Unified Dark Matter Scalar Field Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniele Bertacca
2010-01-01
of a single scalar field accounts for a unified description of the Dark Matter and Dark Energy sectors, dubbed Unified Dark Matter (UDM models. In this framework, we consider the general Lagrangian of -essence, which allows to find solutions around which the scalar field describes the desired mixture of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. We also discuss static and spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's equations for a scalar field with noncanonical kinetic term, in connection with galactic halo rotation curves.
Arbitrary scalar field and quintessence cosmological models
Harko, Tiberiu; Mak, M K
2014-01-01
The mechanism of the initial inflationary scenario of the universe and of its late-time acceleration can be described by assuming the existence of some gravitationally coupled scalar fields $\\phi $, with the inflaton field generating inflation and the quintessence field being responsible for the late accelerated expansion. Various inflationary and late-time accelerated scenarios are distinguished by the choice of an effective self-interaction potential $V(\\phi)$, which simulates a temporarily non-vanishing cosmological term. In this work, we present a new formalism for the analysis of scalar fields in flat isotropic and homogeneous cosmological models. The basic evolution equation of the models can be reduced to a first order non-linear differential equation. Approximate solutions of this equation can be constructed in the limiting cases of the scalar field kinetic energy and potential energy dominance, respectively, as well as in the intermediate regime. Moreover, we present several new accelerating and dece...
Arbitrary scalar-field and quintessence cosmological models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harko, Tiberiu [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Mak, M.K. [Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education, Department of Computing and Information Management, Hong Kong (China)
2014-03-15
The mechanism of the initial inflationary scenario of the Universe and of its late-time acceleration can be described by assuming the existence of some gravitationally coupled scalar fields φ, with the inflaton field generating inflation and the quintessence field being responsible for the late accelerated expansion. Various inflationary and late-time accelerated scenarios are distinguished by the choice of an effective self-interaction potential V(φ), which simulates a temporarily non-vanishing cosmological term. In this work, we present a new formalism for the analysis of scalar fields in flat isotropic and homogeneous cosmological models. The basic evolution equation of the models can be reduced to a first-order non-linear differential equation. Approximate solutions of this equation can be constructed in the limiting cases of the scalar-field kinetic energy and potential energy dominance, respectively, as well as in the intermediate regime. Moreover, we present several new accelerating and decelerating exact cosmological solutions, based on the exact integration of the basic evolution equation for scalar-field cosmologies. More specifically, exact solutions are obtained for exponential, generalized cosine hyperbolic, and power-law potentials, respectively. Cosmological models with power-law scalar field potentials are also analyzed in detail. (orig.)
Ignat'ev, Yu G
2016-01-01
In this paper we investigate the asymptotic behavior of the cosmological model based on phantom scalar field on the ground of qualitative analysis of the system of the cosmological model's differential equations and show that as opposed to models with classical scalar field, such models have stable asymptotic solutions with constant value of the potential both in infinite past and infinite future. We also develop numerical models of the cosmological evolution models with phantom scalar field in this paper. {\\bf keywords}: cosmological model, phantom scalar field, quality analysis, asymptotic behavior, numerical simulation, numerical gravitation.\\\\ {\\bf PACS}: 04.20.Cv, 98.80.Cq, 96.50.S 52.27.Ny
On Naturalness of Scalar Fields and Standard Model
Pivovarov, Grigorii B
2008-01-01
We discuss how naturalness predicts the scale of new physics. Two conditions on the scale are considered. The first is the more conservative condition due to Veltman (Acta Phys. Polon. B 12, 437 (1981)). It requires that radiative corrections to the electroweak mass scale would be reasonably small. The second is the condition due to Barbieri and Giudice (Nucl. Phys. B 306, 63 (1988)), which is more popular lately. It requires that physical mass scale would not be oversensitive to the values of the input parameters. We show here that the above two conditions behave differently if higher order corrections are taken into account. Veltman's condition is robust (insensitive to higher order corrections), while Barbieri-Giudice condition changes qualitatively. We conclude that higher order perturbative corrections take care of the fine tuning problem, and, in this respect, scalar field is a natural system. We apply the Barbieri-Giudice condition with higher order corrections taken into account to the Standard Model,...
Evolution of perturbations in distinct classes of canonical scalar field models of dark energy
Jassal, H. K.
2009-01-01
Dark energy must cluster in order to be consistent with the equivalence principle. The background evolution can be effectively modelled by either a scalar field or by a barotropic fluid.The fluid model can be used to emulate perturbations in a scalar field model of dark energy, though this model breaks down at large scales. In this paper we study evolution of dark energy perturbations in canonical scalar field models: the classes of thawing and freezing models.The dark energy equation of stat...
Dănilă, Bogdan; Mak, Man Kwong; Pantaragphong, Praiboon; Sabau, Sorin
2016-01-01
We perform the study of the stability of the cosmological scalar field models, by using the Jacobi stability analysis, or the Kosambi-Cartan-Chern (KCC) theory. In the KCC approach we describe the time evolution of the scalar field cosmologies in geometric terms, by performing a "second geometrization", by considering them as paths of a semispray. By introducing a non-linear connection and a Berwald type connection associated to the Friedmann and Klein-Gordon equations, five geometrical invariants can be constructed, with the second invariant giving the Jacobi stability of the cosmological model. We obtain all the relevant geometric quantities, and we formulate the condition of the Jacobi stability for scalar field cosmologies in the second order formalism. As an application of the developed methods we consider the Jacobi stability properties of the scalar fields with exponential and Higgs type potential. We find that the Universe dominated by a scalar field exponential potential is in Jacobi unstable state, ...
Stable cosmological models driven by a free quantum scalar field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dappiaggi, C.; Pinamonti, N. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Citta Univ., Roma (Italy). Istituto Nazionale di Alta Matematica ' ' F. Severi' ' - GNFM; Fredenhagen, K. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2008-01-15
In the mathematically rigorous analysis of semiclassical Einstein's equations, the renormalisation of the stress-energy tensor plays a crucial role. We address such a topic in the case of a scalar field with both arbitrary mass and coupling with gravity in the hypothesis that the underlying algebraic quantum state is of Hadamard type. Particularly, if we focus on highly symmetric solutions of the semiclassical Einstein's equations, the envisaged method displays a de Sitter type behaviour even without an a priori introduced cosmological constant. As a further novel result we shall show that these solutions turn out to be stable. (orig.)
Alhulaimi, B.; van den Hoogen, R. J.; Coley, A. A.
2017-12-01
Inflationary spatially homogeneous cosmological models within an Einstein-aether gravitational framework are investigated. The matter source is assumed to be a scalar field which is coupled to the aether field expansion and shear scalars through the generalized harmonic scalar field potential. The evolution equations are expressed in terms of expansion-normalized variables to produce an autonomous system of ordinary differential equations suitable for numerical and local stability analysis. An analysis of the local stability of the equilibrium points indicates that there exists a range of values of the parameters in which there exists an accelerating expansionary future attractor.
Ignat'ev, Yu G
2015-01-01
The article proposes generalizations of the macroscopic model of plasma of scalar charged particles to the cases of inter-particle interaction with multiple scalar fields and negative effective masses of these particles. The model is based on the microscopic dynamics of a particle at presence of scalar fields. The theory is managed to be generalized naturally having strictly reviewed a series of its key positions depending on a sign of particle masses. Thereby, it is possible to remove the artificial restriction contradicting the more fundamental principle of action functional additivity. Additionally, as a condition of internal consistency of the theory, particle effective mass function is found.
A late time accelerated FRW model with scalar and vector fields via Noether symmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Babak Vakili
2014-11-01
Full Text Available We study the evolution of a three-dimensional minisuperspace cosmological model by the Noether symmetry approach. The phase space variables turn out to correspond to the scale factor of a flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW model, a scalar field with potential function V(ϕ with which the gravity part of the action is minimally coupled and a vector field of its kinetic energy is coupled with the scalar field by a coupling function f(ϕ. Then, the Noether symmetry of such a cosmological model is investigated by utilizing the behavior of the corresponding Lagrangian under the infinitesimal generator of the desired symmetry. We explicitly calculate the form of the coupling function between the scalar and the vector fields and also the scalar field potential function for which such symmetry exists. Finally, by means of the corresponding Noether current, we integrate the equations of motion and obtain exact solutions for the scale factor, scalar and vector fields. It is shown that the resulting cosmology is an accelerated expansion universe for which its expansion is due to the presence of the vector field in the early times, while the scalar field is responsible of its late time expansion.
A late time accelerated FRW model with scalar and vector fields via Noether symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vakili, Babak, E-mail: b-vakili@iauc.ac.ir
2014-11-10
We study the evolution of a three-dimensional minisuperspace cosmological model by the Noether symmetry approach. The phase space variables turn out to correspond to the scale factor of a flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) model, a scalar field with potential function V(ϕ) with which the gravity part of the action is minimally coupled and a vector field of its kinetic energy is coupled with the scalar field by a coupling function f(ϕ). Then, the Noether symmetry of such a cosmological model is investigated by utilizing the behavior of the corresponding Lagrangian under the infinitesimal generator of the desired symmetry. We explicitly calculate the form of the coupling function between the scalar and the vector fields and also the scalar field potential function for which such symmetry exists. Finally, by means of the corresponding Noether current, we integrate the equations of motion and obtain exact solutions for the scale factor, scalar and vector fields. It is shown that the resulting cosmology is an accelerated expansion universe for which its expansion is due to the presence of the vector field in the early times, while the scalar field is responsible of its late time expansion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bogdan Dănilă
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We study the stability of the cosmological scalar field models by using the Jacobi stability analysis, or the Kosambi-Cartan-Chern (KCC theory. In this approach, we describe the time evolution of the scalar field cosmologies in geometric terms, by performing a “second geometrization” and considering them as paths of a semispray. By introducing a nonlinear connection and a Berwald-type connection associated with the Friedmann and Klein-Gordon equations, five geometrical invariants can be constructed, with the second invariant giving the Jacobi stability of the cosmological model. We obtain all the relevant geometric quantities, and we formulate the condition for Jacobi stability in scalar field cosmologies. We consider the Jacobi stability properties of the scalar fields with exponential and Higgs type potential. The Universe dominated by a scalar field exponential potential is in Jacobi unstable state, while the cosmological evolution in the presence of Higgs fields has alternating stable and unstable phases. We also investigate the stability of the phantom quintessence and tachyonic scalar field models, by lifting the first-order system to the tangent bundle. It turns out that in the presence of a power law potential both of these models are Jacobi unstable during the entire cosmological evolution.
Minimally coupled scalar field cosmology in anisotropic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological model in the Einstein gravitational theory with a minimally coupled scalar field. We consider a non-interacting combination of scalar field and perfect fluid as the source of matter components which are separately conserved. The dynamics of cosmic scalar ...
Höhn, P.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330827952; Kubalová, E.; Tsobanjan, A.
2011-01-01
We apply the effective approach to evaluating semiclassical relational dynamics to the closed Friedman–Robertson–Walker cosmological model filled with a minimally coupled massive scalar field. This model is interesting for studying relational dynamics in a more general setting because (i) it
Tachyonic field interacting with scalar (phantom) field
Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Debnath, Ujjal
2009-01-01
In this letter, we have considered the universe is filled with the mixture of tachyonic field and scalar or phantom field. If the tachyonic field interacts with scalar or phantom field, the interaction term decays with time and the energy for scalar field is transferred to tachyonic field or the energy for phantom field is transferred to tachyonic field. The tachyonic field and scalar field potentials always decrease, but phantom field potential always increases.
Random scalar fields and hyperuniformity
Ma, Zheng; Torquato, Salvatore
2017-06-01
Disordered many-particle hyperuniform systems are exotic amorphous states of matter that lie between crystals and liquids. Hyperuniform systems have attracted recent attention because they are endowed with novel transport and optical properties. Recently, the hyperuniformity concept has been generalized to characterize two-phase media, scalar fields, and random vector fields. In this paper, we devise methods to explicitly construct hyperuniform scalar fields. Specifically, we analyze spatial patterns generated from Gaussian random fields, which have been used to model the microwave background radiation and heterogeneous materials, the Cahn-Hilliard equation for spinodal decomposition, and Swift-Hohenberg equations that have been used to model emergent pattern formation, including Rayleigh-Bénard convection. We show that the Gaussian random scalar fields can be constructed to be hyperuniform. We also numerically study the time evolution of spinodal decomposition patterns and demonstrate that they are hyperuniform in the scaling regime. Moreover, we find that labyrinth-like patterns generated by the Swift-Hohenberg equation are effectively hyperuniform. We show that thresholding (level-cutting) a hyperuniform Gaussian random field to produce a two-phase random medium tends to destroy the hyperuniformity of the progenitor scalar field. We then propose guidelines to achieve effectively hyperuniform two-phase media derived from thresholded non-Gaussian fields. Our investigation paves the way for new research directions to characterize the large-structure spatial patterns that arise in physics, chemistry, biology, and ecology. Moreover, our theoretical results are expected to guide experimentalists to synthesize new classes of hyperuniform materials with novel physical properties via coarsening processes and using state-of-the-art techniques, such as stereolithography and 3D printing.
Matrix model approximations of fuzzy scalar field theories and their phase diagrams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tekel, Juraj [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynska Dolina, Bratislava, 842 48 (Slovakia)
2015-12-29
We present an analysis of two different approximations to the scalar field theory on the fuzzy sphere, a nonperturbative and a perturbative one, which are both multitrace matrix models. We show that the former reproduces a phase diagram with correct features in a qualitative agreement with the previous numerical studies and that the latter gives a phase diagram with features not expected in the phase diagram of the field theory.
Minimally coupled scalar field cosmology in anisotropic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-01-03
Jan 3, 2017 ... modern cosmology to explain the early inflation and the late-time acceleration. The recent discovery of cosmic acceleration [3–7] has stimulated the interest to study cosmological models based on scalar fields. The cosmological models based on scalar fields have been discussed by many researchers for ...
Hossienkhani, H.; Aghamohammadi, A.; Jafari, A.; Rabieei, S. W.; Refaei, A.
2017-12-01
A spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type I universe is studied with the interacting holographic and new agegraphic scalar fields models of dark energy. Given, the framework of the anisotropic model, both the dynamics and potential of these scalar field models according to the evolutionary behavior of both dark energy models are reconstructed. We also investigate the cosmological evolution of interacting dark energy models, and compare it with observational data and schematic diagram. In order to do so, we focus on observational determinations of the expansion history H(z) . Next, we evaluate effects of anisotropy on various topics, such as evolution of the growth of perturbations in the linear regime, statefinder diagnostic, Sandage-Loeb (SL) test and distance modulus from holographic and new agegraphic dark energy models and compare with the results of the standard FRW, ΛCDM and wCDM models. Our numerical result shows the effects of the interaction and anisotropy on the evolutionary behavior the new agegraphic scalar field models.
Generalized second law of thermodynamics for non-canonical scalar field model with corrected-entropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, Sudipta; Mamon, Abdulla Al [Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India); Debnath, Ujjal [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Shibpur, Howrah (India)
2015-10-15
In this work, we have considered a non-canonical scalar field dark energy model in the framework of flat FRW background. It has also been assumed that the dark matter sector interacts with the non-canonical dark energy sector through some interaction term. Using the solutions for this interacting non-canonical scalar field dark energy model, we have investigated the validity of generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics in various scenarios using first law and area law of thermodynamics. For this purpose, we have assumed two types of horizons viz apparent horizon and event horizon for the universe and using first law of thermodynamics, we have examined the validity of GSL on both apparent and event horizons. Next, we have considered two types of entropy-corrections on apparent and event horizons. Using the modified area law, we have examined the validity of GSL of thermodynamics on apparent and event horizons under some restrictions of model parameters. (orig.)
Scalar field dark matter in hybrid approach
Friedrich, Pavel; Prokopec, Tomislav
2017-10-01
We develop a hybrid formalism suitable for modeling scalar field dark matter, in which the phase-space distribution associated with the real scalar field is modeled by statistical equal-time two-point functions and gravity is treated by two stochastic gravitational fields in the longitudinal gauge (in this work we neglect vector and tensor gravitational perturbations). Inspired by the commonly used Newtonian Vlasov-Poisson system, we firstly identify a suitable combination of equal-time two-point functions that defines the phase-space distribution associated with the scalar field and then derive both a kinetic equation that contains relativistic scalar matter corrections as well as linear gravitational scalar field equations whose sources can be expressed in terms of a momentum integral over the phase-space distribution function. Our treatment generalizes the commonly used classical scalar field formalism, in that it allows for modeling of (dynamically generated) vorticity and perturbations in anisotropic stresses of the scalar field. It also allows for a systematic inclusion of relativistic and higher-order corrections that may be used to distinguish different dark matter scenarios. We also provide initial conditions for the statistical equal-time two-point functions of the matter scalar field in terms of gravitational potentials and the scale factor.
A search for neutral Higgs bosons in the MSSM and models with two scalar field doublets
Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; de Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Doucet, M.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Evans, M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Feld, L.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Fong, D.G.; Foucher, M.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geddes, N.I.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hart, P.A.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P.W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jones, M.; Jost, U.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kirk, J.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lahmann, R.; Lai, W.P.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; List, B.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Markus, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mincer, A.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Oldershaw, N.J.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Posthaus, A.; Rembser, C.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rooke, A.; Rossi, A.M.; Routenburg, P.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Ruppel, U.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schleper, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skillman, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Springer, Robert Wayne; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stockhausen, B.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Szymanski, P.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Utzat, P.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Vokurka, E.H.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.
1998-01-01
A search is described for the neutral Higgs bosons h^0 and A^0 predicted by models with two scalar field doublets and, in particular, the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). The search in the Z^0 h^0 and h^0 A^0 production channels is based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 25 pb^{-1} from e^+e^- collisions at centre-of-mass energies between 130 and 172GeV collected with the OPAL detector at LEP. The observation of a number of candidates consistent with Standard Model background expectations is used in combination with earlier results from data collected at the Z^0 resonance to set limits on m_h and m_A in general models with two scalar field doublets and in the MSSM. For example, in the MSSM, for tan(beta) > 1, minimal and maximal scalar top quark mixing and soft SUSY-breaking masses of 1 TeV, the 95% confidence level limits m_h > 59.0 GeV and m_A > 59.5 GeV are obtained. For the first time, the MSSM parameter space is explored in a detailed scan.
Global stability analysis for cosmological models with non-minimally coupled scalar fields
Skugoreva, Maria A; Vernov, Sergey Yu
2014-01-01
We explorer dynamics of cosmological models with a non-minimally coupled scalar field evolving on a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker background. We consider cosmological models including the Hilbert-Einstein curvature term and the $N$ degree monomial of the scalar field non-minimally coupled to gravity. The potential of the scalar field is the $n$ degree monomial or polynomial.We describe several qualitatively different types of dynamics depending on values of power indices $N$ and $n$. We identify that three main possible pictures correspond to $n2N$ cases. Some special features connected with the important cases of $N=n$ (including quadratic potential with quadratic coupling) and $n=2N$ (which share its asymptotics with the potential of the Higgs-driven inflation) are described separately. A global qualitative analysis allows us to cover most interesting cases of small $N$ and $n$ by a limiting number of phase-space diagrams. The influence of the cosmological constant to the global feature...
Ignat'ev, Yu G
2015-01-01
The article proposes generalizations of the macroscopic model of plasma of scalar charged particles to the cases of inter-particle interaction with multiple scalar fields and negative effective masses of these particles. The model is based on the microscopic dynamics of a particle at presence of scalar fields. The theory is managed to be generalized naturally having strictly reviewed a series of its key positions depending on the sign of particle masses. Thereby, it is possible to remove the artiicial restriction contradicting the more fundamental principle of action functional additivity.
Quantization of n coupled scalar field theory
Kim, Yong-Wan; Myung, Yun Soo; Park, Young-Jai
2013-10-01
We study a model of n coupled scalar fields in Minkowski spacetime in which all masses degenerate, which is considered as a toy model of polycritical gravity on anti-de Sitter spacetime. We quantize this model within the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin scheme by introducing n Faddeev-Popov (FP) ghost fields. Extending a Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin quartet generated by two scalars and two FP ghosts to n scalars and n FP ghosts, there remains a physical subspace with positive norm for odd n, but there exists only the vacuum for even n. This clearly shows a nontriviality of odd higher-order derivative scalar field theories. This is helpful to understand the truncation mechanism, which is used to obtain a unitary conformal field theory dual to linearized polycritical gravity. It turns out that the truncation mechanism is nothing but a general quartet mechanism that appears when introducing the FP ghost action.
Study of parametrized dark energy models with a general non-canonical scalar field
Mamon, Abdulla Al
2015-01-01
In this paper, we have considered various dark energy models in the framework of a non-canonical scalar field with a Lagrangian density of the form ${\\cal L}(\\phi , X)=f(\\phi)X{\\left(\\frac{X}{M^{4}_{Pl}}\\right)}^{\\alpha -1} - V(\\phi)$, which provides the standard canonical scalar field model for $\\alpha=1$ and $f(\\phi)=1$. We have then obtained cosmological solutions for constant as well as variable equation of state parameter ($\\omega_{\\phi}(z)$) for dark energy. We have also performed the data analysis for three different parametrizations of $\\omega_{\\phi}(z)$ by using the combination of SN Ia, BAO and CMB datasets. We have found that for all the parametrizations of $\\omega_{\\phi}(z)$, the SN Ia $+$ CMB/BAO dataset favors the past decelerated and recent accelerated expansion phase of the universe. Furthermore, using the combined dataset, we have observed that the reconstructed results of $\\omega_{\\phi}(z)$ and $q(z)$ are almost parametrization independent and the resulting cosmological scenarios are in good...
Cosmological analysis of scalar field models in f(R, T) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharif, M.; Nawazish, Iqra [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)
2017-03-15
This paper determines the existence of Noether symmetry in non-minimally coupled f(R, T) gravity admitting minimal coupling with scalar field models. We consider a generalized spacetime which corresponds to different anisotropic and homogeneous universe models. We formulate symmetry generators along with conserved quantities through Noether symmetry technique for direct and indirect curvature-matter coupling. For dust and perfect fluids, we evaluate exact solutions and construct their cosmological analysis through some cosmological parameters. We conclude that decelerated expansion is obtained for the quintessence model with a dust distribution, while a perfect fluid with dominating potential energy over kinetic energy leads to the current cosmic expansion for both phantom as well as quintessence models. (orig.)
Huang, Ching-Yuan
2003-07-01
The asymptotically flat space-time with scalar fields is studied. It shows that the concepts of Bondi mass, Bondi mass loss, etc., are also applicable to other fields, although they were originally defined by gravity. The generating formulae of Bondi mass loss and angular momentum loss by a dynamics Hamiltonian over a hyperb oloid are given by the linearised theory.
Dynamics of Scalar field in a Brane World
Mizuno, Shuntaro; Maeda, Kei-ichi; Yamamoto, Kohta
2002-01-01
We study the dynamics of a scalar field in the brane cosmology. We assume that a scalar field is confined in our 4-dimensional world. As for the potential of the scalar field, we discuss three typical models: (1) a power-law potential, (2) an inverse-power-law potential, and (3) an exponential potential. We show that the behavior of the scalar field is very different from a conventional cosmology when the energy density square term is dominated.
Renormalisation group improvement of scalar field inflation
Contillo, Adriano; Rahmede, Christoph
2011-01-01
We study quantum corrections to Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology with a scalar field under the assumption that the dynamics are subject to renormalisation group improvement. We use the Bianchi identity to relate the renormalisation group scale to the scale factor and obtain the improved cosmological evolution equations. We study the solutions of these equations in the renormalisation group fixed point regime, obtaining the time-dependence of the scalar field strength and the Hubble parameter in specific models with monomial and trinomial quartic scalar field potentials. We find that power-law inflation can be achieved in the renormalisation group fixed point regime with the trinomial potential, but not with the monomial one. We study the transition to the quasi-classical regime, where the quantum corrections to the couplings become small, and find classical dynamics as an attractor solution for late times. We show that the solution found in the renormalisation group fixed point regime is also a cosmologic...
Scalar field with the source in the form of the stress-energy tensor trace as a dark energy model
Dudko, I G
2016-01-01
We consider a scalar-tensor theory of gravitation with the scalar source being the trace of the stress-energy tensor of the scalar field itself and matter. We obtain an example of a numerical solution of the cosmological equations which shows that under some special choice of the scalar parameters, there exists a slow-roll regime in which the modern values of the Hubble and deceleration parameters may be obtained.
A new holographic dark energy model in Brans-Dicke theory with logarithmic scalar field
Sadri, Ehsan; Vakili, Babak
2018-01-01
We study a holographic dark energy model in the framework of Brans-Dicke (BD) theory with taking into account the interaction between dark matter and holographic dark energy. We use the recent observational data sets, namely SN Ia compressed Joint Light-Analysis (cJLA) compilation, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) from BOSS DR12 and the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) of Planck 2015. After calculating the evolution of the equation of state as well as the deceleration parameters, we find that with a logarithmic form for the BD scalar field the phantom crossing can be achieved in the late time of cosmic evolution. Unlike the conventional theory of holographic dark energy in standard cosmology (ωD=0), our model results in a late time accelerated expansion. It is also shown that the cosmic coincidence problem may be resolved in the proposed model. We execute the statefinder and Om diagnostic tools and demonstrate that interaction term does not play a significant role. Based on the observational data sets used in this paper it seems that the best value with 1σ and 2σ confidence interval are Ωm=0.268^{+0.008 +0.010}_{-0.007 -0.009}, α =3.361^{+0.332 +0.483} _{-0.401 -0.522}, β =5.560^{+0.541 +0.780}_{-0.510 -0.729}, c=0.777^{+0.023 +0.029}_{-0.017 -0.023} and b2 =0.045, according to which we find that the proposed model in the presence of interaction is compatible with the recent observational data.
Stable, Time-Dependent, Exact Solutions for Brane Models with a Bulk Scalar Field
Lee, S; Olive, Keith A; Kanti, Panagiota; Lee, Seokcheon; Olive, Keith A.
2003-01-01
We derive two classes of brane-world solutions arising in the presence of a bulk scalar field. For static field configurations, we adopt a time-dependent, factorizable metric ansatz that allows for radion stabilization. The solutions are characterized by a non-trivial warping along the extra dimension, even in the case of a vanishing bulk cosmological constant, and lead to a variety of inflationary, time-dependent solutions of the 3D scale factor on the brane. We also derive the constraints necessary for the stability of these solutions under time-dependent perturbations of the radion field, and we demonstrate the existence of phenomenologically interesting, stable solutions with a positive cosmological constant on the brane.
Galactic collapse of scalar field dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alcubierre, Miguel [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Guzman, F Siddhartha [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Matos, Tonatiuh [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, AP 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Nunez, Dario [Centre for Gravitational Physics and Geometry, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Urena-Lopez, L Arturo [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, AP 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Wiederhold, Petra [Departamento de Control Automatico, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, AP 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico)
2002-10-07
We present a scenario for core galaxy formation based on the hypothesis of scalar field dark matter. We interpret galaxy formation through the collapse of a scalar field fluctuation. We find that a cosh potential for the self-interaction of the scalar field provides a reasonable scenario for the formation of a galactic core plus a remnant halo, which is in agreement with cosmological observations and phenomenological studies in galaxies.
Regular and Chaotic Regimes in Scalar Field Cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexey V. Toporensky
2006-03-01
Full Text Available A transient chaos in a closed FRW cosmological model with a scalar field is studied. We describe two different chaotic regimes and show that the type of chaos in this model depends on the scalar field potential. We have found also that for sufficiently steep potentials or for potentials with large cosmological constant the chaotic behavior disappears.
Nonuniversal anomaly-free U(1) model with three Higgs doublets and one singlet scalar field
Mantilla, S. F.; Martinez, R.
2017-11-01
The flavor problem, neutrino physics, and the fermion mass hierarchy are important motivations to extend the Standard Model to the TeV scale. A new family nonuniversal extension is presented with three Higgs doublets, one Higgs singlet, and one scalar dark matter candidate. Exotic fermions are included in order to cancel chiral anomalies and to allow family nonuniversal U(1 ) X charges. By implementing an additional Z2 symmetry, the Yukawa coupling terms are suited in such a way that the fermion mass hierarchy is obtained without fine-tuning. The neutrino sector includes Majorana fermions to implement the inverse seesaw mechanism. The effective mass matrix for Standard Model neutrinos is fitted to current neutrino oscillation data to check the consistency of the model with experimental evidence, obtaining that the normal-ordering scheme is preferred over the inverse ones, and the values of the neutrino Yukawa coupling constants are shown. Finally, the h →τ μ lepton-flavor-violation process is addressed with the rotation matrices of the C P -even scalars, left- and right-handed charged leptons, yielding definite regions where the model is consistent with CMS reports of BR (h →τ μ ).
Neutron Star Structure in the Presence of Scalar Fields
Kazanas, Demosthenes
2004-01-01
Motivated by the possible presence of scalar fields on astrophysical scales, suggested by the apparent acceleration of the universe implied by the supernovae surveys, we present models of neutron star structure including the contribution of a (massless) scalar field to the stress energy momentum tensor, in addition to that made by the normal matter. To that end we solve the coupled Einstein -- scalar field -- hydrostatic balance equations to compute the effect of the presence of the scalar field on the neutron star structure. We find that the presence of the scalar field does change the structure of the neutron star, especially in cases of strong coupling between the scalar field and the matter density. We present the neutron star radius as a function of the matter--scalar field coupling constant for different values of the neutron star central density. The presence of the scalar field affects both the maximum neutron star mass and Its radius, the latter increasing with the value of the above coupling constant. We also compute particle and photon geodesics in the geometry of these neutron stars as well as to the geometry of black holes with different values of the scalar field. Our results may be testable with timing observations of accreting neutron stars.
Achasov, N. N.
2008-01-01
Outline: 1. Introduction, 2. Confinement, chiral dynamics and light scalar mesons, 3. Chiral shielding of \\sigma(600), chiral constraints, \\sigma(600), f_0(980) and their mixing in \\pi\\pi\\to\\pi\\pi, \\pi\\pi\\to K\\bar K, and \\phi\\to\\gamma\\pi0\\pi0, 4. The \\phi meson radiative decays on light scalar resonances. 5. Why a0(980) and f0(980) are not the K\\bar K molecules. 6. Light scalars in \\gamma\\gamma collisions. Evidence for four-quark components of light scalars is given. The priority of Quantum F...
scalar field dynamics on a brane
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
power-law potential V ~φa is investigated. We describe solutions for which the scalar field energy density scales as a power-law of the scale factor. We also describe solutions existing in regions of the parameter space where these scaling solutions are unstable or do not exist. Keywords. Brane; scalar field; scaling solution.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chattopadhyay, Surajit [Pailan College of Management and Technology, Kolkata (India); Pasqua, Antonio [University of Trieste, Department of Physics, Trieste (Italy); Khurshudyan, Martiros [Yerevan State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Yerevan (Armenia); Potsdam-Golm Science Park, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam (Germany)
2014-09-15
Motivated by the work of Yang et al. (Mod. Phys. Lett. A 26:191, 2011), we report on a study of the new holographic dark energy (NHDE) model with energy density given by ρ{sub D} = (3φ{sup 2})/(4ω)(μH{sup 2} + νH) in the framework of chameleon Brans-Dicke cosmology. We have studied the correspondence between the quintessence, the DBI-essence, and the tachyon scalar-field models with the NHDE model in the framework of chameleon Brans-Dicke cosmology. Deriving an expression of the Hubble parameter H and, accordingly, ρ{sub D} in the context of chameleon Brans-Dicke chameleon cosmology, we have reconstructed the potentials and dynamics for these scalar-field models. Furthermore, we have examined the stability for the obtained solutions of the crossing of the phantom divide under a quantum correction of massless conformally invariant fields, and we have seen that the quantum correction could be small when the phantom crossing occurs and the obtained solutions of the phantom crossing could be stable under the quantum correction. It has also been noted that the potential increases as the matter. chameleon coupling gets stronger with the evolution of the universe. (orig.)
On a family of (1+1)-dimensional scalar field theory models: Kinks, stability, one-loop mass shifts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alonso-Izquierdo, A., E-mail: alonsoiz@usal.es [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain); Mateos Guilarte, J. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)
2012-09-15
In this paper we construct a one-parametric family of (1+1)-dimensional one-component scalar field theory models supporting kinks. Inspired by the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} models, we look at all possible extensions such that the kink second-order fluctuation operators are Schroedinger differential operators with Poeschl-Teller potential wells. In this situation, the associated spectral problem is solvable and therefore we shall succeed in analyzing the kink stability completely and in computing the one-loop quantum correction to the kink mass exactly. When the parameter is a natural number, the family becomes the hierarchy for which the potential wells are reflectionless, the two first levels of the hierarchy being the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} models. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We construct a family of scalar field theory models supporting kinks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second-order kink fluctuation operators involve Poeschl-Teller potential wells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compute the one-loop quantum correction to the kink mass with different methods.
Effect of the chameleon scalar field on brane cosmological evolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Bisabr
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We have investigated a brane world model in which the gravitational field in the bulk is described both by a metric tensor and a minimally coupled scalar field. This scalar field is taken to be a chameleon with an appropriate potential function. The scalar field interacts with matter and there is an energy transfer between the two components. We find a late-time asymptotic solution which exhibits late-time accelerating expansion. We also show that the Universe recently crosses the phantom barrier without recourse to any exotic matter. We provide some thermodynamic arguments which constrain both the direction of energy transfer and dynamics of the extra dimension.
Effect of the chameleon scalar field on brane cosmological evolution
Bisabr, Y.; Ahmadi, F.
2017-11-01
We have investigated a brane world model in which the gravitational field in the bulk is described both by a metric tensor and a minimally coupled scalar field. This scalar field is taken to be a chameleon with an appropriate potential function. The scalar field interacts with matter and there is an energy transfer between the two components. We find a late-time asymptotic solution which exhibits late-time accelerating expansion. We also show that the Universe recently crosses the phantom barrier without recourse to any exotic matter. We provide some thermodynamic arguments which constrain both the direction of energy transfer and dynamics of the extra dimension.
Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Marto, João; Morais, João; Zhuk, Alexander
2016-01-01
In this paper, we consider the Universe at the late stage of its evolution and deep inside the cell of uniformity. At these scales, we can consider the Universe to be filled with dust-like matter in the form of discretely distributed galaxies, a $K$-essence scalar field, playing the role of dark energy, and radiation as matter sources. We investigate such a Universe in the mechanical approach. This means that the peculiar velocities of the inhomogeneities (in the form of galaxies) as well as the fluctuations of the other perfect fluids are non-relativistic. Such fluids are designated as coupled because they are concentrated around the inhomogeneities. In the present paper, we investigate the conditions under which the $K$-essence scalar field with the most general form for its action can become coupled. We investigate at the background level three particular examples of the $K$-essence models: (i) the pure kinetic $K$-essence field, (ii) a $K$-essence with a constant speed of sound and (iii) the $K$-essence m...
Exotic Material as Interactions Between Scalar Fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robertson G. A.
2006-04-01
Full Text Available Many theoretical papers refer to the need to create exotic materials with average negative energies for the formation of space propulsion anomalies such as "wormholes" and "warp drives". However, little hope is given for the existence of such material to resolve its creation for such use. From the standpoint that non-minimally coupled scalar fields to gravity appear to be the current direction mathematically. It is proposed that exotic material is really scalar field interactions. Within this paper the Ginzburg-Landau (GL scalar fields associated with superconductor junctions isinvestigated as a source for negative vacuum energy fluctuations, which could be used to study the interactions among energyfluctuations, cosmological scalar (i.e., Higgs fields, and gravity.
Noncommutative Complex Scalar Field and Casimir Effect
Khelili, Farid
2012-06-01
Using the noncommutative deformed canonical commutation relations proposed by Carmona et al. [J. M. Carmona, J. L. Cortés, J. Gamboa, and F. Mendez, J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 03 (2003) 058.10.1088/1126-6708/2003/03/058][J. Gamboa, J. Lopéz-Sarrion, and A. P. Polychronakos, Phys. Lett. B 634, 471 (2006).PYLBAJ0370-269310.1016/j.physletb.2006.02.014][J. M. Carmona, J. L. Cortés, Ashok Das, J. Gamboa, and F. Mendez, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 21, 883 (2006).MPLAEQ0217-732310.1142/S0217732306020111], a model describing the dynamics of the noncommutative complex scalar field is proposed. The noncommutative field equations are solved, and the vacuum energy is calculated to the second order in the parameter of noncommutativity. As an application to this model, the Casimir effect, due to the zero-point fluctuations of the noncommutative complex scalar field, is considered. It turns out that in spite of its smallness, the noncommutativity gives rise to a repulsive force at the microscopic level, leading to a modified Casimir potential with a minimum at the point amin=(5)/(84)πθ.
Gravitational Field Shielding by Scalar Field and Type II Superconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang B. J.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The gravitational field shielding by scalar field and type II superconductors are theoret- ically investigated. In accord with the well-developed five-dimensional fully covariant Kaluza-Klein theory with a scalar field, which unifies the Einsteinian general relativity and Maxwellian electromagnetic theory, the scalar field cannot only polarize the space as shown previously, but also flatten the space as indicated recently. The polariza- tion of space decreases the electromagnetic field by increasing the equivalent vacuum permittivity constant, while the flattening of space decreases the gravitational field by decreasing the equivalent gravitational constant. In other words, the scalar field can be also employed to shield the gravitational field. A strong scalar field significantly shield the gravitational field by largely decreasing the equivalent gravitational constant. According to the theory of gravitational field shielding by scalar field, the weight loss experimentally detected for a sample near a rotating ceramic disk at very low tempera- ture can be explained as the shielding of the Earth gravitational field by the Ginzburg- Landau scalar field, which is produced by the type II superconductors. The significant shielding of gravitational field by scalar field produced by superconductors may lead to a new spaceflight technology in future.
Kundt spacetimes minimally coupled to scalar field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tahamtan, T. [Charles University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Svitek, O. [Charles University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague 8 (Czech Republic)
2017-06-15
We derive an exact solution belonging to the Kundt class of spacetimes both with and without a cosmological constant that are minimally coupled to a free massless scalar field. We show the algebraic type of these solutions and give interpretation of the results. Subsequently, we look for solutions additionally containing an electromagnetic field satisfying nonlinear field equations. (orig.)
Extended solutions for the biadjoint scalar field
De Smet, Pieter-Jan; White, Chris D.
2017-12-01
Biadjoint scalar field theories are increasingly important in the study of scattering amplitudes in various string and field theories. Recently, some first exact nonperturbative solutions of biadjoint scalar theory were presented, with a pure power-like form corresponding to isolated monopole-like objects located at the origin of space. In this paper, we find a novel family of extended solutions, involving non-trivial form factors that partially screen the divergent field at the origin. All previous solutions emerge as special cases.
Exact solutions for the biadjoint scalar field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White, C.D., E-mail: Christopher.White@glasgow.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Centre for Research in String Theory, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2016-12-10
Biadjoint scalar theories are novel field theories that arise in the study of non-abelian gauge and gravity amplitudes. In this short paper, we present exact nonperturbative solutions of the field equations, and compare their properties with monopole-like solutions in non-abelian gauge theory. Our results may pave the way for nonperturbative studies of the double copy.
The scalar field kernel in cosmological spaces
Koksma, J.F.; Prokopec, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326113398; Rigopoulos, G.I.
2008-01-01
We construct the quantum mechanical evolution operator in the Functional Schrodinger picture - the kernel - for a scalar field in spatially homogeneous FLRW spacetimes when the field is a) free and b) coupled to a spacetime dependent source term. The essential element in the construction is the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katsuya Hashino
2017-03-01
Full Text Available We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves originated from strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the extended Higgs model with a real singlet scalar field. In order to calculate the bubble nucleation rate, we perform a two-field analysis and evaluate bounce solutions connecting the true and the false vacua using the one-loop effective potential at finite temperatures. Imposing the Sakharov condition of the departure from thermal equilibrium for baryogenesis, we survey allowed regions of parameters of the model. We then investigate the gravitational waves produced at electroweak bubble collisions in the early Universe, such as the sound wave, the bubble wall collision and the plasma turbulence. We find that the strength at the peak frequency can be large enough to be detected at future space-based gravitational interferometers such as eLISA, DECIGO and BBO. Predicted deviations in the various Higgs boson couplings are also evaluated at the zero temperature, and are shown to be large enough too. Therefore, in this model strongly first order electroweak phase transition can be tested by the combination of the precision study of various Higgs boson couplings at the LHC, the measurement of the triple Higgs boson coupling at future lepton colliders and the shape of the spectrum of gravitational wave detectable at future gravitational interferometers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hashino, Katsuya, E-mail: hashino@jodo.sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Kakizaki, Mitsuru, E-mail: kakizaki@sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Kanemura, Shinya, E-mail: kanemu@sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Ko, Pyungwon, E-mail: pko@kias.re.kr [School of Physics, KIAS, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Matsui, Toshinori, E-mail: matsui@kias.re.kr [School of Physics, KIAS, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of)
2017-03-10
We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves originated from strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the extended Higgs model with a real singlet scalar field. In order to calculate the bubble nucleation rate, we perform a two-field analysis and evaluate bounce solutions connecting the true and the false vacua using the one-loop effective potential at finite temperatures. Imposing the Sakharov condition of the departure from thermal equilibrium for baryogenesis, we survey allowed regions of parameters of the model. We then investigate the gravitational waves produced at electroweak bubble collisions in the early Universe, such as the sound wave, the bubble wall collision and the plasma turbulence. We find that the strength at the peak frequency can be large enough to be detected at future space-based gravitational interferometers such as eLISA, DECIGO and BBO. Predicted deviations in the various Higgs boson couplings are also evaluated at the zero temperature, and are shown to be large enough too. Therefore, in this model strongly first order electroweak phase transition can be tested by the combination of the precision study of various Higgs boson couplings at the LHC, the measurement of the triple Higgs boson coupling at future lepton colliders and the shape of the spectrum of gravitational wave detectable at future gravitational interferometers.
Oscillating scalar fields in extended quintessence
Li, Dan; Pi, Shi; Scherrer, Robert J.
2018-01-01
We study a rapidly oscillating scalar field with potential V (ϕ )=k |ϕ |n nonminimally coupled to the Ricci scalar R via a term of the form (1 -8 π G0ξ ϕ2)R in the action. In the weak coupling limit, we calculate the effect of the nonminimal coupling on the time-averaged equation of state parameter γ =(p +ρ )/ρ . The change in ⟨γ ⟩ is always negative for n ≥2 and always positive for n values of n . Constraints on the time variation of G force this change to be infinitesimally small at the present time whenever the scalar field dominates the expansion, but constraints in the early universe are not as stringent. The rapid oscillation induced in G also produces an additional contribution to the Friedman equation that behaves like an effective energy density with a stiff equation of state, but we show that, under reasonable assumptions, this effective energy density is always smaller than the density of the scalar field itself.
Effective action model of dynamically scalarizing binary neutron stars
Sennett, Noah; Shao, Lijing; Steinhoff, Jan
2017-10-01
Gravitational waves can be used to test general relativity (GR) in the highly dynamical strong-field regime. Scalar-tensor theories of gravity are natural alternatives to GR that can manifest nonperturbative phenomena in neutron stars (NSs). One such phenomenon, known as dynamical scalarization, occurs in coalescing binary NS systems. Ground-based gravitational-wave detectors may be sensitive to this effect, and thus could potentially further constrain scalar-tensor theories. This type of analysis requires waveform models of dynamically scalarizing systems; in this work we devise an analytic model of dynamical scalarization using an effective action approach. For the first time, we compute the Newtonian-order Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of a dynamically scalarizing binary in a self-consistent manner. Despite only working to leading order, the model accurately predicts the frequency at which dynamical scalarization occurs. In conjunction with Landau theory, our model allows one to definitively establish dynamical scalarization as a second-order phase transition. We also connect dynamical scalarization to the related phenomena of spontaneous scalarization and induced scalarization; these phenomena are naturally encompassed into our effective action approach.
Scalar fields in black hole spacetimes
Thuestad, Izak; Khanna, Gaurav; Price, Richard H.
2017-07-01
The time evolution of matter fields in black hole exterior spacetimes is a well-studied subject, spanning several decades of research. However, the behavior of fields in the black hole interior spacetime has only relatively recently begun receiving some attention from the research community. In this paper, we numerically study the late-time evolution of scalar fields in both Schwarzschild and Kerr spacetimes, including the black hole interior. We recover the expected late-time power-law "tails" on the exterior (null infinity, timelike infinity, and the horizon). In the interior region, we find an interesting oscillatory behavior that is characterized by the multipole index ℓ of the scalar field. In addition, we also study the extremal Kerr case and find strong indications of an instability developing at the horizon.
The Statistical Model with Interpartial Scalar Conformally Invariant Interaction
Ignat'ev, Yurii
2015-01-01
A closed mathematical model of the statistical self-gravitating system of scalar charged particles for conformal invariant scalar interactions is constructed on the basis of relativistic kinetics and gravitation theory. Asymptotic properties of the model are investigated in the ultrarelativistic limit. It is shown, that scalar charge density automatically generates scalar field effective mass and the value of this mass is found. In the paper it is proved the asymptotic conformal invariance of constitutive equations in case of homogenous isotropic Universe. Also it is proved the asymptotic conformal invariance of field equations at the early stages of cosmological evolution.
Nonequilibrium perturbation theory for complex scalar fields
Lawrie, I. D.; McKernan, D. B.
1996-01-01
Real-time perturbation theory is formulated for complex scalar fields away from thermal equilibrium in such a way that dissipative effects arising from the absorptive parts of loop diagrams are approximately resummed into the unperturbed propagators. Low order calculations of physical quantities then involve quasiparticle occupation numbers which evolve with the changing state of the field system, in contrast to standard perturbation theory, where these occupation numbers are frozen at their ...
Is the cosmological dark sector better modeled by a generalized Chaplygin gas or by a scalar field?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Fabris, Julio C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica, Vitoria, Espirito Santo (Brazil); National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Zimdahl, Winfried [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica, Vitoria, Espirito Santo (Brazil)
2017-07-15
Both scalar fields and (generalized) Chaplygin gases have been widely used separately to characterize the dark sector of the universe. Here we investigate the cosmological background dynamics for a mixture of both these components and quantify the fractional abundances that are admitted by observational data from supernovae of type Ia and from the evolution of the Hubble rate. Moreover, we study how the growth rate of (baryonic) matter perturbations is affected by the dark-sector perturbations. (orig.)
Scalar Potential Model of light
Hodge, John
2008-04-01
Some observations of light are inconsistent with a wave--like model. Other observations of light are inconsistent with a particle--like model. A model of light is proposed wherein Newton's and Democritus's speculations are combined with the cosmological scalar potential model (SPM). The SPM was tested by confrontation with observations of galaxy HI rotation curves (RCs), asymmetric RCs, redshift, discrete redshift, galaxy central mass, and central velocity dispersion; and with observations of the Pioneer Anomaly. The resulting model of light will be tested by numerical simulation of a photon behaving in a wave-like manner such as diffusion, interference, reflection, spectrography, and the Afshar experiment. Although the SPM light model requires more work, early results are beginning to emerge that suggest possible tests because a few predictions are inconsistent with both the current particle and wave models of light and that suggest a re-interpretation of the equations of quantum mechanics.
Scalar-field theory of dark matter
Huang, Kerson; Zhao, Xiaofei
2013-01-01
We develop a theory of dark matter based on a previously proposed picture, in which a complex vacuum scalar field makes the universe a superfluid, with the energy density of the superfluid giving rise to dark energy, and variations from vacuum density giving rise to dark matter. We formulate a nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation to describe the superfluid, treating galaxies as external sources. We study the response of the superfluid to the galaxies, in particular, the emergence of the dark-matter galactic halo, contortions during galaxy collisions, and the creation of vortices due to galactic rotation.
A New Fate of a Warped 5D FLRW Model with a U(1) Scalar Gauge Field
Slagter, Reinoud Jan; Pan, Supriya
2016-09-01
If we live on the weak brane with zero effective cosmological constant in a warped 5D bulk spacetime, gravitational waves and brane fluctuations can be generated by a part of the 5D Weyl tensor and carries information of the gravitational field outside the brane. We consider on a cylindrical symmetric warped FLRW background a U(1) self-gravitating scalar field coupled to a gauge field without bulk matter. It turns out that brane fluctuations can be formed dynamically, due to the modified energy-momentum tensor components of the scalar-gauge field ("cosmic string"). As a result, we find that the late-time behavior could significantly deviate from the standard evolution of the universe. The effect is triggered by the time-dependent warpfactor with two branches of the form ± 1/√{τ r}√{(c_1e^{√{2τ } t}+c_2e^{-√{2τ } t})(c_3e^{√{2τ } r}+c_4e^{-√{2τ } r})} ( with τ , c_i constants) and the modified brane equations comparable with a dark energy effect. This is a brane-world mechanism, not present in standard 4D FLRW, where the large disturbances are rapidly damped as the expansion proceed. Because gravity can propagate in the bulk, the cosmic string can build up a huge angle deficit (or mass per unit length) by the warpfactor and can induce massive KK-modes felt on the brane. Disturbances in the spatial components of the stress-energy tensor cause cylindrical symmetric waves, amplified due to the presence of the bulk space and warpfactor. They could survive the natural damping due to the expansion of the universe. It turns out that one of the metric components becomes singular at the moment the warp factor develops an extremum. This behavior could have influence on the possibility of a transition from acceleration to deceleration or vice versa.
Brief History of Ultra-light Scalar Dark Matter Models
Lee Jae-Weon
2018-01-01
This is a review on the brief history of the scalar field dark matter model also known as fuzzy dark matter, BEC dark matter, wave dark matter, or ultra-light axion. In this model ultra-light scalar dark matter particles with mass m = O(10-22)eV condense in a single Bose-Einstein condensate state and behave collectively like a classical wave. Galactic dark matter halos can be described as a self-gravitating coherent scalar field configuration called boson stars. At the scale larger than ga...
Brief History of Ultra-light Scalar Dark Matter Models
Lee Jae-Weon
2018-01-01
This is a review on the brief history of the scalar field dark matter model also known as fuzzy dark matter, BEC dark matter, wave dark matter, or ultra-light axion. In this model ultra-light scalar dark matter particles with mass $m = O(10^{-22})eV$ condense in a single Bose-Einstein condensate state and behave collectively like a classical wave. Galactic dark matter halos can be described as a self-gravitating coherent scalar field configuration called boson stars. At the scale larger than ...
Brief History of Ultra-light Scalar Dark Matter Models
Lee, Jae-Weon
2017-01-01
This is an ongoing review on the brief history of the scalar field dark matter model also known as fuzzy dark matter, BEC dark matter, wave dark matter, or ultra-light axion. In this model ultra-light scalar dark matter particles with mass $m = O(10^{-22})eV$ condense in a single Bose-Einstein condensate state and behave collectively like a classical wave. Galactic dark matter halos can be described as a self-gravitating coherent scalar field configuration called boson stars. At the scale lar...
Ignat'ev, Yu G
2013-01-01
On the basis of the relativistic kinetic theory the mathematical model of cosmological plasmas with an attraction of the like charged scalar particles is formulated. It is shown, that cosmological the model, based on a classical scalar field with an attraction, is unsatisfactory, that leads to necessity of attraction of phantom models of a scalar field for systems with an attraction.
Scalar field dark matter and the Higgs field
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O. Bertolami
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We discuss the possibility that dark matter corresponds to an oscillating scalar field coupled to the Higgs boson. We argue that the initial field amplitude should generically be of the order of the Hubble parameter during inflation, as a result of its quasi-de Sitter fluctuations. This implies that such a field may account for the present dark matter abundance for masses in the range 10−6–10−4eV, if the tensor-to-scalar ratio is within the range of planned CMB experiments. We show that such mass values can naturally be obtained through either Planck-suppressed non-renormalizable interactions with the Higgs boson or, alternatively, through renormalizable interactions within the Randall–Sundrum scenario, where the dark matter scalar resides in the bulk of the warped extra-dimension and the Higgs is confined to the infrared brane.
Constraints from high redshift supernovae upon scalar field cosmologies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frieman, J.A. [NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois60510 (United States)]|[Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois60637 (United States); Waga, I. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21945-970 (Brazil)
1998-04-01
Recent observations of high-redshift type Ia supernovae have placed stringent constraints on the cosmological constant {Lambda}. We explore the implications of these SNe observations for cosmological models in which a classically evolving scalar field currently dominates the energy density of the Universe. Such models have been shown to share the advantages of {Lambda} models: compatibility with the spatial flatness predicted by inflation; a Universe older than the standard Einstein{endash}de Sitter model; and, combined with cold dark matter, predictions for large-scale structure formation in good agreement with data from galaxy surveys. Compared to the cosmological constant, these scalar field models are consistent with the SNe observations for a lower matter density, {Omega}{sub m0}{approximately}0.2, and a higher age, H{sub 0}t{sub 0}{approx_gt}1. Combined with the fact that scalar field models imprint a distinctive signature on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, they remain currently viable and should be testable in the near future. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory
Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael
2000-08-01
The ``basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a φ4 interaction to three-loop order.
Neutron Star Structure in the Presence of Conformally Coupled Scalar Fields
Sultana, Joseph; Bose, Benjamin; Kazanas, Demosthenes
2014-01-01
Neutron star models are studied in the context of scalar-tensor theories of gravity in the presence of a conformally coupled scalar field, using two different numerical equations of state (EoS) representing different degrees of stiffness. In both cases we obtain a complete solution by matching the interior numerical solution of the coupled Einstein-scalar field hydrostatic equations, with an exact metric on the surface of the star. These are then used to find the effect of the scalar field and its coupling to geometry, on the neutron star structure, particularly the maximum neutron star mass and radius. We show that in the presence of a conformally coupled scalar field, neutron stars are less dense and have smaller masses and radii than their counterparts in the minimally coupled case, and the effect increases with the magnitude of the scalar field at the center of the star.
Group field theory for quantum gravity minimally coupled to a scalar field
Li, Yang; Oriti, Daniele; Zhang, Mingyi
2017-10-01
We construct a group field theory model for quantum gravity minimally coupled to relativistic scalar fields, defining as well a corresponding discrete gravity path integral (and, implicitly, a coupled spin foam model) in its Feynman expansion. We also analyze a number of variations of the same model, the corresponding discrete gravity path integrals, its generalization to the coupling of multiple scalar fields and discuss its possible applications to the extraction of effective cosmological dynamics from the full quantum gravity formalism, in the context of group field theory condensate cosmology.
A New Fate of a Warped 5D FRW Model with a U(1) Scalar Gauge Field
Slagter, Reinoud Jan
2015-01-01
If we live on the weak brane with zero effective cosmological constant in a warped 5D bulk spacetime , gravitational waves and brane fluctuations can be generated by a part of the 5D Weyl tensor and carries information of the gravitational field outside the brane. We consider on a cylindrical symmetric warped FRW background the U(1) self-gravitating scalar-gauge field without bulk matter. It turns out that "branons" can be formed dynamically, due to the modified energy-momentum tensor components of the cosmic string. As a result, we find that the late-time behavior could be significant deviate from the standard evolution of the universe. The effect is triggered by the time-dependent warp factor, of the form $\\sqrt{ae^{\\tau t}+be^{-\\tau t}}$ and the modified brane equations, comparable with a dark energy effect. This is a brane-world mechanism, not present is standard 4D FRW, where the large disturbances are rapidly damped as the expansion proceed. Because gravity can propagate in the bulk, the cosmic string c...
Canonical Quantization of the Scalar Field: The Measure Theoretic Perspective
Velhinho, José
2015-01-01
This review is devoted to measure theoretical methods in the canonical quantization of scalar field theories. We present in some detail the canonical quantization of the free scalar field. We study the measures associated with the free fields and present two characterizations of the support of these measures. The first characterization concerns local properties of the quantum fields, whereas for the second one we introduce a sequence of variables that test the field behaviour at large distanc...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazuharu Bamba
2014-10-01
Full Text Available We reconstruct scalar field theories to realize inflation compatible with the BICEP2 result as well as the Planck. In particular, we examine the chaotic inflation model, natural (or axion inflation model, and an inflationary model with a hyperbolic inflaton potential. We perform an explicit approach to find out a scalar field model of inflation in which any observations can be explained in principle.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nakwoo Kim
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We consider scalar fields which are coupled to Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant, and construct periodic solutions perturbatively. In particular, we study tachyonic scalar fields whose mass is at or above the Breitenlohner–Freedman bound in four, five, and seven spacetime dimensions. The critical amplitude of the leading order perturbation, for which the perturbative expansion breaks down, increases as we consider less massive fields. We present various examples including a model with a self-interacting scalar field which is derived from a consistent truncation of IIB supergravity.
Brief History of Ultra-light Scalar Dark Matter Models
Lee, Jae-Weon
2018-01-01
This is a review on the brief history of the scalar field dark matter model also known as fuzzy dark matter, BEC dark matter, wave dark matter, or ultra-light axion. In this model ultra-light scalar dark matter particles with mass m = O(10-22)eV condense in a single Bose-Einstein condensate state and behave collectively like a classical wave. Galactic dark matter halos can be described as a self-gravitating coherent scalar field configuration called boson stars. At the scale larger than galaxies the dark matter acts like cold dark matter, while below the scale quantum pressure from the uncertainty principle suppresses the smaller structure formation so that it can resolve the small scale crisis of the conventional cold dark matter model.
A nonlinear dynamics for the scalar field in Randers spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, J.E.G. [Universidade Federal do Cariri (UFCA), Instituto de formação de professores, Rua Olegário Emídio de Araújo, Brejo Santo, CE, 63.260.000 (Brazil); Maluf, R.V. [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, CE, C.P. 6030, 60455-760 (Brazil); Almeida, C.A.S., E-mail: carlos@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, CE, C.P. 6030, 60455-760 (Brazil)
2017-03-10
We investigate the properties of a real scalar field in the Finslerian Randers spacetime, where the local Lorentz violation is driven by a geometrical background vector. We propose a dynamics for the scalar field by a minimal coupling of the scalar field and the Finsler metric. The coupling is intrinsically defined on the Randers spacetime, and it leads to a non-canonical kinetic term for the scalar field. The nonlinear dynamics can be split into a linear and nonlinear regimes, which depend perturbatively on the even and odd powers of the Lorentz-violating parameter, respectively. We analyze the plane-waves solutions and the modified dispersion relations, and it turns out that the spectrum is free of tachyons up to second-order.
Elperin, T; Kleeorin, N; Rogachevskii, I; Sokoloff, D
2001-08-01
Mean-field theory for turbulent transport of a passive scalar (e.g., particles and gases) is discussed. Equations for the mean number density of particles advected by a random velocity field, with a finite correlation time, are derived. Mean-field equations for a passive scalar comprise spatial derivatives of high orders due to the nonlocal nature of passive scalar transport in a random velocity field with a finite correlation time. A turbulent velocity field with a random renewal time is considered. This model is more realistic than that with a constant renewal time used by Elperin et al. [Phys. Rev. E 61, 2617 (2000)], and employs two characteristic times: the correlation time of a random velocity field tau(c), and a mean renewal time tau. It is demonstrated that the turbulent diffusion coefficient is determined by the minimum of the times tau(c) and tau. The mean-field equation for a passive scalar was derived for different ratios of tau/tau(c). The important role of the statistics of the field of Lagrangian trajectories in turbulent transport of a passive scalar, in a random velocity field with a finite correlation time, is demonstrated. It is shown that in the case tau(c)
Topological defect solutions for a system of three scalar fields
Niazian, M. R.; Amani, Ali R.
2015-06-01
In this paper, we studied on the defect structures as topological by non-linear three scalar fields. By using modified Adomian decomposition method (MADM), and Adomian decomposition method (ADM) we have found the solutions of three scalar fields. Then we compared the obtained results each other by numerical solution. Also, we consider the static case and draw ϕ(x), χ(x), and ρ(x) with the choice of different values for parameter r.
Cosmological Brane World Solutions with Bulk Scalar Fields
Davis, Stephen C.
2001-01-01
Cosmological brane world solutions are found for five-dimensional bulk spacetimes with a scalar field. A supergravity inspired method for obtaining static solutions is combined with a method for finding brane cosmologies with constant bulk energies. This provides a way to generate full (bulk and brane) cosmological solutions to brane worlds with bulk scalar fields. Examples of these solutions, and their cosmological evolution, are discussed.
Non-Gaussianity from Self-Ordering Scalar Fields
Figueroa, Daniel G; Kamionkowski, Marc
2010-01-01
The Universe may harbor relics of the post-inflationary epoch in the form of a network of self-ordered scalar fields. Such fossils, while consistent with current cosmological data at trace levels, may leave too weak an imprint on the cosmic microwave background and the large-scale distribution of matter to allow for direct detection. The non-Gaussian statistics of the density perturbations induced by these fields, however, permit a direct means to probe for these relics. Here we calculate the bispectrum that arises in models of self-ordered scalar fields. We find a compact analytic expression for the bispectrum, evaluate it numerically, and provide a simple approximation that may be useful for data analysis. The bispectrum is largest for triangles that are aligned (have edges $k_1\\simeq 2 k_2 \\simeq 2 k_3$) as opposed to the local-model bispectrum, which peaks for squeezed triangles ($k_1\\simeq k_2 \\gg k_3$), and the equilateral bispectrum, which peaks at $k_1\\simeq k_2 \\simeq k_3$. We estimate that this non-...
Canonical Quantization of the Scalar Field: The Measure Theoretic Perspective
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Velhinho
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This review is devoted to measure theoretical methods in the canonical quantization of scalar field theories. We present in some detail the canonical quantization of the free scalar field. We study the measures associated with the free fields and present two characterizations of the support of these measures. The first characterization concerns local properties of the quantum fields, whereas for the second one we introduce a sequence of variables that test the field behaviour at large distances, thus allowing distinguishing between the typical quantum fields associated with different values of the mass.
Brief History of Ultra-light Scalar Dark Matter Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lee Jae-Weon
2018-01-01
dark matter, BEC dark matter, wave dark matter, or ultra-light axion. In this model ultra-light scalar dark matter particles with mass m = O(10-22eV condense in a single Bose-Einstein condensate state and behave collectively like a classical wave. Galactic dark matter halos can be described as a self-gravitating coherent scalar field configuration called boson stars. At the scale larger than galaxies the dark matter acts like cold dark matter, while below the scale quantum pressure from the uncertainty principle suppresses the smaller structure formation so that it can resolve the small scale crisis of the conventional cold dark matter model.
Qualitative analysis and characterization of two cosmologies including scalar fields
Leon, Genly
2014-01-01
The problem of dark energy can be roughly stated as the proposition and validation of a cosmological model that can explain the phenomenon of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. This problem is an open discussion topic in modern physics. One of the most common approaches is that of the "Dark Energy" (DE), a matter component still unknown, with repulsive character (to explain the accelerated expansion), which fills about 2/3 of the total content of the Universe. In this thesis are investigated two cosmological models, a non-minimally coupled quintessence field, based on a Scalar-Tensor Theory of gravity, formulated in the Einstein's frame, and a quintom dark energy model, based on General Relativity. A normalization and parametrization procedure is introduced for each model, in order to investigate the flow properties of an associated autonomous system of ordinary differential equations. In our study are combined topological, analytical and numerical techniques. We are mainly interested in the past dyna...
Black holes from multiplets of scalar fields in 2 + 1- and 3 + 1 dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mazharimousavi, S.H.; Halilsoy, M. [Eastern Mediterranean Univ., Gazimagusa (Turkey). Dept. of Physics
2016-08-15
We obtain classes of black hole solutions constructed from multiplets of scalar fields in 2 + 1/3 + 1 dimensions. The multi-component scalars do not undergo a symmetry breaking so that only the isotropic modulus is effective. The Lagrangian is supplemented by a self-interacting potential which plays significant role in obtaining the exact solutions. In 2 + 1/3 + 1 dimensions, a doublet/triplet of scalars is effective, which enriches the available black hole spacetimes and creates useful Liouville weighted field theoretic models. (orig.)
Thermodynamics of perfect fluids from scalar field theory
Ballesteros, Guillermo; Pilo, Luigi
2016-01-01
The low-energy dynamics of relativistic continuous media is given by a shift-symmetric effective theory of four scalar fields. These scalars describe the embedding in spacetime of the medium and play the role of Stuckelberg fields for spontaneously broken spatial and time translations. Perfect fluids are selected imposing a stronger symmetry group or reducing the field content to a single scalar. We explore the relation between the field theory description of perfect fluids to thermodynamics. By drawing the correspondence between the allowed operators at leading order in derivatives and the thermodynamic variables, we find that a complete thermodynamic picture requires the four Stuckelberg fields. We show that thermodynamic stability plus the null energy condition imply dynamical stability. We also argue that a consistent thermodynamic interpretation is not possible if any of the shift symmetries is explicitly broken.
Massless Interacting Scalar Fields in de Sitter space
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Nacir Diana López
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We present a method to compute the two-point functions for an O(N scalar field model in de Sitter spacetime, avoiding the well known infrared problems for massless fields. The method is based on an exact treatment of the Euclidean zero modes and a perturbative one of the nonzero modes, and involves a partial resummation of the leading secular terms. This resummation, crucial to obtain a decay of the correlation functions, is implemented along with a double expansion in an effective coupling constant √λ and in 1/N. The results reduce to those known in the leading infrared approximation and coincide with the ones obtained directly in Lorentzian de Sitter spacetime in the large N limit. The new method allows for a systematic calculation of higher order corrections both in √λ and in 1/N.
Massless Interacting Scalar Fields in de Sitter space
López Nacir, Diana
2016-10-28
We present a method to compute the two-point functions for an $O(N)$ scalar field model in de Sitter spacetime, avoiding the well known infrared problems for massless fields. The method is based on an exact treatment of the Euclidean zero modes and a perturbative one of the nonzero modes, and involves a partial resummation of the leading secular terms. This resummation, crucial to obtain a decay of the correlation functions, is implemented along with a double expansion in an effective coupling constant $\\sqrt\\lambda$ and in $1/N$. The results reduce to those known in the leading infrared approximation and coincide with the ones obtained directly in Lorentzian de Sitter spacetime in the large $N$ limit. The new method allows for a systematic calculation of higher order corrections both in $\\sqrt\\lambda$ and in $1/N$.
Two component WIMP-FImP dark matter model with singlet fermion, scalar and pseudo scalar
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Dutta Banik, Amit; Pandey, Madhurima; Majumdar, Debasish [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI, Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology Division, Kolkata (India); Biswas, Anirban [Harish Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad (India)
2017-10-15
We explore a two component dark matter model with a fermion and a scalar. In this scenario the Standard Model (SM) is extended by a fermion, a scalar and an additional pseudo scalar. The fermionic component is assumed to have a global U(1){sub DM} and interacts with the pseudo scalar via Yukawa interaction while a Z{sub 2} symmetry is imposed on the other component - the scalar. These ensure the stability of both dark matter components. Although the Lagrangian of the present model is CP conserving, the CP symmetry breaks spontaneously when the pseudo scalar acquires a vacuum expectation value (VEV). The scalar component of the dark matter in the present model also develops a VEV on spontaneous breaking of the Z{sub 2} symmetry. Thus the various interactions of the dark sector and the SM sector occur through the mixing of the SM like Higgs boson, the pseudo scalar Higgs like boson and the singlet scalar boson. We show that the observed gamma ray excess from the Galactic Centre as well as the 3.55 keV X-ray line from Perseus, Andromeda etc. can be simultaneously explained in the present two component dark matter model and the dark matter self interaction is found to be an order of magnitude smaller than the upper limit estimated from the observational results. (orig.)
Small scale structures in coupled scalar field dark matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Beyer
2014-11-01
Full Text Available We investigate structure formation for ultra-light scalar field dark matter coupled to quintessence, in particular the cosmon–bolon system. The linear power spectrum is computed by a numerical solution of the coupled field equations. We infer the substructure abundance within a Milky Way-like halo. Estimates of dark halo abundances from recent galaxy surveys imply a lower bound on the bolon mass of about 9×10−22 eV. This seems to exclude a possible detection of scalar field dark matter through time variation in pulsar timing signals in the near future.
Scalar Potential Model of photon diffraction
Hodge, John
2011-04-01
Some observations of light are inconsistent with a wave-like model. Other observations of light are inconsistent with a traditional particle-like model. A single model of light has remained a mystery. Newton's speculations, Democritus's speculations, the Bohm interpretation, and the fractal philosophy are combined with the cosmological Scalar Potential Model (SPM). The resulting model of photon structure and dynamics is tested by a toy computer experiment. The simulations included light from a distance and Young's experiment. The patterns on the screens showed diffraction wave patterns fit by the Fresnel equation. The model is consistent with the Afshar experiment and with the concepts of Bohmian mechanics.
Effects of scalar mesons in a Skyrme model with hidden local symmetry
He, Bing-Ran; Ma, Yong-Liang; Harada, Masayasu
2015-10-01
We study the effects of light scalar mesons on the Skyrmion properties by constructing and examining a mesonic model including pion, rho meson, and omega meson fields as well as two-quark and four-quark scalar meson fields. In our model, the physical scalar mesons are defined as mixing states of the two- and four-quark fields. We first omit the four-quark scalar meson field from the model and find that when there is no direct coupling between the two-quark scalar meson and the vector mesons, the soliton mass is smaller and the soliton size is larger for lighter scalar mesons; when direct coupling is switched on, as the coupling strength increases, the soliton becomes heavy, and the radius of the baryon number density becomes large as the repulsive force arising from the ω meson becomes strong. We then include the four-quark scalar meson field in the model and find that mixing between the two-quark and four-quark components of the scalar meson fields also affects the properties of the soliton. When the two-quark component of the lighter scalar meson is increased, the soliton mass decreases and the soliton size increases.
Scalar field dark matter in clusters of galaxies
Bernal, Tula; Robles, Victor H.; Matos, Tonatiuh
2017-07-01
One alternative to the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm is the scalar field dark matter (SFDM) model, which assumes dark matter is a spin-0 ultra-light scalar field (SF) with a typical mass m ˜ 10-22 eV/c2 and positive self-interactions. Due to the ultra-light boson mass, the SFDM could form Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in the very early Universe, which are interpreted as the dark matter haloes. Although cosmologically the model behaves as CDM, they differ at small scales: SFDM naturally predicts fewer satellite haloes, cores in dwarf galaxies and the formation of massive galaxies at high redshifts. The ground state (or BEC) solution at zero temperature suffices to describe low-mass galaxies but fails for larger systems. A possible solution is adding finite-temperature corrections to the SF potential which allows combinations of excited states. In this work, we test the finite-temperature multistate SFDM solution at galaxy cluster scales and compare our results with the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) and BEC profiles. We achieve this by fitting the mass distribution of 13 Chandra X-ray clusters of galaxies, excluding the region of the brightest cluster galaxy. We show that the SFDM model accurately describes the clusters' DM mass distributions offering an equivalent or better agreement than the NFW profile. The complete disagreement of the BEC model with the data is also shown. We conclude that the theoretically motivated multistate SFDM profile is an interesting alternative to empirical profiles and ad hoc fitting-functions that attempt to couple the asymptotic NFW decline with the inner core in SFDM.
Maccari, Attilio
2000-10-01
A weakly nonlinear Lorentz invariant complex field model in 3+1 dimensions is studied by an asymptotic perturbation method, based on Fourier expansion and spatio-temporal rescaling. It is shown that a nonlinear system of partial differential equations describes oscillation amplitudes of Fourier modes. This system is C-integrable, i.e., can be linearized through a suitable transformation of the dependent and independent variables. We resolve the Cauchy problem and demonstrate that localized nondispersive waves (envelope solitons) with finite energy exist under appropriate initial conditions. These particle-like solutions propagate with the group velocity of their carrier wave. During a collision solitons maintain their shape, because the only change is a phase shift. Energy E and momentum p of solitons are identical to those of a relativistic particle. If the Planck constant is connected to the spatial dimension of the envelope soliton, then we obtain at the lowest order of approximation the quantum relations E=ℏ ω, λ= h/ p, where λ and ω are wavelength and frequency of the carrier wave. This work represents a possible way to achieve the Einstein-de Broglie soliton-particle concept.
Quantum Prisoners' Dilemma in Fluctuating Massless Scalar Field
Huang, Zhiming
2017-12-01
Quantum systems are easily affected by external environment. In this paper, we investigate the influences of external massless scalar field to quantum Prisoners' Dilemma (QPD) game. We firstly derive the master equation that describes the system evolution with initial maximally entangled state. Then, we discuss the effects of a fluctuating massless scalar field on the game's properties such as payoff, Nash equilibrium, and symmetry. We find that for different game strategies, vacuum fluctuation has different effects on payoff. Nash equilibrium is broken but the symmetry of the game is not violated.
Dark sector impact on gravitational collapse of an electrically charged scalar field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakonieczna, Anna [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University,Plac Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin (Poland); Rogatko, Marek [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University,Plac Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Nakonieczny, Łukasz [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)
2015-11-04
Dark matter and dark energy are dominating components of the Universe. Their presence affects the course and results of processes, which are driven by the gravitational interaction. The objective of the paper was to examine the influence of the dark sector on the gravitational collapse of an electrically charged scalar field. A phantom scalar field was used as a model of dark energy in the system. Dark matter was modeled by a complex scalar field with a quartic potential, charged under a U(1)-gauge field. The dark components were coupled to the electrically charged scalar field via the exponential coupling and the gauge field-Maxwell field kinetic mixing, respectively. Complete non-linear simulations of the investigated process were performed. They were conducted from regular initial data to the end state, which was the matter dispersal or a singularity formation in a spacetime. During the collapse in the presence of dark energy dynamical wormholes and naked singularities were formed in emerging spacetimes. The wormhole throats were stabilized by the violation of the null energy condition, which occurred due to a significant increase of a value of the phantom scalar field function in its vicinity. The square of mass parameter of the dark matter scalar field potential controlled the formation of a Cauchy horizon or wormhole throats in the spacetime. The joint impact of dark energy and dark matter on the examined process indicated that the former decides what type of an object forms, while the latter controls the amount of time needed for the object to form. Additionally, the dark sector suppresses the natural tendency of an electrically charged scalar field to form a dynamical Reissner-Nordström spacetime during the gravitational collapse.
Equilibrium Statistical Thermodynamics of a Many-Particle System Coupled to an External Scalar Field
Salvino, R. E.
1990-01-01
The equilibrium thermodynamics of a many-particle assembly in the presence of an external scalar field is examined. Two types of scalar coupling are considered: an external field coupled to the particle density and an external scalar field coupled to the energy density. It is shown that the broken translational and rotational invariance of the system due to the external field is reflected in the macroscopic physics by loss of the usual extensivity property of the system and by means of anisotropy in the response of the system to changes in the system lengths or to the system shape. In addition, the assumptions used in local equilibrium analyses are shown to be incorrect in principle. Nonlocal effects due to the external field must be included in the determination of the equation of state. Simple model calculations for a system in an external gravitational field and an externally imposed temperature field are presented as illustrations.
Quantum Gravity Effects in Scalar, Vector and Tensor Field Propagation
Dutta, Anindita
Quantum theory of gravity deals with the physics of the gravitational field at Planck length scale (10-35 m). Even though it is experimentally hard to reach the Planck length scale, on can look for evidence of quantum gravity that is detectable in astrophysics. In this thesis, we try to find effects of loop quantum gravity corrections on observable phenomena. We show that the quantum fluctuation strain for LIGO data would be 10 -125 on the Earth. Th correction is, however, substantial near the black hole horizon. We discuss the effect of this for scalar field propagation followed by vector and tensor fields. For the scalar field, the correction introduces a new asymmetry; for the vector field, we found a new perturbation solution and for the tensor field, we found the corrected Einstein equations which are yet to solve. These will affect phenomena like Hawking radiation, black hole entropy and gravitational waves.
Reconstruction of inflation from scalar field non-minimally coupled with the Gauss-Bonnet term
Sebastiani, Lorenzo; Myrzakul, Shynaray; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2017-12-01
In this paper, we analyze the early time inflation in a scalar-tensor theory of gravity where the scalar field is minimally coupled with the Gauss-Bonnet four-dimensional topological invariant. The theory belongs to a class of Horndeski models where the field equations are at the second order, like in General Relativity. A viable inflationary scenario must correctly reproduce the last Plank satellite data. By starting from some simple assumptions on the field and on the coupling function between the field and the Gauss-Bonnet term, we derive the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the model. Once the model is viable, it is finally possible to fully reconstruct its Lagrangian.
Polchinski ERG Equation in O(N) Scalar Field Theory
Kubyshin, Yuri; Neves, Rui; Potting, Robertus
We investigate the Polchinski ERG equation for d-dimensional O(N) scalar field theory. In the context of the non-pertubative derivative expansion we find families of regular solutions and establish their relation with the physical fixed points of the theory. Special emphasis is given to the limit N=∞ for which many properties can be studied analytically.
Polchinski ERG Equation in O(N) Scalar Field Theory
Kubyshin, Yuri; Neves, Rui; Potting, Robertus
2001-01-01
We investigate the Polchinski ERG equation for d-dimensional O(N) scalar field theory. In the context of the non-perturbative derivative expansion we find families of regular solutions and establish their relation with the physical fixed points of the theory. Special emphasis is given to the large N limit for which many properties can be studied analytically.
Eigenvalue Problem of Scalar Fields in BTZ Black Hole Spacetime
Kuwata, Maiko; Kenmoku, Masakatsu; Shigemoto, Kazuyasu
2008-01-01
We studied the eigenvalue problem of scalar fields in the (2+1)-dimensional BTZ black hole spacetime. The Dirichlet boundary condition at infinity and the Dirichlet or the Neumann boundary condition at the horizon are imposed. Eigenvalues for normal modes are characterized by the principal quantum number $(0
Effective action for a quantum scalar field in warped spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoff da Silva, J.M.; Mendonca, E.L.; Scatena, E. [Universidade Estadual Paulista ' ' Julio de Mesquita Filho' ' -UNESP, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)
2015-11-15
We investigate the one-loop corrections, at zero as well as finite temperature, of a scalar field taking place in a braneworld motivated warped background. After to reach a well-defined problem, we calculate the effective action with the corresponding quantum corrections to each case. (orig.)
Scalar-field quintessence by cosmic shear: CFHT data analysis and forecasts for DUNE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schimd, C [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Tereno, I [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, 53121 Bonn (Germany)
2007-06-22
A light scalar field, minimally or not-minimally coupled to the metric field, is a well-defined candidate for the dark energy, alleviating the fine-tuning problem intrinsic to the cosmological constant and avoiding the difficulties of parameterizations. We present a general description of the weak gravitational lensing valid for every metric theory of gravity, including vector and tensor perturbations for a non-flat spatial metric. Based on this description, we investigate two minimally coupled scalar-field quintessence models using VIRMOS-Descart and CFHTLS cosmic-shear data, and forecast the constraints for the proposed space-borne wide-field imager DUNE.
Structures and Intermittency in a Passive Scalar Model
Vergassola, M.; Mazzino, A.
1997-09-01
Perturbative expansions for intermittency scaling exponents in the Kraichnan passive scalar model [Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1016 (1994)] are investigated. A one-dimensional compressible model is considered for this purpose. High resolution Monte Carlo simulations using an Ito approach adapted to an advecting velocity field with a very short correlation time are performed and lead to clean scaling behavior for passive scalar structure functions. Perturbative predictions for the scaling exponents around the Gaussian limit of the model are derived as in the Kraichnan model. Their comparison with the simulations indicates that the scale-invariant perturbative scheme correctly captures the inertial range intermittency corrections associated with the intense localized structures observed in the dynamics.
Anderson, David; Yunes, Nicolás
2017-09-01
Scalar-tensor theories of gravity modify general relativity by introducing a scalar field that couples nonminimally to the metric tensor, while satisfying the weak-equivalence principle. These theories are interesting because they have the potential to simultaneously suppress modifications to Einstein's theory on Solar System scales, while introducing large deviations in the strong field of neutron stars. Scalar-tensor theories can be classified through the choice of conformal factor, a scalar that regulates the coupling between matter and the metric in the Einstein frame. The class defined by a Gaussian conformal factor with a negative exponent has been studied the most because it leads to spontaneous scalarization (i.e. the sudden activation of the scalar field in neutron stars), which consequently leads to large deviations from general relativity in the strong field. This class, however, has recently been shown to be in conflict with Solar System observations when accounting for the cosmological evolution of the scalar field. We here study whether this remains the case when the exponent of the conformal factor is positive, as well as in another class of theories defined by a hyperbolic conformal factor. We find that in both of these scalar-tensor theories, Solar System tests are passed only in a very small subset of coupling parameter space, for a large set of initial conditions compatible with big bang nucleosynthesis. However, while we find that it is possible for neutron stars to scalarize, one must carefully select the coupling parameter to do so, and even then, the scalar charge is typically 2 orders of magnitude smaller than in the negative-exponent case. Our study suggests that future work on scalar-tensor gravity, for example in the context of tests of general relativity with gravitational waves from neutron star binaries, should be carried out within the positive coupling parameter class.
Dynamical system of scalar field from 2-dimension to 3-D and its cosmological implications
Fang, Wei; Tu, Hong; Huang, Jiasheng; Shu, Chenggang
2016-09-01
We give the three-dimensional dynamical autonomous systems for most of the popular scalar field dark energy models including (phantom) quintessence, (phantom) tachyon, K-essence, and general non-canonical scalar field models, change the dynamical variables from variables (x, y, λ ) to observable related variables (w_{φ }, Ω _{φ }, λ ), and show the intimate relationships between those scalar fields that the three-dimensional system of K-essence can reduce to (phantom) tachyon, general non-canonical scalar field can reduce to (phantom) quintessence and K-essence can also reduce to (phantom) quintessence for some special cases. For the applications of the three-dimensional dynamical systems, we investigate several special cases and give the exactly dynamical solutions in detail. In the end of this paper, we argue that it is more convenient and also has more physical meaning to express the differential equations of dynamical systems in (w_{φ }, Ω _{φ }, λ ) instead of variables (x, y, λ ) and to investigate the dynamical system in three dimensions instead of two dimensions. We also raise a question about the possibility of the chaotic behavior in the spatially flat single scalar field FRW cosmological models in the presence of ordinary matter.
Decoherence and disentanglement of qubits detecting scalar fields in an expanded universe
Li, Yujie; Shi, Yu
2016-01-01
We consider Unruh-Wald qubit detector model adopted for the far future region of an exactly solvable 1+1 dimensional scalar field theory in a Robertson-Walker expanding spacetime. It is shown that the expansion of the universe in its history enhances the decoherence of the qubit coupled with a scalar field. Moreover, we consider two entangled qubits, each locally coupled a scalar field. The expansion of the universe in its history degrades the entanglement between the qubits, and can lead to entanglement sudden death if the initial entanglement is small enough. The details depend on the parameters characterizing the expansion of the universe. This work, albeit on a toy model, suggests that the history of the universe might be probed through the coherent and entanglement behavior of future detectors of quantum fields.
Scalar field localization on deformed extra space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rubin, Sergey G. [National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)
2015-07-15
Field localization on 2-dim extra space is considered in the framework of f(R) gravity. It is shown that interference of the local matter energy distribution and the metric of the extra space forms a point-like defect - a 4-dim brane. The energy-momentum of the brane depends on the initial conditions, which could lead to an arbitrarily small cosmological Λ term. (orig.)
Scalar field localization on deformed extra space
Rubin, Sergey G
2015-01-01
Field localization on 2-dim extra space is considered in the framework of f(R) gravity. It is shown that an interference of local matter energy distribution and a metric of the extra space form a point-like defect - 4-dim brane. The energy-momentum of the brane depends on initial conditions that could lead to the cosmological $\\Lambda$ term being arbitrarily small.
Polchinski ERG equation and 2D scalar field theory
Kubyshin, Yuri; Neves, Rui; Potting, Robertus
1998-01-01
We investigate a $Z_2$-symmetric scalar field theory in two dimensions using the Polchinski exact renormalization group equation expanded to second order in the derivative expansion. We find preliminary evidence that the Polchinski equation is able to describe the non-perturbative infinite set of fixed points in the theory space, corresponding to the minimal unitary series of 2D conformal field theories. We compute the anomalous scaling dimension $\\eta$ and the correlation l...
Self-interacting scalar fields at high-temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deur, Alexandre [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)
2017-06-15
We study two self-interacting scalar field theories in their high-temperature limit using path integrals on a lattice. We first discuss the formalism and recover known potentials to validate the method. We then discuss how these theories can model, in the high-temperature limit, the strong interaction and General Relativity. For the strong interaction, the model recovers the known phenomenology of the nearly static regime of heavy quarkonia. The model also exposes a possible origin for the emergence of the confinement scale from the approximately conformal Lagrangian. Aside from such possible insights, the main purpose of addressing the strong interaction here - given that more sophisticated approaches already exist - is mostly to further verify the pertinence of the model in the more complex case of General Relativity for which non-perturbative methods are not as developed. The results have important implications on the nature of Dark Matter. In particular, non-perturbative effects naturally provide flat rotation curves for disk galaxies, without need for non-baryonic matter, and explain as well other observations involving Dark Matter such as cluster dynamics or the dark mass of elliptical galaxies. (orig.)
Charged black holes in a generalized scalar-tensor gravity model
Brihaye, Yves; Hartmann, Betti
2017-09-01
We study 4-dimensional charged and static black holes in a generalized scalar-tensor gravity model, in which a shift symmetry for the scalar field exists. For vanishing scalar field the solution corresponds to the Reissner-Nordström (RN) solution, while solutions of the full scalar-gravity model have to be constructed numerically. We demonstrate that these black holes support Galilean scalar hair up to a maximal value of the scalar-tensor coupling that depends on the value of the charge and can be up to roughly twice as large as that for uncharged solutions. The Hawking temperature TH of the hairy black holes at maximal scalar-tensor coupling decreases continuously with the increase of the charge and reaches TH = 0 for the highest possible charge that these solutions can carry. However, in this limit, the scalar-tensor coupling needs to vanish. The limiting solution hence corresponds to the extremal RN solution, which does not support regular Galilean scalar hair due to its AdS2 ×S2 near-horizon geometry.
Scalar field as a Bose-Einstein condensate?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castellanos, Elías; Escamilla-Rivera, Celia [Mesoamerican Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP regional headquarters in Central America, the Caribbean and Mexico), Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, Carretera Zapata Km. 4, Real del Bosque (Terán), 29040, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Macías, Alfredo [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, A.P. 55-534, Mexico D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Núñez, Darío, E-mail: ecastellanos@mctp.mx, E-mail: cescamilla@mctp.mx, E-mail: amac@xanum.uam.mx, E-mail: nunez@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., A.P. 70-543, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)
2014-11-01
We discuss the analogy between a classical scalar field with a self-interacting potential, in a curved spacetime described by a quasi-bounded state, and a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. In this context, we compare the Klein-Gordon equation with the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Moreover, the introduction of a curved background spacetime endows, in a natural way, an equivalence to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with an explicit confinement potential. The curvature also induces a position dependent self-interaction parameter. We exploit this analogy by means of the Thomas-Fermi approximation, commonly used to describe the Bose-Einstein condensate, in order to analyze the quasi bound scalar field distribution surrounding a black hole.
Higgs particles interacting via a scalar Dark Matter field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhattacharya Yajnavalkya
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We study a system of two Higgs particles, interacting via a scalar Dark Matter mediating field. The variational method in the Hamiltonian formalism of QFT is used to derive relativistic wave equations for the two-Higgs system, using a truncated Fock-space trial state. Approximate solutions of the two-body equations are used to examine the existence of Higgs bound states.
Galilean-invariant scalar fields can strengthen gravitational lensing.
Wyman, Mark
2011-05-20
The mystery of dark energy suggests that there is new gravitational physics on long length scales. Yet light degrees of freedom in gravity are strictly limited by Solar System observations. We can resolve this apparent contradiction by adding a Galilean-invariant scalar field to gravity. Called Galileons, these scalars have strong self-interactions near overdensities, like the Solar System, that suppress their dynamical effect. These nonlinearities are weak on cosmological scales, permitting new physics to operate. In this Letter, we point out that a massive-gravity-inspired coupling of Galileons to stress energy can enhance gravitational lensing. Because the enhancement appears at a fixed scaled location for dark matter halos of a wide range of masses, stacked cluster analysis of weak lensing data should be able to detect or constrain this effect.
Extension of warm inflation to non-canonical scalar fields
Zhang, Xiao-Min
2014-01-01
We extend the warm inflationary scenario to the case of the non-canonical scalar fields. The equation of motion and the other basic equations of this new scenario are obtained. The Hubble damped term is enhanced in non-canonical inflation. A linear stability analysis is performed to give the proper slow roll conditions in warm non-canonical inflation. We study the density fluctuations in the new picture and obtain an approximate analytic expression of the power spectrum. The energy scale at the horizon crossing is depressed by both non-canonical effect and thermal effect, so does the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Besides the synergy, the non-canonical effect and the thermal effect are competing in the case of the warm non-canonical inflation.
Can LIGO Directly Detect the Scalar Field Dark Energy of 5D Gravity?
Zhang, Tianxi
2017-06-01
The observed acceleration of the present universe is commonly attributed to the existence of dark energy as a dominant component throughout the universe. A direct detection of dark energy has become one of the most important issues in the modern astrophysics and cosmology. Two widely accepted candidates of the dark energy are the cosmological constant Λ and the quintessence. Unlike the cosmological constant, the quintessence is a scalar field Φ that varies throughout spacetime, and has been modelled in various ways such as the four-dimensional (4D) Brans-Dicke scalar-tensor theory of gravitation and the five-dimensional (5D) Kaluza-Klein scalar-vector-tensor theory of gravitation. The scalar field of 5D gravity was shown to be capable of polarizing the space or vacuum and thus can extend the optical length of the path of a laser beam that passes through the polarized space or vacuum. Recently, the author, in terms of his 5D fully covariant Kaluza-Klein scalar-vector-tensor theory of gravitation, has quantitatively related the dielectric constant of the polarized vacuum (and thus the optical length of the path in the polarized vacuum) to the charge-mass ratio of a charged object. This study further demonstrates that the vacuum polarization by the scalar field dark energy of 5D gravity, when the object is highly charged, can be significant enough for the extremely accurate LIGO, which has recently detected first ever the gravitational waves from the binary black hole merger, to directly detect. It is shown that a some-thousand-kilogram sphere electrically charged to tens of kilovolts can polarize the vacuum by its scalar field dark energy and thus extend the optical path length of a laser beam that travels through one LIGO arm with some hundred reflections by approximately 10-18 m, which is one-order higher than that to be detected by the LIGO detectors. Therefore, being added a highly charged sphere into the experimental setup, LIGO may directly discover the
Varying vacuum energy of a self-interacting scalar field
Trachenko, K.
2015-11-01
Understanding mechanisms capable of altering the vacuum energy is currently of interest in field theories and cosmology. We consider an interacting scalar field and show that the vacuum energy naturally takes any value between its maximum and zero because interaction affects the number of operating field modes, the assertion that involves no assumptions or postulates. The mechanism is similar to the recently discussed temperature evolution of collective modes in liquids. The cosmological implication concerns the evolution of scalar field ϕ during the inflation of the Universe. ϕ starts with all field modes operating and maximal vacuum energy in the early inflation-dominated epoch. As a result of inflation, ϕ undergoes a dynamical crossover and arrives in the state with one long-wavelength longitudinal mode and small positive vacuum energy predicted to be asymptotically decreasing to zero in the late epoch. Accordingly, we predict that the currently observed cosmological constant will decrease in the future, and comment on the possibility of a cyclic Universe.
Visibility graphs of random scalar fields and spatial data
Lacasa, Lucas; Iacovacci, Jacopo
2017-07-01
We extend the family of visibility algorithms to map scalar fields of arbitrary dimension into graphs, enabling the analysis of spatially extended data structures as networks. We introduce several possible extensions and provide analytical results on the topological properties of the graphs associated to different types of real-valued matrices, which can be understood as the high and low disorder limits of real-valued scalar fields. In particular, we find a closed expression for the degree distribution of these graphs associated to uncorrelated random fields of generic dimension. This result holds independently of the field's marginal distribution and it directly yields a statistical randomness test, applicable in any dimension. We showcase its usefulness by discriminating spatial snapshots of two-dimensional white noise from snapshots of a two-dimensional lattice of diffusively coupled chaotic maps, a system that generates high dimensional spatiotemporal chaos. The range of potential applications of this combinatorial framework includes image processing in engineering, the description of surface growth in material science, soft matter or medicine, and the characterization of potential energy surfaces in chemistry, disordered systems, and high energy physics. An illustration on the applicability of this method for the classification of the different stages involved in carcinogenesis is briefly discussed.
Shell model for time-correlated random advection of passive scalars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ken Haste; Muratore-Ginanneschi, P.
1999-01-01
We study a minimal shell model for the advection of a passive scalar by a Gaussian time-correlated velocity field. The anomalous scaling properties of the white noise limit are studied analytically. The effect of the time correlations are investigated using perturbation theory around the white...... noise limit and nonperturbatively by numerical integration. The time correlation of the velocity field is seen to enhance the intermittency of the passive scalar. [S1063-651X(99)07711-9]....
Gesture Recognition using Latent-Dynamic based Conditional Random Fields and Scalar Features
Yulita, I. N.; Fanany, M. I.; Arymurthy, A. M.
2017-02-01
The need for segmentation and labeling of sequence data appears in several fields. The use of the conditional models such as Conditional Random Fields is widely used to solve this problem. In the pattern recognition, Conditional Random Fields specify the possibilities of a sequence label. This method constructs its full label sequence to be a probabilistic graphical model based on its observation. However, Conditional Random Fields can not capture the internal structure so that Latent-based Dynamic Conditional Random Fields is developed without leaving external dynamics of inter-label. This study proposes the use of Latent-Dynamic Conditional Random Fields for Gesture Recognition and comparison between both methods. Besides, this study also proposes the use of a scalar features to gesture recognition. The results show that performance of Latent-dynamic based Conditional Random Fields is not better than the Conditional Random Fields, and scalar features are effective for both methods are in gesture recognition. Therefore, it recommends implementing Conditional Random Fields and scalar features in gesture recognition for better performance
Scalar field collapse in a conformally flat spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakrabarti, Soumya; Banerjee, Narayan [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Department of Physical Sciences, Mohanpur, West Bengal (India)
2017-03-15
The collapse scenario of a scalar field along with a perfect fluid distribution was investigated for a conformally flat spacetime. The theorem for the integrability of an anharmonic oscillator has been utilized. For a pure power-law potential of the form φ{sup n+1}, it was found that a central singularity is formed which is covered by an apparent horizon for n > 0 and n < -3. Some numerical results have also been presented for a combination of two different powers of φ in the potential. (orig.)
Topological geons with self-gravitating phantom scalar field
Kratovitch, P. V.; Potashov, I. M.; Tchemarina, Ju V.; Tsirulev, A. N.
2017-12-01
A topological geon is the quotient manifold M/Z 2 where M is a static spherically symmetric wormhole having the reflection symmetry with respect to its throat. We distinguish such asymptotically at solutions of the Einstein equations according to the form of the time-time metric function by using the quadrature formulas of the so-called inverse problem for self-gravitating spherically symmetric scalar fields. We distinguish three types of geon spacetimes and illustrate them by simple examples. We also study possible observational effects associated with bounded geodesic motion near topological geons.
Entanglement growth after a global quench in free scalar field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cotler, Jordan S. [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Hertzberg, Mark P. [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Mezei, Márk [Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Mueller, Mark T. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)
2016-11-28
We compute the entanglement and Rényi entropy growth after a global quench in various dimensions in free scalar field theory. We study two types of quenches: a boundary state quench and a global mass quench. Both of these quenches are investigated for a strip geometry in 1, 2, and 3 spatial dimensions, and for a spherical geometry in 2 and 3 spatial dimensions. We compare the numerical results for massless free scalars in these geometries with the predictions of the analytical quasiparticle model based on EPR pairs, and find excellent agreement in the limit of large region sizes. At subleading order in the region size, we observe an anomalous logarithmic growth of entanglement coming from the zero mode of the scalar.
Stability equation and two-component Eigenmode for domain walls in scalar potential model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dias, G.S.; Graca, E.L.; Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: dias@cbpf.br; rafaelr@cbpf.br
2002-08-01
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics involving a two-component representation and two-component eigenfunctions is applied to obtain the stability equation associated to a potential model formulated in terms of two coupled real scalar fields. We investigate the question of stability by introducing an operator technique for the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) and non-BPS states on two domain walls in a scalar potential model with minimal N 1-supersymmetry. (author)
Hooft, G. 't
2005-01-01
Interactions between outgoing Hawking particles and ingoing matter are determined by gravitational forces and Standard Model interactions. In particular the gravitational interactions are responsible for the unitarity of the scattering against the horizon, as dictated by the holographic
Morales, Manuel D
2016-01-01
Motivated by the goal for high accuracy modeling of gravitational radiation emitted by isolated systems, recently, there has been renewed interest in the numerical solution of the hyperboloidal initial value problem for Einstein's field equations in which the outer boundary of the numerical grid is placed at null infinity. In this article, we numerically implement the tetrad-based approach presented in [J.M. Bardeen, O. Sarbach, and L.T. Buchman, Phys. Rev. D 83, 104045 (2011)] for a spherically symmetric, minimally coupled, self-gravitating scalar field. When this field is massless, the evolution system reduces to a regular, first-order symmetric hyperbolic system of equations for the conformally rescaled scalar field which is coupled to a set of singular elliptic constraints for the metric coefficients. We show how to solve this system based on a numerical finite-difference approximation, obtaining stable numerical evolutions for initial black hole configurations which are surrounded by a spherical shell of...
On localization of universal scalar fields in a tachyonic de Sitter thick braneworld
Diaz-Furlong, Alfonso; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo(Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, México D.F., CP 09340, Mexico); Linares, Roman; Mora-Luna, Refugio Rigel; Morales-Tecotl, Hugo A.
2014-01-01
Braneworld models may yield interesting effects ranging from high-energy physics to cosmology, or even some low-energy physics. Their mode structure modifies standard results in these physical realms that can be tested and used to set bounds on the models parameters. Now, to define braneworld deviations from standard 4D physics, a notion of matter and gravity localization on the brane is crucial. In this work we investigate the localization of universal massive scalar fields in a de Sitter th...
Nandi, Debottam
2016-01-01
In this work, we present a consistent Hamiltonian analysis of cosmological perturbations for generalized non-canonical scalar fields. In order to do so, we introduce a new phase-space variable that is uniquely defined for different non-canonical scalar fields. We also show that this is the simplest and efficient way of expressing the Hamiltonian. We extend the Hamiltonian approach of [arXiv:1512.02539] to non-canonical scalar field and obtain a new definition of speed of sound in phase-space. In order to invert generalized phase-space Hamilton's equations to Euler-Lagrange equations of motion, we prescribe a general inversion formulae and show that our approach for non-canonical scalar field is consistent. We also obtain the third and fourth order interaction Hamiltonian for generalized non-canonical scalar fields and briefly discuss the extension of our method to generalized Galilean scalar fields.
AdS Black Hole with Phantom Scalar Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Limei Zhang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We present an AdS black hole solution with Ricci flat horizon in Einstein-phantom scalar theory. The phantom scalar fields just depend on the transverse coordinates x and y, which are parameterized by the parameter α. We study the thermodynamics of the AdS phantom black hole. Although its horizon is a Ricci flat Euclidean space, we find that the thermodynamical properties of the black hole solution are qualitatively the same as those of AdS Schwarzschild black hole. Namely, there exists a minimal temperature and the large black hole is thermodynamically stable, while the smaller one is unstable, so there is a so-called Hawking-Page phase transition between the large black hole and the thermal gas solution in the AdS space-time in Poincare coordinates. We also calculate the entanglement entropy for a strip geometry dual to the AdS phantom black holes and find that the behavior of the entanglement entropy is qualitatively the same as that of the black hole thermodynamical entropy.
Phase space analysis for a scalar-tensor model with kinetic and Gauss-Bonnet couplings
Granda, L N
2016-01-01
We study the phase space for an scalar-tensor string inspired model of dark energy with non minimal kinetic and Gauss Bonnet couplings. The form of the scalar potential and of the coupling terms is of the exponential type, which give rise to appealing cosmological solutions. The critical points describe a variety of cosmological scenarios that go from matter or radiation dominated universe to dark energy dominated universe. There were found trajectories in the phase space departing from unstable or saddle fixed points and arriving to the stable scalar field dominated point corresponding to late-time accelerated expansion.
Vaithianathan, T.; Xia, Yanjun; Collins, Lance R.
2011-11-01
Xia and Collins [Physics of Fluids 23 (6):065107, 2011] developed the Bounded Stochastic Shell Mixing (BSSM) model that takes into account the multi-scale nature of the turbulent mixing process. They successfully applied the model to mixing of isotropic scalars with an initial double-delta probability density function (PDF). To enforce the scalar bounds, they introduced a novel ``zeroth mode'' that precisely cancels the inherently non-conservative random terms in the formulation. The extension of the model to the mixing of inhomogeneous scalar fields uses notional particles that move with a fluctuating velocity that is chosen to conform with the underlying turbulent energy spectrum. A consistency condition further requires the particle motion in the direction of the mean scalar gradient be carefully connected to the generation of the scalar fluctuation. The appropriate constraint has been derived and is enforced by the numerical algorithm. This new formulation has been applied to turbulent mixing of a scalar slab of specified thickness. (In the limit of zero thickness, this reduces to the classical ``line source'' problem.) We analyze multiple scalars so that differential diffusion can be considered as well as the effect of the thickness of the slab (relative to the turbulence length scales). The predictions of the BSSM model compare well with direct numerical simulations.
Decoherence and disentanglement of qubits detecting scalar fields in an expanded spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Yujie; Dai, Yue [Fudan University, Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Shanghai (China); Shi, Yu [Fudan University, Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Shanghai (China); Fudan University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Shanghai (China)
2017-09-15
We consider Unruh-Wald qubit detector model adopted for the far future region of an exactly solvable 1 + 1 dimensional scalar field theory in a toy model of Robertson-Walker expanding spacetime. It is shown that the expansion of the spacetime in its history enhances the decoherence of the qubit coupled with a scalar field. Moreover, we consider two entangled qubits, each locally coupled with a scalar field. The expansion of the spacetime in its history degrades the entanglement between the qubits, and it can lead to entanglement's sudden death if the initial entanglement is small enough. The details depend on the parameters characterizing the expansion of the spacetime. This work, on a toy model, suggests that the history of the spacetime might be probed through the coherent and entanglement behavior of the future detectors of quantum fields. In the present toy model, the two cosmological parameters can be determined from the quantum informational quantities of the detectors. (orig.)
Nonequlibrium dynamics of scalar fields in a thermal bath
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anisimov, A.; Buchmueller, W.; Drewes, M.; Mendizabal, S.
2008-12-15
We study the approach to equilibrium for a scalar field which is coupled to a large thermal bath. Our analysis of the initial value problem is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations which are shown to be equivalent to a stochastic Langevin equation. The interaction with the thermal bath generates a temperature-dependent spectral density, either through decay and inverse decay processes or via Landau damping. In equilibrium, energy density and pressure are determined by the Bose-Einstein distribution function evaluated at a complex quasi-particle pole. The time evolution of the statistical propagator is compared with solutions of the Boltzmann equations for particles as well as quasi-particles. The dependence on initial conditions and the range of validity of the Boltzmann approximation are determined. (orig.)
Gravitomagnetic effects in quadratic gravity with a scalar field
Finch, Andrew
2016-01-01
The two gravitomagnetic effects which influence bodies orbiting around a gravitational source are the geodetic effect and the Lense-Thirring effect. The former describes the precession angle of the axis of a spinning gyroscope while in orbit around a nonrotating gravitational source whereas the latter provides a correction for this angle in the case of a spinning source. In this paper we derive the relevant equations in quadratic gravity and relate them to their equivalents in general relativity. Starting with an investigation into Kepler's third law in quadratic gravity with a scalar field, the effects of an axisymmetric and rotating gravitational source on an orbiting body in a circular, equatorial orbit are introduced.
Self-interacting scalar field trapped in a DGP brane: The dynamical systems perspective
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quiros, Israel [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Central de Las Villas, 54830 Santa Clara (Cuba)], E-mail: israel@uclv.edu.cu; Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Legaria del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: rigarcias@ipn.mx; Matos, Tonatiuh [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: tmatos@fis.cinvestav.mx; Moreno, Claudia [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierias, Corregidora 500 S.R., Universidad de Guadalajara, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)], E-mail: claudia.moreno@cucei.udg.mx
2009-01-05
We apply the dynamical systems tools to study the linear dynamics of a self-interacting scalar field trapped on a DGP brane. The simplest kinds of self-interaction potentials are investigated: (a) constant potential, and (b) exponential potential. It is shown that the dynamics of DGP models can be very rich and complex. One of the most interesting results of this study shows that dynamical screening of the scalar field self-interaction potential, occurring within the Minkowski cosmological phase of the DGP model and that mimics 4D phantom behaviour, is an attractor solution for a constant self-interaction potential but not for the exponential one. In the latter case gravitational screening is not even a critical point of the corresponding autonomous system of ordinary differential equations.
Energy exchange for homogeneous and isotropic universes with a scalar field coupled to matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giambo, Roberto [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Camerino 62032 Camerino (Italy); Miritzis, John, E-mail: roberto.giambo@unicam.i, E-mail: imyr@aegean.g [Department of Marine Sciences, University of the Aegean, University Hill, Mytilene 81100 (Greece)
2010-05-07
We study the late time evolution of flat and negatively curved Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) models with a perfect fluid matter source and a scalar field arising in the conformal frame of f(R) theories nonminimally coupled to matter. Under mild assumptions on the potential V we prove that equilibria corresponding to the non-negative local minima for V are asymptotically stable, as well as horizontal asymptotes approached from above by V. We classify all cases of the flat model where one of the matter components eventually dominates. In particular for a nondegenerate minimum of the potential with zero critical value we prove in detail that if gamma, the parameter of the equation of state, is larger than 1, then there is a transfer of energy from the fluid to the scalar field and the latter eventually dominates in a generic way.
Scalar field coupling to Einstein tensor in regular black hole spacetime
Zhang, Chi; Wu, Chen
2018-02-01
In this paper, we study the perturbation property of a scalar field coupling to Einstein's tensor in the background of the regular black hole spacetimes. Our calculations show that the the coupling constant η imprints in the wave equation of a scalar perturbation. We calculated the quasinormal modes of scalar field coupling to Einstein's tensor in the regular black hole spacetimes by the 3rd order WKB method.
Uniqueness theorem for static wormholes in Einstein phantom scalar field theory
Yazadjiev, Stoytcho
2017-08-01
In the present paper we prove a uniqueness theorem for the regular static, traversable wormhole solutions to the Einstein phantom scalar field theory with two asymptotically flat regions (ends). We show that when a certain condition on the asymptotic values of the scalar field is imposed such solutions are uniquely specified by their mass M and the scalar charge D . The main arguments in the proof are based on the positive energy theorem.
Morales, Manuel D.; Sarbach, Olivier
2017-02-01
Motivated by the goal for high accuracy modeling of gravitational radiation emitted by isolated systems, recently, there has been renewed interest in the numerical solution of the hyperboloidal initial value problem for Einstein's field equations in which the outer boundary of the numerical grid is placed at null infinity. In this article, we numerically implement the tetrad-based approach presented by Bardeen, Sarbach, and Buchman [Phys. Rev. D 83, 104045 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevD.83.104045] for a spherically symmetric, minimally coupled, self-gravitating scalar field. When this field is massless, the evolution system reduces to a regular, first-order symmetric hyperbolic system of equations for the conformally rescaled scalar field which is coupled to a set of singular elliptic constraints for the metric coefficients. We show how to solve this system based on a numerical finite-difference approximation, obtaining stable numerical evolutions for initial black hole configurations which are surrounded by a spherical shell of scalar field, part of which disperses to infinity and part of which is accreted by the black hole. As a nontrivial test, we study the tail decay of the scalar field along different curves, including one along the marginally trapped tube, one describing the world line of a timelike observer at a finite radius outside the horizon, and one corresponding to a generator of null infinity. Our results are in perfect agreement with the usual power-law decay discussed in previous work. This article also contains a detailed analysis for the asymptotic behavior and regularity of the lapse, conformal factor, extrinsic curvature and the Misner-Sharp mass function along constant mean curvature slices.
Gravitational waves from self-ordering scalar fields
Fenu, Elisa; Durrer, Ruth; Garcia-Bellido, Juan
2009-01-01
Gravitational waves were copiously produced in the early Universe whenever the processes taking place were sufficiently violent. The spectra of several of these gravitational wave backgrounds on subhorizon scales have been extensively studied in the literature. In this paper we analyze the shape and amplitude of the gravitational wave spectrum on scales which are superhorizon at the time of production. Such gravitational waves are expected from the self ordering of randomly oriented scalar fields which can be present during a thermal phase transition or during preheating after hybrid inflation. We find that, if the gravitational wave source acts only during a small fraction of the Hubble time, the gravitational wave spectrum at frequencies lower than the expansion rate at the time of production behaves as $\\Omega_{\\rm GW}(f) \\propto f^3$ with an amplitude much too small to be observable by gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA or BBO. On the other hand, if the source is active for a much longer tim...
JDiffraction: A GPGPU-accelerated JAVA library for numerical propagation of scalar wave fields
Piedrahita-Quintero, Pablo; Trujillo, Carlos; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge
2017-05-01
JDiffraction, a GPGPU-accelerated JAVA library for numerical propagation of scalar wave fields, is presented. Angular spectrum, Fresnel transform, and Fresnel-Bluestein transform are the numerical algorithms implemented in the methods and functions of the library to compute the scalar propagation of the complex wavefield. The functionality of the library is tested with the modeling of easy to forecast numerical experiments and also with the numerical reconstruction of a digitally recorded hologram. The performance of JDiffraction is contrasted with a library written for C++, showing great competitiveness in the apparently less complex environment of JAVA language. JDiffraction also includes JAVA easy-to-use methods and functions that take advantage of the computation power of the graphic processing units to accelerate the processing times of 2048×2048 pixel images up to 74 frames per second.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hajj, G.A.
1988-01-01
The Gaussian effective potential (GEP), a non-perturbative approach to study quantum field theory, is applied to scalar and scalar-fermion models. We study the scalar {phi}{sup 6} field coupled to fermions through g{sub B}{phi}{psi}{psi} or g{sub B}{phi}{sup 2}{psi}{psi} in 2 and 3 space-time dimensions. In addition, we derive the finite temperature (T > 0) GEP from first principles and apply it to study these models at T > 0. Also the Autonomous {lambda}{phi}{sup 4}, coupled to fermions through a Yukawa term (g{sub B}{phi}{psi}{psi}), is examined in 4 dimensions at T > 0. In all these models, in order to obtain stable theories, it is found that g{sub B} must vanish as 1/log(M{sub uv}), 1/M{sub uv} or 1/M{sub uv}{sup 2} in 2, 3 or 4 dimensions respectively, M{sub uv} being an ultraviolet cutoff which is sent to infinity. The contribution of fermions to the GEP, however, is nonvanishing. It is also found that for the class of theories discussed, symmetry, if broken, is restored above a critical temperature. The coupling constant parameter space for each model is studied carefully, and regions where symmetry breaking occurs are determined both at zero and finite temperature.
Scalar dark matter in scale invariant standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghorbani, Karim [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences,Arak University, Arak 38156-8-8349 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghorbani, Hossein [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-04-05
We investigate single and two-component scalar dark matter scenarios in classically scale invariant standard model which is free of the hierarchy problem in the Higgs sector. We show that despite the very restricted space of parameters imposed by the scale invariance symmetry, both single and two-component scalar dark matter models overcome the direct and indirect constraints provided by the Planck/WMAP observational data and the LUX/Xenon100 experiment. We comment also on the radiative mass corrections of the classically massless scalon that plays a crucial role in our study.
Multi-Scalar Modelling for Free-form Timber Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poinet, Paul; Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin
2016-01-01
This paper describes a new conceptual and computational framework that employs Multi-Scalar Modelling techniques (Weinan [22]) in order to overcome the problem of big data management and to enable a more integrative digital workflow during the geometrical discretization of spatial structures...... to integrate and negotiate the different parameters that drive the same segmentation strategy within a continuous environment. The research is developed in close collaboration with two industry partners – Buro Happold and DesignToProduction – and focuses on the implementation of Multi-Scalar Modelling concepts...
Scalar field self-force effects on a particle orbiting a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole
Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea
2016-01-01
Scalar field self-force effects on a scalar charge orbiting a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole are investigated. The scalar wave equation is solved analytically in a post-Newtonian framework, and the solution is used to compute the self-field as well as the components of the self-force at the particle's location up to 7.5 post-Newtonian order. The energy fluxes radiated to infinity and down the hole are also evaluated. Comparison with previous numerical results in the Schwarzschild case shows a good agreement in both strong-field and weak-field regimes.
Kuvshinov, A. V.; Poedjono, B.; Matzka, J.; Olsen, N.; Pai, S.; Samrock, F.
2013-12-01
Most marine EM studies are based on sea-bottom measurements which are expensive and logistically demanding. We propose a low-cost and easy-to-deploy magnetic survey concept which exploits sea surface measurements. It is assumed that the exciting source can be described by a plane wave. The concept is based on responses that relate variations of the scalar magnetic field at the survey sites with variations of the horizontal magnetic field at a base site. It can be shown that these scalar responses are a mixture of standard tipper responses and elements of the horizontal magnetic tensor and thus can be used to probe the electrical conductivity of the subsoil. This opens an avenue for sea-surface induction studies which so far was believed very difficult to conduct if conventional approaches based on vector measurements are invoked. We perform 3-D realistic model studies where the target region was Oahu Island and its surroundings, and USGS operated Honolulu geomagnetic observatory was chosen as the base site. We compare the predicted responses with the responses estimated from the scalar data collected at a few locations around Oahu Island by the unmanned, autonomous, wave and solar powered 'Wave Glider' developed and operated by Liquid Robotics Oil and Gas/Schlumberger. The marine robots observation platform is equipped with a tow Overhauser magnetometer (validated by USGS). The studies show an encouraging agreement between predictions and experiment in both components of the scalar response at all locations and we consider this as a proof of the suggested concept.
arXiv Tensor to scalar ratio from single field magnetogenesis
Giovannini, Massimo
2017-08-10
The tensor to scalar ratio is affected by the evolution of the large-scale gauge fields potentially amplified during an inflationary stage of expansion. After deriving the exact evolution equations for the scalar and tensor modes of the geometry in the presence of dynamical gauge fields, it is shown that the tensor to scalar ratio is bounded from below by the dominance of the adiabatic contribution and it cannot be smaller than one thousands whenever the magnetogenesis is driven by a single inflaton field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar, E-mail: shaharhod@gmail.com [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer 40250 (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem 91010 (Israel)
2017-05-10
We study analytically the characteristic resonance spectrum of charged massive scalar fields linearly coupled to a spherically symmetric charged reflecting shell. In particular, we use analytical techniques in order to solve the Klein–Gordon wave equation for the composed charged-shell–charged-massive-scalar-field system. Interestingly, it is proved that the resonant oscillation frequencies of this composed physical system are determined by the characteristic zeroes of the confluent hypergeometric function. Following this observation, we derive a remarkably compact analytical formula for the resonant oscillation frequencies which characterize the marginally-bound charged massive scalar field configurations. The analytically derived resonance spectrum is confirmed by numerical computations.
Anisotropic cosmological models and generalized scalar tensor theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this paper generalized scalar tensor theory has been considered in the background of anisotropic cosmological models, namely, axially symmetric Bianchi-I, Bianchi-III and Kortowski–. Sachs space-time. For bulk viscous fluid, both exponential and power-law solutions have been stud- ied and some assumptions ...
Classification of scalar and dyadic nonlocal optical response models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wubs, Martijn
2015-01-01
Nonlocal optical response is one of the emerging effects on the nanoscale for particles made of metals or doped semiconductors. Here we classify and compare both scalar and tensorial nonlocal response models. In the latter case the nonlocality can stem from either the longitudinal response...
Scalar sector of two-Higgs-doublet models: A minireview
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Now that a 125 GeV scalar resonance has been discovered at the LHC, with its couplings to other particles showing increasing affinity to the Standard Model Higgs-like behaviour, the 2HDM parameter space is more squeezed than ever. We briefly review the different parametrizations of the 2HDM potential and discuss the ...
Gravitino and scalar {tau}-lepton decays in supersymmetric models with broken R-parity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hajer, Jan
2010-06-15
Mildly broken R-parity is known to provide a solution to the cosmological gravitino problem in supergravity extensions of the Standard Model. In this work we consider new effects occurring in the R-parity breaking Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model including right-handed neutrino superfields. We calculate the most general vacuum expectation values of neutral scalar fields including left- and right-handed scalar neutrinos. Additionally, we derive the corresponding mass mixing matrices of the scalar sector. We recalculate the neutrino mass generation mechanisms due to right- handed neutrinos as well as by cause of R-parity breaking. Furthermore, we obtain a, so far, unknown formula for the neutrino masses for the case where both mechanisms are effective. We then constrain the couplings to bilinear R-parity violating couplings in order to accommodate R-parity breaking to experimental results. In order to constrain the family structure with a U(1){sub Q} flavor symmetry we furthermore embed the particle content into an SU(5) Grand Unified Theory. In this model we calculate the signal of decaying gravitino dark matter as well as the dominant decay channel of a likely NLSP, the scalar {tau}-lepton. Comparing the gravitino signal with results of the Fermi Large Area Telescope enables us to find a lower bound on the decay length of scalar {tau}-leptons in collider experiments. (orig.)
Anisotropic Bulk Viscous String Cosmological Model in a Scalar-Tensor Theory of Gravitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. R. K. Reddy
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Spatially homogeneous, anisotropic, and tilted Bianchi type-VI0 model is investigated in a new scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (1986 when the source for energy momentum tensor is a bulk viscous fluid containing one-dimensional cosmic strings. Exact solution of the highly nonlinear field equations is obtained using the following plausible physical conditions: (i scalar expansion of the space-time which is proportional to the shear scalar, (ii the barotropic equations of state for pressure and energy density, and (iii a special law of variation for Hubble’s parameter proposed by Berman (1983. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.
New class of cosmological solutions for a self-interacting scalar field
Chaadaev, A. A.; Chervon, S. V.
2013-12-01
New cosmological solutions are found to the system of Einstein scalar field equations using the scalar field φ as the argument. For a homogeneous and isotropic Universe, the system of equations is reduced to two equations, one of which is an equation of Hamilton-Jacobi type. Using the hyperbolically parameterized representation of this equation together with the consistency condition, explicit dependences of the potential V of the scalar field and the Hubble parameter H on φ are obtained. The dependences of the scalar field and the scale factor a on cosmic time t have also been found. It is shown that this scenario corresponds to the evolution of the Universe with accelerated expansion out to times distant from the initial singularity.
Spontaneous scalarization with an extremely massive field and heavy neutron stars
Morisaki, Soichiro; Suyama, Teruaki
2017-10-01
We investigate the internal structure and the mass-radius relation of neutron stars in a recently proposed scalar-tensor theory dubbed asymmetron in which a massive scalar field undergoes spontaneous scalarization inside neutron stars. We focus on the case where the Compton wavelength is shorter than 10 km, which has not been investigated in the literature. By solving the modified Einstein equations, either purely numerically or by partially using a semianalytic method, we find that not only the weakening of gravity by spontaneous scalarization but also the scalar force affect the internal structure significantly in the massive case. We also find that the maximum mass of neutron stars is larger for certain parameter sets than that in general relativity and reaches 2 M⊙ even if the effect of strange hadrons is taken into account. There is even a range of parameters where the maximum mass of neutron stars largely exceeds the threshold that violates the causality bound in general relativity.
Hawking radiation of five-dimensional charged black holes with scalar fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan-Gang Miao
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We investigate the Hawking radiation cascade from the five-dimensional charged black hole with a scalar field coupled to higher-order Euler densities in a conformally invariant manner. We give the semi-analytic calculation of greybody factors for the Hawking radiation. Our analysis shows that the Hawking radiation cascade from this five-dimensional black hole is extremely sparse. The charge enhances the sparsity of the Hawking radiation, while the conformally coupled scalar field reduces this sparsity.
Wheeler-DeWitt equation and Lie symmetries in Bianchi scalar-field cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paliathanasis, A. [Universidad Austral de Chile, Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Valdivia (Chile); Karpathopoulos, L. [University of Athens, Faculty of Physics, Department of Astronomy-Astrophysics-Mechanics, Athens (Greece); Wojnar, A. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Universita' di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Naples (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sez. di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Capozziello, S. [Universita' di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sez. di Napoli, Naples (Italy)
2016-04-15
Lie symmetries are discussed for the Wheeler-De Witt equation in Bianchi Class A cosmologies. In particular, we consider general relativity, minimally coupled scalar-field gravity and hybrid gravity as paradigmatic examples of the approach. Several invariant solutions are determined and classified according to the form of the scalar-field potential. The approach gives rise to a suitable method to select classical solutions and it is based on the first principle of the existence of symmetries. (orig.)
Mass hierarchies and non-decoupling in multi-scalar field dynamics
Achúcarro, Ana; Hardeman, Sjoerd; Palma, Gonzalo A; Patil, Subodh P
2010-01-01
In this work we study the effects of field space curvature on scalar field perturbations around an arbitrary background field trajectory evolving in time. Non-trivial imprints of the `heavy' directions arise when the vacuum manifold of the potential does not coincide with the span of geodesics defined by the sigma model metric of the low energy effective theory. When the kinetic energy is small compared to the potential energy, the field traverses a curve close to the vacuum manifold of the potential. The curvature of the trajectory can still have a profound influence on the perturbations as modes parallel to the trajectory mix with those normal to the trajectory if the trajectory turns sharply enough. These effects could be important during inflation, which could lead to detectable effects in upcoming observations.
Ignat'ev, Yurii
2014-01-01
In the article it is shown that at presence of fundamental scalar fields determining the masses of the scalar charged particles the global thermodynamic equilibrium (GTE) is compatible with a process of the cosmological expansion of the statistical system.
Superradiant instability of charged scalar field in stringy black hole mirror system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Ran; Zhao, Junkun [Henan Normal University, Department of Physics, Xinxiang (China)
2014-09-15
It has been shown that the mass of a charged scalar field in the background of a charged stringy black hole is never able to generate a potential well outside the event horizon to trap the superradiant modes. This is to say that the charged stringy black hole is stable against massive charged scalar perturbations. In this paper we will study the superradiant instability of the massless scalar field in the background of charged stringy black hole due to a mirror-like boundary condition. The analytical expression of the frequencies of unstable superradiant modes is derived by using the asymptotic matching method. It is also pointed out that the black hole mirror system becomes extremely unstable for a large charge q of the scalar field and a small mirror radius r{sub m}. (orig.)
Slowly decaying resonances of massive scalar fields around Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes
Toshmatov, Bobir; Stuchlík, Zdeněk
2017-07-01
We study in special limiting cases quasinormal modes of massive scalar fields in the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole backgrounds. We determine the lower limit on the mass parameter of the scalar field that allows the waves with quasinormal frequencies to propagate to infinity, showing that it depends on the spacetime parameters only. Then we discuss in the large multipole number limit quasinormal modes, whose frequencies can be directly related to the unstable circular photon geodesics. In the large scalar mass approximation, we demonstrate the new interesting phenomenon of slowly decaying resonances, that are strongly related to the maximum of the effective potential of the massive scalar field, which is located at the static radius of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetimes, where the cosmic repulsion is just balanced by the black hole attraction.
Accretion of a symmetry-breaking scalar field by a Schwarzschild black hole.
Traykova, Dina; Braden, Jonathan; Peiris, Hiranya V
2018-03-06
We simulate the behaviour of a Higgs-like field in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole using a highly accurate numerical framework. We consider both the limit of the zero-temperature Higgs potential and a toy model for the time-dependent evolution of the potential when immersed in a slowly cooling radiation bath. Through these numerical investigations, we aim to improve our understanding of the non-equilibrium dynamics of a symmetry-breaking field (such as the Higgs) in the vicinity of a compact object such as a black hole. Understanding this dynamics may suggest new approaches for studying properties of scalar fields using black holes as a laboratory.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs Cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Accretion of a symmetry-breaking scalar field by a Schwarzschild black hole
Traykova, Dina; Braden, Jonathan; Peiris, Hiranya V.
2018-01-01
We simulate the behaviour of a Higgs-like field in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole using a highly accurate numerical framework. We consider both the limit of the zero-temperature Higgs potential and a toy model for the time-dependent evolution of the potential when immersed in a slowly cooling radiation bath. Through these numerical investigations, we aim to improve our understanding of the non-equilibrium dynamics of a symmetry-breaking field (such as the Higgs) in the vicinity of a compact object such as a black hole. Understanding this dynamics may suggest new approaches for studying properties of scalar fields using black holes as a laboratory. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Higgs Cosmology'.
PDF approach for turbulent scalar field: Some recent developments
Gao, Feng
1993-01-01
The probability density function (PDF) method has been proven a very useful approach in turbulence research. It has been particularly effective in simulating turbulent reacting flows and in studying some detailed statistical properties generated by a turbulent field There are, however, some important questions that have yet to be answered in PDF studies. Our efforts in the past year have been focused on two areas. First, a simple mixing model suitable for Monte Carlo simulations has been developed based on the mapping closure. Secondly, the mechanism of turbulent transport has been analyzed in order to understand the recently observed abnormal PDF's of turbulent temperature fields generated by linear heat sources.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cavalcanti, E.; Castro, E.; Malbouisson, A.P.C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas/MCTI, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Linhares, C.A. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2017-10-15
A scalar model is built, as a quantum field theory defined on a toroidal topology, to describe a phase transition in films subjected to periodic boundary conditions and influenced by an external and constant magnetic field. Criticality is studied and the relations between the critical temperature, the film thickness, the magnetic field strength and the chemical potential are investigated. Since the model describes a second-order phase transition a comparison with the Ginzburg-Landau theory is made. (orig.)
Master formulas for the dressed scalar propagator in a constant field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmad, Aftab [Department of Physics, Gomal University, 29220 D.I. Khan, K.P.K (Pakistan); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia 58040, Michoacán (Mexico); Ahmadiniaz, Naser, E-mail: Ahmadiniaz@ibs.re.kr [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science, Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Kunsan National University, Kunsan 54150 (Korea, Republic of); Corradini, Olindo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 213/A, I-41125 Modena (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Kim, Sang Pyo [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science, Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Kunsan National University, Kunsan 54150 (Korea, Republic of); Schubert, Christian [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia 58040, Michoacán (Mexico)
2017-06-15
The worldline formalism has previously been used for deriving compact master formulas for the one-loop N-photon amplitudes in both scalar and spinor QED, and in the vacuum as well as in a constant external field. For scalar QED, there is also an analogous master formula for the propagator dressed with N photons in the vacuum. Here, we extend this master formula to include a constant field. The two-photon case is worked out explicitly, yielding an integral representation for the Compton scattering cross section in the field suitable for numerical integration in the full range of electric and magnetic field strengths.
Master formulas for the dressed scalar propagator in a constant field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aftab Ahmad
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The worldline formalism has previously been used for deriving compact master formulas for the one-loop N-photon amplitudes in both scalar and spinor QED, and in the vacuum as well as in a constant external field. For scalar QED, there is also an analogous master formula for the propagator dressed with N photons in the vacuum. Here, we extend this master formula to include a constant field. The two-photon case is worked out explicitly, yielding an integral representation for the Compton scattering cross section in the field suitable for numerical integration in the full range of electric and magnetic field strengths.
Analytical study of a Kerr-Sen black hole and a charged massive scalar field
Bernard, Canisius
2017-11-01
It is reported that Kerr-Newman and Kerr-Sen black holes are unstable to perturbations of charged massive scalar field. In this paper, we study analytically the complex frequencies which characterize charged massive scalar fields in a near-extremal Kerr-Sen black hole. For near-extremal Kerr-Sen black holes and for charged massive scalar fields in the eikonal large-mass M ≫μ regime, where M is the mass of the black hole, and μ is the mass of the charged scalar field, we have obtained a simple expression for the dimensionless ratio ωI/(ωR-ωc) , where ωI and ωR are, respectively, the imaginary and real parts of the frequency of the modes, and ωc is the critical frequency for the onset of super-radiance. We have also found our expression is consistent with the result of Hod [Phys. Rev. D 94, 044036 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.044036] for the case of a near-extremal Kerr-Newman black hole and the result of Zouros and Eardly [Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 118, 139 (1979), 10.1016/0003-4916(79)90237-9] for the case of neutral scalar fields in the background of a near-extremal Kerr black hole.
Building a holographic superconductor with a scalar field coupled kinematically to Einstein tensor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuang, Xiao-Mei [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso,Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens,15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece)
2016-08-29
We study the holographic dual description of a superconductor in which the gravity sector consists of a Maxwell field and a charged scalar field which except its minimal coupling to gravity it is also coupled kinematically to Einstein tensor. As the strength of the new coupling is increased, the critical temperature below which the scalar field condenses is lowering, the condensation gap decreases faster than the temperature, the width of the condensation gap is not proportional to the size of the condensate and at low temperatures the condensation gap tends to zero for the strong coupling. These effects which are the result of the presence of the coupling of the scalar field to the Einstein tensor in the gravity bulk, provide a dual description of impurities concentration in a superconducting state on the boundary.
First scalar magnetic anomaly map from CHAMP satellite data indicates weak lithospheric field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maus, S.; Rother, M.; Holme, R.
2002-01-01
Satellite magnetic anomaly maps derived by different techniques from Magsat/POGO data vary by more than a factor of 2 in the deduced strength of the lithospheric magnetic field. Here, we present a first anomaly map from new CHAMP scalar magnetic field data. After subtracting a recent Ørsted main...
Closed star product on noncommutative ℝ 3 and scalar field dynamics
Jurić, Tajron; Poulain, Timothé; Wallet, Jean-Christophe
2016-01-01
We consider the noncommutative space $\\mathbb{R}^3_\\theta$, a deformation of $\\mathbb{R}^3$ for which the star product is closed for the trace functional. We study one-loop IR and UV properties of the 2-point function for real and complex noncommutative scalar field theories with quartic interactions and Laplacian on $\\mathbb{R}^3$ as kinetic operator. We find that the 2-point functions for these noncommutative scalar field theories have no IR singularities in the external momenta, indicating...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marzola, Luca; Racioppi, Antonio; Vaskonen, Ville [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn (Estonia)
2017-07-15
Thermal corrections in classically conformal models typically induce a strong first-order electroweak phase transition, thereby resulting in a stochastic gravitational background that could be detectable at gravitational wave observatories. After reviewing the basics of classically conformal scenarios, in this paper we investigate the phase transition dynamics in a thermal environment and the related gravitational wave phenomenology within the framework of scalar conformal extensions of the Standard Model. We find that minimal extensions involving only one additional scalar field struggle to reproduce the correct phase transition dynamics once thermal corrections are accounted for. Next-to-minimal models, instead, yield the desired electroweak symmetry breaking and typically result in a very strong gravitational wave signal. (orig.)
C-metric solution for conformal gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meng, Kun, E-mail: mengkun@tjpu.edu.cn [School of Science, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhao, Liu, E-mail: lzhao@nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)
2017-02-15
The C-metric solution of conformal gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field is presented. The solution belongs to the class of Petrov type D spacetimes and is conformal to the standard AdS C-metric appeared in vacuum Einstein gravity. For all parameter ranges, we identify some of the physically interesting static regions and the corresponding coordinate ranges. The solution may contain a black hole event horizon, an acceleration horizon, either of which may be cut by the conformal infinity or be hidden behind the conformal infinity. Since the model is conformally invariant, we also discussed the possible effects of the conformal gauge choices on the structure of the spacetime.
Status of the scalar singlet dark matter model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Athron, Peter; Balazs, Csaba [Monash University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); Bringmann, Torsten; Dal, Lars A.; Krislock, Abram; Raklev, Are [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Buckley, Andy [University of Glasgow, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Chrzaszcz, Marcin [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Polish Academy of Sciences, H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Conrad, Jan; Edsjoe, Joakim; Farmer, Ben [AlbaNova University Centre, Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Cornell, Jonathan M. [McGill University, Department of Physics, Montreal, QC (Canada); Jackson, Paul; White, Martin [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); University of Adelaide, Department of Physics, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Kahlhoefer, Felix [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Kvellestad, Anders; Savage, Christopher [NORDITA, Stockholm (Sweden); McKay, James; Scott, Pat [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Mahmoudi, Farvah [Univ. Lyon, Univ. Lyon 1, ENS de Lyon, CNRS, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon UMR5574, Saint-Genis-Laval (France); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Martinez, Gregory D. [University of California, Physics and Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Putze, Antje [LAPTh, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Rogan, Christopher [Harvard University, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Saavedra, Aldo [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); The University of Sydney, Centre for Translational Data Science, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies, School of Physics, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Serra, Nicola [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Weniger, Christoph [University of Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Institute of Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: The GAMBIT Collaboration
2017-08-15
One of the simplest viable models for dark matter is an additional neutral scalar, stabilised by a Z{sub 2} symmetry. Using the GAMBIT package and combining results from four independent samplers, we present Bayesian and frequentist global fits of this model. We vary the singlet mass and coupling along with 13 nuisance parameters, including nuclear uncertainties relevant for direct detection, the local dark matter density, and selected quark masses and couplings. We include the dark matter relic density measured by Planck, direct searches with LUX, PandaX, SuperCDMS and XENON100, limits on invisible Higgs decays from the Large Hadron Collider, searches for high-energy neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the Sun with IceCube, and searches for gamma rays from annihilation in dwarf galaxies with the Fermi-LAT. Viable solutions remain at couplings of order unity, for singlet masses between the Higgs mass and about 300 GeV, and at masses above ∝ 1 TeV. Only in the latter case can the scalar singlet constitute all of dark matter. Frequentist analysis shows that the low-mass resonance region, where the singlet is about half the mass of the Higgs, can also account for all of dark matter, and remains viable. However, Bayesian considerations show this region to be rather fine-tuned. (orig.)
The Modification of the Scalar Field in dense Nuclear Matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rożynek J.
2011-04-01
Full Text Available We show the possible evolution of the nuclear deep inelastic structure function with nuclear density ρ. The nucleon deep inelastic structure function represents distribution of quarks as function of Björken variable x which measures the longitudinal fraction of momentum carried by them during the Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS of electrons on nuclear targets. Starting with small density and negative pressure in Nuclear Matter (NM we have relatively large inter-nucleon distances and increasing role of nuclear interaction mediated by virtual mesons.When the density approaches the saturation point, ρ = ρ0, we have no longer separate mesons and nucleons but eventually modified nucleon Structure Function (SF in medium. The ratio of nuclear to nucleon SF measured at saturation point is well known as “EMC effect”. For larger density, ρ > ρ0, when the localization of quarks is smaller then 0.3 fm, the nucleons overlap. We argue that nucleon mass should start to decrease in order to satisfy the Momentum Sum Rule (MSR of DIS. These modifications of the nucleon Structure Function (SF are calculated in the frame of the nuclear Relativistic Mean Field (RMF convolution model. The correction to the Fermi energy from term proportional to the pressure is very important and its inclusion modifies the Equation of State (EoS for nuclear matter.
Scalar source in circular motion interacting with massive klein-gordon field in Minkowski spacetime
CRISPINO, Luís Carlos Bassalo; MEIRA FILHO, Damião Pedro
2005-01-01
We analyze the scalar radiation emitted by a source in uniform circular motion in Minkowski spacetime interacting with a massive Klein-Gordon field. We assume the source rotating around a central object due to a Newtonian force. By considering the canonical quantization of this field, we use perturbation theory to compute the radiation emitted at the tree level. Regarding the initial state of the field as being the Minkowski vacuum, we compute the emission amplitude for the rotating source, a...
Ultra-spinning exotic compact objects supporting static massless scalar field configurations
Hod, Shahar
2017-11-01
Horizonless spacetimes describing highly compact exotic objects with reflecting (instead of absorbing) surfaces have recently attracted much attention from physicists and mathematicians as possible quantum-gravity alternatives to canonical classical black-hole spacetimes. Interestingly, it has recently been proved that spinning compact objects with angular momenta in the sub-critical regime a bar ≡ J /M2 ≤ 1 are characterized by an infinite countable set of surface radii, {rc (a bar ; n) }n=1n=∞, that can support asymptotically flat static configurations made of massless scalar fields. In the present paper we study analytically the physical properties of ultra-spinning exotic compact objects with dimensionless angular momenta in the complementary regime a bar > 1. It is proved that ultra-spinning reflecting compact objects with dimensionless angular momenta in the super-critical regime √{ 1 -[ m / (l + 2) ] 2 } ≤ | a bar |-1 family of surface radii, {rc (a bar ; n) }n=1n=Nr, distributed symmetrically around r = M, that can support spatially regular static configurations of massless scalar fields (here the integers { l , m } are the harmonic indices of the supported static scalar field modes). Interestingly, the largest supporting surface radius rcmax (a bar) ≡maxn {rc (a bar ; n) } marks the onset of superradiant instabilities in the composed ultra-spinning-exotic-compact-object-massless-scalar-field system.
Marunovic, A.; Prokopec, T.
2011-01-01
We calculate the one-loop graviton vacuum polarization induced by a massless, nonminimally coupled scalar field on Minkowski background. We make use of the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, which allows us to study time dependent phenomena. As an application we compute the leading quantum correction to
Wormhole solutions with a complex ghost scalar field and their instability
Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta
2018-01-01
We study compact configurations with a nontrivial wormholelike spacetime topology supported by a complex ghost scalar field with a quartic self-interaction. For this case, we obtain regular asymptotically flat equilibrium solutions possessing reflection symmetry. We then show their instability with respect to linear radial perturbations.
Anatomy of One-Loop Effective Action in Noncommutative Scalar Field Theories
Kiem, Youngjai; Sato, Haru-Tada; Yee, Jung-Tay; Kiem, Youngjai; Rey, Soo-Jong; Sato, Haru-Tada; Yee, Jung-Tay
2002-01-01
One-loop effective action of noncommutative scalar field theory with cubic self-interaction is studied. Utilizing worldline formulation, both planar and nonplanar part of the effective action are computed explicitly. We find complete agreement of the result with Seiberg-Witten limit of string worldsheet computation and standard Feynman diagrammatics. We prove that, at low-energy and large noncommutativity limit, nonplanar part of the effective action is simplified enormously and is resummable into a quadratic action of scalar open Wilson line operators.
Cosmological evolution of a complex scalar field with repulsive or attractive self-interaction
Suárez, Abril; Chavanis, Pierre-Henri
2017-03-01
We study the cosmological evolution of a complex scalar field with a self-interaction potential V (|φ |2) , possibly describing self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, using a fully general relativistic treatment. We generalize the hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field approximation developed in our previous paper [A. Suárez and P.-H. Chavanis, Phys. Rev. D 92, 023510 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.023510]. We establish the general equations governing the evolution of a spatially homogeneous complex scalar field in an expanding background. We show how they can be simplified in the fast oscillation regime (equivalent to the Thomas-Fermi, or semiclassical, approximation) and derive the equation of state of the scalar field in parametric form for an arbitrary potential V (|φ |2) . We explicitly consider the case of a quartic potential with repulsive or attractive self-interaction. For repulsive self-interaction, the scalar field undergoes a stiff matter era followed by a pressureless dark matter era in the weakly self-interacting regime and a stiff matter era followed by a radiationlike era and a pressureless dark matter era in the strongly self-interacting regime. For attractive self-interaction, the scalar field undergoes an inflation era followed by a stiff matter era and a pressureless dark matter era in the weakly self-interacting regime and an inflation era followed by a cosmic stringlike era and a pressureless dark matter era in the strongly self-interacting regime (the inflation era is suggested, not demonstrated). We also find a peculiar branch on which the scalar field emerges suddenly at a nonzero scale factor with a finite energy density. At early times, it behaves as a gas of cosmic strings. At later times, it behaves as dark energy with an almost constant energy density giving rise to a de Sitter evolution. This is due to spintessence. We derive the effective cosmological constant produced by the scalar
Anomalous scaling of a scalar field advected by turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kraichnan, R.H. [Robert H. Kraichnan, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States)
1995-12-31
Recent work leading to deduction of anomalous scaling exponents for the inertial range of an advected passive field from the equations of motion is reviewed. Implications for other turbulence problems are discussed.
Belotsky, K. M.; Golikova, Yu. A.; Rubin, S. G.
2017-07-01
It is shown that the formation of primordialmassive black holes may be accompanied by a local heating of matter. The proposed heating mechanism is based on the interaction of the Higgs field with a scalar field that is responsible for the formation of black holes.
In-Flight spacecraft magnetic field monitoring using scalar/vector gradiometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Primdahl, Fritz; Risbo, Torben; Merayo, José M.G.
2006-01-01
Earth magnetic field mapping from planetary orbiting satellites requires a spacecraft magnetic field environment control program combined with the deployment of the magnetic sensors on a boom in order to reduce the measurement error caused by the local spacecraft field. Magnetic mapping missions...... the spacecraft centre-of-gravity. In line with the classical dual vector sensors technique for monitoring the spacecraft magnetic field, this paper proposes and demonstrates that a similar combined scalar/vector gradiometry technique is feasible by using the measurements from the boom-mounted scalar and vector...... sensors onboard the Oersted satellite. For Oersted, a large difference between the pre-flight determined spacecraft magnetic field and the in-flight estimate exists causing some concern about the general applicability of the dual sensors technique....
''Superluminal'' scalar fields and cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vikman, A. [LMU-ASC, Muenchen (Germany)
2007-07-01
It is well known that in manifestly Lorentz invariant theories with non-trivial kinetic terms, perturbations around some classical dynamical backgrounds can travel faster than light. These exotic ''superluminal'' models may have interesting consequences for cosmology and astrophysics. I begin my talk by explaining how a nonlinearity of equations of motion can yield a superluminal propagation. Further I consider an inflationary model with the sound speed larger than the speed of light. The most interesting property of the model is a higher, in comparison to the standard chaotic inflation, amount of gravitational waves produced during inflation. Finally I discuss causality and stability of these models. (orig.)
On the scalar particle creation by electromagnetic fields in Robertson–Walker spacetime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kenan Sogut
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, we obtained the scalar particle creation number density by using the Klein–Gordon equation coupled to the electromagnetic fields in the Robertson–Walker spacetime with the help of the Bogoliubov transformation method. We analyzed the resulting expression for the effect of a time-dependent electric field and a constant magnetic field on the particle production rate and found that the strong time-dependent electric field amplifies the particle creation and the magnetic field reduces the rate, in accordance with the previous findings.
Ignat'ev, Yu G
2013-01-01
On the basis of the relativistic kinetic theory the relativistic statistical systems with scalar interaction particles are investigated. The self-consistent system of the equations describing self-gravitating plasma with interpartial scalar interaction is formulated, macroscopical laws of preservation are received. The closed system of the equations describing cosmological models to which the matter is presented by plasma with interpartial scalar interaction is received.
Analysis of solutions of a nonlinear scalar field differential equation
Muhamadiev, E. M.; Naimov, A. N.
2017-10-01
We consider a nonlinear differential equation arising in mathematical models of elementary particle theory. For this equation, we examine questions of the extendability of solutions, the boundedness of solutions at infinity, and the search for new conditions for the existence of a positive particle-like solution.
de Sitter symmetries and inflationary correlators in parity violating scalar-vector models
Beltrán Almeida, Juan P.; Motoa-Manzano, Josué; Valenzuela-Toledo, César A.
2017-11-01
In this paper we use conformal field theory techniques to constrain the form of the correlations functions of an inflationary scalar-vector model described by the interaction term f1(phi)Fμ νFμ ν + f2(phi)~Fμ νFμ ν. We use the fact that the conformal group is the relevant symmetry group acting on super horizon scales in an inflationary de Sitter background. As a result, we find that super horizon conformal symmetry, constraints the form of the coupling functions f1, f2 to be homogeneous functions of the same degree. We derive the general form of the correlators involving scalar and vector perturbations in this model and determine its squeezed limit scaling behaviour for super horizon scales. The approach followed here is useful to constraint the shape of scalar-vector correlators, and our results agree with recent literature on the subject, but don't allow us to determine amplitude factors of the correlators.
Bose-Einstein condensation and symmetry breaking of a complex charged scalar field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matos, Tonatiuh [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Castellanos, Elias [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma de Chiapas, Mesoamerican Centre for Theoretical Physics, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Suarez, Abril [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Universidad Politecnica Metropolitana de Hidalgo, Departamento de Aeronautica, Tolcayuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)
2017-08-15
In this work the Klein-Gordon equation for a complex scalar field with U(1) symmetry endowed in a mexican-hat scalar field potential with thermal and electromagnetic contributions is written as a Gross-Pitaevskii (GP)-like equation. This equation is interpreted as a charged generalization of the GP equation at finite temperatures found in previous works. Its hydrodynamical representation is obtained and the corresponding thermodynamical properties are derived and related to measurable quantities. The condensation temperature in the non-relativistic regime associated with the aforementioned system within the semiclassical approximation is calculated. Also, a generalized equation for the conservation of energy for a charged bosonic gas is found when electromagnetic fields are introduced, and it is studied how under certain circumstances its breaking of symmetry can give some insight on the phase transition of the system not just into the condensed phase but also on other related systems. (orig.)
Global dynamics and asymptotics for monomial scalar field potentials and perfect fluids
Alho, Artur; Uggla, Claes
2015-01-01
We consider a minimally coupled scalar field with a monomial potential and a perfect fluid in flat FLRW cosmology. We apply local and global dynamical systems techniques to a new three-dimensional dynamical systems reformulation of the field equations on a compact state space. This leads to a visual global description of the solution space and asymptotic behavior. At late times we employ averaging techniques to prove statements about how the relationship between the equation of state of the fluid and the monomial exponent of the scalar field affects asymptotic source dominance and asymptotic manifest self-similarity breaking. We also situate the `attractor' solution in the three-dimensional state space and show that it corresponds to the one-dimensional unstable center manifold of a de Sitter fixed point, located on an unphysical boundary associated with the dynamics at early times. By deriving a center manifold expansion we obtain approximate expressions for the attractor solution. We subsequently improve th...
Local thermal behaviour of a massive scalar field near a reflecting wall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lorenci, V.A. De [Instituto de Física e Química, Universidade Federal de Itajubá,Itajubá, MG 37500-903 (Brazil); Gomes, L.G.; Moreira, E.S. Jr. [Instituto de Matemática e Computação, Universidade Federal de Itajubá,Itajubá, MG 37500-903 (Brazil)
2015-03-19
The mean square fluctuation and the expectation value of the stress-energy-momentum tensor of a neutral massive scalar field at finite temperature are determined near an infinite plane Dirichlet wall, and also near an infinite plane Neumann wall. The flat background has an arbitrary number of dimensions and the field is arbitrarily coupled to the vanishing curvature. It is shown that, unlike vacuum contributions, thermal contributions are free from boundary divergences, and that the thermal behaviour of the scalar field near a Dirichlet wall differs considerably from that near a Neumann wall. Far from the wall the study reveals a local version of dimensional reduction, namely, corrections to familiar blackbody expressions are linear in the temperature, with the corresponding coefficients given only in terms of vacuum expectation values in a background with one less dimension. It is shown that such corrections are “classical” (i.e., not dependent on Planck’s constant) only if the scalar field is massless. A natural conjecture that arises is that the “local dimensional reduction” is universal since it operates for massless and massive fields alike and regardless of the boundary conditions.
Analysis of Scalar Field Cosmology with Phase Space Deformations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sinuhe Perez-Payan
2014-01-01
modifying the symplectic structure of the minisuperspace variables. The effects of the deformation are studied in the “C-frame” and the “NC-frame.” In order to remove the ambiguities of working on different frames, a new principle is introduced. When we impose that both frames should be physically equivalent, we conclude that the only possibility for this model, is to have an effective cosmological constant Λeff≥0. Finally we bound the parameter space for θ and β.
UV descriptions of composite Higgs models without elementary scalars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barnard, James [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics,The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Gherghetta, Tony [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics,The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota,Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Ray, Tirtha Sankar [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics,The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)
2014-02-03
We consider four-dimensional UV descriptions of composite Higgs models without elementary scalars, in which four-fermion interactions are introduced to an underlying gauge theory like in the gauged NJL model. When the anomalous dimension of the fermion bilinear is large, these interactions drive the spontaneous global symmetry breaking in the model, with the Higgs identified as a Nambu-Goldstone boson. The UV descriptions support composite top partner operators, also with large anomalous dimensions, thereby providing an explicit realisation of the idea of partial compositeness. In particular, the composite SO(6)/SO(5) model can be described by an Sp gauge theory with four flavours of fermion, together with a vector-like pair of fermions transforming in the antisymmetric representation and charged under SU(3) colour. These fermions confine to produce both the Higgs and top partner bound states. Our methods can also be applied to different coset groups, suggesting that four-fermion operators can describe the underlying UV dynamics of other composite Higgs models.
The global rotating scalar field vacuum on anti-de Sitter space–time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carl Kent
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the definition of the global vacuum state of a quantum scalar field on n-dimensional anti-de Sitter space–time as seen by an observer rotating about the polar axis. Since positive (or negative frequency scalar field modes must have positive (or negative Klein–Gordon norm respectively, we find that the only sensible choice of positive frequency corresponds to positive frequency as seen by a static observer. This means that the global rotating vacuum is identical to the global nonrotating vacuum. For n≥4, if the angular velocity of the rotating observer is smaller than the inverse of the anti-de Sitter radius of curvature, then modes with positive Klein–Gordon norm also have positive frequency as seen by the rotating observer. We comment on the implications of this result for the construction of global rotating thermal states.
The global rotating scalar field vacuum on anti-de Sitter space–time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kent, Carl, E-mail: c.kent@sheffield.ac.uk; Winstanley, Elizabeth, E-mail: e.winstanley@sheffield.ac.uk
2015-01-05
We consider the definition of the global vacuum state of a quantum scalar field on n-dimensional anti-de Sitter space–time as seen by an observer rotating about the polar axis. Since positive (or negative) frequency scalar field modes must have positive (or negative) Klein–Gordon norm respectively, we find that the only sensible choice of positive frequency corresponds to positive frequency as seen by a static observer. This means that the global rotating vacuum is identical to the global nonrotating vacuum. For n≥4, if the angular velocity of the rotating observer is smaller than the inverse of the anti-de Sitter radius of curvature, then modes with positive Klein–Gordon norm also have positive frequency as seen by the rotating observer. We comment on the implications of this result for the construction of global rotating thermal states.
Holographic dark energy in Brans-Dicke theory with logarithmic form of scalar field
Singh, C P
2016-01-01
In this paper, an interacting holographic dark energy model with Hubble horizon as an infra-red cut-off is considered in the framework of Brans-Dicke theory. We propose a logarithmic form $\\phi \\propto ln(\\alpha+\\beta a)$ of the Brans-Dicke scalar field to alleviate the problems of interacting holographic dark energy models in Brans-Dicke theory. We find that the equation of state parameter $w_h$ and deceleration parameter $q$ are negative in the early time which shows the early time inflation. During the evolution the sign of parameter $q$ changes from negative to positive which means that the Universe expands with decelerated rate whereas the sign of $w_h$ may change or remain negative throughout the evolution depending on the values of parameters. It is also observed that $w_h$ may cross the phantom divide line in the late time evolution. The sign of $q$ changes from positive to negative during late time of evolution which explains the late time accelerated expansion of the Universe. Thus, we present a uni...
The phase-space analysis of scalar fields with non-minimally derivative coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Yumei [Beijing Normal University, Department of Astronomy, Beijing (China); Gao, Qing; Gong, Yungui [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Wuhan, Hubei (China)
2015-04-01
We perform a dynamical analysis for the exponential scalar field with non-minimally derivative coupling. For the quintessence case, the stable fixed points are the same with and without the non-minimally derivative coupling. For the phantom case, the attractor with dark energy domination exists for the minimal coupling only. For the non-minimally derivative coupling without the standard canonical kinetic term, only the de Sitter attractor exists, and the dark matter solution is unstable. (orig.)
Massless scalar field in de Sitter spacetime: unitary quantum time evolution
Cortez, Jerónimo; Martín-de Blas, Daniel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Velhinho, José M.
2013-04-01
We prove that, under the standard conformal scaling, a free scalar field in de Sitter spacetime admits an O(4)-invariant Fock quantization such that time evolution is unitarily implemented. Since this applies in particular to the massless case, this result disproves previous claims in the literature. We discuss the relationship between this quantization with unitary dynamics and the family of O(4)-invariant Hadamard states given by Allen and Folacci, as well as with the Bunch-Davies vacuum.
The phase diagram of scalar field theory on the fuzzy disc
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rea, Simone; Sämann, Christian [Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Department of Mathematics,Heriot-Watt University,Colin Maclaurin Building, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)
2015-11-17
Using a recently developed bootstrapping method, we compute the phase diagram of scalar field theory on the fuzzy disc with quartic even potential. We find three distinct phases with second and third order phase transitions between them. In particular, we find that the second order phase transition happens approximately at a fixed ratio of the two coupling constants defining the potential. We compute this ratio analytically in the limit of large coupling constants. Our results qualitatively agree with previously obtained numerical results.
LATTICEEASY A Program for Lattice Simulations of Scalar Fields in an Expanding Universe
Felder, G; Tkachev, Igor; Felder, Gary
2008-01-01
We describe a C++ program that we have written and made available for calculating the evolution of interacting scalar fields in an expanding universe. The program is particularly useful for the study of reheating and thermalization after inflation. The program and its full documentation are available on the Web at http://physics.stanford.edu/gfelder/latticeeasy. In this paper we provide a brief overview of what the program does and what it is useful for.
Quantization of Free Scalar Fields in the Presence of Natural Cutoffs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Nozari
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We construct a quantum theory of free scalar fields in (1+1-dimensions based on the deformed Heisenberg algebra x^,p^=iħ1-βp+2β2p2, that admits the existence of both a minimal measurable length and a maximal momentum, where β is a deformation parameter. We consider both canonical and path integral formalisms of the scenario. Finally a higher dimensional extension is easily performed in the path integral formalism.
Quantization of Free Scalar Fields in the Presence of Natural Cutoffs
Nozari, K.; Moafi, F.; Rezaee Balef, F.
2012-01-01
We construct a quantum theory of free scalar fields in (1+1)-dimensions based on the deformed Heisenberg algebra x^,p^=iħ1-βp+2β2p2, that admits the existence of both a minimal measurable length and a maximal momentum, where β is a deformation parameter. We consider both canonical and path integral formalisms of the scenario. Finally a higher dimensional extension is easily performed in the path integral formalism.
Continuum dynamics and the electromagnetic field in the scalar ether theory of gravitation
Arminjon Mayeul
2016-01-01
32 pages. V4: Introduction largely rewritten and expanded (new Refs.); some information added at beginning of Sect. 2 and in Sect. 5; some redactional improvements in Sects. 4 and 7.; An alternative, scalar theory of gravitation has been proposed, based on a mechanism/interpretation of gravity as being a pressure force: Archimedes' thrust. In it, the gravitational field affects the physical standards of space and time, but motion is governed by an extension of the relativistic form of Newton'...
On the critical behaviour of the 2-point function in scalar field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malbouisson, A.P.C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
1999-09-01
By the use of a Mellin representation of Feynman integrals, a convergent asymptotic expansion for generic Feynman amplitudes for any set of invariants going to zero or to {infinity}, may be obtained. In the case of scalar field theories in Euclidean metric, we use this expansion to analyse the behaviour of the two-point function for small values of the mass parameter, for fixed external momentum. (author)
Global Stability for Charged Scalar Fields in an Asymptotically Flat Metric in Harmonic Gauge
Kauffman, Christopher
2018-01-01
We prove global stability for the Charge-Scalar Field system on a background metric which is close to 1+3-dimensional Minkowski space. In particular, we consider a class of background metrics which satisfy certain estimates consistent with the behavior of small-data solutions to Einstein's Vacuum Equations in harmonic coordinates. Our results are analogous to results obtained in Minkowski space by Lindblad and Sterbenz. The proof relies on a single-parameter modification of the standard Loren...
Real Scalar Field Scattering with Polynomial Approximation around Schwarzschild-de Sitter Black-hole
Liu, Molin; Liu, Hongya; Zhang, Jingfei; Yu, Fei
2008-01-01
As one of the fitting methods, the polynomial approximation is effective to process sophisticated problem. In this paper, we employ this approach to handle the scattering of scalar field around the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black-hole. The complex relationship between tortoise coordinate and radial coordinate is replaced by the approximate polynomial. The Schr$\\ddot{o}$dinger-like equation, the real boundary conditions and the polynomial approximation construct a full Sturm-Liouville type probl...
Interacting diffusive unified dark energy and dark matter from scalar fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benisty, David; Guendelman, E.I. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Physics, Beersheba (Israel)
2017-06-15
Here we generalize ideas of unified dark matter-dark energy in the context of two measure theories and of dynamical space time theories. In two measure theories one uses metric independent volume elements and this allows one to construct unified dark matter-dark energy, where the cosmological constant appears as an integration constant associated with the equation of motion of the measure fields. The dynamical space-time theories generalize the two measure theories by introducing a vector field whose equation of motion guarantees the conservation of a certain Energy Momentum tensor, which may be related, but in general is not the same as the gravitational Energy Momentum tensor. We propose two formulations of this idea: (I) by demanding that this vector field be the gradient of a scalar, (II) by considering the dynamical space field appearing in another part of the action. Then the dynamical space time theory becomes a theory of Diffusive Unified dark energy and dark matter. These generalizations produce non-conserved energy momentum tensors instead of conserved energy momentum tensors which leads at the end to a formulation of interacting DE-DM dust models in the form of a diffusive type interacting Unified dark energy and dark matter scenario. We solved analytically the theories for perturbative solution and asymptotic solution, and we show that the ΛCDM is a fixed point of these theories at large times. Also a preliminary argument as regards the good behavior of the theory at the quantum level is proposed for both theories. (orig.)
Non-minimal derivative coupling scalar field and bulk viscous dark energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mostaghel, Behrang [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moshafi, Hossein [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Department of Physics, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Movahed, S.M.S. [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-08-15
Inspired by thermodynamical dissipative phenomena, we consider bulk viscosity for dark fluid in a spatially flat two-component Universe. Our viscous dark energy model represents phantom-crossing which avoids big-rip singularity. We propose a non-minimal derivative coupling scalar field with zero potential leading to accelerated expansion of the Universe in the framework of bulk viscous dark energy model. In this approach, the coupling constant, κ, is related to viscosity coefficient, γ, and the present dark energy density, Ω{sub DE}{sup 0}. This coupling is bounded as κ element of [-1/9H{sub 0}{sup 2}(1 - Ω{sub DE}{sup 0}), 0]. We implement recent observational data sets including a joint light-curve analysis (JLA) for SNIa, gamma ray bursts (GRBs) for most luminous astrophysical objects at high redshifts, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) from different surveys, Hubble parameter from HST project, Planck CMB power spectrum and lensing to constrain model free parameters. The joint analysis of JLA + GRBs + BAO + HST shows that Ω{sub DE}{sup 0} = 0.696 ± 0.010, γ = 0.1404 ± 0.0014 and H{sub 0} = 68.1 ± 1.3. Planck TT observation provides γ = 0.32{sup +0.31}{sub -0.26} in the 68% confidence limit for the viscosity coefficient. The cosmographic distance ratio indicates that current observed data prefer to increase bulk viscosity. The competition between phantom and quintessence behavior of the viscous dark energy model can accommodate cosmological old objects reported as a sign of age crisis in the ΛCDM model. Finally, tension in the Hubble parameter is alleviated in this model. (orig.)
Non-minimal derivative coupling scalar field and bulk viscous dark energy
Mostaghel, Behrang; Moshafi, Hossein; Movahed, S. M. S.
2017-08-01
Inspired by thermodynamical dissipative phenomena, we consider bulk viscosity for dark fluid in a spatially flat two-component Universe. Our viscous dark energy model represents phantom-crossing which avoids big-rip singularity. We propose a non-minimal derivative coupling scalar field with zero potential leading to accelerated expansion of the Universe in the framework of bulk viscous dark energy model. In this approach, the coupling constant, κ , is related to viscosity coefficient, γ , and the present dark energy density, Ω_DE^0. This coupling is bounded as κ \\in [-1/9H_0^2(1-Ω_DE^0), 0]. We implement recent observational data sets including a joint light-curve analysis (JLA) for SNIa, gamma ray bursts (GRBs) for most luminous astrophysical objects at high redshifts, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) from different surveys, Hubble parameter from HST project, Planck CMB power spectrum and lensing to constrain model free parameters. The joint analysis of JLA + GRBs + BAO + HST shows that Ω_DE^0=0.696± 0.010, γ =0.1404± 0.0014 and H_0=68.1± 1.3. Planck TT observation provides γ =0.32^{+0.31}_{-0.26} in the 68% confidence limit for the viscosity coefficient. The cosmographic distance ratio indicates that current observed data prefer to increase bulk viscosity. The competition between phantom and quintessence behavior of the viscous dark energy model can accommodate cosmological old objects reported as a sign of age crisis in the ΛCDM model. Finally, tension in the Hubble parameter is alleviated in this model.
A Guide to Precision Calculations in Dyson's Hierarchical Scalar Field Theory
Godina, J J; Oktay, M B; Niermann, S M
1998-01-01
The goal of this article is to provide a practical method to calculate, in a scalar theory, accurate numerical values of the renormalized quantities which could be used to test any kind of approximate calculation. We use finite truncations of the Fourier transform of the recursion formula for Dyson's hierarchical model in the symmetric phase to perform high-precision calculations of the unsubtracted Green's functions at zero momentum in dimension 3, 4, and 5. We use the well-known correspondence between statistical mechanics and field theory in which the large cut-off limit is obtained by letting beta reach a critical value beta_c (with up to 16 significant digits in our actual calculations). We show that the round-off errors on the magnetic susceptibility grow like (beta_c -beta)^{-1} near criticality. We show that the systematic errors (finite truncations and volume) can be controlled with an exponential precision and reduced to a level lower than the numerical errors. We justify the use of the truncation f...
Primordial black holes from scalar field evolution in the early universe
Cotner, Eric; Kusenko, Alexander
2017-11-01
Scalar condensates with large expectation values can form in the early universe, for example, in theories with supersymmetry. The condensate can undergo fragmentation into Q-balls before decaying. If the Q-balls dominate the energy density for some period of time, statistical fluctuations in their number density can lead to formation of primordial black holes (PBH). In the case of supersymmetry the mass range is limited from above by 1 023 g . For a general charged scalar field, this robust mechanism can generate black holes over a much broader mass range, including the black holes with masses of 1-100 solar masses, which is relevant for LIGO observations of gravitational waves. Topological defects can lead to formation of PBH in a similar fashion.
Carvalho, P. R. S.; Sena-Junior, M. I.
2017-12-01
In this work, we compute analytically the infrared divergences of massless O(N) self-interacting scalar field theories with Lorentz violation, which are exact in the Lorentz-violating Kμν coefficients, for evaluating the corresponding next-to-leading order critical exponents. For that, we apply three distinct and independent field-theoretic renormalization group methods. We find that the outcomes for the critical exponents are the same in the three methods and, furthermore, are identical to their Lorentz invariant counterparts. We generalize the results for all loop levels by employing a general theorem arising from the exact procedure and give the corresponding physical interpretation.
Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of scalar fields in spatially flat cosmological spacetimes
Castelló Gomar, Laura; Cortez, Jerónimo; Martín-de Blas, Daniel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Velhinho, José M.
2012-11-01
We study the Fock quantization of scalar fields in (generically) time dependent scenarios, focusing on the case in which the field propagation occurs in -either a background or effective- spacetime with spatial sections of flat compact topology. The discussion finds important applications in cosmology, like e.g. in the description of test Klein-Gordon fields and scalar perturbations in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime in the observationally favored flat case. Two types of ambiguities in the quantization are analyzed. First, the infinite ambiguity existing in the choice of a Fock representation for the canonical commutation relations, understandable as the freedom in the choice of inequivalent vacua for a given field. Besides, in cosmological situations, it is customary to scale the fields by time dependent functions, which absorb part of the evolution arising from the spacetime, which is treated classically. This leads to an additional ambiguity, this time in the choice of a canonical pair of field variables. We show that both types of ambiguities are removed by the requirements of (a) invariance of the vacuum under the symmetries of the three-torus, and (b) unitary implementation of the dynamics in the quantum theory. In this way, one arrives at a unique class of unitarily equivalent Fock quantizations for the system. This result provides considerable robustness to the quantum predictions and renders meaningful the confrontation with observation.
Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of scalar fields in spatially flat cosmological spacetimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomar, Laura Castelló [Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cortez, Jerónimo [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Blas, Daniel Martín-de; Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Velhinho, José M., E-mail: laucaste@estumail.ucm.es, E-mail: jacq@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: daniel.martin@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: jvelhi@ubi.pt [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade da Beira Interior, R. Marquês D' Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001 Covilhã (Portugal)
2012-11-01
We study the Fock quantization of scalar fields in (generically) time dependent scenarios, focusing on the case in which the field propagation occurs in –either a background or effective– spacetime with spatial sections of flat compact topology. The discussion finds important applications in cosmology, like e.g. in the description of test Klein-Gordon fields and scalar perturbations in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime in the observationally favored flat case. Two types of ambiguities in the quantization are analyzed. First, the infinite ambiguity existing in the choice of a Fock representation for the canonical commutation relations, understandable as the freedom in the choice of inequivalent vacua for a given field. Besides, in cosmological situations, it is customary to scale the fields by time dependent functions, which absorb part of the evolution arising from the spacetime, which is treated classically. This leads to an additional ambiguity, this time in the choice of a canonical pair of field variables. We show that both types of ambiguities are removed by the requirements of (a) invariance of the vacuum under the symmetries of the three-torus, and (b) unitary implementation of the dynamics in the quantum theory. In this way, one arrives at a unique class of unitarily equivalent Fock quantizations for the system. This result provides considerable robustness to the quantum predictions and renders meaningful the confrontation with observation.
Melek, M
2002-01-01
The sole influence of plane gravitational waves (PGW) on the magnitude of the gradient of a scalar field (MGSF) defined inside a medium, is calculated. The conditions on the relations between the fluctuations in the gradient of the scalar field (GSF) and PGW leading to increase or decrease of the GSF due to the sole influence of PGW, are given. Two special cases of laser interferometers and cryogenic bar detectors are presented as an application of the proposed approach.
Li, Ran; Zhao, Junkun
2016-01-01
Reissner-Nordstr\\"om Anti-de Sitter (RNAdS) black holes are unstable against the charged scalar field perturbations due to the well-known superradiance phenomenon. We present the time domain analysis of charged scalar field perturbations in the RNAdS black hole background in general dimensions. We show that the instabilities of charged scalar field can be explicitly illustrated from the time profiles of evolving scalar field. By using the Prony method to fit the time evolution data, we confirm the mode that dominates the long time behavior of scalar field is in accordance with the quasinormal mode from the frequency domain analysis. The superradiance origin of the instability can also be demonstrated by comparing the real part of the dominant mode with the superradiant condition of charged scalar field. It is shown that all the unstable modes are superradiant, which is consistent with the analytical result in the frequency domain analysis. Furthermore, we also confirm there exists the rapid exponential growin...
Li, Bao-Fei; Bhattacharjee, Madhurima; Wang, Anzhong
2017-10-01
In this paper, we study the nonprojectable 2d Hořava gravity coupled with a nonrelativistic scalar field, where the coupling is, in general, nonminimal and of the form f (ϕ )R , where f (ϕ ) is an arbitrary function of the scalar field ϕ , and R denotes the 2d Ricci scalar. In particular, we first investigate the Hamiltonian structure and show that there are two first- and two second-class constraints, similar to the pure gravity case, but now the local degrees of freedom is one due to the presence of the scalar field. Then, we present various exact stationary solutions of this coupled system, and find that some of them represent black holes, but now with universal horizons as their boundaries. At these horizons, the Hawking radiation is thermal with temperatures proportional to their surface gravities, which normally depend on the nonlinear dispersion relations of the particles radiated, similar to the (3 +1 )-dimensional case.
Real gauge singlet scalar extension of the Standard Model: A ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... the WMAP limit and the experimental results considered here. The possible differential direct detection rates and annual variation of total detection rates have been estimated for this scalar DM candidate for two detector materials, namely Ge and Xe. Finally, the -ray flux has been calculated from the galactic centre due ...
Stability of Gauss-Bonnet black holes in Anti-de-Sitter space-time against scalar field condensation
Brihaye, Yves
2011-01-01
We study the stability of static, hyperbolic Gauss-Bonnet black holes in (4+1)-dimensional Anti-de-Sitter (AdS) space-time against the formation of scalar hair. Close to extremality the black holes possess a near-horizon topology of AdS_2 x H^3 such that within a certain range of the scalar field mass one would expect that they become unstable to the condensation of an uncharged scalar field. We confirm this numerically and observe that there exists a family of hairy black hole solutions labelled by the number of nodes of the scalar field function. We construct explicit examples of solutions with a scalar field that possesses zero nodes, one node and two nodes, respectively, and show that the solutions with nodes persist in the limit of Einstein gravity, i.e. for vanishing Gauss-Bonnet coupling. We observe that the interval of the mass for which scalar field condensation appears decreases with increasing Gauss-Bonnet coupling and/or with increasing node number.
Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of scalar fields in a Bianchi I cosmology with unitary dynamics
Cortez, Jerónimo; Navascués, Beatriz Elizaga; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.
2016-11-01
The Fock quantization of free scalar fields is subject to an infinite ambiguity when it comes to choosing a set of annihilation and creation operators, a choice that is equivalent to the determination of a vacuum state. In highly symmetric situations, this ambiguity can be removed by asking vacuum invariance under the symmetries of the system. Similarly, in stationary backgrounds, one can demand time-translation invariance plus positivity of the energy. However, in more general situations, additional criteria are needed. For the case of free (test) fields minimally coupled to a homogeneous and isotropic cosmology, it has been proven that the ambiguity is resolved by introducing the criterion of unitary implementability of the quantum dynamics, as an endomorphism in Fock space. This condition determines a specific separation of the time dependence of the field, so that this splits into a very precise background dependence and a genuine quantum evolution. Furthermore, together with the condition of vacuum invariance under the spatial Killing symmetries, unitarity of the dynamics selects a unique Fock representation for the canonical commutation relations, up to unitary equivalence. In this work, we generalize these results to anisotropic spacetimes with shear, which are therefore not conformally symmetric, by considering the case of a free scalar field in a Bianchi I cosmology.
Mixed Models: Combining incompatible scalar models in any space-time dimension
Klauder, John R.
2017-01-01
Traditionally, covariant scalar field theory models are either super renormalizable, strictly renormalizable, or nonrenormalizable. The goal of “Mixed Models” is to make sense of sums of these distinct examples, e.g. gφ34 + g‧φ 36 + g″φ 38, which includes an example of each kind for space-time dimension n = 3. We show how the several interactions such mixed models have may be turned on and off in any order without any difficulties. Analogous results are shown for gφn4 + g‧φ n138, etc. for all n ≥ 3. Different categories hold for n = 2 such as, e.g. gP(φ)2 + g‧NP(φ) 2, that involve polynomial (P) and suitable nonpolynomial (NP) interactions, etc. Analogous situations for n = 1 (time alone) offer simple “toy” examples of how such mixed models may be constructed. As a general rule, if the introduction of a specific interaction term reduces the domain of the free classical action, we invariably find that the introduction of the associated quantum interaction leads, effectively, to a “nonrenormalizable” quantum theory. However, in special cases, a classical interaction that does not reduce the domain of the classical free action may generate an “unsatisfactory” quantum theory, which generally involves a model-specific, different approach to become “satisfactory.” We will encounter both situations in our analysis.
Turbulent Scalar Transport Model Validation for High Speed Propulsive Flows Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort entails the validation of a RANS turbulent scalar transport model (SFM) for high speed propulsive flows, using new experimental data sets and...
Radiative Decays of Scalar Mesons in Light-Front Quark Model
Dewitt, Martin; Choi, Ho-Meoyng; Ji, Chueng-Ryong
2003-04-01
It is currently thought that the difficulty in experimentally identifying the light scalar glueball results from the fact that it tends to mix with nearby conventional scalar mesons. Therefore, the glueball's presence can only be inferred from the behavior of the experimentally observed (mixed) scalar states. Here, we present relativistic light-front quark model calculations of absolute widths for the radiative decay processes Scalar[0^++] → γγ, Scalar[0^++]→γ Vector[1^-], and Vector[1^-]→γ Scalar[0^++] which incorporate the effects of glueball-q barq mixing. The mixed physical states are assumed to be the f_0(1370), the f_0(1500), and the f_0(1710). The n barn, s bars, and gg content of each of the physical states is taken from the mass mixing matrix calculations of other works. These flavor/glue wavefunctions are then used in conjunction with light-front spin-space wavefunctions to compute transition form factors for the decay processes mentioned above. In the q^2→ 0 limit the form factors are used to determine the corresponding decay widths. Our results are compared with available experimental data as well as the results of a recent non-relativistic model calculation of the process Scalar[0^++]→γ Vector[1^-].
Costa, João L.
2013-12-01
We review recent results concerning the spherically symmetric Einstein-scalar field system with positive cosmological constant. We do so by comparing with the classical results of Christodoulou concerning the asymptotically flat case (vanishing cosmological constant) and by discussing some of the issues which have emerged since the publication of our main results. Concerning the positive cosmological constant case, we also sketch an alternative proof of global in (Bondi) time existence, based on energy estimates, which is presumably more flexible and, consequently, amenable to generalizations; other potential improvements and generalizations of our main results are also discussed.
The classical wormhole solution and wormhole wavefunction with a nonlinear Born-Infeld scalar field
Lu, H. Q.; Shen, L. M.; Ji, P.; Ji, G. F.; Sun, N. J.
2002-01-01
On this paper we consider the classical wormhole solution of the Born-Infeld scalar field. The corresponding classical wormhole solution can be obtained analytically for both very small and large $\\dot{\\phi}$. At the extreme limits of small $\\dot{\\phi}$ the wormhole solution has the same format as one obtained by Giddings and Strominger[10]. At the extreme limits of large $\\dot{\\phi}$ the wormhole solution is a new one. The wormhole wavefunctions can also be obtained for both very small and l...
Kink dynamics in a system of two coupled scalar fields in two space-time dimensions
Alonso-Izquierdo, A.
2018-02-01
In this paper we examine the scattering processes among the members of a rich family of kinks which arise in a (1+1)-dimensional relativistic two scalar field theory. These kinks carry two different topological charges that determine the mutual interactions between the basic energy lumps (extended particles) described by these topological defects. Processes like topological charge exchange, kink-antikink bound state formation or kink repulsion emerge depending on the charges of the scattered particles. Two-bounce resonant windows have been found in the antikink-kink scattering processes, but not in the kink-antikink interactions.
Guilleux, Maxime
2016-01-01
Nonperturbative renormalization group techniques have recently proven a powerful tool to tackle the nontrivial infrared dynamics of light scalar fields in de Sitter space. In the present article, we develop the formalism beyond the local potential approximation employed in earlier works. In particular, we consider the derivative expansion, a systematic expansion in powers of field derivatives, appropriate for long wavelength modes, that we generalize to the relevant case of a curved metric with Lorentzian signature. The method is illustrated with a detailed discussion of the so-called local potential approximation prime which, on the top of the full effective potential, includes a running (but field-independent) field renormalization. We explicitly compute the associated anomalous dimension for O(N) theories. We find that it can take large values along the flow, leading to sizable differences as compared to the local potential approximation. However, it does not prevent the phenomenon of gravitationally induc...
Scalar scattering via conformal higher spin exchange
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joung, Euihun [School of Physics and Astronomy,Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Gauge, Gravity & Strings, Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe,Institute for Basic Sciences, Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Nakach, Simon; Tseytlin, Arkady A. [Theoretical physics group, Blackett Laboratory,Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2016-02-18
Theories containing infinite number of higher spin fields require a particular definition of summation over spins consistent with their underlying symmetries. We consider a model of massless scalars interacting (via bilinear conserved currents) with conformal higher spin fields in flat space. We compute the tree-level four-scalar scattering amplitude using a natural prescription for summation over an infinite set of conformal higher spin exchanges and find that it vanishes. Independently, we show that the vanishing of the scalar scattering amplitude is, in fact, implied by the global conformal higher spin symmetry of this model. We also discuss one-loop corrections to the four-scalar scattering amplitude.
Search for the Standard Model Scalar Decaying to Fermions at CMS
Dutta, Valentina
2013-01-01
The latest results of the search for the standard model scalar boson in fermionic decay channels at the CMS experiment are presented. The dataset used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5 $fb^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data collected at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV and up to 19.4 $fb^{-1}$ collected at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. The analyses described include the searches for the standard model scalar decaying to tau pairs and to a pair of b-quarks. In the tau-pair nal state, an excess of events is observed over a broad range of SM scalar mass hypotheses, with a maximum local signicance of 2.93 standard deviations at $m_H$ = 120 GeV. The excess is compatible with the presence of a standard model scalar boson of mass 125 GeV.
Approximate KMS states for scalar and spinor fields in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dappiaggi, Claudio; Hack, Thomas-Paul [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Pinamonti, Nicola [Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Matematica
2010-09-15
We construct and discuss Hadamard states for both scalar and Dirac spinor fields in a large class of spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes characterised by an initial phase either of exponential or of power-law expansion. The states we obtain can be interpreted as being in thermal equilibrium at the time when the scale factor a has a specific value a = a{sub 0}. In the case a{sub 0} = 0, these states fulfil a strict KMS condition on the boundary of the spacetime, which is either a cosmological horizon, or a Big Bang hypersurface. Furthermore, in the conformally invariant case, they are conformal KMS states on the full spacetime. However, they provide a natural notion of an approximate KMS state also in the remaining cases, especially for massive fields. On the technical side, our results are based on a bulk-to-boundary reconstruction technique already successfully applied in the scalar case and here proven to be suitable also for spinor fields. The potential applications of the states we find range over a broad spectrum, but they appear to be suited to discuss in particular thermal phenomena such as the cosmic neutrino background or the quantum state of dark matter. (orig.)
Sudden future singularities in quintessence and scalar-tensor quintessence models
Lymperis, A.; Perivolaropoulos, L.; Lola, S.
2017-10-01
We demonstrate analytically and numerically the existence of geodesically complete singularities in quintessence and scalar-tensor quintessence models with scalar field potential of the form V (ϕ )˜|ϕ |n with 0 equations and ts is the time of the singularity. In the case of quintessence we find q =n +2 (i.e. 2 equation of state w =p/ρ , is present. We find that the strength of the singularity (value of q ) remains unaffected by the presence of a perfect fluid. The linear and quadratic terms in (ts-t ) that appear in the expansion of the scale factor around ts are subdominant for the diverging derivatives close to the singularity, but can play an important role in the estimation of the Hubble parameter. Using the analytically derived relations between these terms, we derive relations involving the Hubble parameter close to the singularity, which may be used as observational signatures of such singularities in this class of models. For quintessence with matter fluid, we find that close to the singularity H ˙=3/2 Ω0 m(1 +zs)3-3 H2. These terms should be taken into account when searching for future or past time such singularities, in cosmological data.
Inflation and the Higgs Scalar
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2014-12-05
This note makes a self-contained exposition of the basic facts of big bang cosmology as they relate to inflation. The fundamental problems with that model are then explored. A simple scalar model of inflation is evaluated which provides the solution of those problems and makes predictions which will soon be definitively tested. The possibility that the recently discovered fundamental Higgs scalar field drives inflation is explored.
Zero, normal and super-radiant modes for scalar and spinor fields in Kerr–anti de Sitter spacetime
Kenmoku, Masakatsu; Cho, Yongmin; Shigemoto, Kazuyasu; Yoon, Jong Hyuk
2017-11-01
We study zero and normal modes for scalar and spinor fields in Kerr–anti de Sitter spacetime as a bound state problem with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. Zero mode is defined as its momentum near the horizon to be zero: p_H=ω-Ω_Hm=0 , and is shown not to exist as a physical state for both scalar and spinor fields. Physical normal modes must satisfy the spectrum condition p_H>0 as results of (i) non-existence of zero mode and (ii) the analyticity with respect to the rotation parameter of Kerr–anti de Sitter spacetime. Under the spectrum condition, the super-radiant modes are shown to be type 2 super-radiance, which is characterized by negative frequency ω0 . The type 2 super-radiant modes are necessary for the completeness relation of normal modes and are stable. Applying the spectrum condition to black hole thermodynamics, the brick wall model is shown to be well-defined.
Excited scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the extended linear sigma model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parganlija, Denis [Technische Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Vienna (Austria); Giacosa, Francesco [Jan Kochanowski University, Institute of Physics, Kielce (Poland); Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2017-07-15
We present an in-depth study of masses and decays of excited scalar and pseudoscalar anti qq states in the Extended Linear Sigma Model (eLSM). The model also contains ground-state scalar, pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector mesons. The main objective is to study the consequences of the hypothesis that the f{sub 0}(1790) resonance, observed a decade ago by the BES Collaboration and recently by LHCb, represents an excited scalar quarkonium. In addition we also analyse the possibility that the new a{sub 0}(1950) resonance, observed recently by BABAR, may also be an excited scalar state. Both hypotheses receive justification in our approach although there appears to be some tension between the simultaneous interpretation of f{sub 0}(1790)/a{sub 0}(1950) and pseudoscalar mesons η(1295), π(1300), η(1440) and K(1460) as excited anti qq states. (orig.)
Diffusion of a passive scalar from a no-slip boundary into a two-dimensional chaotic advection field
Ghosh, S.; Leonard, A.; Wiggins, S.
1998-10-01
Using a time-periodic perturbation of a two-dimensional steady separation bubble on a plane no-slip boundary to generate chaotic particle trajectories in a localized region of an unbounded boundary layer flow, we study the impact of various geometrical structures that arise naturally in chaotic advection fields on the transport of a passive scalar from a local ‘hot spot’ on the no-slip boundary. We consider here the full advection-diffusion problem, though attention is restricted to the case of small scalar diffusion, or large Péclet number. In this regime, a certain one-dimensional unstable manifold is shown to be the dominant organizing structure in the distribution of the passive scalar. In general, it is found that the chaotic structures in the flow strongly influence the scalar distribution while, in contrast, the flux of passive scalar from the localized active no-slip surface is, to dominant order, independent of the overlying chaotic advection. Increasing the intensity of the chaotic advection by perturbing the velocity field further away from integrability results in more non-uniform scalar distributions, unlike the case in bounded flows where the chaotic advection leads to rapid homogenization of diffusive tracer. In the region of chaotic particle motion the scalar distribution attains an asymptotic state which is time-periodic, with the period the same as that of the time-dependent advection field. Some of these results are understood by using the shadowing property from dynamical systems theory. The shadowing property allows us to relate the advection-diffusion solution at large Péclet numbers to a fictitious zero-diffusivity or frozen-field solution, corresponding to infinitely large Péclet number. The zero-diffusivity solution is an unphysical quantity, but is found to be a powerful heuristic tool in understanding the role of small scalar diffusion. A novel feature in this problem is that the chaotic advection field is adjacent to a no
Relativistic scalar-vector models of the N-N and N-nuclear interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Green, A.E.S.
1985-01-01
This paper for the Proceedings of Conference an Anti-Nucleon and Nucleon-Nucleus Interactions summarizes work by the principal investigator and his collaborators on the nucleon-nucleon (N-N) and nucleon-nuclear (N-eta) interactions. It draws heavily on a paper presented at the Many Body Conference in Rome in 1972 but also includes a brief review of our phenomenological N-eta interaction studies. We first summarize our 48-49 generalized scalar-vector meson field theory model of the N-N interactions. This is followed by a brief description of our phenomenological work in the 50's on the N-eta interaction sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission (the present DOE). This work finally led to strong velocity dependent potentials with spin orbit and isospin terms for shell and optical model applications. This is followed by a section on the Emergence of One-Boson Exchange Models describing developments in the 60's of quantitative generalized one boson exchange potentials (GOBEP) including our purely relativistic N-N analyses. Then follows a section on the application of this meson field model to the N-eta interaction, in particular to spherical closed shell nuclei. This work was sponsored by AFOSR but funding was halted with the Mansfield amendment. We conclude with a discussion of subsequent collateral work by former colleagues and by others who have converged upon scalar-vector relativistic models of N-N, antiN-N, N-eta and antiN-eta interactions and some lessons learned from this extended endeavor. 61 refs.
Cosmological dynamics of D-BIonic and DBI scalar field and coincidence problem of dark energy
Panpanich, Sirachak; Maeda, Kei-ichi; Mizuno, Shuntaro
2017-05-01
We study the cosmological dynamics of a D-BIonic and Dirac-Born-Infeld scalar field, which is coupled to matter fluid. For the exponential potential and the exponential couplings, we find a new analytic scaling solution yielding the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Since it is shown to be an attractor for some range of the coupling parameters, the density parameter of matter fluid can be the observed value, as in the coupled quintessence with a canonical scalar field. Contrary to the usual coupled quintessence, where the value of the matter coupling giving the observed density parameter is too large to satisfy the observational constraint from the cosmic microwave background, we show that the D-BIonic theory can give a similar solution with a much smaller value of matter coupling. As a result, together with the fact that the D-BIonic theory has a screening mechanism, the D-BIonic theory can solve the so-called coincidence problem as well as the dark energy problem.
Nucleon form factors in dispersively improved chiral effective field theory: Scalar form factor
Alarcón, J. M.; Weiss, C.
2017-11-01
We propose a method for calculating the nucleon form factors (FFs) of G -parity-even operators by combining chiral effective field theory (χ EFT ) and dispersion analysis. The FFs are expressed as dispersive integrals over the two-pion cut at t >4 Mπ2 . The spectral functions are obtained from the elastic unitarity condition and expressed as products of the complex π π →N N ¯ partial-wave amplitudes and the timelike pion FF. χ EFT is used to calculate the ratio of the partial-wave amplitudes and the pion FF, which is real and free of π π rescattering in the t channel (N /D method). The rescattering effects are then incorporated by multiplying with the squared modulus of the empirical pion FF. The procedure results in a marked improvement compared to conventional χ EFT calculations of the spectral functions. We apply the method to the nucleon scalar FF and compute the scalar spectral function, the scalar radius, the t -dependent FF, and the Cheng-Dashen discrepancy. Higher-order chiral corrections are estimated through the π N low-energy constants. Results are in excellent agreement with dispersion-theoretical calculations. We elaborate several other interesting aspects of our method. The results show proper scaling behavior in the large-Nc limit of QCD because the χ EFT calculation includes N and Δ intermediate states. The squared modulus of the timelike pion FF required by our method can be extracted from lattice QCD calculations of vacuum correlation functions of the operator at large Euclidean distances. Our method can be applied to the nucleon FFs of other operators of interest, such as the isovector-vector current, the energy-momentum tensor, and twist-2 QCD operators (moments of generalized parton distributions).
Loran, Farhang
2004-11-01
We solve Klein-Gordon equation for massless scalars on (d + 1)-dimensional Minkowski (Euclidean) space in terms of the Cauchy data on the hypersurface t = 0. By inserting the solution into the action of massless scalars in Minkowski (Euclidean) space we obtain the action of dual theory on the boundary t = 0 which is exactly the holographic dual of conformally coupled scalars on (d + 1)-dimensional (Euclidean anti) de Sitter space obtained in (A)dS/CFT correspondence. The observed equivalence of dual theories is explained using the one-to-one map between conformally coupled scalar fields on Minkowski (Euclidean) space and (Euclidean anti) de Sitter space which is an isomorphism between the hypersurface t = 0 of Minkowski (Euclidean) space and the boundary of (A)dS space.
A uniqueness criterion for the Fock quantization of scalar fields with time-dependent mass
Cortez, Jerónimo; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.
2011-09-01
A major problem in the quantization of fields in curved spacetimes is the ambiguity in the choice of a Fock representation for the canonical commutation relations. There exists infinite number of choices leading to different physical predictions. In stationary scenarios, a common strategy is to select a vacuum (or a family of unitarily equivalent vacua) by requiring invariance under the spacetime symmetries. When stationarity is lost, a natural generalization consists in replacing time invariance by unitarity in the evolution. We prove that when the spatial sections are compact, the criterion of a unitary dynamics, together with the invariance under the spatial isometries, suffices to select a unique family of Fock quantizations for a scalar field with time-dependent mass.
The edge of entanglement: getting the boundary right for non-minimally coupled scalar fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herzog, Christopher P. [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics,Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Nishioka, Tatsuma [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, The University of Tokyo,Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
2016-12-27
In entanglement computations for a free scalar field with coupling to background curvature, there is a boundary term in the modular Hamiltonian which must be correctly specified in order to get sensible results. We focus here on the entanglement in flat space across a planar interface and (in the case of conformal coupling) other geometries related to this one by Weyl rescaling of the metric. For these “half-space entanglement” computations, we give a new derivation of the boundary term and revisit how it clears up a number of puzzles in the literature, including mass corrections and twist operator dimensions. We also discuss how related boundary terms may show up in other field theories.
Force-dynamic cultural models in a scalar adjectival construction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard
Consider the following instances of the scalar adjectival [too ADJ to V]-construction: (1) The tatty furniture betrayed elegant lines, and the windows, too grimy to see through, stretched up ten feet. (COCA 2011 FIC Bk:NeverGentleman) (2) They're too slow to catch a seal in open water. (COCA 2011...... MAG NationalGeographic) (3) If the making of a revolution is drama, punctuated with tragedies too numerous to count, making peace is long-form prose requiring iterations of conversation between people. (COCA 2011 MAG TechReview) (4) I'm too young to get married. (COCA 2011 FIC Callaloo) (5) I...
Madadi-Kandjani, E.; Fox, R. O.; Passalacqua, A.
2017-06-01
An extended quadrature method of moments using the β kernel density function (β -EQMOM) is used to approximate solutions to the evolution equation for univariate and bivariate composition probability distribution functions (PDFs) of a passive scalar for binary and ternary mixing. The key element of interest is the molecular mixing term, which is described using the Fokker-Planck (FP) molecular mixing model. The direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of Eswaran and Pope ["Direct numerical simulations of the turbulent mixing of a passive scalar," Phys. Fluids 31, 506 (1988)] and the amplitude mapping closure (AMC) of Pope ["Mapping closures for turbulent mixing and reaction," Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 2, 255 (1991)] are taken as reference solutions to establish the accuracy of the FP model in the case of binary mixing. The DNSs of Juneja and Pope ["A DNS study of turbulent mixing of two passive scalars," Phys. Fluids 8, 2161 (1996)] are used to validate the results obtained for ternary mixing. Simulations are performed with both the conditional scalar dissipation rate (CSDR) proposed by Fox [Computational Methods for Turbulent Reacting Flows (Cambridge University Press, 2003)] and the CSDR from AMC, with the scalar dissipation rate provided as input and obtained from the DNS. Using scalar moments up to fourth order, the ability of the FP model to capture the evolution of the shape of the PDF, important in turbulent mixing problems, is demonstrated. Compared to the widely used assumed β -PDF model [S. S. Girimaji, "Assumed β-pdf model for turbulent mixing: Validation and extension to multiple scalar mixing," Combust. Sci. Technol. 78, 177 (1991)], the β -EQMOM solution to the FP model more accurately describes the initial mixing process with a relatively small increase in computational cost.
Bittencourt, E; Novello, M; Toniato, J D
2016-01-01
We discuss a class of models for gravity based on a scalar field. The models include and generalize the old approach by Nordstr\\"om which predated and in some way inspired General Relativity. The class include also a model that we have recently introduced and discussed in its cosmological aspects (GSG). We present here a complete characterisation of the Schwarschild geometry as a vacuum solution of GSG and sketch a discussion of the first Post-Newtonian approximation.
Weighed scalar averaging in LTB dust models: part II. A formalism of exact perturbations
Sussman, Roberto A.
2013-03-01
We examine the exact perturbations that arise from the q-average formalism that was applied in the preceding article (part I) to Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) models. By introducing an initial value parametrization, we show that all LTB scalars that take an FLRW ‘look-alike’ form (frequently used in the literature dealing with LTB models) follow as q-averages of covariant scalars that are common to FLRW models. These q-scalars determine for every averaging domain a unique FLRW background state through Darmois matching conditions at the domain boundary, though the definition of this background does not require an actual matching with an FLRW region (Swiss cheese-type models). Local perturbations describe the deviation from the FLRW background state through the local gradients of covariant scalars at the boundary of every comoving domain, while non-local perturbations do so in terms of the intuitive notion of a ‘contrast’ of local scalars with respect to FLRW reference values that emerge from q-averages assigned to the whole domain or the whole time slice in the asymptotic limit. We derive fluid flow evolution equations that completely determine the dynamics of the models in terms of the q-scalars and both types of perturbations. A rigorous formalism of exact spherical nonlinear perturbations is defined over the FLRW background state associated with the q-scalars, recovering the standard results of linear perturbation theory in the appropriate limit. We examine the notion of the amplitude and illustrate the differences between local and non-local perturbations by qualitative diagrams and through an example of a cosmic density void that follows from the numeric solution of the evolution equations.
Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan
2012-10-01
We study a retarded potential solution of a massless scalar field in curved space-time. In a special ansatz for a particle at rest whose magnitude of the (scalar) charge is changing with time, we found an exact analytic solution. The solution indicates that the phase velocity of the retarded potential of a nonmoving scalar charge is position-dependent and may easily be greater than the speed of light at a given point. In the case of the Schwarzschild space-time, at the horizon, the phase velocity becomes infinitely faster than the coordinate speed of light at that point. Superluminal phase velocity is a relatively common phenomenon, with the phase velocity of the massive Klein-Gordon field as the best known example. We discuss why it is possible to have modes with superluminal phase velocity even for a massless field.
Consistent modeling of scalar mixing for presumed, multiple parameter probability density functions
Mortensen, Mikael
2005-01-01
In this Brief Communication we describe a consistent method for calculating the conditional scalar dissipation (or diffusion) rate for inhomogeneous turbulent flows. The model follows from the transport equation for the conserved scalar probability density function (PDF) using a gradient diffusion closure for the conditional mean velocity and a presumed PDF depending on any number of mixture fraction moments. With the presumed β PDF, the model is an inhomogeneous modification to the homogeneous model of Girimaji ["On the modeling of scalar diffusion in isotropic turbulence," Phys. Fluids A 4, 2529 (1992)]. An important feature of the model is that it makes the classical approach to the conditional moment closure completely conservative for inhomogeneous flows.
Experimental Investigation of Scalar Patterns in a Spatially Periodic Flow Field
Rajaei, Hadi; Baskan, Ozge; Speetjens, Michel; Clercx, Herman
2013-11-01
Spatially persisting patterns that form during the downstream evolution of passive scalars in three-dimensional (3D) spatially periodic flow fields is a fundamental aspect of industrial mixing processes that rely on the static mixing principle. Despite many numerical studies on 3D spatially periodic flow fields, a comprehensive experimental research on the periodic flow field is still scarce. This research focuses on a comparative analysis between laboratory experiments and numerical simulations on the evolution of the periodic flow field and coherent flow structures and concerns the effect of boundary (i.e. inlet) conditions on the periodicity of the flow field in a representative inline mixer consisting of spatially periodic internal elements. The experimental setup is composed of an optically accessible vertical test section with transparent internal elements which is fed by a pressure-driven pipe flow containing tracer particles. The 3D streamlines, hence, the flow field, are measured by 3D Particle-Tracking Velocimetry technique. The streamwise development of the periodicity within few internal elements regardless of the inlet conditions has been proven by preliminary studies.
Chen, Songbai; Liao, Hao
2015-01-01
We have investigated quantum entropy of a static black hole arising from the massless scalar field with Lorentz violation induced by the coupling to Einstein tensor. Our results show that the coupled massless scalar field contributes to the classical Bekenstein-Hawking term in the black hole entropy. The corrected classical Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is not one quarter of the event horizon area of the original background black hole, but of a corresponding effective metric related to the coupling. It means that the classical Bekenstein-Hawking entropy depends not only on the black hole parameter, but also on the coupling which reduces Lorentz violation.
Pavlov, Y V
2001-01-01
One derived expressions for the vacuum mean values of energy-momentum tensor of the scalar field with arbitrary relation to curvature in N-dimensional quasi-euclidean space-time for vacuum. One generalized n-wave procedure for multidimensional spaces. One calculated all counter-members for N=5 and for a conformal scalar field in N=6, 7. One determined the geometric structure of three first counter-members for N-dimensional spaces. All subtractions in 4-dimensional space-time and 3 first subtractions in multidimensional spaces are shown to correspond to renormalization of constants of priming and gravitational Lagrangian
Vacuum stress tensor of a scalar field in a rectangular waveguide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodrigues, R.B.; Svaiter, N.F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: robson@cbpf.br; svaiter@lns.mit.edu; Paola, R.D.M. de [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias]. E-mail: rpaola@efei.br
2001-11-01
Using the heat Kernel method and the analytical continuation of the zeta function, we calculate the canonical and improved vacuum stress tensors, {l_brace}T{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}(vector x){r_brace} and {l_brace}{theta}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}} (vector x){r_brace}, associated with a massless scalar field confined in the interior of an infinity long rectangular waveguide. The local depence of the renormalized energy for two special configurations when the total energy is positive and negative are presented using {l_brace}T{sub 00}(vector x){r_brace} and {l_brace}{theta}{sub 00}(vector x){r_brace}. From the stress tensors we obtain the local casimir forces in all walls by introducing a particular external configuration. It is hown that this external configuration cannot give account of the edge divergences of the local forces. The local form of the forces is obtained for three special configurations. (author)
Critical collapse of a rotating scalar field in 2 +1 dimensions
JałmuŻna, Joanna; Gundlach, Carsten
2017-04-01
We carry out numerical simulations of the collapse of a complex rotating scalar field of the form Ψ (t ,r ,θ )=ei m θΦ (t ,r ), giving rise to an axisymmetric metric, in 2 +1 spacetime dimensions with cosmological constant Λ 0 is very different from the case m =0 we have considered before: the thresholds for mass scaling and Ricci scaling are significantly different (for the same family); scaling stops well above the scale set by Λ , and the exponents depend strongly on the family. Hence, in contrast to the m =0 case, and to many other self-gravitating systems, there is only weak evidence for the collapse threshold being controlled by a self-similar critical solution and no evidence for it being universal.
Zhang, Xuefeng
2015-01-01
Motivated by cosmic censorship in general relativity and string theory, we extend Christodoulou's celebrated examples of naked singularity formation in the Einstein-massless scalar field system to include a positive or negative scalar potential of exponential forms, i.e., $V(\\phi)=\\pm\\exp(2\\phi/\\kappa)$ with a parameter $\\kappa$. Under spherical symmetry and a self-similar ansatz depending on $\\kappa$, we derive a 3-dimensional autonomous system of first-order ordinary differential equations, which incorporates the equations for massless scalar fields as a special case. Local behavior of the phase space is studied analytically with global solutions constructed numerically. Within the 3-dimensional solution manifold, we observe, for the negative potentials, naked singularity formation from nonsingular initial data for $\\kappa^2<1$. Meanwhile, transitions between solutions containing naked singularities and black holes are also identified. However, when the potential is taken positive, numerical evolutions r...
Modeling group size and scalar stress by logistic regression from an archaeological perspective.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gianmarco Alberti
Full Text Available Johnson's scalar stress theory, describing the mechanics of (and the remedies to the increase in in-group conflictuality that parallels the increase in groups' size, provides scholars with a useful theoretical framework for the understanding of different aspects of the material culture of past communities (i.e., social organization, communal food consumption, ceramic style, architecture and settlement layout. Due to its relevance in archaeology and anthropology, the article aims at proposing a predictive model of critical level of scalar stress on the basis of community size. Drawing upon Johnson's theory and on Dunbar's findings on the cognitive constrains to human group size, a model is built by means of Logistic Regression on the basis of the data on colony fissioning among the Hutterites of North America. On the grounds of the theoretical framework sketched in the first part of the article, the absence or presence of colony fissioning is considered expression of not critical vs. critical level of scalar stress for the sake of the model building. The model, which is also tested against a sample of archaeological and ethnographic cases: a confirms the existence of a significant relationship between critical scalar stress and group size, setting the issue on firmer statistical grounds; b allows calculating the intercept and slope of the logistic regression model, which can be used in any time to estimate the probability that a community experienced a critical level of scalar stress; c allows locating a critical scalar stress threshold at community size 127 (95% CI: 122-132, while the maximum probability of critical scale stress is predicted at size 158 (95% CI: 147-170. The model ultimately provides grounds to assess, for the sake of any further archaeological/anthropological interpretation, the probability that a group reached a hot spot of size development critical for its internal cohesion.
Yan, Wang-Ji; Ren, Wei-Xin
2016-12-01
In Part I of this study, some new theorems, corollaries and lemmas on circularly-symmetric complex normal ratio distribution have been mathematically proved. This part II paper is dedicated to providing a rigorous treatment of statistical properties of raw scalar transmissibility functions at an arbitrary frequency line. On the basis of statistics of raw FFT coefficients and circularly-symmetric complex normal ratio distribution, explicit closed-form probabilistic models are established for both multivariate and univariate scalar transmissibility functions. Also, remarks on the independence of transmissibility functions at different frequency lines and the shape of the probability density function (PDF) of univariate case are presented. The statistical structures of probabilistic models are concise, compact and easy-implemented with a low computational effort. They hold for general stationary vector processes, either Gaussian stochastic processes or non-Gaussian stochastic processes. The accuracy of proposed models is verified using numerical example as well as field test data of a high-rise building and a long-span cable-stayed bridge. This study yields new insights into the qualitative analysis of the uncertainty of scalar transmissibility functions, which paves the way for developing new statistical methodologies for modal analysis, model updating or damage detection using responses only without input information.
Scalar perturbations in cosmological models with quark nuggets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brilenkov, Maxim [Odessa National University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa (Ukraine); Eingorn, Maxim [North Carolina Central University, CREST and NASA Research Centers, Durham, NC (United States); Jenkovszky, Laszlo [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Zhuk, Alexander [Odessa National University, Astronomical Observatory, Odessa (Ukraine)
2014-08-15
In this paper we consider the Universe at the late stage of its evolution and deep inside the cell of uniformity. At these scales, the Universe is filled with inhomogeneously distributed discrete structures (galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies). Supposing that a small fraction of colored objects escaped hadronization and survived up to now in the form of quark-gluon nuggets (QNs), and also taking into account radiation, we investigate scalar perturbations of the FRW metrics due to inhomogeneities of dustlike matter as well as fluctuations of QNs and radiation. In particular, we demonstrate that the nonrelativistic gravitational potential is defined by the distribution of inhomogeneities/fluctuations of both dustlike matter and QNs. Consequently, QNs can be distributed around the baryonic inhomogeneities (e.g., galaxies) in such a way that it can solve the problem of the flatness of the rotation curves. We also show that the fluctuations of radiation are caused by both the inhomogeneities in the form of galaxies and the fluctuations of quark-gluon nuggets. Therefore, if QNs exist, the CMB anisotropy should contain also the contributions from QNs. Additionally, the spatial distribution of the radiation fluctuations is defined by the gravitational potential. All these results look physically reasonable. (orig.)
Continuum dynamics and the electromagnetic field in the scalar ether theory of gravitation
Arminjon, Mayeul
2016-01-01
An alternative, scalar theory of gravitation has been proposed, based on a mechanism/interpretation of gravity as being a pressure force: Archimedes' thrust. In it, the gravitational field affects the physical standards of space and time, but motion is governed by an extension of the relativistic form of Newton's second law. This implies Einstein's geodesic motion for free particles only in a constant gravitational field. In this work, equations governing the dynamics of a continuous medium subjected to gravitational and non-gravitational forces are derived. Then, the case where the non-gravitational force is the Lorentz force is investigated. The gravitational modification of Maxwell's equations is obtained under the requirement that a charged continuous medium, subjected to the Lorentz force, obeys the equation derived for continuum dynamics under external forces. These Maxwell equations are shown to be consistent with the dynamics of a "free" photon, and thus with the geometrical optics of this theory. However, these equations do not imply local charge conservation, except for a constant gravitational field.
Continuum dynamics and the electromagnetic field in the scalar ether theory of gravitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arminjon Mayeul
2016-01-01
Full Text Available An alternative, scalar theory of gravitation has been proposed, based on a mechanism/interpretation of gravity as being a pressure force: Archimedes’ thrust. In it, the gravitational field affects the physical standards of space and time, but motion is governed by an extension of the relativistic form of Newton’s second law. This implies Einstein’s geodesic motion for free particles only in a constant gravitational field. In this work, equations governing the dynamics of a continuous medium subjected to gravitational and non-gravitational forces are derived. Then, the case where the non-gravitational force is the Lorentz force is investigated. The gravitational modification of Maxwell’s equations is obtained under the requirement that a charged continuous medium, subjected to the Lorentz force, obeys the equation derived for continuum dynamics under external forces. These Maxwell equations are shown to be consistent with the dynamics of a “free” photon, and thus with the geometrical optics of this theory. However, these equations do not imply local charge conservation, except for a constant gravitational field.
On continuum dynamics and the electromagnetic field in the scalar ether theory of gravitation
Arminjon, Mayeul
2017-05-01
Our study of aspects of a scalar ether theory of gravitation is formulated in a preferred reference frame in a four-dimensional spacetime endowed with a curved “physical” metric. The dynamics of a test particle is defined by an extension of the special-relativistic form of Newton’s second law. This determines the dynamical equation verified by the energy-momentum tensor T of a “dust” continuum, also in the presence of a non-gravitational external force. The dynamical equation for T thus obtained is assumed valid for a general continuous medium or a system of fields. When the non-gravitational force is the Lorentz force, this equation in turn determines the Maxwell equations in a gravitational field for the present theory. They are consistent with the dynamics of photons i.e. with the geometrical optics of the theory. Except for a constant gravitational field, they seem to imply some local production or destruction of electric charge. The possible amounts are yet to be assessed.
Renormalization group theory for temperature-driven first-order phase transitions in scalar models
Liang, Ning; Zhong, Fan
2017-12-01
We study the scaling and universal behavior of temperature-driven first-order phase transitions in scalar models. These transitions are found to exhibit rich phenomena, though they are controlled by a single complex-conjugate pair of imaginary fixed points of ϕ 3 theory. Scaling theories and renormalization group theories are developed to account for the phenomena, and three universality classes with their own hysteresis exponents are found: a field-like thermal class, a partly thermal class, and a purely thermal class, designated, respectively, as Thermal Classes I, II, and III. The first two classes arise from the opposite limits of the scaling forms proposed and may cross over to each other depending on the temperature sweep rate. They are both described by a massless model and a purely massive model, both of which are equivalent and are derived from ϕ 3 theory via symmetry. Thermal Class III characterizes the cooling transitions in the absence of applied external fields and is described by purely thermal models, which include cases in which the order parameters possess different symmetries and thus exhibit different universality classes. For the purely thermal models whose free energies contain odd-symmetry terms, Thermal Class III emerges only at the mean-field level and is identical to Thermal Class II. Fluctuations change the model into the other two models. Using the extant three- and two-loop results for the static and dynamic exponents for the Yang-Lee edge singularity, respectively, which falls into the same universality class as ϕ 3 theory, we estimate the thermal hysteresis exponents of the various classes to the same precision. Comparisons with numerical results and experiments are briefly discussed.
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho
2015-01-01
In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar-tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and ordinary hairy black holes. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.
Achasov, N. N.; Kiselev, A. V.; Shestakov, G. N.
2008-01-01
Outline: 1. Introduction, 2. Confinement, chiral dynamics and light scalar mesons, 3. Chiral shielding of the \\sigma(600), chiral constraints (the CGL band), the \\sigma(600) and the f0(980) in \\pi\\pi->\\pi\\pi, \\pi\\pi->KKbar, \\phi->\\gamma\\pi0\\pi0, 4. The \\phi meson radiative decays on light scalar resonances, 5. Light scalars in \\gamma\\gamma collisions. Evidence for four-quark components of light scalars is given. The priority of Quantum Field Theory in revealing the light scalar mystery is emp...
Jurcisinová, E; Jurcisin, M
2008-01-01
The influence of uniaxial small-scale anisotropy on the stability of the scaling regimes and on the anomalous scaling of the structure functions of a passive scalar advected by a Gaussian solenoidal velocity field with finite correlation time is investigated by the field theoretic renormalization group and operator product expansion within one-loop approximation. Possible scaling regimes are found and classified in the plane of exponents epsilon-eta , where epsilon characterizes the energy spectrum of the velocity field in the inertial range E proportional, variantk;{1-2epsilon} , and eta is related to the correlation time of the velocity field at the wave number k which is scaled as k;{-2+eta} . It is shown that the presence of anisotropy does not disturb the stability of the infrared fixed points of the renormalization group equations, which are directly related to the corresponding scaling regimes. The influence of anisotropy on the anomalous scaling of the structure functions of the passive scalar field is studied as a function of the fixed point value of the parameter u , which represents the ratio of turnover time of scalar field and velocity correlation time. It is shown that the corresponding one-loop anomalous dimensions, which are the same (universal) for all particular models with a concrete value of u in the isotropic case, are different (nonuniversal) in the case with the presence of small-scale anisotropy and they are continuous functions of the anisotropy parameters, as well as the parameter u . The dependence of the anomalous dimensions on the anisotropy parameters of two special limits of the general model, namely, the rapid-change model and the frozen velocity field model, are found when u-->infinity and u-->0 , respectively.
Yun, Alexander
2005-01-01
In spite of today's progress in Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in simulating wide variety of flows, statistical models are widely used for the simulations of practical flows of the industry. Nevertheless it is necessary to develop, analyze and optimize these models. The present work devotes to the development and analysis of advanced models for RANS. These models can predict the effects of non-equilibrium turbulent flows with heat and scalar transfer satisfactorily. The parts of the model are ba...
Quantum Cramer–Rao Bound for a Massless Scalar Field in de Sitter Space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcello Rotondo
2017-10-01
Full Text Available How precisely can we estimate cosmological parameters by performing a quantum measurement on a cosmological quantum state? In quantum estimation theory, the variance of an unbiased parameter estimator is bounded from below by the inverse of measurement-dependent Fisher information and ultimately by quantum Fisher information, which is the maximization of the former over all positive operator-valued measurements. Such bound is known as the quantum Cramer –Rao bound. We consider the evolution of a massless scalar field with Bunch–Davies vacuum in a spatially flat FLRW spacetime, which results in a two-mode squeezed vacuum out-state for each field wave number mode. We obtain the expressions of the quantum Fisher information as well as the Fisher informations associated to occupation number measurement and power spectrum measurement, and show the specific results of their evolution for pure de Sitter expansion and de Sitter expansion followed by a radiation-dominated phase as examples. We will discuss these results from the point of view of the quantum-to-classical transition of cosmological perturbations and show quantitatively how this transition and the residual quantum correlations affect the bound on the precision.
From black-hole quasinormal modes to scalar glueballs in a finite-temperature AdS/QCD model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miranda, Alex S.; Boschi-Filho, Henrique; Braga, Nelson R.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Ballon Bayona, C.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2009-07-01
Full text. In the last years the AdS/CFT correspondence has been recognized as an important tool to investigate non- perturbative aspects of strongly coupled gauge theories. The most celebrated version of this correspondence relates string theory in AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} space to four-dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills gauge theory with large N and extended N = 4 supersymmetry. Inspired in the AdS/CFT correspondence, recent works have proposed the construction of holographic phenomenological models to describe the strong interactions. These models are presently known as AdS/QCD. In this work we use the holographic soft-wall model to investigate the spectrum of scalar glueballs at finite temperature. The elementary excitations corresponding to glueballs are identified as the poles of the retarded correlation function of the operator Tr(F{sup 2}), where F is the field strength of the Yang-Mills gauge field. According to the gauge/gravity correspondence, in the plasma phase the poles of the retarded correlator are determined by the quasinormal spectrum of a massless scalar field propagating in the bulk geometry that consists on an AdS{sub 5} black hole with a background dilaton field. We calculate masses and decay widths of scalar glueballs in the deconfined phase and metastable phase of the plasma and analyze how these quantities evolve with temperature. We also obtain glueball dispersion relations for different temperature values. These results are found employing both the traditional power series method and a new method based on the computation of Breit-Wigner resonances. (author)
Solanke, D. T.; Karade, T. M.
2017-11-01
In f( R, T) theory of gravity, we have studied the interacting scalar and electromagnetic fields in Bianchi type I space-time, by considering the general cases f( R, T) = f 1( R) + λf 2( T), f( {R,T} ) = f1 ( R )f2 ( T ) and f( R) theory and its particular cases f( R, T) = R + λT, f( {R,T} ) = RT, f( R) = R. It is observed that, even though the cases of f( R, T) are distinct, the convergent and isotropic solution of metric functions can be evolved in each case along with the components of vector potential, corresponding to suitable integrable function in particular cases.
An operator basis for the Standard Model with an added scalar singlet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gripaios, Ben [Cavendish Laboratory, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Sutherland, Dave [Cavendish Laboratory, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, UCSB Kohn Hall, Santa Barbara CA (United States)
2016-08-17
Motivated by the possible di-gamma resonance at 750 GeV, we present a basis of effective operators for the Standard Model plus a scalar singlet at dimensions 5, 6, and 7. We point out that an earlier list at dimensions 5 and 6 contains two redundant operators at dimension 5.
Alonso, Rodrigo; Manohar, Aneesh V.
2016-01-01
The $S$-matrix of a quantum field theory is unchanged by field redefinitions, and so only depends on geometric quantities such as the curvature of field space. Whether the Higgs multiplet transforms linearly or non-linearly under electroweak symmetry is a subtle question since one can make a coordinate change to convert a field that transforms linearly into one that transforms non-linearly. Renormalizability of the Standard Model (SM) does not depend on the choice of scalar fields or whether the scalar fields transform linearly or non-linearly under the gauge group, but only on the geometric requirement that the scalar field manifold ${\\mathcal M}$ is flat. We explicitly compute the one-loop correction to scalar scattering in the SM written in non-linear Callan-Coleman-Wess-Zumino (CCWZ) form, where it has an infinite series of higher dimensional operators, and show that the $S$-matrix is finite. Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT) and Higgs Effective Field Theory (HEFT) have curved ${\\mathcal M}$, ...
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Nakonieczna, Anna [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University,Plac Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin (Poland); Yeom, Dong-han [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University,No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)
2016-02-08
There does not exist a notion of time which could be transferred straightforwardly from classical to quantum gravity. For this reason, a method of time quantification which would be appropriate for gravity quantization is being sought. One of the existing proposals is using the evolving matter as an intrinsic ‘clock’ while investigating the dynamics of gravitational systems. The objective of our research was to check whether scalar fields can serve as time variables during a dynamical evolution of a coupled multi-component matter-geometry system. We concentrated on a neutral case, which means that the elaborated system was not charged electrically nor magnetically. For this purpose, we investigated a gravitational collapse of a self-interacting complex and real scalar fields in the Brans-Dicke theory using the 2+2 spacetime foliation. We focused mainly on the region of high curvature appearing nearby the emerging singularity, which is essential from the perspective of quantum gravity. We investigated several formulations of the theory for various values of the Brans-Dicke coupling constant and the coupling between the Brans-Dicke field and the matter sector of the theory. The obtained results indicated that the evolving scalar fields can be treated as time variables in close proximity of the singularity due to the following reasons. The constancy hypersurfaces of the Brans-Dicke field are spacelike in the vicinity of the singularity apart from the case, in which the equation of motion of the field reduces to the wave equation due to a specific choice of free evolution parameters. The hypersurfaces of constant complex and real scalar fields are spacelike in the regions nearby the singularities formed during the examined process. The values of the field functions change monotonically in the areas, in which the constancy hypersurfaces are spacelike.
Conformal Generally Covariant Quantum Field Theory: The Scalar Field and its Wick Products
Pinamonti, Nicola
2009-06-01
In this paper we generalize the construction of generally covariant quantum theories given in [BFV03] to encompass the conformal covariant case. After introducing the abstract framework, we discuss the massless conformally coupled Klein Gordon field theory, showing that its quantization corresponds to a functor between two certain categories. At the abstract level, the ordinary fields, could be thought of as natural transformations in the sense of category theory. We show that the Wick monomials without derivatives (Wick powers) can be interpreted as fields in this generalized sense, provided a non-trivial choice of the renormalization constants is given. A careful analysis shows that the transformation law of Wick powers is characterized by a weight, and it turns out that the sum of fields with different weights breaks the conformal covariance. At this point there is a difference between the previously given picture due to the presence of a bigger group of covariance. It is furthermore shown that the construction does not depend upon the scale μ appearing in the Hadamard parametrix, used to regularize the fields. Finally, we briefly discuss some further examples of more involved fields.
Steele, T G; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Contreras, D; Mann, R B
2014-05-02
We consider the generation of dark matter mass via radiative electroweak symmetry breaking in an extension of the conformal standard model containing a singlet scalar field with a Higgs portal interaction. Generating the mass from a sequential process of radiative electroweak symmetry breaking followed by a conventional Higgs mechanism can account for less than 35% of the cosmological dark matter abundance for dark matter mass M(s)>80 GeV. However, in a dynamical approach where both Higgs and scalar singlet masses are generated via radiative electroweak symmetry breaking, we obtain much higher levels of dark matter abundance. At one-loop level we find abundances of 10%-100% with 106 GeVdark matter mass. The dynamical approach also predicts a small scalar-singlet self-coupling, providing a natural explanation for the astrophysical observations that place upper bounds on dark matter self-interaction. The predictions in all three approaches are within the M(s)>80 GeV detection region of the next generation XENON experiment.
Scalar boson decays to tau leptons: in the standard model and beyond
Caillol, Cecile; Mohammadi, Abdollah
2016-01-01
This thesis presents a study of the scalar sector in the standard model (SM), as well asdiﬀerent searches for an extended scalar sector in theories beyond the standard model(BSM). All analyses have in common the fact that at least one scalar boson decays to apair of tau leptons. The results exploit the data collected by the CMS detector duringLHC Run-1, in proton-proton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 7 or 8 TeV.The particle discovered in 2012, H, looks compatible with a SM Brout-Englert-Higgsboson, but this statement is driven by the H → γγ and H → ZZ decay modes. TheH → τ + τ − decay mode is the most sensitive fermionic decay channel, and allows to testthe Yukawa couplings of the new particle. The search for the SM scalar boson decaying totau leptons, and produced in association with a massive vector boson W or Z, is describedin this thesis. Even though a good background rejection can be achieved by selecting theleptons originating from the vector boson, Run-1 data are not sensitive...
Cosmological models with positive scalar spatial curvature and Λ>0
Ponce de Leon, J.
1987-12-01
Some exact spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equations with Λ>0 and positive three-curvature are given. They have reasonable physical properties and represent universes which do not undergo inflation but have a non-de Sitter behaviour for large times. This paper extends some previous results in the literature. Permanent address: Apartado 2816, Caracas 1010-A, Venezuela.
Kanti, P.; Pappas, T.; Pappas, N.
2014-12-01
In this paper, we consider the propagation of scalar particles in a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black-hole spacetime, both on the brane and in the bulk. Our analysis applies for arbitrary partial modes and for both minimal and nonminimal coupling of the scalar field. A general expression for the greybody factor is analytically derived in each case, and its low-energy behavior is studied in detail. Its profile in terms of scalar properties (angular-momentum number and nonminimal coupling parameter) and spacetime properties (number of extra dimensions and cosmological constant) is thoroughly investigated. In contrast to previous studies, the effect of the cosmological constant is taken into account both close to and far away from the black-hole horizon. The dual role of the cosmological constant, that may act either as a helping agent to the emission of scalar particles or as a deterring effect depending on the value of the nonminimal coupling parameter, is also demonstrated.
A No-Chaos Theorem for Non-Minimally Coupled Scalar Field Cosmology and a New Cosmogenesis Scenario
Gunzig, E.; Brenig, L.; Figueiredo, A.; Filho, T. M. Rocha
A general dynamical system approach to classical self-consistent scalar field cosmology is presented in the framework of spatially flat FLRW space-times, for arbitrary potentials and arbitrary non-minimal coupling. We show that these universes cannot undergo chaotic behaviors, thus suggesting a possible new role of inflation in cosmology. An unexpectedly involved topology of the phase-portrait of the cosmological dynamics is exhibited: Dynamically forbidden regions, playing a crucial dynamical role, appear. A new exact critical solution, a heteroclinic orbit, connects two de Sitter inflationary regimes. We suggest a novel intriguing semiclassical cosmogenesis scenario in which the quantized scalar field could tunnel through the classically forbidden region, from the Minkowski space-time towards the nearest classically allowed solution: The critical one.
Direct numerical simulation of a passive scalar with imposed mean gradient in isotropic turbulence
Overholt, M. R.; Pope, S. B.
1996-11-01
Mixing of a passive scalar in statistically homogeneous, isotropic, and stationary turbulence with a mean scalar gradient is investigated via direct numerical simulation, for Taylor-scale Reynolds numbers, Rλ, from 28 to 185. Multiple independent simulations are performed to get confidence intervals, and local regression smoothing is used to further reduce statistical fluctuations. The scalar fluctuation field, φ(x,t), is initially zero, and develops to a statistically stationary state after about four eddy turnover times. Quantities investigated include the dissipation of scalar flux, which is found to be significant; probability density functions (pdfs) and joint-pdfs of the scalar, its derivatives, scalar dissipation, and mechanical dissipation; and conditional expectations of scalar mixing, ∇2φ. A linear model for scalar mixing jointly conditioned on the scalar and v-velocity is developed, and reproduces the data quite well. Also considered is scalar mixing jointly conditioned on the scalar and scalar dissipation. Terms appearing in the balance equation for the pdf of φ are examined. From a solution of the scalar pdf equation two sufficient conditions arise for the scalar pdf to be Gaussian. These are shown to be well satisfied for moderate values of the scalar, and approximately so for large fluctuations. Many correlations are also presented, including ρ(v,φ), which changes during the evolution of the scalar from a value of unity when initialized to the stationary value of 0.5-0.6.
Higgs mass range from standard model false vacuum inflation in scalar-tensor gravity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Masina, I.; Notari, A.
2012-01-01
If the standard model is valid up to very high energies it is known that the Higgs potential can develop a local minimum at field values around 10(15)-10(17) GeV, for a narrow band of values of the top quark and Higgs masses. We show that in a scalar-tensor theory of gravity such Higgs false vacuum...... can give rise to viable inflation if the potential barrier is very shallow, allowing for tunneling and relaxation into the electroweak scale true vacuum. The amplitude of cosmological density perturbations from inflation is directly linked to the value of the Higgs potential at the false minimum....... Requiring the top quark mass, the amplitude and spectral index of density perturbations to be compatible with observations, selects a narrow range of values for the Higgs mass, m(H) = 126.0 +/- 3.5 GeV, where the error is mostly due to the theoretical uncertainty of the 2-loop renormalization group equation...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shahar Hod
2016-10-01
Full Text Available We determine the characteristic timescales associated with the linearized relaxation dynamics of the composed Reissner–Nordström-black-hole-charged-massive-scalar-field system. To that end, the quasinormal resonant frequencies {ωn(μ,q,M,Q}n=0n=∞ which characterize the dynamics of a charged scalar field of mass μ and charge coupling constant q in the charged Reissner–Nordström black-hole spacetime of mass M and electric charge Q are determined analytically in the eikonal regime 1≪Mμ
Planck scale boundary conditions in the standard model with singlet scalar dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haba, Naoyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Kaneta, Kunio [Kavli IPMU (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Takahashi, Ryo [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan)
2014-04-04
We investigate Planck scale boundary conditions on the Higgs sector of the standard model with a gauge singlet scalar dark matter. We will find that vanishing self-coupling and Veltman condition at the Planck scale are realized with the 126 GeV Higgs mass and top pole mass, 172 GeV≲M{sub t}≲173.5 GeV, where a correct abundance of scalar dark matter is obtained with mass of 300 GeV≲m{sub S}≲1 TeV. It means that the Higgs potential is flat at the Planck scale, and this situation can not be realized in the standard model with the top pole mass.
Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Senaha, Eibun
2018-01-01
We analyze the theoretical and phenomenological considerations for the electroweak phase transition and dark matter in an extension of the standard model with a complex scalar singlet (cxSM). In contrast with earlier studies, we use a renormalization group improved scalar potential and treat its thermal history in a gauge-invariant manner. We find that the parameter space consistent with a strong first-order electroweak phase transition (SFOEWPT) and present dark matter phenomenological constraints is significantly restricted compared to results of a conventional, gauge-noninvariant analysis. In the simplest variant of the cxSM, recent LUX data and a SFOEWPT require a dark matter mass close to half the mass of the standard model-like Higgs boson. We also comment on various caveats regarding the perturbative treatment of the phase transition dynamics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)
2015-05-11
In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Burkhard Kleihaus
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.
A matrix model from string field theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syoji Zeze
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate that a Hermitian matrix model can be derived from level truncated open string field theory with Chan-Paton factors. The Hermitian matrix is coupled with a scalar and U(N vectors which are responsible for the D-brane at the tachyon vacuum. Effective potential for the scalar is evaluated both for finite and large N. Increase of potential height is observed in both cases. The large $N$ matrix integral is identified with a system of N ZZ branes and a ghost FZZT brane.
Scalar strong interaction hadron theory
Hoh, Fang Chao
2015-01-01
The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.
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Pashitskii, E. A., E-mail: pashitsk@iop.kiev.ua; Pentegov, V. I., E-mail: pentegov@iop.kiev.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Physics (Ukraine)
2017-03-15
We consider a possible scenario for the evolution of the early cold Universe born from a fairly large quantum fluctuation in a vacuum with a size a{sub 0} ≫ l{sub P} (where l{sub P} is the Planck length) and filled with both a nonlinear scalar field φ, whose potential energy density U(φ) determines the vacuum energy density λ, and a nonideal Fermi gas with short-range repulsion between particles, whose equation of state is characterized by the ratio of pressure P(n{sub F}) to energy density ε(n{sub F}) dependent on the number density of fermions n{sub F}. As the early Universe expands, the dimensionless quantity ν(n{sub F}) = P(n{sub F})/ε(n{sub F}) decreases with decreasing n{sub F} from its maximum value ν{sub max} = 1 for n{sub F} → ∞ to zero for n{sub F} → 0. The interaction of the scalar and gravitational fields, which is characterized by a dimensionless constant ξ, is proportional to the scalar curvature of four-dimensional space R = κ[3P(n{sub F})–ε(n{sub F})–4λ] (where κ is Einstein’s gravitational constant), and contains terms both quadratic and linear in φ. As a result, the expanding early Universe reaches the point of first-order phase transition in a finite time interval at critical values of the scalar curvature R = R{sub c} =–μ{sup 2}/ξ and radius a{sub c} ≫ a{sub 0}. Thereafter, the early closed Universe “rolls down” from the flat inflection point of the potential U(φ) to the zero potential minimum in a finite time. The release of the total potential energy of the scalar field in the entire volume of the expanding Universe as it “rolls down” must be accompanied by the production of a large number of massive particles and antiparticles of various kinds, whose annihilation plays the role of the Big Bang. We also discuss the fundamental nature of Newton’ gravitational constant G{sub N}.
Modelling of Turbulent Scalar Fluxes in the Broken Reaction Zones Regime
Im, Hong G.; Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Klein, Markus; Kasten, Christian; Arias, Paul
2016-11-01
The LES filtered species transport equation in turbulent reacting flow simulations contains the unclosed turbulent scalar flux that needs to be modelled. It is well known that the statistical behavior of this term and its alignment characteristics with resolved scalar gradient depend on the relative importance of heat release and turbulent velocity fluctuations. Counter-gradient transport has been reported in several earlier studies where the flames under investigation were located either in the corrugated flamelets or thin reaction zones regime of premixed turbulent combustion. Therefore it is useful to understand the statistical behavior of turbulent scalar fluxes if the flame represents the broken reaction zones regime (BRZR). The present analysis aims to provide improved understanding on this subject through an a-priori analysis of a detailed chemistry database consisting of three freely-propagating statistically planar turbulent H2-air premixed flames representing three different regimes of combustion. Results indicate that heat release effects weaken with increasing Karlovitz number, but that counter-gradient transport can still occur for large LES filter size in the BRZR. Furthermore the behaviour of the flux and in particular its sign are different for reactant and product species. KAUST, EPSRC, KAUST Supercomputing Lab, N8, Archer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ran Li
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Reissner–Nordström Anti-de Sitter (RNAdS black holes are unstable against the charged scalar field perturbations due to the well-known superradiance phenomenon. We present the time domain analysis of charged scalar field perturbations in the RNAdS black hole background in general dimensions. We show that the instabilities of charged scalar field can be explicitly illustrated from the time profiles of evolving scalar field. By using the Prony method to fit the time evolution data, we confirm the mode that dominates the long time behavior of scalar field is in accordance with the quasinormal mode from the frequency domain analysis. The superradiance origin of the instability can also be demonstrated by comparing the real part of the dominant mode with the superradiant condition of charged scalar field. It is shown that all the unstable modes are superradiant, which is consistent with the analytical result in the frequency domain analysis. Furthermore, we also confirm there exists the rapid exponential growing modes in the RNAdS case, which makes the RNAdS black hole a good test ground to investigate the nonlinear evolution of superradiant instability.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Ran, E-mail: liran@htu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Zhang, Hongbao, E-mail: hzhang@vub.ac.be [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); The International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Zhao, Junkun, E-mail: zhaojkun1991@163.com [Department of Physics, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China)
2016-07-10
Reissner–Nordström Anti-de Sitter (RNAdS) black holes are unstable against the charged scalar field perturbations due to the well-known superradiance phenomenon. We present the time domain analysis of charged scalar field perturbations in the RNAdS black hole background in general dimensions. We show that the instabilities of charged scalar field can be explicitly illustrated from the time profiles of evolving scalar field. By using the Prony method to fit the time evolution data, we confirm the mode that dominates the long time behavior of scalar field is in accordance with the quasinormal mode from the frequency domain analysis. The superradiance origin of the instability can also be demonstrated by comparing the real part of the dominant mode with the superradiant condition of charged scalar field. It is shown that all the unstable modes are superradiant, which is consistent with the analytical result in the frequency domain analysis. Furthermore, we also confirm there exists the rapid exponential growing modes in the RNAdS case, which makes the RNAdS black hole a good test ground to investigate the nonlinear evolution of superradiant instability.
Li, Ran; Zhang, Hongbao; Zhao, Junkun
2016-07-01
Reissner-Nordström Anti-de Sitter (RNAdS) black holes are unstable against the charged scalar field perturbations due to the well-known superradiance phenomenon. We present the time domain analysis of charged scalar field perturbations in the RNAdS black hole background in general dimensions. We show that the instabilities of charged scalar field can be explicitly illustrated from the time profiles of evolving scalar field. By using the Prony method to fit the time evolution data, we confirm the mode that dominates the long time behavior of scalar field is in accordance with the quasinormal mode from the frequency domain analysis. The superradiance origin of the instability can also be demonstrated by comparing the real part of the dominant mode with the superradiant condition of charged scalar field. It is shown that all the unstable modes are superradiant, which is consistent with the analytical result in the frequency domain analysis. Furthermore, we also confirm there exists the rapid exponential growing modes in the RNAdS case, which makes the RNAdS black hole a good test ground to investigate the nonlinear evolution of superradiant instability.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alonso, Rodrigo [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego,La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V. [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego,La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); CERN TH Division,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2016-08-17
The S-matrix of a quantum field theory is unchanged by field redefinitions, and so it only depends on geometric quantities such as the curvature of field space. Whether the Higgs multiplet transforms linearly or non-linearly under electroweak symmetry is a subtle question since one can make a coordinate change to convert a field that transforms linearly into one that transforms non-linearly. Renormalizability of the Standard Model (SM) does not depend on the choice of scalar fields or whether the scalar fields transform linearly or non-linearly under the gauge group, but only on the geometric requirement that the scalar field manifold M is flat. Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT) and Higgs Effective Field Theory (HEFT) have curved M, since they parametrize deviations from the flat SM case. We show that the HEFT Lagrangian can be written in SMEFT form if and only if M has a SU(2){sub L}×U(1){sub Y} invariant fixed point. Experimental observables in HEFT depend on local geometric invariants of M such as sectional curvatures, which are of order 1/Λ{sup 2}, where Λ is the EFT scale. We give explicit expressions for these quantities in terms of the structure constants for a general G→H symmetry breaking pattern. The one-loop radiative correction in HEFT is determined using a covariant expansion which preserves manifest invariance of M under coordinate redefinitions. The formula for the radiative correction is simple when written in terms of the curvature of M and the gauge curvature field strengths. We also extend the CCWZ formalism to non-compact groups, and generalize the HEFT curvature computation to the case of multiple singlet scalar fields.
Phase Plane Analysis of Metric-Scalar Torsion Model for Interacting Dark Energy
Bhatia, Arshdeep Singh
2016-01-01
We study the phase space dynamics of the non-minimally coupled Metric-Scalar-Torsion model in both Jordan and Einstein frames. We specifically check for the existence of critical points which yield stable solutions representing the current state of accelerated expansion of the universe fuelled by the Dark Energy. It is found that such solutions do indeed exist, subject to constraints on the free model parameter. In fact the evolution of the universe at these stable critical points exactly matches the evolution given by the cosmological solutions we found analytically in our previous work on the subject.
Reconstruction of scalar and vectorial components in X-ray dark-field tomography.
Bayer, Florian L; Hu, Shiyang; Maier, Andreas; Weber, Thomas; Anton, Gisela; Michel, Thilo; Riess, Christian P
2014-09-02
Grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging is a novel technique for obtaining image contrast for object structures at size scales below setup resolution. Such an approach appears particularly beneficial for medical imaging and nondestructive testing. It has already been shown that the dark-field signal depends on the direction of observation. However, up to now, algorithms for fully recovering the orientation dependence in a tomographic volume are still unexplored. In this publication, we propose a reconstruction method for grating-based X-ray dark-field tomography, which models the orientation-dependent signal as an additional observable from a standard tomographic scan. In detail, we extend the tomographic volume to a tensorial set of voxel data, containing the local orientation and contributions to dark-field scattering. In our experiments, we present the first results of several test specimens exhibiting a heterogeneous composition in microstructure, which demonstrates the diagnostic potential of the method.
Phase-space representation of non-classical behaviour of scalar wave-fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canas-Cardona, Gustavo; Castaneda, Roman [Physics School, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellin, A.A. 3840 Medellin (Colombia); Vinck-Posada, Herbert, E-mail: gcanas@unal.edu.co [Physics Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Bogota, Bogota D.C (Colombia)
2011-01-01
The modelling of optical fields by using radiant and virtual point sources for the spatial coherence wavelets in the phase-space representation evidences some effects, conventionally attributed to non-classical correlations of light, although such type of correlations are not explicitly included in the model. Specifically, a light state is produced that has similar morphology to the Wigner Distribution Function of the well-known quantum Schroedinger cat and squeezed states.
Analysis of Λb→Λμ+μ- Decay in Scalar Leptoquark Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuai-Wei Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We analyze the baryonic semilepton decay Λb→Λμ+μ- in the scalar leptoquark models with X(3,2,7/6 and X(3,2,1/6 states, respectively. We also discuss the effects of these two NP models on some physical observables. For some measured observables, like the differential decay width, the longitudinal polarization of the dilepton system, the lepton-side forward-backward asymmetry, and the baryon-side forward-backward asymmetry, we find that the prediction values of SM are consistent with the current data in most q2 ranges, where the prediction values of these two NP models can also keep consistent with the current data with 1σ. However, in some q2 ranges, the prediction values of SM are difficult to meet the current data, but the contributions of these two NP models can meet them or keep close to them. For the double-lepton polarization asymmetries, PLT, PTL, PNN, and PTT are sensitive to the scalar leptoquark model X(3,2,7/6 but not to X(3,2,1/6. However, PLN, PNL, PTN, and PNT are not sensitive to these two NP models.
Shao, Lijing; Sennett, Noah; Buonanno, Alessandra; Kramer, Michael; Wex, Norbert
2017-10-01
Pulsar timing and laser-interferometer gravitational-wave (GW) detectors are superb laboratories to study gravity theories in the strong-field regime. Here, we combine these tools to test the mono-scalar-tensor theory of Damour and Esposito-Farèse (DEF), which predicts nonperturbative scalarization phenomena for neutron stars (NSs). First, applying Markov-chain Monte Carlo techniques, we use the absence of dipolar radiation in the pulsar-timing observations of five binary systems composed of a NS and a white dwarf, and eleven equations of state (EOSs) for NSs, to derive the most stringent constraints on the two free parameters of the DEF scalar-tensor theory. Since the binary-pulsar bounds depend on the NS mass and the EOS, we find that current pulsar-timing observations leave scalarization windows, i.e., regions of parameter space where scalarization can still be prominent. Then, we investigate if these scalarization windows could be closed and if pulsar-timing constraints could be improved by laser-interferometer GW detectors, when spontaneous (or dynamical) scalarization sets in during the early (or late) stages of a binary NS (BNS) evolution. For the early inspiral of a BNS carrying constant scalar charge, we employ a Fisher-matrix analysis to show that Advanced LIGO can improve pulsar-timing constraints for some EOSs, and next-generation detectors, such as the Cosmic Explorer and Einstein Telescope, will be able to improve those bounds for all eleven EOSs. Using the late inspiral of a BNS, we estimate that for some of the EOSs under consideration, the onset of dynamical scalarization can happen early enough to improve the constraints on the DEF parameters obtained by combining the five binary pulsars. Thus, in the near future, the complementarity of pulsar timing and direct observations of GWs on the ground will be extremely valuable in probing gravity theories in the strong-field regime.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lijing Shao
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Pulsar timing and laser-interferometer gravitational-wave (GW detectors are superb laboratories to study gravity theories in the strong-field regime. Here, we combine these tools to test the mono-scalar-tensor theory of Damour and Esposito-Farèse (DEF, which predicts nonperturbative scalarization phenomena for neutron stars (NSs. First, applying Markov-chain Monte Carlo techniques, we use the absence of dipolar radiation in the pulsar-timing observations of five binary systems composed of a NS and a white dwarf, and eleven equations of state (EOSs for NSs, to derive the most stringent constraints on the two free parameters of the DEF scalar-tensor theory. Since the binary-pulsar bounds depend on the NS mass and the EOS, we find that current pulsar-timing observations leave scalarization windows, i.e., regions of parameter space where scalarization can still be prominent. Then, we investigate if these scalarization windows could be closed and if pulsar-timing constraints could be improved by laser-interferometer GW detectors, when spontaneous (or dynamical scalarization sets in during the early (or late stages of a binary NS (BNS evolution. For the early inspiral of a BNS carrying constant scalar charge, we employ a Fisher-matrix analysis to show that Advanced LIGO can improve pulsar-timing constraints for some EOSs, and next-generation detectors, such as the Cosmic Explorer and Einstein Telescope, will be able to improve those bounds for all eleven EOSs. Using the late inspiral of a BNS, we estimate that for some of the EOSs under consideration, the onset of dynamical scalarization can happen early enough to improve the constraints on the DEF parameters obtained by combining the five binary pulsars. Thus, in the near future, the complementarity of pulsar timing and direct observations of GWs on the ground will be extremely valuable in probing gravity theories in the strong-field regime.
Fialko, O.; Opanchuk, B.; Sidorov, A. I.; Drummond, P. D.; Brand, J.
2017-01-01
The quantum decay of a relativistic scalar field from a metastable state (‘false vacuum decay’) is a fundamental idea in quantum field theory and cosmology. This occurs via local formation of bubbles of true vacuum with their subsequent rapid expansion. It can be considered as a relativistic analog of a first-order phase transition in condensed matter. Here we expand upon our recent proposal (Fialko O et al 2015 Europhys. Lett. 110 56001) for an experimental test of false vacuum decay using an ultra-cold spinor Bose gas. A false vacuum for the relative phase of two spin components, serving as the unstable scalar field, is generated by means of a modulated linear coupling of the spin components. We analyze the system theoretically using the functional integral approach and show that various microscopic degrees of freedom in the system, albeit leading to dissipation in the relative phase sector, will not hamper the observation of the false vacuum decay in the laboratory. This is well supported by numerical simulations demonstrating the spontaneous formation of true vacuum bubbles on millisecond time-scales in two-component 7Li or 41K bosonic condensates in one-dimensional traps of ∼ 100 μ {{m}} size.
On the backreaction of scalar and spinor quantum fields in curved spacetimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hack, Thomas-Paul
2010-10-15
In the first instance, the present work is concerned with generalising constructions and results in quantum field theory on curved spacetimes from the well-known case of the Klein-Gordon field to Dirac fields. To this end, the enlarged algebra of observables of the Dirac field is constructed in the algebraic framework. This algebra contains normal-ordered Wick polynomials in particular, and an extended analysis of one of its elements, the stress-energy tensor, is performed. Based on detailed calculations of the Hadamard coe?cients of the Dirac field, it is found that a local, covariant, and covariantly conserved construction of the stress-energy tensor is possible. Additionally, the mathematically sound Hadamard regularisation prescription of the stress-energy tensor is compared to the mathematically less rigorous DeWitt-Schwinger regularisation. It is found that both prescriptions are essentially equivalent, particularly, it turns out to be possible to formulate the DeWitt-Schwinger prescription in a well-defined way. While the aforementioned results hold in generic curved spacetimes, particular attention is also devoted to a specific class of Robertson-Walker spacetimes with a lightlike Big Bang hypersurface. Employing holographic methods, Hadamard states for the Klein-Gordon and the Dirac field are constructed. These states are preferred in the sense that they constitute asymptotic equilibrium states in the limit to the Big Bang hypersurface. Finally, solutions of the semiclassical Einstein equation for quantum fields of arbitrary spin are analysed in the flat Robertson-Walker case. One finds that these solutions explain the measured supernova Ia data as good as the {lambda}CDM model. Hence, one arrives at a natural explanation of dark energy and a simple quantum model of cosmological dark matter. (orig.)
Exploring CP-even scalars of a Two Higgs-doublet model in future e - p colliders
Mosomane, Chuene; Kumar, Mukesh; Cornell, Alan S.; Mellado, Bruce
2017-09-01
In this proceeding we shall explore the potential of a future e - p collider to probe the CP-even scalars in a two Higgs doublet model. We consider Type-I in this study. The mass of the lighter scalar particle is considered to be the Higgs-boson, mh = 125 GeV, and a heavy scalar mH = 270 GeV. The centre of mass energy for the e - p collision is considered as in the Large Hadron Electron Collider and the Future Circular Hadron Electron Collider configurations, by fixing the proton beam energy to be Ep = 7 and 50 TeV, respectively, and an electron beam energy of Ee = 60 GeV. Production cross sections of these scalars are also shown at higher electron beam energies. Future prospects of these studies are also discussed.
On Invariants and Scalar Chiral Correlation Functions in { n} = 1 Superconformal Field Theories
Knuth, Holger
A general expression for the four-point function with vanishing total R-charge of antichiral and chiral superfields in { N} = 1 superconformal theories is given. It is obtained by applying the exponential of a simple universal nilpotent differential operator to an arbitrary function of two cross-ratios. To achieve this the nilpotent superconformal invariants according to Park are focused. Several dependencies between these invariants are presented, so that eight nilpotent invariants and 27 monomials of these invariants of degree d > 1 are left being linearly independent. It is analyzed, how terms within the four-point function of general scalar superfields cancel in order to fulfill the chiral restrictions.
Finite Size Corrections to the Excitation Energy Transfer in a Massless Scalar Interaction Model
Maeda, N; Tobita, Y; Ishikawa, K
2016-01-01
We study the excitation energy transfer (EET) for a simple model in which a virtual massless scalar particle is exchanged between two molecules. If the time interval is finite, then the finite size effect generally appears in a transition amplitude through the regions where the wave nature of quanta remains. We calculated the transition amplitude for EET and obtained finite size corrections to the standard formula derived by using Fermi's golden rule. These corrections for the transition amplitude appear outside the resonance energy region. The estimation in a photosynthesis system indicates that the finite size correction could reduce the EET time considerably.
Using a scalar parameter to trace dislocation evolution in atomistic modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Jinbo [ORNL; Zhang, Z F [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL
2015-01-01
A scalar gamma-parameter is proposed from the Nye tensor. Its maximum value occurs along a dislocation line, either straight or curved, when the coordinate system is purposely chosen. This parameter can be easily obtained from the Nye tensor calculated at each atom in atomistic modeling. Using the gamma-parameter, a fully automated approach is developed to determine core atoms and the Burgers vectors of dislocations simultaneously. The approach is validated by revealing the smallest dislocation loop and by tracing the whole formation process of complicated dislocation networks on the fly.
Ignat'ev, Yu G
2013-01-01
On the basis of Hamilton a formalism the dynamic equations of movement scalar charged particles in a classical scalar field are formulated. Unlike earlier published works of the author the model with zero own weight of particles is considered. Linear integrals of movement are found and ambiguity of communication between kinematic speed and an impulse of particles is specified.
Nakonieczna, Anna
2015-01-01
There does not exist a notion of time which could be transferred straightforwardly from classical to quantum gravity. For this reason, a method of time quantification which would be appropriate for gravity quantization is being sought. One of the existing proposals is using the evolving matter as an intrinsic `clock' while investigating the dynamics of gravitational systems. The objective of our research was to check whether scalar fields can serve as time variables during a dynamical evolution of a coupled multi-component matter-geometry system. For this purpose, we investigated a gravitational collapse of a self-interacting complex and real scalar fields in the Brans-Dicke theory using the 2+2 spacetime foliation. We focused mainly on the region of high curvature appearing nearby the emerging singularity, which is essential from the perspective of quantum gravity. We investigated several formulations of the theory for various values of the Brans-Dicke coupling constant and the coupling between the Brans-Dic...
Fundamental and composite scalars from extra dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aranda, Alfredo [Dual C-P Institute of High Energy Physics, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico)], E-mail: fefo@ucol.mx; Diaz-Cruz, J.L. [Dual C-P Institute of High Energy Physics, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Dual C-P Institute of High Energy Physics, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Apdo. Postal 1364, C.P. 72000 Puebla, Pue (Mexico)], E-mail: lorenzo.diaz@fcfm.buap.mx; Hernandez-Sanchez, J. [Dual C-P Institute of High Energy Physics, Centro de Investigacion en Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo km. 4.5, C.P. 42184, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)], E-mail: jaimeh@uaeh.edu.mx; Noriega-Papaqui, R. [Dual C-P Institute of High Energy Physics, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: rnoriega@fisica.unam.mx
2007-12-13
We discuss a scenario consisting of an effective 4D theory containing fundamental and composite fields. The strong dynamics sector responsible for the compositeness is assumed to be of extra dimensional origin. In the 4D effective theory the SM fermion and gauge fields are taken as fundamental fields. The scalar sector of the theory resembles a bosonic topcolor in the sense there are two scalar Higgs fields, a composite scalar field and a fundamental gauge-Higgs unification scalar. A detailed analysis of the scalar spectrum is presented in order to explore the parameter space consistent with experiment. It is found that, under the model assumptions, the acceptable parameter space is quite constrained. As a part of our phenomenological study of the model, we evaluate the branching ratio of the lightest Higgs boson and find that our model predicts a large FCNC mode h{yields}tc, which can be as large as O(10{sup -3}). Similarly, a large BR for the top FCNC decay is obtained, namely BR(t{yields}c+H){approx_equal}10{sup -4}.
Computational study of scalar mixing in the field of a gaseous laminar line vortex
Basu, S.; Barber, T. J.; Cetegen, B. M.
2007-05-01
A computational study of scalar mixing in a laminar vortex is presented for vortices generated between two gas streams (one seeded and another unseeded) flowing parallel to each other in a rectangular flow channel. An isolated line vortex is initiated by momentarily increasing one of the stream velocities in relation to the other in otherwise equal velocity, co-flowing streams separated upstream by a splitter plate. A detailed parametric study was conducted to determine the effects of vortex strength, convection time, and nonuniform temperature on scalar mixing characteristics. A qualitative relationship was developed between the vortex and the convection Reynolds numbers to obtain a well-defined vortical structure. As it is well-known in the literature on mixing layers, the vortex initiation process creates an abundance of the fluid in the vortex core from the pulsed (or high speed) stream. Spatial mixing statistics are obtained in the vortex interaction domain by determining the scalar concentration probability density functions as well as the mean mixed fluid concentration and its variance. Computational results are found to be in excellent agreement with the experiments conducted in the same configuration by one of the authors. Both computations and experiments suggest that the interfacial area generation as a result of vortex interaction is primarily responsible for mixing augmentation at high vortex Reynolds numbers (Rev≥140). Effects of molecular diffusion become more important for weak vortices and at short convection times. Temperature (or density) ratio between co-flowing streams clearly affects the rate of growth of the vortices and this is consistent with the findings in nonuniform density mixing layers. Nonuniform temperatures result in a decrease of the mean mixed fluid concentration regardless of the stream from which the vortex is generated. The mean mixed fluid concentration in the vortex interaction region scales with the product of vortex
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)
2017-05-15
The quasi-bound states of charged massive scalar fields in the near-extremal charged Reissner-Nordstroem black-hole spacetime are studied analytically. These discrete resonant modes of the composed black-hole-field system are characterized by the physically motivated boundary condition of ingoing waves at the black-hole horizon and exponentially decaying (bounded) radial eigenfunctions at spatial infinity. Solving the Klein-Gordon wave equation for the linearized scalar fields in the black-hole spacetime, we derive a remarkably compact analytical formula for the complex frequency spectrum which characterizes the quasi-bound state resonances of the composed Reissner-Nordstroem-black-hole-charged-massive-scalar-field system. (orig.)
Kofinas, Georgios; Lima, Nelson A.
2017-10-01
In this work we focus on a novel completion of the well-known Brans-Dicke theory that introduces an interaction between the dark energy and dark matter sectors, known as complete Brans-Dicke (CBD) theory. We obtain viable cosmological accelerating solutions that fit supernovae observations with great precision without any scalar potential V (ϕ ). We use these solutions to explore the impact of the CBD theory on the large scale structure by studying the dynamics of its linear perturbations. We observe a growing behavior of the lensing potential Φ+ at late-times, while the growth rate is actually suppressed relatively to Λ CDM , which allows the CBD theory to provide a competitive fit to current RSD measurements of f σ8. However, we also observe that the theory exhibits a pathological change of sign in the effective gravitational constant concerning the perturbations on subhorizon scales that could pose a challenge to its validity.
Update on scalar singlet dark matter
Cline, J.M.; Scott, P.; Kainulainen, K.; Weniger, C.
2013-01-01
One of the simplest models of dark matter is where a scalar singlet field S comprises some or all of the dark matter and interacts with the standard model through an vertical bar H vertical bar S-2(2) coupling to the Higgs boson. We update the present limits on the model from LHC searches for
Semi-analytic stellar structure in scalar-tensor gravity
Horbatsch, M. W.; Burgess, C. P.
2011-08-01
Precision tests of gravity can be used to constrain the properties of hypothetical very light scalar fields, but these tests depend crucially on how macroscopic astrophysical objects couple to the new scalar field. We study the equations of stellar structure using scalar-tensor gravity, with the goal of seeing how stellar properties depend on assumptions made about the scalar coupling at a microscopic level. In order to make the study relatively easy for different assumptions about microscopic couplings, we develop quasi-analytic approximate methods for solving the stellar-structure equations rather than simply integrating them numerically. (The approximation involved assumes the dimensionless scalar coupling at the stellar center is weak, and we compare our results with numerical integration in order to establish its domain of validity.) We illustrate these methods by applying them to Brans-Dicke scalars, and their generalization in which the scalar-matter coupling slowly runs — or `walks' — as a function of the scalar field: a(phi) simeq as+bsphi. (Such couplings can arise in extra-dimensional applications, for instance.) The four observable parameters that characterize the fields external to a spherically symmetric star are the stellar radius, R, mass, M, scalar `charge', Q, and the scalar's asymptotic value, phi∞. These are subject to two relations because of the matching to the interior solution, generalizing the usual mass-radius, M(R), relation of General Relativity. Since phi∞ is common to different stars in a given region (such as a binary pulsar), all quantities can be computed locally in terms of the stellar masses. We identify how these relations depend on the microscopic scalar couplings, agreeing with earlier workers when comparisons are possible. Explicit analytical solutions are obtained for the instructive toy model of constant-density stars, whose properties we compare to more realistic equations of state for neutron star models.
Enhancement of the H{sup ±}W{sup ∓}Z vertex in the three scalar doublet model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moretti, Stefano [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Rojas, Diana [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla,Apdo. Postal J-48, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Yagyu, Kei [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)
2015-08-24
We compute one-loop induced trilinear vertices with physical charged Higgs bosons H{sup ±} and ordinary gauge bosons, i.e., H{sup ±}W{sup ∓}Z and H{sup ±}W{sup ∓}γ, in the model with two active plus one inert scalar doublet fields under a Z{sub 2}(unbroken)×Z̃{sub 2}(softly-broken) symmetry. The Z{sub 2} and Z̃{sub 2} symmetries are introduced to guarantee the stability of a dark matter candidate and to forbid the flavour changing neutral current at the tree level, respectively. The dominant form factor F{sub Z} of the H{sup ±}W{sup ∓}Z vertex can be enhanced by effects of extra scalar boson loop contributions. We find that, in such a model, |F{sub Z}|{sup 2} can be one order of magnitude larger than that predicted in two Higgs doublet models, under the constraints from vacuum stability, perturbative unitarity and the electroweak precision observables. In addition, the branching fraction of the H{sup ±}→W{sup ±}Z(H{sup ±}→W{sup ±}γ) mode can be of order 10 (1)% level when the mass of H{sup ±} is below the top quark mass. Such a light H{sup ±} is allowed by the so-called Type-I and Type-X Yukawa interactions which appear under the classification of the Z̃ charge assignment of the quarks and leptons. We also calculate the cross sections for the processes H{sup ±}→W{sup ±}Z and H{sup ±}→W{sup ±}γ onset by the top quark decay t→H{sup ±}b and electroweak H{sup ±} production at the LHC.
Implications of right-handed neutrinos in B -L extended standard model with scalar dark matter
Bandyopadhyay, Priyotosh; Chun, Eung Jin; Mandal, Rusa
2018-01-01
We investigate the standard model (SM) with a U (1 )B-L gauge extension where a B -L charged scalar is a viable dark matter (DM) candidate. The dominant annihilation process, for the DM particle is through the B -L symmetry breaking scalar to a right-handed neutrino pair. We exploit the effect of decay and inverse decay of the right-handed neutrino in thermal relic abundance of the DM. Depending on the values of the decay rate, the DM relic density can be significantly different from what is obtained in the standard calculation assuming the right-handed neutrino is in thermal equilibrium and there appear different regions of the parameter space satisfying the observed DM relic density. For a DM mass less than O (TeV ) , the direct detection experiments impose a competitive bound on the mass of the U (1 )B-L gauge boson Z' with the collider experiments. Utilizing the nonobservation of the displaced vertices arising from the right-handed neutrino decays, the bound on the mass of Z' has been obtained at present and higher luminosities at the LHC with 14 TeV center of mass energy where an integrated luminosity of 100 fb-1 is sufficient to probe mZ'˜5.5 TeV .
A very light CP-odd scalar in the Two-Higgs-Doublet Model
Larios, F; Yuan, C P; CERN. Geneva
2001-01-01
We show that a general two-Higgs-doublet model (THDM) with a very light CP-odd scalar (A) can be compatible with the rho parameter, Br(b --> s\\gamma), R_b, A_b, (g-2) of muon, Br(Upsilon --> A gamma), and the direct search via the Yukawa process at LEP. For its mass around 0.2 GeV, the muon (g-2) and Br(Upsilon --> A \\gamma) data require tan(beta) to be about 1. Consequently, A can behave like a fermiophobic CP-odd scalar and predominantly decay into a photon pair ("gamma gamma"), which registers in detectors of high energy collider experiments as a single photon signature when the momentum of A is large. We compute the partial decay width of Z --> A A A and the production rate of f \\bar{f} --> Z A A --> Z +"gamma gamma", f^' {\\bar f} --> W^{\\pm} A A --> W^\\pm + "gamma gamma" and f \\bar f --> H^+ H^- --> W^+ W^- A A --> W^+ W^- + "gamma gamma" at high energy colliders such as LEP, Tevatron, LHC, and future Linear Colliders. Other production mechanisms of a light A, such as gg --> h --> AA --> "gamma gamma", a...
Massive scalar counterpart of gravitational waves in scalarized neutron star binaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Jing [Sun Yat-sen University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Guangzhou (China)
2017-09-15
In analogy with spontaneous magnetization of ferromagnets below the Curie temperature, a neutron star (NS), with a compactness above a certain critical value, may undergo spontaneous scalarization and exhibit an interior nontrivial scalar configuration. Consequently, the exterior spacetime is changed, and an external scalar field appears, which subsequently triggers a scalarization of its companion. The dynamical interplay produces a gravitational scalar counterpart of tensor gravitational waves. In this paper, we resort to scalar-tensor theory and demonstrate that the gravitational scalar counterpart from a double neutron star (DNS) and a neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) system become massive. We report that (1) a gravitational scalar background field, arising from convergence of external scalar fields, plays the role of gravitational scalar counterpart in scalarized DNS binary, and the appearance of a mass-dimensional constant in a Higgs-like gravitational scalar potential is responsible for a massive gravitational scalar counterpart with a mass of the order of the Planck scale; (2) a dipolar gravitational scalar radiated field, resulting from differing binding energies of NS and WD, plays the role of a gravitational scalar counterpart in scalarized orbital shrinking NS-WDs, which oscillates around a local and scalar-energy-density-dependent minimum of the gravitational scalar potential and obtains a mass of the order of about 10{sup -21} eV/c{sup 2}. (orig.)
Massive scalar counterpart of gravitational waves in scalarized neutron star binaries
Wang, Jing
2017-09-01
In analogy with spontaneous magnetization of ferromagnets below the Curie temperature, a neutron star (NS), with a compactness above a certain critical value, may undergo spontaneous scalarization and exhibit an interior nontrivial scalar configuration. Consequently, the exterior spacetime is changed, and an external scalar field appears, which subsequently triggers a scalarization of its companion. The dynamical interplay produces a gravitational scalar counterpart of tensor gravitational waves. In this paper, we resort to scalar-tensor theory and demonstrate that the gravitational scalar counterpart from a double neutron star (DNS) and a neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) system become massive. We report that (1) a gravitational scalar background field, arising from convergence of external scalar fields, plays the role of gravitational scalar counterpart in scalarized DNS binary, and the appearance of a mass-dimensional constant in a Higgs-like gravitational scalar potential is responsible for a massive gravitational scalar counterpart with a mass of the order of the Planck scale; (2) a dipolar gravitational scalar radiated field, resulting from differing binding energies of NS and WD, plays the role of a gravitational scalar counterpart in scalarized orbital shrinking NS-WDs, which oscillates around a local and scalar-energy-density-dependent minimum of the gravitational scalar potential and obtains a mass of the order of about 10^{-21} { {eV/c}}^2.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nemmour, A.L.; Khezzar, A.; Hacil, M.; Louze, L. [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique LEC, Universite Mentouri, Constantine (Algeria); Mehazzem, F. [Groupe ESIEE, Paris Est University (France); Abdessemed, R. [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique LEB, Universite El Hadj Lakhdar, Batna (Algeria)
2010-10-15
This paper presents a new non-linear control Algorithm based on the Backstepping approach for an isolated induction generator (IG) driven by a wind turbine. For this purpose and in order to reduce the complexity of the real induction machine mathematical model, the multi-scalar machine model is exploited. The machine delivers an active power to the load via a converter connected to a single capacitor on the dc-side. So, during the voltage build-up process, the necessary stator currents references to be injected by the converter are calculated from the desired active power to be sent to the load and the rotor flux magnitude. Simulation results show that the proposed control provides perfect tracking performances of the DC-bus voltage and the rotor flux magnitude to their reference trajectories. (author)
Saharian, Aram; Kotanjyan, Anna; Sargsyan, Hayk; Simonyan, David
2016-07-01
The models with compact spatial dimensions appear in a number of fundamental physical theories. In particular, the idea of compactified dimensions has been extensively used in supergravity and superstring theories. In quantum field theory, the modification of the vacuum fluctuations spectrum by the periodicity conditions imposed on the field operator along compact dimensions leads to a number of interesting physical effects. A well known example of this kind, demonstrating the close relation between quantum phenomena and global geometry, is the topological Casimir effect. In models with extra compact dimensions, the Casimir energy creates a nontrivial potential for the compactification radius. This can serve as a stabilization mechanism for moduli fields and for the effective gauge couplings. The Casimir effect has also been considered as a possible origin for the dark energy in Kaluza-Klein-type and braneworld models. In the resent presentation we investigate the effects of the gravity and topology on the local properties of the quantum vacuum for a charged scalar field in the presence of a classical gauge field. Vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor and current density are investigated for a charged scalar field in dS spacetime with toroidally compact spatial dimensions in the presence of a classical constant gauge field. Due to the nontrivial topology, the latter gives rise to Aharonov-Bohm-like effect on the vacuum characteristics. The vacuum current density, energy density and stresses are even periodic functions of the magnetic flux enclosed by compact dimensions. For small values of the comoving lengths of compact dimensions, compared with the dS curvature radius, the effects of gravity on the topological contributions are small and the expectation values are expressed in terms of the corresponding quantities in the Minkowski bulk by the standard conformal relation. For large values of the comoving lengths, depending on the field mass, two
Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of a free scalar field on S1 with time dependent mass
Cortez, Jerónimo; Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena; Serôdio, Rogério; Velhinho, José M.
2009-04-01
We analyze the quantum description of a free scalar field on the circle in the presence of an explicitly time-dependent potential, also interpretable as a time-dependent mass. Classically, the field satisfies a linear wave equation of the form ξ¨-ξ''+f(t)ξ=0. We prove that the representation of the canonical commutation relations corresponding to the particular case of a massless free field (f=0) provides a unitary implementation of the dynamics for sufficiently general mass terms, f(t). Furthermore, this representation is uniquely specified, among the class of representations determined by S1-invariant complex structures, as the only one allowing a unitary dynamics. These conclusions can be extended in fact to fields on the two-sphere possessing axial symmetry. This generalizes a uniqueness result previously obtained in the context of the quantum field description of the Gowdy cosmologies, in the case of linear polarization and for any of the possible topologies of the spatial sections.
Radiation force of scalar and electromagnetic twisted Gaussian Schell-model beams.
Zhao, Chengliang; Cai, Yangjian; Korotkova, Olga
2009-11-23
Radiation force of a focused scalar twisted Gaussian Schell-model (TGSM) beam on a Rayleigh dielectric sphere is investigated. It is found that the twist phase affects the radiation force and by raising the absolute value of the twist factor it is possible to increase both transverse and longitudinal trapping ranges at the real focus where the maximum on-axis intensity is located. Numerical calculations of radiation forces induced by a focused electromagnetic TGSM beam on a Rayleigh dielectric sphere are carried out. It is found that radiation force is closely related to the twist phase, degree of polarization and correlation factors of the initial beam. The trapping stability is also discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shahar Hod
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The quasinormal resonance spectrum {ωn(μ,q,M,Q}n=0n=∞ of charged massive scalar fields in the charged Reissner–Nordström black-hole spacetime is studied analytically in the large-coupling regime qQ≫Mμ (here {μ,q} are respectively the mass and charge coupling constant of the field, and {M,Q} are respectively the mass and electric charge of the black hole. This physical system provides a striking illustration for the validity of the universal relaxation bound τ×T≥ħ/π in black-hole physics (here τ≡1/ℑω0 is the characteristic relaxation time of the composed black-hole-scalar-field system, and T is the Bekenstein–Hawking temperature of the black hole. In particular, it is shown that the relaxation dynamics of charged massive scalar fields in the charged Reissner–Nordström black-hole spacetime may saturate this quantum time-times-temperature inequality. Interestingly, we prove that potential violations of the bound by light scalar fields are excluded by the Schwinger-type pair-production mechanism (a vacuum polarization effect, a quantum phenomenon which restricts the physical parameters of the composed black-hole-charged-field system to the regime qQ≪M2μ2/ħ.
El Sayed, Ahmad; Mortensen, Mikael; Wen, John Z.
2014-09-01
This paper assesses the Presumed Mapping Function (PMF) approach in the context of the Stationary Laminar Flamelet Modelling (SLFM) of a reacting Double Scalar Mixing Layer (DSML). Starting from a prescribed Gaussian reference field, the PMF approach provides a presumed Probability Density Function (PDF) for the mixture fraction that is subsequently employed to close the Conditional Scalar Dissipation Rate (CSDR) upon doubly-integrating the homogeneous PDF transport equation. The PMF approach is unique in its ability to yield PDF and CSDR distributions that capture the effect of multiple fuel injections of different composition. This distinct feature overcomes the shortcomings of the classical SLFM closures (the β-distribution for the PDF and the counterflow solution for the CSDR). The current study analyses the impact of the binary (two-stream) and trinary (three-stream) PMF approaches on the structure of laminar flamelets in a DSML formed by the mixing of a fuel stream and an oxidiser stream separated by a pilot. The conditions of a partially-premixed methane/air piloted jet flame are considered. A parametric assessment is performed by varying the local mixing statistics and the findings are compared to those of the classical SLFM approach. Further, the influence of the PMF approach on flamelet extinction and transport by means of differential diffusion is thoroughly investigated. It is shown that the trinary PMF approach captures the influence of the pilot stream as it is capable of yielding bimodal CSDR and trimodal PDF distributions. It is further demonstrated that, when the influence of the pilot is significant, flamelets generated using the trinary CSDR closure extinguish at higher strain levels compared to flamelets generated using the binary and counterflow closures. Lastly, it is shown that the trinary PMF approach can be critical for accurate SLFM computations of DSMLs when differential diffusion effects are important.
CMB bounds on tensor-scalar-scalar inflationary correlations
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R.
2018-01-01
The nonlinear interaction between one graviton and two scalars is enhanced in specific inflationary models, potentially leading to distinguishable signatures in the bispectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. We develop the tools to examine such bispectrum signatures, and show a first application using WMAP temperature data. We consider several l-ranges, estimating the gtss amplitude parameter, by means of the so-called separable modal methodology. We do not find any evidence of a tensor-scalar-scalar signal at any scale. Our tightest bound on the size of the tensor-scalar-scalar correlator is derived from our measurement including all the multipoles in the range 2 first direct observational constraint on the primordial tensor-scalar-scalar correlation, and it will be cross-checked and improved by applying the same pipeline to high-resolution temperature and polarization data from Planck and forthcoming CMB experiments.
Excursion probabilities of non-homogeneous Gaussian scalar fields based on maxima considerations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber; Rackwitz, R.
1988-01-01
Many uncertain natural or technical phenomena are most realistically described by random fields. A typical example of a random field is the load effect in a floor slab which is loaded by a spatially distributed gravity load. Other examples of random fields include the sea-level around off-shore p...
Scalar perturbation produced at the pre-inflationary stage in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Inyong; Singh, Naveen K. [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Institute of Convergence Fundamental Studies, School of Liberal Arts, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-06-15
We investigate the scalar perturbation produced at the pre-inflationary stage driven by a massive scalar field in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity. The scalar power spectrum exhibits a peculiar rise for low k-modes. The tensor-to-scalar ratio can be significantly lowered compared with that in the standard chaotic inflation model in general relativity. This result is very affirmative considering the recent dispute on the detection of gravitational wave radiation between PLANCK and BICEP2. (orig.)
Wave propagation and shock formation in the most general scalar-tensor theories
Tanahashi, Norihiro; Ohashi, Seiju
2017-11-01
This work studies wave propagation in the most general covariant scalar-tensor theories with second-order field equations, particularly focusing on the causal structure realized in these theories and also the shock formation process induced by nonlinear effects. For these studies we use the Horndeski theory and its generalization to the two scalar field case. We show that propagation speeds of the gravitational wave and scalar field wave in these theories may differ from the light speed depending on background field configuration, and find that a Killing horizon becomes a boundary of causal domain if the scalar fields share the symmetry of the background spacetime. With regard to the shock formation, we focus on transport of discontinuity in second derivatives of the metric and scalar field in the shift-symmetric Horndeski theory. We find that amplitude of the discontinuity generically diverges within finite time, which corresponds to shock formation. It turns out that the canonical scalar field and the scalar DBI model, among other theories described by the Horndeski theory, are free from such shock formation even when the background geometry and scalar field configuration are nontrivial. We also observe that the gravitational wave is protected against shock formation when the background has some symmetries at least. This fact may indicate that the gravitational wave in this theory is more well-behaved compared to the scalar field, which typically suffers from shock formation.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Miao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Zhen-Ming
2017-01-01
We investigate the $$P{-}V$$ P - V criticality and the Maxwell equal area law for a five-dimensional spherically symmetric AdS black hole with a scalar hair in the absence of and in the presence of a Maxwell field, respectively...
Brans-Dicke type teleparallel scalar-tensor theory
Salti, Mustafa; Aydogdu, Oktay; Yanar, Hilmi; Binbay, Figen
2017-11-01
The teleparallel alternative of general relativity which is based on torsion instead of curvature is considered as the gravitational sector to explore the dark universe. Inspired from the well-known Brans-Dicke gravity, here, we introduce a new proposal for the galactic dark energy effect. The new model includes a scalar field with self-interacting potential and a non-minimal coupling between the gravity and scalar field. Additionally, we analyze the idea via the Noether symmetry approach and thermodynamics.
The role of phase dynamics in a stochastic model of a passively advected scalar
Moradi, Sara; Anderson, Johan
2016-05-01
Collective synchronous motion of the phases is introduced in a model for the stochastic passive advection-diffusion of a scalar with external forcing. The model for the phase coupling dynamics follows the well known Kuramoto model paradigm of limit-cycle oscillators. The natural frequencies in the Kuramoto model are assumed to obey a given scale dependence through a dispersion relation of the drift-wave form -βk/1 +k2 , where β is a constant representing the typical strength of the gradient. The present aim is to study the importance of collective phase dynamics on the characteristic time evolution of the fluctuation energy and the formation of coherent structures. Our results show that the assumption of a fully stochastic phase state of turbulence is more relevant for high values of β, where we find that the energy spectrum follows a k-7 /2 scaling. Whereas for lower β there is a significant difference between a-synchronised and synchronised phase states, one could expect the formation of coherent modulations in the latter case.
Supersymmetry searches in GUT models with non-universal scalar masses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cannoni, M.; Gómez, M.E. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Ellis, J. [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Physics Department, King' s College London, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Lola, S. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); De Austri, R. Ruiz, E-mail: mirco.cannoni@dfa.uhu.es, E-mail: John.Ellis@cern.ch, E-mail: mario.gomez@dfa.uhu.es, E-mail: magda@physics.upatras.gr, E-mail: rruiz@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, IFIC-UV/CSIC, Valencia (Spain)
2016-03-01
We study SO(10), SU(5) and flipped SU(5) GUT models with non-universal soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses, exploring how they are constrained by LHC supersymmetry searches and cold dark matter experiments, and how they can be probed and distinguished in future experiments. We find characteristic differences between the various GUT scenarios, particularly in the coannihilation region, which is very sensitive to changes of parameters. For example, the flipped SU(5) GUT predicts the possibility of ∼t{sub 1}−χ coannihilation, which is absent in the regions of the SO(10) and SU(5) GUT parameter spaces that we study. We use the relic density predictions in different models to determine upper bounds for the neutralino masses, and we find large differences between different GUT models in the sparticle spectra for the same LSP mass, leading to direct connections of distinctive possible experimental measurements with the structure of the GUT group. We find that future LHC searches for generic missing E{sub T}, charginos and stops will be able to constrain the different GUT models in complementary ways, as will the Xenon 1 ton and Darwin dark matter scattering experiments and future FERMI or CTA γ-ray searches.
Vast Antimatter Regions and Scalar Condensate Baryogenesis
Kirilova, D.; Panayotova, M.; Valchanov, T
2002-01-01
The possibility of natural and abundant creation of antimatter in the Universe in a SUSY-baryogenesis model with a scalar field condensate is described. This scenario predicts vast quantities of antimatter, corresponding to galaxy and galaxy cluster scales today, separated from the matter ones by baryonically empty voids. Theoretical and observational constraints on such antimatter regions are discussed.
Tikhonov, Mikhail; Monasson, Remi
2018-01-01
Much of our understanding of ecological and evolutionary mechanisms derives from analysis of low-dimensional models: with few interacting species, or few axes defining "fitness". It is not always clear to what extent the intuition derived from low-dimensional models applies to the complex, high-dimensional reality. For instance, most naturally occurring microbial communities are strikingly diverse, harboring a large number of coexisting species, each of which contributes to shaping the environment of others. Understanding the eco-evolutionary interplay in these systems is an important challenge, and an exciting new domain for statistical physics. Recent work identified a promising new platform for investigating highly diverse ecosystems, based on the classic resource competition model of MacArthur. Here, we describe how the same analytical framework can be used to study evolutionary questions. Our analysis illustrates how, at high dimension, the intuition promoted by a one-dimensional (scalar) notion of fitness can become misleading. Specifically, while the low-dimensional picture emphasizes organism cost or efficiency, we exhibit a regime where cost becomes irrelevant for survival, and link this observation to generic properties of high-dimensional geometry.
Supersymmetry Searches in GUT Models with Non-Universal Scalar Masses
Cannoni, M.; Gómez, M.E.; Lola, S.; Ruiz de Austri, R.
2016-03-22
We study SO(10), SU(5) and flipped SU(5) GUT models with non-universal soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses, exploring how they are constrained by LHC supersymmetry searches and cold dark matter experiments, and how they can be probed and distinguished in future experiments. We find characteristic differences between the various GUT scenarios, particularly in the coannihilation region, which is very sensitive to changes of parameters. For example, the flipped SU(5) GUT predict the possibility of $\\tilde{t}_1-\\chi$ coannihilation, which is absent in the regions of the SO(10) and SU(5) GUT parameter spaces that we study. We use the relic density predictions in different models to determine upper bounds for the neutralino masses, and we find large differences between different GUT models in the sparticle spectra for the same LSP mass, leading to direct connections of distinctive possible experimental measurements with the structure of the GUT group. We find that future LHC searches for generic missing $E_T$...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergio Mendoza
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We present heuristic arguments suggesting that if EM waves with wavelengths somewhat larger than the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole were fully absorbed by it, the second law of thermodynamics would be violated, under the Bekenstein interpretation of the area of a black hole as a measure of its entropy. Thus, entropy considerations make the well known fact that large wavelengths are only marginally absorbed by black holes, a natural consequence of thermodynamics. We also study numerically the ingoing radial propagation of a scalar field wave in a Schwarzschild metric, relaxing the standard assumption which leads to the eikonal equation, that the wave has zero spatial extent. We find that if these waves have wavelengths larger that the Schwarzschild radius, they are very substantially reflected, fully to numerical accuracy. Interestingly, this critical wavelength approximately coincides with the one derived from entropy considerations of the EM field, and is consistent with well known limit results of scattering in the Schwarzschild metric. The propagation speed is also calculated and seen to differ from the value c, for wavelengths larger than Rs, in the vicinity of Rs. As in all classical wave phenomena, whenever the wavelength is larger or comparable to the physical size of elements in the system, in this case changes in the metric, the zero extent Ã¢Â€Â™particleÃ¢Â€Â™ description fails, and the wave nature becomes apparent.
The decoupling of scalar-modes from a linearly perturbed dust-filled Bianchi type I model
Osano, Bob
2015-01-01
We study linear perturbations about a dust filled Bianchi Type I model with the vorticity set to zero. In comparison to linear perturbations about FLRW models, modes of perturbations about Bianchi type I models are coupled. We find that the tensor that represents the background shear needs to be degenerate in order for the scalar-mode perturbations to decouple from the rest of the flow.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuvshinov, Alexey; Matzka, Jürgen; Poedjono, Benny
2016-01-01
-keeping platform. The concept exploits scalar magnetic responses that relate variations of the scalar magnetic field at the survey sites with variations of the horizontal magnetic field at a reference site. A 3-D model study offshore Oahu Island (Hawaii) demonstrates that these responses are sensitive...
A two-component dark matter model with real singlet scalars ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
symmetry, namely Z2 × Z′2 such that S. Z2. −→ −S and S′. Z′2. −→ −S′. Also both of them do not generate any vacuum expectation value (VEV) upon spontaneous symmetry breaking. (〈S〉 = 0 and 〈S′〉 = 0). The scalar sector potential (for Higgs and two real singlet scalars) in this framework can then be written as.
Biophysical modeling of forward scattering from bacterial colonies using scalar diffraction theory
Bae, Euiwon; Banada, Padmapriya P.; Huff, Karleigh; Bhunia, Arun K.; Robinson, J. Paul; Hirleman, E. Daniel
2007-06-01
A model for forward scattering from bacterial colonies is presented. The colonies of interest consist of approximately 1012-1013 individual bacteria densely packed in a configuration several millimeters in diameter and approximately 0.1-0.2 mm in thickness. The model is based on scalar diffraction theory and accounts for amplitude and phase modulation created by three macroscopic properties of the colonies: phase modulation due to the surface topography, phase modulation due to the radial structure observed from some strains and species, and diffraction from the outline of the colony. Phase contrast and confocal microscopy were performed to provide quantitative information on the shape and internal structure of the colonies. The computed results showed excellent agreement with the experimental scattering data for three different Listeria species: Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, and Listeria monocytogenes. The results provide a physical explanation for the unique and distinctive scattering signatures produced by colonies of closely related Listeria species and support the efficacy of forward scattering for rapid detection and classification of pathogens without tagging.
Wang, R.; Demerdash, N. A.
1991-01-01
A method of combined use of magnetic vector potential based finite-element (FE) formulations and magnetic scalar potential (MSP) based formulations for computation of three-dimensional magnetostatic fields is introduced. In this method, the curl-component of the magnetic field intensity is computed by a reduced magnetic vector potential. This field intensity forms the basic of a forcing function for a global magnetic scalar potential solution over the entire volume of the region. This method allows one to include iron portions sandwiched in between conductors within partitioned current-carrying subregions. The method is most suited for large-scale global-type 3-D magnetostatic field computations in electrical devices, and in particular rotating electric machinery.
Quantization of a scalar field in two Poincaré patches of anti-de Sitter space and AdS/CFT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ippei Fujisawa
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Two sets of modes of a massive free scalar field are quantized in a pair of Poincaré patches of Lorentzian anti-de Sitter (AdS space, AdSd+1 (d≥2. It is shown that in Poincaré coordinates (r,t,x→, the two boundaries at r=±∞ are connected. When the scalar mass m satisfies a condition 0<ν=(d2/4+(mℓ2<1, there exist two sets of mode solutions to Klein–Gordon equation, with distinct fall-off behaviors at the boundary. By using the fact that the boundaries at r=±∞ are connected, a conserved Klein–Gordon norm can be defined for these two sets of scalar modes, and these modes are canonically quantized. Energy is also conserved. A prescription within the approximation of semi-classical gravity is presented for computing two- and three-point functions of the operators in the boundary CFT, which correspond to the two fall-off behaviours of scalar field solutions.
Marro, Massimo; Salizzoni, Pietro; Soulhac, Lionel; Cassiani, Massimo
2018-01-01
We analyze the reliability of the Lagrangian stochastic micromixing method in predicting higher-order statistics of the passive scalar concentration induced by an elevated source (of varying diameter) placed in a turbulent boundary layer. To that purpose we analyze two different modelling approaches by testing their results against the wind-tunnel measurements discussed in Part I (Nironi et al., Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 2015, Vol. 156, 415-446). The first is a probability density function (PDF) micromixing model that simulates the effects of the molecular diffusivity on the concentration fluctuations by taking into account the background particles. The second is a new model, named VPΓ, conceived in order to minimize the computational costs. This is based on the volumetric particle approach providing estimates of the first two concentration moments with no need for the simulation of the background particles. In this second approach, higher-order moments are computed based on the estimates of these two moments and under the assumption that the concentration PDF is a Gamma distribution. The comparisons concern the spatial distribution of the first four moments of the concentration and the evolution of the PDF along the plume centreline. The novelty of this work is twofold: (i) we perform a systematic comparison of the results of micro-mixing Lagrangian models against experiments providing profiles of the first four moments of the concentration within an inhomogeneous and anisotropic turbulent flow, and (ii) we show the reliability of the VPΓ model as an operational tool for the prediction of the PDF of the concentration.
Rybnikov, A. K.
2017-01-01
The paper is devoted to the investigation, using the method of Cartan-Laptev, of the differential-geometric structure associated with a Lagrangian L, depending on a function z of the variables t, x 1,..., x n and its partial derivatives. Lagrangians of this kind are considered in theoretical physics (in field theory). Here t is interpreted as time, and x 1,..., x n as spatial variables. The state of the field is characterized by a function z( t, x 1,..., x n ) (a field function) satisfying the Euler equation, which corresponds to the variational problem for the action integral. In the present paper, the variables z( t, x 1,..., x n are regarded as adapted local coordinates of a bundle of general type M with n-dimensional fibers and 1-dimensional base (here the variable t is simultaneously a local coordinate on the base). If we agree to call t time, and a typical fiber an n-dimensional space, then M can be called the spatiotemporal bundle manifold. We consider the variables t, x 1,..., x n , z (i.e., the variables t, x 1,..., x n with the added variable z) as adapted local coordinates in the bundle H over the fibered base M. The Lagrangian L, which is a coefficient in the differential form of the variational action integral in the integrand, is a relative invariant given on the manifold J 1 H (the manifold of 1-jets of the bundle H). In the present paper, we construct a tensor with components Λ00, Λ0 i , Λ ij (Λ ij = Λ ji ) which is generated by the fundamental object of the structure associated with the Lagrangian. This tensor is an invariant (with respect to admissible transformations the variables t, x 1,..., x n , z) analog of the energy-momentum tensor of the classical theory of physical fields. We construct an invariant I, a vector G i , and a bivalent tensor G jk generated by the Lagrangian. We also construct a relative invariant of E (in the paper, we call it the Euler relative invariant) such that the equation E = 0 is an invariant form of the Euler
Miao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Zhen-Ming
2017-06-01
We investigate the P{-}V criticality and the Maxwell equal area law for a five-dimensional spherically symmetric AdS black hole with a scalar hair in the absence of and in the presence of a Maxwell field, respectively. Especially in the charged case, we give the exact P{-}V critical values. More importantly, we analyze the validity and invalidity of the Maxwell equal area law for the AdS hairy black hole in the scenarios without and with charges, respectively. Within the scope of validity of the Maxwell equal area law, we point out that there exists a representative van der Waals-type oscillation in the P{-}V diagram. This oscillating part, which indicates the phase transition from a small black hole to a large one, can be replaced by an isobar. The small and large black holes have the same Gibbs free energy. We also give the distribution of the critical points in the parameter space both without and with charges, and we obtain for the uncharged case the fitting formula of the co-existence curve. Meanwhile, the latent heat is calculated, which gives the energy released or absorbed between the small and large black hole phases in the isothermal-isobaric procedure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Zhiming, E-mail: 465609785@qq.com [School of Economics and Management, Wuyi University, Jiangmen 529020 (China); Situ, Haozhen, E-mail: situhaozhen@gmail.com [College of Mathematics and Informatics, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)
2017-02-15
In this article, the dynamics of quantum correlation and coherence for two atoms interacting with a bath of fluctuating massless scalar field in the Minkowski vacuum is investigated. We firstly derive the master equation that describes the system evolution with initial Bell-diagonal state. Then we discuss the system evolution for three cases of different initial states: non-zero correlation separable state, maximally entangled state and zero correlation state. For non-zero correlation initial separable state, quantum correlation and coherence can be protected from vacuum fluctuations during long time evolution when the separation between the two atoms is relatively small. For maximally entangled initial state, quantum correlation and coherence overall decrease with evolution time. However, for the zero correlation initial state, quantum correlation and coherence are firstly generated and then drop with evolution time; when separation is sufficiently small, they can survive from vacuum fluctuations. For three cases, quantum correlation and coherence first undergo decline and then fluctuate to relatively stable values with the increasing distance between the two atoms. Specially, for the case of zero correlation initial state, quantum correlation and coherence occur periodically revival at fixed zero points and revival amplitude declines gradually with increasing separation of two atoms.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rejon-Barrera, Fernando [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Robbins, Daniel [Department of Physics, Texas A& M University,TAMU 4242, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)
2016-01-22
We work out all of the details required for implementation of the conformal bootstrap program applied to the four-point function of two scalars and two vectors in an abstract conformal field theory in arbitrary dimension. This includes a review of which tensor structures make appearances, a construction of the projectors onto the required mixed symmetry representations, and a computation of the conformal blocks for all possible operators which can be exchanged. These blocks are presented as differential operators acting upon the previously known scalar conformal blocks. Finally, we set up the bootstrap equations which implement crossing symmetry. Special attention is given to the case of conserved vectors, where several simplifications occur.
Stefanello, M. B.; Degrazia, G. A.; Mortarini, L.; Buligon, L.; Maldaner, S.; Carvalho, J. C.; Acevedo, O. C.; Martins, L. G. N.; Anfossi, D.; Buriol, C.; Roberti, D.
2018-02-01
Describing the effects of wind meandering motions on the dispersion of scalars is a challenging task, since this type of flow represents a physical state characterized by multiple scales. In this study, a Lagrangian stochastic diffusion model is derived to describe scalar transport during the horizontal wind meandering phenomenon that occurs within a planetary boundary layer. The model is derived from the linearization of the Langevin equation, and it employs a heuristic functional form that represents the autocorrelation function of meandering motion. The new solutions, which describe the longitudinal and lateral wind components, were used to simulate tracer experiments that were performed in low-wind speed conditions. The results of the comparison indicate that the new model can effectively reproduce the observed concentrations of the contaminants, and therefore, it can satisfactorily describe enhanced dispersion effects due to the presence of meandering.
The Covariance of Scalar Fields Scattered by Pressure-Release Randomly Rough Surfaces.
1987-12-01
rj)n,. TV (r,r,)dSj rjE E" ZI It ^ I II ft It It U, Om(r) - 2 f 0m- l(rm)nmMVm (rrm) dSm r Me Em ’-U (1.27) 0r r ~w V - % ’* ~ -U ~ t~ %%UU ~ *.;,AIM... slp -prao,() tnad -A A 88 • :,S Standard Model, for which the radiation is excJ.isively predicted by the coherent term. The plots correspond to a source
Electroweak Baryogenesis and Colored Scalars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, Timothy; /SLAC /Michigan U., MCTP; Pierce, Aaron; /Michigan U., MCTP
2012-02-15
We consider the 2-loop finite temperature effective potential for a Standard Model-like Higgs boson, allowing Higgs boson couplings to additional scalars. If the scalars transform under color, they contribute 2-loop diagrams to the effective potential that include gluons. These 2-loop effects are perhaps stronger than previously appreciated. For a Higgs boson mass of 115 GeV, they can increase the strength of the phase transition by as much as a factor of 3.5. It is this effect that is responsible for the survival of the tenuous electroweak baryogenesis window of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We further illuminate the importance of these 2-loop diagrams by contrasting models with colored scalars to models with singlet scalars. We conclude that baryogenesis favors models with light colored scalars. This motivates searches for pair-produced di-jet resonances or jet(s) + = E{sub T}.
Aboubrahim, Amin; Nath, Pran
2017-10-01
We investigate the possibility of testing supergravity unified models with scalar masses in the range 50-100 TeV and much lighter gaugino masses at the Large Hadron Collider. The analysis is carried out under the constraints that models produce the Higgs boson mass consistent with experiment and also produce dark matter consistent with WMAP and PLANCK experiments. A set of benchmarks in the supergravity parameter space are investigated using a combination of signal regions which are optimized for the model set. It is found that some of the models with scalar masses in the 50-100 TeV mass range are discoverable with as little as 100 fb-1 of integrated luminosity and should be accessible at the LHC RUN II. The remaining benchmark models are found to be discoverable with less than 1000 fb-1 of integrated luminosity and thus testable in the high luminosity era of the LHC, i.e., at HL-LHC. It is shown that scalar masses in the 50-100 TeV range but gaugino masses much lower in mass produce unification of gauge coupling constants, consistent with experimental data at low scale, with as good an accuracy (and sometimes even better) as models with low [O (1 ) TeV ] weak scale supersymmetry. Decay of the gravitinos for the supergravity model benchmarks are investigated and it is shown that they decay before the big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Further, we investigate the nonthermal production of neutralinos from gravitino decay and it is found that the nonthermal contribution to the dark matter relic density is negligible relative to that from the thermal production of neutralinos for reheat temperature after inflation up to 1 09 GeV . An analysis of the direct detection of dark matter for supergravity grand unified models (SUGRA) with high scalar masses is also discussed. SUGRA models with scalar masses in the range 50-100 TeV have several other attractive features such as they help alleviate the supersymmetric C P problem and help suppress proton decay from baryon and lepton
Brooker, D. J.; Tsamis, N. C.; Woodard, R. P.
2017-11-01
We give final shape to a recent formalism for deriving the functional forms of the primordial power spectra of single-scalar potential models and theories which are related to them by conformal transformation. An excellent analytic approximation is derived for the nonlocal correction factors which are crucial to capture the "ringing" that can result from features in the potential. We also present the full algorithm for using our representation, including the nonlocal factors, to reconstruct the inflationary geometry from the power spectra.
Hod, Shahar
2015-01-01
The quasinormal resonance spectrum $\\{\\omega_n(\\mu,q,M,Q)\\}_{n=0}^{n=\\infty}$ of charged massive scalar fields in the charged Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black-hole spacetime is studied {\\it analytically} in the large-coupling regime $qQ\\gg M\\mu$ (here $\\{\\mu, q\\}$ are respectively the mass and charge coupling constant of the field, and $\\{M,Q\\}$ are respectively the mass and electric charge of the black hole). This physical system provides a striking illustration for the validity of the universal relaxation bound $\\tau \\times T \\geq \\hbar/\\pi$ in black-hole physics (here $\\tau\\equiv 1/\\Im\\omega_0$ is the characteristic relaxation time of the composed black-hole-scalar-field system, and $T$ is the Bekenstein-Hawking temperature of the black hole). In particular, it is shown that the relaxation dynamics of charged massive scalar fields in the charged Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black-hole spacetime may {\\it saturate} this quantum time-times-temperature inequality. Interestingly, we prove that potential violations of the bou...
A multi-scalar approach for modelling river channel change in the Anthropocene
Downs, Peter; Piégay, Hervé; Piffady, Jeremy; Valette, Laurent; Vaudor, Lise
2017-04-01
Adjustments in river channel morphology during the 'Anthropocene' arise as a cumulative impact from the influence of numerous natural and human stressors operating at multiple spatial and temporal scales. However, the research requirement for data on impacts at multiple scales, and at sufficiently high spatial and temporal resolution to determine reach-level effect, largely prevented such studies until recent improvements in digital technologies and data availability. A meta-analysis of recent cumulative impact studies indicates that the analytical component is still overwhelmingly interpretative, with cause-and-effect reasoning based largely on temporal synchronicity and spatial proximity, whereas our conceptual understanding of adjustment processes is far more nuanced. We propose, instead, that studies of cumulative impact should be underpinned by an analytical model of cause and effect, partly to test and enhance our predictive capabilities and allow scenario setting, but also to learn about the relative sensitivities involved in different parts of the model and thus to prioritize future research endeavours. Our requirements are that the model should be inherently designed to detect reach-level changes over Anthropocene timescales, be capable of integrating co-existing and hierarchical human and natural pressures on fluvial systems, be able to accommodate time-lagged effects and upstream-downstream connectivity, and be based on an explicit conceptual model that can be refined as our process understanding improves. Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) offer some potential in this regard and are becoming an increasingly popular option for dealing with complex, multi-scalar relationships in ecology and other environmental sciences. BBNs consist of a conceptual model of nodes and edges (i.e., graph theory) that qualitatively describe the structure of causal relationships between chains of variables, and a quantitative expression of the relative strength of the
Di Francesco, M.; Rosini, M. D.
2015-09-01
We prove that the unique entropy solution to a scalar nonlinear conservation law with strictly monotone velocity and nonnegative initial condition can be rigorously obtained as the large particle limit of a microscopic follow-the-leader type model, which is interpreted as the discrete Lagrangian approximation of the nonlinear scalar conservation law. More precisely, we prove that the empirical measure (respectively the discretised density) obtained from the follow-the-leader system converges in the 1-Wasserstein topology (respectively in ) to the unique Kružkov entropy solution of the conservation law. The initial data are taken in , nonnegative, and with compact support, hence we are able to handle densities with a vacuum. Our result holds for a reasonably general class of velocity maps (including all the relevant examples in the applications, for example in the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards model for traffic flow) with a possible degenerate slope near the vacuum state. The proof of the result is based on discrete estimates and on a discrete version of the one-sided Oleinik-type condition. In particular, we prove that the regularizing effect for nonlinear scalar conservation laws is intrinsic to the discrete model.
González, P. A.; Konoplya, R. A.; Vásquez, Yerko
2017-06-01
It has recently been found that quasinormal modes of asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in theories with higher curvature corrections may help to describe the regime of intermediate 't Hooft coupling in the dual field theory. Here, we consider quasinormal modes of a scalar field in the background of spherical Gauss-Bonnet-anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes. In general, the eigenvalues of wave equations are found here numerically, but at a fixed Gauss-Bonnet constant α =R2/2 (where R is the AdS radius), an exact solution of the scalar field equation has been obtained. Remarkably, the purely imaginary modes, which are usually appropriate only to some gravitational perturbations, were found here even for a test scalar field. These purely imaginary modes of the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory do not have the Einsteinian limits, because their damping rates grow, when α is decreasing. Thus, these modes are nonperturbative in α . The real oscillation frequencies of the perturbative branch are linearly related to their Schwarzschild-AdS limits Re (ωG B)=Re (ωSAdS)(1 +K (D )(α /R2)) , where D is the number of spacetime dimensions. Comparison of the analytical formula with the frequencies found by the shooting method allows us to test the latter. In addition, we found exact solutions to the master equations for gravitational perturbations at α =R2/2 and observed that for the scalar type of gravitational perturbations an eikonal instability develops.
Dark energy in scalar-tensor theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moeller, J.
2007-12-15
We investigate several aspects of dynamical dark energy in the framework of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. We provide a classification of scalar-tensor coupling functions admitting cosmological scaling solutions. In particular, we recover that Brans-Dicke theory with inverse power-law potential allows for a sequence of background dominated scaling regime and scalar field dominated, accelerated expansion. Furthermore, we compare minimally and non-minimally coupled models, with respect to the small redshift evolution of the dark energy equation of state. We discuss the possibility to discriminate between different models by a reconstruction of the equation-of-state parameter from available observational data. The non-minimal coupling characterizing scalar-tensor models can - in specific cases - alleviate fine tuning problems, which appear if (minimally coupled) quintessence is required to mimic a cosmological constant. Finally, we perform a phase-space analysis of a family of biscalar-tensor models characterized by a specific type of {sigma}-model metric, including two examples from recent literature. In particular, we generalize an axion-dilaton model of Sonner and Townsend, incorporating a perfect fluid background consisting of (dark) matter and radiation. (orig.)
Madriz Aguilar. Jose Edgar; Reyes, Luz Marina; Moreno, Claudia; Bellini, Mauricio
2013-01-01
We develop a non-perturbative formalism for scalar metric fluctuations from a 5D extended version of General Relativity in vacuum. In this work we concentrate our efforts on calculations valid on large cosmological scales, which are the dominant during the inflationary phase of the universe. The resulting metric on this limit case is obtained after implementing a planar coordinate transformation on a 5D Ricci-flat metric solution. We calculate the spectrum of these fluctuations on an ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matsui Toshinori
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Among various scenarios of baryon asymmetry of the Universe, electroweak baryogenesis is directly connected with physics of the Higgs sector. We discuss spectra of gravitational waves which are originated by the strongly first order phase transition at the electroweak symmetry breaking, which is required for a successful scenario of electroweak baryogenesis. In the Z3 symmetric singlet scalar model, the significant gravitational waves are caused by the multi-step phase transition. We show that the model can be tested by measuring the characteristic spectra of the gravitational waves at future interferometers such as LISA and DECIGO.
Matsui, Toshinori
2018-01-01
Among various scenarios of baryon asymmetry of the Universe, electroweak baryogenesis is directly connected with physics of the Higgs sector. We discuss spectra of gravitational waves which are originated by the strongly first order phase transition at the electroweak symmetry breaking, which is required for a successful scenario of electroweak baryogenesis. In the Z3 symmetric singlet scalar model, the significant gravitational waves are caused by the multi-step phase transition. We show that the model can be tested by measuring the characteristic spectra of the gravitational waves at future interferometers such as LISA and DECIGO.
Adler, Stephen L.
2017-07-01
We continue our study of Coleman-Weinberg symmetry breaking induced by a third rank antisymmetric tensor scalar, in the context of the SU(8) model (Adler 2014 Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 29 1450130) we proposed earlier. We focus in this paper on qualitative features that will determine whether the model can make contact with the observed particle spectrum. We discuss the mechanism for giving the spin \\frac{3}{2} field a mass by the BEH mechanism, and analyze the remaining massless spin \\frac{1}{2} fermions, the global chiral symmetries, and the running couplings after symmetry breaking. We note that the smallest gluon mass matrix eigenvalue has an eigenvector suggestive of U(1) B-L , and conjecture that the theory runs to an infrared fixed point at which there is a massless gluon with 3 to -1 ratios in generator components. Assuming this, we discuss a mechanism for making contact with the standard model, based on a conjectured asymmetric breaking of Sp(4) to SU(2) subgroups, one of which is the electroweak SU(2), and the other of which is a ‘technicolor’ group that binds the original SU(8) model fermions, which play the role of ‘preons’, into composites. Quarks can emerge as 5 preon composites and leptons as 3 preon composites, with consequent stability of the proton against decay to a single lepton plus a meson. A composite Higgs boson can emerge as a two preon composite. Since anomaly matching for the relevant conserved global symmetry current is not obeyed by three fermion families, emergence of three composite families requires formation of a Goldstone boson with quantum numbers matching this current, which can be a light dark matter candidate.
Kerr black holes with scalar hair.
Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Radu, Eugen
2014-06-06
We present a family of solutions of Einstein's gravity minimally coupled to a complex, massive scalar field, describing asymptotically flat, spinning black holes with scalar hair and a regular horizon. These hairy black holes (HBHs) are supported by rotation and have no static limit. Besides mass M and angular momentum J, they carry a conserved, continuous Noether charge Q measuring the scalar hair. HBHs branch off from the Kerr metric at the threshold of the superradiant instability and reduce to spinning boson stars in the limit of vanishing horizon area. They overlap with Kerr black holes for a set of (M, J) values. A single Killing vector field preserves the solutions, tangent to the null geodesic generators of the event horizon. HBHs can exhibit sharp physical differences when compared to the Kerr solution, such as J/M^{2}>1, a quadrupole moment larger than J^{2}/M, and a larger orbital angular velocity at the innermost stable circular orbit. Families of HBHs connected to the Kerr geometry should exist in scalar (and other) models with more general self-interactions.
Schwarzschild black holes can wear scalar wigs.
Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier
2012-08-24
We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultralight scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axionlike scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolve, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations.
Scalar fluctuations in dilatonic brane-worlds
Bozza, Valerio; Veneziano, Gabriele
2001-01-01
We derive and solve the full set of scalar perturbation equations for a class of five-dimensional brane--world solutions, with a dilaton scalar field coupled to the bulk cosmological constant and to a 3-brane. The spectrum contains one localized massless scalar mode, to be interpreted as an effective dilaton on the brane, inducing long--range scalar interactions. Two massive scalar modes yield corrections to Newton's law at short distances, which persist even in the limit of vanishing dilaton (namely, in the standard Randall--Sundrum configuration).
Propulsion Physics Under the Changing Density Field Model
Robertson, Glen A.
2011-01-01
To grow as a space faring race, future spaceflight systems will requires new propulsion physics. Specifically a propulsion physics model that does not require mass ejection without limiting the high thrust necessary to accelerate within or beyond our solar system and return within a normal work period or lifetime. In 2004 Khoury and Weltman produced a density dependent cosmology theory they called Chameleon Cosmology, as at its nature, it is hidden within known physics. This theory represents a scalar field within and about an object, even in the vacuum. Whereby, these scalar fields can be viewed as vacuum energy fields with definable densities that permeate all matter; having implications to dark matter/energy with universe acceleration properties; implying a new force mechanism for propulsion physics. Using Chameleon Cosmology, the author has developed a new propulsion physics model, called the Changing Density Field (CDF) Model. This model relates to density changes in these density fields, where the density field density changes are related to the acceleration of matter within an object. These density changes in turn change how an object couples to the surrounding density fields. Whereby, thrust is achieved by causing a differential in the coupling to these density fields about an object. Since the model indicates that the density of the density field in an object can be changed by internal mass acceleration, even without exhausting mass, the CDF model implies a new propellant-less propulsion physics model
Burns, Sean P.; Sun, Jielun; Lenschow, D.H.; Oncley, S.P.; Stephens, B.B.; Yi, C.; Anderson, D.E.; Hu, Jiawen; Monson, Russell K.
2011-01-01
Air temperature Ta, specific humidity q, CO2 mole fraction ??c, and three-dimensional winds were measured in mountainous terrain from five tall towers within a 1 km region encompassing a wide range of canopy densities. The measurements were sorted by a bulk Richardson number Rib. For stable conditions, we found vertical scalar differences developed over a "transition" region between 0.05 1), the vertical scalar differences reached a maximum and remained fairly constant with increasing stability. The relationships q and ??c have with Rib are explained by considering their sources and sinks. For winds, the strong momentum absorption in the upper canopy allows the canopy sublayer to be influenced by pressure gradient forces and terrain effects that lead to complex subcanopy flow patterns. At the dense-canopy sites, soil respiration coupled with wind-sheltering resulted in CO2 near the ground being 5-7 ??mol mol-1 larger than aloft, even with strong above-canopy winds (near-neutral conditions). We found Rib-binning to be a useful tool for evaluating vertical scalar mixing; however, additional information (e.g., pressure gradients, detailed vegetation/topography, etc.) is needed to fully explain the subcanopy wind patterns. Implications of our results for CO2 advection over heterogenous, complex terrain are discussed. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
On introduction of additional gauge fields in the Weinberg model
Dolgov, A D; Okun, Lev Borisovich
1973-01-01
Introduction of new gauge fields in the Weinberg model makes it possible to realize locally all lepton symmetries of the Lagrangian. This procedure does not result in any contradiction between the experimentally observed conservation of the leptonic charge of leptons and the fact that a vector meson interacting with a leptonic charge becomes massive after spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is shown that in theories with a minimum number of scalar bosons (at a given number of vector bosons) the nu /sub mu /e axial constant g/sub A/ is still -/sup 1///sub 2/ as in the Weinberg model but in this case the variation range of the vector constant is more broad. The value g/sub A/ is not fixed in models with an excess of scalar fields. The practical method for diagonalizing the Lagrangian after spontaneous symmetry breaking is considered in detail. (6 refs).
Axially symmetric static scalar solitons and black holes with scalar hair
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: kleihaus@theorie.physik.uni-oldenburg.de; Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen; Subagyo, Bintoro
2013-10-01
We construct static, asymptotically flat black hole solutions with scalar hair. They evade the no-hair theorems by having a scalar potential which is not strictly positive. By including an azimuthal winding number in the scalar field ansatz, we find hairy black hole solutions which are static but axially symmetric only. These solutions possess a globally regular limit, describing scalar solitons. A branch of axially symmetric black holes is found to possess a positive specific heat.
Masina, Isabella; Notari, Alessio
2012-05-11
For a narrow band of values of the top quark and Higgs boson masses, the standard model Higgs potential develops a false minimum at energies of about 10(16) GeV, where primordial inflation could have started in a cold metastable state. A graceful exit to a radiation-dominated era is provided, e.g., by scalar-tensor gravity models. We pointed out that if inflation happened in this false minimum, the Higgs boson mass has to be in the range 126.0±3.5 GeV, where ATLAS and CMS subsequently reported excesses of events. Here we show that for these values of the Higgs boson mass, the inflationary gravitational wave background has be discovered with a tensor-to-scalar ratio at hand of future experiments. We suggest that combining cosmological observations with measurements of the top quark and Higgs boson masses represent a further test of the hypothesis that the standard model false minimum was the source of inflation in the universe.
Small vacuum energy from small equivalence violation in scalar gravity
Agrawal, Prateek; Sundrum, Raman
2017-05-01
The theory of scalar gravity proposed by Nordström, and refined by Einstein and Fokker, provides a striking analogy to general relativity. In its modern form, scalar gravity appears as the low-energy effective field theory of the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry within a CFT, and is AdS/CFT dual to the original Randall-Sundrum I model, but without a UV brane. Scalar gravity faithfully exhibits several qualitative features of the cosmological constant problem of standard gravity coupled to quantum matter, and the Weinberg no-go theorem can be extended to this case as well. Remarkably, a solution to the scalar gravity cosmological constant problem has been proposed, where the key is a very small violation of the scalar equivalence principle, which can be elegantly formulated as a particular type of deformation of the CFT. In the dual AdS picture this involves implementing Goldberger-Wise radion stabilization where the Goldberger-Wise field is a pseudo-Nambu Goldstone boson. In quantum gravity however, global symmetries protecting pNGBs are not expected to be fundamental. We provide a natural six-dimensional gauge theory origin for this global symmetry and show that the violation of the equivalence principle and the size of the vacuum energy seen by scalar gravity can naturally be exponentially small. Our solution may be of interest for study of non-supersymmetric CFTs in the spontaneously broken phase.
Structure function of passive scalars in two-dimensional turbulence
Eckhardt, B; Eckhardt, Bruno; Schumacher, Joerg
1999-01-01
The structure function of a scalar $\\theta({\\bf x},t)$, passively advected in a two-dimensional turbulent flow ${\\bf u}({\\bf x},t)$, is discussed by means of the fractal dimension $\\delta^{(1)}_g$ of the passive scalar graph. A relation between $\\delta^{(1)}_g$, the scaling exponent $\\zeta_1^{(\\theta)}$ of the scalar structure function $D_1^{(\\theta)}(r)$, and the structure function $D_2(r)$ of the underlying flow field is derived. Different from the 3-d case, the 2-d structure function also depends on an additional parameter, characteristic of the driving of the passive scalar. In the enstrophy inertial subrange a mean field approximation for the velocity structure function gives a scaling of the passive scalar graph with $\\delta^{(1)}_g<2$ for intermediate and large values of the Prandtl number $Pr$. In the energy inertial subrange a model for the energy spectrum and thus $D_2(r)$ gives a passive scalar graph scaling with exponent $\\delta^{(1)}_g=5/3$. Finally, we discuss an application to recent observa...
Wiegelmann, Thomas; Petrie, Gordon J. D.; Riley, Pete
2017-09-01
Coronal magnetic field models use photospheric field measurements as boundary condition to model the solar corona. We review in this paper the most common model assumptions, starting from MHD-models, magnetohydrostatics, force-free and finally potential field models. Each model in this list is somewhat less complex than the previous one and makes more restrictive assumptions by neglecting physical effects. The magnetohydrostatic approach neglects time-dependent phenomena and plasma flows, the force-free approach neglects additionally the gradient of the plasma pressure and the gravity force. This leads to the assumption of a vanishing Lorentz force and electric currents are parallel (or anti-parallel) to the magnetic field lines. Finally, the potential field approach neglects also these currents. We outline the main assumptions, benefits and limitations of these models both from a theoretical (how realistic are the models?) and a practical viewpoint (which computer resources to we need?). Finally we address the important problem of noisy and inconsistent photospheric boundary conditions and the possibility of using chromospheric and coronal observations to improve the models.
A new approach to exact solutions construction in scalar cosmology with a Gauss-Bonnet term
Fomin, I. V.; Chervon, S. V.
2017-08-01
We study the cosmological model based on Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with non-minimal coupling of a scalar field to a Gauss-Bonnet term in four-dimensional (4D) Friedmann universe. We show how constructing the exact solutions by the method based on a confrontation of the Hubble parameter in the model under consideration is achieved with that in a standard scalar field inflationary cosmology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Madriz Aguilar, Jose Edgar; Reyes, Luz M.; Moreno, Claudia [Universidad de Guadalajara (UdG), Departamento de Matematicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e ingenierias (CUCEI), Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Bellini, Mauricio [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP), Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2013-10-15
We develop a non-perturbative formalism for scalar metric fluctuations from a 5D extended version of general relativity in vacuum. In this work we concentrate our efforts on calculations valid on large cosmological scales, which are dominant during the inflationary phase of the universe. The resulting metric in this limit is obtained after implementing a planar coordinate transformation on a 5D Ricci-flat metric solution. We calculate the spectrum of these fluctuations with an effective 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime on cosmological scales, which is obtained after we make a static foliation on the non-compact extra coordinate. Our results show how the squared metric fluctuations of the primordial universe become scale invariant with the inflationary expansion. (orig.)
The first search for sub-eV scalar fields via four-wave mixing at a quasi-parallel laser collider
Homma, Kensuke; Kume, Kazuki
2014-01-01
A search for sub-eV scalar fields coupling to two photons has been performed via four-wave mixing at a quasi-parallel laser collider for the first time. The experiment demonstrates the novel approach to search for resonantly produced sub-eV scalar fields by combining two-color laser fields in the vacuum. The aim of this paper is to provide the concrete experimental setup and the analysis method based on specific combinations of polarization states between incoming and outgoing photons, which is extendable to higher intensity laser systems operated at high repetition rates. No significant signal of four-wave mixing was observed by combining a $0.2\\mu$J/0.75ns pulse laser and a 2mW CW laser on the same optical axis. Based on the prescription developed for this particular experimental approach, we obtained the upper limit at a confidence level of 95% on the coupling-mass relation.
Li, Bohua; Shapiro, Paul R.; Rindler-Daller, Tanja
2017-09-01
We consider an alternative to weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) cold dark matter (CDM)—ultralight bosonic dark matter (m ≳10-22 eV /c2) described by a complex scalar field (SFDM) with a global U (1 ) symmetry—for which the comoving particle number density or charge density is conserved after particle production during standard reheating. We allow for a repulsive self-interaction. In a Λ SFDM universe, SFDM starts out relativistic, evolving from stiff (w =1 ) to radiation-like (w =1 /3 ), before becoming nonrelativistic at late times (w =0 ). Thus, before the familiar radiation-dominated era, there is an earlier era of stiff-SFDM domination. During both the stiff-SFDM-dominated and radiation-dominated eras, the expansion rate is higher than in Λ CDM . The SFDM particle mass m and quartic self-interaction coupling strength λ are therefore constrained by cosmological observables, particularly Neff, the effective number of neutrino species during big bang nucleosynthesis, and zeq, the redshift of matter-radiation equality. Furthermore, since the stochastic gravitational-wave background (SGWB) from inflation is amplified during the stiff-SFDM-dominated era, it can contribute a radiation-like component large enough to affect these observables by further boosting the expansion rate after the stiff era ends. Remarkably, this same amplification makes detection of the SGWB possible at high frequencies by current laser interferometer experiments, e.g., aLIGO/Virgo and LISA. For SFDM particle parameters that satisfy these cosmological constraints, the amplified SGWB is detectable by LIGO for a broad range of reheat temperatures Treheat, for values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r currently allowed by cosmic microwave background polarization measurements. For a given r and λ /(m c2)2, the marginally allowed Λ SFDM model for each Treheat has the smallest m that satisfies the cosmological constraints, and maximizes the present SGWB energy density for that
Gorlé, C.; Iaccarino, G.
2013-05-01
Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are a practical approach for solving complex multi-physics turbulent flows, but the underlying assumptions of the turbulence models introduce errors and uncertainties in the simulation outcome. The flow in scramjet combustors is an example of such a complex flow and the accurate characterization of safety and operability limits of these engines using RANS simulations requires an assessment of the model uncertainty. The objective of this paper is to present a framework for the epistemic uncertainty quantification of turbulence and mixing models in RANS simulations. The capabilities of the methodology will be demonstrated by performing simulations of the mixing of an underexpanded jet in a supersonic cross flow, which involves many flow features observed in scramjet engines. The fundamental sources of uncertainty in the RANS simulations are the models used for the Reynolds stresses in the momentum equations and the turbulent scalar fluxes in the scalar transport equations. The methodology consists in directly perturbing the modeled quantities in the equations, thereby establishing a method that is completely independent of the initial model form to overcome the limitations of traditional sensitivity studies. The perturbations are defined in terms of the decomposed Reynolds stress tensor, i.e., the tensor magnitude and the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the normalized anisotropy tensor. The turbulent scalar fluxes are perturbed by using the perturbed Reynolds stresses in a generalized gradient diffusion model formulation and by changing the model constant. The perturbations were parameterized based on a comparison between the Reynolds stresses obtained from a baseline RANS simulation and those obtained from a large-eddy simulation database. Subsequently an optimization problem was solved, varying the parameters in the perturbation functions to maximize a quantity of interest that quantifies the downstream mixing. The
A toy model for single field open inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vaudrevange, Pascal M.; Westphal, Alexander
2012-05-15
Inflation in an open universe produced by Coleman-De Luccia (CDL) tunneling induces a friction term that is strong enough to allow for successful small-field inflation in models that would otherwise suffer from a severe overshoot problem. In this paper, we present a polynomial scalar potential which allows for a full analysis. This provides a simple model of single-field open inflation on a small-field inflection point after tunneling. We present numerical results and compare them with analytic approximations.
Phase-Field Model of Mode III Dynamic Fracture
Karma, Alain; Kessler, David A.; Levine, Herbert
2001-07-01
We introduce a phenomenological continuum model for the mode III dynamic fracture that is based on the phase-field methodology used extensively to model interfacial pattern formation. We couple a scalar field, which distinguishes between ``broken'' and ``unbroken'' states of the system, to the displacement field in a way that consistently includes both macroscopic elasticity and a simple rotationally invariant short-scale description of breaking. We report two-dimensional simulations that yield steady-state crack motion in a strip geometry above the Griffith threshold.
Convergence of scalar-tensor theories towards general relativity and primordial nucleosynthesis
Serna, A; Navarro, A
2002-01-01
In this paper, we analyse the conditions for convergence towards general relativity of scalar-tensor gravity theories defined by an arbitrary coupling function alpha (in the Einstein frame). We show that, in general, the evolution of the scalar field (phi) is governed by two opposite mechanisms: an attraction mechanism which tends to drive scalar-tensor models towards Einstein's theory, and a repulsion mechanism which has the contrary effect. The attraction mechanism dominates the recent epochs of the universe evolution if, and only if, the scalar field and its derivative satisfy certain boundary conditions. Since these conditions for convergence towards general relativity depend on the particular scalar-tensor theory used to describe the universe evolution, the nucleosynthesis bounds on the present value of the coupling function, alpha sub 0 , strongly differ from some theories to others. For example, in theories defined by alpha propor to |phi| analytical estimates lead to very stringent nucleosynthesis bou...
Dai, Yue; Shi, Yu
2015-01-01
We consider quantum entanglement of three accelerating qubits, each of which is locally coupled with a real scalar field, without causal influence among the qubits or among the fields. The initial state is assumed to be the GHZ or the W state, the two representative three-partite entangled states. For each initial state, we study how various kinds of entanglement depend on the accelerations of the three qubits. All kinds of entanglement eventually suddenly die if at least two of three qubits have large enough accelerations. This result implies eventual sudden death of all kinds of entanglement among field-coupled particles sufficiently close to the horizon of a black hole, which is thus an entanglement shield.
Demerdash, N. A.; Wang, R.; Secunde, R.
1992-01-01
A 3D finite element (FE) approach was developed and implemented for computation of global magnetic fields in a 14.3 kVA modified Lundell alternator. The essence of the new method is the combined use of magnetic vector and scalar potential formulations in 3D FEs. This approach makes it practical, using state of the art supercomputer resources, to globally analyze magnetic fields and operating performances of rotating machines which have truly 3D magnetic flux patterns. The 3D FE-computed fields and machine inductances as well as various machine performance simulations of the 14.3 kVA machine are presented in this paper and its two companion papers.
Kacperczyk, A; Jędrzejowska, I; Daczewska, M
2011-12-01
Somite differentiation, muscle fibres formation and growth were analysed in a non-model tropical fish Pterophyllum scalare. In this study, it was found that during somite differentiation, a primary myotome appears. The primary myotome is filled with multinucleated myotubes that constitute the major part of the somite. Subsequently, Pax-3 (paired-box protein)-positive cells, located externally to the myotomes, appear. In post-hatching stages, mononucleated proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells are observed in the inter-myotomal spaces and within the myotomes. The mononucleated cells, situated in the myotomes, first express desmin in their cytoplasm and then Pax-7 (paired-box protein) in their nuclei. Expression of desmin indicates that they will enter myogenic pathway, whereas expression of Pax-7 suggests their role of satellite cells. We assume that mononucleated intramyotomal cells are myogenic precursors involved in muscle growth. In advanced (post-hatching) stages of myogenesis, myotomes contain both primary and new muscle fibres. Morphometric analyses show that in Pterophyllum scalare, growth of muscle fibres is mainly a result of hypertrophy. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Brocklehurst, Aidan; Boon, Alex; Barlow, Janet; Hayden, Paul; Robins, Alan
2014-05-01
The source area of an instrument is an estimate of the area of ground over which the measurement is generated. Quantification of the source area of a measurement site provides crucial context for analysis and interpretation of the data. A range of computational models exists to calculate the source area of an instrument, but these are usually based on assumptions which do not hold for instruments positioned very close to the surface, particularly those surrounded by heterogeneous terrain i.e. urban areas. Although positioning instrumentation at higher elevation (i.e. on masts) is ideal in urban areas, this can be costly in terms of installation and maintenance costs and logistically difficult to position instruments in the ideal geographical location. Therefore, in many studies, experimentalists turn to rooftops to position instrumentation. Experimental validations of source area models for these situations are very limited. In this study, a controlled tracer gas experiment was conducted in a wind tunnel based on a 1:200 scale model of a measurement site used in previous experimental work in central London. The detector was set at the location of the rooftop site as the tracer was released at a range of locations within the surrounding streets and rooftops. Concentration measurements are presented for a range of wind angles, with the spread of concentration measurements indicative of the source area distribution. Clear evidence of wind channeling by streets is seen with the shape of the source area strongly influenced by buildings upwind of the measurement point. The results of the wind tunnel study are compared to scalar concentration source areas generated by modelling approaches based on meteorological data from the central London experimental site and used in the interpretation of continuous carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration data. Initial conclusions will be drawn as to how to apply scalar concentration source area models to rooftop measurement sites and
Bounded Scalar Perturbations in Bouncing Brane World Cosmologies
Maier, Rodrigo; Soares, Ivano Damião
2013-01-01
We examine the dynamics of scalar perturbations in closed Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson- Walker (FLRW) universes in the framework of Brane World theory with a timelike extra dimension. In this scenario, the unperturbed Friedmann equations contain additional terms arising from the bulk-brane interaction that implement non-singular bounces in the models with a cosmological constant and non-interacting perfect fluids. The structure of the phase-space of the models allows for two basic configurations, namely, one bounce solutions or eternal universes. Assuming that the matter content of the model is given by dust and radiation, we derive the dynamical field equations for scalar hydrodynamical perturbations considering either a conformally flat (de Sitter) bulk or a perturbed bulk. We perform a numerical analysis which can shed some light on the study of cosmological scalar perturbations in bouncing brane world models. From a mathematical point of view we show that although the bounce enhances the amplitudes of s...
Diphoton decay for a 750 GeV scalar boson in a SU(6⊗U(1X model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.F. Mantilla
2016-10-01
Full Text Available We propose a new SU(6⊗U(1X GUT model free from anomalies, with a 750 GeV scalar candidate which can decay into two photons, compatible with the recent diphoton signal reported by ATLAS and CMS collaborations. This model gives masses to all fermions and may explain the 750 GeV signal through one loop decays to γγ with charged vector and charged Higgs bosons, as well as up- and electron-like exotic particles that arise naturally from the condition of cancellation of anomalies of the SU(6⊗U(1X group. We obtain, for different width approximations, allowed mass regions from 900 GeV to 3 TeV for the exotic up-like quark, in agreement with ATLAS and CMS collaborations data.
Spectral and scattering theory for translation invariant models in quantum field theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Morten Grud
This thesis is concerned with a large class of massive translation invariant models in quantum field theory, including the Nelson model and the Fröhlich polaron. The models in the class describe a matter particle, e.g. a nucleon or an electron, linearly coupled to a second quantised massive scalar...
Rodríguez, Yeinzon; Navarro, Andrés A.
2017-03-01
An alternative for the construction of fundamental theories is the introduction of Galileons. These are fields whose action leads to non higher than second-order equations of motion. As this is a necessary but not sufficient condition to make the Hamiltonian bounded from below, as long as the action is not degenerate, the Galileon construction is a way to avoid pathologies both at the classical and quantum levels. Galileon actions are, therefore, of great interest in many branches of physics, specially in high energy physics and cosmology. This proceedings contribution presents the generalities of the construction of both scalar and vector Galileons following two different but complimentary routes.
NLO+NLL collider bounds, Dirac fermion and scalar dark matter in the B-L model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klasen, Michael [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Muenster (Germany); Lyonnet, Florian [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States); Queiroz, Farinaldo S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Particle and Astroparticle Physics Division, Heidelberg (Germany)
2017-05-15
Baryon and lepton numbers being accidental global symmetries of the Standard Model (SM), it is natural to promote them to local symmetries. However, to preserve anomaly-freedom, only combinations of B-L are viable. In this spirit, we investigate possible dark matter realizations in the context of the U(1){sub B-L} model: (i) Dirac fermion with unbroken B-L; (ii) Dirac fermion with broken B-L; (iii) scalar dark matter; (iv) two-component dark matter. We compute the relic abundance, direct and indirect detection observables and confront them with recent results from Planck, LUX-2016, and Fermi-LAT and prospects from XENON1T. In addition to the well-known LEP bound M{sub Z}{sup {sub '}}/g{sub BL} >or similar 7 TeV, we include often ignored LHC bounds using 13 TeV dilepton (dimuon + dielectron) data at next-to-leading order plus next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. We show that, for gauge couplings smaller than 0.4, the LHC gives rise to the strongest collider limit. In particular, we find M{sub Z}{sup {sub '}}/g{sub BL} > 8.7 TeV for g{sub BL} = 0.3. We conclude that the NLO+NLL corrections improve the dilepton bounds on the Z{sup '} mass and that both dark matter candidates are only viable in the Z{sup '} resonance region, with the parameter space for scalar dark matter being fully probed by XENON1T. Lastly, we show that one can successfully have a minimal two-component dark matter model. (orig.)
Growth of spherical overdensities in scalar-tensor cosmologies
Nazari-Pooya, N; Pace, F; Jassur, D Mohammad-Zadeh
2016-01-01
The accelerated expansion of the universe is a rather established fact in cosmology and many different models have been proposed as a viable explanation. Many of these models are based on the standard general relativistic framework of non-interacting fluids or more recently of coupled (interacting) dark energy models, where dark energy (the scalar field) is coupled to the dark matter component giving rise to a fifth-force. An interesting alternative is to couple the scalar field directly to the gravity sector via the Ricci scalar. These models are dubbed non-minimally coupled models and give rise to a time-dependent gravitational constant. In this work we study few models falling into this category and describe how observables depend on the strength of the coupling. We extend recent work on the subject by taking into account also the effects of the perturbations of the scalar field and showing their relative importance on the evolution of the mass function. By working in the framework of the spherical collaps...
Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Lotto, Barbara; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Goshaw, Alfred; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Keller, John; Kennedy, John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lukas, Wolfgang; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Plotnikova, Elena; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz
2013-07-16
The results of a search for pair production of the lighter scalar partners of top quarks in 2.05 fb-1 of pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ =7 TeV using the ATLAS experiment at the LHC are reported. Scalar top quarks are searched for in events with two same flavour opposite-sign leptons (electrons or muons) with invariant mass consistent with the Z boson mass, large missing transverse momentum and jets in the final state. At least one of the jets is identified as originating from a b-quark. No excess over Standard Model expectations is found. The results are interpreted in the framework of R-parity conserving, gauge mediated Supersymmetry breaking `natural' scenarios, where the neutralino is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle. Scalar top quark masses up to 310 GeV are excluded for the lightest neutralino mass between 115 GeV and 230 GeV at 95% confidence level, reaching an exclusion of the scalar top quark mass of 330 GeV for the lightest neutralino mass of 190 GeV. Scalar top quark masses below 240 GeV ar...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We construct effective Lagrangians, and corresponding counting schemes, valid to describe the dynamics of the lowest lying large N stable massive composite state emerging in strongly coupled theories. The large N counting rules can now be employed when computing quantum corrections via an effective...... at the electroweak scale. To illustrate the formalism we consider the possibility that the Higgs emerges as: the lightest glueball of a new composite theory; the large N scalar meson in models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking; the large N pseudodilaton useful also for models of near-conformal dynamics...
Multivariable integrated evaluation of model performance with the vector field evaluation diagram
Xu, Zhongfeng; Han, Ying; Fu, Congbin
2017-10-01
This paper develops a multivariable integrated evaluation (MVIE) method to measure the overall performance of climate model in simulating multiple fields. The general idea of MVIE is to group various scalar fields into a vector field and compare the constructed vector field against the observed one using the vector field evaluation (VFE) diagram. The VFE diagram was devised based on the cosine relationship between three statistical quantities: root mean square length (RMSL) of a vector field, vector field similarity coefficient, and root mean square vector deviation (RMSVD). The three statistical quantities can reasonably represent the corresponding statistics between two multidimensional vector fields. Therefore, one can summarize the three statistics of multiple scalar fields using the VFE diagram and facilitate the intercomparison of model performance. The VFE diagram can illustrate how much the overall root mean square deviation of various fields is attributable to the differences in the root mean square value and how much is due to the poor pattern similarity. The MVIE method can be flexibly applied to full fields (including both the mean and anomaly) or anomaly fields depending on the application. We also propose a multivariable integrated evaluation index (MIEI) which takes the amplitude and pattern similarity of multiple scalar fields into account. The MIEI is expected to provide a more accurate evaluation of model performance in simulating multiple fields. The MIEI, VFE diagram, and commonly used statistical metrics for individual variables constitute a hierarchical evaluation methodology, which can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of model performance.
Inert scalars and vacuum metastability around the electroweak scale
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Świeżewska, Bogumiła [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)
2015-07-22
We analyse effective potential around the electroweak (EW) scale in the Standard Model (SM) extended with a heavy scalar doublet. We show that the additional scalars can have a strong impact on vacuum stability. Although the additional heavy scalars may improve the behaviour of running Higgs self-coupling at large field values, we prove that they can destabilise the vacuum due to EW-scale effects. A new EW symmetry conserving minimum of the effective potential can appear rendering the electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) minimum meta- or unstable. However, for the case of the inert doublet model (IDM) with a 125 GeV Higgs boson we demonstrate that the parameter space region where the vacuum is meta- or unstable cannot be reconciled with the constraints from perturbative unitarity, electroweak precision tests (EWPT) and dark matter relic abundance measurements.
Cosmological Dynamics of f(R) Gravity Scalar Degree of Freedom in Einstein Frame
Goswami, Umananda Dev; Deka, Kabita
2013-12-01
f(R) gravity models belong to an important class of modified gravity models where the late time cosmic accelerated expansion is considered as a manifestation of the large scale modification of the force of gravity. f(R) gravity models can be expressed in terms of a scalar degree of freedom by redefinition of model's variable. The conformal transformation of the action from Jordan frame to Einstein frame makes the scalar degree of freedom more explicit and can be studied conveniently. We have investigated the features of the scalar degree of freedoms and the consequent cosmological implications of the power-law (ξRn) and the Starobinsky (disappearing cosmological constant) f(R) gravity models numerically in the Einstein frame. Both the models show interesting behavior of their scalar degree of freedom and could produce the accelerated expansion of the universe in the Einstein frame with the negative equation of state of the scalar field. However, the scalar field potential for the power-law model is the well-behaved function of the field, whereas the potential becomes flat for higher value of field in the case of the Starobinsky model. Moreover, the equation of state of the scalar field for the power-law model is always negative and less than -1/3, which corresponds to the behavior of the dark energy, that produces the accelerated expansion of the universe. This is not always the case for the Starobinsky model. At late times, the Starobinsky model behaves as cosmological constant Λ as behaves by power-law model for the values of n → 2 at all times.
Solano-Altamirano, J. M.; Hernández-Pérez, Julio M.
2015-11-01
DensToolKit is a suite of cross-platform, optionally parallelized, programs for analyzing the molecular electron density (ρ) and several fields derived from it. Scalar and vector fields, such as the gradient of the electron density (∇ρ), electron localization function (ELF) and its gradient, localized orbital locator (LOL), region of slow electrons (RoSE), reduced density gradient, localized electrons detector (LED), information entropy, molecular electrostatic potential, kinetic energy densities K and G, among others, can be evaluated on zero, one, two, and three dimensional grids. The suite includes a program for searching critical points and bond paths of the electron density, under the framework of Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules. DensToolKit also evaluates the momentum space electron density on spatial grids, and the reduced density matrix of order one along lines joining two arbitrary atoms of a molecule. The source code is distributed under the GNU-GPLv3 license, and we release the code with the intent of establishing an open-source collaborative project. The style of DensToolKit's code follows some of the guidelines of an object-oriented program. This allows us to supply the user with a simple manner for easily implement new scalar or vector fields, provided they are derived from any of the fields already implemented in the code. In this paper, we present some of the most salient features of the programs contained in the suite, some examples of how to run them, and the mathematical definitions of the implemented fields along with hints of how we optimized their evaluation. We benchmarked our suite against both a freely-available program and a commercial package. Speed-ups of ˜2×, and up to 12× were obtained using a non-parallel compilation of DensToolKit for the evaluation of fields. DensToolKit takes similar times for finding critical points, compared to a commercial package. Finally, we present some perspectives for the future development and
Karma, Alain
The phase-field method is a powerful simulation tool to describe xxx the complex evolution of interfaces in a wide range of contexts without explicitly tracking these interfaces. Its main application to date has been to problems in materials science where the evolution of interfaces and defects in the interior or on the surface of a material has a profound impact on its behavior [8]. A partial list of applications to date in this general area includes alloy solidification [5], where models combine elements of the first phase-field models of the solidification of pure materials [9, 32] and the Cahn-Hilliard equation (7), solid-state precipitation [66], stress-driven interfacial instabilities [29, 41, 58], microstructural evolution in polycrystalline materials [17, 31, 36, 60], crystal nucleation [16], surface growth [13, 25, 44], thin film patterning [34], ferroelectric materials [57], dislocation dynamics [22, 49, 52, 55], and fracture [3, 11, 27, 56]. Interface tracking is avoided by making interfaces spatially diffuse with the help of order parameters that vary smoothly in space. Evolution equations for these order parameters are derived variationally from a Lyapounov functional that represents the total free-energy of the system. This theoretical construct provides great flexibility to model simultaneously various physical processes on different length and time scales within a single self-consistent set of coupled partial differential equations.
Pair condensation in massless scalar electrodynamics
Hey, Anthony J. G.; Mandula, Jeffrey E.
1982-05-01
Motivated by the instabilities of the vacuum to bound-state pair production at large coupling in both abelian and non-abelian gauge theories, we examine the stability of the vacuum of a constrained version of massless scalar electrodynamics to the formation of a scalar pair condensate. The trial states are constructed by analogy with the BCS ground state of super-conductivity and are such that the vacuum expectation value of the scalar field vanishes. Analysis of the minimization equation for the energy density indicates that there are two phases as a function of the coupling constant. Under the constraint that the vacuum expectation value of the scalar field be zero, we find what, for small coupling, the perturbative vacuum minimizes the energy, while for large coupling a condensate of particle-antiparticle pairs is energetically favored. After discussing the relation of our results to the phase structure of unconstrained scalar electrodynamics, we speculate on possible implications for QCD.
Pair condensation in massless scalar electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hey, A.J.G. (Southampton Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics); Mandula, J.E. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA). Dept. of Physics)
1982-05-03
Motivated by the instabilities of the vacuum to bound-state pair production at large coupling in both abelian and non-abelian gauge theories, we examine the stability of the vacuum of a constrained version of massless scalar electrodynamics to the formation of a scalar pair condensate. The trial states are constructed by analogy with the BCS ground state of super-conductivity and are such that the vacuum expectation value of the scalar field vanishes. Analysis of the minimization equation for the energy density indicates that there are two phases as a function of the coupling constant. Under the constraint that the vacuum expectation value of the scalar field be zero, we find that, for small coupling, the perturbative vacuum minimizes the energy, while for large coupling a condensate of particle-antiparticle pairs is energetically favored. After discussing the relation of our results to the phase structure of unconstrained scalar electrodynamics, we speculate on possible implications for QCD.
Dilatonic dyon-like black hole solutions in the model with two Abelian gauge fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abishev, M.E. [Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, RUDN University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Boshkayev, K.A. [Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Ivashchuk, V.D. [Center for Gravitation and Fundamental Metrology, VNIIMS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, RUDN University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
Dilatonic black hole dyon-like solutions in the gravitational 4d model with a scalar field, two 2-forms, two dilatonic coupling constants λ{sub i} ≠ 0, i = 1,2, obeying λ{sub 1} ≠ -λ{sub 2} and the sign parameter ε = ±1 for scalar field kinetic term are considered. Here ε = -1 corresponds to a ghost scalar field. These solutions are defined up to solutions of two master equations for two moduli functions, when λ{sup 2}{sub i} ≠ 1/2 for ε = -1. Some physical parameters of the solutions are obtained: gravitational mass, scalar charge, Hawking temperature, black hole area entropy and parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters β and γ. The PPN parameters do not depend on the couplings λ{sub i} and ε. A set of bounds on the gravitational mass and scalar charge are found by using a certain conjecture on the parameters of solutions, when 1 + 2λ{sub i}{sup 2} ε > 0, i = 1,2. (orig.)
Subgrid-scale stresses and scalar fluxes constructed by the multi-scale turnover Lagrangian map
AL-Bairmani, Sukaina; Li, Yi; Rosales, Carlos; Xie, Zheng-tong
2017-04-01
The multi-scale turnover Lagrangian map (MTLM) [C. Rosales and C. Meneveau, "Anomalous scaling and intermittency in three-dimensional synthetic turbulence," Phys. Rev. E 78, 016313 (2008)] uses nested multi-scale Lagrangian advection of fluid particles to distort a Gaussian velocity field and, as a result, generate non-Gaussian synthetic velocity fields. Passive scalar fields can be generated with the procedure when the fluid particles carry a scalar property [C. Rosales, "Synthetic three-dimensional turbulent passive scalar fields via the minimal Lagrangian map," Phys. Fluids 23, 075106 (2011)]. The synthetic fields have been shown to possess highly realistic statistics characterizing small scale intermittency, geometrical structures, and vortex dynamics. In this paper, we present a study of the synthetic fields using the filtering approach. This approach, which has not been pursued so far, provides insights on the potential applications of the synthetic fields in large eddy simulations and subgrid-scale (SGS) modelling. The MTLM method is first generalized to model scalar fields produced by an imposed linear mean profile. We then calculate the subgrid-scale stress, SGS scalar flux, SGS scalar variance, as well as related quantities from the synthetic fields. Comparison with direct numerical simulations (DNSs) shows that the synthetic fields reproduce the probability distributions of the SGS energy and scalar dissipation rather well. Related geometrical statistics also display close agreement with DNS results. The synthetic fields slightly under-estimate the mean SGS energy dissipation and slightly over-predict the mean SGS scalar variance dissipation. In general, the synthetic fields tend to slightly under-estimate the probability of large fluctuations for most quantities we have examined. Small scale anisotropy in the scalar field originated from the imposed mean gradient is captured. The sensitivity of the synthetic fields on the input spectra is assessed by
Compressibility Effects on the Passive Scalar Flux Within Homogeneous Turbulence
Blaisdell, G. A.; Mansour, N. N.; Reynolds, W. C.
1994-01-01
Compressibility effects on turbulent transport of a passive scalar are studied within homogeneous turbulence using a kinematic decomposition of the velocity field into solenoidal and dilatational parts. It is found that the dilatational velocity does not produce a passive scalar flux, and that all of the passive scalar flux is due to the solenoidal velocity.
Castañeda, Román; Cañas, Gustavo; Vinck-Posada, Herbert
2012-04-01
The border between the descriptions of the classical optical fields in any state of spatial coherence and the quantum coherence state of light is revisited in the framework of the phase-space representation. Although it is established that such descriptions are not completely equivalent, the exact calculation of the marginal power spectrum leads to new analogies that suggest that some features exclusively attributed to quantum states of light can be also shared by classical optical fields due to their spatial coherence state.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikos Irges
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We perform an old school, one-loop renormalization of the Abelian–Higgs model in the Unitary and Rξ gauges, focused on the scalar potential and the gauge boson mass. Our goal is to demonstrate in this simple context the validity of the Unitary gauge at the quantum level, which could open the way for an until now (mostly avoided framework for loop computations. We indeed find that the Unitary gauge is consistent and equivalent to the Rξ gauge at the level of β-functions. Then we compare the renormalized, finite, one-loop Higgs potential in the two gauges and we again find equivalence. This equivalence needs not only a complete cancellation of the gauge fixing parameter ξ from the Rξ gauge potential but also requires its ξ-independent part to be equal to the Unitary gauge result. We follow the quantum behavior of the system by plotting Renormalization Group trajectories and Lines of Constant Physics, with the former the well known curves and with the latter, determined by the finite parts of the counter-terms, particularly well suited for a comparison with non-perturbative studies.
Cortez, Jerónimo; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.
2012-11-01
We consider the quantization of scalar fields in spacetimes such that, by means of a suitable scaling of the field by a time dependent function, the field equation can be regarded as that of a field with a time dependent mass propagating in an auxiliary ultrastatic static background. For Klein-Gordon fields, it is well known that there exist an infinite number of nonequivalent Fock representations of the canonical commutation relations and, therefore, of inequivalent quantum theories. A context in which this kind of ambiguities arises and prevents the derivation of robust results is, e.g., in the quantum analysis of cosmological perturbations. In these situations, typically, a suitable scaling of the field by a time dependent function leads to a description in an auxiliary static background, though the nonstationarity still shows up in a time dependent mass. For such a field description, and assuming the compactness of the spatial sections, we recently proved in three or less spatial dimensions that the criteria of a natural implementation of the spatial symmetries and of a unitary time evolution are able to select a unique class of unitarily equivalent vacua, and hence of Fock representations. In this work, we succeed to extend our uniqueness result to the consideration of all possible field descriptions that can be reached by a time dependent canonical transformation which, in particular, involves a scaling of the field by a function of time. These kinds of canonical transformations modify the dynamics of the system and introduce a further ambiguity in its quantum description, exceeding the choice of a Fock representation. Remarkably, for any compact spatial manifold in less than four dimensions, we show that our criteria eliminate any possible nontrivial scaling of the field other than that leading to the description in an auxiliary static background. Besides, we show that either no time dependent redefinition of the field momentum is allowed or, if this may
Non-scalar operators for the Potts model in arbitrary dimension
Couvreur, Romain; Lykke Jacobsen, Jesper; Vasseur, Romain
2017-11-01
We investigate the operator content of the Q-state Potts model in arbitrary dimension, using the representation theory of the symmetric group. In particular we construct all possible tensors acting on N spins, corresponding to given symmetries under \
Wang, Ren H.
1991-01-01
A method of combined use of magnetic vector potential (MVP) based finite element (FE) formulations and magnetic scalar potential (MSP) based FE formulations for computation of three-dimensional (3D) magnetostatic fields is developed. This combined MVP-MSP 3D-FE method leads to considerable reduction by nearly a factor of 3 in the number of unknowns in comparison to the number of unknowns which must be computed in global MVP based FE solutions. This method allows one to incorporate portions of iron cores sandwiched in between coils (conductors) in current-carrying regions. Thus, it greatly simplifies the geometries of current carrying regions (in comparison with the exclusive MSP based methods) in electric machinery applications. A unique feature of this approach is that the global MSP solution is single valued in nature, that is, no branch cut is needed. This is again a superiority over the exclusive MSP based methods. A Newton-Raphson procedure with a concept of an adaptive relaxation factor was developed and successfully used in solving the 3D-FE problem with magnetic material anisotropy and nonlinearity. Accordingly, this combined MVP-MSP 3D-FE method is most suited for solution of large scale global type magnetic field computations in rotating electric machinery with very complex magnetic circuit geometries, as well as nonlinear and anisotropic material properties.
Cortez, Jerónimo; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Velhinho, José M.
2010-02-01
We study the Fock description of a quantum free field on the three-sphere with a mass that depends explicitly on time, also interpretable as an explicitly time dependent quadratic potential. We show that, under quite mild restrictions on the time dependence of the mass, the specific Fock representation of the canonical commutation relations which is naturally associated with a massless free field provides a unitary dynamics even when the time varying mass is present. Moreover, we demonstrate that this Fock representation is the only acceptable one, up to unitary equivalence, if the vacuum has to be SO(4)-invariant (i.e., invariant under the symmetries of the field equation) and the dynamics is required to be unitary. In particular, the analysis and uniqueness of the quantization can be applied to the treatment of cosmological perturbations around Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes with the spatial topology of the three-sphere, like e.g. for gravitational waves (tensor perturbations). In addition, we analyze the extension of our results to free fields with a time dependent mass defined on other compact spatial manifolds. We prove the uniqueness of the Fock representation in the case of a two-sphere as well, and discuss the case of a three-torus.
A two-component dark matter model with real singlet scalars ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-05
Jan 5, 2016 ... We put the constraints on the model parameters from theoretical bounds, PLANCK relic density results and direct DM experiments. The -ray flux is computed from DM annihilation in this framework and is then compared with the Fermi-LAT observations from galactic centre region and Fermi bubble.
Scalar decays to γ γ , Z γ , and W γ in the Georgi-Machacek model
Degrande, Céline; Hartling, Katy; Logan, Heather E.
2017-10-01
We compute the decay widths for the neutral and singly-charged Higgs bosons in the Georgi-Machacek model into the final states γ γ , Z γ , and W γ . These decays are most phenomenologically interesting for the fermiophobic custodial fiveplet states H50 and H5± when their masses are below threshold for decays into W W , Z Z , or W Z . We study the allowed branching ratios into these final states using scans over the allowed parameter space, and show how the model can be constrained by LEP searches for a fermiophobic Higgs boson decaying to two photons. The calculation involves evaluating one-loop diagrams in which the loop contains particles with two different masses, some of which do not appear in the existing literature. We give results for these diagrams in a form convenient for numerical implementation using the looptools package.
Mixing among light scalar mesons and L=1 qq-bar scalar mesons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Teshima, T. [Department of Applied Physics, Chubu University, Kasugai (Japan)]. E-mail: teshima@isc.chubu.ac.jp; Kitamura, I.; Morisita, N. [Department of Applied Physics, Chubu University, Kasugai (Japan)
2002-06-01
Following the re-establishment of the {sigma}(500) and the {kappa}(900), the light scalar mesons a{sub 0}(980) and f{sub 0}(980) together with the {sigma}(500) and the {kappa}(900) are considered as the chiral scalar partner of pseudoscalar nonet in SU(3) chiral symmetry, and the high mass scalar mesons a{sub 0}(1450), K*{sub 0}(1430), f{sub 0}(1370) and f{sub 0}(1710) turned out to be considered as the L=1 qq-bar scalar mesons. We assume that the high mass of the L=1 qq-bar scalar mesons is caused by the mixing with the light scalar mesons. For the structure of the light scalar mesons, we adopted the qqq-barq-bar model in order to explain the 'scalar meson puzzle'. The inter-mixing between the light scalar nonet and the high mass L=1 qq-bar nonet and the intra-mixing among each nonet are analysed by including the glueball into the high mass scalar nonet. (author)
Universal effective coupling constant ratios of 3D scalar ϕ4 field theory and pseudo-ϵ expansion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sokolov A. I.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The ratios R2k = g2k/gk − 14 of renormalized coupling constants g2k entering the small-field equation of state approach universal values R*2k at criticality. They are calculated for the three-dimensional λϕ4 field theory within the pseudo-ϵ expansion approach. Pseudo-ϵ expansions for R*6, R*8, R*10 are derived in the five-loop approximation, numerical estimates are obtained with a help of the Padé–Borel–Leroy resummation technique. Its use gives R*6 = 1.6488, the number which perfectly agrees with the most recent lattice result R*6 = 1.649. For the octic coupling the pseudo-ϵ expansion is less favorable numerically. Nevertheless the Padé–Borel–Leroy resummation leads to the estimate R*8 = 0.890 close to the values R*8 = 0.87, R*8 = 0.857 extracted from the lattice and field-theoretical calculations. The pseudo-ϵ expansion for R*10 turns out to have big and rapidly increasing coefficients. This makes correspondent estimates strongly dependent on the Borel–Leroy shift parameter b and prevents proper evaluation of R*10
Cosmological Evolution of Statistical System of Scalar Charged Particles
Ignat'ev, Yurii; Mikhailov, Mikhail; Ignatyev, Dmitry
2014-01-01
In the paper we consider the macroscopic model of plasma of scalar charged particles, obtained by means of the statistical averaging of the microscopic equations of particle dynamics in a scalar field. On the basis of kinetic equations, obtained from averaging, and their strict integral consequences, a self-consistent set of equations is formulated which describes the self-gravitating plasma of scalar charged particles. It was obtained the corresponding closed cosmological model which also was numerically simulated for the case of one-component degenerated Fermi gas and two-component Boltzmann system. It was shown that results depend weakly on the choice of a statistical model. Two specific features of cosmological evolution of a statistical system of scalar charged particles were obtained with respect to cosmological evolution of the minimal interaction models: appearance of giant bursts of invariant cosmological acceleration $\\Omega$ at the time interval $8\\cdot10^3\\div2\\cdot10^4 t_{Pl}$ and strong heating ...
Subfilter scalar-flux vector orientation in homogeneous isotropic turbulence.
Verma, Siddhartha; Blanquart, G
2014-06-01
The geometric orientation of the subfilter-scale scalar-flux vector is examined in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Vector orientation is determined using the eigenframe of the resolved strain-rate tensor. The Schmidt number is kept sufficiently large so as to leave the velocity field, and hence the strain-rate tensor, unaltered by filtering in the viscous-convective subrange. Strong preferential alignment is observed for the case of Gaussian and box filters, whereas the sharp-spectral filter leads to close to a random orientation. The orientation angle obtained with the Gaussian and box filters is largely independent of the filter width and the Schmidt number. It is shown that the alignment direction observed numerically using these two filters is predicted very well by the tensor-diffusivity model. Moreover, preferred alignment of the scalar gradient vector in the eigenframe is shown to mitigate any probable issues of negative diffusivity in the tensor-diffusivity model. Consequentially, the model might not suffer from solution instability when used for large eddy simulations of scalar transport in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Further a priori tests indicate poor alignment of the Smagorinsky and stretched vortex model predictions with the exact subfilter flux. Finally, strong filter dependence of subfilter scalar-flux orientation suggests that explicit filtering may be preferable to implicit filtering in large eddy simulations.
Singh, Amit Raj; Granek, Rony
2016-10-01
We study DNA denaturation by integrating elasticity — as described by the Gaussian network model — with bond binding energies, distinguishing between different base pairs and stacking energies. We use exact calculation, within the model, of the Helmholtz free-energy of any partial denaturation state, which implies that the entropy of all formed "bubbles" ("loops") is accounted for. Considering base pair bond removal single events, the bond designated for opening is chosen by minimizing the free-energy difference for the process, over all remaining base pair bonds. Despite of its great simplicity, for several known DNA sequences our results are in accord with available theoretical and experimental studies. Moreover, we report free-energy profiles along the denaturation pathway, which allow to detect stable or meta-stable partial denaturation states, composed of bubble, as local free-energy minima separated by barriers. Our approach allows to study very long DNA strands with commonly available computational power, as we demonstrate for a few random sequences in the range 200-800 base-pairs. For the latter, we also elucidate the self-averaging property of the system. Implications for the well known breathing dynamics of DNA are elucidated.
Low energy gamma ray excess confronting a singlet scalar extended inert doublet dark matter model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amit Dutta Banik
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Recent study of gamma rays originating from the region of galactic centre has confirmed an anomalous γ-ray excess within the energy range 1–3 GeV. This can be explained as the consequence of pair annihilation of a 31–40 GeV dark matter into bb¯ with thermal annihilation cross-section σv∼1.4–2.0×10−26 cm3/s. In this work we revisit the Inert Doublet Model (IDM in order to explain this gamma ray excess. Taking the lightest inert particle (LIP as a stable DM candidate we show that a 31–40 GeV dark matter derived from IDM will fail to satisfy experimental limits on dark matter direct detection cross-section obtained from ongoing direct detection experiments and is also inconsistent with LHC findings. We show that a singlet extended inert doublet model can easily explain the reported γ-ray excess which is as well in agreement with Higgs search results at LHC and other observed results like DM relic density and direct detection constraints.
Chameleons with Field Dependent Couplings
Brax, Philippe; Mota, David F; Nunes, Nelson J; Winther, Hans A
2010-01-01
Certain scalar-tensor theories exhibit the so-called chameleon mechanism, whereby observational signatures of scalar fields are hidden by a combination of self-interactions and interactions with ambient matter. Not all scalar-tensor theories exhibit such a chameleon mechanism, which has been originally found in models with inverse power run-away potentials and field independent couplings to matter. In this paper we investigate field-theories with field-dependent couplings and a power-law potential for the scalar field. We show that the theory indeed is a chameleon field theory. We find the thin-shell solution for a spherical body and investigate the consequences for E\\"ot-Wash experiments, fifth-force searches and Casimir force experiments. Requiring that the scalar-field evades gravitational tests, we find that the coupling is sensitive to a mass-scale which is of order of the Hubble scale today.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Zhen-Ming [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China)
2017-06-15
We investigate the P - V criticality and the Maxwell equal area law for a five-dimensional spherically symmetric AdS black hole with a scalar hair in the absence of and in the presence of a Maxwell field, respectively. Especially in the charged case, we give the exact P - V critical values. More importantly, we analyze the validity and invalidity of the Maxwell equal area law for the AdS hairy black hole in the scenarios without and with charges, respectively. Within the scope of validity of the Maxwell equal area law, we point out that there exists a representative van der Waals-type oscillation in the P - V diagram. This oscillating part, which indicates the phase transition from a small black hole to a large one, can be replaced by an isobar. The small and large black holes have the same Gibbs free energy. We also give the distribution of the critical points in the parameter space both without and with charges, and we obtain for the uncharged case the fitting formula of the co-existence curve. Meanwhile, the latent heat is calculated, which gives the energy released or absorbed between the small and large black hole phases in the isothermal-isobaric procedure. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ngampitipan, Tritos, E-mail: tritos.ngampitipan@gmail.com [Faculty of Science, Chandrakasem Rajabhat University, Ratchadaphisek Road, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Particle Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Boonserm, Petarpa, E-mail: petarpa.boonserm@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Chatrabhuti, Auttakit, E-mail: dma3ac2@gmail.com [Particle Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Visser, Matt, E-mail: matt.visser@msor.vuw.ac.nz [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Operations Research, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)
2016-06-02
Hawking radiation is the evidence for the existence of black hole. What an observer can measure through Hawking radiation is the transmission probability. In the laboratory, miniature black holes can successfully be generated. The generated black holes are, most commonly, Myers-Perry black holes. In this paper, we will derive the rigorous bounds on the transmission probabilities for massless scalar fields of non-negative-angular-momentum modes emitted from a generated Myers-Perry black hole in six, seven, and eight dimensions. The results show that for low energy, the rigorous bounds increase with the increase in the energy of emitted particles. However, for high energy, the rigorous bounds decrease with the increase in the energy of emitted particles. When the black holes spin faster, the rigorous bounds decrease. For dimension dependence, the rigorous bounds also decrease with the increase in the number of extra dimensions. Furthermore, as comparison to the approximate transmission probability, the rigorous bound is proven to be useful.
Search for Scalar Leptons and Scalar Quarks at LEP
Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.
2004-01-01
Scalar partners of quarks and leptons, predicted in supersymmetric models, are searched for in e^+e^- collisions at centre-of-mass energies between 192GeV and 209GeV at LEP. No evidence for any such particle is found in a data sample of 450 pb^-1. Upper limits on their production cross sections are set and lower limits on their masses are derived in the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.
Leading-twist distribution amplitudes of scalar and vector mesons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, B. -L.; Chang, L.; Ding, M.; Roberts, C. D.; Zong, H. -S.
2016-11-01
A symmetry-preserving truncation of the two-body light-quark bound-state problem in relativistic quantum field theory is used to calculate the leading-twist parton distribution amplitudes (PDAs) of scalar systems, both ground-state and radial excitations, and the radial excitations of vector mesons. Owing to the fact that the scale-independent leptonic decay constant of a scalar meson constituted from equal-mass valence-constituents vanishes, it is found that the PDA of a given scalar system possesses one more zero than that of an analogous vector meson. Consequently, whereas the mean light-front relative momentum of the valence-constituents within a vector meson is zero, that within a scalar meson is large, an outcome which hints at a greater role for light-front angular momentum in systems classified as P-wave in quantum mechanical models. Values for the scale-dependent decay constants of ground-state scalar and vector systems are a by-product of this analysis, and they turn out to be roughly equal, viz. ≃ 0.2 GeV at an hadronic scale. In addition, it is confirmed that the dilation characterising ground-state PDAs is manifest in the PDAs of radial excitations too. The impact of SU(3)-flavour symmetry breaking is also considered. When compared with pseudoscalar states, it is a little stronger in scalar systems, but the size is nevertheless determined by the flavour-dependence of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and the PDAs are still skewed toward the heavier valence-quark in asymmetric systems.
Czajka, Alina; Jeon, Sangyong
2017-06-01
In this paper we provide a quantum field theoretical study on the shear and bulk relaxation times. First, we find Kubo formulas for the shear and the bulk relaxation times, respectively. They are found by examining response functions of the stress-energy tensor. We use general properties of correlation functions and the gravitational Ward identity to parametrize analytical structures of the Green functions describing both sound and diffusion mode. We find that the hydrodynamic limits of the real parts of the respective energy-momentum tensor correlation functions provide us with the method of computing both the shear and bulk viscosity relaxation times. Next, we calculate the shear viscosity relaxation time using the diagrammatic approach in the Keldysh basis for the massless λ ϕ4 theory. We derive a respective integral equation which enables us to compute η τπ and then we extract the shear relaxation time. The relaxation time is shown to be inversely related to the thermal width as it should be.
Field theoretical model of multi-layered Josephson junction and dynamics of Josephson vortices
Fujimori, Toshiaki; Nitta, Muneto
2016-01-01
Multi-layered Josephson junctions are modeled in the context of a field theory, and dynamics of Josephson vortices trapped inside insulators are studied. Starting from a theory consisting of complex and real scalar fields coupled to a U(1) gauge field which admit parallel $N-1$ domain-wall solutions, Josephson couplings are introduced weakly between the complex scalar fields. The $N-1$ domain walls behave as insulators separating $N$ superconductors. We construct the effective Lagrangian on the domain walls, which reduces to a coupled sine-Gordon model for well-separated walls and contains more interactions for walls at short distance. We then construct sine-Gordon solitons emerging in the effective theory that we identify Josephson vortices carrying singly quantized magnetic fluxes. When two neighboring superconductors tend to have the same phase, the ground state does not change with the positions of domain walls. On the other hand, when two neighboring superconductors tend to have the $\\pi$ phase differenc...
Scalar perturbation in warm tachyon inflation in LQC in light of Plank and BICEP2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.R. Setare
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We study warm-tachyon inflationary universe model in the context of the effective field theory of loop quantum cosmology. In slow-roll approximation the primordial perturbation spectrums for this model are calculated. We also obtain the general expressions of the tensor-to-scalar ratio and scalar spectral index. We develop this model by using exponential potential, the characteristics of this model are presented in great details. The parameters of the model are restricted by recent observational data from Planck, WMAP9 and BICEP2.
Minazzoli, Olivier
2013-01-01
The post-Newtonian parameter \\gamma\\ resulting from a universal scalar/matter coupling is investigated in Brans-Dicke-like Scalar-Tensor theories where the scalar potential is assumed to be negligible. Conversely to previous studies, we use a perfect fluid formalism in order to get the explicit scalar-field equation. It is shown that the metric can be put in its standard post-Newtonian form. However, it is pointed out that 1-\\gamma\\ could be either positive, null or negative for finite value of \\omega_0, depending on the coupling function; while Scalar-Tensor theories without coupling always predict \\gamma<1 for finite value of \\omega_0.
The ATLAS collaboration
2012-01-01
The results of a search for pair production of the lighter scalar partners of top quarks ($\\tone$) in 2.05 fb-1 of $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$~TeV using the ATLAS experiment are reported. Scalar top quarks are searched for in events with two same flavour opposite-sign leptons ($e,\\mu$) with invariant mass consistent with the $Z$ boson mass, large missing transverse momentum and jets in the final state. At least one of the jets is identified as originating from a $b$-quark. No excess over Standard Model expectations is found. The results are interpreted in the framework of $R$-parity conserving, gauge-mediated Supersymmetry breaking `natural' scenarios where the neutralino ($\\tilde{\\chi}_{1}^{0}$) is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle. Scalar top quark masses up to 310~GeV are excluded for 115~GeV~$< m_{\\tilde{\\chi}_{1}^{0}}<$~230~GeV at 95\\% confidence-level, reaching an exclusion of $m_{\\tone}<$~330~GeV for $m_{\\tilde{\\chi}_{1}^{0}}=190$~GeV.
CP violating scalar Dark Matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cordero-Cid, A.; Hernández-Sánchez, J. [Instituto de Física and Facultad de Ciencias de la Electrónica, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal 542, C.P. 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Keus, V. [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hallstromin katu 2, Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); King, S.F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Moretti, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Particle Physics Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Rojas, D. [Instituto de Física and Facultad de Ciencias de la Electrónica, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal 542, C.P. 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Sokołowska, D. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)
2016-12-05
We study an extension of the Standard Model (SM) in which two copies of the SM scalar SU(2) doublet which do not acquire a Vacuum Expectation Value (VEV), and hence are inert, are added to the scalar sector. We allow for CP-violation in the inert sector, where the lightest inert state is protected from decaying to SM particles through the conservation of a Z{sub 2} symmetry. The lightest neutral particle from the inert sector, which has a mixed CP-charge due to CP-violation, is hence a Dark Matter (DM) candidate. We discuss the new regions of DM relic density opened up by CP-violation, and compare our results to the CP-conserving limit and the Inert Doublet Model (IDM). We constrain the parameter space of the CP-violating model using recent results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and DM direct and indirect detection experiments.
Unique Fock quantization of scalar cosmological perturbations
Fernández-Méndez, Mikel; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M
2012-01-01
We investigate the ambiguities in the Fock quantization of the scalar perturbations of a Friedmann-Lema\\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker model with a massive scalar field as matter content. We consider the case of compact spatial sections (thus avoiding infrared divergences), with the topology of a three-sphere. After expanding the perturbations in series of eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator, the Hamiltonian of the system is written up to quadratic order in them. We fix the gauge of the local degrees of freedom in two different ways, reaching in both cases the same qualitative results. A canonical transformation, which includes the scaling of the matter field perturbations by the scale factor of the geometry, is performed in order to arrive at a convenient formulation of the system. We then study the quantization of these perturbations in the classical background determined by the homogeneous variables. Based on previous work, we introduce a Fock representation for the perturbations in which: (a) the co...
Dynamical scalar hair formation around a Schwarzschild black hole
Benkel, Robert; Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Witek, Helvi
2016-12-01
Scalar fields coupled to the Gauss-Bonnet invariant evade the known no-hair theorems and have nontrivial configurations around black holes. We focus on a scalar field that couples linearly to the Gauss-Bonnet invariant and hence exhibits shift symmetry. We study its dynamical evolution and the formation of scalar hair in a Schwarzschild background. We show that the evolution eventually settles to the known static hairy solutions in the appropriate limit.
Unique Fock quantization of scalar cosmological perturbations
Fernández-Méndez, Mikel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.
2012-05-01
We investigate the ambiguities in the Fock quantization of the scalar perturbations of a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model with a massive scalar field as matter content. We consider the case of compact spatial sections (thus avoiding infrared divergences), with the topology of a three-sphere. After expanding the perturbations in series of eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator, the Hamiltonian of the system is written up to quadratic order in them. We fix the gauge of the local degrees of freedom in two different ways, reaching in both cases the same qualitative results. A canonical transformation, which includes the scaling of the matter-field perturbations by the scale factor of the geometry, is performed in order to arrive at a convenient formulation of the system. We then study the quantization of these perturbations in the classical background determined by the homogeneous variables. Based on previous work, we introduce a Fock representation for the perturbations in which: (a) the complex structure is invariant under the isometries of the spatial sections and (b) the field dynamics is implemented as a unitary operator. These two properties select not only a unique unitary equivalence class of representations, but also a preferred field description, picking up a canonical pair of field variables among all those that can be obtained by means of a time-dependent scaling of the matter field (completed into a linear canonical transformation). Finally, we present an equivalent quantization constructed in terms of gauge-invariant quantities. We prove that this quantization can be attained by a mode-by-mode time-dependent linear canonical transformation which admits a unitary implementation, so that it is also uniquely determined.
Spherically symmetric scalar field collapse
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2013-03-01
Mar 1, 2013 ... Vaidya metric at the hypersurface and the appropriate junction conditions are obtained. Keywords. Gravitational ... a perfect fluid. As the final stages of collapse might involve dissipative processes as well, ... by Christodoulou [5], Goswami and Joshi [6], Giambo [7] and also by numerical work of. Choptuik [3] ...
Spherically symmetric scalar field collapse
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Author Affiliations. Koyel Ganguly1 2 Narayan Banerjee3. Relativity and Cosmology Research Centre, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, India; St. Xavier's College, 30 Mother Teresa Sarani, Kolkata 700 016, India; IISER-Kolkata, Mohanpur Campus, P.O. BCKV Main Office, Nadia 741 252, India ...
Scalar conservation and boundedness in simulations of compressible flow
Subbareddy, Pramod K.; Kartha, Anand; Candler, Graham V.
2017-11-01
With the proper combination of high-order, low-dissipation numerical methods, physics-based subgrid-scale models, and boundary conditions it is becoming possible to simulate many combustion flows at relevant conditions. However, non-premixed flows are a particular challenge because the thickness of the fuel/oxidizer interface scales inversely with Reynolds number. Sharp interfaces can also be present in the initial or boundary conditions. When higher-order numerical methods are used, there are often aphysical undershoots and overshoots in the scalar variables (e.g. passive scalars, species mass fractions or progress variable). These numerical issues are especially prominent when low-dissipation methods are used, since sharp jumps in flow variables are not always coincident with regions of strong variation in the scalar fields: consequently, special detection mechanisms and dissipative fluxes are needed. Most numerical methods diffuse the interface, resulting in artificial mixing and spurious reactions. In this paper, we propose a numerical method that mitigates this issue. We present methods for passive and active scalars, and demonstrate their effectiveness with several examples.
Probing Scalar Couplings Through Tests Of The Equivalence Principle
Chen, J
2005-01-01
It could be that our universe contains one or more nearly-massless neutral scalars, either as low energy relics of the UV complete theory, or as dynamical dark energy as called upon by observations. Here we discuss phenomenological ramifications of the coupling of a light scalar to the Standard Model. More precisely, we argue that low energy effects of this scalar are dominated by its linear couplings to gauge field kinetic terms and to fermion mass terms, which could then source fifth forces and induce variations in the 'constants.' We determine the limits on each of these couplings, first by determining the strength of the source from each sector. We find that couplings to the gluon kinetic term and to the strange quark mass term are most constrained by current null results for long range composition dependent fifth forces. Should such as detection occur, it would most likely arise from couplings to these sectors. If we are fortunate enough to make multiple measurements of scalar forces with test body pairs...
Beyond the dark matter effective field theory and a simplified model approach at colliders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seungwon Baek
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Direct detection of and LHC search for the singlet fermion dark matter (SFDM model with Higgs portal interaction are considered in a renormalizable model where the full Standard Model (SM gauge symmetry is imposed by introducing a singlet scalar messenger. In this model, direct detection is described by an effective operator mqq¯qχ¯χ as usual, but the full amplitude for monojet + E̸T involves two intermediate scalar propagators, which cannot be seen within the effective field theory (EFT or in the simplified model without the full SM gauge symmetry. We derive the collider bounds from the ATLAS monojet + E̸T as well as the CMS tt¯+E̸T data, finding out that the bounds and the interpretation of the results are completely different from those obtained within the EFT or simplified models. It is pointed out that it is important to respect unitarity, renormalizability and local gauge invariance of the SM.
Kerr-Newman black holes with scalar hair
Delgado, Jorge F. M.; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Radu, Eugen; Rúnarsson, Helgi
2016-10-01
We construct electrically charged Kerr black holes (BHs) with scalar hair. Firstly, we take an uncharged scalar field, interacting with the electromagnetic field only indirectly, via the background metric. The corresponding family of solutions, dubbed Kerr-Newman BHs with ungauged scalar hair, reduces to (a sub-family of) Kerr-Newman BHs in the limit of vanishing scalar hair and to uncharged rotating boson stars in the limit of vanishing horizon. It adds one extra parameter to the uncharged solutions: the total electric charge. This leading electromagnetic multipole moment is unaffected by the scalar hair and can be computed by using Gauss's law on any closed 2-surface surrounding (a spatial section of) the event horizon. By contrast, the first sub-leading electromagnetic multipole - the magnetic dipole moment -, gets suppressed by the scalar hair, such that the gyromagnetic ratio is always smaller than the Kerr-Newman value (g = 2). Secondly, we consider a gauged scalar field and obtain a family of Kerr-Newman BHs with gauged scalar hair. The electrically charged scalar field now stores a part of the total electric charge, which can only be computed by applying Gauss' law at spatial infinity and introduces a new solitonic limit - electrically charged rotating boson stars. In both cases, we analyze some physical properties of the solutions.
Bounded scalar perturbations in bouncing brane world cosmologies
Maier, Rodrigo; Pace, Francesco; Soares, Ivano Damião
2013-11-01
We examine the dynamics of scalar perturbations in closed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universes in the framework of brane world theory with a timelike extra dimension. In this scenario, the unperturbed Friedmann equations contain additional terms arising from the bulk-brane interaction that implement nonsingular bounces in the models with a cosmological constant and noninteracting perfect fluids. The structure of the phase space of the models allows for two basic configurations, namely, one bounce solutions and eternal universes. Assuming that the matter content of the model is given by dust and radiation, we derive the dynamical field equations for scalar hydrodynamical perturbations considering either a conformally flat (de Sitter) bulk or a perturbed bulk. The dynamical system built with these equations is extremely involved. Nevertheless, in this paper we perform a numerical analysis which can shed some light on the study of cosmological scalar perturbations in bouncing brane world models. From a mathematical point of view we show that although the bounce enhances the amplitudes of scalar perturbations for one bounce models in the case of a de Sitter bulk, the amplitudes of the perturbations remain sufficiently small and bounded relative to the background values up to a certain scale. For one bounce models in the case of a perturbed bulk the amplitudes of all perturbations (apart from the Weyl fluid energy density) remain sufficiently small and bounded relative to the background values for any scale of the perturbations. We also discuss and compare the stability and bounded behavior of the perturbations in the late accelerated phase of one bounce solutions. For eternal universes we argue that some of these features are maintained only for early times (typically of the order of the first bounce). In this sense we show that eternal solutions are highly unstable configurations considering the background model of this paper.
Spectra of turbulently advected scalars that have small Schmidt number
Hill, Reginald J.
2017-09-01
Exact statistical equations are derived for turbulent advection of a passive scalar having diffusivity much larger than the kinematic viscosity, i.e., small Schmidt number. The equations contain all terms needed for precise direct numerical simulation (DNS) quantification. In the appropriate limit, the equations reduce to the classical theory for which the scalar spectrum is proportional to the energy spectrum multiplied by k-4, which, in turn, results in the inertial-diffusive range power law, k-17 /3. The classical theory was derived for the case of isotropic velocity and scalar fields. The exact equations are simplified for less restrictive cases: (1) locally isotropic scalar fluctuations at dissipation scales with no restriction on symmetry of the velocity field, (2) isotropic velocity field with averaging over all wave-vector directions with no restriction on the symmetry of the scalar, motivated by that average being used for DNS, and (3) isotropic velocity field with axisymmetric scalar fluctuations, motivated by the mean-scalar-gradient-source case. The equations are applied to recently published DNSs of passive scalars for the cases of a freely decaying scalar and a mean-scalar-gradient source. New terms in the exact equations are estimated for those cases and are found to be significant; those terms cause the deviations from the classical theory found by the DNS studies. A new formula for the mean-scalar-gradient case explains the variation of the scalar spectra for the DNS of the smallest Schmidt-number cases. Expansion in Legendre polynomials reveals the effect of axisymmetry. Inertial-diffusive-range formulas for both the zero- and second-order Legendre contributions are given. Exact statistical equations reveal what must be quantified using DNS to determine what causes deviations from asymptotic relationships.
Light Higgs from Scalar See-Saw in Technicolor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads Toudal
2012-01-01
We consider a TeV scale see-saw mechanism leading to light scalar resonances in models with otherwise intrinsically heavy scalars. The mechanism can provide a 125 GeV technicolor Higgs in e.g. two-scale TC models......We consider a TeV scale see-saw mechanism leading to light scalar resonances in models with otherwise intrinsically heavy scalars. The mechanism can provide a 125 GeV technicolor Higgs in e.g. two-scale TC models...
Conformal FDTD modeling wake fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jurgens, T.; Harfoush, F.
1991-05-01
Many computer codes have been written to model wake fields. Here we describe the use of the Conformal Finite Difference Time Domain (CFDTD) method to model the wake fields generated by a rigid beam traveling through various accelerating structures. The non- cylindrical symmetry of some of the problems considered here requires the use of a three dimensional code. In traditional FDTD codes, curved surfaces are approximated by rectangular steps. The errors introduced in wake field calculations by such an approximation can be reduced by increasing the mesh size, therefore increasing the cost of computing. Another approach, validated here, deforms Ampere and Faraday contours near a media interface so as to conform to the interface. These improvements of the FDTD method result in better accuracy of the fields at asymptotically no computational cost. This method is also capable of modeling thin wires as found in beam profile monitors, and slots and cracks as found in resistive wall motions. 4 refs., 5 figs.
Oscillation modes of rapidly rotating neutron stars in scalar-tensor theories of gravity
Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Doneva, Daniela D.; Kokkotas, Kostas D.
2017-09-01
We perform the first study of the oscillation frequencies of rapidly rotating neutron stars in alternative theories of gravity, focusing mainly on the fundamental f modes. We concentrated on a particular class of alternative theories—the (massive) scalar-tensor theories. The generalization to rapid rotation is important because on one hand the rapid rotation can magnify the deviations from general relativity compared to the static case and on the other hand some of the most efficient emitters of gravitational radiation, such as the binary neutron star merger remnants, are supposed to be rotating close to their Kepler (mass-shedding) limits shortly after their formation. We have constructed several sequences of models starting from the nonrotating case and reaching up to the Kepler limit, with different values of the scalar-tensor theory coupling constant and the scalar field mass. The results show that the deviations from pure Einstein's theory can be significant, especially in the case of nonzero scalar field mass. An important property of the oscillation modes of rapidly rotating stars is that they can become secularly unstable due to the emission of gravitational radiation, the so-called Chandrasekhar-Friedman-Schutz instability. Such unstable modes are efficient emitters of gravitational radiation. Our studies show that the inclusion of a nonzero scalar field would decrease the threshold value of the normalized angular momentum where this instability starts to operate, but the growth time of the instability seems to be increased compared to pure general relativity.
Growth rate in the dynamical dark energy models.
Avsajanishvili, Olga; Arkhipova, Natalia A; Samushia, Lado; Kahniashvili, Tina
Dark energy models with a slowly rolling cosmological scalar field provide a popular alternative to the standard, time-independent cosmological constant model. We study the simultaneous evolution of background expansion and growth in the scalar field model with the Ratra-Peebles self-interaction potential. We use recent measurements of the linear growth rate and the baryon acoustic oscillation peak positions to constrain the model parameter [Formula: see text] that describes the steepness of the scalar field potential.
Stochastic inflationary scalar electrodynamics
Prokopec, T.; Tsamis, N.C.; Woodard, R.P.
2008-01-01
We stochastically formulate the theory of scalar quantum electrodynamics on a de Sitter background. This reproduces the leading infrared logarithms at each loop order. It also allows one to sum the series of leading infrared logarithms to obtain explicit, nonperturbative results about the late time
Collisionless self-gravitating statistical systems of scalar interacting particles
Ignat'ev, Yu G
2015-01-01
This paper is devoted to consideration of the theory of collisionless statistical systems with interparticle scalar interaction. The mathematical model of such systems is constructed and the exact solution of Vlasov equation for isotropic homogenous model of the Universe is found. Asymptotic solutions of self-consistent Vlasov - Einstein model for conformally invariant scalar interactions are found.
Variational method for objective analysis of scalar variable and its ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In regard to variational optimization of meteoro- logical parameter a given measure of the 'distance' between the variational scalar analysis and the standard scalar analysis is minimized. The varia- tional analysed field must at the same time satisfy some constraint. The constraint is that the differ- ence between derivative of ...
Finsler metrics with constant (or scalar) flag curvature
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
of new Finsler metrics of constant (or scalar) flag curvature and determine their scalar curvature. Keywords. ... For instance, Li, Chang and Mo related some Killing fields of Finsler metrics to the symmetry of very ...... [13] Shen Z, Differential Geometry of Spray and Finsler Spaces (Kluwer Academic Publish- ers) (2001) 258 ...
A consistent scalar-tensor cosmology for inflation, dark energy and the Hubble parameter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, C.H.-T., E-mail: c.wang@abdn.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Aberdeen, King' s College, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Reid, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Aberdeen, King' s College, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Murphy, A.St.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Rodrigues, D.; Al Alawi, M. [Department of Physics, University of Aberdeen, King' s College, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Bingham, R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Mendonça, J.T. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Davies, T.B. [Department of Physics, University of Aberdeen, King' s College, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)
2016-11-25
A Friedman cosmology is investigated based on scalar-tensor gravitation with general metric coupling and scalar potential functions. We show that for a broad class of such functions, the scalar field can be dynamically trapped using a recently suggested mechanism. The trapped scalar can drive inflation and accelerated cosmic expansion, compatible with standard requirements. The inflationary phase admits a natural exit with a value of the Hubble parameter dictated by the duration of inflation in a parameter independent manner. For inflationary duration consistent with the GUT description, the resulting Hubble parameter is found to be consistent with its observed value. - Highlights: • First model for inflation and dark energy in cosmology and core-collapse supernovae in astronomy to be unified under the same theory. • Achieved with a natural simple extension of Einstein's General Relativity using a new scalar field. • Potentially far-researching consequences in cosmology for dark matter, dark energy and inflation, testable through core-collapse supernovae.
Cortez, Jerónimo; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Velhinho, José M.
The canonical quantization of midisuperspace gravitational models is a particular case of the quantization of fields. Typically, the requirement of symmetries other than homogeneity reduces the phase space of full General Relativity, but still leaves an infinite number of degrees of freedom, encoded in some fields which parametrize the metric components and are subject to constraints. Since the total Hamiltonian vanishes, and constraints are all that there is l, a peculiar situation occurs in the quantization of these models. On the one hand, it is tempting to solve at the classical level as many constraints as possible, e.g. by gauge fixing or other means. On the other hand, if all the constraints were to be solved, one would be l just with the infinite dimensional reduced phase space of the model, and no extra structure to guide us through the quantization process.
Cosmological Magnetic Fields from Gauge-Mediated Supersymmetry-Breaking Models
Kandus, A; Mazzitelli, F D; Wagner, C E M; Kandus, Alejandra; Calzetta, Esteban A.; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.; Wagner, Carlos E. M.
2000-01-01
We study the generation of primordial magnetic fields, coherent over cosmologically interesting scales, by cosmological creation of charged scalar particles during the reheating period. We show that magnetic fields consistent with those detected by observation may obtained if the particle mean life mechanism to minimal gauge mediated supersymmetry-breaking models, in the case in which the lightest stau \\tilde\\tau_1 is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle. We show that, for a large range of phenomenologically acceptable values of the supersymmetry-breaking scale \\sqrt{F}, the generated primordial magnetic field can be strong enough to seed the galactic dynamo.
Scalar operators in solid-state NMR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Boqin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1991-11-01
Selectivity and resolution of solid-state NMR spectra are determined by dispersion of local magnetic fields originating from relaxation effects and orientation-dependent resonant frequencies of spin nuclei. Theoretically, the orientation-dependent resonant frequencies can be represented by a set of irreducible tensors. Among these tensors, only zero rank tensors (scalar operators) are capable of providing high resolution NMR spectra. This thesis presents a series of new developments in high resolution solid-state NMR concerning the reconstruction of various scalar operators motion in solid C_{60} is analyzed.
Scalar Calibration of Vector Magnetometers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter; Primdahl, Fritz
2000-01-01
The calibration parameters of a vector magnetometer are estimated only by the use of a scalar reference magnetometer. The method presented in this paper differs from those previously reported in its linearized parametrization. This allows the determination of three offsets or signals in the absence...... of a magnetic field, three scale factors for normalization of the axes and three non-orthogonality angles which build up an orthogonal system intrinsically in the sensor. The advantage of this method compared with others lies in its linear least squares estimator, which finds independently and uniquely...... the parameters for a given data set. Therefore, a magnetometer may be characterized inexpensively in the Earth's magnetic-field environment. This procedure has been used successfully in the pre-flight calibration of the state-of-the-art magnetometers on board the magnetic mapping satellites Orsted, Astrid-2...
Wedge-Local Fields in Integrable Models with Bound States II: Diagonal S-Matrix
Cadamuro, Daniela; Tanimoto, Yoh
2017-01-01
We construct candidates for observables in wedge-shaped regions for a class of 1+1-dimensional integrable quantum field theories with bound states whose S-matrix is diagonal, by extending our previous methods for scalar S-matrices. Examples include the Z(N)-Ising models, the A_N-affine Toda field theories and some S-matrices with CDD factors. We show that these candidate operators which are associated with elementary particles commute weakly on a dense domain. For the models with two species of particles, we can take a larger domain of weak commutativity and give an argument for the Reeh-Schlieder property.
Phase-Field Model of Dynamic Crack Instability
Karma, Alain
2002-03-01
Steady-state propagation of brittle cracks is known to end abruptly when the tip speed exceeds a fraction of the Rayleigh wave speed, at which point crack branching is typically observed in both real experiments and molecular dynamic simulations. There have been several theoretical attempts to understand the origin of this dynamic instability over the last decades, but no clear picture has yet emerged. We have recently introduced a phenomenological continuum model of dynamic fracture [Karma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol 87, 045501 (2001)] that is based on the phase-field methodology used extensively to model interfacial pattern formation. This model couples a scalar field, which distinguishes between ``broken'' and ``unbroken'' states of the system, to the displacement field in a way that consistently includes both macroscopic elasticity and a simple rotationally invariant short scale description of breaking. This talk will report the results of a numerical simulation study of this model done in collaboration with Alex Lobkovsky that sheds new light on the origin of this elusive instability.
Scalar dissipation rate statistics in turbulent swirling jets
Stetsyuk, V.; Soulopoulos, N.; Hardalupas, Y.; Taylor, A. M. K. P.
2016-07-01
The scalar dissipation rate statistics were measured in an isothermal flow formed by discharging a central jet in an annular stream of swirling air flow. This is a typical geometry used in swirl-stabilised burners, where the central jet is the fuel. The flow Reynolds number was 29 000, based on the area-averaged velocity of 8.46 m/s at the exit and the diameter of 50.8 mm. The scalar dissipation rate and its statistics were computed from two-dimensional imaging of the mixture fraction fields obtained with planar laser induced fluorescence of acetone. Three swirl numbers, S, of 0.3, 0.58, and 1.07 of the annular swirling stream were considered. The influence of the swirl number on scalar mixing, unconditional, and conditional scalar dissipation rate statistics were quantified. A procedure, based on a Wiener filter approach, was used to de-noise the raw mixture fraction images. The filtering errors on the scalar dissipation rate measurements were up to 15%, depending on downstream positions from the burner exit. The maximum of instantaneous scalar dissipation rate was found to be up to 35 s-1, while the mean dissipation rate was 10 times smaller. The probability density functions of the logarithm of the scalar dissipation rate fluctuations were found to be slightly negatively skewed at low swirl numbers and almost symmetrical when the swirl number increased. The assumption of statistical independence between the scalar and its dissipation rate was valid for higher swirl numbers at locations with low scalar fluctuations and less valid for low swirl numbers. The deviations from the assumption of statistical independence were quantified. The conditional mean of the scalar dissipation rate, the standard deviation of the scalar dissipation rate fluctuations, the weighted probability of occurrence of the mean conditional scalar dissipation rate, and the conditional probability are reported.
Bayesian population receptive field modelling.
Zeidman, Peter; Silson, Edward Harry; Schwarzkopf, Dietrich Samuel; Baker, Chris Ian; Penny, Will
2017-09-08
We introduce a probabilistic (Bayesian) framework and associated software toolbox for mapping population receptive fields (pRFs) based on fMRI data. This generic approach is intended to work with stimuli of any dimension and is demonstrated and validated in the context of 2D retinotopic mapping. The framework enables the experimenter to specify generative (encoding) models of fMRI timeseries, in which experimental stimuli enter a pRF model of neural activity, which in turns drives a nonlinear model of neurovascular coupling and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) response. The neuronal and haemodynamic parameters are estimated together on a voxel-by-voxel or region-of-interest basis using a Bayesian estimation algorithm (variational Laplace). This offers several novel contributions to receptive field modelling. The variance/covariance of parameters are estimated, enabling receptive fields to be plotted while properly representing uncertainty about pRF size and location. Variability in the haemodynamic response across the brain is accounted for. Furthermore, the framework introduces formal hypothesis testing to pRF analysis, enabling competing models to be evaluated based on their log model evidence (approximated by the variational free energy), which represents the optimal tradeoff between accuracy and complexity. Using simulations and empirical data, we found that parameters typically used to represent pRF size and neuronal scaling are strongly correlated, which is taken into account by the Bayesian methods we describe when making inferences. We used the framework to compare the evidence for six variants of pRF model using 7 T functional MRI data and we found a circular Difference of Gaussians (DoG) model to be the best explanation for our data overall. We hope this framework will prove useful for mapping stimulus spaces with any number of dimensions onto the anatomy of the brain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John McDonald
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The 750 GeV resonance observed by ATLAS and CMS may be explained by a gauge singlet scalar. This would provide an ideal candidate for a gauge singlet scalar alternative to Higgs Inflation, known as S-inflation. Here we discuss the relevant results of S-inflation in the context of the 750 GeV resonance. In particular, we show that a singlet scalar, if it is real, has a major advantage over the Higgs boson with regard to unitarity violation during inflation. This is because it is possible to restrict the large non-minimal coupling required for inflation, ξ∼105, to the real singlet scalar, with all other scalars having ξ∼1. In this case the scale of unitarity violation Λ is much larger than the inflaton field during inflation. This protects the inflaton effective potential from modification by the new physics or strong coupling which is necessary to restore unitarity, which would otherwise invalidate the perturbative effective potential based on Standard Model physics. This is in contrast to the case of Higgs Inflation or models based on complex singlet scalars, where the unitarity violation scale during inflation is less than or of the order of the inflaton field. Therefore if the 750 GeV resonance is the inflaton, it must be a non-minimally coupled real singlet scalar.
Structure scalars and evolution equations in f( G) cosmology
Sharif, M.; Fatima, H. Ismat
2017-01-01
In this paper, we study the dynamics of self-gravitating fluid using structure scalars for spherical geometry in the context of f( G) cosmology. We construct structure scalars through orthogonal splitting of the Riemann tensor and deduce a complete set of equations governing the evolution of dissipative anisotropic fluid in terms of these scalars. We explore different causes of density inhomogeneity which turns out to be a necessary condition for viable models. It is explicitly shown that anisotropic inhomogeneous static spherically symmetric solutions can be expressed in terms of these scalar functions.
A model of the geomagnetic field and its secular variation for epoch 2000 estimated from Orsted data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Nils
2002-01-01
treatment of the data errors and for considering external field contributions. Magnetospheric contributions are modelled up to degree/order two; the zonal terms vary with annual and semi-annual periodicity, and terms with degree n = 1 are modulated with the strength of the magnetospheric ring current....... The rms misfit achieved at non-polar latitudes is 3 nT for the scalar intensity and for one of the vector components perpendicular to the magnetic field; the third vector component (rms misfit of 6.4 nT owing to attitude noise) is downweighted when estimating the model. Comparing model predictions...... with actual scalar magnetic field observations from the CHAMP satellite yields an rms misfit of 3.4 nT at non-polar latitudes and 5.4 nT at polar latitudes....
Search for scalar top and scalar bottom quarks at LEP
Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Elfgren, E.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hauschildt, J.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Horvath, D.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kramer, T.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Krop, D.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vachon, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija
2002-01-01
Searches for a scalar top quark and a scalar bottom quark have been performed using a data sample of 438 pb-1 at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 192 - 209 GeV collected with the OPAL detector at LEP. No evidence for a signal was found. The 95% confidence level lower limit on the scalar top quark mass is 97.6 GeV if the mixing angle between the supersymmetric partners of the left- and right-handed states of the top quark is zero. When the scalar top quark decouples from the Z0 boson, the lower limit is 95.7 GeV. These limits were obtained assuming that the scalar top quark decays into a charm quark and the lightest neutralino, and that the mass difference between the scalar top quark and the lightest neutralino is larger than 10 GeV. The complementary decay mode of the scalar top quark decaying into a bottom quark, a charged lepton and a scalar neutrino has also been studied. The lower limit on the scalar top quark mass is 93.0 GeV for this decay mode, if the mass difference between the scalar top quark a...
Conformally coupled scalars, instantons and vacuum instability in AdS{sub 4}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Haro, S. [King' s College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics; Papadimitriou, I. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Petkou, A.C. [Crete Univ., Keraklion (Greece). Dept. of Physics
2006-11-15
We show that a scalar field conformally coupled to AdS gravity in four dimensions with a quartic self-interaction can be embedded into M-theory. The holographic effective action and effective potential are exactly calculated, allowing us to study non-perturbatively the stability of AdS{sub 4} in the presence of the conformally coupled scalar. It is shown that there exists a one-parameter family of conformal scalar boundary conditions for which the boundary theory has an unstable vacuum. In this case, the bulk theory has instanton solutions that mediate the decay of the AdS{sub 4} space. These results match nicely with the vacuum structure and the existence of instantons in an effective three-dimensional boundary model.
Correlation Models for Temperature Fields
North, Gerald R.
2011-05-16
This paper presents derivations of some analytical forms for spatial correlations of evolving random fields governed by a white-noise-driven damped diffusion equation that is the analog of autoregressive order 1 in time and autoregressive order 2 in space. The study considers the two-dimensional plane and the surface of a sphere, both of which have been studied before, but here time is introduced to the problem. Such models have a finite characteristic length (roughly the separation at which the autocorrelation falls to 1/e) and a relaxation time scale. In particular, the characteristic length of a particular temporal Fourier component of the field increases to a finite value as the frequency of the particular component decreases. Some near-analytical formulas are provided for the results. A potential application is to the correlation structure of surface temperature fields and to the estimation of large area averages, depending on how the original datastream is filtered into a distribution of Fourier frequencies (e.g., moving average, low pass, or narrow band). The form of the governing equation is just that of the simple energy balance climate models, which have a long history in climate studies. The physical motivation provided by the derivation from a climate model provides some heuristic appeal to the approach and suggests extensions of the work to nonuniform cases.
Iso-scalar surfaces, mixing and reaction in turbulent flows
Dopazo, César; Martín, Jesús; Hierro, Juan
2006-08-01
Turbulent scalar mixing with chemical reaction is investigated in terms of the local geometrical features of the iso-scalar surfaces—'scalar field topologies'—, using Direct Numerical Simulation data. Two scalars with identical initial distribution, one inert and the other obeying a prescribed Arrhenius-like chemical reaction, evolve in homogeneous isotropic turbulence with a mesh size 256 3. The two local principal curvatures, k and k, of the iso-scalar surface at each point are straightforwardly obtained from the curvature tensor, n, whose elements are the spatial derivatives of the unit vector normal to the iso-surface. The scalar diffusive flux is decomposed into a 'flat-front' contribution plus a curvature induced molecular transport. Expressions for the normal propagating velocity relative to the fluid of iso-surfaces, of both the inert and the reactive scalar fields, are provided making use of the previous decomposition. The 'flat-front' and the curvature induced contributions to the diffusive fluxes, beside to the chemical reaction rate, are correlated with the principal curvatures. Results, including the joint statistics of the principal curvatures and their correlations with the scalar dissipation, are also presented. To cite this article: C. Dopazo et al., C. R. Mecanique 334 (2006).
Inflation and reheating in scale-invariant scalar-tensor gravity
Tambalo, Giovanni
2016-01-01
We consider the scale-invariant inflationary model studied in [1]. The Lagrangian includes all the scale-invariant operators that can be built with combinations of $R, R^{2}$ and one scalar field. The equations of motion show that the symmetry is spontaneously broken after an arbitrarily long inflationary period and a fundamental mass scale is generated. Upon symmetry breaking, and in the Jordan frame, both Hubble function and the scalar field undergo damped oscillations that can eventually amplify Standard Model fields and reheat the Universe. In the present work, we study in detail inflation and the reheating mechanism of this model in the Einstein frame and we compare some of the results with the latest observational data.
Hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-12-05
Dec 5, 2016 ... the beginning of the inflationary epoch or before. The cosmological models based on scalar fields have a long history for exploring possible inflationary scenario and for describing dark energy. In recent years, cosmolog- ical model with a scalar field is the most natural basis for inflationary models.
Charged composite scalar dark matter
Balkin, Reuven; Ruhdorfer, Maximilian; Salvioni, Ennio; Weiler, Andreas
2017-11-01
We consider a composite model where both the Higgs and a complex scalar χ, which is the dark matter (DM) candidate, arise as light pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons (pNGBs) from a strongly coupled sector with TeV scale confinement. The global symmetry structure is SO(7)/SO(6), and the DM is charged under an exact U(1)DM ⊂ SO(6) that ensures its stability. Depending on whether the χ shift symmetry is respected or broken by the coupling of the top quark to the strong sector, the DM can be much lighter than the Higgs or have a weak-scale mass. Here we focus primarily on the latter possibility. We introduce the lowest-lying composite resonances and impose calculability of the scalar potential via generalized Weinberg sum rules. Compared to previous analyses of pNGB DM, the computation of the relic density is improved by fully accounting for the effects of the fermionic top partners. This plays a crucial role in relaxing the tension with the current DM direct detection constraints. The spectrum of resonances contains exotic top partners charged under the U(1)DM, whose LHC phenomenology is analyzed. We identify a region of parameters with f = 1.4 TeV and 200 GeV ≲ m χ ≲ 400 GeV that satisfies all existing bounds. This DM candidate will be tested by XENON1T in the near future.
Small visible energy scalar top iterative discriminant analysis
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The search for scalar top quarks and the determination of their parameters in the framework of supersymmetric models are important aspects of the linear collider physics programme. The lightest neutralino with a small mass difference (∆m) to the scalar top quark is a candidate for dark matter in the Universe [1]. The.
Solution of the hyperon puzzle within a relativistic mean-field model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K.A. Maslov
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The equation of state of cold baryonic matter is studied within a relativistic mean-field model with hadron masses and coupling constants depending on the scalar field. All hadron masses undergo a universal scaling, whereas the couplings are scaled differently. The appearance of hyperons in dense neutron star interiors is accounted for, however the equation of state remains sufficiently stiff if the reduction of the ϕ meson mass is included. Our equation of state matches well the constraints known from analyses of the astrophysical data and particle production in heavy-ion collisions.
High-Range Scalar Helium Magnetometer (HSHM) Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes development of a conceptual design for a High-range Scalar Helium Magnetometer (HSHM) for the field range +/-16 Gauss. The HSHM...
Considering Late-Time Acceleration in Some Cosmological Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Davood Sadatian
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We study two cosmological models: a nonminimally coupled scalar field on brane world model and a minimally coupled scalar field on Lorentz invariance violation model. We compare some cosmological results in these scenarios. Also, we consider some types of Rip singularity solution in both models.
Joint Scalar versus Joint Velocity-Scalar PDF Simulations of Bluff-Body Stabilized Flames with REDIM
Merci, B.; Naud, B.; Roekaerts, D.; Maas, U.
2008-01-01
Two transported PDF strategies, joint velocity-scalar PDF (JVSPDF) and joint scalar PDF (JSPDF), are investigated for bluff-body stabilized jet-type turbulent diffusion flames with a variable degree of turbulence–chemistry interaction. Chemistry is modeled by means of the novel reaction-diffusion
Weakly dynamic dark energy via metric-scalar couplings with torsion
Sur, Sourav; Singh Bhatia, Arshdeep
2017-07-01
We study the dynamical aspects of dark energy in the context of a non-minimally coupled scalar field with curvature and torsion. Whereas the scalar field acts as the source of the trace mode of torsion, a suitable constraint on the torsion pseudo-trace provides a mass term for the scalar field in the effective action. In the equivalent scalar-tensor framework, we find explicit cosmological solutions representing dark energy in both Einstein and Jordan frames. We demand the dynamical evolution of the dark energy to be weak enough, so that the present-day values of the cosmological parameters could be estimated keeping them within the confidence limits set for the standard LCDM model from recent observations. For such estimates, we examine the variations of the effective matter density and the dark energy equation of state parameters over different redshift ranges. In spite of being weakly dynamic, the dark energy component differs significantly from the cosmological constant, both in characteristics and features, for e.g. it interacts with the cosmological (dust) fluid in the Einstein frame, and crosses the phantom barrier in the Jordan frame. We also obtain the upper bounds on the torsion mode parameters and the lower bound on the effective Brans-Dicke parameter. The latter turns out to be fairly large, and in agreement with the local gravity constraints, which therefore come in support of our analysis.
Electrically charged Kerr black holes with scalar hair
Delgado, Jorge F M; Radu, Eugen; Runarsson, Helgi
2016-01-01
We construct electrically charged Kerr black holes (BHs) with scalar hair. Firstly, we take an uncharged scalar field, interacting with the electromagnetic field only indirectly, via the background metric. The corresponding family of solutions, dubbed Kerr-Newman BHs with ungauged scalar hair, reduces to (a sub-family of) Kerr-Newman BHs in the limit of vanishing scalar hair and to uncharged rotating boson stars in the limit of vanishing horizon. It adds one extra parameter to the uncharged solutions: the total electric charge. This leading electromagnetic multipole moment is unaffected by the scalar hair and can be computed by using Gauss's law on any closed 2-surface surrounding (a spatial section of) the event horizon. By contrast, the first sub-leading electromagnetic multipole -- the magnetic dipole moment --, gets suppressed by the scalar hair, such that the gyromagnetic ratio is always smaller than the Kerr-Newman value ($g=2$). Secondly, we consider a gauged scalar field and obtain a family of Kerr-Ne...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadjadi, H.M. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-03-15
We study the parameterized post-Newtonian approximation in teleparallel model of gravity with a scalar field. The scalar field is non-minimally coupled to the scalar torsion as well as to the boundary term introduced in Bahamonde and Wright (Phys Rev D 92:084034 arXiv:1508.06580v4 [gr-qc], 2015). We show that, in contrast to the case where the scalar field is only coupled to the scalar torsion, the presence of the new coupling affects the parameterized post-Newtonian parameters. These parameters for different situations are obtained and discussed. (orig.)
Why supersymmetry? Physics beyond the standard model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The Naturalness Principle as a requirement that the heavy mass scales decouple from the physics of light mass scales is reviewed. In quantum field theories containing {\\em elementary} scalar fields, such as the StandardModel of electroweak interactions containing the Higgs particle, mass of the scalar field is not a natural ...
Scalar transport in inline mixers with spatially periodic flows
Baskan, Ozge; Rajaei, Hadi; Speetjens, Michel F. M.; Clercx, Herman J. H.
2017-01-01
Spatially persisting patterns form during the downstream evolution of passive scalars in three-dimensional (3D) spatially periodic flows due to the coupled effect of stretching and folding mechanisms of the flow field. This has been investigated in many computational and theoretical studies of 2D time-periodic and 3D spatially periodic flow fields. However, experimental studies, to date, have mainly focused on flow visualization with streaks of dye rather than fully 3D scalar field measurements. Our study employs 3D particle tracking velocimetry and 3D laser-induced fluorescence to analyze the evolution of 3D flow and scalar fields and the correlation between the coherent flow/scalar field structures in a representative inline mixer, the Quatro static mixer. For this purpose an experimental setup that consists of an optically accessible test section with transparent internal elements accommodating a pressure-driven pipe flow has been built. The flow and scalar fields clearly underline the complementarity of the experimental results with numerical simulations and provide validation of the periodicity assumption needed in numerical studies. The experimental procedure employed in this investigation, which allows studying the scalar transport in the advective limit, demonstrates the suitability of the present method for exploratory mixing studies of a variety of mixing devices, beyond the Quatro static mixer.
Longitudinal W boson scattering in a light scalar top scenario
Ishiwata, Koji; Yonekura, Yuki
2017-07-01
Scalar tops in the supersymmetric model affect the potential of the standard model-like Higgs at the quantum level. In light of the equivalence theorem, the deviation of the potential from the standard model can be traced by longitudinal gauge bosons. In this work, high-energy longitudinal W boson scattering is studied in a TeV-scale scalar top scenario. O (1 - 10 %) deviation from the standard model prediction in the differential cross section is found, depending on whether the observed Higgs mass is explained only by scalar tops or by additional contributions at a higher scale.
Holographic quantum phase transitions and interacting bulk scalars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pankaj Chaturvedi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We consider a system of two massive, mutually interacting probe real scalar fields, in zero temperature holographic backgrounds. The system does not have any continuous symmetry. For a suitable range of the interaction parameters adhering to the interaction potential between the bulk scalars, we have shown that as one turns on the source for one scalar field, the system may go through a second order quantum critical phase transition across which the second scalar field forms a condensate. We have looked at the resulting phase diagram and numerically computed the condensate. We have also investigated our system in two different backgrounds: AdS4 and AdS soliton, and got similar phase structure.
Field theoretical model of multilayered Josephson junction and dynamics of Josephson vortices
Fujimori, Toshiaki; Iida, Hideaki; Nitta, Muneto
2016-09-01
Multilayered Josephson junctions are modeled in the context of a field theory, and dynamics of Josephson vortices trapped inside insulators are studied. Starting from a theory consisting of complex and real scalar fields coupled to a U(1) gauge field which admit parallel N -1 domain-wall solutions, Josephson couplings are introduced weakly between the complex scalar fields. The N -1 domain walls behave as insulators separating N superconductors, where one of the complex scalar fields has a gap. We construct the effective Lagrangian on the domain walls, which reduces to a coupled sine-Gordon model for well-separated walls and contains more interactions for walls at short distance. We then construct sine-Gordon solitons emerging in an effective theory in which we identify Josephson vortices carrying singly quantized magnetic fluxes. When two neighboring superconductors tend to have the same phase, the ground state does not change with the positions of domain walls (the width of superconductors). On the other hand, when two neighboring superconductors tend to have π -phase differences, the ground state has a phase transition depending on the positions of domain walls; when the two walls are close to each other (one superconductor is thin), frustration occurs because of the coupling between the two superconductors besides the thin superconductor. Focusing on the case of three superconductors separated by two insulators, we find for the former case that the interaction between two Josephson vortices on different insulators changes its nature, i.e., attractive or repulsive, depending on the positions of the domain walls. In the latter case, there emerges fractional Josephson vortices when two degenerate ground states appear due to spontaneous charge-symmetry breaking, and the number of the Josephson vortices varies with the position of the domain walls. Our predictions should be verified in multilayered Josephson junctions.
Scalar geons in Born-Infeld gravity
Afonso, V. I.; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D.
2017-08-01
The existence of static, spherically symmetric, self-gravitating scalar field solutions in the context of Born-Infeld gravity is explored. Upon a combination of analytical approximations and numerical methods, the equations for a free scalar field (without a potential term) are solved, verifying that the solutions recover the predictions of General Relativity far from the center but finding important new effects in the central regions. We find two classes of objects depending on the ratio between the Schwarzschild radius and a length scale associated to the Born-Infeld theory: massive solutions have a wormhole structure, with their throat at r≈ 2M, while for the lighter configurations the topology is Euclidean. The total energy density of these solutions exhibits a solitonic profile with a maximum peaked away from the center, and located at the throat whenever a wormhole exists. The geodesic structure and curvature invariants are analyzed for the various configurations considered.
The Effective Hamiltonian in the Scalar Electrodynamics
Dineykhan, M D; Zhaugasheva, S A; Sakhyev, S K
2002-01-01
On the basis of an investigation of the asymptotic behaviour of the polarization loop for the scalar particles in the external electromagnetic field the relativistic corrections to the Hamiltonian are determined. The constituent mass of the particles in the bound state is analytically derived. It is shown that the constituent mass of the particles differs from the mass of the particles in the free state. The corrections connected with the Thomas precession have been calculated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guenther, Uwe [Gravitationsprojekt, Mathematische Physik I, Institut fuer Mathematik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, PF 601553, D-14415 Potsdam (Germany); Zhuk, Alexander [Department of Physics, University of Odessa, 2 Dvoryanskaya St, Odessa 65100 (Ukraine); Bezerra, Valdir B [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de ParaIba C Postal 5008, Joao Pessoa, PB, 58059-970 (Brazil); Romero, Carlos [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de ParaIba C Postal 5008, Joao Pessoa, PB, 58059-970 (Brazil)
2005-08-21
We study multi-dimensional gravitational models with scalar curvature nonlinearities of types R{sup -1} and R{sup 4}. It is assumed that the corresponding higher dimensional spacetime manifolds undergo a spontaneous compactification to manifolds with a warped product structure. Special attention has been paid to the stability of the extra-dimensional factor spaces. It is shown that for certain parameter regions the systems allow for a freezing stabilization of these spaces. In particular, we find for the R{sup -1} model that configurations with stabilized extra dimensions do not provide a late-time acceleration (they are AdS), whereas the solution branch which allows for accelerated expansion (the dS branch) is incompatible with stabilized factor spaces. In the case of the R{sup 4} model, we obtain that the stability region in parameter space depends on the total dimension D = dim(M) of the higher dimensional spacetime M. For D > 8 the stability region consists of a single (absolutely stable) sector which is shielded from a conformal singularity (and an antigravity sector beyond it) by a potential barrier of infinite height and width. This sector is smoothly connected with the stability region of a curvature-linear model. For D < 8 an additional (metastable) sector exists which is separated from the conformal singularity by a potential barrier of finite height and width so that systems in this sector are prone to collapse into the conformal singularity. This second sector is not smoothly connected with the first (absolutely stable) one. Several limiting cases and the possibility of inflation are discussed for the R{sup 4} model.
Reopening the Higgs portal for single scalar dark matter
Casas, J. A.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Moreno, J. M.; Quilis, J.
2017-05-01
A real singlet scalar, connected to the Standard Model sector through a portal with the Higgs boson, is one of the simplest and most popular models for dark matter (DM). However, the experimental advances in direct and indirect DM searches, together with the latest results from the LHC, have ruled out vast areas of the parameter space of this scenario; and are expected to probe it completely within the next years, ruling it out if no signal is found. Motivated by the simplicity of this model, in this article we address a minimal, renormalizable extension that could evade detection, consisting of the addition of an extra real singlet scalar field in the dark sector. We analyze the physical constraints on the model and show that the new annihilation and/or coannihilation channels involving the extra singlet allow to reproduce the correct DM relic abundance while avoiding the bounds from direct and indirect searches for any DM mass above 50 GeV. We also show that, in some interesting regions of the parameter space, the extra particle can be integrated-out, leaving a "clever" effective theory (just involving the DM particle and the Higgs), that essentially reproduces the results.
Mercury's Internal Magnetic Field: Modeling Core Fields with Smooth Inversions
Uno, H.; Johnson, C. L.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Purucker, M. E.; Solomon, S. C.
2008-12-01
MESSENGER's second flyby (M2) of Mercury on 6 October 2008 will provide significantly improved geographical sampling of the planet's internal magnetic field over previous measurements. Latitudinal coverage and spacecraft altitudes will be similar to those during MESSENGER's first encounter (M1), but the spacecraft trajectory will be displaced by about 180° in longitude, yielding the first magnetic measurements in the western hemisphere. We investigate spatial structure in Mercury's internal magnetic field by applying methods from inverse theory to construct low-degree-and-order spherical harmonic models. External fields predicted by a parameterized magnetospheric model are subtracted from the vector field observations. The approach takes into account noise contributions from long-wavelength uncertainties in the external field models, unexplained short-wavelength features, and spacecraft attitude errors. We investigate the effect of different regularization (smoothness) constraints on our inversions. Analyses of data from M1 and the two Mariner 10 flybys that penetrated the magnetosphere yield a preferred spherical harmonic solution to degree and order eight with the centered, axial dipole term g10 dominating. The model shows structure at low and mid-latitude regions near the flybys. Terms predicted by an analytical model for long- wavelength crustal fields - namely g10, g30 and g32 - are present, but their relative amplitudes are not consistent with such a field. We conclude that structure in our models is dominated by core, rather than by crustal, fields. We also investigate, through simulations, field morphologies that are recoverable while the spacecraft is in orbit about Mercury, under the assumption that the long-wavelength contributions from external sources can be accurately modeled and removed. Although the elliptical orbit of MESSENGER will impede the recovery of southern hemisphere structure, we obtain excellent recovery of the dipole field and of
Dolan, Sam R
2010-01-01
To model the radiative evolution of extreme mass-ratio binary inspirals (a key target of the LISA mission), the community needs efficient methods for computation of the gravitational self-force (SF) on the Kerr spacetime. Here we further develop a practical `$m$-mode regularization' scheme for SF calculations, and give details of a first implementation. The key steps in the method are (i) removal of a singular part of the perturbation field with a suitable `puncture' to leave a sufficiently regular residual within a finite worldtube surrounding the particle's worldline, (ii) decomposition in azimuthal ($m$-)modes, (iii) numerical evolution of the $m$-modes in 2+1D with a finite difference scheme, and (iv) reconstruction of the SF from the mode sum. The method relies on a judicious choice of puncture, based on the Detweiler--Whiting decomposition. We give a working definition for the `order' of the puncture, and show how it determines the convergence rate of the $m$-mode sum. The dissipative piece of the SF di...
Geostatistical methods applied to field model residuals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maule, Fox; Mosegaard, K.; Olsen, Nils
consists of measurement errors and unmodelled signal), and is typically assumed to be uncorrelated and Gaussian distributed. We have applied geostatistical methods to analyse the residuals of the Oersted(09d/04) field model [http://www.dsri.dk/Oersted/Field_models/IGRF_2005_candidates/], which is based......The geomagnetic field varies on a variety of time- and length scales, which are only rudimentary considered in most present field models. The part of the observed field that can not be explained by a given model, the model residuals, is often considered as an estimate of the data uncertainty (which....... Once these are known, they can be used in the modelling process to improve the model, estimate its uncertainty and eventually determine the optimal sampling rate in time and space. The uncertainty estimate on the field model can be used to estimate the uncertainty on quantities deduced from the field...
The Swarm Initial Field Model for the 2014 geomagnetic field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Nils; Hulot, Gauthier; Lesur, Vincent
2015-01-01
Data from the first year of ESA's Swarm constellation mission are used to derive the Swarm Initial Field Model (SIFM), a new model of the Earth's magnetic field and its time variation. In addition to the conventional magnetic field observations provided by each of the three Swarm satellites......, explicit advantage is taken of the constellation aspect by including East-West magnetic intensity gradient information from the lower satellite pair. Along-track differences in magnetic intensity provide further information concerning the North-South gradient. The SIFM static field shows excellent...
Cao, Jian; Chen, Jing-Bo; Dai, Meng-Xue
2018-01-01
An efficient finite-difference frequency-domain modeling of seismic wave propagation relies on the discrete schemes and appropriate solving methods. The average-derivative optimal scheme for the scalar wave modeling is advantageous in terms of the storage saving for the system of linear equations and the flexibility for arbitrary directional sampling intervals. However, using a LU-decomposition-based direct solver to solve its resulting system of linear equations is very costly for both memory and computational requirements. To address this issue, we consider establishing a multigrid-preconditioned BI-CGSTAB iterative solver fit for the average-derivative optimal scheme. The choice of preconditioning matrix and its corresponding multigrid components is made with the help of Fourier spectral analysis and local mode analysis, respectively, which is important for the convergence. Furthermore, we find that for the computation with unequal directional sampling interval, the anisotropic smoothing in the multigrid precondition may affect the convergence rate of this iterative solver. Successful numerical applications of this iterative solver for the homogenous and heterogeneous models in 2D and 3D are presented where the significant reduction of computer memory and the improvement of computational efficiency are demonstrated by comparison with the direct solver. In the numerical experiments, we also show that the unequal directional sampling interval will weaken the advantage of this multigrid-preconditioned iterative solver in the computing speed or, even worse, could reduce its accuracy in some cases, which implies the need for a reasonable control of directional sampling interval in the discretization.
Anderson, David; Yunes, Nicolás; Barausse, Enrico
2016-11-01
Certain scalar-tensor theories of gravity that generalize Jordan-Fierz-Brans-Dicke theory are known to predict nontrivial phenomenology for neutron stars. In these theories, first proposed by Damour and Esposito-Farèse, the scalar field has a standard kinetic term and couples conformally to the matter fields. The weak equivalence principle is therefore satisfied, but scalar effects may arise in strong-field regimes, e.g., allowing for violations of the strong equivalence principle in neutron stars ("spontaneous scalarization") or in sufficiently tight binary neutron-star systems ("dynamical/induced scalarization"). The original scalar-tensor theory proposed by Damour and Esposito-Farèse is in tension with Solar System constraints (for couplings that lead to scalarization), if one accounts for cosmological evolution of the scalar field and no mass term is included in the action. We extend here the conformal coupling of that theory, in order to ascertain if, in this way, Solar System tests can be passed, while retaining a nontrivial phenomenology for neutron stars. We find that, even with this generalized conformal coupling, it is impossible to construct a theory that passes both big bang nucleosynthesis and Solar System constraints, while simultaneously allowing for scalarization in isolated/binary neutron stars.
Solution of the Higgs scalar-tensor theory without Higgs particles for static stars
Rekowski, Oleg von Styp; Frommert, Hartmut
1996-01-01
Within the scalar-tensor theory of gravity with Higgs mechanism without Higgs particles, we prove that the excited Higgs potential (the scalar field) vanishs inside and outside of the stellar matter for static spherically symmetric configurations. The field equation for the metric (the tensorial gravitational field) turns out to be essentially the Einsteinian one.
Mean-field models and exotic nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bender, M.; Buervenich, T.; Maruhn, J.A.; Greiner, W. [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Frankfurt (Germany); Rutz, K. [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Frankfurt (Germany)]|[Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Reinhard, P.G. [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Erlangen (Germany)
1998-06-01
We discuss two widely used nuclear mean-field models, the relativistic mean-field model and the (nonrelativistic) Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model, and their capability to describe exotic nuclei. Test cases are superheavy nuclei and neutron-rich Sn isotopes. New information in this regime helps to fix hitherto loosely determined aspects of the models. (orig.)
Tracking our universe to de Sitter by a Horndeski scalar
Germani, Cristiano; Martín-Moruno, Prado
2017-12-01
Assuming both that our Universe is evolving into a de Sitter space and a vanishing cosmological constant, leaves only the option that the observed acceleration is provided by a "kinetic" energy of a scalar field. From an effective field theory point of view, the absence of Ostrogradsky instabilities restricts the choice to shift-symmetric Horndeski theories. Within these theories, we find the conditions for the existence of a de Sitter critical point in a universe filled by matter, radiation and a Horndeski scalar. Moreover, we show that this point is a universal attractor and we provide the tracking trajectory. Therefore, if a de Sitter fixed point exists within these models, our Universe will eventually evolve into a de Sitter space. As an example, we have discussed the case of the combined Galileon-Slotheon system, in which the Galileon is kinetically non-minimal coupled to the Einstein tensor. Interestingly, we have also found that the tracker trajectory of this system does not follow previous literature assumptions.
Late Inspiral and Merger of Binary Black Holes in Scalar-Tensor Theories of Gravity
Healy, James; Bode, Tanja; Haas, Roland; Pazos, Enrique; Laguna, Pablo; Shoemaker, Deirdre M.; Yunes, Nicolás
2011-01-01
Gravitational wave observations will probe non-linear gravitational interactions and thus enable strong tests of Einstein's theory of general relativity. We present a numerical relativity study of the late inspiral and merger of binary black holes in scalar-tensor theories of gravity. We consider black hole binaries in an inhomogeneous scalar field, specifically binaries inside a scalar field bubble, in some cases with a potential. We calculate the emission of dipole radiation. We also show h...
Gonçalves, Ítalo Gomes; Kumaira, Sissa; Guadagnin, Felipe
2017-06-01
Implicit modeling has experienced a rise in popularity over the last decade due to its advantages in terms of speed and reproducibility in comparison with manual digitization of geological structures. The potential-field method consists in interpolating a scalar function that indicates to which side of a geological boundary a given point belongs to, based on cokriging of point data and structural orientations. This work proposes a vector potential-field solution from a machine learning perspective, recasting the problem as multi-class classification, which alleviates some of the original method's assumptions. The potentials related to each geological class are interpreted in a compositional data framework. Variogram modeling is avoided through the use of maximum likelihood to train the model, and an uncertainty measure is introduced. The methodology was applied to the modeling of a sample dataset provided with the software Move™. The calculations were implemented in the R language and 3D visualizations were prepared with the rgl package.
Mono-jet signatures of gluphilic scalar dark matter
Godbole, Rohini M.; Mendiratta, Gaurav; Shivaji, Ambresh; Tait, Tim M. P.
2017-09-01
A gluphilic scalar dark matter (GSDM) model has recently been proposed as an interesting vision for WIMP dark matter communicating dominantly with the Standard Model via gluons. We discuss the collider signature of a hard jet recoiling against missing momentum (;mono-jet;) in such a construction, whose leading contribution is at one-loop. We compare the full one-loop computation with an effective field theory (EFT) treatment, and find (as expected) that EFT does not accurately describe regions of parameter space where mass of the colored mediator particles are comparable to the experimental cuts on the missing energy. We determine bounds (for several choices of SU(3) representation of the mediator) from the √{ s} = 8 TeV data, and show the expected reach of the √{ s} = 13 TeV LHC and a future 100 TeV pp collider to constrain or discover GSDM models.
Primordial GWs from universality classes of pseudo-scalar inflation
Pieroni, M.
2017-05-01
In this contribution we discuss the possibility of generating an observable gravitational wave (GW) background by coupling a pseudo-scalar inflaton to some Abelian gauge fields. This analysis is performed by dividing inflationary models into universality classes. We find that of the most promising scenario is a Starobinsky-like model, which may lead to the generation of observational signatures both in upcoming CMB detectors as well as for direct GW detectors. The signal which can be produced in these models would both be observable in ground-based detectors, such as advanced LIGO, and in space-based detectors, such as LISA. The complementarity between the CMB and direct GW detection may be used to extract informations on the microphysics of inflation. Interestingly the mechanism discussed in this contribution may also be relevant for the generation of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs).
Mono-jet signatures of gluphilic scalar dark matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rohini M. Godbole
2017-09-01
Full Text Available A gluphilic scalar dark matter (GSDM model has recently been proposed as an interesting vision for WIMP dark matter communicating dominantly with the Standard Model via gluons. We discuss the collider signature of a hard jet recoiling against missing momentum (“mono-jet” in such a construction, whose leading contribution is at one-loop. We compare the full one-loop computation with an effective field theory (EFT treatment, and find (as expected that EFT does not accurately describe regions of parameter space where mass of the colored mediator particles are comparable to the experimental cuts on the missing energy. We determine bounds (for several choices of SU(3 representation of the mediator from the s=8 TeV data, and show the expected reach of the s=13 TeV LHC and a future 100 TeV pp collider to constrain or discover GSDM models.
Scalar-Tensor Black Holes Embedded in an Expanding Universe
Tretyakova, Daria; Latosh, Boris
2018-02-01
In this review we focus our attention on scalar-tensor gravity models and their empirical verification in terms of black hole and wormhole physics. We focus on a black hole, embedded in an expanding universe, describing both cosmological and astrophysical scales. We show that in scalar-tensor gravity it is quite common that the local geometry is isolated from the cosmological expansion, so that it does not backreact on the black hole metric. We try to extract common features of scalar-tensor black holes in an expanding universe and point out the gaps that must be filled.
Scalar-Tensor Black Holes Embedded in an Expanding Universe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daria Tretyakova
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In this review, we focus our attention on scalar-tensor gravity models and their empirical verification in terms of black hole and wormhole physics. We focus on black holes, embedded in an expanding universe, describing both cosmological and astrophysical scales. We show that in scalar-tensor gravity it is quite common that the local geometry is isolated from the cosmological expansion, so that it does not backreact on the black hole metric. We try to extract common features of scalar-tensor black holes in an expanding universe and point out the issues that are not fully investigated.