of the forgone electricity sales. However adding amine-storage to a CCS system implies a significant capital cost that will be outweighed by the price-arbitrage revenue only if the difference between low and high electricity prices is substantial. In this paper we find a threshold for the variability in electricity prices that make the benefits from electricity price arbitrage outweigh the capital costs of amine-storage. We then look at wholesale electricity markets in the Eastern Interconnect of the United States to determine profitability of amine-storage systems in this region. Using hourly electricity price data from years 2007 and 2008 we find that amine storage may be cost-effective in areas with high price variability.

  8. Multiple synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical and chemical hybrid synapses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Lin; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Tsang, Kaiming; Chan, Wailok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synchronization transitions in hybrid scale-free neuronal networks are investigated. • Multiple synchronization transitions can be induced by the time delay. • Effect of synchronization transitions depends on the ratio of the electrical and chemical synapses. • Coupling strength and the density of inter-neuronal links can enhance the synchronization. -- Abstract: The impacts of information transmission delay on the synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical and chemical hybrid synapses are investigated. Numerical results show that multiple appearances of synchronization regions transitions can be induced by different information transmission delays. With the time delay increasing, the synchronization of neuronal activities can be enhanced or destroyed, irrespective of the probability of chemical synapses in the whole hybrid neuronal network. In particular, for larger probability of electrical synapses, the regions of synchronous activities appear broader with stronger synchronization ability of electrical synapses compared with chemical ones. Moreover, it can be found that increasing the coupling strength can promote synchronization monotonously, playing the similar role of the increasing the probability of the electrical synapses. Interestingly, the structures and parameters of the scale-free neuronal networks, especially the structural evolvement plays a more subtle role in the synchronization transitions. In the network formation process, it is found that every new vertex is attached to the more old vertices already present in the network, the more synchronous activities will be emerge

  9. Distributed Cooperative Control of Multi Flywheel Energy Storage System for Electrical Vehicle Fast Charging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01