WorldWideScience

Sample records for scalable halo finder

  1. BASSET: Scalable Gateway Finder in Large Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, H; Papadimitriou, S; Faloutsos, C; Yu, P S; Eliassi-Rad, T

    2010-11-03

    Given a social network, who is the best person to introduce you to, say, Chris Ferguson, the poker champion? Or, given a network of people and skills, who is the best person to help you learn about, say, wavelets? The goal is to find a small group of 'gateways': persons who are close enough to us, as well as close enough to the target (person, or skill) or, in other words, are crucial in connecting us to the target. The main contributions are the following: (a) we show how to formulate this problem precisely; (b) we show that it is sub-modular and thus it can be solved near-optimally; (c) we give fast, scalable algorithms to find such gateways. Experiments on real data sets validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed methods, achieving up to 6,000,000x speedup.

  2. THE ROCKSTAR PHASE-SPACE TEMPORAL HALO FINDER AND THE VELOCITY OFFSETS OF CLUSTER CORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi

    2013-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for identifying dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure; as such, it is named ROCKSTAR (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement). Our method is massively parallel (up to 10 5 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>10 10 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). A previous paper has shown ROCKSTAR to have excellent recovery of halo properties; we expand on these comparisons with more tests and higher-resolution simulations. We show a significant improvement in substructure recovery compared to several other halo finders and discuss the theoretical and practical limits of simulations in this regard. Finally, we present results that demonstrate conclusively that dark matter halo cores are not at rest relative to the halo bulk or substructure average velocities and have coherent velocity offsets across a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. For massive clusters, these offsets can be up to 350 km s –1 at z = 0 and even higher at high redshifts. Our implementation is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/rockstar.

  3. Scalable streaming tools for analyzing N-body simulations: Finding halos and investigating excursion sets in one pass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivkin, N.; Liu, Z.; Yang, L. F.; Kumar, S. S.; Lemson, G.; Neyrinck, M.; Szalay, A. S.; Braverman, V.; Budavari, T.

    2018-04-01

    Cosmological N-body simulations play a vital role in studying models for the evolution of the Universe. To compare to observations and make a scientific inference, statistic analysis on large simulation datasets, e.g., finding halos, obtaining multi-point correlation functions, is crucial. However, traditional in-memory methods for these tasks do not scale to the datasets that are forbiddingly large in modern simulations. Our prior paper (Liu et al., 2015) proposes memory-efficient streaming algorithms that can find the largest halos in a simulation with up to 109 particles on a small server or desktop. However, this approach fails when directly scaling to larger datasets. This paper presents a robust streaming tool that leverages state-of-the-art techniques on GPU boosting, sampling, and parallel I/O, to significantly improve performance and scalability. Our rigorous analysis of the sketch parameters improves the previous results from finding the centers of the 103 largest halos (Liu et al., 2015) to ∼ 104 - 105, and reveals the trade-offs between memory, running time and number of halos. Our experiments show that our tool can scale to datasets with up to ∼ 1012 particles while using less than an hour of running time on a single GPU Nvidia GTX 1080.

  4. Twitter Finder

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Blazquez, Lander

    2016-01-01

    La aplicación web a desarrollar se llama Twitter Finder. Se trata de una página web en la que cabe destacar como partes más importantes un buscador y un mapa. El usuario podrá hacer búsquedas de una o varias palabras clave a través del buscador. Con la búsqueda realizada y con la ayuda de la API de Twitter, se obtendrán los últimos tweets escritos que contengan el texto de la búsqueda,almacenándolos en la base de datos.

  5. Fault finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Richard H.

    1986-01-01

    A fault finder for locating faults along a high voltage electrical transmission line. Real time monitoring of background noise and improved filtering of input signals is used to identify the occurrence of a fault. A fault is detected at both a master and remote unit spaced along the line. A master clock synchronizes operation of a similar clock at the remote unit. Both units include modulator and demodulator circuits for transmission of clock signals and data. All data is received at the master unit for processing to determine an accurate fault distance calculation.

  6. Skin Condition Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS Rash and Skin Condition Finder 1 Select Age Group Infant Child ... Toe Toe Webspace Toe Nail CLOSE About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? ...

  7. GRAVITATIONALLY CONSISTENT HALO CATALOGS AND MERGER TREES FOR PRECISION COSMOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi; Busha, Michael T.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Primack, Joel R.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for generating merger trees and halo catalogs which explicitly ensures consistency of halo properties (mass, position, and velocity) across time steps. Our algorithm has demonstrated the ability to improve both the completeness (through detecting and inserting otherwise missing halos) and purity (through detecting and removing spurious objects) of both merger trees and halo catalogs. In addition, our method is able to robustly measure the self-consistency of halo finders; it is the first to directly measure the uncertainties in halo positions, halo velocities, and the halo mass function for a given halo finder based on consistency between snapshots in cosmological simulations. We use this algorithm to generate merger trees for two large simulations (Bolshoi and Consuelo) and evaluate two halo finders (ROCKSTAR and BDM). We find that both the ROCKSTAR and BDM halo finders track halos extremely well; in both, the number of halos which do not have physically consistent progenitors is at the 1%-2% level across all halo masses. Our code is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/consistent-trees. Our trees and catalogs are publicly available at http://hipacc.ucsc.edu/Bolshoi/.

  8. Healthcare Finder API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — All of the data used on the Finder.HealthCare.gov web application is available through this API. There are multiple collections of data available through the API. 1....

  9. BS-virus-finder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shengjie; Hu, Xuesong; Xu, Fengping

    2018-01-01

    Background: DNA methylation plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression and carcinogenesis. Bisulfite sequencing studies mainly focus on calling SNP, DMR, and ASM. Until now, only a few software tools focus on virus integration using bisulfite sequencing data. Findings: We have developed...... a new and easy-to-use software tool, named BS-virus-finder (BSVF, RRID:SCR_015727), to detect viral integration breakpoints in whole human genomes. The tool is hosted at https://github.com/BGI-SZ/BSVF. Conclusions: BS-virus-finder demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity. It is useful in epigenetic...

  10. Friend Finder (Game)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a spot on the Friend Finder All-Star List. Earn your spot by showing you're savvy when it comes to making friends online . Downloads Please download and share our ... Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the ...

  11. BookFinder.com

    CERN Document Server

    BookFinder.com is produced by the bibliophiles at 13th Generation Media of Berkeley, California. Our goal is to provide fellow readers unbiased realtime information about books available online. Rather than selling books ourselves (does the world rea Amazon.com wannabe?), we've teamed up with over 15,000 of the finest booksellers online to bring you the largest book catalog available anywhere, either online or offline.

  12. IdentiFINDER Laboratory Exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinmann-Smith, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-21

    The identiFINDER2 is an easily portable handheld NaI gamma detector. The IAEA uses the safeguards version of the identiFINDER2 and calls it the HM-5. The HM-5 has built in software to analyze the detection signal specifically for IAEA verification applications.

  13. Introduction to IdentiFINDERs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-05

    These are slides from a presentation. The identiFINDER provides information on radiation levels. It can automatically identify isotopes in its library. It can save spectra for transfer to a computer, and has a 4-8 hour battery life. The following is covered: an overview, operating modes, getting started, finder mode, search, identification mode, dose & rate, warning & alarm, options (ultra LGH), options (identifinder2), and general procedure.

  14. Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation, the Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF) is the creation of a laser range-finder with a wide field-of-view (FOV) and a directional...

  15. Scalable devices

    KAUST Repository

    Krü ger, Jens J.; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    In computer science in general and in particular the field of high performance computing and supercomputing the term scalable plays an important role. It indicates that a piece of hardware, a concept, an algorithm, or an entire system scales

  16. Exotic nuclei: Halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, Nigel [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)

    1998-12-31

    A brief overview of the nuclear halo is presented. Following some historical remarks the general characteristics of the halo systems are discussed with reference to a simple model. The conditions governing the formation of halos are also explored, as are two subjects of current interest - low-lying resonances of halo nucleon correlations. (author) 54 refs., 16 figs., 1 tabs.

  17. Scalable devices

    KAUST Repository

    Krüger, Jens J.

    2014-01-01

    In computer science in general and in particular the field of high performance computing and supercomputing the term scalable plays an important role. It indicates that a piece of hardware, a concept, an algorithm, or an entire system scales with the size of the problem, i.e., it can not only be used in a very specific setting but it\\'s applicable for a wide range of problems. From small scenarios to possibly very large settings. In this spirit, there exist a number of fixed areas of research on scalability. There are works on scalable algorithms, scalable architectures but what are scalable devices? In the context of this chapter, we are interested in a whole range of display devices, ranging from small scale hardware such as tablet computers, pads, smart-phones etc. up to large tiled display walls. What interests us mostly is not so much the hardware setup but mostly the visualization algorithms behind these display systems that scale from your average smart phone up to the largest gigapixel display walls.

  18. Eye safe laser range finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snir, M.; Margaliot, M.; Amitzi, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document

  19. Testing approximate predictions of displacements of cosmological dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munari, Emiliano; Monaco, Pierluigi; Borgani, Stefano [Department of Physics, Astronomy Unit, University of Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Koda, Jun [INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Kitaura, Francisco-Shu [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Sefusatti, Emiliano, E-mail: munari@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: monaco@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: jun.koda@brera.inaf.it, E-mail: fkitaura@iac.es, E-mail: sefusatti@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: borgani@oats.inaf.it [INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy)

    2017-07-01

    We present a test to quantify how well some approximate methods, designed to reproduce the mildly non-linear evolution of perturbations, are able to reproduce the clustering of DM halos once the grouping of particles into halos is defined and kept fixed. The following methods have been considered: Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT) up to third order, Truncated LPT, Augmented LPT, MUSCLE and COLA. The test runs as follows: halos are defined by applying a friends-of-friends (FoF) halo finder to the output of an N-body simulation. The approximate methods are then applied to the same initial conditions of the simulation, producing for all particles displacements from their starting position and velocities. The position and velocity of each halo are computed by averaging over the particles that belong to that halo, according to the FoF halo finder. This procedure allows us to perform a well-posed test of how clustering of the matter density and halo density fields are recovered, without asking to the approximate method an accurate reconstruction of halos. We have considered the results at z =0,0.5,1, and we have analysed power spectrum in real and redshift space, object-by-object difference in position and velocity, density Probability Distribution Function (PDF) and its moments, phase difference of Fourier modes. We find that higher LPT orders are generally able to better reproduce the clustering of halos, while little or no improvement is found for the matter density field when going to 2LPT and 3LPT. Augmentation provides some improvement when coupled with 2LPT, while its effect is limited when coupled with 3LPT. Little improvement is brought by MUSCLE with respect to Augmentation. The more expensive particle-mesh code COLA outperforms all LPT methods, and this is true even for mesh sizes as large as the inter-particle distance. This test sets an upper limit on the ability of these methods to reproduce the clustering of halos, for the cases when these objects are

  20. Testing approximate predictions of displacements of cosmological dark matter halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Emiliano; Monaco, Pierluigi; Koda, Jun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Borgani, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    We present a test to quantify how well some approximate methods, designed to reproduce the mildly non-linear evolution of perturbations, are able to reproduce the clustering of DM halos once the grouping of particles into halos is defined and kept fixed. The following methods have been considered: Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT) up to third order, Truncated LPT, Augmented LPT, MUSCLE and COLA. The test runs as follows: halos are defined by applying a friends-of-friends (FoF) halo finder to the output of an N-body simulation. The approximate methods are then applied to the same initial conditions of the simulation, producing for all particles displacements from their starting position and velocities. The position and velocity of each halo are computed by averaging over the particles that belong to that halo, according to the FoF halo finder. This procedure allows us to perform a well-posed test of how clustering of the matter density and halo density fields are recovered, without asking to the approximate method an accurate reconstruction of halos. We have considered the results at z=0,0.5,1, and we have analysed power spectrum in real and redshift space, object-by-object difference in position and velocity, density Probability Distribution Function (PDF) and its moments, phase difference of Fourier modes. We find that higher LPT orders are generally able to better reproduce the clustering of halos, while little or no improvement is found for the matter density field when going to 2LPT and 3LPT. Augmentation provides some improvement when coupled with 2LPT, while its effect is limited when coupled with 3LPT. Little improvement is brought by MUSCLE with respect to Augmentation. The more expensive particle-mesh code COLA outperforms all LPT methods, and this is true even for mesh sizes as large as the inter-particle distance. This test sets an upper limit on the ability of these methods to reproduce the clustering of halos, for the cases when these objects are

  1. Symbolic PathFinder v7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Păsăreanu, Corina

    2014-01-01

    We describe Symbolic PathFinder v7 in terms of its updated design addressing the changes of Java PathFinder v7 and of its new optimization when computing path conditions. Furthermore, we describe the Symbolic Execution Tree Extension; a newly added feature that allows for outputting the symbolic...... execution tree that characterizes the execution paths covered during symbolic execution. The new extension can be tailored to the needs of subsequent analyses/processing facilities, and we demonstrate this by presenting SPF-Visualizer, which is a tool for customizable visualization of the symbolic execution...

  2. The DLR AsteroidFinder for NEOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, Stefano; Kuehrt, Ekkehard; Michaelis, Harald; Hoffmann, Harald; Spietz, Peter; Jansen, Frank; Thimo Grundmann, Jan; Hahn, Gerhard; Montenegro, Sergio; Findlay, Ross; Boerner, Anko; Messina, Gabriele; Behnke, Thomas; Tschentscher, Matthias; Scheibe, Karsten; Mertens, Volker; Heidecke, Ansgar

    Potential Earth-impacting asteroids that spend most of their time interior to Earth's orbit are extremely difficult to be observed from the ground and remain largely undetected. Firstly, they are mostly located at small solar elongations, where the sky brightness and their faintness due to the large phase angle prevents their discovery. Secondly, these objects tend to have very long synodic orbital periods, which makes observation opportunities rare and impact warning times short. Because of these limitations, even the advent of next generation ground-based asteroid surveys is not likely to radically improve the situation (Veres et al. Icarus 203, p472, 2009). On the other hand, a small satellite with a suitable design can observe close to the Sun and detect these objects efficiently against a dark sky background. For this reason, DLR, the German Aerospace Center, has selected AsteroidFinder as the first experiment to be launched under its new compact satellite national program. The primary goal of the mission is to detect and characterize Near Earth Objects (NEOs), with a particular focus on the population of objects completely contained within Earth's orbit (IEOs or Inner Earth Objects). Current dynamical models predict the existence of more than 1000 such objects down to a size of 100m, of which, due to the abovementioned observation difficulties, only 10 have been discovered to date. Benefitting from the vantage point of a Low Earth Orbit (LEO), AsteroidFinder makes use of a small optical telescope to scan those regions of the sky that are close to the Sun, and therefore beyond the reach of ground based observatories. By estimating the population, the size and the orbital distribution of IEOs, AsteroidFinder will contribute to our knowledge of the inner Solar System, and to the assessment of the impact hazard for the Earth. A secondary goal of the mission is to demonstrate techniques that enable the space-based detection of space debris in the cm size range

  3. THE HALO MERGER RATE IN THE MILLENNIUM SIMULATION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OBSERVED GALAXY MERGER FRACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genel, Shy; Genzel, Reinhard; Bouche, Nicolas; Naab, Thorsten; Sternberg, Amiel

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a new method to extract halo merger rates from the Millennium Simulation. First, by removing superfluous mergers that are artifacts of the standard friends-of-friends (FOF) halo identification algorithm, we find a lower merger rate compared to previous work. The reductions are more significant at lower redshifts and lower halo masses, and especially for minor mergers. Our new approach results in a better agreement with predictions from the extended Press-Schechter model. Second, we find that the FOF halo finder overestimates the halo mass by up to 50% for halos that are about to merge, which leads to an additional ∼20% overestimate of the merger rate. Therefore, we define halo masses by including only particles that are gravitationally bound to their FOF groups. We provide new best-fitting parameters for a global formula to account for these improvements. In addition, we extract the merger rate per progenitor halo, as well as per descendant halo. The merger rate per progenitor halo is the quantity that should be related to observed galaxy merger fractions when they are measured via pair counting. At low-mass/redshift, the merger rate increases moderately with mass and steeply with redshift. At high enough mass/redshift (for the rarest halos with masses a few times the 'knee' of the mass function), these trends break down, and the merger rate per progenitor halo decreases with mass and increases only moderately with redshift. Defining the merger rate per progenitor halo also allows us to quantify the rate at which halos are being accreted onto larger halos, in addition to the minor and major merger rates. We provide an analytic formula that converts any given merger rate per descendant halo into a merger rate per progenitor halo. Finally, we perform a direct comparison between observed merger fractions and the fraction of halos in the Millennium Simulation that have undergone a major merger during the recent dynamical friction time, and find a

  4. Basic Testing of the DUCHAMP Source Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmeier, T.; Popping, A.; Serra, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the results of basic source finding tests in three dimensions (using spectroscopic data cubes) with DUCHAMP, the standard source finder for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder. For this purpose, we generated different sets of unresolved and extended Hi model sources. These models were then fed into DUCHAMP, using a range of different parameters and methods provided by the software. The main aim of the tests was to study the performance of DUCHAMP on sources with different parameters and morphologies and assess the accuracy of DUCHAMP's source parametrisation. Overall, we find DUCHAMP to be a powerful source finder capable of reliably detecting sources down to low signal-to-noise ratios and accurately measuring their position and velocity. In the presence of noise in the data, DUCHAMP's measurements of basic source parameters, such as spectral line width and integrated flux, are affected by systematic errors. These errors are a consequence of the effect of noise on the specific algorithms used by DUCHAMP for measuring source parameters in combination with the fact that the software only takes into account pixels above a given flux threshold and hence misses part of the flux. In scientific applications of DUCHAMP these systematic errors would have to be corrected for. Alternatively, DUCHAMP could be used as a source finder only, and source parametrisation could be done in a second step using more sophisticated parametrisation algorithms.

  5. Chataika Halo.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    INHERITANCE OF HALO BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN COMMON BEAN ... pv phaseolicola (Psp) is a serious seed-borne disease of common bean ... a toxin produced by the Psp bacterium when ... stakes or in association with maize for support.

  6. Target & Propagation Models for the FINDER Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Vaughn; Lux, James; Haque, Salmon

    2013-01-01

    Finding persons still alive in piles of rubble following an earthquake, a severe storm, or other disaster is a difficult problem. JPL is currently developing a victim detection radar called FINDER (Finding Individuals in Emergency and Response). The subject of this paper is directed toward development of propagation & target models needed for simulation & testing of such a system. These models are both physical (real rubble piles) and numerical. Early results from the numerical modeling phase show spatial and temporal spreading characteristics when signals are passed through a randomly mixed rubble pile.

  7. The STAR cluster-finder ASIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botlo, M.; LeVine, M.J.; Scheetz, R.A.; Schulz, M.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Short, P.; Woods, J. [InnovASIC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Crosetto, D. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Bonner Nuclear Lab.

    1997-12-01

    STAR is a large TPC-based experiment at RHIC, the relativistic heavy ion collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The STAR experiment reads out a TPC and an SVT (silicon vertex tracker), both of which require in-line pedestal subtraction, compression of ADC values from 10-bit to 8-bit, and location of time sequences representing responses to charged-particle tracks. The STAR cluster finder ASIC responds to all of these needs. Pedestal subtraction and compression are performed using lookup tables in attached RAM. The authors describe its design and implementation, as well as testing methodology and results of tests performed on foundry prototypes.

  8. 47 CFR 80.289 - Requirements for radio direction finder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for radio direction finder. 80.289... Requirements for radio direction finder. (a) The radio direction finding apparatus must: (1) Be capable of...) Possess a sensitivity, sufficient to permit the taking of bearings on a signal having a field strength of...

  9. Halos and related structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    The halo structure originated from nuclear physics but is now encountered more widely. It appears in loosely bound, clustered systems where the spatial extension of the system is significantly larger than that of the binding potentials. A review is given on our current understanding of these stru......The halo structure originated from nuclear physics but is now encountered more widely. It appears in loosely bound, clustered systems where the spatial extension of the system is significantly larger than that of the binding potentials. A review is given on our current understanding...... of these structures, with an emphasis on how the structures evolve as more cluster components are added and on the experimental situation concerning halo states in light nuclei....

  10. HALO | Arts at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2018-01-01

    In 2015, the artists participated in a research residency at CERN and began to work with data captured by ATLAS, one of the four detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that sits in a cavern 100 metres below ground near the main site of CERN, in Meyrin (Switzerland). For Art Basel, they created HALO, an installation that surrounds visitors with data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. HALO consists of a 10 m wide cylinder defined by vertical piano wires, within which a 4-m tall screen displays particle collisions. The data also triggers hammers that strike the vertical wires and set up vibrations to create a truly multisensory experience. More info: https://arts.cern/event/unveiling-halo-art-basel

  11. Weighing halo nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunney, D.

    2009-01-01

    Weak binding energy is one of the fundamental criteria characterizing the unique properties of nuclear halos. As such, it must be known with great accuracy and is best obtained through direct mass measurements. The global mass market is now a competitive one. Of the many investment vehicles, the Penning trap has emerged as providing the best rate of return and reliability. We examine mass-market trends, highlighting the recent cases of interest. We also hazard a prediction for the halo futures market. (author)

  12. Spectrum of Sprite Halos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gordillo-Vázquez, F.J.; Luque, A.; Šimek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 9 (2011), A09319-A09319 ISSN 0148-0227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : sprites * halos * spectroscopy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.021, year: 2011 http://www.trappa.iaa.es/sites/all/files/papers/isi_journal_papers/2011/2011_08.pdf

  13. Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph High Accuracy Optical Propagation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) project is considering several approaches to discovering planets orbiting stars far from earth and assessing their suitability to...

  14. Highly scalable Ab initio genomic motif identification

    KAUST Repository

    Marchand, Benoit; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Kaushik, Dinesh

    2011-01-01

    We present results of scaling an ab initio motif family identification system, Dragon Motif Finder (DMF), to 65,536 processor cores of IBM Blue Gene/P. DMF seeks groups of mutually similar polynucleotide patterns within a set of genomic sequences and builds various motif families from them. Such information is of relevance to many problems in life sciences. Prior attempts to scale such ab initio motif-finding algorithms achieved limited success. We solve the scalability issues using a combination of mixed-mode MPI-OpenMP parallel programming, master-slave work assignment, multi-level workload distribution, multi-level MPI collectives, and serial optimizations. While the scalability of our algorithm was excellent (94% parallel efficiency on 65,536 cores relative to 256 cores on a modest-size problem), the final speedup with respect to the original serial code exceeded 250,000 when serial optimizations are included. This enabled us to carry out many large-scale ab initio motiffinding simulations in a few hours while the original serial code would have needed decades of execution time. Copyright 2011 ACM.

  15. Tracking the LHC halo

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In the LHC, beams of 25-ns-spaced proton bunches travel at almost the speed of light and pass through many different devices installed along the ring that monitor their properties. During their whirling motion, beam particles might interact with the collimation instrumentation or with residual gas in the vacuum chambers and this creates the beam halo – an annoying source of background for the physics data. Newly installed CMS sub-detectors are now able to monitor it.   The Beam Halo Monitors (BHM) are installed around the CMS rotating shielding. The BHM are designed and built by University of Minnesota, CERN, Princeton University, INFN Bologna and the National Technical University of Athens. (Image: Andrea Manna). The Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) is a set of 20 Cherenkov radiators – 10-cm-long quartz crystals – installed at each end of the huge CMS detector. Their design goal is to measure the particles that can cause the so-called “machine-induced...

  16. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-01-01

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  17. Tune-Based Halo Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Tune-based halo diagnostics can be divided into two categories -- diagnostics for halo prevention, and diagnostics for halo measurement. Diagnostics for halo prevention are standard fare in accumulators, synchrotrons, and storage rings, and again can be divided into two categories -- diagnostics to measure the tune distribution (primarily to avoid resonances), and diagnostics to identify instabilities (which will not be discussed here). These diagnostic systems include kicked (coherent) tune measurement, phase-locked loop (PLL) tune measurement, Schottky tune measurement, beam transfer function (BTF) measurements, and measurement of transverse quadrupole mode envelope oscillations. We refer briefly to tune diagnostics used at RHIC and intended for the SNS, and then present experimental results. Tune-based diagnostics for halo measurement (as opposed to prevention) are considerably more difficult. We present one brief example of tune-based halo measurement

  18. Hot Gas Halos in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulchaey, John

    Most galaxy formation models predict that massive low-redshift disk galaxies are embedded in extended hot halos of externally accreted gas. Such gas appears necessary to maintain ongoing star formation in isolated spirals like the Milky Way. To explain the large population of red galaxies in rich groups and clusters, most galaxy evolution models assume that these hot gas halos are stripped completely when a galaxy enters a denser environment. This simple model has been remarkably successful at reproducing many observed properties of galaxies. Although theoretical arguments suggest hot gas halos are an important component in galaxies, we know very little about this gas from an observational standpoint. In fact, previous observations have failed to detect soft X-ray emission from such halos in disk galaxies. Furthermore, the assumption that hot gas halos are stripped completely when a galaxy enters a group or cluster has not been verified. We propose to combine proprietary and archival XMM-Newton observations of galaxies in the field, groups and clusters to study how hot gas halos are impacted by environment. Our proposed program has three components: 1) The deepest search to date for a hot gas halo in a quiescent spiral galaxy. A detection will confirm a basic tenet of disk galaxy formation models, whereas a non-detection will seriously challenge these models and impose new constraints on the growth mode and feedback history of disk galaxies. 2) A detailed study of the hot gas halos properties of field early-type galaxies. As environmental processes such as stripping are not expected to be important in the field, a study of hot gas halos in this environment will allow us to better understand how feedback and other internal processes impact hot gas halos. 3) A study of hot gas halos in the outskirts of groups and clusters. By comparing observations with our suite of simulations we can begin to understand what role the stripping of hot gas halos plays in galaxy

  19. HALOE test and evaluation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, W.; Natarajan, S.

    1987-01-01

    Computer programming, system development and analysis efforts during this contract were carried out in support of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) at NASA/Langley. Support in the major areas of data acquisition and monitoring, data reduction and system development are described along with a brief explanation of the HALOE project. Documented listings of major software are located in the appendix.

  20. Neutron halo in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shangui; Meng Jie; Ring, P.; Zhao Enguang

    2010-01-01

    Halo phenomena in deformed nuclei are investigated within a deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov (DRHB) theory. These weakly bound quantum systems present interesting examples for the study of the interdependence between the deformation of the core and the particles in the halo. Contributions of the halo, deformation effects, and large spatial extensions of these systems are described in a fully self-consistent way by the DRHB equations in a spherical Woods-Saxon basis with the proper asymptotic behavior at a large distance from the nuclear center. Magnesium and neon isotopes are studied and detailed results are presented for the deformed neutron-rich and weakly bound nucleus 44 Mg. The core of this nucleus is prolate, but the halo has a slightly oblate shape. This indicates a decoupling of the halo orbitals from the deformation of the core. The generic conditions for the occurrence of this decoupling effects are discussed.

  1. Black holes with halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara

    2018-02-01

    We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.

  2. The science case of the CHEOPS planet finder for VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gratton, R.; Feldt, M.; Schmid, H.M.; Brandner, W.; Hippler, S.; Neuhauser, R.; Quirrenbach, A.; Desidera, S.; Turatto, M.; Stam, D.M.; Hasinger, G.; Turner, M.J.L.

    2004-01-01

    The CHEOPS Planet Finder is one of the proposed second generation instruments for the VLT. Its purpose is to image and characterize giant extrasolar planets in different phases of their evolution: young, warm planets as well as old, cold ones. Imaging the last ones is the most challenging task

  3. SearchResultFinder: federated search made easy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    Building a federated search engine based on a large number existing web search engines is a challenge: implementing the programming interface (API) for each search engine is an exacting and time-consuming job. In this demonstration we present SearchResultFinder, a browser plugin which speeds up

  4. Scalable coherent interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnaes, K.; Kristiansen, E.H.; Gustavson, D.B.; James, D.V.

    1990-01-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface (IEEE P1596) is establishing an interface standard for very high performance multiprocessors, supporting a cache-coherent-memory model scalable to systems with up to 64K nodes. This Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) will supply a peak bandwidth per node of 1 GigaByte/second. The SCI standard should facilitate assembly of processor, memory, I/O and bus bridge cards from multiple vendors into massively parallel systems with throughput far above what is possible today. The SCI standard encompasses two levels of interface, a physical level and a logical level. The physical level specifies electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of connectors and cards that meet the standard. The logical level describes the address space, data transfer protocols, cache coherence mechanisms, synchronization primitives and error recovery. In this paper we address logical level issues such as packet formats, packet transmission, transaction handshake, flow control, and cache coherence. 11 refs., 10 figs

  5. The Excursion Set Theory of Halo Mass Functions, Halo Clustering, and Halo Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentner, Andrew R.

    I review the excursion set theory with particular attention toward applications to cold dark matter halo formation and growth, halo abundance, and halo clustering. After a brief introduction to notation and conventions, I begin by recounting the heuristic argument leading to the mass function of bound objects given by Press and Schechter. I then review the more formal derivation of the Press-Schechter halo mass function that makes use of excursion sets of the density field. The excursion set formalism is powerful and can be applied to numerous other problems. I review the excursion set formalism for describing both halo clustering and bias and the properties of void regions. As one of the most enduring legacies of the excursion set approach and one of its most common applications, I spend considerable time reviewing the excursion set theory of halo growth. This section of the review culminates with the description of two Monte Carlo methods for generating ensembles of halo mass accretion histories. In the last section, I emphasize that the standard excursion set approach is the result of several simplifying assumptions. Dropping these assumptions can lead to more faithful predictions and open excursion set theory to new applications. One such assumption is that the height of the barriers that define collapsed objects is a constant function of scale. I illustrate the implementation of the excursion set approach for barriers of arbitrary shape. One such application is the now well-known improvement of the excursion set mass function derived from the "moving" barrier for ellipsoidal collapse. I also emphasize that the statement that halo accretion histories are independent of halo environment in the excursion set approach is not a general prediction of the theory. It is a simplifying assumption. I review the method for constructing correlated random walks of the density field in the more general case. I construct a simple toy model to illustrate that excursion set

  6. Negotiation of Legitimacy of Witch-Finders in Lusaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildnerová Kateřina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at legal and illegal activities of Lusaka´s traditional healers within the system of traditional medicine which is primarily anchored in the constitution of traditional healers´ associations. It primarily focuses on witch-finders, whose social status, professional position and authority is constantly negotiated within the formal and informal sector of traditional medicine. Since the late 1990s, the quest for services of traditional healers specialised in witch-finding has gained popularity, particularly amongst the impoverished Lusaka compound-dwellers. Due to the increasing public violence against those denoted as witches, the activities of witch-finders were officially banned by the Witchcraft Act in 1995 and this profession is not officially recognised by the Constitution of Traditional Health Practitioners Association of Zambia (THAPAZ. In spite of the prohibition, there remain many witch-finders in Lusaka who practise witch-finding secretly, in order not to commit an offence they do not openly denounce the name of an alleged witch. Their authority and credibility is threatened by many “official” as well as “unofficial” competitors in the city and it must be constantly reaffirmed and negotiated by introducing innovations. The ability to keep clients and to gain a good reputation thus depends on the originality of their diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. At the same time witch-finders must counter diverse obstacles and uncertainties resulting from their illegal status within the sector of traditional medicine. The author analyses tactics that Lusaka´s witch-finders have developed and employed to negotiate their social status, credibility and authority visà-vis the competition from the “official” traditional healers.

  7. PKI Scalability Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Slagell, Adam J; Bonilla, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    This report surveys different PKI technologies such as PKIX and SPKI and the issues of PKI that affect scalability. Much focus is spent on certificate revocation methodologies and status verification systems such as CRLs, Delta-CRLs, CRS, Certificate Revocation Trees, Windowed Certificate Revocation, OCSP, SCVP and DVCS.

  8. El halo de la memoria

    OpenAIRE

    GAVINO ROSELLÓ, AARÓN

    2017-01-01

    The halo effect is one of the most classic cognitive biases of psychology, and one that we can observe frequently in everyday life. It consists in the realization of an erroneous generalization from a single characteristic or quality of an object or a person, that is, we make a previous judgment from which, we generalize the rest of characteristics. The halo effect manifests itself as continuous in our life. For example, if someone is very handsome or attractive we attribute another series...

  9. Neutron halos in hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Lue, H F; Meng, J; Zhou, S G

    2003-01-01

    Properties of single-LAMBDA and double-LAMBDA hypernuclei for even-N Ca isotopes ranging from the proton dripline to the neutron dripline are studied using the relativistic continuum Hartree-Bogolyubov theory with a zero-range pairing interaction. Compared with ordinary nuclei, the addition of one or two LAMBDA-hyperons lowers the Fermi level. The predicted neutron dripline nuclei are, respectively, sup 7 sup 5 subLAMBDA Ca and sup 7 sup 6 sub 2 subLAMBDA Ca, as the additional attractive force provided by the LAMBDA-N interaction shifts nuclei from outside to inside the dripline. Therefore, the last bound hypernuclei have two more neutrons than the corresponding ordinary nuclei. Based on the analysis of two-neutron separation energies, neutron single-particle energy levels, the contribution of continuum and nucleon density distribution, giant halo phenomena due to the pairing correlation, and the contribution from the continuum are suggested to exist in Ca hypernuclei similar to those that appear in ordinary ...

  10. Halo modelling in chameleon theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombriser, Lucas; Koyama, Kazuya [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Li, Baojiu, E-mail: lucas.lombriser@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk, E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Ogden Centre for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-01

    We analyse modelling techniques for the large-scale structure formed in scalar-tensor theories of constant Brans-Dicke parameter which match the concordance model background expansion history and produce a chameleon suppression of the gravitational modification in high-density regions. Thereby, we use a mass and environment dependent chameleon spherical collapse model, the Sheth-Tormen halo mass function and linear halo bias, the Navarro-Frenk-White halo density profile, and the halo model. Furthermore, using the spherical collapse model, we extrapolate a chameleon mass-concentration scaling relation from a ΛCDM prescription calibrated to N-body simulations. We also provide constraints on the model parameters to ensure viability on local scales. We test our description of the halo mass function and nonlinear matter power spectrum against the respective observables extracted from large-volume and high-resolution N-body simulations in the limiting case of f(R) gravity, corresponding to a vanishing Brans-Dicke parameter. We find good agreement between the two; the halo model provides a good qualitative description of the shape of the relative enhancement of the f(R) matter power spectrum with respect to ΛCDM caused by the extra attractive gravitational force but fails to recover the correct amplitude. Introducing an effective linear power spectrum in the computation of the two-halo term to account for an underestimation of the chameleon suppression at intermediate scales in our approach, we accurately reproduce the measurements from the N-body simulations.

  11. Halo modelling in chameleon theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombriser, Lucas; Koyama, Kazuya; Li, Baojiu

    2014-01-01

    We analyse modelling techniques for the large-scale structure formed in scalar-tensor theories of constant Brans-Dicke parameter which match the concordance model background expansion history and produce a chameleon suppression of the gravitational modification in high-density regions. Thereby, we use a mass and environment dependent chameleon spherical collapse model, the Sheth-Tormen halo mass function and linear halo bias, the Navarro-Frenk-White halo density profile, and the halo model. Furthermore, using the spherical collapse model, we extrapolate a chameleon mass-concentration scaling relation from a ΛCDM prescription calibrated to N-body simulations. We also provide constraints on the model parameters to ensure viability on local scales. We test our description of the halo mass function and nonlinear matter power spectrum against the respective observables extracted from large-volume and high-resolution N-body simulations in the limiting case of f(R) gravity, corresponding to a vanishing Brans-Dicke parameter. We find good agreement between the two; the halo model provides a good qualitative description of the shape of the relative enhancement of the f(R) matter power spectrum with respect to ΛCDM caused by the extra attractive gravitational force but fails to recover the correct amplitude. Introducing an effective linear power spectrum in the computation of the two-halo term to account for an underestimation of the chameleon suppression at intermediate scales in our approach, we accurately reproduce the measurements from the N-body simulations

  12. Fluorosis: halo effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Madriz, Jose Esteban; Granados Quesada, Maria Pamela; Lopez Chacon, Angelica Maria; Monge Cantillo, Carol Paola; Munoz Aguero, Geiner Andres; Vargas Vargas, Jorge Andres

    2013-01-01

    The halo effect was determined from the consumption of potatoes from Tierra Blanca de Cartago and Palmira de Zarcero. Seminars were held to get to know the topic of fluorosis. A mini health fair was held to explain the effects of fluoride in a population affected by it. Samples of water and forest type potato were collected in the area of Zarcero and San Juan de Chicoa. Measurements of the samples were made in the Chemistry Laboratory of the Universidad de Costa Rica. 20 mg of potato from each zone and 80 ml of distilled water were weighed and then liquefied. Each shake was dispensed in 2 clean test tubes and 7 samples were obtained, of which, 2 test tubes contained the liquefied 1, 2 tubes the liquefied 2, 1 tube with the Rio Reventado water centrifuged. 1 tube with Zarcero irrigation water and 1 tube with distilled water, for the subsequent analysis of fluoride concentration. The samples were taken to the LAMBDA Chemical Laboratory, where the ion chromatography test was performed on each of the samples. A concentration of fluorides of 0.73 ppm was obtained in the water of the Rio Reventado, while a concentration of less than 0.60 ppm was obtained in the water collected in Zarcero. The highest concentration of fluoride was presented in the potato from the area of Palmira de Zarcero with 2.41 ppm compared to that obtained in Cartago, with a lower concentration of 1.34 ppm. The maximum recommended concentration was exceeded in both results. A concentration less than 0.02 ppm was obtained in the analysis of distilled water as a control test [es

  13. Automatic generation of gene finders for eukaryotic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Kasper Munch; Krogh, A.

    2006-01-01

    and quality of reliable gene annotation grows. Results We present a procedure, Agene, that automatically generates a species-specific gene predictor from a set of reliable mRNA sequences and a genome. We apply a Hidden Markov model (HMM) that implements explicit length distribution modelling for all gene......Background The number of sequenced eukaryotic genomes is rapidly increasing. This means that over time it will be hard to keep supplying customised gene finders for each genome. This calls for procedures to automatically generate species-specific gene finders and to re-train them as the quantity...... structure blocks using acyclic discrete phase type distributions. The state structure of the each HMM is generated dynamically from an array of sub-models to include only gene features represented in the training set. Conclusion Acyclic discrete phase type distributions are well suited to model sequence...

  14. The CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Track Finder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ero, J.; Wulz, C.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Guiducci, L.; Sotiropoulos, S.; Sphicas, P.; Triossi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of the upgraded CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) is presented. Monte Carlo simulation data as well as cosmic ray data from a CMS muon detector slice test have been used to study in detail the performance of the new track finder. The design architecture is based on twelve MP7 cards each of which uses a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA and can receive and transmit data at 10 Gbps from 72 input and 72 output fibers. According to the CMS Trigger Upgrade TDR the BMTF receives trigger primitive data which are computed using both RPC and DT data and transmits data from a number of muon candidates to the upgraded Global Muon Trigger. Results from detailed studies of comparisons between the BMTF algorithm results and the results of a C++ emulator are also presented. The new BMTF will be commissioned for data taking in 2016

  15. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason; Johnson, Andrew; Renambot, Luc; Peterka, Tom; Jeong, Byungil; Sandin, Daniel J.; Talandis, Jonas; Jagodic, Ratko; Nam, Sungwon; Hur, Hyejung; Sun, Yiwen

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  16. The Voronoi Tessellation cluster finder in 2+1 dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares-Santos, Marcelle; /Fermilab /Sao Paulo U.; de Carvalho, Reinaldo R.; /Sao Jose, INPE; Annis, James; /Fermilab; Gal, Roy R.; /Hawaii U.; La Barbera, Francesco; /Capodimonte Observ.; Lopes, Paulo A.A.; /Valongo Observ.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Busha, Michael T.; Gerke, Brian F.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2010-11-01

    We present a detailed description of the Voronoi Tessellation (VT) cluster finder algorithm in 2+1 dimensions, which improves on past implementations of this technique. The need for cluster finder algorithms able to produce reliable cluster catalogs up to redshift 1 or beyond and down to 10{sup 13.5} solar masses is paramount especially in light of upcoming surveys aiming at cosmological constraints from galaxy cluster number counts. We build the VT in photometric redshift shells and use the two-point correlation function of the galaxies in the field to both determine the density threshold for detection of cluster candidates and to establish their significance. This allows us to detect clusters in a self-consistent way without any assumptions about their astrophysical properties. We apply the VT to mock catalogs which extend to redshift 1.4 reproducing the {Lambda}CDM cosmology and the clustering properties observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. An objective estimate of the cluster selection function in terms of the completeness and purity as a function of mass and redshift is as important as having a reliable cluster finder. We measure these quantities by matching the VT cluster catalog with the mock truth table. We show that the VT can produce a cluster catalog with completeness and purity >80% for the redshift range up to {approx}1 and mass range down to {approx}10{sup 13.5} solar masses.

  17. The Voronoi Tessellation Cluster Finder in 2 1 Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares-Santos, Marcelle; /Fermilab /Sao Paulo U.; de Carvalho, Reinaldo R.; /Sao Jose, INPE; Annis, James; /Fermilab; Gal, Roy R.; /Hawaii U.; La Barbera, Francesco; /Capodimonte Observ.; Lopes, Paulo A.A.; /Valongo Observ.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Busha, Michael T.; Gerke, Brian F.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-06-23

    We present a detailed description of the Voronoi Tessellation (VT) cluster finder algorithm in 2+1 dimensions, which improves on past implementations of this technique. The need for cluster finder algorithms able to produce reliable cluster catalogs up to redshift 1 or beyond and down to 10{sup 13.5} solar masses is paramount especially in light of upcoming surveys aiming at cosmological constraints from galaxy cluster number counts. We build the VT in photometric redshift shells and use the two-point correlation function of the galaxies in the field to both determine the density threshold for detection of cluster candidates and to establish their significance. This allows us to detect clusters in a self-consistent way without any assumptions about their astrophysical properties. We apply the VT to mock catalogs which extend to redshift 1.4 reproducing the ?CDM cosmology and the clustering properties observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. An objective estimate of the cluster selection function in terms of the completeness and purity as a function of mass and redshift is as important as having a reliable cluster finder. We measure these quantities by matching the VT cluster catalog with the mock truth table. We show that the VT can produce a cluster catalog with completeness and purity >80% for the redshift range up to {approx}1 and mass range down to {approx}10{sup 13.5} solar masses.

  18. THE VORONOI TESSELLATION CLUSTER FINDER IN 2+1 DIMENSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Annis, James; De Carvalho, Reinaldo R.; Gal, Roy R.; La Barbera, Francesco; Lopes, Paulo A. A.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Busha, Michael T.; Gerke, Brian F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the Voronoi Tessellation (VT) cluster finder algorithm in 2+1 dimensions, which improves on past implementations of this technique. The need for cluster finder algorithms able to produce reliable cluster catalogs up to redshift 1 or beyond and down to 10 13.5 solar masses is paramount especially in light of upcoming surveys aiming at cosmological constraints from galaxy cluster number counts. We build the VT in photometric redshift shells and use the two-point correlation function of the galaxies in the field to both determine the density threshold for detection of cluster candidates and to establish their significance. This allows us to detect clusters in a self-consistent way without any assumptions about their astrophysical properties. We apply the VT to mock catalogs which extend to redshift 1.4 reproducing the ΛCDM cosmology and the clustering properties observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. An objective estimate of the cluster selection function in terms of the completeness and purity as a function of mass and redshift is as important as having a reliable cluster finder. We measure these quantities by matching the VT cluster catalog with the mock truth table. We show that the VT can produce a cluster catalog with completeness and purity >80% for the redshift range up to ∼1 and mass range down to ∼10 13.5 solar masses.

  19. The hardware track finder processor in CMS at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, A.

    1997-07-01

    The work covers the design of the Track Finder Processor in the high energy experiment CMS at CERN/Geneva. The task of this processor is to identify muons and to measure their transverse momentum. The Track Finder makes it possible to determine the physical relevance of each high energetic collision and to forward only interesting data to the data analysis units. Data of more than two hundred thousand detector cells are used to determine the location of muons and to measure their transverse momentum. Each 25 ns a new data set is generated. Measurement of location and transverse momentum of the muons can be terminated within 350 ns by using an ASIC. The classical method in high energy physics experiments is to employ a pattern comparison method. The predefined patterns are compared to the found patterns. The high number of data channels and the complex requirements to the spatial detector resolution do not permit to employ a pattern comparison method. A so called track following algorithm was designed, which is able to assemble complete tracks through the whole detector starting from single track segments. Instead of storing a high number of track patterns the problem is brought back to the algorithm level. Comprehensive simulations, employing the hardware simulation language VHDL, were conducted in order to optimize the algorithm and its hardware implementation. A FPGA (field program able gate array)-prototype was designed. A feasibility study to implement the track finder processor employing ASICs was conducted. (author)

  20. The hardware track finder processor in CMS at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A

    1997-01-01

    The work covers the design of the Track Finder Processor in the high energy experiment CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid, planned for 2005) at CERN/Geneva. The task of this processor is to identify muons and measure their transverse momentum. The track finder processor makes it possible to determine the physical relevance of each high energetic collision and to forward only interesting data to the data an alysis units. Data of more than two hundred thousand detector cells are used to determine the location of muons and measure their transverse momentum. Each 25 ns a new data set is generated. Measurem ent of location and transverse momentum of the muons can be terminated within 350 ns by using an ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit). A pipeline architecture processes new data sets with th e required data rate of 40 MHz to ensure dead time free operation. In the framework of this study specifications and the overall concept of the track finder processor were worked out in detail. Simul ations were performed...

  1. Beyond assembly bias: exploring secondary halo biases for cluster-size haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yao-Yuan; Zentner, Andrew R.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2018-03-01

    Secondary halo bias, commonly known as `assembly bias', is the dependence of halo clustering on a halo property other than mass. This prediction of the Λ Cold Dark Matter cosmology is essential to modelling the galaxy distribution to high precision and interpreting clustering measurements. As the name suggests, different manifestations of secondary halo bias have been thought to originate from halo assembly histories. We show conclusively that this is incorrect for cluster-size haloes. We present an up-to-date summary of secondary halo biases of high-mass haloes due to various halo properties including concentration, spin, several proxies of assembly history, and subhalo properties. While concentration, spin, and the abundance and radial distribution of subhaloes exhibit significant secondary biases, properties that directly quantify halo assembly history do not. In fact, the entire assembly histories of haloes in pairs are nearly identical to those of isolated haloes. In general, a global correlation between two halo properties does not predict whether or not these two properties exhibit similar secondary biases. For example, assembly history and concentration (or subhalo abundance) are correlated for both paired and isolated haloes, but follow slightly different conditional distributions in these two cases. This results in a secondary halo bias due to concentration (or subhalo abundance), despite the lack of assembly bias in the strict sense for cluster-size haloes. Due to this complexity, caution must be exercised in using any one halo property as a proxy to study the secondary bias due to another property.

  2. Are baryonic galactic halos possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, K.A.; Hegyi, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    There is little doubt from the rotation curves of spiral galaxies that galactic halos must contain large amounts of dark matter. In this contribution, the authors review arguments which indicate that it is very unlikely that galactic halos contain substantial amounts of baryonic matter. While the authors would like to be able to present a single argument which would rule out baryonic matter, at the present time they are only able to present a collection of arguments each of which argues against one form of baryonic matter. These include: 1) snowballs; 2) gas; 3) low mass stars and Jupiters; 4) high mass stars; and 5) high metalicity objects such as rooks or dust. Black holes, which do not have a well defined baryon number, are also a possible candidate for halo matter. They briefly discuss black holes

  3. Halo vest effect on balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J K; Ross, A D; Riley, B; Rhodes, R L

    2000-03-01

    To determine the effect of a halo vest, a cervical orthosis, on clinically relevant balance parameters. Subjects performed unipedal stance (with eyes open and closed, on both firm and soft surfaces) and functional reach, with and without the application of a halo vest. A convenience sample of 12 healthy young subjects, with an equal number of men and women. Seconds for unipedal stance (maximum 45); inches for functional reach. Both unipedal stance times and functional reach (mean +/- standard deviation) were significantly decreased with the halo vest as compared to without it (29.1+/-5.8 vs. 32.8+/-6.4 seconds, p = .002; 12.9+/-1.4 vs. 15.1+/-2.1 inches, prisk for a fall, which could have devastating consequences.

  4. Simulation of halo particles with Simpsons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Shinji

    2003-01-01

    Recent code improvements and some simulation results of halo particles with Simpsons will be presented. We tried to identify resonance behavior of halo particles by looking at tune evolution of individual macro particle

  5. Simulation of halo particles with Simpsons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Shinji

    2003-12-01

    Recent code improvements and some simulation results of halo particles with Simpsons will be presented. We tried to identify resonance behavior of halo particles by looking at tune evolution of individual macro particle.

  6. Physical and Mathematical Questions on Signal Processing in Multibase Phase Direction Finders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, V. P.; Dubinin, D. V.; Meshcheryakov, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    Questions on improving the accuracy of multiple-base phase direction finders by rejecting anomalously large errors in the process of resolving the measurement ambiguities are considered. A physical basis is derived and calculated relationships characterizing the efficiency of the proposed solutions are obtained. Results of a computer simulation of a three-base direction finder are analyzed, along with field measurements of a three-base direction finder along near-ground paths.

  7. RxnFinder: biochemical reaction search engines using molecular structures, molecular fragments and reaction similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qian-Nan; Deng, Zhe; Hu, Huanan; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2011-09-01

    Biochemical reactions play a key role to help sustain life and allow cells to grow. RxnFinder was developed to search biochemical reactions from KEGG reaction database using three search criteria: molecular structures, molecular fragments and reaction similarity. RxnFinder is helpful to get reference reactions for biosynthesis and xenobiotics metabolism. RxnFinder is freely available via: http://sdd.whu.edu.cn/rxnfinder. qnhu@whu.edu.cn.

  8. Scalable optical quantum computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manykin, E A; Mel' nichenko, E V [Institute for Superconductivity and Solid-State Physics, Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-31

    A way of designing a scalable optical quantum computer based on the photon echo effect is proposed. Individual rare earth ions Pr{sup 3+}, regularly located in the lattice of the orthosilicate (Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}) crystal, are suggested to be used as optical qubits. Operations with qubits are performed using coherent and incoherent laser pulses. The operation protocol includes both the method of measurement-based quantum computations and the technique of optical computations. Modern hybrid photon echo protocols, which provide a sufficient quantum efficiency when reading recorded states, are considered as most promising for quantum computations and communications. (quantum computer)

  9. Scalable optical quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manykin, E A; Mel'nichenko, E V

    2014-01-01

    A way of designing a scalable optical quantum computer based on the photon echo effect is proposed. Individual rare earth ions Pr 3+ , regularly located in the lattice of the orthosilicate (Y 2 SiO 5 ) crystal, are suggested to be used as optical qubits. Operations with qubits are performed using coherent and incoherent laser pulses. The operation protocol includes both the method of measurement-based quantum computations and the technique of optical computations. Modern hybrid photon echo protocols, which provide a sufficient quantum efficiency when reading recorded states, are considered as most promising for quantum computations and communications. (quantum computer)

  10. Non-Gaussian halo assembly bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Beth A.; Verde, Licia; Dolag, Klaus; Matarrese, Sabino; Moscardini, Lauro

    2010-01-01

    The strong dependence of the large-scale dark matter halo bias on the (local) non-Gaussianity parameter, f NL , offers a promising avenue towards constraining primordial non-Gaussianity with large-scale structure surveys. In this paper, we present the first detection of the dependence of the non-Gaussian halo bias on halo formation history using N-body simulations. We also present an analytic derivation of the expected signal based on the extended Press-Schechter formalism. In excellent agreement with our analytic prediction, we find that the halo formation history-dependent contribution to the non-Gaussian halo bias (which we call non-Gaussian halo assembly bias) can be factorized in a form approximately independent of redshift and halo mass. The correction to the non-Gaussian halo bias due to the halo formation history can be as large as 100%, with a suppression of the signal for recently formed halos and enhancement for old halos. This could in principle be a problem for realistic galaxy surveys if observational selection effects were to pick galaxies occupying only recently formed halos. Current semi-analytic galaxy formation models, for example, imply an enhancement in the expected signal of ∼ 23% and ∼ 48% for galaxies at z = 1 selected by stellar mass and star formation rate, respectively

  11. Halo Mitigation Using Nonlinear Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnad, Kiran G

    2005-01-01

    This work shows that halos in beams with space charge effects can be controlled by combining nonlinear focusing and collimation. The study relies on Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations for a one dimensional, continuous focusing model. The PIC simulation results show that nonlinear focusing leads to damping of the beam oscillations thereby reducing the mismatch. It is well established that reduced mismatch leads to reduced halo formation. However, the nonlinear damping is accompanied by emittance growth causing the beam to spread in phase space. As a result, inducing nonlinear damping alone cannot help mitigate the halo. To compensate for this expansion in phase space, the beam is collimated in the simulation and further evolution of the beam shows that the halo is not regenerated. The focusing model used in the PIC is analysed using the Lie Transform perturbation theory showing that by averaging over a lattice period, one can reuduce the focusing force to a form that is identical to that used in the PIC simula...

  12. Locating Direction Finders in a Generalized Search and Rescue Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    David A . Drake and Alfred B. Marsb. Conv-ersation at NationalI Security Agenc, 29 September 1990. 7. Daskin , Mark S. " A M-admum Fpeced Co-:efing...91 7 19 134 .flT/GORjEnSj9I-M LOCATING DIRECTION FIND’RS IN A GENERALIZED SEARCH AND RESCUE NETWORK THESIS Jean M. Steppe Captain, USAF AFIT/GOR/EN S...91-Mk-7 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELI ASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. 1191-05734 .. 91.. .7 19 134 i i . nMIGOR4M.S/91-MI LOCATING DIRECTION FINDERS IW A

  13. ULTRAVIOLET HALOS AROUND SPIRAL GALAXIES. I. MORPHOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Cafmeyer, Julian; Bregman, Joel N., E-mail: hodgeskl@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We examine ultraviolet halos around a sample of highly inclined galaxies within 25 Mpc to measure their morphology and luminosity. Despite contamination from galactic light scattered into the wings of the point-spread function, we find that ultraviolet (UV) halos occur around each galaxy in our sample. Around most galaxies the halos form a thick, diffuse disk-like structure, but starburst galaxies with galactic superwinds have qualitatively different halos that are more extensive and have filamentary structure. The spatial coincidence of the UV halos above star-forming regions, the lack of consistent association with outflows or extraplanar ionized gas, and the strong correlation between the halo and galaxy UV luminosity suggest that the UV light is an extragalactic reflection nebula. UV halos may thus represent 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙} of dust within 2–10 kpc of the disk, whose properties may change with height in starburst galaxies.

  14. The halo current in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautasso, G.; Giannone, L.; Gruber, O.; Herrmann, A.; Maraschek, M.; Schuhbeck, K.H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the complexity of the phenomena involved, a self-consistent physical model for the prediction of the halo current is not available. Therefore the ITER specifications of the spatial distribution and evolution of the halo current rely on empirical assumptions. This paper presents the results of an extensive analysis of the halo current measured in ASDEX Upgrade with particular emphasis on the evolution of the halo region, on the magnitude and time history of the halo current, and on the structure and duration of its toroidal and poloidal asymmetries. The effective length of the poloidal path of the halo current in the vessel is found to be rather insensitive to plasma parameters. Large values of the toroidally averaged halo current are observed in both vertical displacement events and centred disruptions but last a small fraction of the current quench; they coincide typically with a large but short-lived MHD event.

  15. The halo current in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautasso, G.; Giannone, L.; Gruber, O.; Herrmann, A.; Maraschek, M.; Schuhbeck, K. H.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2011-04-01

    Due to the complexity of the phenomena involved, a self-consistent physical model for the prediction of the halo current is not available. Therefore the ITER specifications of the spatial distribution and evolution of the halo current rely on empirical assumptions. This paper presents the results of an extensive analysis of the halo current measured in ASDEX Upgrade with particular emphasis on the evolution of the halo region, on the magnitude and time history of the halo current, and on the structure and duration of its toroidal and poloidal asymmetries. The effective length of the poloidal path of the halo current in the vessel is found to be rather insensitive to plasma parameters. Large values of the toroidally averaged halo current are observed in both vertical displacement events and centred disruptions but last a small fraction of the current quench; they coincide typically with a large but short-lived MHD event.

  16. Brown dwarfs as dark galactic halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.C.; Walker, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that the dark matter in galactic halos can consist of brown dwarf stars is considered. The radiative signature for such halos consisting solely of brown dwarfs is calculated, and the allowed range of brown dwarf masses, the initial mass function (IMF), the stellar properties, and the density distribution of the galactic halo are discussed. The prediction emission from the halo is compared with existing observations. It is found that, for any IMF of brown dwarfs below the deuterium burning limit, brown dwarf halos are consistent with observations. Brown dwarf halos cannot, however, explain the recently observed near-IR background. It is shown that future satellite missions will either detect brown dwarf halos or place tight constraints on the allowed range of the IMF. 30 refs

  17. Reionization histories of Milky Way mass halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tony Y.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Abel, Tom; Alvarez, Marcelo A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the connection between the reionization era and the present-day universe by examining the mass reionization histories of z = 0 dark matter halos. In a 600 3 Mpc 3 volume, we combine a dark matter N-body simulation with a three-dimensional seminumerical reionization model. This tags each particle with a reionization redshift, so that individual present-day halos can be connected to their reionization histories and environments. We find that the vast majority of present-day halos with masses larger than ∼ few × 10 11 M ☉ reionize earlier than the rest of the universe. We also find significant halo-to-halo diversity in mass reionization histories, and find that in realistic inhomogeneous models, the material within a given halo is not expected to reionize at the same time. In particular, the scatter in reionization times within individual halos is typically larger than the scatter among halos. From our fiducial reionization model, we find that the typical 68% scatter in reionization times within halos is ∼115 Myr for 10 12±0.25 M ☉ halos, decreasing slightly to ∼95 Myr for 10 15±0.25 M ☉ halos. We find a mild correlation between reionization history and environment: halos with shorter reionization histories are typically in more clustered environments, with the strongest trend on a scale of ∼20 Mpc. Material in Milky Way mass halos with short reionization histories is preferentially reionized in relatively large H II regions, implying reionization mostly by sources external to the progenitors of the present-day halo. We investigate the impact on our results of varying the reionization model parameters, which span a range of reionization scenarios with varying timing and morphology.

  18. Scalable photoreactor for hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Shinagawa, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Provided herein are scalable photoreactors that can include a membrane-free water- splitting electrolyzer and systems that can include a plurality of membrane-free water- splitting electrolyzers. Also provided herein are methods of using the scalable photoreactors provided herein.

  19. Scalable photoreactor for hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2017-04-06

    Provided herein are scalable photoreactors that can include a membrane-free water- splitting electrolyzer and systems that can include a plurality of membrane-free water- splitting electrolyzers. Also provided herein are methods of using the scalable photoreactors provided herein.

  20. Knickpoint finder: A software tool that improves neotectonic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, G. L.; Salamuni, E.; Nascimento, E. R.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents a new software tool for morphometric analysis of drainage networks based on the methods of Hack (1973) and Etchebehere et al. (2004). This tool is applicable to studies of morphotectonics and neotectonics. The software used a digital elevation model (DEM) to identify the relief breakpoints along drainage profiles (knickpoints). The program was coded in Python for use on the ArcGIS platform and is called Knickpoint Finder. A study area was selected to test and evaluate the software's ability to analyze and identify neotectonic morphostructures based on the morphology of the terrain. For an assessment of its validity, we chose an area of the James River basin, which covers most of the Piedmont area of Virginia (USA), which is an area of constant intraplate seismicity and non-orogenic active tectonics and exhibits a relatively homogeneous geodesic surface currently being altered by the seismogenic features of the region. After using the tool in the chosen area, we found that the knickpoint locations are associated with the geologic structures, epicenters of recent earthquakes, and drainages with rectilinear anomalies. The regional analysis demanded the use of a spatial representation of the data after processing using Knickpoint Finder. The results were satisfactory in terms of the correlation of dense areas of knickpoints with active lineaments and the rapidity of the identification of deformed areas. Therefore, this software tool may be considered useful in neotectonic analyses of large areas and may be applied to any area where there is DEM coverage.

  1. PathogenFinder - Distinguishing Friend from Foe Using Bacterial Whole Genome Sequence Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosentino, Salvatore; Larsen, Mette Voldby; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2013-01-01

    approaches. We describe PathogenFinder (http://cge.cbs.dtu.dk/services/PathogenFinder/), a web-server for the prediction of bacterial pathogenicity by analysing the input proteome, genome, or raw reads provided by the user. The method relies on groups of proteins, created without regard to their annotated...

  2. Scalable Frequent Subgraph Mining

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhamid, Ehab

    2017-06-19

    A graph is a data structure that contains a set of nodes and a set of edges connecting these nodes. Nodes represent objects while edges model relationships among these objects. Graphs are used in various domains due to their ability to model complex relations among several objects. Given an input graph, the Frequent Subgraph Mining (FSM) task finds all subgraphs with frequencies exceeding a given threshold. FSM is crucial for graph analysis, and it is an essential building block in a variety of applications, such as graph clustering and indexing. FSM is computationally expensive, and its existing solutions are extremely slow. Consequently, these solutions are incapable of mining modern large graphs. This slowness is caused by the underlying approaches of these solutions which require finding and storing an excessive amount of subgraph matches. This dissertation proposes a scalable solution for FSM that avoids the limitations of previous work. This solution is composed of four components. The first component is a single-threaded technique which, for each candidate subgraph, needs to find only a minimal number of matches. The second component is a scalable parallel FSM technique that utilizes a novel two-phase approach. The first phase quickly builds an approximate search space, which is then used by the second phase to optimize and balance the workload of the FSM task. The third component focuses on accelerating frequency evaluation, which is a critical step in FSM. To do so, a machine learning model is employed to predict the type of each graph node, and accordingly, an optimized method is selected to evaluate that node. The fourth component focuses on mining dynamic graphs, such as social networks. To this end, an incremental index is maintained during the dynamic updates. Only this index is processed and updated for the majority of graph updates. Consequently, search space is significantly pruned and efficiency is improved. The empirical evaluation shows that the

  3. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): halo formation times and halo assembly bias on the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojeiro, Rita; Eardley, Elizabeth; Peacock, John A.; Norberg, Peder; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Driver, Simon P.; Henriques, Bruno; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Thomas, Peter; Tonini, Chiara; Wild, Vivienne

    2017-09-01

    We present evidence for halo assembly bias as a function of geometric environment (GE). By classifying Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) galaxy groups as residing in voids, sheets, filaments or knots using a tidal tensor method, we find that low-mass haloes that reside in knots are older than haloes of the same mass that reside in voids. This result provides direct support to theories that link strong halo tidal interactions with halo assembly times. The trend with GE is reversed at large halo mass, with haloes in knots being younger than haloes of the same mass in voids. We find a clear signal of halo downsizing - more massive haloes host galaxies that assembled their stars earlier. This overall trend holds independently of GE. We support our analysis with an in-depth exploration of the L-Galaxies semi-analytic model, used here to correlate several galaxy properties with three different definitions of halo formation time. We find a complex relationship between halo formation time and galaxy properties, with significant scatter. We confirm that stellar mass to halo mass ratio, specific star formation rate (SFR) and mass-weighed age are reasonable proxies of halo formation time, especially at low halo masses. Instantaneous SFR is a poor indicator at all halo masses. Using the same semi-analytic model, we create mock spectral observations using complex star formation and chemical enrichment histories, which approximately mimic GAMA's typical signal-to-noise ratio and wavelength range. We use these mocks to assert how well potential proxies of halo formation time may be recovered from GAMA-like spectroscopic data.

  4. Scalable Nanomanufacturing—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khershed Cooper

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the field of scalable nanomanufacturing, its importance and need, its research activities and achievements. The National Science Foundation is taking a leading role in fostering basic research in scalable nanomanufacturing (SNM. From this effort several novel nanomanufacturing approaches have been proposed, studied and demonstrated, including scalable nanopatterning. This paper will discuss SNM research areas in materials, processes and applications, scale-up methods with project examples, and manufacturing challenges that need to be addressed to move nanotechnology discoveries closer to the marketplace.

  5. Scalable Nonlinear Compact Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debojyoti [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Constantinescu, Emil M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Brown, Jed [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we focus on compact schemes resulting in tridiagonal systems of equations, specifically the fifth-order CRWENO scheme. We propose a scalable implementation of the nonlinear compact schemes by implementing a parallel tridiagonal solver based on the partitioning/substructuring approach. We use an iterative solver for the reduced system of equations; however, we solve this system to machine zero accuracy to ensure that no parallelization errors are introduced. It is possible to achieve machine-zero convergence with few iterations because of the diagonal dominance of the system. The number of iterations is specified a priori instead of a norm-based exit criterion, and collective communications are avoided. The overall algorithm thus involves only point-to-point communication between neighboring processors. Our implementation of the tridiagonal solver differs from and avoids the drawbacks of past efforts in the following ways: it introduces no parallelization-related approximations (multiprocessor solutions are exactly identical to uniprocessor ones), it involves minimal communication, the mathematical complexity is similar to that of the Thomas algorithm on a single processor, and it does not require any communication and computation scheduling.

  6. The Project Of Another Low-Cost Metaphase Finder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The most popular and 'gold standard' phenomenon in Biological dosimetry is the appearance of dicentric chromosomes in metaphase in white blood cells. The metaphase finder is a tool for biological dosimetry that finds metaphase cells on slide glasses. The author and a software company were using new special software that was faster than conventional systems. A Nikon Eclipse Ni-E microscope with motorised X-Y stage, 4x objective lens and 1920 x 1024 pixels colour camera for hardware were used. The software uses mathematical morphology filters. The new system was compact and low-priced. And the remarkable point is, this system can be applicable not only to human blood, but also to non-human samples. The speed was 208-236 s per 5 x 20 mm area, while capturing 378 images, which achieved the aim of the project. The false-positive ratio achieved below 5% in some slides. (author)

  7. Terrestrial Planet Finder: Coda to 10 Years of Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) was proposed as a mission concept to the 2000 Decadal Survey, and received a very high ranking amongst the major initiatives that were then reviewed. As proposed, it was a formation flying array of four 3-m class mid-infrared telescopes, linked together as an interferometer. Its science goal was to survey 150 nearby stars for the presence of Earth-like planets, to detect signs of life or habitability, and to enable revolutionary advances in high angular resolution astrophysics. The Decadal Survey Committee recommended that $200M be invested to advance TPF technology development in the Decade of 2000-2010. This paper presents the results of NASA's investment.

  8. In campus location finder using mobile application services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, Low Weng; Audah, Lukman

    2017-09-01

    Navigation services become very common in this era, the application include Google Map, Waze and etc. Although navigation application contains the main routing service in open area but not all of the buildings are recorded in the database. In this project, an application is made for the indoor and outdoor navigation in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM). It is used to help outsider and new incoming students by navigating them from their current location to destination using mobile application name "U Finder". Thunkable website has been used to build the application for outdoor and indoor navigation. Outdoor navigation is linked to the Google Map and indoor navigation is using the QR code for positioning and routing picture for navigation. The outdoor navigation can route user to the main faculties in UTHM and indoor navigation is only done for the G1 building in UTHM.

  9. Halo scale predictions of symmetron modified gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clampitt, Joseph; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Khoury, Justin, E-mail: clampitt@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: bjain@physics.upenn.edu, E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu [Center for Particle Cosmology and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We offer predictions of symmetron modified gravity in the neighborhood of realistic dark matter halos. The predictions for the fifth force are obtained by solving the nonlinear symmetron equation of motion in the spherical NFW approximation. In addition, we compare the three major known screening mechanisms: Vainshtein, Chameleon, and Symmetron around such dark matter halos, emphasizing the significant differences between them and highlighting observational tests which exploit these differences. Finally, we demonstrate the host halo environmental screening effect (''blanket screening'') on smaller satellite halos by solving for the modified forces around a density profile which is the sum of satellite and approximate host components.

  10. Unbound particles in dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Loeb, Abraham; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2013-06-13

    We investigate unbound dark matter particles in halos by tracing particle trajectories in a simulation run to the far future (a = 100). We find that the traditional sum of kinetic and potential energies is a very poor predictor of which dark matter particles will eventually become unbound from halos. We also study the mass fraction of unbound particles, which increases strongly towards the edges of halos, and decreases significantly at higher redshifts. We discuss implications for dark matter detection experiments, precision calibrations of the halo mass function, the use of baryon fractions to constrain dark energy, and searches for intergalactic supernovae.

  11. Analytic modeling of axisymmetric disruption halo currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, D.A.; Kellman, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Currents which can flow in plasma facing components during disruptions pose a challenge to the design of next generation tokamaks. Induced toroidal eddy currents and both induced and conducted poloidal ''halo'' currents can produce design-limiting electromagnetic loads. While induction of toroidal and poloidal currents in passive structures is a well-understood phenomenon, the driving terms and scalings for poloidal currents flowing on open field lines during disruptions are less well established. A model of halo current evolution is presented in which the current is induced in the halo by decay of the plasma current and change in enclosed toroidal flux while being convected into the halo from the core by plasma motion. Fundamental physical processes and scalings are described in a simplified analytic version of the model. The peak axisymmetric halo current is found to depend on halo and core plasma characteristics during the current quench, including machine and plasma dimensions, resistivities, safety factor, and vertical stability growth rate. Two extreme regimes in poloidal halo current amplitude are identified depending on the minimum halo safety factor reached during the disruption. A 'type I' disruption is characterized by a minimum safety factor that remains relatively high (typically 2 - 3, comparable to the predisruption safety factor), and a relatively low poloidal halo current. A 'type II' disruption is characterized by a minimum safety factor comparable to unity and a relatively high poloidal halo current. Model predictions for these two regimes are found to agree well with halo current measurements from vertical displacement event disruptions in DIII-D [T. S. Taylor, K. H. Burrell, D. R. Baker, G. L. Jackson, R. J. La Haye, M. A. Mahdavi, R. Prater, T. C. Simonen, and A. D. Turnbull, open-quotes Results from the DIII-D Scientific Research Program,close quotes in Proceedings of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Yokohama, 1998, to be published in

  12. THE PSEUDO-EVOLUTION OF HALO MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; More, Surhud

    2013-01-01

    A dark matter halo is commonly defined as a spherical overdensity of matter with respect to a reference density, such as the critical density or the mean matter density of the universe. Such definitions can lead to a spurious pseudo-evolution of halo mass simply due to redshift evolution of the reference density, even if its physical density profile remains constant over time. We estimate the amount of such pseudo-evolution of mass between z = 1 and 0 for halos identified in a large N-body simulation, and show that it accounts for almost the entire mass evolution of the majority of halos with M 200ρ-bar ≲ 10 12 h -1 M ☉ and can be a significant fraction of the apparent mass growth even for cluster-sized halos. We estimate the magnitude of the pseudo-evolution assuming that halo density profiles remain static in physical coordinates, and show that this simple model predicts the pseudo-evolution of halos identified in numerical simulations to good accuracy, albeit with significant scatter. We discuss the impact of pseudo-evolution on the evolution of the halo mass function and show that the non-evolution of the low-mass end of the halo mass function is the result of a fortuitous cancellation between pseudo-evolution and the absorption of small halos into larger hosts. We also show that the evolution of the low-mass end of the concentration-mass relation observed in simulations is almost entirely due to the pseudo-evolution of mass. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the interpretation of the evolution of various scaling relations between the observable properties of galaxies and galaxy clusters and their halo masses.

  13. UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 2 V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The HALOE home page on the WWW is http://haloe.gats-inc.com/home/index.php The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite...

  14. Halo star streams in the solar neighborhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Morrison, Heather L.; Helmi, Amina; Kinman, T. D.; Van Duyne, Jeffrey; Martin, John C.; Harding, Paul; Norris, John E.; Freeman, Kenneth C.

    2007-01-01

    We have assembled a sample of halo stars in the solar neighborhood to look for halo substructure in velocity and angular momentum space. Our sample ( 231 stars) includes red giants, RR Lyrae variable stars, and red horizontal branch stars within 2.5 kpc of the Sun with [Fe/H] less than -1.0. It was

  15. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes

  16. THE UNORTHODOX ORBITS OF SUBSTRUCTURE HALOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludlow, Aaron D.; Navarro, Julio F.; Springel, Volker; Jenkins, Adrian; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helmi, Amina

    2009-01-01

    We use a suite of cosmological N-body simulations to study the properties of substructure halos (subhalos) in galaxy-sized cold dark matter halos. We extend prior work on the subject by considering the whole population of subhalos physically associated with the main system. These are defined as

  17. Efimov effect in 2-neutron halo nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents an overview of our theoretical investigations in search of Efimov states in light 2-neutron halo nuclei. The calculations have been carried out within a three-body formalism, assuming a compact core and two valence neutrons forming the halo. The calculations provide strong evidence for the occurrence ...

  18. Halo formation in three-dimensional bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluckstern, R.L.; Fedotov, A.V.; Kurennoy, S.; Ryne, R.

    1998-01-01

    We have constructed, analytically and numerically, a class of self-consistent six-dimensional (6D) phase space stationary distributions. Stationary distributions allow us to study the halo development mechanism without it being obscured by beam redistribution and its effect on halo formation. The beam is then mismatched longitudinally and/or transversely, and we explore the formation of longitudinal and transverse halos in 3D axisymmetric beam bunches. We find that the longitudinal halo forms first for comparable longitudinal and transverse mismatches because the longitudinal tune depression is more severe than the transverse one for elongated bunches. Of particular importance is the result that, due to the coupling between longitudinal and transverse motion, a longitudinal or transverse halo is observed for a mismatch less than 10% if the mismatch in the other plane is large. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  19. Imbalance in the Local Galactic halo?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croswell, K.; Latham, D.W.; Carney, B.W.; North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill)

    1987-01-01

    In a kinematically biased sample of 119 single halo stars, 65 percent of the stars are traveling away from the plane of the Galaxy. Halo spectroscopic binaries do not show this imbalance. Other kinematically biased halo surveys exhibit the same effect. Combining these samples with those of the authors' results in 223 halo stars, 63 percent of which are heading away from the plane of the Galaxy. The probability that the first result could be obtained from a symmetric w velocity distribution is 0.2 percent; the probability that the second result could be so obtained is 0.02 percent. Single halo stars traveling away from the disk appear to have a larger w velocity dispersion than those traveling toward it. Selection effects are analyzed and rejected as the cause of the observed asymmetry. Possible mechanisms for producing the imbalance are discussed, but each has serious difficulties accounting for the observations. 28 references

  20. A new general purpose event horizon finder for 3D numerical spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diener, Peter

    2003-01-01

    I present a new general purpose event horizon finder for full 3D numerical spacetimes. It works by evolving a complete null surface backwards in time. The null surface is described as the zero-level set of a scalar function, which in principle is defined everywhere. This description of the surface allows the surface, trivially, to change topology, making this event horizon finder able to handle numerical spacetimes where two (or more) black holes merge into a single final black hole

  1. Automated finder for the critical condition on the linear stability of fluid motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Kaoru

    1990-03-01

    An automated finder routine for the critical condition on the linear stability of fluid motions is proposed. The Newton-Raphson method was utilized for an iteration to solve nonlinear eigenvalue problems appeared in the analysis. The routine was applied to linear stability problem of a free convection between vertical parallel plates with different non-uniform temperatures as well as a plane Poiseuille flow. An efficiency of the finder routine is demonstrated for several parameter sets, numerically. (author)

  2. Scalable algorithms for contact problems

    CERN Document Server

    Dostál, Zdeněk; Sadowská, Marie; Vondrák, Vít

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive and self-contained treatment of the authors’ newly developed scalable algorithms for the solutions of multibody contact problems of linear elasticity. The brand new feature of these algorithms is theoretically supported numerical scalability and parallel scalability demonstrated on problems discretized by billions of degrees of freedom. The theory supports solving multibody frictionless contact problems, contact problems with possibly orthotropic Tresca’s friction, and transient contact problems. It covers BEM discretization, jumping coefficients, floating bodies, mortar non-penetration conditions, etc. The exposition is divided into four parts, the first of which reviews appropriate facets of linear algebra, optimization, and analysis. The most important algorithms and optimality results are presented in the third part of the volume. The presentation is complete, including continuous formulation, discretization, decomposition, optimality results, and numerical experimen...

  3. Real-Time Video Convolutional Face Finder on Embedded Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamalet Franck

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-level optimization methodology is applied for implementing the well-known convolutional face finder (CFF algorithm for real-time applications on mobile phones, such as teleconferencing, advanced user interfaces, image indexing, and security access control. CFF is based on a feature extraction and classification technique which consists of a pipeline of convolutions and subsampling operations. The design of embedded systems requires a good trade-off between performance and code size due to the limited amount of available resources. The followed methodology copes with the main drawbacks of the original implementation of CFF such as floating-point computation and memory allocation, in order to allow parallelism exploitation and perform algorithm optimizations. Experimental results show that our embedded face detection system can accurately locate faces with less computational load and memory cost. It runs on a 275 MHz Starcore DSP at 35 QCIF images/s with state-of-the-art detection rates and very low false alarm rates.

  4. 4D Cellular Automaton Track Finder in the CBM Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akishina, Valentina; Kisel, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The CBM experiment (FAIR/GSI, Darmstadt, Germany) will focus on the measurement of rare probes at interaction rates up to 10MHz with data flow of up to 1 TB/s. It requires a novel read-out and data-acquisition concept with self-triggered electronics and free-streaming data. In this case resolving different collisions is a non-trivial task and event building must be performed in software online. That requires full online event reconstruction and selection not only in space, but also in time, so-called 4D event building and selection. This is a task of the First-Level Event Selection (FLES). The FLES reconstruction and selection package consists of several modules: track finding, track fitting, short-lived particles finding, event building and event selection. The Cellular Automaton (CA) track finder algorithm was adapted towards time-based reconstruction. In this article, we describe in detail the modification done to the algorithm, as well as the performance of the developed time-based CA approach

  5. Real-Time Video Convolutional Face Finder on Embedded Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Mamalet

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A high-level optimization methodology is applied for implementing the well-known convolutional face finder (CFF algorithm for real-time applications on mobile phones, such as teleconferencing, advanced user interfaces, image indexing, and security access control. CFF is based on a feature extraction and classification technique which consists of a pipeline of convolutions and subsampling operations. The design of embedded systems requires a good trade-off between performance and code size due to the limited amount of available resources. The followed methodology copes with the main drawbacks of the original implementation of CFF such as floating-point computation and memory allocation, in order to allow parallelism exploitation and perform algorithm optimizations. Experimental results show that our embedded face detection system can accurately locate faces with less computational load and memory cost. It runs on a 275 MHz Starcore DSP at 35 QCIF images/s with state-of-the-art detection rates and very low false alarm rates.

  6. FTK: A Hardware Track Finder for the ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Tompkins, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The LHC experiments are preparing for instantaneous luminosities above $1 imes 10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ as early as 2015. In order to select the rare events of interest in such dense environments, detailed event information is necessary. In particular, the highly granular single particle information of tracking detectors is crucial for the selection of isolated leptons, taus and b-jets in the face of large vertex multiplicities. We report on the developement of the ATLAS FastTracker (FTK), a hardware based track finder which will reconstruct all tracks with a momentum greater than 1 GeV/c up to luminosties of $3 imes 10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ at an event input rate of 100 kHz and a latency of a few hundred microseconds. The track information will be available to the Level 2 processors at the beginning of event processing. Significant progress towards a phased installation beginning in 2015 has been achieved. A pre-prototype of the pattern recognition board is taking data in the fall of 2012 and prototypes for all ...

  7. Scalable cloud without dedicated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batkovich, D. V.; Kompaniets, M. V.; Zarochentsev, A. K.

    2015-05-01

    We present a prototype of a scalable computing cloud. It is intended to be deployed on the basis of a cluster without the separate dedicated storage. The dedicated storage is replaced by the distributed software storage. In addition, all cluster nodes are used both as computing nodes and as storage nodes. This solution increases utilization of the cluster resources as well as improves fault tolerance and performance of the distributed storage. Another advantage of this solution is high scalability with a relatively low initial and maintenance cost. The solution is built on the basis of the open source components like OpenStack, CEPH, etc.

  8. Halo assembly bias and the tidal anisotropy of the local halo environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Hahn, Oliver; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2018-05-01

    We study the role of the local tidal environment in determining the assembly bias of dark matter haloes. Previous results suggest that the anisotropy of a halo's environment (i.e. whether it lies in a filament or in a more isotropic region) can play a significant role in determining the eventual mass and age of the halo. We statistically isolate this effect, using correlations between the large-scale and small-scale environments of simulated haloes at z = 0 with masses between 1011.6 ≲ (m/h-1 M⊙) ≲ 1014.9. We probe the large-scale environment, using a novel halo-by-halo estimator of linear bias. For the small-scale environment, we identify a variable αR that captures the tidal anisotropy in a region of radius R = 4R200b around the halo and correlates strongly with halo bias at fixed mass. Segregating haloes by αR reveals two distinct populations. Haloes in highly isotropic local environments (αR ≲ 0.2) behave as expected from the simplest, spherically averaged analytical models of structure formation, showing a negative correlation between their concentration and large-scale bias at all masses. In contrast, haloes in anisotropic, filament-like environments (αR ≳ 0.5) tend to show a positive correlation between bias and concentration at any mass. Our multiscale analysis cleanly demonstrates how the overall assembly bias trend across halo mass emerges as an average over these different halo populations, and provides valuable insights towards building analytical models that correctly incorporate assembly bias. We also discuss potential implications for the nature and detectability of galaxy assembly bias.

  9. Dark matter haloes: a multistream view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Nesar S.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    2017-09-01

    Mysterious dark matter constitutes about 85 per cent of all masses in the Universe. Clustering of dark matter plays a dominant role in the formation of all observed structures on scales from a fraction to a few hundreds of Mega-parsecs. Galaxies play a role of lights illuminating these structures so they can be observed. The observations in the last several decades have unveiled opulent geometry of these structures currently known as the cosmic web. Haloes are the highest concentrations of dark matter and host luminous galaxies. Currently the most accurate modelling of dark matter haloes is achieved in cosmological N-body simulations. Identifying the haloes from the distribution of particles in N-body simulations is one of the problems attracting both considerable interest and efforts. We propose a novel framework for detecting potential dark matter haloes using the field unique for dark matter-multistream field. The multistream field emerges at the non-linear stage of the growth of perturbations because the dark matter is collisionless. Counting the number of velocity streams in gravitational collapses supplements our knowledge of spatial clustering. We assume that the virialized haloes have convex boundaries. Closed and convex regions of the multistream field are hence isolated by imposing a positivity condition on all three eigenvalues of the Hessian estimated on the smoothed multistream field. In a single-scale analysis of high multistream field resolution and low softening length, the halo substructures with local multistream maxima are isolated as individual halo sites.

  10. Effective field theory description of halo nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, H.-W.; Ji, C.; Phillips, D. R.

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear halos emerge as new degrees of freedom near the neutron and proton driplines. They consist of a core and one or a few nucleons which spend most of their time in the classically-forbidden region outside the range of the interaction. Individual nucleons inside the core are thus unresolved in the halo configuration, and the low-energy effective interactions are short-range forces between the core and the valence nucleons. Similar phenomena occur in clusters of 4He atoms, cold atomic gases near a Feshbach resonance, and some exotic hadrons. In these weakly-bound quantum systems universal scaling laws for s-wave binding emerge that are independent of the details of the interaction. Effective field theory (EFT) exposes these correlations and permits the calculation of non-universal corrections to them due to short-distance effects, as well as the extension of these ideas to systems involving the Coulomb interaction and/or binding in higher angular-momentum channels. Halo nuclei exhibit all these features. Halo EFT, the EFT for halo nuclei, has been used to compute the properties of single-neutron, two-neutron, and single-proton halos of s-wave and p-wave type. This review summarizes these results for halo binding energies, radii, Coulomb dissociation, and radiative capture, as well as the connection of these properties to scattering parameters, thereby elucidating the universal correlations between all these observables. We also discuss how Halo EFT's encoding of the long-distance physics of halo nuclei can be used to check and extend ab initio calculations that include detailed modeling of their short-distance dynamics.

  11. Vacuum pumping by the halo plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    An estimate is made of the effective vacuum pumping speed of the halo plasma in a tandem mirror fusion reactor, and it is shown that, if the electron temperature and line density are great enough, the halo can be a very good vacuum pump. One can probably obtain the required density by recycling the ions at the halo dumps. An array of small venting ports in the dump plates allows local variation of the recycle fraction and local removal of the gas at a conveniently high pressure. This vented-port concept could introduce more flexibility in the design of pumped limiters for tokamaks

  12. Isospin quantum number and structure of the excited states in halo nuclei. Halo-isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izosimov, I.N.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that isobar-analog (IAS), double isobar-analog (DIAS), configuration (CS), and double configuration states (DCS) can simultaneously have n-n, n-p, and p-p halo components in their wave functions. Differences in halo structure of the excited and ground states can result in the formation of isomers (halo-isomers). Both the Borromean and tango halo types can be observed for n-p configurations of atomic nuclei. The structure of the ground and excited states with different isospin quantum number in halo-like nuclei is discussed. B(Mλ) and B(Eλ) for γ-transitions in 6-8 Li, 8-10 Be, 8,10,11 B, 10-14 C, 13-17 N, 15-17,19 O, and 17 F are analyzed. Special attention is given to nuclei whose ground state does not exhibit halo structure, but the excited state may have one.

  13. Scalable shared-memory multiprocessing

    CERN Document Server

    Lenoski, Daniel E

    1995-01-01

    Dr. Lenoski and Dr. Weber have experience with leading-edge research and practical issues involved in implementing large-scale parallel systems. They were key contributors to the architecture and design of the DASH multiprocessor. Currently, they are involved with commercializing scalable shared-memory technology.

  14. The growth of galaxies and their gaseous haloes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, Frederieke van de

    2012-01-01

    Galaxies grow by accreting gas, which they need to form stars, from their surrounding haloes. These haloes, in turn, accrete gas from the diffuse intergalactic medium. Feedback from stars and black holes returns gas from the galaxy to the halo and can even expel it from the halo. This cycle of gas

  15. Remapping simulated halo catalogues in redshift space

    OpenAIRE

    Mead, Alexander; Peacock, John

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the extension to redshift space of a rescaling algorithm, designed to alter the effective cosmology of a pre-existing simulated particle distribution or catalogue of dark matter haloes. The rescaling approach was initially developed by Angulo & White and was adapted and applied to halo catalogues in real space in our previous work. This algorithm requires no information other than the initial and target cosmological parameters, and it contains no tuned parameters. It is shown here ...

  16. On physical scales of dark matter halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemp, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    It is common practice to describe formal size and mass scales of dark matter halos as spherical overdensities with respect to an evolving density threshold. Here, we critically investigate the evolutionary effects of several such commonly used definitions and compare them to the halo evolution within fixed physical scales as well as to the evolution of other intrinsic physical properties of dark matter halos. It is shown that, in general, the traditional way of characterizing sizes and masses of halos dramatically overpredicts the degree of evolution in the last 10 Gyr, especially for low-mass halos. This pseudo-evolution leads to the illusion of growth even though there are no major changes within fixed physical scales. Such formal size definitions also serve as proxies for the virialized region of a halo in the literature. In general, those spherical overdensity scales do not coincide with the virialized region. A physically more precise nomenclature would be to simply characterize them by their very definition instead of calling such formal size and mass definitions 'virial'. In general, we find a discrepancy between the evolution of the underlying physical structure of dark matter halos seen in cosmological structure formation simulations and pseudo-evolving formal virial quantities. We question the importance of the role of formal virial quantities currently ubiquitously used in descriptions, models, and relations that involve properties of dark matter structures. Concepts and relations based on pseudo-evolving formal virial quantities do not properly reflect the actual evolution of dark matter halos and lead to an inaccurate picture of the physical evolution of our universe.

  17. MODIFIED GRAVITY SPINS UP GALACTIC HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jounghun [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Zhao, Gong-Bo [National Astronomy Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Baojiu [Institute of Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: jounghun@astro.snu.ac.kr [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-20

    We investigate the effect of modified gravity on the specific angular momentum of galactic halos by analyzing the halo catalogs at z = 0 from high-resolution N-body simulations for a f(R) gravity model that meets the solar-system constraint. It is shown that the galactic halos in the f(R) gravity model tend to acquire significantly higher specific angular momentum than those in the standard {Lambda}CDM model. The largest difference in the specific angular momentum distribution between these two models occurs for the case of isolated galactic halos with mass less than 10{sup 11} h {sup -1} M {sub Sun }, which are likely least shielded by the chameleon screening mechanism. As the specific angular momentum of galactic halos is rather insensitive to other cosmological parameters, it can in principle be an independent discriminator of modified gravity. We speculate a possibility of using the relative abundance of low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) as a test of general relativity given that the formation of the LSBGs occurs in fast spinning dark halos.

  18. ANGULAR MOMENTUM ACQUISITION IN GALAXY HALOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Brooks, Alyson M.; Bullock, James S.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Diemand, Jürg; Wadsley, James; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2013-01-01

    We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to study the angular momentum acquisition of gaseous halos around Milky-Way-sized galaxies. We find that cold mode accreted gas enters a galaxy halo with ∼70% more specific angular momentum than dark matter averaged over cosmic time (though with a very large dispersion). In fact, we find that all matter has a higher spin parameter when measured at accretion than when averaged over the entire halo lifetime, and is well characterized by λ ∼ 0.1, at accretion. Combined with the fact that cold flow gas spends a relatively short time (1-2 dynamical times) in the halo before sinking to the center, this naturally explains why cold flow halo gas has a specific angular momentum much higher than that of the halo and often forms ''cold flow disks.'' We demonstrate that the higher angular momentum of cold flow gas is related to the fact that it tends to be accreted along filaments.

  19. Event and Apparent Horizon Finders for 3 + 1 Numerical Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Event and apparent horizons are key diagnostics for the presence and properties of black holes. In this article I review numerical algorithms and codes for finding event and apparent horizons in numerically-computed spacetimes, focusing on calculations done using the 3 + 1 ADM formalism. The event horizon of an asymptotically-flat spacetime is the boundary between those events from which a future-pointing null geodesic can reach future null infinity and those events from which no such geodesic exists. The event horizon is a (continuous) null surface in spacetime. The event horizon is defined nonlocally in time : it is a global property of the entire spacetime and must be found in a separate post-processing phase after all (or at least the nonstationary part) of spacetime has been numerically computed. There are three basic algorithms for finding event horizons, based on integrating null geodesics forwards in time, integrating null geodesics backwards in time, and integrating null surfaces backwards in time. The last of these is generally the most efficient and accurate. In contrast to an event horizon, an apparent horizon is defined locally in time in a spacelike slice and depends only on data in that slice, so it can be (and usually is) found during the numerical computation of a spacetime. A marginally outer trapped surface (MOTS) in a slice is a smooth closed 2-surface whose future-pointing outgoing null geodesics have zero expansion Θ. An apparent horizon is then defined as a MOTS not contained in any other MOTS. The MOTS condition is a nonlinear elliptic partial differential equation (PDE) for the surface shape, containing the ADM 3-metric, its spatial derivatives, and the extrinsic curvature as coefficients. Most "apparent horizon" finders actually find MOTSs. There are a large number of apparent horizon finding algorithms, with differing trade-offs between speed, robustness, accuracy, and ease of programming. In axisymmetry, shooting algorithms work well

  20. LISA and LISA PathFinder, the endeavour to detect low frequency GWs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, H [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Boatella, C [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Chmeissani, M [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Conchillo, A [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia-Berro, E [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Grimani, C [Universita degli Studi di Urbino, and INFN Florence, Istituto di Fisica, Via Santa Chiara 27, 61029 Urbino (Italy); Hajdas, W [Department of Particles and Matter, Paul Scherrer Institut, ODRA 120, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Lobo, A [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Martinez, L [AtIpic, Parc Tecnologic del Valles, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Nofrarias, M [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ortega, J A [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Puigdengoles, C [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Ramos-Castro, J [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, UPC, Campus Nord, Edif. C4, Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Sanjuan, J [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Wass, P [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Xirgu, X [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    This is a review about LISA and its technology demonstrator, LISAPathFinder. We first describe the conceptual problems which need to be overcome in order to set up a working interferometric detector of low frequency Gravitational Waves (GW), then summarise the solutions to them as currently conceived by the LISA mission team. This will show that some of these solutions require new technological abilities which are still under development, and which need proper test before being fully implemented. LISAPathFinder (LPF) is the the testbed for such technologies. The final part of the paper will address the ideas and concepts behind the PathFinder as well as their impact on LISA.

  1. LISA and LISA PathFinder, the endeavour to detect low frequency GWs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, H; Boatella, C; Chmeissani, M; Conchillo, A; Garcia-Berro, E; Grimani, C; Hajdas, W; Lobo, A; Martinez, L; Nofrarias, M; Ortega, J A; Puigdengoles, C; Ramos-Castro, J; Sanjuan, J; Wass, P; Xirgu, X

    2007-01-01

    This is a review about LISA and its technology demonstrator, LISAPathFinder. We first describe the conceptual problems which need to be overcome in order to set up a working interferometric detector of low frequency Gravitational Waves (GW), then summarise the solutions to them as currently conceived by the LISA mission team. This will show that some of these solutions require new technological abilities which are still under development, and which need proper test before being fully implemented. LISAPathFinder (LPF) is the the testbed for such technologies. The final part of the paper will address the ideas and concepts behind the PathFinder as well as their impact on LISA

  2. Revealing the Cosmic Web-dependent Halo Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Youcai; Lu, Tianhuan; Wang, Huiyuan; Shi, Feng; Tweed, Dylan; Li, Shijie; Luo, Wentao; Lu, Yi; Yang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    Halo bias is the one of the key ingredients of the halo models. It was shown at a given redshift to be only dependent, to the first order, on the halo mass. In this study, four types of cosmic web environments—clusters, filaments, sheets, and voids—are defined within a state-of-the-art high-resolution N-body simulation. Within these environments, we use both halo-dark matter cross correlation and halo-halo autocorrelation functions to probe the clustering properties of halos. The nature of the halo bias differs strongly between the four different cosmic web environments described here. With respect to the overall population, halos in clusters have significantly lower biases in the {10}11.0˜ {10}13.5 {h}-1 {M}⊙ mass range. In other environments, however, halos show extremely enhanced biases up to a factor 10 in voids for halos of mass ˜ {10}12.0 {h}-1 {M}⊙ . Such a strong cosmic web environment dependence in the halo bias may play an important role in future cosmological and galaxy formation studies. Within this cosmic web framework, the age dependency of halo bias is found to be only significant in clusters and filaments for relatively small halos ≲ {10}12.5 {h}-1 {M}⊙ .

  3. Halo Intrinsic Alignment: Dependence on Mass, Formation Time, and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Qianli; Kang, Xi; Wang, Peng; Luo, Yu [Purple Mountain Observatory, the Partner Group of MPI für Astronomie, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yang, Xiaohu; Jing, Yipeng [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Huiyuan [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Mo, Houjun, E-mail: kangxi@pmo.ac.cn [Astronomy Department and Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084 (China)

    2017-10-10

    In this paper we use high-resolution cosmological simulations to study halo intrinsic alignment and its dependence on mass, formation time, and large-scale environment. In agreement with previous studies using N -body simulations, it is found that massive halos have stronger alignment. For the first time, we find that for a given halo mass older halos have stronger alignment and halos in cluster regions also have stronger alignment than those in filaments. To model these dependencies, we extend the linear alignment model with inclusion of halo bias and find that the halo alignment with its mass and formation time dependence can be explained by halo bias. However, the model cannot account for the environment dependence, as it is found that halo bias is lower in clusters and higher in filaments. Our results suggest that halo bias and environment are independent factors in determining halo alignment. We also study the halo alignment correlation function and find that halos are strongly clustered along their major axes and less clustered along the minor axes. The correlated halo alignment can extend to scales as large as 100 h {sup −1} Mpc, where its feature is mainly driven by the baryon acoustic oscillation effect.

  4. Self-consistent beam halo studies ampersand halo diagnostic development in a continuous linear focusing channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Beam halos are formed via self-consistent motion of the beam particles. Interactions of single particles with time-varying density distributions of other particles are a major source of halo. Aspects of these interactions are studied for an initially equilibrium distribution in a radial, linear, continuous focusing system. When there is a mismatch, it is shown that in the self-consistent system, there is a threshold in space-charge and mismatch, above which a halo is formed that extends to ∼1.5 times the initial maximum mismatch radius. Tools are sought for characterizing the halo dynamics. Testing the particles against the width of the mismatch driving resonance is useful for finding a conservative estimate of the threshold. The exit, entering and transition times, and the time evolution of the halo, are also explored using this technique. Extension to higher dimensions is briefly discussed

  5. Development and implementation of a 'Mental Health Finder' software tool within an electronic medical record system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, D; Hannigan, A; Higgins, S; McDonnell, R; Meagher, D; Cullen, W

    2017-02-01

    In Ireland, as in many other healthcare systems, mental health service provision is being reconfigured with a move toward more care in the community, and particularly primary care. Recording and surveillance systems for mental health information and activities in primary care are needed for service planning and quality improvement. We describe the development and initial implementation of a software tool ('mental health finder') within a widely used primary care electronic medical record system (EMR) in Ireland to enable large-scale data collection on the epidemiology and management of mental health and substance use problems among patients attending general practice. In collaboration with the Irish Primary Care Research Network (IPCRN), we developed the 'Mental Health Finder' as a software plug-in to a commonly used primary care EMR system to facilitate data collection on mental health diagnoses and pharmacological treatments among patients. The finder searches for and identifies patients based on diagnostic coding and/or prescribed medicines. It was initially implemented among a convenience sample of six GP practices. Prevalence of mental health and substance use problems across the six practices, as identified by the finder, was 9.4% (range 6.9-12.7%). 61.9% of identified patients were female; 25.8% were private patients. One-third (33.4%) of identified patients were prescribed more than one class of psychotropic medication. Of the patients identified by the finder, 89.9% were identifiable via prescribing data, 23.7% via diagnostic coding. The finder is a feasible and promising methodology for large-scale data collection on mental health problems in primary care.

  6. trieFinder: an efficient program for annotating Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Gabriel; LaFave, Matthew C; Liang, Jin; Wolfsberg, Tyra G; Burgess, Shawn M

    2014-10-13

    Quantification of a transcriptional profile is a useful way to evaluate the activity of a cell at a given point in time. Although RNA-Seq has revolutionized transcriptional profiling, the costs of RNA-Seq are still significantly higher than microarrays, and often the depth of data delivered from RNA-Seq is in excess of what is needed for simple transcript quantification. Digital Gene Expression (DGE) is a cost-effective, sequence-based approach for simple transcript quantification: by sequencing one read per molecule of RNA, this technique can be used to efficiently count transcripts while obviating the need for transcript-length normalization and reducing the total numbers of reads necessary for accurate quantification. Here, we present trieFinder, a program specifically designed to rapidly map, parse, and annotate DGE tags of various lengths against cDNA and/or genomic sequence databases. The trieFinder algorithm maps DGE tags in a two-step process. First, it scans FASTA files of RefSeq, UniGene, and genomic DNA sequences to create a database of all tags that can be derived from a predefined restriction site. Next, it compares the experimental DGE tags to this tag database, taking advantage of the fact that the tags are stored as a prefix tree, or "trie", which allows for linear-time searches for exact matches. DGE tags with mismatches are analyzed by recursive calls in the data structure. We find that, in terms of alignment speed, the mapping functionality of trieFinder compares favorably with Bowtie. trieFinder can quickly provide the user an annotation of the DGE tags from three sources simultaneously, simplifying transcript quantification and novel transcript detection, delivering the data in a simple parsed format, obviating the need to post-process the alignment results. trieFinder is available at http://research.nhgri.nih.gov/software/trieFinder/.

  7. A simplified Track Assembler I/O for the Muon Trigger Track Finder

    CERN Document Server

    Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Genchev, Vladimir; Grandi, Claudio; Neumeister, Norbert; Porth, Paul; Rohringer, Herbert

    1998-01-01

    One of the architectural concerns in the present design of the Muon Trigger Track Finder ( MTTF) is the large number of inputs to the Track Assembler ( TA). In the TA block, input track segment pairs from many Extrapolation Units ( EU) are associated into tracks. The relative contribution of these inputs to the assembled tracks is studied with simulated track patterns for low and high pt muons over the entire eta, phi acceptance of the CMS barrel. A pruning of the EUs is proposed which does not alter the performance of the Track Finder and minimizes the interconnections between azimuthal wedges.

  8. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaite, José

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ''smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness

  9. MAPPING THE GALACTIC HALO. VIII. QUANTIFYING SUBSTRUCTURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkenburg, Else; Helmi, Amina; Van Woerden, Hugo; Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; Frey, Lucy; Oravetz, Dan; Mateo, Mario; Dohm-Palmer, R. C.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Norris, John E.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Shectman, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the amount of kinematic substructure in the Galactic halo using the final data set from the Spaghetti project, a pencil-beam high-latitude sky survey. Our sample contains 101 photometrically selected and spectroscopically confirmed giants with accurate distance, radial velocity, and metallicity information. We have developed a new clustering estimator: the '4distance' measure, which when applied to our data set leads to the identification of one group and seven pairs of clumped stars. The group, with six members, can confidently be matched to tidal debris of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. Two pairs match the properties of known Virgo structures. Using models of the disruption of Sagittarius in Galactic potentials with different degrees of dark halo flattening, we show that this favors a spherical or prolate halo shape, as demonstrated by Newberg et al. using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. One additional pair can be linked to older Sagittarius debris. We find that 20% of the stars in the Spaghetti data set are in substructures. From comparison with random data sets, we derive a very conservative lower limit of 10% to the amount of substructure in the halo. However, comparison to numerical simulations shows that our results are also consistent with a halo entirely built up from disrupted satellites, provided that the dominating features are relatively broad due to early merging or relatively heavy progenitor satellites.

  10. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaite, José, E-mail: jose.gaite@upm.es [Physics Dept., ETSIAE, IDR, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Pza. Cardenal Cisneros 3, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-04-01

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ''smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness.

  11. A 3D Voronoi+Gapper Galaxy Cluster Finder in Redshift Space to z ∼ 0.2 I: an Algorithm Optimized for the 2dFGRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Sebastián; Campusano, Luis E.; Hitschfeld-Kahler, Nancy; Pizarro, Daniel; Haines, Christopher P. [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Clowes, Roger G.; Marinello, Gabriel [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Söchting, Ilona K., E-mail: luis@das.uchile.cl [University of Oxford, Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-01

    This paper is the first in a series, presenting a new galaxy cluster finder based on a three-dimensional Voronoi Tesselation plus a maximum likelihood estimator, followed by gapping-filtering in radial velocity(VoML+G). The scientific aim of the series is a reassessment of the diversity of optical clusters in the local universe. A mock galaxy database mimicking the southern strip of the magnitude(blue)-limited 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), for the redshift range 0.009 < z < 0.22, is built on the basis of the Millennium Simulation of the LCDM cosmology and a reference catalog of “Millennium clusters,” spannning across the 1.0 × 10{sup 12}–1.0 × 10{sup 15} M {sub ⊙} h {sup −1} dark matter (DM) halo mass range, is recorded. The validation of VoML+G is performed through its application to the mock data and the ensuing determination of the completeness and purity of the cluster detections by comparison with the reference catalog. The execution of VoML+G over the 2dFGRS mock data identified 1614 clusters, 22% with N {sub g} ≥ 10, 64 percent with 10 > N {sub g} ≥ 5, and 14% with N {sub g} < 5. The ensemble of VoML+G clusters has a ∼59% completeness and a ∼66% purity, whereas the subsample with N {sub g} ≥ 10, to z ∼ 0.14, has greatly improved mean rates of ∼75% and ∼90%, respectively. The VoML+G cluster velocity dispersions are found to be compatible with those corresponding to “Millennium clusters” over the 300–1000 km s{sup −1} interval, i.e., for cluster halo masses in excess of ∼3.0 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ⊙} h {sup −1}.

  12. Population II brown dwarfs and dark haloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinnecker, H.

    1986-01-01

    Opacity-limited fragmentation is investigated as a function of the dust-to-gas ratio and it is found that the characteristic protostellar mass Msub(*) is metallicity-dependent. This dependence is such that, for the low metallicity gas out of which the stars of Population II formed in the halo, Msub(*) is less than 0.1 M solar mass. If applicable, these theoretical considerations would predict that substellar masses have formed more frequently under the metal-poor conditions in the early Galaxy (Population II brown dwarfs). Thus the missing mass in the Galactic halo and in the dark haloes around other spirals may well reside in these metal-poor Population II brown dwarfs. (author)

  13. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam

  14. Stability of BEC galactic dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán, F.S.; Lora-Clavijo, F.D.; González-Avilés, J.J.; Rivera-Paleo, F.J., E-mail: guzman@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: fadulora@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: javiles@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: friverap@ifm.umich.mx [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we show that spherically symmetric BEC dark matter halos, with the sin r/r density profile, that accurately fit galactic rotation curves and represent a potential solution to the cusp-core problem are unstable. We do this by introducing back the density profiles into the fully time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson system of equations. Using numerical methods to track the evolution of the system, we found that these galactic halos lose mass at an approximate rate of half of its mass in a time scale of dozens of Myr. We consider this time scale is enough as to consider these halos are unstable and unlikely to be formed. We provide some arguments to show that this behavior is general and discuss some other drawbacks of the model that restrict its viability.

  15. Chemical enrichment in halo planetary nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Peimbert, S; Rayo, J F; Peimbert, M [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    Photoelectric spectrophotometry of emission lines in the 3400-7400 A region is presented for the planetary nebulae 108-76/sup 0/1(BB1). From these observations the relative abundances of H, He, C, N, O and Ne are derived. The abundances of the halo PN (BB1, H4-1 and K648) are compared to those predicted by stellar evolution theory under the assumption that the envelope has the chemical composition of the matter located between the H burning shell and the surface. The observed He/H and C/O values are higher than predicted which implies that halo PN contain matter from deeper layers than the H burning shell. Furthermore, the O/Ar, N/Ar and Ne/Ar values in halo PN are higher than in the solar neighbourhood, at least part of this enrichment is produced by the PN progenitors.

  16. Galaxy halo occupation at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how current and future data on the clustering and number density of z~3 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) can be used to constrain their relationship to dark matter haloes. We explore a three-parameter model in which the number of LBGs per dark halo scales like a power law in the halo mass: N(M)=(M/M1)S for M>Mmin. Here, Mmin is the minimum mass halo that can host an LBG, M1 is a normalization parameter, associated with the mass above which haloes host more than one observed LBG, and S determines the strength of the mass-dependence. We show how these three parameters are constrained by three observable properties of LBGs: the number density, the large-scale bias and the fraction of objects in close pairs. Given these three quantities, the three unknown model parameters may be estimated analytically, allowing a full exploration of parameter space. As an example, we assume a ΛCDM cosmology and consider the observed properties of a recent sample of spectroscopically confirmed LBGs. We find that the favoured range for our model parameters is Mmin~=(0.4-8)×1010h- 1Msolar, M1~=(6-10)×1012h- 1Msolar, and 0.9acceptable if the allowed range of bg is permitted to span all recent observational estimates. We also discuss how the observed clustering of LBGs as a function of luminosity can be used to constrain halo occupation, although because of current observational uncertainties we are unable to reach any strong conclusions. Our methods and results can be used to constrain more realistic models that aim to derive the occupation function N(M) from first principles, and offer insight into how basic physical properties affect the observed properties of LBGs.

  17. DARK MATTER HALO MERGERS: DEPENDENCE ON ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, J. A.; Tasitsiomi, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the specific major merger rate as a function of group membership, local environment, and redshift in a very large, 500 h -1 Mpc, cosmological N-body simulation, the Millennium Simulation. The goal is to provide environmental diagnostics of major merger populations in order to test simulations against observations and provide further constraints on major merger driven galaxy evolution scenarios. A halo sample is defined using the maximum circular velocity, which is both well defined for subhalos and closely correlated with galaxy luminosity. Subhalos, including the precursors of major mergers, are severely tidally stripped. Major mergers between subhalos are therefore rare compared to mergers between subhalos and their host halos. Tidal stripping also suppresses dynamical friction, resulting in long major merger timescales when the more massive merger progenitor does not host other subhalos. When other subhalos are present, however, major merger timescales are several times shorter. This enhancement may be due to inelastic unbound collisions between subhalos, which deplete their orbital angular momentum and lead to faster orbital decay. Following these results, we predict that major mergers in group environments are dominated by mergers involving the central galaxy, that the specific major merger rate is suppressed in groups when all group members are considered together, and that the frequency of fainter companions is enhanced for major mergers and their remnants. We also measure an 'assembly bias' in the specific major merger rate in that major mergers of galaxy-like halos are slightly suppressed in overdense environments while major mergers of group-like halos are slightly enhanced. A dynamical explanation for this trend is advanced which calls on both tidal effects and interactions between bound halos beyond the virial radii of locally dynamically dominant halos.

  18. Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

  19. Developing Scalable Information Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Konstantinovich Ablekov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Existing physical security systems has wide range of lacks, including: high cost, a large number of vulnerabilities, problems of modification and support system. This paper covers an actual problem of developing systems without this list of drawbacks. The paper presents the architecture of the information security system, which operates through the network protocol TCP/IP, including the ability to connect different types of devices and integration with existing security systems. The main advantage is a significant increase in system reliability, scalability, both vertically and horizontally, with minimal cost of both financial and time resources.

  20. Radio halo sources in clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanisch, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Radio halo sources remain one of the most enigmatic of all phenomena related to radio emission from galaxies in clusters. The morphology, extent, and spectral structure of these sources are not well known, and the models proposed to explain them suffer from this lack of observational detail. However, recent observations suggest that radio halo sources may be a composite of relic radio galaxies. The validity of this model could be tested using current and planned high resolutions, low-frequency radio telescopes. 31 references

  1. Blazars with arcminute-scale radio halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulvestad, J.S.; Antonucci, R.R.J.; Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD)

    1986-01-01

    About 10-arcsec resolution 20-cm wavelength maps are presented for three nearby BL Lac objects: Mkn 180, whose halo has a linear size of 85 kpc, 2155-304, with a halo about 375 kpc across, and 1727 + 502, whose one-sided diffuse emission extends to a distance of about 145 kpc from its radio core. Little evidence is found for strong radio variability in the cores of the three blazars; these and other results obtained are consistent with the assertion that the three objects should be classified as normal low luminosity double radio galaxies with optically dull nuclei, if seen from other directions. 20 references

  2. Structure study in the 19C halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelique, J.C.; Le Brun, C.; Liegard, E.; Marques, F.M.; Orr, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    The halo nuclei are nuclei which have one or more neutrons (or protons) with very weak binding energy what results in a spatial extension beyond the core containing the other nucleons. This important spatial extension is related via the Heisenberg principle to a narrow momentum distribution which signs the halo structure of the nucleus under consideration. To extend our understanding of this phenomenon an experiment has been carried out with the DEMON multidetector in the frame of the collaboration E133. The subject was the study of 19 C, a nucleus susceptible of having a neutron halo due to the low binding energy of its last neutron (S n = 240 ± 100 keV). The 19 C secondary beam was produced by fragmentation of a primary 40 Ar beam in a carbon target between the two solenoids of SISSI and than directed to a GANIL experimental room. A silicon detector telescope was used to detect the charged particles issued from the reaction of 19 C nuclei with the tantalum target while the DEMON detection modular assembly separated by four meters from the target allowed the neutron detection between 0 and 42 degrees. The first results of this analysis are favorable to a halo structure for this nucleus for the reaction channel in which the 18 C core is destroyed. We have compared the angular distribution of the neutrons of 19 C with those obtained from the breakup reactions of other exotic nuclei ( 21 N, 22 O and 24 F) but having no halo structure. A net different behavior of these nuclei indicate a clear difference in structure. Actually, the 19 C distribution corresponds to the superposition of a broad distribution and narrow distribution. The last one having width of 42 ± 12 MeV/c, compatible with an important spatial extension, corresponds to neutrons coming from the halo. It is argued that the model in which the halo neutron moves on a s orbital cannot described the structure of 19 C halo. A more adequate description would be a mixture of s and d orbitals which would also

  3. Dark energy and extended dark matter halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2012-03-01

    The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is Ωm = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be Ωloc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of Ωloc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even

  4. 3D Indoor Building Environment Reconstruction using calibration of Range finder Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamali, Ali; Anton, François; Rahman, Alias Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measurement (EDM) and Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) are mostly used. In this paper, several techniques for indoor 3D building data acquisition have been investigated. For reducing the time and cost of indoor building data acquisition process, the Trimble LaserAce 1000 range finder is used. The accuracy...

  5. Parallel 4-dimensional cellular automaton track finder for the CBM experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akishina, Valentina [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); JINR Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kisel, Ivan [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The CBM experiment at FAIR will focus on the measurement of rare probes at interaction rates up to 10 MHz. The beam will provide free stream of particles, so that information about different collisions may overlap in time. It requires the full online event reconstruction not only in space, but also in time, so-called 4D (4-dimensional) event building. This is a task of the First-Level Event Selection (FLES) package. The FLES reconstruction package consists of several modules: track finding, track fitting, short-lived particles finding, event building and selection. The Silicon Tracking System (STS) time measurement information was included into the Cellular Automaton (CA) track finder algorithm. The 4D track finder algorithm speed (8.5 ms per event in a time-slice) and efficiency is comparable with the event-based analysis. The CA track finder was fully parallelised inside the time-slice. The parallel version achieves a speed-up factor of 10.6 while parallelising between 10 Intel Xeon physical cores with a hyper-threading. The first version of event building based on 4D track finder was implemented.

  6. The Relationship between Kolb's Learning Styles and StrengthsFinder's Talent Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Adonna B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if there were relationships between college students' talent themes as defined by the Clifton StrengthsFinder(TM) Instrument and their learning style as defined by Kolb Learning Styles Inventory. Logistical regression methodology was utilized to assess the relationship between learning styles and talent…

  7. Flood Finder: Mobile-based automated water level estimation and mapping during floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongsiriyaporn, B; Jariyavajee, C; Laoharawee, N; Narkthong, N; Pitichat, T; Goldin, S E

    2014-01-01

    Every year, Southeast Asia faces numerous flooding disasters, resulting in very high human and economic loss. Responding to a sudden flood is difficult due to the lack of accurate and up-to- date information about the incoming water status. We have developed a mobile application called Flood Finder to solve this problem. Flood Finder allows smartphone users to measure, share and search for water level information at specified locations. The application uses image processing to compute the water level from a photo taken by users. The photo must be of a known reference object with a standard size. These water levels are more reliable and consistent than human estimates since they are derived from an algorithmic measuring function. Flood Finder uploads water level readings to the server, where they can be searched and mapped by other users via the mobile phone app or standard browsers. Given the widespread availability of smartphones in Asia, Flood Finder can provide more accurate and up-to-date information for better preparation for a flood disaster as well as life safety and property protection

  8. Modeling and Implementation of Multi-Position Non-Continuous Rotation Gyroscope North Finder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Even when the Global Positioning System (GPS signal is blocked, a rate gyroscope (gyro north finder is capable of providing the required azimuth reference information to a certain extent. In order to measure the azimuth between the observer and the north direction very accurately, we propose a multi-position non-continuous rotation gyro north finding scheme. Our new generalized mathematical model analyzes the elements that affect the azimuth measurement precision and can thus provide high precision azimuth reference information. Based on the gyro’s principle of detecting a projection of the earth rotation rate on its sensitive axis and the proposed north finding scheme, we are able to deduct an accurate mathematical model of the gyro outputs against azimuth with the gyro and shaft misalignments. Combining the gyro outputs model and the theory of propagation of uncertainty, some approaches to optimize north finding are provided, including reducing the gyro bias error, constraining the gyro random error, increasing the number of rotation points, improving rotation angle measurement precision, decreasing the gyro and the shaft misalignment angles. According them, a north finder setup is built and the azimuth uncertainty of 18” is obtained. This paper provides systematic theory for analyzing the details of the gyro north finder scheme from simulation to implementation. The proposed theory can guide both applied researchers in academia and advanced practitioners in industry for designing high precision robust north finder based on different types of rate gyroscopes.

  9. PROBABILISTIC MODEL OF LASER RANGE FINDER FOR THREE DIMENSIONAL GRID CELL IN CLOSE RANGE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz b Iman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The probabilistic model of a laser scanner presents an important aspect for simultaneous localization and map-building (SLAM. However, the characteristic of the beam of the laser range finder under extreme incident angles approaching 900 has not been thoroughly investigated. This research paper reports the characteristic of the density of the range value coming from a laser range finder under close range circumstances where the laser is imposed with a high incident angle. The laser was placed in a controlled environment consisting of walls at a close range and 1000 iteration of scans was collected. The assumption of normal density of the metrical data collapses when the beam traverses across sharp edges in this environment. The data collected also shows multimodal density at instances where the range has discontinuity. The standard deviation of the laser range finder is reported to average at 10.54 mm, with 0.96 of accuracy. This significance suggests that under extreme incident angles, a laser range finder reading behaves differently compared to normal distribution. The use of this information is crucial for SLAM activity in enclosed environments such as inside piping grid or other cluttered environments.KEYWORDS:   Hokuyo UTM-30LX; kernel density estimation; probabilistic model  

  10. Dynamical or static radio halo - Is there a galactic wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.; Schlickeiser, R.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of a galactic wind on a radio halo can be best observed at frequencies smaller than about 1 GHz. At higher frequencies static halo models predict the same features as dynamical halo models. External galaxies, which exhibit a break by 0.5 in their high frequency nonthermal integral flux spectrum, are the best candidates for studying the influence of galactic winds on the formation of relativistic electron haloes around these systems. Several such cases are presented

  11. Interactions between massive dark halos and warped disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, K; Persic, M; Salucci, P

    1997-01-01

    The normal mode theory for warping of galaxy disks, in which disks are assumed to be tilted with respect to the equator of a massive, flattened dark halo, assumes a rigid, fixed halo. However, consideration of the back-reaction by a misaligned disk on a massive particle halo shows there to be strong

  12. Binary White Dwarfs in the Galactic Halo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oirschot, Pim; Nelemans, Gijs; Helmi, Amina; Starkenburg, Else; Pols, Onno; Brown, Anthony G. A.

    We use the stellar population synthesis code SeBa (Portegies Zwart & Verbunt (1996), Toonen, Nelemans & Portegies Zwart (2012)) to study the halo white dwarf population. Here we assume a Kroupa initial mass function and compare 4 models, varying two parameters: the star formation (SF) history of the

  13. Numerical experiments on galactic halo formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, P.J.; Salmon, J.K.; Zurek, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    We have used a hybrid N-body-FFT approach to solving Poisson's equation in a cosmological setting. Using this method, we have explored the connection between the form of the initial Gaussian density perturbations that by today have grown into galaxies and the internal properties of the individual galactic halos that are formed. 19 refs., 4 figs

  14. Reflection halo twins : subsun and supersun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konnen, Gunther P.; van der Werf, Siebren Y.

    2011-01-01

    From an aircraft, a short distinct vertical structure is sometimes seen above the setting sun. Such a feature can be understood as a halo, which is the counterpart of the well-known subsun. Whereas the latter arises from reflections off basal faces of plate-oriented ice crystals illuminated from

  15. Cosmology and cluster halo scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya-Melo, Pablo A.; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2009-01-01

    We explore the effects of dark matter and dark energy on the dynamical scaling properties of galaxy clusters. We investigate the cluster Faber-Jackson (FJ), Kormendy and Fundamental Plane (FP) relations between the mass, radius and velocity dispersion of cluster-sized haloes in cosmological N-body

  16. Baryonic pinching of galactic dark matter halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Michael; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    High resolution cosmological N-body simulations of four galaxy-scale dark matter halos are compared to corresponding N-body/hydrodynamical simulations containing dark matter, stars and gas. The simulations without baryons share features with others described in the literature in that the dark matter density slope continuously decreases towards the center, with a density ρ DM ∝r -1.3±0.2 , at about 1% of the virial radius for our Milky Way sized galaxies. The central cusps in the simulations which also contain baryons steepen significantly, to ρ DM ∝r -1.9±0.2 , with an indication of the inner logarithmic slope converging. Models of adiabatic contraction of dark matter halos due to the central buildup of stellar/gaseous galaxies are examined. The simplest and most commonly used model, by Blumenthal et al., is shown to overestimate the central dark matter density considerably. A modified model proposed by Gnedin et al. is tested and it is shown that, while it is a considerable improvement, it is not perfect. Moreover, it is found that the contraction parameters in their model not only depend on the orbital structure of the dark-matter-only halos but also on the stellar feedback prescription which is most relevant for the baryonic distribution. Implications for dark matter annihilation at the galactic center are discussed and it is found that, although our simulations show a considerable reduced dark matter halo contraction as compared to the Blumenthal et al. model, the fluxes from dark matter annihilation are still expected to be enhanced by at least a factor of a hundred, as compared to dark-matter-only halos. Finally, it is shown that, while dark-matter-only halos are typically prolate, the dark matter halos containing baryons are mildly oblate with minor-to-major axis ratios of c/a=0.73±0.11, with their flattening aligned with the central baryonic disks

  17. THE HALO OCCUPATION DISTRIBUTION OF SDSS QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Jonathan; Chatterjee, Suchetana; Nagai, Daisuke; Zheng Zheng; Shen Yue

    2012-01-01

    We present an estimate of the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) over the full range of one- and two-halo scales, 0.02 h –1 Mpc p –1 Mpc. This was achieved by combining data from SDSS DR7 on large scales and Hennawi et al. (with appropriate statistical corrections) on small scales. Our combined clustering sample is the largest spectroscopic quasar clustering sample to date, containing ∼48, 000 quasars in the redshift range 0.4 ∼ sat = (7.4 ± 1.4) × 10 –4 , be satellites in dark matter halos. At z ∼ 1.4, the median masses of the host halos of central and satellite quasars are constrained to be M cen = 4.1 +0.3 –0.4 × 10 12 h –1 M ☉ and M sat = 3.6 +0.8 –1.0 × 10 14 h –1 M ☉ , respectively. To investigate the redshift evolution of the quasar-halo relationship, we also perform HOD modeling of the projected 2PCF measured by Shen et al. for SDSS quasars with median redshift 3.2. We find tentative evidence for an increase in the mass scale of quasar host halos—the inferred median mass of halos hosting central quasars at z ∼ 3.2 is M cen = 14.1 +5.8 –6.9 × 10 12 h –1 M ☉ . The cutoff profiles of the mean occupation functions of central quasars reveal that quasar luminosity is more tightly correlated with halo mass at higher redshifts. The average quasar duty cycle around the median host halo mass is inferred to be f q = 7.3 +0.6 –1.5 × 10 –4 at z ∼ 1.4 and f q = 8.6 +20.4 –7.2 × 10 –2 at z ∼ 3.2. We discuss the implications of our results for quasar evolution and quasar-galaxy co-evolution.

  18. Scalable Performance Measurement and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamblin, Todd [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Concurrency levels in large-scale, distributed-memory supercomputers are rising exponentially. Modern machines may contain 100,000 or more microprocessor cores, and the largest of these, IBM's Blue Gene/L, contains over 200,000 cores. Future systems are expected to support millions of concurrent tasks. In this dissertation, we focus on efficient techniques for measuring and analyzing the performance of applications running on very large parallel machines. Tuning the performance of large-scale applications can be a subtle and time-consuming task because application developers must measure and interpret data from many independent processes. While the volume of the raw data scales linearly with the number of tasks in the running system, the number of tasks is growing exponentially, and data for even small systems quickly becomes unmanageable. Transporting performance data from so many processes over a network can perturb application performance and make measurements inaccurate, and storing such data would require a prohibitive amount of space. Moreover, even if it were stored, analyzing the data would be extremely time-consuming. In this dissertation, we present novel methods for reducing performance data volume. The first draws on multi-scale wavelet techniques from signal processing to compress systemwide, time-varying load-balance data. The second uses statistical sampling to select a small subset of running processes to generate low-volume traces. A third approach combines sampling and wavelet compression to stratify performance data adaptively at run-time and to reduce further the cost of sampled tracing. We have integrated these approaches into Libra, a toolset for scalable load-balance analysis. We present Libra and show how it can be used to analyze data from large scientific applications scalably.

  19. Characteristic time for halo current growth and rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boozer, Allen H., E-mail: ahb17@columbia.edu [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    A halo current flows for part of its path through the plasma edge and for part through the chamber walls and during tokamak disruptions can be as large as tenths of the plasma current. The primary interest in halo currents is the large force that they can exert on machine components particularly if the toriodal rotation of the halo current resonates with a natural oscillation frequency of the tokamak device. Halo currents arise when required to slow down the growth of a kink that is too unstable to be stabilized by the chamber walls. The width of the current channel in the halo plasma is comparable to the amplitude of the kink, and the halo current grows linearly, not exponentially, in time. The current density in the halo is comparable to that of the main plasma body. The rocket force due to plasma flowing out of the halo and recombining on the chamber walls can cause the non-axisymmetric magnetic structure produced by the kink to rotate toroidally at a speed comparable to the halo speed of sound. Gerhardt's observations of the halo current in NSTX shot 141 687 [Nucl. Fusion 53, 023005 (2013)] illustrate many features of the theory of halo currents and are discussed as a summary of the theory.

  20. MINIMARS interim report appendix halo model and computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarius, J.F.; Barr, W.L.; Deng, B.Q.; Emmert, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    A tenuous, cool plasma called the halo shields the core plasma in a tandem mirror from neutral gas and impurities. The neutral particles are ionized and then pumped by the halo to the end tanks of the device, since flow of plasma along field lines is much faster than radial flow. Plasma reaching the end tank walls recombines, and the resulting neutral gas is vacuum pumped. The basic geometry of the MINIMARS halo is shown. For halo modeling purposes, the core plasma and cold gas regions may be treated as single radial zones leading to halo source and sink terms. The halo itself is differential into two major radial zones: halo scraper and halo dump. The halo scraper zone is defined by the radial distance required for the ion end plugging potential to drop to the central cell value, and thus have no effect on axial confinement; this distance is typically a sloshing plug ion Larmor diameter. The outer edge of the halo dump zone is defined by the last central cell flux tube to pass through the choke coil. This appendix will summarize the halo model that has been developed for MINIMARS and the methodology used in implementing that model as a computer code

  1. ORIGAMI: DELINEATING HALOS USING PHASE-SPACE FOLDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falck, Bridget L.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    We present the ORIGAMI method of identifying structures, particularly halos, in cosmological N-body simulations. Structure formation can be thought of as the folding of an initially flat three-dimensional manifold in six-dimensional phase space. ORIGAMI finds the outer folds that delineate these structures. Halo particles are identified as those that have undergone shell-crossing along three orthogonal axes, providing a dynamical definition of halo regions that is independent of density. ORIGAMI also identifies other morphological structures: particles that have undergone shell-crossing along 2, 1, or 0 orthogonal axes correspond to filaments, walls, and voids, respectively. We compare this method to a standard friends-of-friends halo-finding algorithm and find that ORIGAMI halos are somewhat larger, more diffuse, and less spherical, though the global properties of ORIGAMI halos are in good agreement with other modern halo-finding algorithms.

  2. ORIGAMI: DELINEATING HALOS USING PHASE-SPACE FOLDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, Bridget L.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the ORIGAMI method of identifying structures, particularly halos, in cosmological N-body simulations. Structure formation can be thought of as the folding of an initially flat three-dimensional manifold in six-dimensional phase space. ORIGAMI finds the outer folds that delineate these structures. Halo particles are identified as those that have undergone shell-crossing along three orthogonal axes, providing a dynamical definition of halo regions that is independent of density. ORIGAMI also identifies other morphological structures: particles that have undergone shell-crossing along 2, 1, or 0 orthogonal axes correspond to filaments, walls, and voids, respectively. We compare this method to a standard friends-of-friends halo-finding algorithm and find that ORIGAMI halos are somewhat larger, more diffuse, and less spherical, though the global properties of ORIGAMI halos are in good agreement with other modern halo-finding algorithms.

  3. Research Progresses of Halo Streams in the Solar Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi-long, Liang; Jing-kun, Zhao; Yu-qin, Chen; Gang, Zhao

    2018-01-01

    The stellar streams originated from the Galactic halo may be detected when they pass by the solar neighborhood, and they still keep some information at their birth times. Thus, the investigation of halo streams in the solar neighborhood is very important for understanding the formation and evolution of our Galaxy. In this paper, the researches of halo streams in the solar neighborhood are briefly reviewed. We have introduced the methods how to detect the halo streams and identify their member stars, summarized the progresses in the observation of member stars of halo streams and in the study of their origins, introduced in detail how to analyze the origins of halo streams in the solar neighborhood by means of numerical simulation and chemical abundance, and finally discussed the prospects of the LAMOST and GAIA in the research of halo streams in the solar neighborhood.

  4. Requirements for Scalable Access Control and Security Management Architectures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keromytis, Angelos D; Smith, Jonathan M

    2005-01-01

    Maximizing local autonomy has led to a scalable Internet. Scalability and the capacity for distributed control have unfortunately not extended well to resource access control policies and mechanisms...

  5. SynergyFinder: a web application for analyzing drug combination dose-response matrix data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianevski, Aleksandr; He, Liye; Aittokallio, Tero; Tang, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Rational design of drug combinations has become a promising strategy to tackle the drug sensitivity and resistance problem in cancer treatment. To systematically evaluate the pre-clinical significance of pairwise drug combinations, functional screening assays that probe combination effects in a dose-response matrix assay are commonly used. To facilitate the analysis of such drug combination experiments, we implemented a web application that uses key functions of R-package SynergyFinder, and provides not only the flexibility of using multiple synergy scoring models, but also a user-friendly interface for visualizing the drug combination landscapes in an interactive manner. The SynergyFinder web application is freely accessible at https://synergyfinder.fimm.fi ; The R-package and its source-code are freely available at http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/synergyfinder.html . jing.tang@helsinki.fi. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Acquisition Of Three-Dimensional Image Data By A Scanning Laser Range Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moring, I.; Heikkinen, T.; Myllyla, R.; Kilpela, A. T.

    1989-08-01

    We describe a 3-D vision system designed and constructed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in cooperation with the University of Oulu. The system was developed chiefly for geometric measurements of large objects. The system has been operative for about one year, and its performance has been extensively tested. The system consists of three main units: the range finder, the scanner, and the computer. The range finder is based on the direct measurement of the time-of-flight of a laser pulse. The scanner consists of two mirrors driven by moving iron galvanometers; this unit is controlled by servo amplifiers. The computer controls the scanner, transforms the measured coordinates into a Cartesian coordinate system, and serves as a user interface and postprocessing environment.

  7. Exploring procedures for the rapid assessment of optically stimulated luminescence range-finder ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Helen M.; Durcan, Julie A.; Duller, Geoff A.T.

    2009-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of sediments is a lengthy, labour-intensive, and time-consuming procedure. However, in some situations a rough approximation of the OSL age is all that is necessary e.g. for a pilot field campaign, to plan a sampling strategy, or to determine the resolution required for a dating campaign. Thus, it would be useful to establish an approximate OSL age without the lengthy and involved processes normally used. This paper explores how the standard procedures involved in OSL age determinations can be simplified to yield range-finder ages. Three areas are examined, namely, laboratory preparation, D e estimation, and dose-rate determination. The consequences of circumventing some of the preparation and measurement steps of conventional OSL dating are examined for a variety of sediments, by comparing the OSL range-finder ages to those obtained using full quartz OSL preparation and measurement procedures.

  8. Gravitational lens effect and pregalactic halo objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontz, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The changes in flux, position, and size of a distant extended (galaxy, etc.) source that result from the gravitational lens action of a massive opaque object are discussed. The flux increase is described by a single function of two parameters. One of these parameters characterizes the strength of the gravitational lens, the other describes the alignment of source and lens object. This function also describes the relative intensity of the images formed by lens. ( A similar formalism is discussed by Bourassa et al. for a point source). The formalism is applied to the problem of the galactic halo. It appears that a massive (10 1 2 M/sub sun/) spherical halo surrounding the visible part of the galaxy is consistent with the observable properties of extragalactic sources

  9. Magnetic spiral arms in galaxy haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, R. N.

    2017-08-01

    We seek the conditions for a steady mean field galactic dynamo. The parameter set is reduced to those appearing in the α2 and α/ω dynamo, namely velocity amplitudes, and the ratio of sub-scale helicity to diffusivity. The parameters can be allowed to vary on conical spirals. We analyse the mean field dynamo equations in terms of scale invariant logarithmic spiral modes and special exact solutions. Compatible scale invariant gravitational spiral arms are introduced and illustrated in an appendix, but the detailed dynamical interaction with the magnetic field is left for another work. As a result of planar magnetic spirals `lifting' into the halo, multiple sign changes in average rotation measures forming a regular pattern on each side of the galactic minor axis, are predicted. Such changes have recently been detected in the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies-an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) survey.

  10. Adaptive format conversion for scalable video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wade K.; Lim, Jae S.

    2001-12-01

    The enhancement layer in many scalable coding algorithms is composed of residual coding information. There is another type of information that can be transmitted instead of (or in addition to) residual coding. Since the encoder has access to the original sequence, it can utilize adaptive format conversion (AFC) to generate the enhancement layer and transmit the different format conversion methods as enhancement data. This paper investigates the use of adaptive format conversion information as enhancement data in scalable video coding. Experimental results are shown for a wide range of base layer qualities and enhancement bitrates to determine when AFC can improve video scalability. Since the parameters needed for AFC are small compared to residual coding, AFC can provide video scalability at low enhancement layer bitrates that are not possible with residual coding. In addition, AFC can also be used in addition to residual coding to improve video scalability at higher enhancement layer bitrates. Adaptive format conversion has not been studied in detail, but many scalable applications may benefit from it. An example of an application that AFC is well-suited for is the migration path for digital television where AFC can provide immediate video scalability as well as assist future migrations.

  11. Structure and reactions of quantum halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, A.S.; Riisager, K.; Fedorov, D.V.; Garrido, E.

    2004-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the basic principles of the physics of quantum halo systems, defined as bound states of clusters of particles with a radius extending well into classically forbidden regions. Exploiting the consequences of this definition, the authors derive the conditions for occurrence in terms of the number of clusters, binding energy, angular momentum, cluster charges, and excitation energy. All these quantities must be small. The article discusses the transitions between different cluster divisions and the importance of thresholds for cluster or particle decay, with particular attention to the Efimov effect and the related exotic states. The pertinent properties can be described by the use of dimensionless variables. Then universal and specific properties can be distinguished, as shown in a series of examples selected from nuclear, atomic, and molecular systems. The neutron dripline is especially interesting for nuclei and negative ions for atoms. For molecules, in which the cluster division comes naturally, a wider range of possibilities exists. Halos in two dimensions have very different properties, and their states are easily spatially extended, whereas Borromean systems are unlikely and spatially confined. The Efimov effect and the Thomas collapse occur only for dimensions between 2.3 and 3.8 and thus not for 2. High-energy reactions directly probe the halo structure. The authors discuss the reaction mechanisms for high-energy nuclear few-body halo breakup on light, intermediate, and heavy nuclear targets. For light targets, the strong interaction dominates, while for heavy targets, the Coulomb interaction dominates. For intermediate targets these processes are of comparable magnitude. As in atomic and molecular physics, a geometric impact-parameter picture is very appropriate. Finally, the authors briefly consider the complementary processes involving electroweak probes available through beta decay, electromagnetic transitions, and

  12. Total dissociation cross section of halo nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formanek, J. [Karlova Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Fakulta Matematicko-Fyzikalni; Lombard, R.J. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1996-10-01

    Calculations of the total dissociation cross section is performed in the impact parameter representation. The case of {sup 11}Be and {sup 11}Li loosing one and two neutron(s), respectively, by collision on a {sup 12}C target, which remains in its ground state are discussed. The results are found to depend essentially on the rms radius of the halo wave function. (author). 12 refs.

  13. The Halo B2B Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzynski, Mark; Derocher, Mike; Mitchell, April Slayden

    Research underway at Hewlett-Packard on remote communication resulted in the identification of three important components typically missing in existing systems. These missing components are: group nonverbal communication capabilities, high-resolution interactive data capabilities, and global services. Here we discuss some of the design elements in these three areas as part of the Halo program at HP, a remote communication system shown to be effective to end-users.

  14. HPF: The Habitable Zone Planet Finder at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason T.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Hearty, Fred; Monson, Andy; Stefansson, Gudmundur; Ramsey, Larry; Ninan, Joe; Bender, Chad; Kaplan, Kyle; Roy, Arpita; Terrien, Ryan; Robertson, Paul; Halverson, Sam; Schwab, Christian; Kanodia, Shubham

    2018-01-01

    The Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF) is an ultra-stable NIR (ZYJ) high resolution echelle spectrograph on the 10-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope capable of 1-3 m/s Doppler velocimetry on nearby late M dwarfs (M4-M9). This precision is sufficient to detect terrestrial planets in the Habitable Zones of these relatively unexplored stars. Here we present its capabilities and early commissioning results.

  15. Providing a USSD location based clinic finder in South Africa: did it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Annie Neo; Timler, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    A new mHealth service, Clinic Finder, was designed to provide a location-based service for any cellphone user in South Africa dialing a dedicated USSD string to find the nearest public primary health care facility. The service was funded by a European Union grant to Cell-Life to support the National Department of Health. Clinic Finder's aims were to provide a reliable and accurate service, and to assess both the most effective means of advertising the service as well as interest in the service. Users dialing the USSD string are asked to agree to geo-location (Vodacom and MTN users) or asked to enter their province, town and street (virtual network users and those choosing not to geo-locate). The service provider, AAT, sends the data to Cell-Life where an SMS with details of the nearest public primary health care facility is sent to the user by Cell-Life's open-source Communicate platform. The service was advertised on 3 days in 2014 using two different means: a newspaper ad on 20 May 2014 and Please Call Me ads on 30 July 2014 and 14 August 2014. 28.2% of unique users on 20 May 2014, 10.5% of unique users on 30 July 2014 and 92.8% of unique users on 14 August 2014 who agreed to geo-location successfully received SMSs. However, only 4.2%, 0.5%, and 2.4% of unique users responding to each advertisement who did not geo-locate then received an SMS. A small survey of users following the 20 May 2014 newspaper ad found overall interest in the idea of Clinic Finder, though unsuccessful users were more likely to dislike the service. The overall experience of using location based services and USSD for Clinic Finder suggests a need in the field of mHealth for wider availability of data on service usability and effectiveness.

  16. Human Splicing Finder: an online bioinformatics tool to predict splicing signals

    OpenAIRE

    Desmet, Francois-Olivier; Hamroun, Dalil; Lalande, Marine; Collod-Beroud, Gwenaelle; Claustres, Mireille; Beroud, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Thousands of mutations are identified yearly. Although many directly affect protein expression, an increasing proportion of mutations is now believed to influence mRNA splicing. They mostly affect existing splice sites, but synonymous, non-synonymous or nonsense mutations can also create or disrupt splice sites or auxiliary cis-splicing sequences. To facilitate the analysis of the different mutations, we designed Human Splicing Finder (HSF), a tool to predict the effec...

  17. Photoionization in the halo of the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Harrington, J. Patrick

    1986-01-01

    The ionizing radiation field in the halo is calculated and found to be dominated in the 13.6-45 eV range by light from O-B stars that escapes the disk, by planetary nebulae at 45-54 eV, by quasars and the Galactic soft X-ray background at 54-2000 eV, and by the extragalactic X-ray background at higher energies. Photoionization models are calculated with this radiation field incident on halo clouds of constant density for a variety of densities, for normal and depleted abundances, and with variations of the incident spectrum. For species at least triply ionized, such as Si IV, C IV, N V, and O VI, the line ratios are determined by intervening gas with the greatest volume, which is not necessarily the greatest mass component. Column densities from doubly ionized species like Si III should be greater than from triply ionized species. The role of photoionized gas in cosmic ray-supported halos and Galactic fountains is discussed. Observational tests of photoionization models are suggested.

  18. The Extended Baryonic Halo of NGC 3923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan W. Miller

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Galaxy halos and their globular cluster systems build up over time by the accretion of small satellites. We can learn about this process in detail by observing systems with ongoing accretion events and comparing the data with simulations. Elliptical shell galaxies are systems that are thought to be due to ongoing or recent minor mergers. We present preliminary results of an investigation of the baryonic halo—light profile, globular clusters, and shells/streams—of the shell galaxy NGC 3923 from deep Dark Energy Camera (DECam g and i-band imaging. We present the 2D and radial distributions of the globular cluster candidates out to a projected radius of about 185 kpc, or ∼ 37 R e , making this one of the most extended cluster systems studied. The total number of clusters implies a halo mass of M h ∼ 3 × 10 13 M ⊙ . Previous studies had identified between 22 and 42 shells, making NGC 3923 the system with the largest number of shells. We identify 23 strong shells and 11 that are uncertain. Future work will measure the halo mass and mass profile from the radial distributions of the shell, N-body models, and line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD measurements of the shells using the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE.

  19. How do stars affect ψDM halos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, James H. H.; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Woo, Tak-Pong; Chiueh, Tzihong

    2018-04-01

    Wave dark matter (ψDM) predicts a compact soliton core and a granular halo in every galaxy. This work presents the first simulation study of an elliptical galaxy by including both stars and ψDM, focusing on the systematic changes of the central soliton and halo granules. With the addition of stars in the inner halo, we find the soliton core consistently becomes more prominent by absorbing mass from the host halo than that without stars, and the halo granules become "non-isothermal", "hotter" in the inner halo and "cooler" in the outer halo, as opposed to the isothermal halo in pure ψDM cosmological simulations. Moreover, the composite (star+ψDM) mass density is found to follow a r-2 isothermal profile near the half-light radius in most cases. Most striking is the velocity dispersion of halo stars that increases rapidly toward the galactic center by a factor of at least 2 inside the half-light radius caused by the deepened soliton gravitational potential, a result that compares favorably with observations of elliptical galaxies and bulges in spiral galaxies. However in some rare situations we find a phase segregation turning a compact distribution of stars into two distinct populations with high and very low velocity dispersions; while the high-velocity component mostly resides in the halo, the very low-velocity component is bound to the interior of the soliton core, resembling stars in faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  20. Optimization high vortex finder of cyclone separator with computational fluids dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Caturwati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclone separator is an equipment that separates particles contained in the fluid without using filters. The dust particles in the flue gases can be separated by utilizing centrifugal forces and different densities of particles, so that the exhaust gases to be cleaner before discharged into the environment. In this paper carried out a simulation by Computational of Fluids Dynamics to determine the number of particles that can be separated in several cyclone separator which has a ratio body diameter against vortex finder high varied as : 1:0.5 ; 1:0.75 ; 1:1 ; 1:1.25 and 1:1.5. Fluid inlet are air with antrachite impurity particles that are commonly found in the exhaust gases from tire manufacturers with inlet velocities varied as: 15 m/s and 30 m/s. The results of simulation show the fluids with 15 m/s of inlet velocity is generate particle separation value is higher than the fluids with 30 m/s inlet velocity for ratio of body diameter and height vortex finder a: 1:0.5 and 1:1.5. For both of inlet velocities the best ratio of body diameter and height vortex finder is 1:1.25, where it has the highest values of percentage trapped particles about 86% for 30 m/s input velocity and also for 15 m/s input velocity.

  1. GLS-Finder: A Platform for Fast Profiling of Glucosinolates in Brassica Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianghao; Zhang, Mengliang; Chen, Pei

    2016-06-01

    Mass spectrometry combined with related tandem techniques has become the most popular method for plant secondary metabolite characterization. We introduce a new strategy based on in-database searching, mass fragmentation behavior study, formula predicting for fast profiling of glucosinolates, a class of important compounds in brassica vegetables. A MATLAB script-based expert system computer program, "GLS-Finder", was developed. It is capable of qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of glucosinolates in samples using data generated by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution accurate mass with multi-stage mass fragmentation (UHPLC-HRAM/MS(n)). A suite of bioinformatic tools was integrated into the "GLS-Finder" to perform raw data deconvolution, peak alignment, glucosinolate putative assignments, semi-quantitation, and unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA). GLS-Finder was successfully applied to identify intact glucosinolates in 49 commonly consumed Brassica vegetable samples in the United States. It is believed that this work introduces a new way of fast data processing and interpretation for qualitative and quantitative analyses of glucosinolates, where great efficacy was improved in comparison to identification manually.

  2. A New Data Concentrator for the CMS Muon Barrel Track Finder

    CERN Document Server

    Triossi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The CMS muon trigger will undergo considerable enhancements in preparation for the LHC \\mbox{run-2}. In order to improve rate reduction and efficiency the full muon trigger chain will be completely redesigned: the plan is to move from a redundant scheme, where the three subdetectors (CSC, DT, RPC) have a separate track finder, to three geographical track finders (barrel, endcap and overlap) that combine trigger primitives of each sub-detector. In particular, the muon barrel track finder (MBTF) will host a new algorithm, that aggregating DT and RPC trigger data, will be able to improve the fake rejection and the muon momentum measurement.This report will focus on the adaptive layer of the MBTF called TwinMux. Its primary role will be to merge, arrange and fan-out the slow optical links from the chambers in faster links (10 Gbps). It will realize a full connectivity matrix between the on-detector electronics and the MBTF allowing for different processing schemes. The TwinMux will be implemented in $\\mu$TCA for...

  3. Self-consistent construction of virialized wave dark matter halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan-Chang; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Wong, Shing-Kwong; Chiueh, Tzihong

    2018-05-01

    Wave dark matter (ψ DM ), which satisfies the Schrödinger-Poisson equation, has recently attracted substantial attention as a possible dark matter candidate. Numerical simulations have, in the past, provided a powerful tool to explore this new territory of possibility. Despite their successes in revealing several key features of ψ DM , further progress in simulations is limited, in that cosmological simulations so far can only address formation of halos below ˜2 ×1011 M⊙ and substantially more massive halos have become computationally very challenging to obtain. For this reason, the present work adopts a different approach in assessing massive halos by constructing wave-halo solutions directly from the wave distribution function. This approach bears certain similarities with the analytical construction of the particle-halo (cold dark matter model). Instead of many collisionless particles, one deals with one single wave that has many noninteracting eigenstates. The key ingredient in the wave-halo construction is the distribution function of the wave power, and we use several halos produced by structure formation simulations as templates to determine the wave distribution function. Among different models, we find the fermionic King model presents the best fits and we use it for our wave-halo construction. We have devised an iteration method for constructing the nonlinear halo and demonstrate its stability by three-dimensional simulations. A Milky Way-sized halo has also been constructed, and the inner halo is found to be flatter than the NFW profile. These wave-halos have small-scale interferences both in space and time producing time-dependent granules. While the spatial scale of granules varies little, the correlation time is found to increase with radius by 1 order of magnitude across the halo.

  4. ALADDIN - enhancing applicability and scalability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roverso, Davide

    2001-02-01

    The ALADDIN project aims at the study and development of flexible, accurate, and reliable techniques and principles for computerised event classification and fault diagnosis for complex machinery and industrial processes. The main focus of the project is on advanced numerical techniques, such as wavelets, and empirical modelling with neural networks. This document reports on recent important advancements, which significantly widen the practical applicability of the developed principles, both in terms of flexibility of use, and in terms of scalability to large problem domains. In particular, two novel techniques are here described. The first, which we call Wavelet On- Line Pre-processing (WOLP), is aimed at extracting, on-line, relevant dynamic features from the process data streams. This technique allows a system a greater flexibility in detecting and processing transients at a range of different time scales. The second technique, which we call Autonomous Recursive Task Decomposition (ARTD), is aimed at tackling the problem of constructing a classifier able to discriminate among a large number of different event/fault classes, which is often the case when the application domain is a complex industrial process. ARTD also allows for incremental application development (i.e. the incremental addition of new classes to an existing classifier, without the need of retraining the entire system), and for simplified application maintenance. The description of these novel techniques is complemented by reports of quantitative experiments that show in practice the extent of these improvements. (Author)

  5. Fast and scalable inequality joins

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2016-09-07

    Inequality joins, which is to join relations with inequality conditions, are used in various applications. Optimizing joins has been the subject of intensive research ranging from efficient join algorithms such as sort-merge join, to the use of efficient indices such as (Formula presented.)-tree, (Formula presented.)-tree and Bitmap. However, inequality joins have received little attention and queries containing such joins are notably very slow. In this paper, we introduce fast inequality join algorithms based on sorted arrays and space-efficient bit-arrays. We further introduce a simple method to estimate the selectivity of inequality joins which is then used to optimize multiple predicate queries and multi-way joins. Moreover, we study an incremental inequality join algorithm to handle scenarios where data keeps changing. We have implemented a centralized version of these algorithms on top of PostgreSQL, a distributed version on top of Spark SQL, and an existing data cleaning system, Nadeef. By comparing our algorithms against well-known optimization techniques for inequality joins, we show our solution is more scalable and several orders of magnitude faster. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  6. Comparison of three multiplex PCR assays for the detection of respiratory viral infections: evaluation of xTAG respiratory virus panel fast assay, RespiFinder 19 assay and RespiFinder SMART 22 assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabisch-Ruthe Mareike

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A broad spectrum of pathogens is causative for respiratory tract infections, but symptoms are mostly similar. Therefore, the identification of the causative viruses and bacteria is only feasible using multiplex PCR or several monoplex PCR tests in parallel. Methods The analytical sensitivity of three multiplex PCR assays, RespiFinder-19, RespiFinder-SMART-22 and xTAG-Respiratory-Virus-Panel-Fast-Assay (RVP, were compared to monoplex real-time PCR with quantified standardized control material. All assays include the most common respiratory pathogens. Results To compare the analytical sensitivity of the multiplex assays, samples were inoculated with 13 different quantified viruses in the range of 101 to 105 copies/ml. Concordant results were received for rhinovirus, whereas the RVP detected influenzavirus, RSV and hMPV more frequently in low concentrations. The RespiFinder-19 and the RespiFinder-SMART-22 showed a higher analytical sensitivity for adenoviruses and coronaviruses, whereas the RVP was incapable to detect adenovirus and coronavirus in concentrations of 104 copies/ml. The RespiFinder-19 and RespiFinder-SMART-22A did not detect influenzaviruses (104 copies/ml and RSV (103 copies/ml. The detection of all 13 viruses in one sample was only achieved using monoplex PCR. To analyze possible competitive amplification reactions between the different viruses, samples were further inoculated with only 4 different viruses in one sample. Compared to the detection of 13 viruses in parallel, only a few differences were found. The incidence of respiratory viruses was compared in tracheal secretion (TS samples (n = 100 of mechanically ventilated patients in winter (n = 50 and summer (n = 50. In winter, respiratory viruses were detected in 32 TS samples (64% by RespiFinder-19, whereas the detection rate with RVP was only 22%. The most frequent viruses were adenovirus (32% and PIV-2 (20%. Multiple infections were detected

  7. The Halo of NGC 2438 scrutinized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettl, Silvia; Kimeswenger, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Haloes and multiple shells around planetary nebulae trace the mass-loss history of the central star. The haloes provide us with information about abundances, ionization or kinematics. Detailed investigations of these haloes can be used to study the evolution of the old stellar population in our galaxy and beyond.Different observations show structures in the haloes like radial rays, blisters and rings (e.g., Ramos-Larios et al. 2012, MNRAS 423, 3753 or Matsuura et al. 2009, ApJ, 700, 1067). The origin of these features has been associated with ionization shadows (Balick 2004, AJ, 127, 2262). They can be observed in regions, where dense knots are opaque to stellar ionizing photons. In this regions we can see leaking UV photons.In this work, we present a detailed investigation of the multiple shell PN NGC 2438. We derive a complete data set of the main nebula. This allows us to analize the physical conditions from photoionization models, such as temperature, density and ionization, and clumping.Data from ESO (3.6m telescope - EFOSC1 - direct imaging and long slit spectroscopy) and from SAAO (spectroscopic observations using a small slit) were available. These data were supplemented by imaging data from the HST archive and by archival VLA observations. The low-excitation species are found to be dominated by clumps. The emission line ratios show no evidence for shocks. We find the shell in ionization equilibrium: a significant amount of UV radiation infiltrates the inner nebula. Thus the shell still seems to be ionized.The photoionization code CLOUDY was used to model the nebular properties and to derive a more accurate distance and ionized mass. The model supports the hypothesis that photoionization is the dominant process in this nebula, far out into the shell.If we want to use extragalactic planetary nebulae as probes of the old stellar population, we need to assess the potential impact of a halo on the evolution. Also the connection of observations and models must

  8. Nuclear halo and its related reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huanqiao

    2005-01-01

    In order to search proton halo, the reaction cross sections of 27,28 P, 29 S and the corresponding isotones on Si target were measured at intermediate energies. The measured reaction cross sections of the N=12 and 13 isotones show an abrupt increase at Z=15. The experimental results for the isotones with Z=14 as well as 28 P can be well described by the modified Glauber theory of the optical limit approach. The enhancement of the reaction cross sections for 28 P could be explained in the modified Glauber theory with an enlarged core. Theoretical analysis with the modified Glauber theory of the optical limit and few-body approaches underpredicted the experimental data of 27 P. Our theoretical analysis shows that an enlarged core together with proton halo is probably the mechanism responsible for the enhancement of the cross sections for the reaction of 27 P+ 28 Si. In addition, we find from the experimental results that 29 S may have a moderate proton halo structure. Except the nuclei near or at drop-lines, halo may appear in the excited states of stable nuclei. By means of the asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANC's) extracted from transfer reactions of 11 B(d, p) 12 B, 12 C(d, p) 13 C, and H( 6 He, n) 6 Li, we have verified that the second ( Jπ = 2 - ) and third (Jπ = 1 - ) excited states in 12 B and the first (Jπ =1/2 + ) excited state in 13 C are the neutron halo states, while the second excited state (3.56 MeV, Jπ = 0 + ) in 6 Li is a proton-neutron halo state. We have proposed a procedure to extract the probability for valence particle being out of the binding potential from the measured nuclear asymptotic normalization coefficients. With this procedure, available data regarding the nuclear halo candidates are systematically analyzed and a number of halo nuclei are confirmed. Based on these results we have got a much relaxed condition for nuclear halo occurrence. Furthermore, we have presented the scaling laws for the dimensionless quantity 2 >/R 2 of

  9. THE TILT OF THE HALO VELOCITY ELLIPSOID AND THE SHAPE OF THE MILKY WAY HALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Martin C.; Wyn Evans, N.; An, Jin H.

    2009-01-01

    A sample of ∼1800 halo subdwarf stars with radial velocities and proper motions is assembled from Bramich et al.'s light-motion catalog of 2008. This is based on the repeated multiband Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric measurements in Stripe 82. Our sample of halo subdwarfs is extracted via a reduced proper motion diagram and distances are obtained using photometric parallaxes, thus giving full phase-space information. The tilt of the velocity ellipsoid with respect to the spherical polar coordinate system is computed and found to be consistent with zero for two of the three tilt angles, and very small for the third. We prove that if the inner halo is in a steady state and the triaxial velocity ellipsoid is everywhere aligned in spherical polar coordinates, then the potential must be spherically symmetric. The detectable, but very mild, misalignment with spherical polars is consistent with the perturbative effects of the Galactic disk on a spherical dark halo. Banana orbits are generated at the 1:1 resonance (in horizontal and vertical frequencies) by the disk. They populate Galactic potentials at the typical radii of our subdwarf sample, along with the much more dominant short-axis tubes. However, on geometric grounds alone, the tilt cannot vanish for the banana orbits and this leads to a slight, but detectable, misalignment. We argue that the tilt of the stellar halo velocity ellipsoid therefore provides a hitherto largely neglected but important line of argument that the Milky Way's dark halo, which dominates the potential, must be nearly spherical.

  10. Embedded High Performance Scalable Computing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ngo, David

    2003-01-01

    The Embedded High Performance Scalable Computing Systems (EHPSCS) program is a cooperative agreement between Sanders, A Lockheed Martin Company and DARPA that ran for three years, from Apr 1995 - Apr 1998...

  11. The “Building Blocks” of Stellar Halos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle A. Oman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The stellar halos of galaxies encode their accretion histories. In particular, the median metallicity of a halo is determined primarily by the mass of the most massive accreted object. We use hydrodynamical cosmological simulations from the apostle project to study the connection between the stellar mass, the metallicity distribution, and the stellar age distribution of a halo and the identity of its most massive progenitor. We find that the stellar populations in an accreted halo typically resemble the old stellar populations in a present-day dwarf galaxy with a stellar mass ∼0.2–0.5 dex greater than that of the stellar halo. This suggests that had they not been accreted, the primary progenitors of stellar halos would have evolved to resemble typical nearby dwarf irregulars.

  12. Report on the FINDER Experiment at the HIgS Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagmann, C.A.; Johnson, M.S; McNabb, D.P.; Tonchev, A.P.; Angell, C.; Hammond, S.; Howell, C.; Hutcheson, A.; Karwowski, H.; Kelley, J.; Kwan, E.; Rusev, G.; Tornow, W.

    2008-01-01

    Homeland Security programs are developing systems that use nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) to isotopically map a container. One such system being developed at LLNL is FINDER (Fluorescence Imaging in the Nuclear Domain with Extreme Radiation). The proposed FINDER system works by impinging a tunable monoenergetic gamma ray beam onto a container under investigation. The photons pass through the container and a fraction of them scatter off of the interior components through various electromagnetic processes. One of these processes is NRF. At specific resonance energies, incident photons interact directly with the nuclei of special nuclear material (SNM) or other materials in the container. The incident beam is absorbed and scattered into all directions, depleting the spectrum at the resonant energy. The transmitted gamma ray beam accrues a notch a few eV in width after passing through the material of interest. This notched spectrum will impinge on a witness foil placed on the opposite side of the container relative to the gamma ray source. The witness foil will be made of material identical to the one being sought after. If there is a notch in the spectrum then there will be no NRF photons scattered from the witness foil. The corollary is that if there is no notch in the transmitted spectrum then there will be NRF photons scattered from the witness foil. A simple arrangement of gamma-ray detectors focused on the witness foil, are used to measure the NRF photons. If the detectors see NRF scatter then there was no NRF scatter within the container; therefore, no material of the nature being sought after was in that container. Conversely, if there was no NRF scatter from the witness foil, then the NRF scatter took place from within the container; therefore, the material of interest is inside of the container. Recently, initial feasibility tests of FINDER was performed at the HIgS (High-Intensity Gamma Source) located at Duke University (1]. The preliminary results of

  13. Resource-aware complexity scalability for mobile MPEG encoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mietens, S.O.; With, de P.H.N.; Hentschel, C.; Panchanatan, S.; Vasudev, B.

    2004-01-01

    Complexity scalability attempts to scale the required resources of an algorithm with the chose quality settings, in order to broaden the application range. In this paper, we present complexity-scalable MPEG encoding of which the core processing modules are modified for scalability. Scalability is

  14. MacSyFinder: a program to mine genomes for molecular systems with an application to CRISPR-Cas systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie S Abby

    Full Text Available Biologists often wish to use their knowledge on a few experimental models of a given molecular system to identify homologs in genomic data. We developed a generic tool for this purpose.Macromolecular System Finder (MacSyFinder provides a flexible framework to model the properties of molecular systems (cellular machinery or pathway including their components, evolutionary associations with other systems and genetic architecture. Modelled features also include functional analogs, and the multiple uses of a same component by different systems. Models are used to search for molecular systems in complete genomes or in unstructured data like metagenomes. The components of the systems are searched by sequence similarity using Hidden Markov model (HMM protein profiles. The assignment of hits to a given system is decided based on compliance with the content and organization of the system model. A graphical interface, MacSyView, facilitates the analysis of the results by showing overviews of component content and genomic context. To exemplify the use of MacSyFinder we built models to detect and class CRISPR-Cas systems following a previously established classification. We show that MacSyFinder allows to easily define an accurate "Cas-finder" using publicly available protein profiles.MacSyFinder is a standalone application implemented in Python. It requires Python 2.7, Hmmer and makeblastdb (version 2.2.28 or higher. It is freely available with its source code under a GPLv3 license at https://github.com/gem-pasteur/macsyfinder. It is compatible with all platforms supporting Python and Hmmer/makeblastdb. The "Cas-finder" (models and HMM profiles is distributed as a compressed tarball archive as Supporting Information.

  15. Haloes, molecules and multi-neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Moreno, F.M

    2003-01-01

    Away from the equilibrium between protons and neutrons within stable nuclei, many exotic nuclei exist. Most of the known nuclear properties evolve smoothly with exoticism, but some extreme proton-neutron combinations have revealed during the last decade completely new concepts. They will be illustrated through three examples: the extended and dilute halo formed by very weakly bound neutrons, the molecular-like neutron orbitals found in nuclei exhibiting a clustering, and the recently revived debate on the possible existence of neutral nuclei. The different experimental results will be reviewed, and we will see how several properties of these new phenomena can be well understood within relatively simple theoretical approaches. (author)

  16. Sub-Coulomb fusion with halo nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekou-Youmbi, V.; Sida, J.L.; Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.; Bazin, D.; Borcea, C.; Cabot, C.; Cunsolo, A.; Foti, A.; Gillibert, A.; Lepine, A.; Lewitowicz, M.; Liguori-Neto, R.; Mittig, W.; Pollacco, E.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Volant, C.; Yong Feng, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear structure of halo nuclei may have strong influence on the fusion cross section at sub-barrier energies. The actual theoretical debate is briefly reviewed and sub-barrier fusion calculations for the system 11 Be+ 238 U are presented. An experimental program on sub-barrier fusion for the systems 7,9,10,11 Be+ 238 U is underway at GANIL. First results with 9 Be and 11 Be beams were obtained using the F.U.S.ION detector. Relative fission cross sections are presented. ((orig.))

  17. Project ECHO: Electronic Communications from Halo Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Jason; Cooley, Bryan; Debole, Marcy; Hrivnak, Lance; Nielsen, Kenneth; Sangmeister, Gary; Wolfe, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    The design of a communications relay to provide constant access between the Earth and the far side of the Moon is presented. Placement of the relay in a halo orbit about the L2 Earth-Moon Lagrange point allows the satellite to maintain constant simultaneous communication between Earth and scientific payloads on the far side of the Moon. The requirements of NASA's Discovery-class missions adopted and modified for this design are: total project cost should not exceed $150 million excluding launch costs, launch must be provided by Delta-class vehicle, and the satellite should maintain an operational lifetime of 10 to 15 years. The spacecraft will follow a transfer trajectory to the L2 point, after launch by a Delta II 7925 vehicle in 1999. Low-level thrust is used for injection into a stationkeeping-free halo orbit once the spacecraft reaches the L2 point. The shape of this halo orbit is highly elliptical with the maximum excursion from the L2 point being 35000 km. A spun section and despun section connected through a bearing and power transfer assembly (BAPTA) compose the structure of the spacecraft. Communications equipment is placed on the despun section to provide for a stationary dual parabolic offset-feed array antenna system. The dual system is necessary to provide communications coverage during portions of maximum excursion on the halo orbit. Transmissions to the NASA Deep Space Network 34 m antenna include six channels (color video, two voice, scientific data from lunar payloads, satellite housekeeping and telemetry and uplinked commands) using the S- and X-bands. Four radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) provide a total of 1360 W to power onboard systems and any two of the four Hughes 13 cm ion thrusters at once. Output of the ion thrusters is approximately 17.8 mN each with xenon as the propellant. Presence of torques generated by solar pressure on the antenna dish require the addition of a 'skirt' extending from the spun section of the satellite

  18. X-ray haloes around supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfill, G.E.; Aschenbach, B.

    1984-01-01

    Recent observations of the Cas-A supernova remnant have shown X-ray emissions not only from the interior, but also from a fainter 'halo' extending beyond what is normally regarded as the outer boundary, or shock front. The authors suggest that this may be due to the diffusion of energetic, charged particles out of the remnant giving rise to precursor structure of the type predicted by the theory of diffusive shock acceleration. If this is the case we are seeing thermal emission from ambient gas heated by compression and wave dissipation. (author)

  19. X-ray haloes around supernova remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfill, G.E.; Aschenbach, B. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Extraterrestrische Physik); Drury, L.O' C. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.))

    1984-09-27

    Recent observations of the Cas-A supernova remnant have shown X-ray emissions not only from the interior, but also from a fainter 'halo' extending beyond what is normally regarded as the outer boundary, or shock front. The authors suggest that this may be due to the diffusion of energetic charged particles out of the remnant giving rise to precursor structure of the type predicted by the theory of diffusive shock acceleration. If this is the case we are seeing thermal emission from ambient gas heated by compression and wave dissipation.

  20. Convergence properties of halo merger trees; halo and substructure merger rates across cosmic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Gregory B.; Mutch, Simon J.; Croton, Darren J.; Wyithe, Stuart

    2017-12-01

    We introduce GBPTREES: an algorithm for constructing merger trees from cosmological simulations, designed to identify and correct for pathological cases introduced by errors or ambiguities in the halo finding process. GBPTREES is built upon a halo matching method utilizing pseudo-radial moments constructed from radially sorted particle ID lists (no other information is required) and a scheme for classifying merger tree pathologies from networks of matches made to-and-from haloes across snapshots ranging forward-and-backward in time. Focusing on SUBFIND catalogues for this work, a sweep of parameters influencing our merger tree construction yields the optimal snapshot cadence and scanning range required for converged results. Pathologies proliferate when snapshots are spaced by ≲0.128 dynamical times; conveniently similar to that needed for convergence of semi-analytical modelling, as established by Benson et al. Total merger counts are converged at the level of ∼5 per cent for friends-of-friends (FoF) haloes of size np ≳ 75 across a factor of 512 in mass resolution, but substructure rates converge more slowly with mass resolution, reaching convergence of ∼10 per cent for np ≳ 100 and particle mass mp ≲ 109 M⊙. We present analytic fits to FoF and substructure merger rates across nearly all observed galactic history (z ≤ 8.5). While we find good agreement with the results presented by Fakhouri et al. for FoF haloes, a slightly flatter dependence on merger ratio and increased major merger rates are found, reducing previously reported discrepancies with extended Press-Schechter estimates. When appropriately defined, substructure merger rates show a similar mass ratio dependence as FoF rates, but with stronger mass and redshift dependencies for their normalization.

  1. Subhalo demographics in the Illustris simulation: effects of baryons and halo-to-halo variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kun Ting Eddie; Pillepich, Annalisa; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Vogelsberger, Mark; Bird, Simeon; Hernquist, Lars

    2017-12-01

    We study the abundance of subhaloes in the hydrodynamical cosmological simulation Illustris, which includes both baryons and dark matter in a cold dark matter volume 106.5 Mpc a side. We compare Illustris to its dark-matter only (DMO) analogue, Illustris-Dark and quantify the effects of baryonic processes on the demographics of subhaloes in the host mass range 1011-3 × 1014 M⊙. We focus on both the evolved (z = 0) subhalo cumulative mass functions (SHMF) and the statistics of subhaloes ever accreted, i.e. infall SHMF. We quantify the variance in subhalo abundance at fixed host mass and investigate the physical reasons responsible for such scatter. We find that in Illustris, baryonic physics impacts both the infall and z = 0 subhalo abundance by tilting the DMO function and suppressing the abundance of low-mass subhaloes. The breaking of self-similarity in the subhalo abundance at z = 0 is enhanced by the inclusion of baryonic physics. The non-monotonic alteration of the evolved subhalo abundances can be explained by the modification of the concentration-mass relation of Illustris hosts compared to Illustris-Dark. Interestingly, the baryonic implementation in Illustris does not lead to an increase in the halo-to-halo variation compared to Illustris-Dark. In both cases, the normalized intrinsic scatter today is larger for Milky Way-like haloes than for cluster-sized objects. For Milky Way-like haloes, it increases from about eight per cent at infall to about 25 per cent at the current epoch. In both runs, haloes of fixed mass formed later host more subhaloes than early formers.

  2. DecoyFinder: an easy-to-use python GUI application for building target-specific decoy sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereto-Massagué, Adrià; Guasch, Laura; Valls, Cristina; Mulero, Miquel; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago

    2012-06-15

    Decoys are molecules that are presumed to be inactive against a target (i.e. will not likely bind to the target) and are used to validate the performance of molecular docking or a virtual screening workflow. The Directory of Useful Decoys database (http://dud.docking.org/) provides a free directory of decoys for use in virtual screening, though it only contains a limited set of decoys for 40 targets.To overcome this limitation, we have developed an application called DecoyFinder that selects, for a given collection of active ligands of a target, a set of decoys from a database of compounds. Decoys are selected if they are similar to active ligands according to five physical descriptors (molecular weight, number of rotational bonds, total hydrogen bond donors, total hydrogen bond acceptors and the octanol-water partition coefficient) without being chemically similar to any of the active ligands used as an input (according to the Tanimoto coefficient between MACCS fingerprints). To the best of our knowledge, DecoyFinder is the first application designed to build target-specific decoy sets. A complete description of the software is included on the application home page. A validation of DecoyFinder on 10 DUD targets is provided as Supplementary Table S1. DecoyFinder is freely available at http://URVnutrigenomica-CTNS.github.com/DecoyFinder.

  3. A neural network gravitational arc finder based on the Mediatrix filamentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bom, C. R.; Makler, M.; Albuquerque, M. P.; Brandt, C. H.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Automated arc detection methods are needed to scan the ongoing and next-generation wide-field imaging surveys, which are expected to contain thousands of strong lensing systems. Arc finders are also required for a quantitative comparison between predictions and observations of arc abundance. Several algorithms have been proposed to this end, but machine learning methods have remained as a relatively unexplored step in the arc finding process. Aims: In this work we introduce a new arc finder based on pattern recognition, which uses a set of morphological measurements that are derived from the Mediatrix filamentation method as entries to an artificial neural network (ANN). We show a full example of the application of the arc finder, first training and validating the ANN on simulated arcs and then applying the code on four Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of strong lensing systems. Methods: The simulated arcs use simple prescriptions for the lens and the source, while mimicking HST observational conditions. We also consider a sample of objects from HST images with no arcs in the training of the ANN classification. We use the training and validation process to determine a suitable set of ANN configurations, including the combination of inputs from the Mediatrix method, so as to maximize the completeness while keeping the false positives low. Results: In the simulations the method was able to achieve a completeness of about 90% with respect to the arcs that are input into the ANN after a preselection. However, this completeness drops to 70% on the HST images. The false detections are on the order of 3% of the objects detected in these images. Conclusions: The combination of Mediatrix measurements with an ANN is a promising tool for the pattern-recognition phase of arc finding. More realistic simulations and a larger set of real systems are needed for a better training and assessment of the efficiency of the method.

  4. Periportal halo on CT: spectrum of causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpacchio, Mariano; Baltazar, Alberto D.; Santamarina, Mario G.; Casetta, Liliana; Cione, Rodrigo; Sanchez, Gimena; Vallejos, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: A periportal hypodense halo is a relatively frequent CT finding. This halo is attributed to the presence of edema or ecstatic lymphatic channels. In our series we illustrate the CT appearance of periportal edema and analyze its causes. Material and Methods: In a retrospective study we analyze a 78 patients series who showed periportal edema on e.v. contrast-enhanced abdominal CTs. The different causes of hepatic periportal edema (demonstrated on CT exams), were established by clinical, laboratory, surgical and anatomo-pathologic correlation. Results: In this study, 49 cases were diagnosed as having congestive heart failure (62,8%), 14 patients had viral hepatitis (18%), 5 patients had recently undergone orthotopic liver transplantation (6.4%), 3 patients had a diagnosis of infectious cholangitis (3.8%), 3 patients had abdominal trauma (3.8%), 2 patients had neoplastic disease (2.6%) and 2 patients had toxic hepatitis (2.6%). Conclusion: Periportal edema is a frequent and nonspecific finding associated with systemic diseases as well as liver specific entities. The integration of CT findings and clinical picture of periportal edema leads to a confident diagnosis of the main cause in most patients. (author)

  5. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to suppress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will describ...

  6. Halo's production in vitro on brachytherapy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuperschmid, Ethel M.; Sarmento, Eduardo V.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2011-01-01

    Since earlier of 1960, one of the most significant contributions of radiation biology has been the theory of cell killing as a function of increasing doses of a cytotoxic agent, as well as the demonstration of repair of sublethal or potentially lethal damage after irradiation. The impact of cellular and molecular radiobiology, by exploitation of cellular mechanisms related to apoptosis, may be the cell killing with irradiation by including changes other than unrepaired DNA damage. Based on the understanding of the tumor microenvironment and how growth factors and proteins produced by irradiated cells may alter cellular processes, improved combined-modality strategies may emerge. This effect was show since 1960's, but here we propose to demonstrate this phenomenon in Brachytherapy. The present goal is to verify the macroscopic response through the production and analysis of clonogenic control based on halos generation by radioactive seeds of Ho-165 and Sm-153, aiming to study the effect of this type of irradiation. Confluent cell culture flasks with HeLa cell line were subjected to radiation in a period up to five half-lives of radionuclide, respectively. Devices were introduced which set the polymer-ceramic Ho-165 and Sm-153 seeds in the vials. After a period of exposure, the flasks were stained with violet Gensiana. The results showed the formation of halos control of confluent cancer cells. This paper will describe these experiments in the current stage of the research and report the implications of this new way of therapy for cancer treatment. (author)

  7. The inclusion of RPC only segments in the Barrel Muon Track Finder

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    On November 3, 2017 during the LHC fill 6360 and from the run number 306121 RPC-only segments were enable to trigger. In this document we show the impact of the RPC-only segments in the Barrel Muon Track Finder efficiency performance. The efficiency measurement was done with Tag and Probe cut and count following the Muon POG working point recommendations (tight ID and Particle Flow isolation requirements more details can be found in https://cds.cern.ch/record/2054113). The used dataset was ZMuMu corresponding to each period.

  8. Remarks on the spherical scalar field halo in galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Kamal K.; Valitov, Ildar; Migranov, Nail G.

    2009-01-01

    Matos, Guzman, and Nunez proposed a model for the galactic halo within the framework of scalar field theory. We argue that an analysis involving the full metric can reveal the true physical nature of the halo only when a certain condition is maintained. We fix that condition and also calculate its impact on observable parameters of the model.

  9. Double folding model analysis of elastic scattering of halo nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carried out which provide valuable insight for improving our understanding of nuclear reactions. One of the interesting aspects is to understand the effect of the halo structure, on elastic scattering cross-sections at near-Coulomb barrier energies in reactions induced by neutron halo nuclei and weakly bound radioactive ...

  10. The prolate dark matter halo of the Andromeda galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kohei; Chiba, Masashi, E-mail: k.hayasi@astr.tohoku.ac.jp, E-mail: chiba@astr.tohoku.ac.jp [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    We present new limits on the global shape of the dark matter halo in the Andromeda galaxy using and generalizing non-spherical mass models developed by Hayashi and Chiba and compare our results with theoretical predictions of cold dark matter (CDM) models. This is motivated by the fact that CDM models predict non-spherical virialized dark halos, which reflect the process of mass assembly in the galactic scale. Applying our models to the latest kinematic data of globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Andromeda halo, we find that the most plausible cases for Andromeda yield a prolate shape for its dark halo, irrespective of assumed density profiles. We also find that this prolate dark halo in Andromeda is consistent with theoretical predictions in which the satellites are distributed anisotropically and preferentially located along major axes of their host halos. It is a reflection of the intimate connection between galactic dark matter halos and the cosmic web. Therefore, our result is profound in understanding internal dynamics of halo tracers in Andromeda, such as orbital evolutions of tidal stellar streams, which play important roles in extracting the abundance of CDM subhalos through their dynamical effects on stream structures.

  11. Characteristics of halo current in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyatani, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Yoshino, R.; Hatae, T.

    1999-01-01

    Halo currents and their toroidal peaking factor (TPF) have been measured in JT-60U by Rogowski coil type halo current sensors. The electron temperature in the halo region was around 10 eV at 1 ms before the timing of the maximum halo current. The maximum TPF*I h /I p0 was 0.52 in the operational range of I p = 0.7 ∼ 1.8 MA, B T = 2.2 ∼ 3.5 T, including ITER design parameters of κ > 1.6 and q 95 = 3, which was lower than that of the maximum value of ITER data base (0.75). The magnitude of halo currents tended to decrease with the increase in stored energy just before the energy quench and with the line integrated electron density at the time of the maximum halo current. A termination technique in which the current channel remains stationary was useful to avoid halo current generation. Intense neon gas puffing during the VDE was effective for reducing the halo currents. (author)

  12. Characteristics of halo current in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyatani, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Yoshino, R.; Hatae, T.

    2001-01-01

    Halo currents and their toroidal peaking factor (TPF) have been measured in JT-60U by Rogowski coil type halo current sensors. The electron temperature in the halo region was around 10 eV at 1 ms before the timing of the maximum halo current. The maximum TPF *I h /I p0 was 0.52 in the operational range of I p =0.7∼1.8MA, B T =2.2∼3.5T, including ITER design parameters of κ>1.6 and q 95 =3, which was lower than that of the maximum value of ITER data base (0.75). The magnitude of halo currents tended to decrease with the increase in stored energy just before the energy quench and with the line integrated electron density at the time of the maximum halo current. A termination technique in which the current channel remains stationary was useful to avoid halo current generation. Intense neon gas puffing during the VDE was effective for reducing the halo currents. (author)

  13. Collisionless analogs of Riemann S ellipsoids with halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramyan, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    A spheroidal halo ensures equilibrium of the collisionless analogs of the Riemann S ellipsoids with oscillations of the particles along the direction of their rotation. Sequences of collisionless triaxial ellipsoids begin and end with dynamically stable members of collisionless embedded spheroids. Both liquid and collisionless Riemann S ellipsoids with weak halo have properties that resemble those of bars of SB galaxies

  14. A two-point correlation function for Galactic halo stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, A. P.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; Helmi, A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a correlation function statistic that quantifies the amount of spatial and kinematic substructure in the stellar halo. We test this statistic using model stellar halo realizations constructed from the Aquarius suite of six high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations, in combination

  15. The edges of dark matter halos: theory and observations

    OpenAIRE

    More, Surhud

    2017-01-01

    I discuss recent theoretical advances which have led us to suggest a physical definition for the boundary of dark matter halos. We propose using the "splashback radius" which corresponds to the apocenter of recently infalling material as a physical boundary for dark matter halos. We also present how the splashback radius can be detected in observations.

  16. The Edges Of Dark Matter Halos: Theory And Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Surhud

    2017-06-01

    I discuss recent theoretical advances which have led us to suggest a physical definition for the boundary of dark matter halos. We propose using the "splashback radius" which corresponds to the apocenter of recently infalling material as a physical boundary for dark matter halos. We also present how the splashback radius can be detected in observations.

  17. Accurate mass and velocity functions of dark matter haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparat, Johan; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo; Klypin, Anatoly

    2017-08-01

    N-body cosmological simulations are an essential tool to understand the observed distribution of galaxies. We use the MultiDark simulation suite, run with the Planck cosmological parameters, to revisit the mass and velocity functions. At redshift z = 0, the simulations cover four orders of magnitude in halo mass from ˜1011M⊙ with 8783 874 distinct haloes and 532 533 subhaloes. The total volume used is ˜515 Gpc3, more than eight times larger than in previous studies. We measure and model the halo mass function, its covariance matrix w.r.t halo mass and the large-scale halo bias. With the formalism of the excursion-set mass function, we explicit the tight interconnection between the covariance matrix, bias and halo mass function. We obtain a very accurate (function. We also model the subhalo mass function and its relation to the distinct halo mass function. The set of models obtained provides a complete and precise framework for the description of haloes in the concordance Planck cosmology. Finally, we provide precise analytical fits of the Vmax maximum velocity function up to redshift z publicly available in the Skies and Universes data base.

  18. The f ( R ) halo mass function in the cosmic web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun-Bates, F. von; Winther, H.A.; Alonso, D.; Devriendt, J., E-mail: francesca.vonbraun-bates@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: hans.a.winther@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: david.alonso@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: julien.devriendt@physics.ox.ac.uk [Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-01

    An important indicator of modified gravity is the effect of the local environment on halo properties. This paper examines the influence of the local tidal structure on the halo mass function, the halo orientation, spin and the concentration-mass relation. We use the excursion set formalism to produce a halo mass function conditional on large-scale structure. Our simple model agrees well with simulations on large scales at which the density field is linear or weakly non-linear. Beyond this, our principal result is that f ( R ) does affect halo abundances, the halo spin parameter and the concentration-mass relationship in an environment-independent way, whereas we find no appreciable deviation from \\text(ΛCDM) for the mass function with fixed environment density, nor the alignment of the orientation and spin vectors of the halo to the eigenvectors of the local cosmic web. There is a general trend for greater deviation from \\text(ΛCDM) in underdense environments and for high-mass haloes, as expected from chameleon screening.

  19. The prolate dark matter halo of the Andromeda galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kohei; Chiba, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    We present new limits on the global shape of the dark matter halo in the Andromeda galaxy using and generalizing non-spherical mass models developed by Hayashi and Chiba and compare our results with theoretical predictions of cold dark matter (CDM) models. This is motivated by the fact that CDM models predict non-spherical virialized dark halos, which reflect the process of mass assembly in the galactic scale. Applying our models to the latest kinematic data of globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Andromeda halo, we find that the most plausible cases for Andromeda yield a prolate shape for its dark halo, irrespective of assumed density profiles. We also find that this prolate dark halo in Andromeda is consistent with theoretical predictions in which the satellites are distributed anisotropically and preferentially located along major axes of their host halos. It is a reflection of the intimate connection between galactic dark matter halos and the cosmic web. Therefore, our result is profound in understanding internal dynamics of halo tracers in Andromeda, such as orbital evolutions of tidal stellar streams, which play important roles in extracting the abundance of CDM subhalos through their dynamical effects on stream structures.

  20. Influence of halo doping profiles on MOS transistor mismatch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andricciola, P.; Tuinhout, H.

    2009-01-01

    Halo implants are used in modern CMOS technology to reduce the short channel effect. However, the lateral non-uniformity of the channel doping has been proven to degenerate the mismatch performance. With this paper we want to discuss the influence of the halo profile on MOS transistor mismatch. The

  1. THE EFFECTS OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM ON HALO PROFILES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Erik W; Rosenberg, Leslie J [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Quinn, Thomas R, E-mail: lentze@phys.washington.edu, E-mail: ljrosenberg@phys.washington.edu, E-mail: trq@astro.washington.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The near universality of DM halo density profiles provided by N -body simulations proved to be robust against changes in total mass density, power spectrum, and some forms of initial velocity dispersion. Here we study the effects of coherently spinning up an isolated DM-only progenitor on halo structure. Halos with spins within several standard deviations of the simulated mean ( λ ≲ 0.20) produce profiles with negligible deviations from the universal form. Only when the spin becomes quite large ( λ ≳ 0.20) do departures become evident. The angular momentum distribution also exhibits a near universal form, which is also independent of halo spin up to λ ≲ 0.20. A correlation between these epidemic profiles and the presence of a strong bar in the virialized halo is also observed. These bar structures bear resemblance to the radial orbit instability in the rotationless limit.

  2. Phase models of galaxies consisting of disk and halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipkov, L.P.; Kutuzov, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    A method of finding the phase density of a two-component model of mass distribution is developed. The equipotential surfaces and the potential law are given. The equipotentials are lenslike surfaces with a sharp edge in the equatorial plane, which provides the existence of an imbedded thin disk in halo. The equidensity surfaces of the halo coincide with the equipotentials. Phase models for the halo and the disk are constructed separately on the basis of spatial and surface mass densities by solving the corresponding integral equations. In particular the models for the halo with finite dimensions can be constructed. The even part of the phase density in respect to velocities is only found. For the halo it depends on the energy integral as a single argument

  3. The Concept of Business Model Scalability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Morten; Nielsen, Christian

    2018-01-01

    -term pro table business. However, the main message of this article is that while providing a good value proposition may help the rm ‘get by’, the really successful businesses of today are those able to reach the sweet-spot of business model scalability. Design/Methodology/Approach: The article is based...... on a ve-year longitudinal action research project of over 90 companies that participated in the International Center for Innovation project aimed at building 10 global network-based business models. Findings: This article introduces and discusses the term scalability from a company-level perspective......Purpose: The purpose of the article is to de ne what scalable business models are. Central to the contemporary understanding of business models is the value proposition towards the customer and the hypotheses generated about delivering value to the customer which become a good foundation for a long...

  4. Declarative and Scalable Selection for Map Visualizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kefaloukos, Pimin Konstantin Balic

    and is itself a source and cause of prolific data creation. This calls for scalable map processing techniques that can handle the data volume and which play well with the predominant data models on the Web. (4) Maps are now consumed around the clock by a global audience. While historical maps were singleuser......-defined constraints as well as custom objectives. The purpose of the language is to derive a target multi-scale database from a source database according to holistic specifications. (b) The Glossy SQL compiler allows Glossy SQL to be scalably executed in a spatial analytics system, such as a spatial relational......, there are indications that the method is scalable for databases that contain millions of records, especially if the target language of the compiler is substituted by a cluster-ready variant of SQL. While several realistic use cases for maps have been implemented in CVL, additional non-geographic data visualization uses...

  5. Scalable Density-Based Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    For knowledge discovery in high dimensional databases, subspace clustering detects clusters in arbitrary subspace projections. Scalability is a crucial issue, as the number of possible projections is exponential in the number of dimensions. We propose a scalable density-based subspace clustering...... method that steers mining to few selected subspace clusters. Our novel steering technique reduces subspace processing by identifying and clustering promising subspaces and their combinations directly. Thereby, it narrows down the search space while maintaining accuracy. Thorough experiments on real...... and synthetic databases show that steering is efficient and scalable, with high quality results. For future work, our steering paradigm for density-based subspace clustering opens research potential for speeding up other subspace clustering approaches as well....

  6. CRISPRCasFinder, an update of CRISRFinder, includes a portable version, enhanced performance and integrates search for Cas proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvin, David; Bernheim, Aude; Toffano-Nioche, Claire; Touchon, Marie; Michalik, Juraj; Néron, Bertrand; C Rocha, Eduardo P; Vergnaud, Gilles; Gautheret, Daniel; Pourcel, Christine

    2018-05-22

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) arrays and their associated (Cas) proteins confer bacteria and archaea adaptive immunity against exogenous mobile genetic elements, such as phages or plasmids. CRISPRCasFinder allows the identification of both CRISPR arrays and Cas proteins. The program includes: (i) an improved CRISPR array detection tool facilitating expert validation based on a rating system, (ii) prediction of CRISPR orientation and (iii) a Cas protein detection and typing tool updated to match the latest classification scheme of these systems. CRISPRCasFinder can either be used online or as a standalone tool compatible with Linux operating system. All third-party software packages employed by the program are freely available. CRISPRCasFinder is available at https://crisprcas.i2bc.paris-saclay.fr.

  7. Bimodal Formation Time Distribution for Infall Dark Matter Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingjing; Wang, Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Xie, Lizhi; Wang, Xiaoyu; Lapi, Andrea; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2018-04-01

    We use a 200 {h}-1 {Mpc} a-side N-body simulation to study the mass accretion history (MAH) of dark matter halos to be accreted by larger halos, which we call infall halos. We define a quantity {a}nf}\\equiv (1+{z}{{f}})/(1+{z}peak}) to characterize the MAH of infall halos, where {z}peak} and {z}{{f}} are the accretion and formation redshifts, respectively. We find that, at given {z}peak}, their MAH is bimodal. Infall halos are dominated by a young population at high redshift and by an old population at low redshift. For the young population, the {a}nf} distribution is narrow and peaks at about 1.2, independent of {z}peak}, while for the old population, the peak position and width of the {a}nf} distribution both increase with decreasing {z}peak} and are both larger than those of the young population. This bimodal distribution is found to be closely connected to the two phases in the MAHs of halos. While members of the young population are still in the fast accretion phase at z peak, those of the old population have already entered the slow accretion phase at {z}peak}. This bimodal distribution is not found for the whole halo population, nor is it seen in halo merger trees generated with the extended Press–Schechter formalism. The infall halo population at {z}peak} are, on average, younger than the whole halo population of similar masses identified at the same redshift. We discuss the implications of our findings in connection to the bimodal color distribution of observed galaxies and to the link between central and satellite galaxies.

  8. What sets the central structure of dark matter haloes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiya, Go; Hahn, Oliver

    2018-02-01

    Dark matter (DM) haloes forming near the thermal cut-off scale of the density perturbations are unique, since they are the smallest objects and form through monolithic gravitational collapse, while larger haloes contrastingly have experienced mergers. While standard cold dark matter (CDM) simulations readily produce haloes that follow the universal Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile with an inner slope, ρ ∝ r-α, with α = 1, recent simulations have found that when the free-streaming cut-off expected for the CDM model is resolved, the resulting haloes follow nearly power-law density profiles of α ∼ 1.5. In this paper, we study the formation of density cusps in haloes using idealized N-body simulations of the collapse of proto-haloes. When the proto-halo profile is initially cored due to particle free-streaming at high redshift, we universally find ∼r-1.5 profiles irrespective of the proto-halo profile slope outside the core and large-scale non-spherical perturbations. Quite in contrast, when the proto-halo has a power-law profile, then we obtain profiles compatible with the NFW shape when the density slope of the proto-halo patch is shallower than a critical value, αini ∼ 0.3, while the final slope can be steeper for αini ≳ 0.3. We further demonstrate that the r-1.5 profiles are sensitive to small-scale noise, which gradually drives them towards an inner slope of -1, where they become resilient to such perturbations. We demonstrate that the r-1.5 solutions are in hydrostatic equilibrium, largely consistent with a simple analytic model, and provide arguments that angular momentum appears to determine the inner slope.

  9. Enhancing Scalability of Sparse Direct Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoye S.; Demmel, James; Grigori, Laura; Gu, Ming; Xia, Jianlin; Jardin, Steve; Sovinec, Carl; Lee, Lie-Quan

    2007-01-01

    TOPS is providing high-performance, scalable sparse direct solvers, which have had significant impacts on the SciDAC applications, including fusion simulation (CEMM), accelerator modeling (COMPASS), as well as many other mission-critical applications in DOE and elsewhere. Our recent developments have been focusing on new techniques to overcome scalability bottleneck of direct methods, in both time and memory. These include parallelizing symbolic analysis phase and developing linear-complexity sparse factorization methods. The new techniques will make sparse direct methods more widely usable in large 3D simulations on highly-parallel petascale computers

  10. Software performance and scalability a quantitative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Henry H

    2009-01-01

    Praise from the Reviewers:"The practicality of the subject in a real-world situation distinguishes this book from othersavailable on the market."—Professor Behrouz Far, University of Calgary"This book could replace the computer organization texts now in use that every CS and CpEstudent must take. . . . It is much needed, well written, and thoughtful."—Professor Larry Bernstein, Stevens Institute of TechnologyA distinctive, educational text onsoftware performance and scalabilityThis is the first book to take a quantitative approach to the subject of software performance and scalability

  11. From Digital Disruption to Business Model Scalability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten; Thomsen, Peter Poulsen

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the terms disruption, digital disruption, business models and business model scalability. It illustrates how managers should be using these terms for the benefit of their business by developing business models capable of achieving exponentially increasing returns to scale...... will seldom lead to business model scalability capable of competing with digital disruption(s)....... as a response to digital disruption. A series of case studies illustrate that besides frequent existing messages in the business literature relating to the importance of creating agile businesses, both in growing and declining economies, as well as hard to copy value propositions or value propositions that take...

  12. Introducing galactic structure finder: the multiple stellar kinematic structures of a simulated Milky Way mass galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreja, Aura; Macciò, Andrea V.; Moster, Benjamin; Dutton, Aaron A.; Buck, Tobias; Wang, Gregory S. Stinson Liang

    2018-04-01

    We present the first results of applying Gaussian Mixture Models in the stellar kinematic space of normalized angular momentum and binding energy on NIHAO high resolution galaxies to separate the stars into multiple components. We exemplify this method using a simulated Milky Way analogue, whose stellar component hosts: thin and thick discs, classical and pseudo bulges, and a stellar halo. The properties of these stellar structures are in good agreement with observational expectations in terms of sizes, shapes and rotational support. Interestingly, the two kinematic discs show surface mass density profiles more centrally concentrated than exponentials, while the bulges and the stellar halo are purely exponential. We trace back in time the Lagrangian mass of each component separately to study their formation history. Between z ˜ 3 and the end of halo virialization, z ˜ 1.3, all components lose a fraction of their angular momentum. The classical bulge loses the most (˜95%) and the thin disc the least (˜60%). Both bulges formed their stars in-situ at high redshift, while the thin disc formed ˜98% in-situ, but with a constant SFR ˜ 1.5M⊙yr-1 over the last ˜ 11 Gyr. Accreted stars (6% of total stellar mass) are mainly incorporated to the thick disc or the stellar halo, which formed ex-situ 8% and 45% of their respective masses. Our analysis pipeline is freely available at https://github.com/aobr/gsf.

  13. Searching for life with the Terrestrial Planet Finder: Lagrange point options for a formation flying interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichman, C.; Gomez, G.; Lo, M.; Masdemont, J.; Romans, L.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the mission design for TPF assuming a distributed spacecraft concept using formation flight around both a halo orbit around L2 as well as a heliocentric orbit. Although the mission architecture is still under study, the next two years will include study of four design cncepts and a downselect to two concepts around 2005.

  14. Content-Aware Scalability-Type Selection for Rate Adaptation of Scalable Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekalp A Murat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scalable video coders provide different scaling options, such as temporal, spatial, and SNR scalabilities, where rate reduction by discarding enhancement layers of different scalability-type results in different kinds and/or levels of visual distortion depend on the content and bitrate. This dependency between scalability type, video content, and bitrate is not well investigated in the literature. To this effect, we first propose an objective function that quantifies flatness, blockiness, blurriness, and temporal jerkiness artifacts caused by rate reduction by spatial size, frame rate, and quantization parameter scaling. Next, the weights of this objective function are determined for different content (shot types and different bitrates using a training procedure with subjective evaluation. Finally, a method is proposed for choosing the best scaling type for each temporal segment that results in minimum visual distortion according to this objective function given the content type of temporal segments. Two subjective tests have been performed to validate the proposed procedure for content-aware selection of the best scalability type on soccer videos. Soccer videos scaled from 600 kbps to 100 kbps by the proposed content-aware selection of scalability type have been found visually superior to those that are scaled using a single scalability option over the whole sequence.

  15. Vaccine Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shortages Do I Need Medication? Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines that help you fight off influenza, commonly called ... take you there. Tamiflu Suspension Tamiflu is a prescription medicine used to treat the flu in people 2 ...

  16. SciRide Finder: a citation-based paradigm in biomedical literature search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volanakis, Adam; Krawczyk, Konrad

    2018-04-18

    There are more than 26 million peer-reviewed biomedical research items according to Medline/PubMed. This breadth of information is indicative of the progress in biomedical sciences on one hand, but an overload for scientists performing literature searches on the other. A major portion of scientific literature search is to find statements, numbers and protocols that can be cited to build an evidence-based narrative for a new manuscript. Because science builds on prior knowledge, such information has likely been written out and cited in an older manuscript. Thus, Cited Statements, pieces of text from scientific literature supported by citing other peer-reviewed publications, carry significant amount of condensed information on prior art. Based on this principle, we propose a literature search service, SciRide Finder (finder.sciride.org), which constrains the search corpus to such Cited Statements only. We demonstrate that Cited Statements can carry different information to this found in titles/abstracts and full text, giving access to alternative literature search results than traditional search engines. We further show how presenting search results as a list of Cited Statements allows researchers to easily find information to build an evidence-based narrative for their own manuscripts.

  17. Surging Seas Risk Finder: A Tool for Local-Scale Flood Risk Assessments in Coastal Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, S. A.; Strauss, B.

    2015-12-01

    Local decision makers in coastal cities require accurate, accessible, and thorough assessments of flood exposure risk within their individual municipality, in their efforts to mitigate against damage due to future sea level rise. To fill this need, we have developed Climate Central's Surging Seas Risk Finder, an interactive data toolkit which presents our sea level rise and storm surge analysis for every coastal town, city, county, and state within the USA. Using this tool, policy makers can easily zoom in on their local place of interest to receive a detailed flood risk assessment, which synthesizes a wide range of features including total population, socially vulnerable population, housing, property value, road miles, power plants, schools, hospitals, and many other critical facilities. Risk Finder can also be used to identify specific points of interest in danger of exposure at different flood levels. Additionally, this tool provides localized storm surge probabilities and sea level rise projections at tidal gauges along the coast, so that users can quickly understand the risk of flooding in their area over the coming decades.

  18. Life Finder Detectors: An Overview of Detector Technologies for Detecting Life on Other Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; McElwain, Michael W.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Noroozian, Omid; Norton, Tim; Kutyrev, Alexander; Rinehart, Stephen; stock, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Future large space telescopes will seek evidence for life on other worlds by searching for spectroscopic biosignatures. Atmospheric biosignature gases include oxygen, ozone, water vapor, and methane. Non-biological gases, including carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, are important for discriminating false positives. All of these gases imprint spectroscopic features in the UV through mid-IR that are potentially detectable using future space based coronagraphs or star shades for starlight suppression.Direct spectroscopic biosignature detection requires sensors capable of robustly measuring photon arrival rates on the order of 10 per resolution element per hour. Photon counting is required for some wavefront sensing and control approaches to achieve the requisite high contrast ratios. We review life finder detector technologies that either exist today, or are under development, that have the potential to meet these challenging requirements. We specifically highlight areas where more work or development is needed.Life finder detectors will be invaluable for a wide variety of other major science programs. Because of its cross cutting nature; UV, optical, and infrared (UVOIR) detector development features prominently in the 2010 National Research Council Decadal Survey, 'New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics', and the NASA Cosmic Origins Program Technology Roadmap.

  19. PPI finder: a mining tool for human protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The exponential increase of published biomedical literature prompts the use of text mining tools to manage the information overload automatically. One of the most common applications is to mine protein-protein interactions (PPIs from PubMed abstracts. Currently, most tools in mining PPIs from literature are using co-occurrence-based approaches or rule-based approaches. Hybrid methods (frame-based approaches by combining these two methods may have better performance in predicting PPIs. However, the predicted PPIs from these methods are rarely evaluated by known PPI databases and co-occurred terms in Gene Ontology (GO database. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We here developed a web-based tool, PPI Finder, to mine human PPIs from PubMed abstracts based on their co-occurrences and interaction words, followed by evidences in human PPI databases and shared terms in GO database. Only 28% of the co-occurred pairs in PubMed abstracts appeared in any of the commonly used human PPI databases (HPRD, BioGRID and BIND. On the other hand, of the known PPIs in HPRD, 69% showed co-occurrences in the literature, and 65% shared GO terms. CONCLUSIONS: PPI Finder provides a useful tool for biologists to uncover potential novel PPIs. It is freely accessible at http://liweilab.genetics.ac.cn/tm/.

  20. Effects of deformations and orientations on neutron-halo structure of light-halo nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawhney, Gudveen; Gupta, Raj K.; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of radioactive nuclear beams have enabled to study the structure of nuclei far from the stability line, which in turn led to the discovery of neutron-halo nuclei. These nuclei, located near the neutron drip-line exhibit a high probability of presence of one or two loosely bound neutrons at a large distance from the rest of nucleons. The fragmentation behavior is studied for 13 cases of 1n-halo nuclei, which include 11 Be, 14 B, 15 C, 17 C, 19 C, 22 N, 22 O, 23 O, 24 O, 24 F, 26 F, 29 Ne and 31 Ne, using the cluster-core model (CCM) extended to include the deformations and orientations of nuclei

  1. MobilomeFINDER: web-based tools for in silico and experimental discovery of bacterial genomic islands

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Hong-Yu; He, Xinyi; Harrison, Ewan M.; Kulasekara, Bridget R.; Thani, Ali Bin; Kadioglu, Aras; Lory, Stephen; Hinton, Jay C. D.; Barer, Michael R.; Deng, Zixin; Rajakumar, Kumar

    2007-01-01

    MobilomeFINDER (http://mml.sjtu.edu.cn/MobilomeFINDER) is an interactive online tool that facilitates bacterial genomic island or ‘mobile genome’ (mobilome) discovery; it integrates the ArrayOme and tRNAcc software packages. ArrayOme utilizes a microarray-derived comparative genomic hybridization input data set to generate ‘inferred contigs’ produced by merging adjacent genes classified as ‘present’. Collectively these ‘fragments’ represent a hypothetical ‘microarray-visualized genome (MVG)’....

  2. Applications of the Integrated High-Performance CMOS Image Sensor to Range Finders — from Optical Triangulation to the Automotive Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe-Air Jiang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available With their significant features, the applications of complementary metal-oxidesemiconductor (CMOS image sensors covers a very extensive range, from industrialautomation to traffic applications such as aiming systems, blind guidance, active/passiverange finders, etc. In this paper CMOS image sensor-based active and passive rangefinders are presented. The measurement scheme of the proposed active/passive rangefinders is based on a simple triangulation method. The designed range finders chieflyconsist of a CMOS image sensor and some light sources such as lasers or LEDs. Theimplementation cost of our range finders is quite low. Image processing software to adjustthe exposure time (ET of the CMOS image sensor to enhance the performance oftriangulation-based range finders was also developed. An extensive series of experimentswere conducted to evaluate the performance of the designed range finders. From theexperimental results, the distance measurement resolutions achieved by the active rangefinder and the passive range finder can be better than 0.6% and 0.25% within themeasurement ranges of 1 to 8 m and 5 to 45 m, respectively. Feasibility tests onapplications of the developed CMOS image sensor-based range finders to the automotivefield were also conducted. The experimental results demonstrated that our range finders arewell-suited for distance measurements in this field.

  3. [Halos and multifocal intraocular lenses: origin and interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Bueno, F; Vega, F; Millán, M S

    2014-10-01

    To present the theoretical and experimental characterization of the halo in multifocal intraocular lenses (MIOL). The origin of the halo in a MIOL is the overlaying of 2 or more images. Using geometrical optics, it can be demonstrated that the diameter of each halo depends on the addition of the lens (ΔP), the base power (P(d)), and the diameter of the IOL that contributes to the «non-focused» focus. In the image plane that corresponds to the distance focus, the halo diameter (δH(d)) is given by: δH(d)=d(pn) ΔP/P(d), where d(pn) is the diameter of the IOL that contributes to the near focus. Analogously, in the near image plane the halo diameter (δH(n)) is: δH(n)=d(pd) ΔP/P(d), where d(pd) is the diameter of the IOL that contributes to the distance focus. Patients perceive halos when they see bright objects over a relatively dark background. In vitro, the halo can be characterized by analyzing the intensity profile of the image of a pinhole that is focused by each of the foci of a MIOL. A comparison has been made between the halos induced by different MIOL of the same base power (20D) in an optical bench. As predicted by theory, the larger the addition of the MIOL, the larger the halo diameter. For large pupils and with MIOL with similar aspheric designs and addition (SN6AD3 vs ZMA00), the apodized MIOL has a smaller halo diameter than a non-apodized one in distance vision, while in near vision the size is very similar, but the relative intensity is higher in the apodized MIOL. When comparing lenses with the same diffractive design, but with different spherical-aspheric base design (SN60D3 vs SN6AD3), the halo in distance vision of the spherical MIOL is larger, while in near vision the spherical IOL induces a smaller halo, but with higher intensity due to the spherical aberration of the distance focus in the near image. In the case of a trifocal-diffractive IOL (AT LISA 839MP) the most noticeable characteristic is the double-halo formation due to the 2 non

  4. THE OVERDENSITY AND MASSES OF THE FRIENDS-OF-FRIENDS HALOS AND UNIVERSALITY OF HALO MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, Surhud; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Dalal, Neal; Gottloeber, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The friends-of-friends algorithm (hereafter FOF) is a percolation algorithm which is routinely used to identify dark matter halos from N-body simulations. We use results from percolation theory to show that the boundary of FOF halos does not correspond to a single density threshold but to a range of densities close to a critical value that depends upon the linking length parameter, b. We show that for the commonly used choice of b = 0.2, this critical density is equal to 81.62 times the mean matter density. Consequently, halos identified by the FOF algorithm enclose an average overdensity which depends on their density profile (concentration) and therefore changes with halo mass, contrary to the popular belief that the average overdensity is ∼180. We derive an analytical expression for the overdensity as a function of the linking length parameter b and the concentration of the halo. Results of tests carried out using simulated and actual FOF halos identified in cosmological simulations show excellent agreement with our analytical prediction. We also find that the mass of the halo that the FOF algorithm selects crucially depends upon mass resolution. We find a percolation-theory-motivated formula that is able to accurately correct for the dependence on number of particles for the mock realizations of spherical and triaxial Navarro-Frenk-White halos. However, we show that this correction breaks down when applied to the real cosmological FOF halos due to the presence of substructures. Given that abundance of substructure depends on redshift and cosmology, we expect that the resolution effects due to substructure on the FOF mass and halo mass function will also depend on redshift and cosmology and will be difficult to correct for in general. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the universality of the mass function.

  5. Using scalable vector graphics to evolve art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, E.; Eiben, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our investigations of the use of scalable vector graphics as a genotype representation in evolutionary art. We describe the technical aspects of using SVG in evolutionary art, and explain our custom, SVG specific operators initialisation, mutation and crossover. We perform

  6. Scalable fast multipole accelerated vortex methods

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Qi; Gumerov, Nail A.; Yokota, Rio; Barba, Lorena A.; Duraiswami, Ramani

    2014-01-01

    -node communication and load balance efficiently, with only a small parallel construction overhead. This algorithm can scale to large-sized clusters showing both strong and weak scalability. Careful error and timing trade-off analysis are also performed for the cutoff

  7. Scalable Domain Decomposed Monte Carlo Particle Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Matthew Joseph [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-12-05

    In this dissertation, we present the parallel algorithms necessary to run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on large numbers of processors (millions of processors). Previous algorithms were not scalable, and the parallel overhead became more computationally costly than the numerical simulation.

  8. Scalable Open Source Smart Grid Simulator (SGSim)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Stefanni, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    . This paper presents an open source smart grid simulator (SGSim). The simulator is based on open source SystemC Network Simulation Library (SCNSL) and aims to model scalable smart grid applications. SGSim has been tested under different smart grid scenarios that contain hundreds of thousands of households...

  9. Cooperative Scalable Moving Continuous Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaohui; Karras, Panagiotis; Jensen, Christian S.

    2012-01-01

    of the global view and handle the majority of the workload. Meanwhile, moving clients, having basic memory and computation resources, handle small portions of the workload. This model is further enhanced by dynamic region allocation and grid size adjustment mechanisms that reduce the communication...... and computation cost for both servers and clients. An experimental study demonstrates that our approaches offer better scalability than competitors...

  10. Scalable optical switches for computing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, I.H.; Aw, E.T.; Williams, K.A.; Wang, Haibo; Wonfor, A.; Penty, R.V.

    2009-01-01

    A scalable photonic interconnection network architecture is proposed whereby a Clos network is populated with broadcast-and-select stages. This enables the efficient exploitation of an emerging class of photonic integrated switch fabric. A low distortion space switch technology based on recently

  11. Universal Dark Halo Scaling Relation for the Dwarf Spheroidal Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kohei; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Ogiya, Go; Chiba, Masashi; Inoue, Shigeki; Mori, Masao

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by a recently found interesting property of the dark halo surface density within a radius, {r}\\max , giving the maximum circular velocity, {V}\\max , we investigate it for dark halos of the Milky Way’s and Andromeda’s dwarf satellites based on cosmological simulations. We select and analyze the simulated subhalos associated with Milky-Way-sized dark halos and find that the values of their surface densities, {{{Σ }}}{V\\max }, are in good agreement with those for the observed dwarf spheroidal satellites even without employing any fitting procedures. Moreover, all subhalos on the small scales of dwarf satellites are expected to obey the universal relation, irrespective of differences in their orbital evolutions, host halo properties, and observed redshifts. Therefore, we find that the universal scaling relation for dark halos on dwarf galaxy mass scales surely exists and provides us with important clues for understanding fundamental properties of dark halos. We also investigate orbital and dynamical evolutions of subhalos to understand the origin of this universal dark halo relation and find that most subhalos evolve generally along the {r}\\max \\propto {V}\\max sequence, even though these subhalos have undergone different histories of mass assembly and tidal stripping. This sequence, therefore, should be the key feature for understanding the nature of the universality of {{{Σ }}}{V\\max }.

  12. DARK MATTER SUB-HALO COUNTS VIA STAR STREAM CROSSINGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter sub-halos create gaps in the stellar streams orbiting in the halos of galaxies. We evaluate the sub-halo stream crossing integral with the guidance of simulations to find that the linear rate of gap creation, R U , in a typical cold dark matter (CDM) galactic halo at 100 kpc is R U ≅0.0066 M-hat 8 -0.35 kpc -1 Gyr -1 , where M-hat 8 (≡ M-hat /10 8 M ☉ ) is the minimum mass halo that creates a visible gap. The relation can be recast entirely in terms of observables, as R U ≅0.059w -0.85 kpc -1 Gyr -1 , for w in kpc, normalized at 100 kpc. Using published data, the density of gaps is estimated for M31's NW stream and the Milky Way Pal 5 stream, Orphan stream, and Eastern Banded Structure. The estimated rates of gap creation all have errors of 50% or more due to uncertain dynamical ages and the relatively noisy stream density measurements. The gap-rate-width data are in good agreement with the CDM-predicted relation. The high density of gaps in the narrow streams requires a total halo population of 10 5 sub-halos above a minimum mass of 10 5 M ☉ .

  13. Historic halo displays as weather indicator: Criteria and examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Dagmar L.; Neuhäuser, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    There are numerous celestial signs reported in historic records, many of them refer to atmospheric ("sub-lunar") phenomena, such as ice halos and aurorae. In an interdisciplinary collaboration between astrophysics and cultural astronomy, we noticed that celestial observations including meteorological phenomena are often misinterpreted, mostly due to missing genuine criteria: especially ice crystal halos were recorded frequently in past centuries for religious reasons, but are mistaken nowadays often for other phenomena like aurorae. Ice halo displays yield clear information on humidity and temperature in certain atmospheric layers, and thereby indicate certain weather patterns. Ancient so-called rain makers used halo observations for weather forecast; e.g., a connection between certain halo displays and rain a few day later is statistically significant. Ice halos exist around sun and moon and are reported for both (they can stay for several days): many near, middle, and far eastern records from day- and night-time include such observations with high frequency. (Partly based on publications on halos by D.L. Neuhäuser & R. Neuhäuser, available at http://www.astro.uni-jena.de/index.php/terra-astronomy.html)

  14. Chemical Cartography. I. A Carbonicity Map of the Galactic Halo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Sun; Kim, Young Kwang [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius; Yoon, Jinmi [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Carollo, Daniela [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Masseron, Thomas [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Jung, Jaehun, E-mail: youngsun@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy, Space Science, and Geology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-10

    We present the first map of carbonicity, [C/Fe], for the halo system of the Milky Way, based on a sample of over 100,000 main-sequence turnoff stars with available spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This map, which explores distances up to 15 kpc from the Sun, reveals clear evidence for the dual nature of the Galactic halo, based on the spatial distribution of stellar carbonicity. The metallicity distribution functions of stars in the inner- and outer-halo regions of the carbonicity map reproduce those previously argued to arise from contributions of the inner- and outer-halo populations, with peaks at [Fe/H] = −1.5 and −2.2, respectively. From consideration of the absolute carbon abundances for our sample, A (C), we also confirm that the carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in the outer-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP-no stars (those with no overabundances of heavy neutron-capture elements) than of CEMP- s stars (those with strong overabundances of elements associated with the s -process), whereas the stars in the inner-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP- s stars. We argue that the contrast in the behavior of the CEMP-no and CEMP- s fractions in these regions arises from differences in the mass distributions of the mini-halos from which the stars of the inner- and outer-halo populations formed, which gives rise in turn to the observed dichotomy of the Galactic halo.

  15. RETRATAMENTO ENDODÔNTICO: ESTUDO COMPARATIVO ENTRE TÉCNICA MANUAL, ULTRA-SOM E CANAL FINDER ENDODONTIC RETREATMENT: COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN MANUAL TECHNIQUE, ULTRASONIC SCALER, AND CANAL FINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Monteiro BRAMANTE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Instrumentações manual, ultra-sônica e com Canal Finder foram utilizadas para retratamento de 30 dentes com canais obturados com guta-percha e óxido de zinco e eugenol. Avaliaram-se: 1. tempo gasto para a penetração inicial até o ápice; 2. tempo para completar a limpeza; 3. extrusão de material e 4. limpeza dos canais. O Canal Finder foi a técnica que propiciou melhor limpeza, seguida da manual e da ultra-sônica. A parede palatina do canal foi constantemente mais limpa do que a vestibular. Quanto à extrusão, a técnica de ultra-som foi a que propiciou mais extravasamento de material obturador.Endodontic retreatment of 30 teeth filled with guta percha and zinc oxide-eugenol was carried out using manual instrumentation, ultrasonic scaler, and the Canal Finder System. The following variables were evaluated: time spent to reach the apex; time spent to complete cleaning of the canal; apical extrusion of material; and cleanliness of the canals. Results showed the Canal Finder System as providing the highest level of cleanliness of the canal system; lingual walls were constantly cleaner than buccal walls; ultrasonic technique presented a greater degree of apical extrusion of filling material.

  16. Controlling beam halo-chaos via backstepping design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuan; Kong Feng

    2008-01-01

    A backstepping control method is proposed for controlling beam halo-chaos in the periodic focusing channels (PFCs) of high-current ion accelerator. The analysis and numerical results show that the method, via adjusting an exterior magnetic field, is effective to control beam halo chaos with five types of initial distribution ion beams, all statistical quantities of the beam halo-chaos are largely reduced, and the uniformity of ion beam is improved. This control method has an important value of application, for the exterior magnetic field can be easily adjusted in the periodical magnetic focusing channels in experiment

  17. Is there a composition gradient in the halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, R.P.; Trefzger, C.F.; Suntzeff, N.

    1979-01-01

    In the inner halo (galactocentric distance R < approximately 8 kpc), the Basel RGU photometry should allow the derivation of the shapes and dimensions of the iso-abundance contours. For the outer halo to R approximately 30 kpc, the authors review techniques based on Δs-measurements of RR Lyraes (Lick) and intermediate band-pass photometry of globular-cluster giants (Searle and Zinn, Palomar). Both methods suggest little change in mean [Fe/H] between 10 and 30 kpc; however, both may be biased against the discovery of very metal-poor objects. The conclusion that the outer halo has no abundance gradient may be somewhat premature. (Auth.)

  18. The immitigable nature of assembly bias: the impact of halo definition on assembly bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Antonio S.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Purcell, Chris W.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Diemer, Benedikt; Lange, Johannes U.; Wang, Kuan; Campbell, Duncan

    2017-11-01

    Dark matter halo clustering depends not only on halo mass, but also on other properties such as concentration and shape. This phenomenon is known broadly as assembly bias. We explore the dependence of assembly bias on halo definition, parametrized by spherical overdensity parameter, Δ. We summarize the strength of concentration-, shape-, and spin-dependent halo clustering as a function of halo mass and halo definition. Concentration-dependent clustering depends strongly on mass at all Δ. For conventional halo definitions (Δ ∼ 200 - 600 m), concentration-dependent clustering at low mass is driven by a population of haloes that is altered through interactions with neighbouring haloes. Concentration-dependent clustering can be greatly reduced through a mass-dependent halo definition with Δ ∼ 20 - 40 m for haloes with M200 m ≲ 1012 h-1M⊙. Smaller Δ implies larger radii and mitigates assembly bias at low mass by subsuming altered, so-called backsplash haloes into now larger host haloes. At higher masses (M200 m ≳ 1013 h-1M⊙) larger overdensities, Δ ≳ 600 m, are necessary. Shape- and spin-dependent clustering are significant for all halo definitions that we explore and exhibit a relatively weaker mass dependence. Generally, both the strength and the sense of assembly bias depend on halo definition, varying significantly even among common definitions. We identify no halo definition that mitigates all manifestations of assembly bias. A halo definition that mitigates assembly bias based on one halo property (e.g. concentration) must be mass dependent. The halo definitions that best mitigate concentration-dependent halo clustering do not coincide with the expected average splashback radii at fixed halo mass.

  19. Validation of the Applied Biosystems RapidFinder Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli (STEC) Detection Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Matheny, Sharon; Swimley, Michelle; Tebbs, Robert; Burrell, Angelia; Flannery, Jonathan; Bastin, Benjamin; Bird, Patrick; Benzinger, M Joseph; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Salfinger, Yvonne; Brodsky, Michael; Fernandez, Maria Cristina

    2016-11-01

    The Applied Biosystems™ RapidFinder™ STEC Detection Workflow (Thermo Fisher Scientific) is a complete protocol for the rapid qualitative detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 and the "Big 6" non-O157 Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serotypes (defined as serogroups: O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145). The RapidFinder STEC Detection Workflow makes use of either the automated preparation of PCR-ready DNA using the Applied Biosystems PrepSEQ™ Nucleic Acid Extraction Kit in conjunction with the Applied Biosystems MagMAX™ Express 96-well magnetic particle processor or the Applied Biosystems PrepSEQ Rapid Spin kit for manual preparation of PCR-ready DNA. Two separate assays comprise the RapidFinder STEC Detection Workflow, the Applied Biosystems RapidFinder STEC Screening Assay and the Applied Biosystems RapidFinder STEC Confirmation Assay. The RapidFinder STEC Screening Assay includes primers and probes to detect the presence of stx1 (Shiga toxin 1), stx2 (Shiga toxin 2), eae (intimin), and E. coli O157 gene targets. The RapidFinder STEC Confirmation Assay includes primers and probes for the "Big 6" non-O157 STEC and E. coli O157:H7. The use of these two assays in tandem allows a user to detect accurately the presence of the "Big 6" STECs and E. coli O157:H7. The performance of the RapidFinder STEC Detection Workflow was evaluated in a method comparison study, in inclusivity and exclusivity studies, and in a robustness evaluation. The assays were compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) 5.09: Detection, Isolation and Identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Meat Products and Carcass and Environmental Sponges for raw ground beef (73% lean) and USDA/FSIS-MLG 5B.05: Detection, Isolation and Identification of Escherichia coli non-O157:H7 from Meat Products and Carcass and Environmental Sponges for raw beef trim. No statistically significant

  20. A beam halo event of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Experiment

    2014-01-01

    Beam halo events: These occur as a single beam of protons is circulating in one direction in LHC, just passing through ATLAS. An outlier particle hits a part of the detector causing a spray of particles.

  1. Possible existence of wormholes in the central regions of halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Farook, E-mail: rahaman@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Salucci, P., E-mail: salucci@sissa.it [SISSA, International School for Advanced Studies, Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127, Trieste (Italy); Kuhfittig, P.K.F., E-mail: kuhfitti@msoe.edu [Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, WI 53202-3109 (United States); Ray, Saibal, E-mail: saibal@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Kolkata 700010, West Bengal (India); Rahaman, Mosiur, E-mail: mosiurju@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology, Kolkata 700150 (India)

    2014-11-15

    An earlier study (Rahaman, et al., 2014 and Kuhfittig, 2014) has demonstrated the possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of the galactic halo, based on the Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) density profile. This paper uses the Universal Rotation Curve (URC) dark matter model to obtain analogous results for the central parts of the halo. This result is an important compliment to the earlier result, thereby confirming the possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies. - Highlights: • Earlier we showed possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of halo. • We obtain here analogous results for the central parts of the galactic halo. • Our result is an important compliment to the earlier result. • This confirms possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies.

  2. First Attempts at using Active Halo Control at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Joschka [CERN; Bruce, Roderik [CERN; Garcia Morales, Hector [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Kotzian, Gerd [CERN; Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina [CERN; Langner, Andy [CERN; Mereghetti, Alessio [CERN; Quaranta, Elena [CERN; Redaelli, Stefano [CERN; Rossi, Adriana [CERN; Salvachua, Belen [CERN; Stancari, Giulio [Fermilab; Tomás, Rogelio [CERN; Valentino, Gianluca [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN

    2016-06-01

    The beam halo population is a non-negligible factor for the performance of the LHC collimation system and the machine protection. In particular this could become crucial for aiming at stored beam energies of 700 MJ in the High Luminosity (HL-LHC) project, in order to avoid beam dumps caused by orbit jitter and to ensure safety during a crab cavity failure. Therefore several techniques to safely deplete the halo, i.e. active halo control, are under development. In a first attempt a novel way for safe halo depletion was tested with particle narrow-band excitation employing the LHC Transverse Damper (ADT). At an energy of 450 GeV a bunch selective beam tail scraping without affecting the core distribution was attempted. This paper presents the first measurement results, as well as a simple simulation to model the underlying dynamics.

  3. Effective Dark Matter Halo Catalog in f(R) Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian-Hua; Hawken, Adam J; Li, Baojiu; Guzzo, Luigi

    2015-08-14

    We introduce the idea of an effective dark matter halo catalog in f(R) gravity, which is built using the effective density field. Using a suite of high resolution N-body simulations, we find that the dynamical properties of halos, such as the distribution of density, velocity dispersion, specific angular momentum and spin, in the effective catalog of f(R) gravity closely mimic those in the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (ΛCDM). Thus, when using effective halos, an f(R) model can be viewed as a ΛCDM model. This effective catalog therefore provides a convenient way for studying the baryonic physics, the galaxy halo occupation distribution and even semianalytical galaxy formation in f(R) cosmologies.

  4. Giant Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters as Probes of Particle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    scenario still remain poorly understood. ... to test models with future observations. ... A popular scenario for the origin of radio halos assumes that relativis- ..... based on particle acceleration by merger-driven turbulence in galaxy clusters shows.

  5. Disruption, vertical displacement event and halo current characterization for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley, J.; Fujisawa, N.; Ortolani, S.; Putvinski, S.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics, in ITER, of plasma disruptions, vertical displacement events (VDEs) and the conversion of plasma current to runaway electron current in a disruption are presented. In addition to the well known potential of disruptions to produce rapid thermal energy and plasma current quenches and theoretical predictions that show the likelihood of ∼ 50% runaway conversion, an assessment of VDE and halo current characteristics in vertically elongated tokamaks shows that disruptions in ITER will result in VDEs with peak in-vessel halo currents of up to 50% of the predisruption plasma current and with toroidal peaking factors (peak/average current density) of up to 4:1. However, the assessment also shows an inverse correlation between the halo current magnitude and the toroidal peaking factor; hence, ITER VDEs can be expected to have a product of normalized halo current magnitude times toroidal peaking factor of ≤ 75%. (author). 3 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Summary of the 2014 Beam-Halo Monitoring Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Alan

    2015-09-25

    Understanding and controlling beam halo is important for high-intensity hadron accelerators, for high-brightness electron linacs, and for low-emittance light sources. This can only be achieved by developing suitable diagnostics. The main challenge faced by such instrumentation is the high dynamic range needed to observe the halo in the presence of an intense core. In addition, measurements must often be made non-invasively. This talk summarizes the one-day workshop on Beam-Halo Monitoring that was held at SLAC on September 19 last year, immediately following IBIC 2014 in Monterey. Workshop presentations described invasive techniques using wires, screens, or crystal collimators, and non-invasive measurements with gas or scattered electrons. Talks on optical methods showed the close links between observing halo and astronomical problems like observing the solar corona or directly observing a planet orbiting another star.

  7. Phase models of galaxies consisting of a disk and halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipkov, L.P.; Kutuzov, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    A method is developed for finding the phase density of a two-component model of a distribution of masses. The equipotential surfaces and potential law are given. The equipotentials are lenslike surfaces with a sharp edge in the equatorial plane, this ensuring the existence of a vanishingly thin embedded disk. The equidensity surfaces of the halo coincide with the equipotentials. Phase models are constructed separately for the halo and for the disk on the basis of the spatial and surface mass densities by the solution of the corresponding integral equations. In particular, models with a halo having finite dimensions can be constructed. For both components, the part of the phase density even with respect to the velocities is found. For the halo, it depends only on the energy integral. Two examples, for which exact solutions are found, are considered

  8. REVISITING SCALING RELATIONS FOR GIANT RADIO HALOS IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassano, R.; Brunetti, G.; Venturi, T.; Kale, R. [INAF/IRA, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Ettori, S. [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Giacintucci, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Pratt, G. W. [Laboratoire AIM, IRFU/Service dAstrophysique-CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Bât. 709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dolag, K. [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Markevitch, M. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    Many galaxy clusters host megaparsec-scale radio halos, generated by ultrarelativistic electrons in the magnetized intracluster medium. Correlations between the synchrotron power of radio halos and the thermal properties of the hosting clusters were established in the last decade, including the connection between the presence of a halo and cluster mergers. The X-ray luminosity and redshift-limited Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey provides a rich and unique dataset for statistical studies of the halos. We uniformly analyze the radio and X-ray data for the GMRT cluster sample, and use the new Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) catalog to revisit the correlations between the power of radio halos and the thermal properties of galaxy clusters. We find that the radio power at 1.4 GHz scales with the cluster X-ray (0.1-2.4 keV) luminosity computed within R{sub 500} as P{sub 1.4}∼L{sup 2.1±0.2}{sub 500}. Our bigger and more homogenous sample confirms that the X-ray luminous (L{sub 500} > 5 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1}) clusters branch into two populations—radio halos lie on the correlation, while clusters without radio halos have their radio upper limits well below that correlation. This bimodality remains if we excise cool cores from the X-ray luminosities. We also find that P{sub 1.4} scales with the cluster integrated SZ signal within R{sub 500}, measured by Planck, as P{sub 1.4}∼Y{sup 2.05±0.28}{sub 500}, in line with previous findings. However, contrary to previous studies that were limited by incompleteness and small sample size, we find that 'SZ-luminous' Y{sub 500} > 6 × 10{sup –5} Mpc{sup 2} clusters show a bimodal behavior for the presence of radio halos, similar to that in the radio-X-ray diagram. Bimodality of both correlations can be traced to clusters dynamics, with radio halos found exclusively in merging clusters. These results confirm the key role of mergers for the origin of giant radio halos, suggesting that they trigger the

  9. The application of Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF) in BTeV pixel trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jin-Yuan; Wang, M.; Gottschalk, E.; Shi, Z.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    We describe a track segment recognition scheme called the Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF) that involves grouping of three hits satisfying a constraint such as forming of a straight line. The TTF performs this O(n 3 ) function in O(n) time, where n is number of hits in each detector plane. The word ''tiny'' reflects the fact that the FPGA resource usage is small. The number of logic elements needed for the TTF is O(Nlog(N)), where N is the number of bins in the coordinate considered, which for large N, is significantly smaller than O(N 2 ) needed for typical implementations of similar functions. The TTF is also suitable for software implementations as well as many other pattern recognition problems

  10. Application of the vector modulation method to the north finder capability gyroscope as a directional sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celikel, Oguz

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the vector modulation method (VMM) to an open-loop interferometric fiber optic gyroscope, called the north finder capability gyroscope (NFCG), designed and assembled in TUBITAK UME (National Metrology Institute of Turkey). The method contains a secondary modulation/demodulation circuit with an AD630 chip, depending on the periodic variation of the orientation of the sensing coil sensitive surface vector with respect to geographic north at a laboratory latitude and collection of dc voltage at the secondary demodulation circuit output in the time domain. The resultant dc voltage proportional to the first-kind Bessel function based on Sagnac phase shift for the first order is obtained as a result of vector modulation together with the Earth's rotation. A new model function is developed and introduced to evaluate the angular errors of the NFCG with VMM in finding geographic north

  11. The application of Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF) in BTeV pixel trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jin-Yuan; Wang, M.; Gottschalk, E.; Shi, Z.; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    We describe a track segment recognition scheme called the Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF) that involves grouping of three hits satisfying a constraint such as forming of a straight line. The TTF performs this O(n{sup 3}) function in O(n) time, where n is number of hits in each detector plane. The word ''tiny'' reflects the fact that the FPGA resource usage is small. The number of logic elements needed for the TTF is O(Nlog(N)), where N is the number of bins in the coordinate considered, which for large N, is significantly smaller than O(N{sup 2}) needed for typical implementations of similar functions. The TTF is also suitable for software implementations as well as many other pattern recognition problems.

  12. Electron Signal Detection for the Beam-Finder Wire of the Linac Coherent Light Source Undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Juhao; Emma, P.; Field, R.C.; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) based on the final kilometer of the Stanford Linear Accelerator. The tight tolerances for positioning the electron beam close to the undulator axis calls for the introduction of Beam Finder Wire (BFW) device. A BFW device close to the upstream end of the undulator segment and a quadrupole close to the down stream end of the undulator segment will allow a beam-based undulator segment alignment. Based on the scattering of the electrons on the BFW, we can detect the electron signal in the main dump bends after the undulator to find the beam position. We propose to use a threshold Cherenkov counter for this purpose. According to the signal strength at such a Cherenkov counter, we then suggest choice of material and size for such a BFW device in the undulator

  13. Implementation of the ALICE HLT hardware cluster finder algorithm in Vivado HLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruell, Frederik; Engel, Heiko; Kebschull, Udo [Infrastructure and Computer Systems in Data Processing, Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The FastClusterFinder algorithm running in the ALICE High-Level Trigger (HLT) read-out boards extracts clusters from raw data from the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detector and forwards them to the HLT data processing framework for tracking, event reconstruction and compression. It serves as an early stage of feature extraction in the FPGA of the board. Past and current implementations are written in VHDL on reconfigurable hardware for high throughput and low latency. We examine Vivado HLS, a high-level language that promises an increased developer productivity, as an alternative. The implementation of the application is compared to descriptions in VHDL and MaxJ in terms of productivity, resource usage and maximum clock frequency.

  14. THE SEGUE K GIANT SURVEY. III. QUANTIFYING GALACTIC HALO SUBSTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janesh, William; Morrison, Heather L.; Ma, Zhibo; Harding, Paul [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Rockosi, Constance [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Starkenburg, Else [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Xue, Xiang Xiang; Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lee, Young Sun [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    We statistically quantify the amount of substructure in the Milky Way stellar halo using a sample of 4568 halo K giant stars at Galactocentric distances ranging over 5–125 kpc. These stars have been selected photometrically and confirmed spectroscopically as K giants from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration project. Using a position–velocity clustering estimator (the 4distance) and a model of a smooth stellar halo, we quantify the amount of substructure in the halo, divided by distance and metallicity. Overall, we find that the halo as a whole is highly structured. We also confirm earlier work using blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars which showed that there is an increasing amount of substructure with increasing Galactocentric radius, and additionally find that the amount of substructure in the halo increases with increasing metallicity. Comparing to resampled BHB stars, we find that K giants and BHBs have similar amounts of substructure over equivalent ranges of Galactocentric radius. Using a friends-of-friends algorithm to identify members of individual groups, we find that a large fraction (∼33%) of grouped stars are associated with Sgr, and identify stars belonging to other halo star streams: the Orphan Stream, the Cetus Polar Stream, and others, including previously unknown substructures. A large fraction of sample K giants (more than 50%) are not grouped into any substructure. We find also that the Sgr stream strongly dominates groups in the outer halo for all except the most metal-poor stars, and suggest that this is the source of the increase of substructure with Galactocentric radius and metallicity.

  15. Analytical shear and flexion of Einasto dark matter haloes

    OpenAIRE

    Retana-Montenegro, E.; Frutos-Alfaro, F.; Baes, M.

    2012-01-01

    N-body simulations predict that dark matter haloes are described by specific density profiles on both galactic- and cluster-sized scales. Weak gravitational lensing through the measurements of their first and second order properties, shear and flexion, is a powerful observational tool for investigating the true shape of these profiles. One of the three-parameter density profiles recently favoured in the description of dark matter haloes is the Einasto profile. We present exact expressions for...

  16. Possible existence of wormholes in the galactic halo region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Farook [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Kuhfittig, P.K.F. [Milwaukee School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Islam, Nasarul [Danga High Madrasah, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2014-02-15

    Two observational results, the density profile from simulations performed in the ΛCDM scenario and the observed flat galactic rotation curves, are taken as input with the aim of showing that the galactic halo possesses some of the characteristics needed to support traversable wormholes. This result should be sufficient to provide an incentive for scientists to seek observational evidence for wormholes in the galactic halo region. (orig.)

  17. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the m χ −σ n plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the v min −g-tilde plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from v min to nuclear recoil momentum (p R ), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call h-til-tilde(p R ). The entire family of conventional halo-independent g-tilde(v min ) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single h-tilde(p R ) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in h-tilde(p R ) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple g-tilde(v min ) plots for different DM masses. We conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity

  18. One dark matter mystery: halos in the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaite, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The current cold dark matter cosmological model explains the large scale cosmic web structure but is challenged by the observation of a relatively smooth distribution of matter in galactic clusters. We consider various aspects of modeling the dark matter around galaxies as distributed in smooth halos and, especially, the smoothness of the dark matter halos seen in N-body cosmological simulations. We conclude that the problems of the cold dark matter cosmology on small scales are more serious than normally admitted.

  19. One dark matter mystery: halos in the cosmic web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaite, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The current cold dark matter cosmological model explains the large scale cosmic web structure but is challenged by the observation of a relatively smooth distribution of matter in galactic clusters. We consider various aspects of modeling the dark matter around galaxies as distributed in smooth halos and, especially, the smoothness of the dark matter halos seen in N-body cosmological simulations. We conclude that the problems of the cold dark matter cosmology on small scales are more serious than normally admitted

  20. Halo and space charge issues in the SNS Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, A.V.; Abell, D.T.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Malitsky, N.; Wei, J.; Gluckstern, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The latest designs for high-intensity proton rings require minimizing beam-induced radioactivation of the vacuum chamber. Although the tune depression in the ring is much smaller than in high-intensity linacs, space-charge contributions to halo formation and, hence, beam loss may be significant. This paper reviews our current understanding of halo formation issues for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring

  1. Studies of halo distributions under beam-beam interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.; Irwin, J.; Siemann, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The halo distribution due to the beam-beam interaction in circular electron-positron colliders is simulated with a program which uses a technique that saves a factor of hundreds to thousands of CPU time. The distribution and the interference between the beam-beam interaction and lattice nonlinearities has been investigated. The effects on the halo distribution due to radiation damping misalignment at the collision point, and chromatic effect are presented

  2. Halo and space charge issues in the SNS Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedotov, A.V.; Abell, D.T.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Malitsky, N.; Wei, J.; Gluckstern, R.L.

    2000-06-30

    The latest designs for high-intensity proton rings require minimizing beam-induced radioactivation of the vacuum chamber. Although the tune depression in the ring is much smaller than in high-intensity linacs, space-charge contributions to halo formation and, hence, beam loss may be significant. This paper reviews our current understanding of halo formation issues for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring.

  3. Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) di PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi

    OpenAIRE

    Rebekka Rismayanti

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: This research aims to describe the effectiveness of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) in PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi which, from the perspective of marketing strategy, could be studied by analyzing the segmentation, targeting, and positioning. Using case-study method with in-depth interview, the result shows that the implementation of IMC at PT Halo Rumah Bernyayi is arranged in one single strategy and tend to neglect the complexities of running multi-brand family karaoke-house. ...

  4. Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) Di PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi

    OpenAIRE

    Rismayanti, Rebekka

    2016-01-01

    : This research aims to describe the effectiveness of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) in PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi which, from the perspective of marketing strategy, could be studied by analyzing the segmentation, targeting, and positioning. Using case-study method with in-depth interview, the result shows that the implementation of IMC at PT Halo Rumah Bernyayi is arranged in one single strategy and tend to neglect the complexities of running multi-brand family karaoke-house. This con...

  5. MD 1691: Active halo control using tune ripple at injection

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Morales, Hector; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; Fitterer, Miriam; Fiascaris, Maria; Nisbet, David; Thiesen, Hugues; Valentino, Gianluca; Xu, Chen; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    In this MD we performed halo excitation through tune ripple. This consists in an excitation that introduces new resonance sidebands around the existing resonance lines. In presence of sufficient detuning with amplitude, these sidebands can in principle affect only the dynamics of the halo particles at large amplitudes. Tune ripple was induced through a current modulation of the warm trim quadrupoles in IR7. This is the first time this method is experimentally tested at the LHC.

  6. A fast apparent horizon finder for three-dimensional Cartesian grids in numerical relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornburg, Jonathan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2004-01-21

    In 3 + 1 numerical simulations of dynamic black-hole spacetimes, it is useful to be able to find the apparent horizon(s) (AH) in each slice of a time evolution. A number of AH finders are available, but they often take many minutes to run, so they are too slow to be practically usable at each time step. Here I present a new AH finder, AHFINDERDIRECT, which is very fast and accurate: at typical resolutions it takes only a few seconds to find an AH {approx} 10{sup -5}m accuracy on a GHz-class processor. I assume that an AH to be searched for is a Strahlkoerper ('star-shaped region') with respect to some local origin, and so parametrize the AH shape by r = h(angle) for some single-valued function h:S{sup 2} {yields} R{sup 2}. The AH equation then becomes a nonlinear elliptic PDE in h on S{sup 2}, whose coefficients are algebraic functions of g{sub ij}, K{sub ij}, and the Cartesian-coordinate spatial derivatives of g{sub ij}. I discretize S{sup 2} using six angular patches (one each in the neighbourhood of the {+-}x, {+-} y, and {+-}z axes) to avoid coordinate singularities, and finite difference the AH equation in the angular coordinates using fourth-order finite differencing. I solve the resulting system of nonlinear algebraic equations (for h at the angular grid points) by Newton's method, using a 'symbolic differentiation' technique to compute the Jacobian matrix. AHFINDERDIRECT is implemented as a thorn in the CACTUS computational toolkit, and is freely available by anonymous CVS checkout.

  7. Scalable Algorithms for Adaptive Statistical Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oehmke

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a scalable, high-performance solution to multidimensional recurrences that arise in adaptive statistical designs. Adaptive designs are an important class of learning algorithms for a stochastic environment, and we focus on the problem of optimally assigning patients to treatments in clinical trials. While adaptive designs have significant ethical and cost advantages, they are rarely utilized because of the complexity of optimizing and analyzing them. Computational challenges include massive memory requirements, few calculations per memory access, and multiply-nested loops with dynamic indices. We analyze the effects of various parallelization options, and while standard approaches do not work well, with effort an efficient, highly scalable program can be developed. This allows us to solve problems thousands of times more complex than those solved previously, which helps make adaptive designs practical. Further, our work applies to many other problems involving neighbor recurrences, such as generalized string matching.

  8. Scalable Packet Classification with Hash Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pi-Chung

    In the last decade, the technique of packet classification has been widely deployed in various network devices, including routers, firewalls and network intrusion detection systems. In this work, we improve the performance of packet classification by using multiple hash tables. The existing hash-based algorithms have superior scalability with respect to the required space; however, their search performance may not be comparable to other algorithms. To improve the search performance, we propose a tuple reordering algorithm to minimize the number of accessed hash tables with the aid of bitmaps. We also use pre-computation to ensure the accuracy of our search procedure. Performance evaluation based on both real and synthetic filter databases shows that our scheme is effective and scalable and the pre-computation cost is moderate.

  9. Scalable fabrication of perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhen; Klein, Talysa R.; Kim, Dong Hoe; Yang, Mengjin; Berry, Joseph J.; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.; Zhu, Kai

    2018-03-27

    Perovskite materials use earth-abundant elements, have low formation energies for deposition and are compatible with roll-to-roll and other high-volume manufacturing techniques. These features make perovskite solar cells (PSCs) suitable for terawatt-scale energy production with low production costs and low capital expenditure. Demonstrations of performance comparable to that of other thin-film photovoltaics (PVs) and improvements in laboratory-scale cell stability have recently made scale up of this PV technology an intense area of research focus. Here, we review recent progress and challenges in scaling up PSCs and related efforts to enable the terawatt-scale manufacturing and deployment of this PV technology. We discuss common device and module architectures, scalable deposition methods and progress in the scalable deposition of perovskite and charge-transport layers. We also provide an overview of device and module stability, module-level characterization techniques and techno-economic analyses of perovskite PV modules.

  10. Scalable Atomistic Simulation Algorithms for Materials Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiichiro Nakano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A suite of scalable atomistic simulation programs has been developed for materials research based on space-time multiresolution algorithms. Design and analysis of parallel algorithms are presented for molecular dynamics (MD simulations and quantum-mechanical (QM calculations based on the density functional theory. Performance tests have been carried out on 1,088-processor Cray T3E and 1,280-processor IBM SP3 computers. The linear-scaling algorithms have enabled 6.44-billion-atom MD and 111,000-atom QM calculations on 1,024 SP3 processors with parallel efficiency well over 90%. production-quality programs also feature wavelet-based computational-space decomposition for adaptive load balancing, spacefilling-curve-based adaptive data compression with user-defined error bound for scalable I/O, and octree-based fast visibility culling for immersive and interactive visualization of massive simulation data.

  11. Galactic warps and the shape of heavy halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparke, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    The outer disks of many spiral galaxies are bent away from the plane of the inner disk; the abundance of these warps suggests that they are long-lived. Isolated galactic disks have long been thought to have no discrete modes of vertical oscillation under their own gravity, and so to be incapable of sustaining persistent warps. However, the visible disk contains only a fraction of the galactic mass; an invisible galactic halo makes up the rest. This paper presents an investigation of vertical warping modes in self-gravitating disks, in the imposed potential due to an axisymmetric unseen massive halo. If the halo matter is distributed so that the free precession rate of a test particle decreases with radius near the edge of the disk, then the disk has a discrete mode of vibration; oblate halos which become rapidly more flattened at large radii, and uniformly prolate halos, satisfy this requirement. Otherwise, the disk has no discrete modes and so cannot maintain a long-lived warp, unless the edge is sharply truncated. Computed mode shapes which resemble the observed warps can be found for halo masses consistent with those inferred from galactic rotation curves

  12. Cold dark matter. 1: The formation of dark halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelb, James M.; Bertschinger, Edmund

    1994-01-01

    We use numerical simulations of critically closed cold dark matter (CDM) models to study the effects of numerical resolution on observable quantities. We study simulations with up to 256(exp 3) particles using the particle-mesh (PM) method and with up to 144(exp 3) particles using the adaptive particle-particle-mesh (P3M) method. Comparisons of galaxy halo distributions are made among the various simulations. We also compare distributions with observations, and we explore methods for identifying halos, including a new algorithm that finds all particles within closed contours of the smoothed density field surrounding a peak. The simulated halos show more substructure than predicted by the Press-Schechter theory. We are able to rule out all omega = 1 CDM models for linear amplitude sigma(sub 8) greater than or approximately = 0.5 because the simulations produce too many massive halos compared with the observations. The simulations also produce too many low-mass halos. The distribution of halos characterized by their circular velocities for the P3M simulations is in reasonable agreement with the observations for 150 km/s less than or = V(sub circ) less than or = 350 km/s.

  13. Unmixing the Galactic halo with RR Lyrae tagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokurov, V.; Deason, A. J.; Koposov, S. E.; Catelan, M.; Erkal, D.; Drake, A. J.; Evans, N. W.

    2018-06-01

    We show that tagging RR Lyrae stars according to their location in the period-amplitude diagram can be used to shed light on the genesis of the Galactic stellar halo. The mixture of RR Lyrae of ab type, separated into classes along the lines suggested by Oosterhoff, displays a strong and coherent evolution with Galactocentric radius. The change in the RR Lyrae composition appears to coincide with the break in the halo's radial density profile at ˜25 kpc. Using simple models of the stellar halo, we establish that at least three different types of accretion events are necessary to explain the observed RRab behaviour. Given that there exists a correlation between the RRab class fraction and the total stellar content of a dwarf satellite, we hypothesize that the field halo RRab composition is controlled by the mass of the progenitor contributing the bulk of the stellar debris at the given radius. This idea is tested against a suite of cosmological zoom-in simulations of Milky Way-like stellar halo formation. Finally, we study some of the most prominent stellar streams in the Milky Way halo and demonstrate that their RRab class fractions follow the trends established previously.

  14. QUANTIFYING KINEMATIC SUBSTRUCTURE IN THE MILKY WAY'S STELLAR HALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Xiangxiang; Zhao Gang; Luo Ali; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bell, Eric F.; Koposov, Sergey E.; Kang, Xi; Liu, Chao; Yanny, Brian; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Bullock, James S.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Morrison, Heather; Rockosi, Constance; Weaver, Benjamin A.

    2011-01-01

    We present and analyze the positions, distances, and radial velocities for over 4000 blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars in the Milky Way's halo, drawn from SDSS DR8. We search for position-velocity substructure in these data, a signature of the hierarchical assembly of the stellar halo. Using a cumulative 'close pair distribution' as a statistic in the four-dimensional space of sky position, distance, and velocity, we quantify the presence of position-velocity substructure at high statistical significance among the BHB stars: pairs of BHB stars that are close in position on the sky tend to have more similar distances and radial velocities compared to a random sampling of these overall distributions. We make analogous mock observations of 11 numerical halo formation simulations, in which the stellar halo is entirely composed of disrupted satellite debris, and find a level of substructure comparable to that seen in the actually observed BHB star sample. This result quantitatively confirms the hierarchical build-up of the stellar halo through a signature in phase (position-velocity) space. In detail, the structure present in the BHB stars is somewhat less prominent than that seen in most simulated halos, quite possibly because BHB stars represent an older sub-population. BHB stars located beyond 20 kpc from the Galactic center exhibit stronger substructure than at r gc < 20 kpc.

  15. Dissipative dark matter halos: The steady state solution. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, R.

    2018-05-01

    Within the mirror dark matter model and dissipative dark matter models in general, halos around galaxies with active star formation (including spirals and gas-rich dwarfs) are dynamical: they expand and contract in response to heating and cooling processes. Ordinary type II supernovae (SNe) can provide the dominant heat source, which is possible if kinetic mixing interaction exists with strength ɛ ˜10-9- 10-10 . Dissipative dark matter halos can be modeled as a fluid governed by Euler's equations. Around sufficiently isolated and unperturbed galaxies the halo can relax to a steady state configuration, where heating and cooling rates locally balance and hydrostatic equilibrium prevails. These steady state conditions can be solved to derive the physical properties, including the halo density and temperature profiles, for model galaxies. Here, we consider idealized spherically symmetric galaxies within the mirror dark particle model, as in our earlier paper [Phys. Rev. D 97, 043012 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevD.97.043012], but we assume that the local halo heating in the SN vicinity dominates over radiative sources. With this assumption, physically interesting steady state solutions arise which we compute for a representative range of model galaxies. The end result is a rather simple description of the dark matter halo around idealized spherically symmetric systems, characterized in principle by only one parameter, with physical properties that closely resemble the empirical properties of disk galaxies.

  16. Observation and analysis of halo current in EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da-Long; Shen, Biao; Qian, Jin-Ping; Sun, You-Wen; Liu, Guang-Jun; Shi, Tong-Hui; Zhuang, Hui-Dong; Xiao, Bing-Jia

    2014-06-01

    Plasma in a typically elongated cross-section tokamak (for example, EAST) is inherently unstable against vertical displacement. When plasma loses the vertical position control, it moves downward or upward, leading to disruption, and a large halo current is generated helically in EAST typically in the scrape-off layer. When flowing into the vacuum vessel through in-vessel components, the halo current will give rise to a large J × B force acting on the vessel and the in-vessel components. In EAST VDE experiment, part of the eddy current is measured in halo sensors, due to the large loop voltage. Primary experimental data demonstrate that the halo current first lands on the outer plate and then flows clockwise, and the analysis of the information indicates that the maximum halo current estimated in EAST is about 0.4 times the plasma current and the maximum value of TPF × Ih/IP0 is 0.65, furthermore Ih/Ip0 and TPF × Ih/Ip0 tend to increase with the increase of Ip0. The test of the strong gas injection system shows good success in increasing the radiated power, which may be effective in reducing the halo current.

  17. Dissipative dark matter halos: The steady state solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, R.

    2018-02-01

    Dissipative dark matter, where dark matter particle properties closely resemble familiar baryonic matter, is considered. Mirror dark matter, which arises from an isomorphic hidden sector, is a specific and theoretically constrained scenario. Other possibilities include models with more generic hidden sectors that contain massless dark photons [unbroken U (1 ) gauge interactions]. Such dark matter not only features dissipative cooling processes but also is assumed to have nontrivial heating sourced by ordinary supernovae (facilitated by the kinetic mixing interaction). The dynamics of dissipative dark matter halos around rotationally supported galaxies, influenced by heating as well as cooling processes, can be modeled by fluid equations. For a sufficiently isolated galaxy with a stable star formation rate, the dissipative dark matter halos are expected to evolve to a steady state configuration which is in hydrostatic equilibrium and where heating and cooling rates locally balance. Here, we take into account the major cooling and heating processes, and numerically solve for the steady state solution under the assumptions of spherical symmetry, negligible dark magnetic fields, and that supernova sourced energy is transported to the halo via dark radiation. For the parameters considered, and assumptions made, we were unable to find a physically realistic solution for the constrained case of mirror dark matter halos. Halo cooling generally exceeds heating at realistic halo mass densities. This problem can be rectified in more generic dissipative dark matter models, and we discuss a specific example in some detail.

  18. The gamma-ray-flux PDF from galactic halo substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Samuel K.; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2009-01-01

    One of the targets of the recently launched Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a diffuse gamma-ray background from dark-matter annihilation or decay in the Galactic halo. N-body simulations and theoretical arguments suggest that the dark matter in the Galactic halo may be clumped into substructure, rather than smoothly distributed. Here we propose the gamma-ray-flux probability distribution function (PDF) as a probe of substructure in the Galactic halo. We calculate this PDF for a phenomenological model of halo substructure and determine the regions of the substructure parameter space in which the PDF may be distinguished from the PDF for a smooth distribution of dark matter. In principle, the PDF allows a statistical detection of substructure, even if individual halos cannot be detected. It may also allow detection of substructure on the smallest microhalo mass scales, ∼ M ⊕ , for weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Furthermore, it may also provide a method to measure the substructure mass function. However, an analysis that assumes a typical halo substructure model and a conservative estimate of the diffuse background suggests that the substructure PDF may not be detectable in the lifespan of Fermi in the specific case that the WIMP is a neutralino. Nevertheless, for a large range of substructure, WIMP annihilation, and diffuse background models, PDF analysis may provide a clear signature of substructure

  19. Remapping dark matter halo catalogues between cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, A. J.; Peacock, J. A.

    2014-05-01

    We present and test a method for modifying the catalogue of dark matter haloes produced from a given cosmological simulation, so that it resembles the result of a simulation with an entirely different set of parameters. This extends the method of Angulo & White, which rescales the full particle distribution from a simulation. Working directly with the halo catalogue offers an advantage in speed, and also allows modifications of the internal structure of the haloes to account for non-linear differences between cosmologies. Our method can be used directly on a halo catalogue in a self-contained manner without any additional information about the overall density field; although the large-scale displacement field is required by the method, this can be inferred from the halo catalogue alone. We show proof of concept of our method by rescaling a matter-only simulation with no baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) features to a more standard Λ cold dark matter model containing a cosmological constant and a BAO signal. In conjunction with the halo occupation approach, this method provides a basis for the rapid generation of mock galaxy samples spanning a wide range of cosmological parameters.

  20. Stellar-to-halo mass relation of cluster galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, Anna; Jullo, Eric; Limousin, Marceau; Giocoli, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    In the formation of galaxy groups and clusters, the dark matter haloes containing satellite galaxies are expected to be tidally stripped in gravitational interactions with the host. We use galaxy-galaxy weak lensing to measure the average mass of dark matter haloes of satellite galaxies as a function of projected distance to the centre of the host, since stripping is expected to be greater for satellites closer to the centre of the cluster. We further classify the satellites according to their stellar mass: assuming that the stellar component of the galaxy is less disrupted by tidal stripping, stellar mass can be used as a proxy of the infall mass. We study the stellar to halo mass relation of satellites as a function of the cluster-centric distance to measure tidal stripping. We use the shear catalogues of the DES science veri cation archive, the CFHTLenS and the CFHT Stripe 82 surveys, and we select satellites from the redMaPPer catalogue of clusters. For galaxies located in the outskirts of clusters, we nd a stellar to halo mass relation in good agreement with the theoretical expectations from Moster, Naab & White (2013) for central galaxies. In the centre of the cluster, we nd that this relation is shifted to smaller halo mass for a given stellar mass. We interpret this nding as further evidence for tidal stripping of dark matter haloes in high density environments.

  1. Halo models of HI selected galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Niladri; Choudhury, Tirthankar Roy; Paranjape, Aseem

    2018-06-01

    Modelling the distribution of neutral hydrogen (HI) in dark matter halos is important for studying galaxy evolution in the cosmological context. We use a novel approach to infer the HI-dark matter connection at the massive end (m_H{I} > 10^{9.8} M_{⊙}) from radio HI emission surveys, using optical properties of low-redshift galaxies as an intermediary. In particular, we use a previously calibrated optical HOD describing the luminosity- and colour-dependent clustering of SDSS galaxies and describe the HI content using a statistical scaling relation between the optical properties and HI mass. This allows us to compute the abundance and clustering properties of HI-selected galaxies and compare with data from the ALFALFA survey. We apply an MCMC-based statistical analysis to constrain the free parameters related to the scaling relation. The resulting best-fit scaling relation identifies massive HI galaxies primarily with optically faint blue centrals, consistent with expectations from galaxy formation models. We compare the Hi-stellar mass relation predicted by our model with independent observations from matched Hi-optical galaxy samples, finding reasonable agreement. As a further application, we make some preliminary forecasts for future observations of HI and optical galaxies in the expected overlap volume of SKA and Euclid/LSST.

  2. Estimating the tumble rates of galaxy halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonson, G.F.; Tohline, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that cold gas in a static spheroidal galaxy will damp to a preferred plane, in which the angular momentum vector of the gas is aligned with the symmetry axis of the potential, through dissipative processes. We show now that, if the same galaxy rigidly tumbles about a nonsymmetry axis, the preferred orientation of the gas can become a permanently and smoothly warped sheet, in which rings of gas at large radii may be fully orthogonal to those near the galaxy's core. Detailed numerical orbit calculations closely match an analytic prediction made previously for the structure of the warp. This structure depends primarily on the eccentricity, density profile, and tumble rate of the spheroid. We show that the tumble rate can now be determined for a galaxy containing a significantly warped disk. Ordinary observations used in conjunction with graphs such as those we present, yield at least firm lower limits to the tumble periods of these objects. We have applied this method to the two peculiar systems NGC 5128 and NGC 2685 and found that, if they are prolate systems supporting permanently warped gaseous disks, they must tumble with periods near 5 x 10 9 yr and 2 x 10 9 yr respectively. In a preliminary investigation, we also find that the massive, unseen halos surrounding spiral galaxies must tumble with periods longer than or on the same order as those of the elliptical galaxies

  3. Performance of the CMS Beam Halo Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of radiation hard synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes for a direction sensitive measurement. The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few ns resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and received data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is readout by IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed i...

  4. MAGNIFICATION BY GALAXY GROUP DARK MATTER HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Jes; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Leauthaud, Alexie; Tanaka, Masayuki [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Capak, Peter [NASA Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 220-6 Caltech, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Finoguenov, Alexis [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); George, Matthew R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rhodes, Jason [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    We report on the detection of gravitational lensing magnification by a population of galaxy groups, at a significance level of 4.9{sigma}. Using X-ray-selected groups in the COSMOS 1.64 deg{sup 2} field, and high-redshift Lyman break galaxies as sources, we measure a lensing-induced angular cross-correlation between the samples. After satisfying consistency checks that demonstrate we have indeed detected a magnification signal, and are not suffering from contamination by physical overlap of samples, we proceed to implement an optimally weighted cross-correlation function to further boost the signal to noise of the measurement. Interpreting this optimally weighted measurement allows us to study properties of the lensing groups. We model the full distribution of group masses using a composite-halo approach, considering both the singular isothermal sphere and Navarro-Frenk-White profiles, and find our best-fit values to be consistent with those recovered using the weak-lensing shear technique. We argue that future weak-lensing studies will need to incorporate magnification along with shear, both to reduce residual systematics and to make full use of all available source information, in an effort to maximize scientific yield of the observations.

  5. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, N.; Fabbri, F.; Montanari, A.; Torromeo, G.; Dabrowski, A.E.; Orfanelli, S.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Rusack, R.; Stifter, K.; Stickland, D.P.

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few nanosecond resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is read out via IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providing online feedback on the beam quality. A dedicated calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate short triggered pulses of light to monitor the efficiency of the system. The electronics has been in operation since the first LHC beams of Run II and has served as the first demonstration of the new QIE10, Microsemi Igloo2 FPGA and high-speed 5 Gbps link with LHC data

  6. Halo structure of strange particles in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, Yoshinori; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1997-01-01

    Some characteristic behaviors of hyperons in nuclei which have recently been revealed experimentally and theoretically are discussed with the emphasis on the repulsive part of the hyperon-nucleus interaction. The observed Σ 4 He nucleus is a bound state with J π = 0 + and T ≅ 1/2. Its nucleus-Σ potential derived from a realistic ΣN interaction is characterized by inner repulsion and a strong Lane term, which play important roles in forming the Σ-hypernuclear bound state. In 208 Pb a typical Coulomb-assisted bound state is expected, where Σ is trapped in the surface region by the nucleus-Σ potential with the aid of Coulomb and centrifugal interactions. In the double-strangeness (S=-2) sector, there is a possibility that the lightest double-Λ hypernucleus ΛΛ 4 H is abundantly populated by stopping Ξ - on 4 He. Its formation branching amounts to about 15%. A stopped Ξ - on 9 Be will also produce efficiently a variety of double-Λ hyperfragments. Discrete spectra of weak-decay pions from the fragments will provide a means of mass spectroscopy of double-Λ hypernuclei. In the S=-2 five-body system an excited state Ξ 5 H is predicted to appear with 'strangeness halo' and the ground state ΛΛ 5 H with almost pure ΛΛ component. (author)

  7. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080684; Fabbri, F.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Montanari, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Rusack, R.; Torromeo, G.; Stickland, D.P.; Stifter, K.

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes. The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few ns resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is readout by IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providi...

  8. Scalable manufacturing processes with soft materials

    OpenAIRE

    White, Edward; Case, Jennifer; Kramer, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The emerging field of soft robotics will benefit greatly from new scalable manufacturing techniques for responsive materials. Currently, most of soft robotic examples are fabricated one-at-a-time, using techniques borrowed from lithography and 3D printing to fabricate molds. This limits both the maximum and minimum size of robots that can be fabricated, and hinders batch production, which is critical to gain wider acceptance for soft robotic systems. We have identified electrical structures, ...

  9. Architecture Knowledge for Evaluating Scalable Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-16

    Architecture Knowledge for Evaluating Scalable Databases 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Nurgaliev... Scala , Erlang, Javascript Cursor-based queries Supported, Not Supported JOIN queries Supported, Not Supported Complex data types Lists, maps, sets...is therefore needed, using technology such as machine learning to extract content from product documentation. The terminology used in the database

  10. Randomized Algorithms for Scalable Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiner, Ariel Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Many existing procedures in machine learning and statistics are computationally intractable in the setting of large-scale data. As a result, the advent of rapidly increasing dataset sizes, which should be a boon yielding improved statistical performance, instead severely blunts the usefulness of a variety of existing inferential methods. In this work, we use randomness to ameliorate this lack of scalability by reducing complex, computationally difficult inferential problems to larger sets o...

  11. Bitcoin-NG: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Eyal, Ittay; Gencer, Adem Efe; Sirer, Emin Gun; van Renesse, Robbert

    2015-01-01

    Cryptocurrencies, based on and led by Bitcoin, have shown promise as infrastructure for pseudonymous online payments, cheap remittance, trustless digital asset exchange, and smart contracts. However, Bitcoin-derived blockchain protocols have inherent scalability limits that trade-off between throughput and latency and withhold the realization of this potential. This paper presents Bitcoin-NG, a new blockchain protocol designed to scale. Based on Bitcoin's blockchain protocol, Bitcoin-NG is By...

  12. Scuba: scalable kernel-based gene prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, Guido; Tran, Dinh Van; Donini, Michele; Navarin, Nicolò; Aiolli, Fabio; Sperduti, Alessandro; Valle, Giorgio

    2018-01-25

    The uncovering of genes linked to human diseases is a pressing challenge in molecular biology and precision medicine. This task is often hindered by the large number of candidate genes and by the heterogeneity of the available information. Computational methods for the prioritization of candidate genes can help to cope with these problems. In particular, kernel-based methods are a powerful resource for the integration of heterogeneous biological knowledge, however, their practical implementation is often precluded by their limited scalability. We propose Scuba, a scalable kernel-based method for gene prioritization. It implements a novel multiple kernel learning approach, based on a semi-supervised perspective and on the optimization of the margin distribution. Scuba is optimized to cope with strongly unbalanced settings where known disease genes are few and large scale predictions are required. Importantly, it is able to efficiently deal both with a large amount of candidate genes and with an arbitrary number of data sources. As a direct consequence of scalability, Scuba integrates also a new efficient strategy to select optimal kernel parameters for each data source. We performed cross-validation experiments and simulated a realistic usage setting, showing that Scuba outperforms a wide range of state-of-the-art methods. Scuba achieves state-of-the-art performance and has enhanced scalability compared to existing kernel-based approaches for genomic data. This method can be useful to prioritize candidate genes, particularly when their number is large or when input data is highly heterogeneous. The code is freely available at https://github.com/gzampieri/Scuba .

  13. A scalable distributed RRT for motion planning

    KAUST Repository

    Jacobs, Sam Ade

    2013-05-01

    Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT), like other sampling-based motion planning methods, has been very successful in solving motion planning problems. Even so, sampling-based planners cannot solve all problems of interest efficiently, so attention is increasingly turning to parallelizing them. However, one challenge in parallelizing RRT is the global computation and communication overhead of nearest neighbor search, a key operation in RRTs. This is a critical issue as it limits the scalability of previous algorithms. We present two parallel algorithms to address this problem. The first algorithm extends existing work by introducing a parameter that adjusts how much local computation is done before a global update. The second algorithm radially subdivides the configuration space into regions, constructs a portion of the tree in each region in parallel, and connects the subtrees,i removing cycles if they exist. By subdividing the space, we increase computation locality enabling a scalable result. We show that our approaches are scalable. We present results demonstrating almost linear scaling to hundreds of processors on a Linux cluster and a Cray XE6 machine. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. DISP: Optimizations towards Scalable MPI Startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Huansong [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Pophale, Swaroop S [ORNL; Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath [ORNL; Yu, Weikuan [Florida State University, Tallahassee

    2016-01-01

    Despite the popularity of MPI for high performance computing, the startup of MPI programs faces a scalability challenge as both the execution time and memory consumption increase drastically at scale. We have examined this problem using the collective modules of Cheetah and Tuned in Open MPI as representative implementations. Previous improvements for collectives have focused on algorithmic advances and hardware off-load. In this paper, we examine the startup cost of the collective module within a communicator and explore various techniques to improve its efficiency and scalability. Accordingly, we have developed a new scalable startup scheme with three internal techniques, namely Delayed Initialization, Module Sharing and Prediction-based Topology Setup (DISP). Our DISP scheme greatly benefits the collective initialization of the Cheetah module. At the same time, it helps boost the performance of non-collective initialization in the Tuned module. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on Titan supercomputer at ORNL with up to 4096 processes. The results show that our delayed initialization can speed up the startup of Tuned and Cheetah by an average of 32.0% and 29.2%, respectively, our module sharing can reduce the memory consumption of Tuned and Cheetah by up to 24.1% and 83.5%, respectively, and our prediction-based topology setup can speed up the startup of Cheetah by up to 80%.

  15. A scalable distributed RRT for motion planning

    KAUST Repository

    Jacobs, Sam Ade; Stradford, Nicholas; Rodriguez, Cesar; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT), like other sampling-based motion planning methods, has been very successful in solving motion planning problems. Even so, sampling-based planners cannot solve all problems of interest efficiently, so attention is increasingly turning to parallelizing them. However, one challenge in parallelizing RRT is the global computation and communication overhead of nearest neighbor search, a key operation in RRTs. This is a critical issue as it limits the scalability of previous algorithms. We present two parallel algorithms to address this problem. The first algorithm extends existing work by introducing a parameter that adjusts how much local computation is done before a global update. The second algorithm radially subdivides the configuration space into regions, constructs a portion of the tree in each region in parallel, and connects the subtrees,i removing cycles if they exist. By subdividing the space, we increase computation locality enabling a scalable result. We show that our approaches are scalable. We present results demonstrating almost linear scaling to hundreds of processors on a Linux cluster and a Cray XE6 machine. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Scalable robotic biofabrication of tissue spheroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehesz, A Nagy; Hajdu, Z; Visconti, R P; Markwald, R R; Mironov, V; Brown, J; Beaver, W; Da Silva, J V L

    2011-01-01

    Development of methods for scalable biofabrication of uniformly sized tissue spheroids is essential for tissue spheroid-based bioprinting of large size tissue and organ constructs. The most recent scalable technique for tissue spheroid fabrication employs a micromolded recessed template prepared in a non-adhesive hydrogel, wherein the cells loaded into the template self-assemble into tissue spheroids due to gravitational force. In this study, we present an improved version of this technique. A new mold was designed to enable generation of 61 microrecessions in each well of a 96-well plate. The microrecessions were seeded with cells using an EpMotion 5070 automated pipetting machine. After 48 h of incubation, tissue spheroids formed at the bottom of each microrecession. To assess the quality of constructs generated using this technology, 600 tissue spheroids made by this method were compared with 600 spheroids generated by the conventional hanging drop method. These analyses showed that tissue spheroids fabricated by the micromolded method are more uniform in diameter. Thus, use of micromolded recessions in a non-adhesive hydrogel, combined with automated cell seeding, is a reliable method for scalable robotic fabrication of uniform-sized tissue spheroids.

  17. Scalable robotic biofabrication of tissue spheroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehesz, A Nagy; Hajdu, Z; Visconti, R P; Markwald, R R; Mironov, V [Advanced Tissue Biofabrication Center, Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Brown, J [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Beaver, W [York Technical College, Rock Hill, SC (United States); Da Silva, J V L, E-mail: mironovv@musc.edu [Renato Archer Information Technology Center-CTI, Campinas (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Development of methods for scalable biofabrication of uniformly sized tissue spheroids is essential for tissue spheroid-based bioprinting of large size tissue and organ constructs. The most recent scalable technique for tissue spheroid fabrication employs a micromolded recessed template prepared in a non-adhesive hydrogel, wherein the cells loaded into the template self-assemble into tissue spheroids due to gravitational force. In this study, we present an improved version of this technique. A new mold was designed to enable generation of 61 microrecessions in each well of a 96-well plate. The microrecessions were seeded with cells using an EpMotion 5070 automated pipetting machine. After 48 h of incubation, tissue spheroids formed at the bottom of each microrecession. To assess the quality of constructs generated using this technology, 600 tissue spheroids made by this method were compared with 600 spheroids generated by the conventional hanging drop method. These analyses showed that tissue spheroids fabricated by the micromolded method are more uniform in diameter. Thus, use of micromolded recessions in a non-adhesive hydrogel, combined with automated cell seeding, is a reliable method for scalable robotic fabrication of uniform-sized tissue spheroids.

  18. PointFinder: a novel web tool for WGS-based detection of antimicrobial resistance associated with chromosomal point mutations in bacterial pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zankari, Ea; Allesøe, Rosa Lundbye; Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup

    2017-01-01

    enterica, Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni. The web-server ResFinder-2.1 was used to identify acquired antimicrobial resistance genes and two methods, the novel PointFinder (using BLAST) and an in-house method (mapping of raw WGS reads), were used to identify chromosomal point mutations. Results...... or when mapping the reads. Conclusions PointFinder proved, with high concordance between phenotypic and predicted antimicrobial susceptibility, to be a user-friendly web tool for detection of chromosomal point mutations associated with antimicrobial resistance....

  19. Numeric Analysis for Relationship-Aware Scalable Streaming Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung Ki Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequent packet loss of media data is a critical problem that degrades the quality of streaming services over mobile networks. Packet loss invalidates frames containing lost packets and other related frames at the same time. Indirect loss caused by losing packets decreases the quality of streaming. A scalable streaming service can decrease the amount of dropped multimedia resulting from a single packet loss. Content providers typically divide one large media stream into several layers through a scalable streaming service and then provide each scalable layer to the user depending on the mobile network. Also, a scalable streaming service makes it possible to decode partial multimedia data depending on the relationship between frames and layers. Therefore, a scalable streaming service provides a way to decrease the wasted multimedia data when one packet is lost. However, the hierarchical structure between frames and layers of scalable streams determines the service quality of the scalable streaming service. Even if whole packets of layers are transmitted successfully, they cannot be decoded as a result of the absence of reference frames and layers. Therefore, the complicated relationship between frames and layers in a scalable stream increases the volume of abandoned layers. For providing a high-quality scalable streaming service, we choose a proper relationship between scalable layers as well as the amount of transmitted multimedia data depending on the network situation. We prove that a simple scalable scheme outperforms a complicated scheme in an error-prone network. We suggest an adaptive set-top box (AdaptiveSTB to lower the dependency between scalable layers in a scalable stream. Also, we provide a numerical model to obtain the indirect loss of multimedia data and apply it to various multimedia streams. Our AdaptiveSTB enhances the quality of a scalable streaming service by removing indirect loss.

  20. Scalable and balanced dynamic hybrid data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauranne, Tuomo; Amour, Idrissa; Gunia, Martin; Kallio, Kari; Lepistö, Ahti; Koponen, Sampsa

    2017-04-01

    Scalability of complex weather forecasting suites is dependent on the technical tools available for implementing highly parallel computational kernels, but to an equally large extent also on the dependence patterns between various components of the suite, such as observation processing, data assimilation and the forecast model. Scalability is a particular challenge for 4D variational assimilation methods that necessarily couple the forecast model into the assimilation process and subject this combination to an inherently serial quasi-Newton minimization process. Ensemble based assimilation methods are naturally more parallel, but large models force ensemble sizes to be small and that results in poor assimilation accuracy, somewhat akin to shooting with a shotgun in a million-dimensional space. The Variational Ensemble Kalman Filter (VEnKF) is an ensemble method that can attain the accuracy of 4D variational data assimilation with a small ensemble size. It achieves this by processing a Gaussian approximation of the current error covariance distribution, instead of a set of ensemble members, analogously to the Extended Kalman Filter EKF. Ensemble members are re-sampled every time a new set of observations is processed from a new approximation of that Gaussian distribution which makes VEnKF a dynamic assimilation method. After this a smoothing step is applied that turns VEnKF into a dynamic Variational Ensemble Kalman Smoother VEnKS. In this smoothing step, the same process is iterated with frequent re-sampling of the ensemble but now using past iterations as surrogate observations until the end result is a smooth and balanced model trajectory. In principle, VEnKF could suffer from similar scalability issues as 4D-Var. However, this can be avoided by isolating the forecast model completely from the minimization process by implementing the latter as a wrapper code whose only link to the model is calling for many parallel and totally independent model runs, all of them

  1. THE X-RAY HALO OF CEN X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Thomas W. J.; Rothschild, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Using two Chandra observations, we have derived estimates of the dust distribution and distance to the eclipsing high-mass X-ray binary Cen X-3 using the energy-resolved dust-scattered X-ray halo. By comparing the observed X-ray halos in 200 eV bands from 2-5 keV to the halo profiles predicted by the Weingartner and Draine interstellar grain model, we find that the vast majority (∼ 70%) of the dust along the line of sight to the system is located within about 300 pc of the Sun, although the halo measurements are insensitive to dust very close to the source. One of the Chandra observations occurred during an egress from eclipse as the pulsar emerged from behind the mass-donating primary. By comparing model halo light curves during this transition to the halo measurements, a source distance of 5.7 ± 1.5 kpc (68% confidence level) is estimated, although we find this result depends on the distribution of dust on very small scales. Nevertheless, this value is marginally inconsistent with the commonly accepted distance to Cen X-3 of 8 kpc. We also find that the energy scaling of the scattering optical depth predicted by the Weingartner and Draine interstellar grain model does not accurately represent the results determined by X-ray halo studies of Cen X-3. Relative to the model, there appears to be less scattering at low energies or more scattering at high energies in Cen X-3.

  2. Mechanical device for enhancing halo density in the TMX-U tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, W.L.; Barr, W.L.; Simonen, T.C.

    1984-04-01

    The halo recycler, a mechanical device similar to pumped limiters used in tokamaks, is studied as a means of enhancing the halo plasma density in the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U). The recycler structure consists of an annular chamber at each end of the tandem mirror device where the halo plasma is collected. The halo plasma density is increased by recycling the halo ions as they are neutralized by the collector plate. With sufficient power fed into the halo electrons, the recycler can sustain an upstream electron temperature of 30 eV for effective halo shielding while maintaining a low temperature of 5 eV near the collector plate to reduce sputtering. A power flow model has shown that the required power for heating the halo is low enough to make the halo recycler a practical concept

  3. The shape of the invisible halo: N-body simulations on parallel supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, M.S.; Zurek, W.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Quinn, P.J. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories); Salmon, J.K. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    We study the shapes of halos and the relationship to their angular momentum content by means of N-body (N {approximately} 10{sup 6}) simulations. Results indicate that in relaxed halos with no apparent substructure: (i) the shape and orientation of the isodensity contours tends to persist throughout the virialised portion of the halo; (ii) most ({approx}70%) of the halos are prolate; (iii) the approximate direction of the angular momentum vector tends to persist throughout the halo; (iv) for spherical shells centered on the core of the halo the magnitude of the specific angular momentum is approximately proportional to their radius; (v) the shortest axis of the ellipsoid which approximates the shape of the halo tends to align with the rotation axis of the halo. This tendency is strongest in the fastest rotating halos. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  4. The Angular Momentum of Baryons and Dark Matter Halos Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Pichon, Christophe; Kassin, Susan A.; Dubois, Yohan

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown that galaxies at high redshift are fed by cold, dense gas filaments, suggesting angular momentum transport by gas differs from that by dark matter. Revisiting this issue using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR), we find that at the time of accretion, gas and dark matter do carry a similar amount of specific angular momentum, but that it is systematically higher than that of the dark matter halo as a whole. At high redshift, freshly accreted gas rapidly streams into the central region of the halo, directly depositing this large amount of angular momentum within a sphere of radius r = 0.1R(sub vir). In contrast, dark matter particles pass through the central region unscathed, and a fraction of them ends up populating the outer regions of the halo (r/R(sub vir) > 0.1), redistributing angular momentum in the process. As a result, large-scale motions of the cosmic web have to be considered as the origin of gas angular momentum rather than its virialised dark matter halo host. This generic result holds for halos of all masses at all redshifts, as radiative cooling ensures that a significant fraction of baryons remain trapped at the centre of the halos. Despite this injection of angular momentum enriched gas, we predict an amount for stellar discs which is in fair agreement with observations at z=0. This arises because the total specific angular momentum of the baryons (gas and stars) remains close to that of dark matter halos. Indeed, our simulations indicate that any differential loss of angular momentum amplitude between the two components is minor even though dark matter halos continuously lose between half and two-thirds of their specific angular momentum modulus as they evolve. In light of our results, a substantial revision of the standard theory of disc formation seems to be required. We propose a new scenario where gas efficiently carries the angular momentum generated

  5. Dynamical behaviour of gaseous halo in a disk galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeuchi, S.; Habe, A.

    1981-01-01

    Assuming that the gas in the halo of a disk galaxy is supplied from the disk as a hot gas, the authors have studied its dynamical and thermal behaviour by means of a time dependent, two-dimensional hydrodynamic code. They suppose the following boundary conditions at the disk. (i) The hot gas with the temperature Tsub(d) and the density nsub(d) is uniform at r=4-12 kpc in the disk and it is time independent. (ii) This hot gas rotates with the stellar disk in the same velocity. (iii) This hot gas can escape freely from the disk to the halo. These conditions will be verified if the filling factor of hot gas is so large as f=0.5-0.8, as proposed by McKee and Ostriker (1977). The gas motion in the halo has been studied for wider ranges of gas temperature and its density at the disk than previously studied. At the same time, the authors have clarified the observability of various types of gaseous haloes and discuss the roles of gaseous halo on the evolution of galaxies. (Auth.)

  6. Does SEGUE/SDSS indicate a dual galactic halo?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schönrich, Ralph; Asplund, Martin; Casagrande, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We re-examine recent claims of observational evidence for a dual Galactic halo in SEGUE/SDSS data, and trace them back to improper error treatment and neglect of selection effects. In particular, the detection of a vertical abundance gradient in the halo can be explained as a metallicity bias in distance. A similar bias and the impact of disk contamination affect the sample of blue horizontal branch stars. These examples highlight why non-volume complete samples require forward modeling from theoretical models or extensive bias-corrections. We also show how observational uncertainties produce the specific non-Gaussianity in the observed azimuthal velocity distribution of halo stars, which can be erroneously identified as two Gaussian components. A single kinematic component yields an excellent fit to the observed data, when we model the measurement process including distance uncertainties. Furthermore, we show that sample differences in proper motion space are the direct consequence of kinematic cuts and are enhanced when distance estimates are less accurate. Thus, their presence is neither proof of a separate population nor a measure of reliability for the applied distances. We conclude that currently there is no evidence from SEGUE/SDSS that would favor a dual Galactic halo over a single halo that is full of substructure.

  7. HOT GAS HALOS IN EARLY-TYPE FIELD GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulchaey, John S.; Jeltema, Tesla E.

    2010-01-01

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study the hot gas content in a sample of field early-type galaxies. We find that the L X -L K relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. The low hot gas content of field galaxies with L K ∼ * suggests that internal processes such as supernovae-driven winds or active galactic nucleus feedback expel hot gas from low-mass galaxies. Such mechanisms may be less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium can confine outflowing material. In addition, galaxies in groups and clusters may be able to accrete gas from the ambient medium. While there is a population of L K ∼ * galaxies in groups and clusters that retain hot gas halos, some galaxies in these rich environments, including brighter galaxies, are largely devoid of hot gas. In these cases, the hot gas halos have likely been removed via ram pressure stripping. This suggests a very complex interplay between the intragroup/intracluster medium and hot gas halos of galaxies in rich environments, with the ambient medium helping to confine or even enhance the halos in some cases and acting to remove gas in others. In contrast, the hot gas content of more isolated galaxies is largely a function of the mass of the galaxy, with more massive galaxies able to maintain their halos, while in lower mass systems the hot gas escapes in outflowing winds.

  8. Deep brain transcranial magnetic stimulation using variable "Halo coil" system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Y.; Hadimani, R. L.; Crowther, L. J.; Xu, Z.; Qu, J.; Jiles, D. C.

    2015-05-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation has the potential to treat various neurological disorders non-invasively and safely. The "Halo coil" configuration can stimulate deeper regions of the brain with lower surface to deep-brain field ratio compared to other coil configurations. The existing "Halo coil" configuration is fixed and is limited in varying the site of stimulation in the brain. We have developed a new system based on the current "Halo coil" design along with a graphical user interface system that enables the larger coil to rotate along the transverse plane. The new system can also enable vertical movement of larger coil. Thus, this adjustable "Halo coil" configuration can stimulate different regions of the brain by adjusting the position and orientation of the larger coil on the head. We have calculated magnetic and electric fields inside a MRI-derived heterogeneous head model for various positions and orientations of the coil. We have also investigated the mechanical and thermal stability of the adjustable "Halo coil" configuration for various positions and orientations of the coil to ensure safe operation of the system.

  9. Halo-Independent Direct Detection Analyses Without Mass Assumptions

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Adam J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the $m_\\chi-\\sigma_n$ plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the $v_{min}-\\tilde{g}$ plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from $v_{min}$ to nuclear recoil momentum ($p_R$), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call $\\tilde{h}(p_R)$. The entire family of conventional halo-independent $\\tilde{g}(v_{min})$ plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single $\\tilde{h}(p_R)$ plot through a simple re...

  10. THE BLACK HOLE–DARK MATTER HALO CONNECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabra, Bassem M.; Saliba, Charbel; Akl, Maya Abi; Chahine, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    We explore the connection between the central supermassive black holes (SMBH) in galaxies and the dark matter halo through the relation between the masses of the SMBHs and the maximum circular velocities of the host galaxies, as well as the relationship between stellar velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component and the circular velocity. Our assumption here is that the circular velocity is a proxy for the mass of the dark matter halo. We rely on a heterogeneous sample containing galaxies of all types. The only requirement is that the galaxy has a direct measurement of the mass of its SMBH and a direct measurement of its circular velocity and its velocity dispersion. Previous studies have analyzed the connection between the SMBH and dark matter halo through the relationship between the circular velocity and the bulge velocity dispersion, with the assumption that the bulge velocity dispersion stands in for the mass of the SMBH, via the well-established SMBH mass–bulge velocity dispersion relation. Using intermediate relations may be misleading when one is studying them to decipher the active ingredients of galaxy formation and evolution. We believe that our approach will provide a more direct probe of the SMBH and the dark matter halo connection. We find that the correlation between the mass of SMBHs and the circular velocities of the host galaxies is extremely weak, leading us to state the dark matter halo may not play a major role in regulating the black hole growth in the present Universe

  11. THE BLACK HOLE–DARK MATTER HALO CONNECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabra, Bassem M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Notre Dame University-Louaize, P.O. Box 72 Zouk Mikael, Zouk Mosbeh (Lebanon); Saliba, Charbel; Akl, Maya Abi; Chahine, Gilbert, E-mail: bsabra@ndu.edu.lb [Department of Physics, Lebanese University II, Fanar (Lebanon)

    2015-04-10

    We explore the connection between the central supermassive black holes (SMBH) in galaxies and the dark matter halo through the relation between the masses of the SMBHs and the maximum circular velocities of the host galaxies, as well as the relationship between stellar velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component and the circular velocity. Our assumption here is that the circular velocity is a proxy for the mass of the dark matter halo. We rely on a heterogeneous sample containing galaxies of all types. The only requirement is that the galaxy has a direct measurement of the mass of its SMBH and a direct measurement of its circular velocity and its velocity dispersion. Previous studies have analyzed the connection between the SMBH and dark matter halo through the relationship between the circular velocity and the bulge velocity dispersion, with the assumption that the bulge velocity dispersion stands in for the mass of the SMBH, via the well-established SMBH mass–bulge velocity dispersion relation. Using intermediate relations may be misleading when one is studying them to decipher the active ingredients of galaxy formation and evolution. We believe that our approach will provide a more direct probe of the SMBH and the dark matter halo connection. We find that the correlation between the mass of SMBHs and the circular velocities of the host galaxies is extremely weak, leading us to state the dark matter halo may not play a major role in regulating the black hole growth in the present Universe.

  12. Programming Scala Scalability = Functional Programming + Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Wampler, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Learn how to be more productive with Scala, a new multi-paradigm language for the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that integrates features of both object-oriented and functional programming. With this book, you'll discover why Scala is ideal for highly scalable, component-based applications that support concurrency and distribution. Programming Scala clearly explains the advantages of Scala as a JVM language. You'll learn how to leverage the wealth of Java class libraries to meet the practical needs of enterprise and Internet projects more easily. Packed with code examples, this book provides us

  13. Tip-Based Nanofabrication for Scalable Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Hu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tip-based nanofabrication (TBN is a family of emerging nanofabrication techniques that use a nanometer scale tip to fabricate nanostructures. In this review, we first introduce the history of the TBN and the technology development. We then briefly review various TBN techniques that use different physical or chemical mechanisms to fabricate features and discuss some of the state-of-the-art techniques. Subsequently, we focus on those TBN methods that have demonstrated potential to scale up the manufacturing throughput. Finally, we discuss several research directions that are essential for making TBN a scalable nano-manufacturing technology.

  14. Tip-Based Nanofabrication for Scalable Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Huan; Somnath, Suhas

    2017-01-01

    Tip-based nanofabrication (TBN) is a family of emerging nanofabrication techniques that use a nanometer scale tip to fabricate nanostructures. Here in this review, we first introduce the history of the TBN and the technology development. We then briefly review various TBN techniques that use different physical or chemical mechanisms to fabricate features and discuss some of the state-of-the-art techniques. Subsequently, we focus on those TBN methods that have demonstrated potential to scale up the manufacturing throughput. Finally, we discuss several research directions that are essential for making TBN a scalable nano-manufacturing technology.

  15. Towards a Scalable, Biomimetic, Antibacterial Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Mary Nora

    Corneal afflictions are the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. When a corneal transplant is unavailable or contraindicated, an artificial cornea device is the only chance to save sight. Bacterial or fungal biofilm build up on artificial cornea devices can lead to serious complications including the need for systemic antibiotic treatment and even explantation. As a result, much emphasis has been placed on anti-adhesion chemical coatings and antibiotic leeching coatings. These methods are not long-lasting, and microorganisms can eventually circumvent these measures. Thus, I have developed a surface topographical antimicrobial coating. Various surface structures including rough surfaces, superhydrophobic surfaces, and the natural surfaces of insects' wings and sharks' skin are promising anti-biofilm candidates, however none meet the criteria necessary for implementation on the surface of an artificial cornea device. In this thesis I: 1) developed scalable fabrication protocols for a library of biomimetic nanostructure polymer surfaces 2) assessed the potential these for poly(methyl methacrylate) nanopillars to kill or prevent formation of biofilm by E. coli bacteria and species of Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus bacteria and improved upon a proposed mechanism for the rupture of Gram-negative bacterial cell walls 3) developed a scalable, commercially viable method for producing antibacterial nanopillars on a curved, PMMA artificial cornea device and 4) developed scalable fabrication protocols for implantation of antibacterial nanopatterned surfaces on the surfaces of thermoplastic polyurethane materials, commonly used in catheter tubings. This project constitutes a first step towards fabrication of the first entirely PMMA artificial cornea device. The major finding of this work is that by precisely controlling the topography of a polymer surface at the nano-scale, we can kill adherent bacteria and prevent biofilm formation of certain pathogenic bacteria

  16. Scalable Optical-Fiber Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Peterson, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Scalable arbitrary fiber extension network (SAFEnet) is conceptual fiber-optic communication network passing digital signals among variety of computers and input/output devices at rates from 200 Mb/s to more than 100 Gb/s. Intended for use with very-high-speed computers and other data-processing and communication systems in which message-passing delays must be kept short. Inherent flexibility makes it possible to match performance of network to computers by optimizing configuration of interconnections. In addition, interconnections made redundant to provide tolerance to faults.

  17. Scalable Tensor Factorizations with Missing Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Evrim; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Kolda, Tamara G.

    2010-01-01

    of missing data, many important data sets will be discarded or improperly analyzed. Therefore, we need a robust and scalable approach for factorizing multi-way arrays (i.e., tensors) in the presence of missing data. We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP...... is shown to successfully factor tensors with noise and up to 70% missing data. Moreover, our approach is significantly faster than the leading alternative and scales to larger problems. To show the real-world usefulness of CP-WOPT, we illustrate its applicability on a novel EEG (electroencephalogram...

  18. Scalable and Anonymous Group Communication with MTor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Dong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents MTor, a low-latency anonymous group communication system. We construct MTor as an extension to Tor, allowing the construction of multi-source multicast trees on top of the existing Tor infrastructure. MTor does not depend on an external service to broker the group communication, and avoids central points of failure and trust. MTor’s substantial bandwidth savings and graceful scalability enable new classes of anonymous applications that are currently too bandwidth-intensive to be viable through traditional unicast Tor communication-e.g., group file transfer, collaborative editing, streaming video, and real-time audio conferencing.

  19. Grassmann Averages for Scalable Robust PCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Feragen, Aasa; Black, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    As the collection of large datasets becomes increasingly automated, the occurrence of outliers will increase—“big data” implies “big outliers”. While principal component analysis (PCA) is often used to reduce the size of data, and scalable solutions exist, it is well-known that outliers can...... to vectors (subspaces) or elements of vectors; we focus on the latter and use a trimmed average. The resulting Trimmed Grassmann Average (TGA) is particularly appropriate for computer vision because it is robust to pixel outliers. The algorithm has low computational complexity and minimal memory requirements...

  20. MobilomeFINDER: web-based tools for in silico and experimental discovery of bacterial genomic islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hong-Yu; He, Xinyi; Harrison, Ewan M.; Kulasekara, Bridget R.; Thani, Ali Bin; Kadioglu, Aras; Lory, Stephen; Hinton, Jay C. D.; Barer, Michael R.; Rajakumar, Kumar

    2007-01-01

    MobilomeFINDER (http://mml.sjtu.edu.cn/MobilomeFINDER) is an interactive online tool that facilitates bacterial genomic island or ‘mobile genome’ (mobilome) discovery; it integrates the ArrayOme and tRNAcc software packages. ArrayOme utilizes a microarray-derived comparative genomic hybridization input data set to generate ‘inferred contigs’ produced by merging adjacent genes classified as ‘present’. Collectively these ‘fragments’ represent a hypothetical ‘microarray-visualized genome (MVG)’. ArrayOme permits recognition of discordances between physical genome and MVG sizes, thereby enabling identification of strains rich in microarray-elusive novel genes. Individual tRNAcc tools facilitate automated identification of genomic islands by comparative analysis of the contents and contexts of tRNA sites and other integration hotspots in closely related sequenced genomes. Accessory tools facilitate design of hotspot-flanking primers for in silico and/or wet-science-based interrogation of cognate loci in unsequenced strains and analysis of islands for features suggestive of foreign origins; island-specific and genome-contextual features are tabulated and represented in schematic and graphical forms. To date we have used MobilomeFINDER to analyse several Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus suis genomes. MobilomeFINDER enables high-throughput island identification and characterization through increased exploitation of emerging sequence data and PCR-based profiling of unsequenced test strains; subsequent targeted yeast recombination-based capture permits full-length sequencing and detailed functional studies of novel genomic islands. PMID:17537813

  1. Use of an online portal to facilitate clinical trial recruitment: a preliminary analysis of Fox Trial Finder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocker, Charlotte; Cappelletti, Lily; Marshall, Claudia; Meunier, Claire C; Brooks, Deborah W; Sherer, Todd; Chowdhury, Sohini

    2015-01-01

    As in other therapeutic areas, clinical studies in Parkinson's disease (PD) face significant recruitment challenges. However, qualitative surveys suggest that individuals with PD are willing to participate in clinical research. The Michael J. Fox Foundation therefore established Fox Trial Finder in 2011 to facilitate connection between PD research teams and volunteers. Characterize the research volunteers (with and without PD) registered on Fox Trial Finder as of June 2014, and the published, recruiting studies to identify trends and highlight gaps between research requirements and available volunteers. Profiles of volunteers with and without PD were analyzed to explore trends in geography, demographics, family history and, for those volunteers with PD, disease progression and treatment history. Clinical study profiles were analyzed to determine study type, phase, sponsor, focus, location and eligibility criteria. The analysis focused on volunteers and studies based in the United States. The database contained 26,261 US-based volunteers, including 19,243 volunteers (73%) with PD and 7,018 (27%) controls without PD. The average time since diagnosis for PD volunteers was 5.7 years and the average age at diagnosis was 58 years. Control volunteers were more likely than volunteers with PD to be female (67% vs. 35%) and to have a family history of PD (49% vs. 12%). Fox Trial Finder's registration history to date demonstrates the high level of willingness among individuals affected by PD to participate in clinical research and provide a significant amount of personal health information to facilitate that participation.

  2. BioJava-ModFinder: identification of protein modifications in 3D structures from the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianjiong; Prlic, Andreas; Bi, Chunxiao; Bluhm, Wolfgang F; Dimitropoulos, Dimitris; Xu, Dong; Bourne, Philip E; Rose, Peter W

    2017-07-01

    We developed a new software tool, BioJava-ModFinder, for identifying protein modifications observed in 3D structures archived in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Information on more than 400 types of protein modifications were collected and curated from annotations in PDB, RESID, and PSI-MOD. We divided these modifications into three categories: modified residues, attachment modifications, and cross-links. We have developed a systematic method to identify these modifications in 3D protein structures. We have integrated this package with the RCSB PDB web application and added protein modification annotations to the sequence diagram and structure display. By scanning all 3D structures in the PDB using BioJava-ModFinder, we identified more than 30 000 structures with protein modifications, which can be searched, browsed, and visualized on the RCSB PDB website. BioJava-ModFinder is available as open source (LGPL license) at ( https://github.com/biojava/biojava/tree/master/biojava-modfinder ). The RCSB PDB can be accessed at http://www.rcsb.org . pwrose@ucsd.edu. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. ColoFinder: a prognostic 9-gene signature improves prognosis for 871 stage II and III colorectal cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingguang Shi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a heterogeneous disease with a high mortality rate and is still lacking an effective treatment. Our goal is to develop a robust prognosis model for predicting the prognosis in CRC patients. In this study, 871 stage II and III CRC samples were collected from six gene expression profilings. ColoFinder was developed using a 9-gene signature based Random Survival Forest (RSF prognosis model. The 9-gene signature recurrence score was derived with a 5-fold cross validation to test the association with relapse-free survival, and the value of AUC was gained with 0.87 in GSE39582(95% CI [0.83–0.91]. The low-risk group had a significantly better relapse-free survival (HR, 14.8; 95% CI [8.17–26.8]; P < 0.001 than the high-risk group. We also found that the 9-gene signature recurrence score contributed more information about recurrence than standard clinical and pathological variables in univariate and multivariate Cox analyses when applied to GSE17536(p = 0.03 and p = 0.01 respectively. Furthermore, ColoFinder improved the predictive ability and better stratified the risk subgroups when applied to CRC gene expression datasets GSE14333, GSE17537, GSE12945and GSE24551. In summary, ColoFinder significantly improves the risk assessment in stage II and III CRC patients. The 9-gene prognostic classifier informs patient prognosis and treatment response.

  4. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder: detecting multidimensional liquid chromatography, ion mobility and mass spectrometry features in complex datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Kevin L; Slysz, Gordon W; Baker, Erin S; LaMarche, Brian L; Monroe, Matthew E; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Payne, Samuel H; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D

    2013-11-01

    The addition of ion mobility spectrometry to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry experiments requires new, or updated, software tools to facilitate data processing. We introduce a command line software application LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder that searches for molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS) data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass, charge state, LC elution time and ion mobility drift time values. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting and quantifying co-eluting chemical species, including species that exist in multiple conformations that may have been separated in the IMS dimension. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is available as a command-line tool for download at http://omics.pnl.gov/software/LC-IMS-MS_Feature_Finder.php. The Microsoft.NET Framework 4.0 is required to run the software. All other dependencies are included with the software package. Usage of this software is limited to non-profit research to use (see README). rds@pnnl.gov. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. Puzzle of the folding potential on the nuclear halo reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Atef; Lee, Yen Cheong; Mahmoud, Z.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Folding potentials of the elastic scattering drip-line nuclei at various incident energies is one method to study nuclear matter density distributions and nuclear radii. The nuclei with density distributions consisting of a bulk (core) and an outer layer (halo), dilute and spatially extended are called the halo nuclei caused for the weak particle binding. Several halo nuclei are studied and many potential candidates are identified. All the cross-sections of the elastic scattering for the drip-line nuclei 11 Be and 6 He, are calculated to understand the exotic properties of these nuclei starting from its structure, extended radius, nuclear size till the large total reaction cross-sections for these nuclei when it interacts with a stable target 12 C. (author)

  6. Halo-independent methods for inelastic dark matter scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Schwetz, Thomas; Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Zupan, Jure

    2013-01-01

    We present halo-independent methods to analyze the results of dark matter direct detection experiments assuming inelastic scattering. We focus on the annual modulation signal reported by DAMA/LIBRA and present three different halo-independent tests. First, we compare it to the upper limit on the unmodulated rate from XENON100 using (a) the trivial requirement that the amplitude of the annual modulation has to be smaller than the bound on the unmodulated rate, and (b) a bound on the annual modulation amplitude based on an expansion in the Earth's velocity. The third test uses the special predictions of the signal shape for inelastic scattering and allows for an internal consistency check of the data without referring to any astrophysics. We conclude that a strong conflict between DAMA/LIBRA and XENON100 in the framework of spin-independent inelastic scattering can be established independently of the local properties of the dark matter halo

  7. Properties of the ISM - Gas in the halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Blair D.

    1990-01-01

    The properties of interstellar gas in the galactic halo are reviewed. Halo gas is found to have a wide range of physical conditions with temperatures ranging from less than 170 K to more than 200,000 K. The gas extending away from the plane of the Milky Way has density scale heights ranging from less than 300 pc for certain species in the neutral medium to approximately 3000 pc for the most highly ionized gas. The complex kinematical characteristics of the gas provides important clues about its origin. The gas phase elemental abundances in the neutral halo gas are closer to solar than is found for the highly depleted gas of the Milky Way disk. The possible origin of gas at large distances away from the galactic plane is discussed.

  8. Halos around ellipticals and the environment dependence of Hubble type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, W.H.; Quinn, P.J.; Salmon, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    It is not surprising that the baryonic material inside the more compact halos will tend to form a more compact, luminous elliptical. What needs to be explained is the difference in the value of the spin parameter (lambda). It might be tempting to speculate that more compact, dense halos have systematically smaller values of lambda. Such an effect is predicted by linear calculations. Our simulations show that it may exist but it appears to be too small compared to the random scatter of the values of lambda and rho to be decisive. It is more likely that the baryonic material has initially similar lambda both in the future spirals and elliptical but compact halos damp out the lambda of the dissipative, baryonic material more readily

  9. Scalability Optimization of Seamless Positioning Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Machaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently positioning services are getting more attention not only within research community but also from service providers. From the service providers point of view positioning service that will be able to work seamlessly in all environments, for example, indoor, dense urban, and rural, has a huge potential to open new markets. However, such system does not only need to provide accurate position estimates but have to be scalable and resistant to fake positioning requests. In the previous works we have proposed a modular system, which is able to provide seamless positioning in various environments. The system automatically selects optimal positioning module based on available radio signals. The system currently consists of three positioning modules—GPS, GSM based positioning, and Wi-Fi based positioning. In this paper we will propose algorithm which will reduce time needed for position estimation and thus allow higher scalability of the modular system and thus allow providing positioning services to higher amount of users. Such improvement is extremely important, for real world application where large number of users will require position estimates, since positioning error is affected by response time of the positioning server.

  10. Algorithmic psychometrics and the scalable subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Luke

    2018-04-01

    Recent public controversies, ranging from the 2014 Facebook 'emotional contagion' study to psychographic data profiling by Cambridge Analytica in the 2016 American presidential election, Brexit referendum and elsewhere, signal watershed moments in which the intersecting trajectories of psychology and computer science have become matters of public concern. The entangled history of these two fields grounds the application of applied psychological techniques to digital technologies, and an investment in applying calculability to human subjectivity. Today, a quantifiable psychological subject position has been translated, via 'big data' sets and algorithmic analysis, into a model subject amenable to classification through digital media platforms. I term this position the 'scalable subject', arguing it has been shaped and made legible by algorithmic psychometrics - a broad set of affordances in digital platforms shaped by psychology and the behavioral sciences. In describing the contours of this 'scalable subject', this paper highlights the urgent need for renewed attention from STS scholars on the psy sciences, and on a computational politics attentive to psychology, emotional expression, and sociality via digital media.

  11. Scalable Simulation of Electromagnetic Hybrid Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perumalla, Kalyan S.; Fujimoto, Richard; Karimabadi, Dr. Homa

    2006-01-01

    New discrete-event formulations of physics simulation models are emerging that can outperform models based on traditional time-stepped techniques. Detailed simulation of the Earth's magnetosphere, for example, requires execution of sub-models that are at widely differing timescales. In contrast to time-stepped simulation which requires tightly coupled updates to entire system state at regular time intervals, the new discrete event simulation (DES) approaches help evolve the states of sub-models on relatively independent timescales. However, parallel execution of DES-based models raises challenges with respect to their scalability and performance. One of the key challenges is to improve the computation granularity to offset synchronization and communication overheads within and across processors. Our previous work was limited in scalability and runtime performance due to the parallelization challenges. Here we report on optimizations we performed on DES-based plasma simulation models to improve parallel performance. The net result is the capability to simulate hybrid particle-in-cell (PIC) models with over 2 billion ion particles using 512 processors on supercomputing platforms

  12. Towards Scalable Graph Computation on Mobile Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqi; Lin, Zhiyuan; Pienta, Robert; Kahng, Minsuk; Chau, Duen Horng

    2014-10-01

    Mobile devices have become increasingly central to our everyday activities, due to their portability, multi-touch capabilities, and ever-improving computational power. Such attractive features have spurred research interest in leveraging mobile devices for computation. We explore a novel approach that aims to use a single mobile device to perform scalable graph computation on large graphs that do not fit in the device's limited main memory, opening up the possibility of performing on-device analysis of large datasets, without relying on the cloud. Based on the familiar memory mapping capability provided by today's mobile operating systems, our approach to scale up computation is powerful and intentionally kept simple to maximize its applicability across the iOS and Android platforms. Our experiments demonstrate that an iPad mini can perform fast computation on large real graphs with as many as 272 million edges (Google+ social graph), at a speed that is only a few times slower than a 13″ Macbook Pro. Through creating a real world iOS app with this technique, we demonstrate the strong potential application for scalable graph computation on a single mobile device using our approach.

  13. Scalable fast multipole accelerated vortex methods

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Qi

    2014-05-01

    The fast multipole method (FMM) is often used to accelerate the calculation of particle interactions in particle-based methods to simulate incompressible flows. To evaluate the most time-consuming kernels - the Biot-Savart equation and stretching term of the vorticity equation, we mathematically reformulated it so that only two Laplace scalar potentials are used instead of six. This automatically ensuring divergence-free far-field computation. Based on this formulation, we developed a new FMM-based vortex method on heterogeneous architectures, which distributed the work between multicore CPUs and GPUs to best utilize the hardware resources and achieve excellent scalability. The algorithm uses new data structures which can dynamically manage inter-node communication and load balance efficiently, with only a small parallel construction overhead. This algorithm can scale to large-sized clusters showing both strong and weak scalability. Careful error and timing trade-off analysis are also performed for the cutoff functions induced by the vortex particle method. Our implementation can perform one time step of the velocity+stretching calculation for one billion particles on 32 nodes in 55.9 seconds, which yields 49.12 Tflop/s.

  14. Computational scalability of large size image dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooper, Rob; Bajcsy, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the computational scalability of image pyramid building needed for dissemination of very large image data. The sources of large images include high resolution microscopes and telescopes, remote sensing and airborne imaging, and high resolution scanners. The term 'large' is understood from a user perspective which means either larger than a display size or larger than a memory/disk to hold the image data. The application drivers for our work are digitization projects such as the Lincoln Papers project (each image scan is about 100-150MB or about 5000x8000 pixels with the total number to be around 200,000) and the UIUC library scanning project for historical maps from 17th and 18th century (smaller number but larger images). The goal of our work is understand computational scalability of the web-based dissemination using image pyramids for these large image scans, as well as the preservation aspects of the data. We report our computational benchmarks for (a) building image pyramids to be disseminated using the Microsoft Seadragon library, (b) a computation execution approach using hyper-threading to generate image pyramids and to utilize the underlying hardware, and (c) an image pyramid preservation approach using various hard drive configurations of Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) drives for input/output operations. The benchmarks are obtained with a map (334.61 MB, JPEG format, 17591x15014 pixels). The discussion combines the speed and preservation objectives.

  15. Towards Scalable Graph Computation on Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqi; Lin, Zhiyuan; Pienta, Robert; Kahng, Minsuk; Chau, Duen Horng

    2015-01-01

    Mobile devices have become increasingly central to our everyday activities, due to their portability, multi-touch capabilities, and ever-improving computational power. Such attractive features have spurred research interest in leveraging mobile devices for computation. We explore a novel approach that aims to use a single mobile device to perform scalable graph computation on large graphs that do not fit in the device's limited main memory, opening up the possibility of performing on-device analysis of large datasets, without relying on the cloud. Based on the familiar memory mapping capability provided by today's mobile operating systems, our approach to scale up computation is powerful and intentionally kept simple to maximize its applicability across the iOS and Android platforms. Our experiments demonstrate that an iPad mini can perform fast computation on large real graphs with as many as 272 million edges (Google+ social graph), at a speed that is only a few times slower than a 13″ Macbook Pro. Through creating a real world iOS app with this technique, we demonstrate the strong potential application for scalable graph computation on a single mobile device using our approach. PMID:25859564

  16. Big data integration: scalability and sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang

    2016-01-26

    Integration of various types of omics data is critically indispensable for addressing most important and complex biological questions. In the era of big data, however, data integration becomes increasingly tedious, time-consuming and expensive, posing a significant obstacle to fully exploit the wealth of big biological data. Here we propose a scalable and sustainable architecture that integrates big omics data through community-contributed modules. Community modules are contributed and maintained by different committed groups and each module corresponds to a specific data type, deals with data collection, processing and visualization, and delivers data on-demand via web services. Based on this community-based architecture, we build Information Commons for Rice (IC4R; http://ic4r.org), a rice knowledgebase that integrates a variety of rice omics data from multiple community modules, including genome-wide expression profiles derived entirely from RNA-Seq data, resequencing-based genomic variations obtained from re-sequencing data of thousands of rice varieties, plant homologous genes covering multiple diverse plant species, post-translational modifications, rice-related literatures, and community annotations. Taken together, such architecture achieves integration of different types of data from multiple community-contributed modules and accordingly features scalable, sustainable and collaborative integration of big data as well as low costs for database update and maintenance, thus helpful for building IC4R into a comprehensive knowledgebase covering all aspects of rice data and beneficial for both basic and translational researches.

  17. The globular cluster-dark matter halo connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2017-12-01

    I present a simple phenomenological model for the observed linear scaling of the stellar mass in old globular clusters (GCs) with z = 0 halo mass in which the stellar mass in GCs scales linearly with progenitor halo mass at z = 6 above a minimum halo mass for GC formation. This model reproduces the observed MGCs-Mhalo relation at z = 0 and results in a prediction for the minimum halo mass at z = 6 required for hosting one GC: Mmin(z = 6) = 1.07 × 109 M⊙. Translated to z = 0, the mean threshold mass is Mhalo(z = 0) ≈ 2 × 1010 M⊙. I explore the observability of GCs in the reionization era and their contribution to cosmic reionization, both of which depend sensitively on the (unknown) ratio of GC birth mass to present-day stellar mass, ξ. Based on current detections of z ≳ 6 objects with M1500 10 are strongly disfavoured; this, in turn, has potentially important implications for GC formation scenarios. Even for low values of ξ, some observed high-z galaxies may actually be GCs, complicating estimates of reionization-era galaxy ultraviolet luminosity functions and constraints on dark matter models. GCs are likely important reionization sources if 5 ≲ ξ ≲ 10. I also explore predictions for the fraction of accreted versus in situ GCs in the local Universe and for descendants of systems at the halo mass threshold of GC formation (dwarf galaxies). An appealing feature of the model presented here is the ability to make predictions for GC properties based solely on dark matter halo merger trees.

  18. The Halo Boundary of Galaxy Clusters in the SDSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Eric; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Sheth, Ravi K. [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Chang, Chihway; Kravtsov, Andrey [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Adhikari, Susmita; Dalal, Neal [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); More, Surhud [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, 277-8583 (Japan); Rozo, Eduardo [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rykoff, Eli, E-mail: ebax@sas.upenn.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, P.O. Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    Analytical models and simulations predict a rapid decline in the halo density profile associated with the transition from the “infalling” regime outside the halo to the “collapsed” regime within the halo. Using data from SDSS, we explore evidence for such a feature in the density profiles of galaxy clusters using several different approaches. We first estimate the steepening of the outer galaxy density profile around clusters, finding evidence for truncation of the halo profile. Next, we measure the galaxy density profile around clusters using two sets of galaxies selected on color. We find evidence of an abrupt change in galaxy colors that coincides with the location of the steepening of the density profile. Since galaxies that have completed orbits within the cluster are more likely to be quenched of star formation and thus appear redder, this abrupt change in galaxy color can be associated with the transition from single-stream to multi-stream regimes. We also use a standard model comparison approach to measure evidence for a “splashback”-like feature, but find that this approach is very sensitive to modeling assumptions. Finally, we perform measurements using an independent cluster catalog to test for potential systematic errors associated with cluster selection. We identify several avenues for future work: improved understanding of the small-scale galaxy profile, lensing measurements, identification of proxies for the halo accretion rate, and other tests. With upcoming data from the DES, KiDS, and HSC surveys, we can expect significant improvements in the study of halo boundaries.

  19. Painting galaxies into dark matter halos using machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shankar; Davé, Romeel; Bassett, Bruce A.

    2018-05-01

    We develop a machine learning (ML) framework to populate large dark matter-only simulations with baryonic galaxies. Our ML framework takes input halo properties including halo mass, environment, spin, and recent growth history, and outputs central galaxy and halo baryonic properties including stellar mass (M*), star formation rate (SFR), metallicity (Z), neutral (H I) and molecular (H_2) hydrogen mass. We apply this to the MUFASA cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, and show that it recovers the mean trends of output quantities with halo mass highly accurately, including following the sharp drop in SFR and gas in quenched massive galaxies. However, the scatter around the mean relations is under-predicted. Examining galaxies individually, at z = 0 the stellar mass and metallicity are accurately recovered (σ ≲ 0.2 dex), but SFR and H I show larger scatter (σ ≳ 0.3 dex); these values improve somewhat at z = 1, 2. Remarkably, ML quantitatively recovers second parameter trends in galaxy properties, e.g. that galaxies with higher gas content and lower metallicity have higher SFR at a given M*. Testing various ML algorithms, we find that none perform significantly better than the others, nor does ensembling improve performance, likely because none of the algorithms reproduce the large observed scatter around the mean properties. For the random forest algorithm, we find that halo mass and nearby (˜200 kpc) environment are the most important predictive variables followed by growth history, while halo spin and ˜Mpc scale environment are not important. Finally we study the impact of additionally inputting key baryonic properties M*, SFR, and Z, as would be available e.g. from an equilibrium model, and show that particularly providing the SFR enables H I to be recovered substantially more accurately.

  20. Three-body halo nuclei in an effective theory framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canham, David L.

    2009-05-20

    The universal properties and structure of halo nuclei composed of two neutrons (2n) and a core are investigated within an effective quantum mechanics framework. We construct an effective interaction potential that exploits the separation of scales in halo nuclei and treat the nucleus as an effective three-body system, which to leading order is described by the large S-wave scattering lengths in the underlying two-body subsystems. The uncertainty from higher orders in the expansion is quantified through theoretical error bands. First, we investigate the possibility to observe excited Efimov states in 2n halo nuclei. Based on the experimental data, {sup 20}C is the only halo nucleus candidate to possibly have an Efimov excited state, with an energy less than 7 keV below the scattering threshold. Second, we study the structure of {sup 20}C and other 2n halo nuclei. In particular, we calculate their matter density form factors, radii, and two-neutron opening angles. We then make a systematic improvement upon these calculations by extending the effective potential to the next-to-leading order. To this order, we require an additional two-body parameter, which we tune to the effective range of the interaction. In addition to range corrections to the 2n halo nuclei results, we show corrections to the Efimov effect in the three-boson system. Furthermore, we explore universality in the linear range corrections to the Efimov spectrum. Finally, we study the scattering of D{sup 0} and D{sup *0} mesons and their antiparticles off the X(3872) in an effective field theory for short-range interactions. We present results for the S-wave scattering amplitude, total interaction cross section and S-wave scattering length. (orig.)

  1. The Halo Boundary of Galaxy Clusters in the SDSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, Eric; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Sheth, Ravi K.; Chang, Chihway; Kravtsov, Andrey; Adhikari, Susmita; Dalal, Neal; More, Surhud; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli

    2017-01-01

    Analytical models and simulations predict a rapid decline in the halo density profile associated with the transition from the “infalling” regime outside the halo to the “collapsed” regime within the halo. Using data from SDSS, we explore evidence for such a feature in the density profiles of galaxy clusters using several different approaches. We first estimate the steepening of the outer galaxy density profile around clusters, finding evidence for truncation of the halo profile. Next, we measure the galaxy density profile around clusters using two sets of galaxies selected on color. We find evidence of an abrupt change in galaxy colors that coincides with the location of the steepening of the density profile. Since galaxies that have completed orbits within the cluster are more likely to be quenched of star formation and thus appear redder, this abrupt change in galaxy color can be associated with the transition from single-stream to multi-stream regimes. We also use a standard model comparison approach to measure evidence for a “splashback”-like feature, but find that this approach is very sensitive to modeling assumptions. Finally, we perform measurements using an independent cluster catalog to test for potential systematic errors associated with cluster selection. We identify several avenues for future work: improved understanding of the small-scale galaxy profile, lensing measurements, identification of proxies for the halo accretion rate, and other tests. With upcoming data from the DES, KiDS, and HSC surveys, we can expect significant improvements in the study of halo boundaries.

  2. Three-body halo nuclei in an effective theory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canham, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The universal properties and structure of halo nuclei composed of two neutrons (2n) and a core are investigated within an effective quantum mechanics framework. We construct an effective interaction potential that exploits the separation of scales in halo nuclei and treat the nucleus as an effective three-body system, which to leading order is described by the large S-wave scattering lengths in the underlying two-body subsystems. The uncertainty from higher orders in the expansion is quantified through theoretical error bands. First, we investigate the possibility to observe excited Efimov states in 2n halo nuclei. Based on the experimental data, 20 C is the only halo nucleus candidate to possibly have an Efimov excited state, with an energy less than 7 keV below the scattering threshold. Second, we study the structure of 20 C and other 2n halo nuclei. In particular, we calculate their matter density form factors, radii, and two-neutron opening angles. We then make a systematic improvement upon these calculations by extending the effective potential to the next-to-leading order. To this order, we require an additional two-body parameter, which we tune to the effective range of the interaction. In addition to range corrections to the 2n halo nuclei results, we show corrections to the Efimov effect in the three-boson system. Furthermore, we explore universality in the linear range corrections to the Efimov spectrum. Finally, we study the scattering of D 0 and D *0 mesons and their antiparticles off the X(3872) in an effective field theory for short-range interactions. We present results for the S-wave scattering amplitude, total interaction cross section and S-wave scattering length. (orig.)

  3. Disc-halo interactions in ΛCDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jacob S.; Widrow, Lawrence M.; Erkal, Denis

    2018-05-01

    We present a new method for embedding a stellar disc in a cosmological dark matter halo and provide a worked example from a Λ cold dark matter zoom-in simulation. The disc is inserted into the halo at a redshift z = 3 as a zero-mass rigid body. Its mass and size are then increased adiabatically while its position, velocity, and orientation are determined from rigid-body dynamics. At z = 1, the rigid disc (RD) is replaced by an N-body disc whose particles sample a three-integral distribution function (DF). The simulation then proceeds to z = 0 with live disc (LD) and halo particles. By comparison, other methods assume one or more of the following: the centre of the RD during the growth phase is pinned to the minimum of the halo potential, the orientation of the RD is fixed, or the live N-body disc is constructed from a two rather than three-integral DF. In general, the presence of a disc makes the halo rounder, more centrally concentrated, and smoother, especially in the innermost regions. We find that methods in which the disc is pinned to the minimum of the halo potential tend to overestimate the amount of adiabatic contraction. Additionally, the effect of the disc on the subhalo distribution appears to be rather insensitive to the disc insertion method. The LD in our simulation develops a bar that is consistent with the bars seen in late-type spiral galaxies. In addition, particles from the disc are launched or `kicked up' to high galactic latitudes.

  4. Parallel 4-Dimensional Cellular Automaton Track Finder for the CBM Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akishina, Valentina; Kisel, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The CBM experiment (FAIR/GSI, Darmstadt, Germany) will focus on the measurement of rare probes at interaction rates up to 10 MHz with data flow of up to 1 TB/s. It requires a novel read-out and data-acquisition concept with self-triggered electronics and free-streaming data. In this case resolving different collisions is not a trivial task and event building must be performed in software online. That requires full online event reconstruction and selection not only in space, but also in time, so-called 4D event building and selection. This is a task of the First-Level Event Selection (FLES). The FLES reconstruction and selection package consists of several modules: track finding, track fitting, short-lived particles finding, event building and event selection. The Cellular Automaton (CA) track finder algorithm was adapted towards time-slice-based reconstruction and included into the CBMROOT framework. In this article, we describe the modification done to the algorithm, as well as the performance of the developed time-based approach. (paper)

  5. Implementation of the data acquisition system for the Overlap Modular Track Finder in the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zabolotny, Wojciech; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian Pawel; Dobosz, Jakub; Doroba, Krzysztof; Pawel Drabik; Gorski, Maciej; Kalinowski, Artur; Kierzkowski, Krzysztof Zdzislaw; Konecki, Marcin Andrzej; Oklinski, Wojciech; Olszewski, Michal; Pozniak, Krzysztof Tadeusz; Zawistowski, Krystian

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment is currently undergoing the upgrade of its trigger, including the Level-1 muon trigger. In the barrel-endcap transition region the Overlap Muon Track Finder (OMTF) combines data from three types of detectors (RPC, DT, and CSC) to find the muon candidates.To monitor the operation of the OMTF, it is important to receive the data which were the basis for the trigger decision. This task must be performed by the Data Acquisition (OMTF DAQ) system.The new MTCA technology applied in the updated trigger allows implementation of the OMTF DAQ together with the OMTF trigger in the MTF7 board. Further concentration of data is performed by standard AMC13 boards.The proposed data concentration methodology assumes parallel filtering and queuing of data arriving from all input links (24 RPC, 30 CSC, and 6 DT). The data are waiting for the trigger decision in the input buffers. The triggered data are then converted into the intermediate 72-bit format and put into the sorter queues. The block responsible for...

  6. Recognition of flow in everyday life using sensor agent robot with laser range finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshima, Misa; Mita, Akira

    2011-04-01

    In the present paper, we suggest an algorithm for a sensor agent robot with a laser range finder to recognize the flows of residents in the living spaces in order to achieve flow recognition in the living spaces, recognition of the number of people in spaces, and the classification of the flows. House reform is or will be demanded to prolong the lifetime of the home. Adaption for the individuals is needed for our aging society which is growing at a rapid pace. Home autonomous mobile robots will become popular in the future for aged people to assist them in various situations. Therefore we have to collect various type of information of human and living spaces. However, a penetration in personal privacy must be avoided. It is essential to recognize flows in everyday life in order to assist house reforms and aging societies in terms of adaption for the individuals. With background subtraction, extra noise removal, and the clustering based k-means method, we got an average accuracy of more than 90% from the behavior from 1 to 3 persons, and also confirmed the reliability of our system no matter the position of the sensor. Our system can take advantages from autonomous mobile robots and protect the personal privacy. It hints at a generalization of flow recognition methods in the living spaces.

  7. Can a More User-Friendly Medicare Plan Finder Improve Consumers' Selection of Medicare Plans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Steven C; Kanouse, David E; Miranda, David J; Elliott, Marc N

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy for consumers of two potential enhancements to the Medicare Plan Finder (MPF)-a simplified data display and a "quick links" home page designed to match the specific tasks that users seek to accomplish on the MPF. Participants (N = 641) were seniors and adult caregivers of seniors who were recruited from a national online panel. Participants browsed a simulated version of the MPF, made a hypothetical plan choice, and reported on their experience. Participants were randomly assigned to one of eight conditions in a fully factorial design: 2 home pages (quick links, current MPF home page) × 2 data displays (simplified, current MPF display) × 2 plan types (stand-alone prescription drug plan [PDP], Medicare Advantage plan with prescription drug coverage [MA-PD]). The quick links page resulted in more favorable perceptions of the MPF, improved users' understanding of the information, and increased the probability of choosing the objectively best plan. The simplified data display resulted in a more favorable evaluation of the website, better comprehension of the displayed information, and, among those choosing a PDP only, an increased probability of choosing the best plan. Design enhancements could markedly improve average website users' understanding, ability to use, and experience of using the MPF. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. Forest Fire Finder - DOAS application to long-range forest fire detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente de Almeida, Rui; Vieira, Pedro

    2017-06-01

    Fires are an important factor in shaping Earth's ecosystems. Plant and animal life, in almost every land habitat, are at least partially dependent on the effects of fire. However, their destructive force, which has often proven uncontrollable, is one of our greatest concerns, effectively resulting in several policies in the most important industrialised regions of the globe. This paper aims to comprehensively characterise the Forest Fire Finder (FFF), a forest fire detection system based mainly upon a spectroscopic technique called differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The system is designed and configured with the goal of detecting higher-than-the-horizon smoke columns by measuring and comparing scattered sunlight spectra. The article covers hardware and software, as well as their interactions and specific algorithms for day mode operation. An analysis of data retrieved from several installations deployed in the course of the last 5 years is also presented. Finally, this paper features a discussion on the most prominent future improvements planned for the system, as well as its ramifications and adaptations, such as a thermal imaging system for short-range fire seeking or environmental quality control.

  9. Selection Finder (SelFi: A computational metabolic engineering tool to enable directed evolution of enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Hassanpour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Directed evolution of enzymes consists of an iterative process of creating mutant libraries and choosing desired phenotypes through screening or selection until the enzymatic activity reaches a desired goal. The biggest challenge in directed enzyme evolution is identifying high-throughput screens or selections to isolate the variant(s with the desired property. We present in this paper a computational metabolic engineering framework, Selection Finder (SelFi, to construct a selection pathway from a desired enzymatic product to a cellular host and to couple the pathway with cell survival. We applied SelFi to construct selection pathways for four enzymes and their desired enzymatic products xylitol, D-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, methanol, and aniline. Two of the selection pathways identified by SelFi were previously experimentally validated for engineering Xylose Reductase and RuBisCO. Importantly, SelFi advances directed evolution of enzymes as there is currently no known generalized strategies or computational techniques for identifying high-throughput selections for engineering enzymes.

  10. Human Splicing Finder: an online bioinformatics tool to predict splicing signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, François-Olivier; Hamroun, Dalil; Lalande, Marine; Collod-Béroud, Gwenaëlle; Claustres, Mireille; Béroud, Christophe

    2009-05-01

    Thousands of mutations are identified yearly. Although many directly affect protein expression, an increasing proportion of mutations is now believed to influence mRNA splicing. They mostly affect existing splice sites, but synonymous, non-synonymous or nonsense mutations can also create or disrupt splice sites or auxiliary cis-splicing sequences. To facilitate the analysis of the different mutations, we designed Human Splicing Finder (HSF), a tool to predict the effects of mutations on splicing signals or to identify splicing motifs in any human sequence. It contains all available matrices for auxiliary sequence prediction as well as new ones for binding sites of the 9G8 and Tra2-beta Serine-Arginine proteins and the hnRNP A1 ribonucleoprotein. We also developed new Position Weight Matrices to assess the strength of 5' and 3' splice sites and branch points. We evaluated HSF efficiency using a set of 83 intronic and 35 exonic mutations known to result in splicing defects. We showed that the mutation effect was correctly predicted in almost all cases. HSF could thus represent a valuable resource for research, diagnostic and therapeutic (e.g. therapeutic exon skipping) purposes as well as for global studies, such as the GEN2PHEN European Project or the Human Variome Project.

  11. P-Finder: Reconstruction of Signaling Networks from Protein-Protein Interactions and GO Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Rae Cho; Yanan Xin; Speegle, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Because most complex genetic diseases are caused by defects of cell signaling, illuminating a signaling cascade is essential for understanding their mechanisms. We present three novel computational algorithms to reconstruct signaling networks between a starting protein and an ending protein using genome-wide protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks and gene ontology (GO) annotation data. A signaling network is represented as a directed acyclic graph in a merged form of multiple linear pathways. An advanced semantic similarity metric is applied for weighting PPIs as the preprocessing of all three methods. The first algorithm repeatedly extends the list of nodes based on path frequency towards an ending protein. The second algorithm repeatedly appends edges based on the occurrence of network motifs which indicate the link patterns more frequently appearing in a PPI network than in a random graph. The last algorithm uses the information propagation technique which iteratively updates edge orientations based on the path strength and merges the selected directed edges. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms achieve higher accuracy than previous methods when they are tested on well-studied pathways of S. cerevisiae. Furthermore, we introduce an interactive web application tool, called P-Finder, to visualize reconstructed signaling networks.

  12. Lightning Radio Source Retrieval Using Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    A linear algebraic solution is provided for the problem of retrieving the location and time of occurrence of lightning ground strikes from an Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) network. The ALDF network measures field strength, magnetic bearing and arrival time of lightning radio emissions. Solutions for the plane (i.e., no Earth curvature) are provided that implement all of tile measurements mentioned above. Tests of the retrieval method are provided using computer-simulated data sets. We also introduce a quadratic planar solution that is useful when only three arrival time measurements are available. The algebra of the quadratic root results are examined in detail to clarify what portions of the analysis region lead to fundamental ambiguities in source location. Complex root results are shown to be associated with the presence of measurement errors when the lightning source lies near an outer sensor baseline of the ALDF network. In the absence of measurement errors, quadratic root degeneracy (no source location ambiguity) is shown to exist exactly on the outer sensor baselines for arbitrary non-collinear network geometries. The accuracy of the quadratic planar method is tested with computer generated data sets. The results are generally better than those obtained from the three station linear planar method when bearing errors are about 2 deg. We also note some of the advantages and disadvantages of these methods over the nonlinear method of chi(sup 2) minimization employed by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and discussed in Cummins et al.(1993, 1995, 1998).

  13. APPLICATION OF FUZZY LOGIC BASED APPAREL SIZE FINDER IN ONLINE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMIR Murat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of online retailing has been one of the most significant developments in business history. Altough proportion of apparel sales in online retailing also has been shown rapid increase, there are some significant barriers to overcome for expanding this market share. It is seen in literature that there are many researchers point out that finding right size apparel is the one of the most significant problems in online retailing. There are many study to solve this problem but still there is not an exact solution yet. Creating 3D avatars for virtual try on or scanning body measurements of consumers have been used to solved this problem but any study has not come up with a reliable solution. In this study, a fuzzy logic based apparel size finder website is proposed. The benefits and working princible of this website are also explained. In this website, both of consumers and retailers can create a profile page for sharing products or following each other. Once consumers follow a profile of retailer, they can see the right size of any shared apparel. On the other hand, retailers can also directly send message to certain users for certain size apparel. This system brings advantages for both parties. Consumers can reach the correct size of apparel and retailers can reach to target customer. It is assumed that creating website alike this or application of existing online retailers will help to reduce return in apparel online retailing as well as it may help to expand online retailing.

  14. Bose-Einstein condensate haloes embedded in dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membrado, M.; Pacheco, A. F.

    2018-04-01

    Context. We have studied clusters of self-gravitating collisionless Newtonian bosons in their ground state and in the presence of the cosmological constant to model dark haloes of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. Aim. We aim to analyse the influence of the cosmological constant on the structure of these systems. Observational data of Milky Way dSph galaxies allow us to estimate the boson mass. Methods: We obtained the energy of the ground state of the cluster in the Hartree approximation by solving a variational problem in the particle density. We have also developed and applied the virial theorem. Dark halo models were tested in a sample of 19 galaxies. Galaxy radii, 3D deprojected half-light radii, mass enclosed within them, and luminosity-weighted averages of the square of line-of-sight velocity dispersions are used to estimate the particle mass. Results: Cosmological constant repulsive effects are embedded in one parameter ξ. They are appreciable for ξ > 10-5. Bound structures appear for ξ ≤ ξc = 1.65 × 10-4, what imposes a lower bound for cluster masses as a function of the particle mass. In principle, these systems present tunnelling through a potential barrier; however, after estimating their mean lifes, we realize that their existence is not affected by the age of the Universe. When Milky Way dSph galaxies are used to test the model, we obtain 3.5-1.0+1.3 × 10-22 eV for the particle mass and a lower limit of 5.1-2.8+2.2 × 106 M⊙ for bound haloes. Conclusions: Our estimation for the boson mass is in agreement with other recent results which use different methods. From our particle mass estimation, the treated dSph galaxies would present dark halo masses 5-11 ×107 M⊙. With these values, they would not be affected by the cosmological constant (ξ 10-5) would already feel their effects. Our model that includes dark energy allows us to deal with these dark haloes. Assuming quantities averaged in the sample of galaxies, 10-5 < ξ ≤ ξc dark

  15. Dynamical Constraints On The Galaxy-Halo Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Harry

    2017-07-01

    Dark matter halos comprise the bulk of the universe's mass, yet must be probed by the luminous galaxies that form within them. A key goal of modern astrophysics, therefore, is to robustly relate the visible and dark mass, which to first order means relating the properties of galaxies and halos. This may be expected not only to improve our knowledge of galaxy formation, but also to enable high-precision cosmological tests using galaxies and hence maximise the utility of future galaxy surveys. As halos are inaccessible to observations - as galaxies are to N-body simulations - this relation requires an additional modelling step.The aim of this thesis is to develop and evaluate models of the galaxy-halo connection using observations of galaxy dynamics. In particular, I build empirical models based on the technique of halo abundance matching for five key dynamical scaling relations of galaxies - the Tully-Fisher, Faber-Jackson, mass-size and mass discrepancy-acceleration relations, and Fundamental Plane - which relate their baryon distributions and rotation or velocity dispersion profiles. I then develop a statistical scheme based on approximate Bayesian computation to compare the predicted and measured values of a number of summary statistics describing the relations' important features. This not only provides quantitative constraints on the free parameters of the models, but also allows absolute goodness-of-fit measures to be formulated. I find some features to be naturally accounted for by an abundance matching approach and others to impose new constraints on the galaxy-halo connection; the remainder are challenging to account for and may imply galaxy-halo correlations beyond the scope of basic abundance matching.Besides providing concrete statistical tests of specific galaxy formation theories, these results will be of use for guiding the inputs of empirical and semi-analytic galaxy formation models, which require galaxy-halo correlations to be imposed by hand. As

  16. Mismatch and misalignment: dark haloes and satellites of disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, A. J.; McCarthy, I. G.; Font, A. S.; Evans, N. W.; Frenk, C. S.; Belokurov, V.; Libeskind, N. I.; Crain, R. A.; Theuns, T.

    2011-08-01

    We study the phase-space distribution of satellite galaxies associated with late-type galaxies in the GIMIC suite of simulations. GIMIC consists of resimulations of five cosmologically representative regions from the Millennium Simulation, which have higher resolution and incorporate baryonic physics. Whilst the disc of the galaxy is well aligned with the inner regions (r˜ 0.1r200) of the dark matter halo, both in shape and angular momentum, there can be substantial misalignments at larger radii (r˜r200). Misalignments of >45° are seen in ˜30 per cent of our sample. We find that the satellite population aligns with the shape (and angular momentum) of the outer dark matter halo. However, the alignment with the galaxy is weak owing to the mismatch between the disc and dark matter halo. Roughly 20 per cent of the satellite systems with 10 bright galaxies within r200 exhibit a polar spatial alignment with respect to the galaxy - an orientation reminiscent of the classical satellites of the Milky Way. We find that a small fraction (˜10 per cent) of satellite systems show evidence for rotational support which we attribute to group infall. There is a bias towards satellites on prograde orbits relative to the spin of the dark matter halo (and to a lesser extent with the angular momentum of the disc). This preference towards co-rotation is stronger in the inner regions of the halo where the most massive satellites accreted at relatively early times are located. We attribute the anisotropic spatial distribution and angular momentum bias of the satellites at z= 0 to their directional accretion along the major axes of the dark matter halo. The satellite galaxies have been accreted relatively recently compared to the dark matter mass and have experienced less phase-mixing and relaxation - the memory of their accretion history can remain intact to z= 0. Understanding the phase-space distribution of the z= 0 satellite population is key for studies that estimate the host halo

  17. FASHIONABLY LATE? BUILDING UP THE MILKY WAY'S INNER HALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; Helmi, Amina

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of 246 metal-poor stars (RR Lyraes, red giants, and red horizontal branch stars) which is remarkable for the accuracy of its six-dimensional kinematical data, we find, by examining the distribution of stellar orbital angular momenta, a new component for the local halo which has an axial ratio c/a ∼ 0.2, a similar flattening to the thick disk. It has a small prograde rotation but is supported by velocity anisotropy, and contains more intermediate-metallicity stars (with -1.5 < [Fe/H] < -1.0) than the rest of our sample. We suggest that this component was formed quite late, during or after the formation of the disk. It formed either from the gas that was accreted by the last major mergers experienced by the Galaxy, or by dynamical friction of massive infalling satellite(s) with the halo and possibly the stellar disk or thick disk. The remainder of the halo stars in our sample, which are less closely confined to the disk plane, exhibit a clumpy distribution in energy and angular momentum, suggesting that the early, chaotic conditions under which the inner halo formed were not violent enough to erase the record of their origins. The clumpy structure suggests that a relatively small number of progenitors were responsible for building up the inner halo, in line with theoretical expectations. We find a difference in mean binding energy between the RR Lyrae variables and the red giants in our sample, suggesting that more of the RR Lyraes in the sample belong to the outer halo, and that the outer halo may be somewhat younger, as first suggested by Searle and Zinn. We also find that the RR Lyrae mean rotation is more negative than the red giants, which is consistent with the recent result of Carollo et al. that the outer halo has a retrograde rotation and with the difference in kinematics seen between RR Lyraes and blue horizontal branch stars by Kinman et al. (2007).

  18. Black Hole Space-time In Dark Matter Halo

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhaoyi; Hou, Xian; Gong, Xiaobo; Wang, Jiancheng

    2018-01-01

    For the first time, we obtain the analytical form of black hole space-time metric in dark matter halo for the stationary situation. Using the relation between the rotation velocity (in the equatorial plane) and the spherical symmetric space-time metric coefficient, we obtain the space-time metric for pure dark matter. By considering the dark matter halo in spherical symmetric space-time as part of the energy-momentum tensors in the Einstein field equation, we then obtain the spherical symmetr...

  19. Probing the shape and internal structure of dark matter haloes with the halo-shear-shear three-point correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Yoshida, Naoki

    2018-04-01

    Weak lensing three-point statistics are powerful probes of the structure of dark matter haloes. We propose to use the correlation of the positions of galaxies with the shapes of background galaxy pairs, known as the halo-shear-shear correlation (HSSC), to measure the mean halo ellipticity and the abundance of subhaloes in a statistical manner. We run high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations and use the outputs to measure the HSSC for galaxy haloes and cluster haloes. Non-spherical haloes cause a characteristic azimuthal variation of the HSSC, and massive subhaloes in the outer region near the virial radius contribute to ˜ 10 per cent of the HSSC amplitude. Using the HSSC and its covariance estimated from our N-body simulations, we make forecast for constraining the internal structure of dark matter haloes with future galaxy surveys. With 1000 galaxy groups with mass greater than 1013.5 h-1M⊙, the average halo ellipticity can be measured with an accuracy of 10 percent. A spherical, smooth mass distribution can be ruled out at a ˜5σ significance level. The existence of subhaloes whose masses are in 1-10 percent of the main halo mass can be detected with ˜104 galaxies/clusters. We conclude that the HSSC provides valuable information on the structure of dark haloes and hence on the nature of dark matter.

  20. Toward a Combined SAGE II-HALOE Aerosol Climatology: An Evaluation of HALOE Version 19 Stratospheric Aerosol Extinction Coefficient Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, L. W.

    2012-01-01

    Herein, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) aerosol extinction coefficient data is evaluated in the low aerosol loading period after 1996 as the first necessary step in a process that will eventually allow the production of a combined HALOE/SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) aerosol climatology of derived aerosol products including surface area density. Based on these analyses, it is demonstrated that HALOE's 3.46 microns is of good quality above 19 km and suitable for scientific applications above that altitude. However, it is increasingly suspect at lower altitudes and should not be used below 17 km under any circumstances after 1996. The 3.40 microns is biased by about 10% throughout the lower stratosphere due to the failure to clear NO2 but otherwise appears to be a high quality product down to 15 km. The 2.45 and 5.26 micron aerosol extinction coefficient measurements are clearly biased and should not be used for scientific applications after the most intense parts of the Pinatubo period. Many of the issues in the aerosol data appear to be related to either the failure to clear some interfering gas species or doing so poorly. For instance, it is clear that the 3.40micronaerosol extinction coefficient measurements can be improved through the inclusion of an NO2 correction and could, in fact, end up as the highest quality overall HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient measurement. It also appears that the 2.45 and 5.26 micron channels may be improved by updating the Upper Atmosphere Pilot Database which is used as a resource for the removal of gas species otherwise not available from direct HALOE measurements. Finally, a simple model to demonstrate the promise of mixed visible/infrared aerosol extinction coefficient ensembles for the retrieval of bulk aerosol properties demonstrates that a combined HALOE/SAGE II aerosol climatology is feasible and may represent a substantial improvement over independently derived data sets.

  1. Stellar Velocity Dispersion: Linking Quiescent Galaxies to their Dark Matter Halos

    OpenAIRE

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Sohn, Jubee; Geller, Margaret J.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the Illustris-1 hydrodynamical cosmological simulation to explore the stellar velocity dispersion of quiescent galaxies as an observational probe of dark matter halo velocity dispersion and mass. Stellar velocity dispersion is proportional to dark matter halo velocity dispersion for both central and satellite galaxies. The dark matter halos of central galaxies are in virial equilibrium and thus the stellar velocity dispersion is also proportional to dark matter halo mass. This prop...

  2. Resolution of vitiligo following excision of halo congenital melanocytic nevus: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Wang, Zhi; Huang, Weiqing

    2016-05-01

    Halo congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN) associated with vitiligo is rare, especially with regard to CMN excision. Only two reports of excision of halo CMN following repigmentation of vitiligo are found in the literature. We present a case of a girl with halo CMN and periorbital vitiligo. The halo CMN was excised and followed by spontaneous improvement of vitiligo. The result suggests excision of the inciting lesion may be a promising way to control vitiligo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Research Note--Should Consumers Use the Halo to Form Product Evaluations?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Boatwright; Ajay Kalra; Wei Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In purchase situations where attribute information is either missing or difficult to judge, a well-known heuristic that consumers use to form evaluations is the halo effect. The psychology literature has widely considered the halo a reflection of consumers' inability to discriminate between different attributes and have therefore labeled it the "halo error" or the "logical error." The objective of this paper is to offer a rationale for the halo effect. We use a decision-theory framework to sh...

  4. De bepaling van halo-azijnzuren, chloriet en chloraat in drinkwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters RJB; van de Meer-Arp KKM; Versteegh JFM

    1990-01-01

    A method was developed to determine halo-acetic acids with a detection limit of 0.1 mug/L. Halo-acetic acids were determined in samples drinking water derived from surface- and bankfiltrated water however, not in drinking water derived from groundwater. Halo-acetic acids were found in chlorinated

  5. 77 FR 75672 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ..., Notice of Registration, Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc. By Notice dated July 30, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on August 7, 2012, 77 FR 47114, Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc., 30 North Jefferson Road... 21 U.S.C. 823(a), and determined that the registration of Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc., to manufacture...

  6. 77 FR 16264 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Halo Pharmaceutical Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ..., Notice of Registration; Halo Pharmaceutical Inc. By Notice dated December 2, 2011, and published in the Federal Register on December 14, 2011, 76 FR 77850, Halo Pharmaceutical Inc., 30 North Jefferson Road... considered the factors in 21 U.S.C. 823(a) and determined that the registration of Halo Pharmaceutical Inc...

  7. Scalable conditional induction variables (CIV) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oancea, Cosmin Eugen; Rauchwerger, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    parallelizing compiler and evaluated its impact on five Fortran benchmarks. We have found that that there are many important loops using CIV subscripts and that our analysis can lead to their scalable parallelization. This in turn has led to the parallelization of the benchmark programs they appear in.......Subscripts using induction variables that cannot be expressed as a formula in terms of the enclosing-loop indices appear in the low-level implementation of common programming abstractions such as filter, or stack operations and pose significant challenges to automatic parallelization. Because...... the complexity of such induction variables is often due to their conditional evaluation across the iteration space of loops we name them Conditional Induction Variables (CIV). This paper presents a flow-sensitive technique that summarizes both such CIV-based and affine subscripts to program level, using the same...

  8. Scalable Faceted Ranking in Tagging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlicki, José I.; Alvarez-Hamelin, J. Ignacio; Fierens, Pablo I.

    Nowadays, web collaborative tagging systems which allow users to upload, comment on and recommend contents, are growing. Such systems can be represented as graphs where nodes correspond to users and tagged-links to recommendations. In this paper we analyze the problem of computing a ranking of users with respect to a facet described as a set of tags. A straightforward solution is to compute a PageRank-like algorithm on a facet-related graph, but it is not feasible for online computation. We propose an alternative: (i) a ranking for each tag is computed offline on the basis of tag-related subgraphs; (ii) a faceted order is generated online by merging rankings corresponding to all the tags in the facet. Based on the graph analysis of YouTube and Flickr, we show that step (i) is scalable. We also present efficient algorithms for step (ii), which are evaluated by comparing their results with two gold standards.

  9. A graph algebra for scalable visual analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaverdian, Anna A; Zhou, Hao; Michailidis, George; Jagadish, Hosagrahar V

    2012-01-01

    Visual analytics (VA), which combines analytical techniques with advanced visualization features, is fast becoming a standard tool for extracting information from graph data. Researchers have developed many tools for this purpose, suggesting a need for formal methods to guide these tools' creation. Increased data demands on computing requires redesigning VA tools to consider performance and reliability in the context of analysis of exascale datasets. Furthermore, visual analysts need a way to document their analyses for reuse and results justification. A VA graph framework encapsulated in a graph algebra helps address these needs. Its atomic operators include selection and aggregation. The framework employs a visual operator and supports dynamic attributes of data to enable scalable visual exploration of data.

  10. Parallel scalability of Hartree-Fock calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edmond; Liu, Xing; Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Hammond, Jeff R.

    2015-03-01

    Quantum chemistry is increasingly performed using large cluster computers consisting of multiple interconnected nodes. For a fixed molecular problem, the efficiency of a calculation usually decreases as more nodes are used, due to the cost of communication between the nodes. This paper empirically investigates the parallel scalability of Hartree-Fock calculations. The construction of the Fock matrix and the density matrix calculation are analyzed separately. For the former, we use a parallelization of Fock matrix construction based on a static partitioning of work followed by a work stealing phase. For the latter, we use density matrix purification from the linear scaling methods literature, but without using sparsity. When using large numbers of nodes for moderately sized problems, density matrix computations are network-bandwidth bound, making purification methods potentially faster than eigendecomposition methods.

  11. iSIGHT-FD scalability test report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clay, Robert L.; Shneider, Max S.

    2008-07-01

    The engineering analysis community at Sandia National Laboratories uses a number of internal and commercial software codes and tools, including mesh generators, preprocessors, mesh manipulators, simulation codes, post-processors, and visualization packages. We define an analysis workflow as the execution of an ordered, logical sequence of these tools. Various forms of analysis (and in particular, methodologies that use multiple function evaluations or samples) involve executing parameterized variations of these workflows. As part of the DART project, we are evaluating various commercial workflow management systems, including iSIGHT-FD from Engineous. This report documents the results of a scalability test that was driven by DAKOTA and conducted on a parallel computer (Thunderbird). The purpose of this experiment was to examine the suitability and performance of iSIGHT-FD for large-scale, parameterized analysis workflows. As the results indicate, we found iSIGHT-FD to be suitable for this type of application.

  12. Scalable group level probabilistic sparse factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrich, Jesper Løve; Nielsen, Søren Føns Vind; Riis, Nicolai Andre Brogaard

    2017-01-01

    Many data-driven approaches exist to extract neural representations of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, but most of them lack a proper probabilistic formulation. We propose a scalable group level probabilistic sparse factor analysis (psFA) allowing spatially sparse maps, component...... pruning using automatic relevance determination (ARD) and subject specific heteroscedastic spatial noise modeling. For task-based and resting state fMRI, we show that the sparsity constraint gives rise to components similar to those obtained by group independent component analysis. The noise modeling...... shows that noise is reduced in areas typically associated with activation by the experimental design. The psFA model identifies sparse components and the probabilistic setting provides a natural way to handle parameter uncertainties. The variational Bayesian framework easily extends to more complex...

  13. Scalable on-chip quantum state tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titchener, James G.; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Solntsev, Alexander S.; Szameit, Alexander; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum information systems are on a path to vastly exceed the complexity of any classical device. The number of entangled qubits in quantum devices is rapidly increasing, and the information required to fully describe these systems scales exponentially with qubit number. This scaling is the key benefit of quantum systems, however it also presents a severe challenge. To characterize such systems typically requires an exponentially long sequence of different measurements, becoming highly resource demanding for large numbers of qubits. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel and scalable method for characterizing quantum systems based on expanding a multi-photon state to larger dimensionality. We establish that the complexity of this new measurement technique only scales linearly with the number of qubits, while providing a tomographically complete set of data without a need for reconfigurability. We experimentally demonstrate an integrated photonic chip capable of measuring two- and three-photon quantum states with statistical reconstruction fidelity of 99.71%.

  14. A versatile scalable PET processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, H.; Weisenberger, A.; McKisson, J.; Wenze, Xi; Cuevas, C.; Wilson, J.; Zukerman, L.

    2011-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) historically has major clinical and preclinical applications in cancerous oncology, neurology, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, in a new direction, an application specific PET system is being developed at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with Duke University, University of Maryland at Baltimore (UMAB), and West Virginia University (WVU) targeted for plant eco-physiology research. The new plant imaging PET system is versatile and scalable such that it could adapt to several plant imaging needs - imaging many important plant organs including leaves, roots, and stems. The mechanical arrangement of the detectors is designed to accommodate the unpredictable and random distribution in space of the plant organs without requiring the plant be disturbed. Prototyping such a system requires a new data acquisition system (DAQ) and data processing system which are adaptable to the requirements of these unique and versatile detectors.

  15. The Concept of Business Model Scalability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten

    2015-01-01

    The power of business models lies in their ability to visualize and clarify how firms’ may configure their value creation processes. Among the key aspects of business model thinking are a focus on what the customer values, how this value is best delivered to the customer and how strategic partners...... are leveraged in this value creation, delivery and realization exercise. Central to the mainstream understanding of business models is the value proposition towards the customer and the hypothesis generated is that if the firm delivers to the customer what he/she requires, then there is a good foundation...... for a long-term profitable business. However, the message conveyed in this article is that while providing a good value proposition may help the firm ‘get by’, the really successful businesses of today are those able to reach the sweet-spot of business model scalability. This article introduces and discusses...

  16. The scalable coherent interface, IEEE P1596

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    IEEE P1596, the scalable coherent interface (formerly known as SuperBus) is based on experience gained while developing Fastbus (ANSI/IEEE 960--1986, IEC 935), Futurebus (IEEE P896.x) and other modern 32-bit buses. SCI goals include a minimum bandwidth of 1 GByte/sec per processor in multiprocessor systems with thousands of processors; efficient support of a coherent distributed-cache image of distributed shared memory; support for repeaters which interface to existing or future buses; and support for inexpensive small rings as well as for general switched interconnections like Banyan, Omega, or crossbar networks. This paper presents a summary of current directions, reports the status of the work in progress, and suggests some applications in data acquisition and physics

  17. Scalable quantum search using trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, S. S.; Ivanov, P. A.; Linington, I. E.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a scalable implementation of Grover's quantum search algorithm in a trapped-ion quantum information processor. The system is initialized in an entangled Dicke state by using adiabatic techniques. The inversion-about-average and oracle operators take the form of single off-resonant laser pulses. This is made possible by utilizing the physical symmetries of the trapped-ion linear crystal. The physical realization of the algorithm represents a dramatic simplification: each logical iteration (oracle and inversion about average) requires only two physical interaction steps, in contrast to the large number of concatenated gates required by previous approaches. This not only facilitates the implementation but also increases the overall fidelity of the algorithm.

  18. Scalable graphene aptasensors for drug quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnubhotla, Ramya; Ping, Jinglei; Gao, Zhaoli; Lee, Abigail; Saouaf, Olivia; Vrudhula, Amey; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    2017-11-01

    Simpler and more rapid approaches for therapeutic drug-level monitoring are highly desirable to enable use at the point-of-care. We have developed an all-electronic approach for detection of the HIV drug tenofovir based on scalable fabrication of arrays of graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) functionalized with a commercially available DNA aptamer. The shift in the Dirac voltage of the GFETs varied systematically with the concentration of tenofovir in deionized water, with a detection limit less than 1 ng/mL. Tests against a set of negative controls confirmed the specificity of the sensor response. This approach offers the potential for further development into a rapid and convenient point-of-care tool with clinically relevant performance.

  19. Scalable Transactions for Web Applications in the Cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, W.; Pierre, G.E.O.; Chi, C.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Cloud Computing platforms provide scalability and high availability properties for web applications but they sacrifice data consistency at the same time. However, many applications cannot afford any data inconsistency. We present a scalable transaction manager for NoSQL cloud database services to

  20. New Complexity Scalable MPEG Encoding Techniques for Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Mietens

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Complexity scalability offers the advantage of one-time design of video applications for a large product family, including mobile devices, without the need of redesigning the applications on the algorithmic level to meet the requirements of the different products. In this paper, we present complexity scalable MPEG encoding having core modules with modifications for scalability. The interdependencies of the scalable modules and the system performance are evaluated. Experimental results show scalability giving a smooth change in complexity and corresponding video quality. Scalability is basically achieved by varying the number of computed DCT coefficients and the number of evaluated motion vectors but other modules are designed such they scale with the previous parameters. In the experiments using the “Stefan” sequence, the elapsed execution time of the scalable encoder, reflecting the computational complexity, can be gradually reduced to roughly 50% of its original execution time. The video quality scales between 20 dB and 48 dB PSNR with unity quantizer setting, and between 21.5 dB and 38.5 dB PSNR for different sequences targeting 1500 kbps. The implemented encoder and the scalability techniques can be successfully applied in mobile systems based on MPEG video compression.

  1. Building scalable apps with Redis and Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Johanan, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    If the phrase scalability sounds alien to you, then this is an ideal book for you. You will not need much Node.js experience as each framework is demonstrated in a way that requires no previous knowledge of the framework. You will be building scalable Node.js applications in no time! Knowledge of JavaScript is required.

  2. Does the galaxy-halo connection vary with environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomir, Radu; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Primack, Joel R.; Lee, Christoph T.

    2018-05-01

    (Sub)halo abundance matching (SHAM) assumes that one (sub) halo property, such as mass Mvir or peak circular velocity Vpeak, determines properties of the galaxy hosted in each (sub) halo such as its luminosity or stellar mass. This assumption implies that the dependence of galaxy luminosity functions (GLFs) and the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) on environmental density is determined by the corresponding halo density dependence. In this paper, we test this by determining from a Sloan Digital Sky Survey sample the observed dependence with environmental density of the ugriz GLFs and GSMF for all galaxies, and for central and satellite galaxies separately. We then show that the SHAM predictions are in remarkable agreement with these observations, even when the galaxy population is divided between central and satellite galaxies. However, we show that SHAM fails to reproduce the correct dependence between environmental density and g - r colour for all galaxies and central galaxies, although it better reproduces the colour dependence on environmental density of satellite galaxies.

  3. Large-scale assembly bias of dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazeyras, Titouan; Musso, Marcello; Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: titouan@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: mmusso@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: fabians@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    We present precise measurements of the assembly bias of dark matter halos, i.e. the dependence of halo bias on other properties than the mass, using curved 'separate universe' N-body simulations which effectively incorporate an infinite-wavelength matter overdensity into the background density. This method measures the LIMD (local-in-matter-density) bias parameters b {sub n} in the large-scale limit. We focus on the dependence of the first two Eulerian biases b {sup E} {sup {sub 1}} and b {sup E} {sup {sub 2}} on four halo properties: the concentration, spin, mass accretion rate, and ellipticity. We quantitatively compare our results with previous works in which assembly bias was measured on fairly small scales. Despite this difference, our findings are in good agreement with previous results. We also look at the joint dependence of bias on two halo properties in addition to the mass. Finally, using the excursion set peaks model, we attempt to shed new insights on how assembly bias arises in this analytical model.

  4. Constraining the Galaxy's dark halo with RAVE stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piffl, T.; Binney, J.; McMillan, P. J.; Steinmetz, M.; Helmi, A.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Freeman, K.; Gibson, B.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Kordopatis, G.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q.; Reid, W. A.; Seabroke, G.; Siebert, A.; Watson, F.; Zwitter, T.

    2014-01-01

    We use the kinematics of ˜200 000 giant stars that lie within ˜1.5 kpc of the plane to measure the vertical profile of mass density near the Sun. We find that the dark mass contained within the isodensity surface of the dark halo that passes through the Sun ((6 ± 0.9) × 1010 M⊙), and the surface

  5. The Disk Mass Project: breaking the disk-halo degeneracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Swaters, Rob A.; Andersen, David R.; Westfall, Kyle B.; DE JONG, R. S.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the content and distribution of dark matter in spiral galaxies. To break the degeneracy in galaxy rotation curve decompositions, which allows a wide range of dark matter halo density profiles, an independent measure of the mass surface density of stellar disks is needed. Here,

  6. Giant Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters as Probes of Particle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Giant radio halos in galaxy clusters probe mechanisms of particle acceleration connected with cluster merger events. Shocks and turbulence are driven in the inter-galactic medium (IGM) during clusters mergers and may have a deep impact on the non-thermal properties of galaxy clusters. Models of ...

  7. Spin alignment of dark matter halos in filaments and walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The MMF technique is used to segment the cosmic web as seen in a cosmological N-body simulation into wall-like and filament-like structures. We find that the spins and shapes of dark matter halos are significantly correlated with each other and with the orientation of their host structures. The

  8. Spin alignment of dark matter haloes in filaments and walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragón-Calvo, M. A.; Weygaert, R. van de; Jones, B. J. T.; Hulst, T. van der

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: The MMF technique is used to segment the cosmic web as seen in a cosmological N-body simulation into wall-like and filament-like structures. We find that the spins and shapes of dark matter haloes are significantly correlated with each other and with the orientation of their host

  9. Test of internal halo targets in the HERA proton ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hast, C.; Hofmann, W.; Khan, S.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Reber, M.; Rieling, J.; Spahn, M.; Spengler, J.; Lohse, T.; Pugatch, V.

    1995-01-01

    Internal wire targets in the halo of stored proton beams provide a line source of proton-nucleus interactions for highest-rate fixed target experiments. We have studied such internal halo targets at the 820 GeV proton ring of the HERA ep collider. The tests showed that most of the protons in the beam halo - which would otherwise hit the collimators - can be brought to interaction in a relatively thin target wire at distances of 7 to 8 beam widths from the center of the beam. At less than 10% of the HERA total design current, and less than 20% of the current per bunch, interaction rates up to 8 MHz were observed, corresponding to more than 2 interactions per bunch crossing. The halo targets were used in parallel to the HERA luminosity operation; no significant disturbances of the HERA ep experiments, of the machine stability or beam quality were observed. We present data on the steady-state and transient behaviour of interaction rates and discuss the interpretation in terms of a simple beam dynamics model. Issues of short-, medium- and long-term rate fluctuations and of rate stabilization by feedback are addressed. ((orig.))

  10. Matting of Hair Due to Halo-egg Shampoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z M Mani

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of hair matting in an 18 year old female is reported. The hair got densely entangled immediately after washing the hair with ′Halo Egg′ shampoo. The hair was disentangled completely after prolonged dipping of the hair in arachis oil frr 5 days.

  11. Two distinct halo populations in the solar neighborhood. IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, P. E.; Schuster, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate if there is a difference in the lithium abundances of stars belonging to two halo populations of F and G main-sequence stars previously found to differ in [alpha/Fe] for the metallicity range -1.4 < [Fe/H] < -0.7. Li abundances are derived from the LiI 6707.8 A line measured in hig...

  12. The reversed halo sign: update and differential diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, M C B; Viswanathan, C; Marchiori, E; Truong, M T; Benveniste, M F; Rossi, S; Marom, E M

    2012-01-01

    The reversed halo sign is characterised by a central ground-glass opacity surrounded by denser air–space consolidation in the shape of a crescent or a ring. It was first described on high-resolution CT as being specific for cryptogenic organising pneumonia. Since then, the reversed halo sign has been reported in association with a wide range of pulmonary diseases, including invasive pulmonary fungal infections, paracoccidioidomycosis, pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, community-acquired pneumonia, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, Wegener granulomatosis, lipoid pneumonia and sarcoidosis. It is also seen in pulmonary neoplasms and infarction, and following radiation therapy and radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary malignancies. In this article, we present the spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases that may show the reversed halo sign and offer helpful clues for assisting in the differential diagnosis. By integrating the patient's clinical history with the presence of the reversed halo sign and other accompanying radiological findings, the radiologist should be able to narrow the differential diagnosis substantially, and may be able to provide a presumptive final diagnosis, which may obviate the need for biopsy in selected cases, especially in the immunosuppressed population. PMID:22553298

  13. Test of internal halo targets in the HERA proton ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hast, C.; Hofmann, W.; Khan, S.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Reber, M.; Rieling, J.; Spahn, M.; Spengler, J.; Lohse, T.; Pugatch, V.

    1994-07-01

    Internal wire targets in the halo of stored proton beams provide a line source of proton-nucleus interactions for highest-rate fixed target experiments. We have studied such internal halo targets at the 820 GeV proton ring of the HERA ep collider. The tests showed that most of the protons in the beam halo - which would otherwise hit the collimators - can be brought to interaction in a relatively thin target wire at distances of 7 to 8 beam widths from the center of the beam. At less than 10% of the HERA total design current, and less than 20% of the current per bunch, interaction rates up to 8 MHz were observed, corresponding to more than 2 interactions per bunch crossing. The halo targets were used in parallel to the HERA luminosity operation; no significant disturbances of the HERA ep experiments, of the machine stability or beam quality were observed. We present data on the steady-state and transient behaviour of interaction rates and discuss the interpretation in terms of a simple beam dynamics model. Issues of short-, medium- and long-term rate fluctuations and of rate stabilization by feedback are addressed. (orig.)

  14. The prolate shape of the galactic dark-matter halo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, A; Spooner, NJC; Kudryavtsev,

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of dark-matter in our Galaxy plays a crucial role in the interpretation of dark-matter detection experiments. I will argue here that probably the best way of constraining the properties of the dark-matter halo is through astrophysical observations. These provide

  15. Prospects for detecting supersymmetric dark matter in the Galactic halo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springel, V.; White, S. D. M.; Frenk, C. S.; Navarro, J. F.; Jenkins, A.; Vogelsberger, M.; Wang, J.; Ludlow, A.; Helmi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Dark matter is the dominant form of matter in the Universe, but its nature is unknown. It is plausibly an elementary particle, perhaps the lightest supersymmetric partner of known particle species(1). In this case, annihilation of dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way should produce gamma-rays at

  16. The Galactic Halo in Mixed Dark Matter Cosmologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderhalden, D.; Diemand, J.; Bertone, G.; Macciò, A.V.; Schneider, A.

    2012-01-01

    A possible solution to the small scale problems of the cold dark matter (CDM) scenario is that the dark matter consists of two components, a cold and a warm one. We perform a set of high resolution simulations of the Milky Way halo varying the mass of the WDM particle (mWDM) and the cosmic dark

  17. IDENTIFYING STAR STREAMS IN THE MILKY WAY HALO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Charles III; Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: cking@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    We develop statistical methods for identifying star streams in the halo of the Milky Way that exploit observed spatial and radial velocity distributions. Within a great circle, departures of the observed spatial distribution from random provide a measure of the likelihood of a potential star stream. Comparisons between the radial velocity distribution within a great circle and the radial velocity distribution of the entire sample also measure the statistical significance of potential streams. The radial velocities enable construction of a more powerful joint statistical test for identifying star streams in the Milky Way halo. Applying our method to halo stars in the Hypervelocity Star (HVS) survey, we detect the Sagittarius stream at high significance. Great circle counts and comparisons with theoretical models suggest that the Sagittarius stream comprises 10%-17% of the halo stars in the HVS sample. The population of blue stragglers and blue horizontal branch stars varies along the stream and is a potential probe of the distribution of stellar populations in the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy prior to disruption.

  18. IDENTIFYING STAR STREAMS IN THE MILKY WAY HALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Charles III; Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    We develop statistical methods for identifying star streams in the halo of the Milky Way that exploit observed spatial and radial velocity distributions. Within a great circle, departures of the observed spatial distribution from random provide a measure of the likelihood of a potential star stream. Comparisons between the radial velocity distribution within a great circle and the radial velocity distribution of the entire sample also measure the statistical significance of potential streams. The radial velocities enable construction of a more powerful joint statistical test for identifying star streams in the Milky Way halo. Applying our method to halo stars in the Hypervelocity Star (HVS) survey, we detect the Sagittarius stream at high significance. Great circle counts and comparisons with theoretical models suggest that the Sagittarius stream comprises 10%-17% of the halo stars in the HVS sample. The population of blue stragglers and blue horizontal branch stars varies along the stream and is a potential probe of the distribution of stellar populations in the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy prior to disruption.

  19. Influence of "Halo" and "Demon" Effects in Subjective Grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Gerald D.

    1983-01-01

    The phenomenon of "halo" effects in subjective grading was investigated. Two groups of three raters evaluated 20 term papers in introductory psychology. Term paper grades correlated significantly with course grades when information about previous academic performance was made available. When this information was not available, the…

  20. Halo nuclei studied by relativistic mean-field approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuca, S.

    1997-01-01

    Density distributions of light neutron-rich nuclei are studied by using the relativistic mean-field approach. The effective interaction which parameterizes the recent Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculations of nuclear matter is used. The results are discussed and compared with the experimental observations with special reference to the neutron halo in the drip-line nuclei. (author)

  1. Haloes and clustering in light, neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, N.A.

    2001-10-01

    Clustering is a relatively widespread phenomenon which takes on many guises across the nuclear landscape. Selected topics concerning the study of halo systems and clustering in light, neutron-rich nuclei are discussed here through illustrative examples taken from the Be isotopic chain. (author)

  2. Fourier transform based scalable image quality measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwaria, Manish; Lin, Weisi; McLoughlin, Ian; Emmanuel, Sabu; Chia, Liang-Tien

    2012-08-01

    We present a new image quality assessment (IQA) algorithm based on the phase and magnitude of the 2D (twodimensional) Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). The basic idea is to compare the phase and magnitude of the reference and distorted images to compute the quality score. However, it is well known that the Human Visual Systems (HVSs) sensitivity to different frequency components is not the same. We accommodate this fact via a simple yet effective strategy of nonuniform binning of the frequency components. This process also leads to reduced space representation of the image thereby enabling the reduced-reference (RR) prospects of the proposed scheme. We employ linear regression to integrate the effects of the changes in phase and magnitude. In this way, the required weights are determined via proper training and hence more convincing and effective. Lastly, using the fact that phase usually conveys more information than magnitude, we use only the phase for RR quality assessment. This provides the crucial advantage of further reduction in the required amount of reference image information. The proposed method is therefore further scalable for RR scenarios. We report extensive experimental results using a total of 9 publicly available databases: 7 image (with a total of 3832 distorted images with diverse distortions) and 2 video databases (totally 228 distorted videos). These show that the proposed method is overall better than several of the existing fullreference (FR) algorithms and two RR algorithms. Additionally, there is a graceful degradation in prediction performance as the amount of reference image information is reduced thereby confirming its scalability prospects. To enable comparisons and future study, a Matlab implementation of the proposed algorithm is available at http://www.ntu.edu.sg/home/wslin/reduced_phase.rar.

  3. Improving diabetes medication adherence: successful, scalable interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullig LL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leah L Zullig,1,2 Walid F Gellad,3,4 Jivan Moaddeb,2,5 Matthew J Crowley,1,2 William Shrank,6 Bradi B Granger,7 Christopher B Granger,8 Troy Trygstad,9 Larry Z Liu,10 Hayden B Bosworth1,2,7,11 1Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 3Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion, Pittsburgh Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 4Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 5Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 6CVS Caremark Corporation; 7School of Nursing, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 8Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA; 9North Carolina Community Care Networks, Raleigh, NC, USA; 10Pfizer, Inc., and Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA; 11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Effective medications are a cornerstone of prevention and disease treatment, yet only about half of patients take their medications as prescribed, resulting in a common and costly public health challenge for the US healthcare system. Since poor medication adherence is a complex problem with many contributing causes, there is no one universal solution. This paper describes interventions that were not only effective in improving medication adherence among patients with diabetes, but were also potentially scalable (ie, easy to implement to a large population. We identify key characteristics that make these interventions effective and scalable. This information is intended to inform healthcare systems seeking proven, low resource, cost-effective solutions to improve medication adherence. Keywords: medication adherence, diabetes mellitus, chronic disease, dissemination research

  4. Scalable and Media Aware Adaptive Video Streaming over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Pesquet-Popescu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an advanced video streaming system based on scalable video coding in order to optimize resource utilization in wireless networks with retransmission mechanisms at radio protocol level. The key component of this system is a packet scheduling algorithm which operates on the different substreams of a main scalable video stream and which is implemented in a so-called media aware network element. The concerned type of transport channel is a dedicated channel subject to parameters (bitrate, loss rate variations on the long run. Moreover, we propose a combined scalability approach in which common temporal and SNR scalability features can be used jointly with a partitioning of the image into regions of interest. Simulation results show that our approach provides substantial quality gain compared to classical packet transmission methods and they demonstrate how ROI coding combined with SNR scalability allows to improve again the visual quality.

  5. Factors Influencing Depression Endpoints Research (FINDER: baseline results of Italian patients with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grassi Luigi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors Influencing Depression Endpoints Research (FINDER is a 6-month, prospective, observational study carried out in 12 European countries aimed at investigating health-related quality of life (HRQoL in outpatients receiving pharmacological treatment for a first or new depressive episode. Baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in Italy are presented. Methods All treatment decisions were at the discretion of the investigator. Data were collected at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Baseline evaluations included demographics, medical and psychiatric history, and medications used in the last 24 months and prescribed at enrolment. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, was adopted to evaluate depressive symptoms, while somatic and painful physical symptoms were assessed by using the Somatic Symptom Inventory (SSI and a 0 to 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS, HRQoL via 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36, and the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D instrument. Results A total of 513 patients were recruited across 38 sites. The mean ± standard deviation (SD age at first depressive episode was 38.7 ± 15.9 years, the mean duration of depression 10.6 ± 12.3 years. The most common psychiatric comorbidities in the previous 24 months were anxiety/panic (72.6% and obsessive/compulsive disorders (13.4%, while 35.9% had functional somatic syndromes. Most patients (65.1% reported pain from any cause. Monotherapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs was prescribed at enrolment in 64.5% and 6.4% of the cases, respectively. The most commonly prescribed agents were sertraline (17.3%, escitalopram (16.2%, venlaflaxine (15.6% and paroxetine (14.8%. The mean HADS subscores for depression and anxiety were 13.3 ± 4.2 and 12.2 ± 3.9, respectively; 76.4% of patients could be defined as being 'probable cases' for depression and 66.2% for anxiety. The

  6. AsteroidFinder - the space-borne telescope to search for NEO Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, M.; Mosebach, H.; Schubert, J.; Michaelis, H.; Mottola, S.; Kührt, E.; Schindler, K.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the mission profile as well as the optical configuration of the space-borne AsteroidFinder telescope. Its main objective is to retrieve asteroids with orbits interior to the earth's orbit. The instrument requires high sensitivity to detect asteroids with a limiting magnitude of equal or larger than 18.5mag (V-Band) and astrometric accuracy of 1arcsec (1σ). This requires a telescope aperture greater than 400cm2, high image stability, detector with high quantum efficiency (peak > 90%) and very low noise, which is only limited by zodiacal background. The telescope will observe the sky between 30° and 60° in solar elongation. The telescope optics is based on a Cook type TMA. An effective 2°×2° field of view (FOV) is achieved by a fast F/3.4 telescope with near diffraction-limited performance. The absence of centre obscuration or spiders in combination with an accessible intermediate field plane and exit pupil allow for efficient stray light mitigation. Design drivers for the telescope are the required point spread function (PSF) values, an extremely efficient stray light suppression (due to the magnitude requirement mentioned above), the detector performance, and the overall optical and mechanical stability for all orientations of the satellite. To accommodate the passive thermal stabilization scheme and the necessary structural stability, the materials selection for the telescope main structure and the mirrors are of vital importance. A focal plane with four EMCCD detectors is envisaged. The EMCCD technology features shorter integration times, which is in favor regarding the pointing performance of the satellite. The launch of the mission is foreseen for the year 2013 with a subsequent mission lifetime of at least 1 year.

  7. Theory and modelling of the magnetic field measurement in LISA PathFinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Aguilo, M; Garcia-Berro, E [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, c/Esteve Terrades, 5, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Lobo, A, E-mail: marc.diaz.aguilo@fa.upc.ed [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, c/Gran Capita 2-4, Edif. Nexus 104, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-02-07

    The magnetic diagnostics subsystem of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) on board the LISA PathFinder (LPF) spacecraft includes a set of four tri-axial fluxgate magnetometers, intended to measure with high precision the magnetic field at their respective positions. However, their readouts do not provide a direct measurement of the magnetic field at the positions of the test masses, and hence an interpolation method must be designed and implemented to obtain the values of the magnetic field at these positions. However, such an interpolation process faces serious difficulties. Indeed, the size of the interpolation region is excessive for a linear interpolation to be reliable while, on the other hand, the number of magnetometer channels do not provide sufficient data to go beyond the linear approximation. We describe an alternative method to address this issue, by means of neural network algorithms. The key point in this approach is the ability of neural networks to learn from suitable training data representing the behaviour of the magnetic field. Despite the relatively large distance between the test masses and the magnetometers, and the insufficient number of data channels, we find that our artificial neural network algorithm is able to reduce the estimation errors of the field and gradient down to levels below 10%, a quite satisfactory result. Learning efficiency can be best improved by making use of data obtained in on-ground measurements prior to mission launch in all relevant satellite locations and in real operation conditions. Reliable information on that appears to be essential for a meaningful assessment of magnetic noise in the LTP.

  8. Theory and modelling of the magnetic field measurement in LISA PathFinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Aguilo, M; Garcia-Berro, E; Lobo, A

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic diagnostics subsystem of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) on board the LISA PathFinder (LPF) spacecraft includes a set of four tri-axial fluxgate magnetometers, intended to measure with high precision the magnetic field at their respective positions. However, their readouts do not provide a direct measurement of the magnetic field at the positions of the test masses, and hence an interpolation method must be designed and implemented to obtain the values of the magnetic field at these positions. However, such an interpolation process faces serious difficulties. Indeed, the size of the interpolation region is excessive for a linear interpolation to be reliable while, on the other hand, the number of magnetometer channels do not provide sufficient data to go beyond the linear approximation. We describe an alternative method to address this issue, by means of neural network algorithms. The key point in this approach is the ability of neural networks to learn from suitable training data representing the behaviour of the magnetic field. Despite the relatively large distance between the test masses and the magnetometers, and the insufficient number of data channels, we find that our artificial neural network algorithm is able to reduce the estimation errors of the field and gradient down to levels below 10%, a quite satisfactory result. Learning efficiency can be best improved by making use of data obtained in on-ground measurements prior to mission launch in all relevant satellite locations and in real operation conditions. Reliable information on that appears to be essential for a meaningful assessment of magnetic noise in the LTP.

  9. Unsynchronized scanning with a low-cost laser range finder for real-time range imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Isa; Nakhmani, Arie

    2017-06-01

    Range imaging plays an essential role in many fields: 3D modeling, robotics, heritage, agriculture, forestry, reverse engineering. One of the most popular range-measuring technologies is laser scanner due to its several advantages: long range, high precision, real-time measurement capabilities, and no dependence on lighting conditions. However, laser scanners are very costly. Their high cost prevents widespread use in applications. Due to the latest developments in technology, now, low-cost, reliable, faster, and light-weight 1D laser range finders (LRFs) are available. A low-cost 1D LRF with a scanning mechanism, providing the ability of laser beam steering for additional dimensions, enables to capture a depth map. In this work, we present an unsynchronized scanning with a low-cost LRF to decrease scanning period and reduce vibrations caused by stop-scan in synchronized scanning. Moreover, we developed an algorithm for alignment of unsynchronized raw data and proposed range image post-processing framework. The proposed technique enables to have a range imaging system for a fraction of the price of its counterparts. The results prove that the proposed method can fulfill the need for a low-cost laser scanning for range imaging for static environments because the most significant limitation of the method is the scanning period which is about 2 minutes for 55,000 range points (resolution of 250x220 image). In contrast, scanning the same image takes around 4 minutes in synchronized scanning. Once faster, longer range, and narrow beam LRFs are available, the methods proposed in this work can produce better results.

  10. Development and validation of the Overlap Muon Track Finder for the CMS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobosz, J.; Mietki, P.; Zawistowski, K.; Żarnecki, G.

    2016-09-01

    Present article is a description of the authors contribution in upgrade and analysis of performance of the Level-1 Muon Trigger of the CMS experiment. The authors are students of University of Warsaw and Gdansk University of Technology. They are collaborating with the CMS Warsaw Group. This article summarises students' work presented during the Students session during the Workshop XXXVIII-th IEEE-SPIE Joint Symposium Wilga 2016. In the first section the CMS experiment is briefly described and the importance of the trigger system is explained. There is also shown basic difference between old muon trigger strategy and the upgraded one. The second section is devoted to Overlap Muon Track Finder (OMTF). This is one of the crucial components of the Level-1 Muon Trigger. The algorithm of OMTF is described. In the third section there is discussed one of the event selection aspects - cut on the muon transverse momentum pT . Sometimes physical muon with pT bigger than a certain threshold is unnecessarily cut and physical muon with lower pT survives. To improve pT selection modified algorithm was proposed and its performance was studied. One of the features of the OMTF is that one physical muon often results in several muon candidates. The Ghost-Buster algorithm is designed to eliminate surplus candidates. In the fourth section this algorithm and its performance on different data samples are discussed. In the fifth section Local Data Acquisition System (Local DAQ) is briefly described. It supports initial system commissioning. The test done with OMTF Local DAQ are described. In the sixth section there is described development of web application used for the control and monitoring of CMS electronics. The application provides access to graphical user interface for manual control and the connection to the CMS hierarchical Run Control.

  11. FluReF, an automated flu virus reassortment finder based on phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurovsky, Alisa; Moret, Bernard M E

    2011-01-01

    Reassortments are events in the evolution of the genome of influenza (flu), whereby segments of the genome are exchanged between different strains. As reassortments have been implicated in major human pandemics of the last century, their identification has become a health priority. While such identification can be done "by hand" on a small dataset, researchers and health authorities are building up enormous databases of genomic sequences for every flu strain, so that it is imperative to develop automated identification methods. However, current methods are limited to pairwise segment comparisons. We present FluReF, a fully automated flu virus reassortment finder. FluReF is inspired by the visual approach to reassortment identification and uses the reconstructed phylogenetic trees of the individual segments and of the full genome. We also present a simple flu evolution simulator, based on the current, source-sink, hypothesis for flu cycles. On synthetic datasets produced by our simulator, FluReF, tuned for a 0% false positive rate, yielded false negative rates of less than 10%. FluReF corroborated two new reassortments identified by visual analysis of 75 Human H3N2 New York flu strains from 2005-2008 and gave partial verification of reassortments found using another bioinformatics method. FluReF finds reassortments by a bottom-up search of the full-genome and segment-based phylogenetic trees for candidate clades--groups of one or more sampled viruses that are separated from the other variants from the same season. Candidate clades in each tree are tested to guarantee confidence values, using the lengths of key edges as well as other tree parameters; clades with reassortments must have validated incongruencies among segment trees. FluReF demonstrates robustness of prediction for geographically and temporally expanded datasets, and is not limited to finding reassortments with previously collected sequences. The complete source code is available from http://lcbb.epfl.ch/software.html.

  12. STOCHASTIC MODEL OF THE SPIN DISTRIBUTION OF DARK MATTER HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Juhan [Center for Advanced Computation, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Heogiro 85, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yun-Young [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sungsoo S.; Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    We employ a stochastic approach to probing the origin of the log-normal distributions of halo spin in N-body simulations. After analyzing spin evolution in halo merging trees, it was found that a spin change can be characterized by a stochastic random walk of angular momentum. Also, spin distributions generated by random walks are fairly consistent with those directly obtained from N-body simulations. We derived a stochastic differential equation from a widely used spin definition and measured the probability distributions of the derived angular momentum change from a massive set of halo merging trees. The roles of major merging and accretion are also statistically analyzed in evolving spin distributions. Several factors (local environment, halo mass, merging mass ratio, and redshift) are found to influence the angular momentum change. The spin distributions generated in the mean-field or void regions tend to shift slightly to a higher spin value compared with simulated spin distributions, which seems to be caused by the correlated random walks. We verified the assumption of randomness in the angular momentum change observed in the N-body simulation and detected several degrees of correlation between walks, which may provide a clue for the discrepancies between the simulated and generated spin distributions in the voids. However, the generated spin distributions in the group and cluster regions successfully match the simulated spin distribution. We also demonstrated that the log-normality of the spin distribution is a natural consequence of the stochastic differential equation of the halo spin, which is well described by the Geometric Brownian Motion model.

  13. The Mass and Absorption Columns of Galactic Gaseous Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhijie; Bregman, Joel N.

    2018-01-01

    The gaseous halo surrounding the galaxy is a reservoir for the gas on the galaxy disk, supplying materials for the star formation. We developed a gaseous halo model connecting the galactic disk and the gaseous halo by assuming the star formation rate is equal to the radiative cooling rate. Besides the single-phase collisional gaseous halo, we also consider the photoionization effect and a time-independent cooling model that assumes the mass cooling rate is constant over all temperatures. The photoionization dominates the low mass galaxy and the outskirts of the massive galaxy due to the low-temperature or low-density nature. The multi-phase cooling model dominates the denser region within the cooling radius, where the efficient radiative cooling must be included. Applying these two improvements, our model can reproduce the most of observed high ionization state ions (i.e., O VI, O VII, Ne VIII and Mg X). Our models show that the O VI column density is almost a constant of around 10^14 cm^-2 over a wide stellar mass from M_\\star ~10^8 M_Sun to 10^11 M_Sun, which is constant with current observations. This model also implies the O VI is photoionized for the galaxy with a halo mass fraction function of the EAGLE simulation. Finally, our model predicts plateaus of the Ne VIII and the Mg X column densities above the sub-L^* galaxy, and the possibly detectable O VII and O VIII column densities for low-mass galaxies, which help to determine the required detection limit for the future observations and missions.

  14. Study of fusion probabilities with halo nuclei using different proximity based potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, Raj

    2013-01-01

    We study fusion of halo nuclei with heavy targets using proximity based potentials due to Aage Winther (AW) 95, Bass 80 and Proximity 2010. In order to consider the extended matter distribution of halo nuclei, the nuclei radii borrowed from cross section measurements are included in these potentials. Our study reveals that the barrier heights are effectively reduced and fusion cross sections are appreciably enhanced by including extended radii of these nuclei. We also find that the extended sizes of halos contribute towards enhancement of fusion probabilities in case of proton halo nuclei, but, contribute to transfer or break-up process rather than fusion yield in case of neutron halo nuclei

  15. ZOMG - III. The effect of halo assembly on the satellite population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaldi, Enrico; Romano-Díaz, Emilio; Borzyszkowski, Mikolaj; Porciani, Cristiano

    2018-01-01

    We use zoom hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the properties of satellites within galaxy-sized dark-matter haloes with different assembly histories. We consider two classes of haloes at redshift z = 0: 'stalled' haloes that assembled at z > 1 and 'accreting' ones that are still forming nowadays. Previously, we showed that the stalled haloes are embedded within thick filaments of the cosmic web, while the accreting ones lie where multiple thin filaments converge. We find that satellites in the two classes have both similar and different properties. Their mass spectra, radial count profiles, baryonic and stellar content, and the amount of material they shed are indistinguishable. However, the mass fraction locked in satellites is substantially larger for the accreting haloes as they experience more mergers at late times. The largest difference is found in the satellite kinematics. Substructures fall towards the accreting haloes along quasi-radial trajectories whereas an important tangential velocity component is developed, before accretion, while orbiting the filament that surrounds the stalled haloes. Thus, the velocity anisotropy parameter of the satellites (β) is positive for the accreting haloes and negative for the stalled ones. This signature enables us to tentatively categorize the Milky Way halo as stalled based on a recent measurement of β. Half of our haloes contain clusters of satellites with aligned orbital angular momenta corresponding to flattened structures in space. These features are not driven by baryonic physics and are only found in haloes hosting grand-design spiral galaxies, independently of their assembly history.

  16. A diffusive model for halo width growth during vertical displacement events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidietis, N.W.; Humphreys, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The electromagnetic loads produced by halo currents during vertical displacement events (VDEs) impose stringent requirements on the strength of ITER in-vessel components. A predictive understanding of halo current evolution is essential for ensuring the robust design of these components. A significant factor determining that evolution is the plasma resistance, which is a function of three quantities: the resistivities of the core and halo regions, and the halo region width. A diffusive model of halo width growth during VDEs has been developed, which provides one part of a physics basis for predictive halo current simulations. The diffusive model was motivated by DIII-D observations that VDEs with cold post-thermal quench plasma and a current decay time much faster than the vertical motion (type I VDE) possess much wider halo region widths than warmer plasma VDEs, where the current decay is much slower than the vertical motion (type II). A 2D finite element code is used to model the diffusion of toroidal halo current during selected type I and type II DIII-D VDEs. The model assumes a core plasma region within the last closed flux surface (LCFS) diffusing current into a halo plasma filling the vessel outside the LCFS. LCFS motion and plasma temperature are prescribed from experimental observations. The halo width evolution produced by this model compares favourably with experimental measurements of type I and type II toroidal halo current width evolution.

  17. Close correlation between the reaction mechanism and inner structure of loosely halo-nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianye; Tianshui Normal Univ., Tianshui; National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou; Guo Wenjun; Ren Zhongzhou; National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou; Xing Yongzhong; National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou

    2006-01-01

    It was based on the comparisons of the variance properties of fragment multiplicities FM's and nuclear stoppings R's for the neutron-halo colliding system with those of FZ's and R's for the proton-halo colliding system with the increases of beam energy in more detail, the closely correlations between the reaction mechanism and the inner structures of halo-nuclei is found. From above comparisons it is found that the variance properties of fragment multiplicities and nuclear stopping with the increases of beam energy are quite different for the neutron-halo and proton halo colliding systems, such as the effects of loosely bound neutron-halo structure on the fragment multiplicities and nuclear stopping are obviously larger than those for the proton-halo colliding system. This is due to that the structures of halo-neutron nucleus 11 Li is more loosely than that of the proton-halo nucleus 23 Al. In this case, the fragment multiplicity and nuclear stopping of halo nuclei may be used as a possible probe for studying the reaction mechanism and the correlation between the reaction mechanism and the inner structure of halo-nuclei. (authors)

  18. Detection of Hot Halo Gets Theory Out of Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected an extensive halo of hot gas around a quiescent spiral galaxy. This discovery is evidence that galaxies like our Milky Way are still accumulating matter from the gradual inflow of intergalactic gas. "What we are likely witnessing here is the ongoing galaxy formation process," said Kristian Pedersen of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and lead author of a report on the discovery. Chandra observations show that the hot halo extends more than 60,000 light years on either side of the disk of the galaxy known as NGC 5746. The detection of such a large halo alleviates a long-standing problem for the theory of galaxy formation. Spiral galaxies are thought to form from enormous clouds of intergalactic gas that collapse to form giant, spinning disks of stars and gas. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 One prediction of this theory is that large spiral galaxies should be immersed in halos of hot gas left over from the galaxy formation process. Hot gas has been detected around spiral galaxies in which vigorous star formation is ejecting matter from the galaxy, but until now hot halos due to infall of intergalactic matter have not been detected. "Our observations solve the mystery of the missing hot halos around spiral galaxies," said Pedersen. "The halos exist, but are so faint that an extremely sensitive telescope such as Chandra is needed to detect them." DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 NGC 5746 is a massive spiral galaxy about a 100 million light years from Earth. Its disk of stars and gas is viewed almost edge-on. The galaxy shows no signs of unusual star formation, or energetic activity from its nuclear region, making it unlikely that the hot halo is produced by gas flowing out of the galaxy. "We targeted NGC 5746 because we thought its distance and orientation would give us the best chance to detect a hot halo caused by the infall of

  19. A new type of cascading synchronization for halo-chaos and its potential for communication applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing; Yu Xinghuo

    2004-01-01

    Study of beam halo-chaos has become a key issue of concern for many future important applications. Control of halo-chaos has been researched intensively. This is the first time that the synchronization of beam halo-chaos has been realized in this field so far. Two nonlinear feedback control methods are proposed for the cascading synchronizing halo-chaos in coupled lattices of a periodic focusing channel. The simulation results show that the methods are effective. The realization of the synchronization of beam halo-chaos is significant not only for halo-chaos control itself but also for halo-chaos-based secure communication which may become an innovative technique

  20. Halo histories versus Galaxy properties at z = 0 - I. The quenching of star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Conroy, Charlie; Mao, Yao-Yuan

    2017-12-01

    We test whether halo age and galaxy age are correlated at fixed halo and galaxy mass. The formation histories, and thus ages, of dark matter haloes correlate with their large-scale density ρ, an effect known as assembly bias. We test whether this correlation extends to galaxies by measuring the dependence of galaxy stellar age on ρ. To clarify the comparison between theory and observation, and to remove the strong environmental effects on satellites, we use galaxy group catalogues to identify central galaxies and measure their quenched fraction, fQ, as a function of large-scale environment. Models that match halo age to central galaxy age predict a strong positive correlation between fQ and ρ. However, we show that the amplitude of this effect depends on the definition of halo age: assembly bias is significantly reduced when removing the effects of splashback haloes - those haloes that are central but have passed through a larger halo or experienced strong tidal encounters. Defining age using halo mass at its peak value rather than current mass removes these effects. In Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, at M* ≳ 1010 M⊙ h-2, there is a ∼5 per cent increase in fQ from low-to-high densities, which is in agreement with predictions of dark matter haloes using peak halo mass. At lower stellar mass there is little to no correlation of fQ with ρ. For these galaxies, age matching is inconsistent with the data across the range of halo formation metrics that we tested. This implies that halo formation history has a small but statistically significant impact on quenching of star formation at high masses, while the quenching process in low-mass central galaxies is uncorrelated with halo formation history.

  1. Scale dependence of halo and galaxy bias: Effects in real space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Robert E.; Scoccimarro, Roman; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the scale dependence of dark matter halo and galaxy clustering on very large scales (0.01 -1 ] -1 ] -1 ], and only show amplification on smaller scales, whereas low mass haloes show strong, ∼5%-10%, suppression over the range 0.05 -1 ]<0.15. These results were primarily established through the use of the cross-power spectrum of dark matter and haloes, which circumvents the thorny issue of shot-noise correction. The halo-halo power spectrum, however, is highly sensitive to the shot-noise correction; we show that halo exclusion effects make this sub-Poissonian and a new correction is presented. Our results have special relevance for studies of the baryon acoustic oscillation features in the halo power spectra. Nonlinear mode-mode coupling: (i) damps these features on progressively larger scales as halo mass increases; (ii) produces small shifts in the positions of the peaks and troughs which depend on halo mass. We show that these effects on halo clustering are important over the redshift range relevant to such studies (0< z<2), and so will need to be accounted for when extracting information from precision measurements of galaxy clustering. Our analytic model is described in the language of the ''halo model.'' The halo-halo clustering term is propagated into the nonlinear regime using ''1-loop'' perturbation theory and a nonlinear halo bias model. Galaxies are then inserted into haloes through the halo occupation distribution. We show that, with nonlinear bias parameters derived from simulations, this model produces predictions that are qualitatively in agreement with our numerical results. We then use it to show that the power spectra of red and blue galaxies depend differently on scale, thus underscoring the fact that proper modeling of nonlinear bias parameters will be crucial to derive reliable cosmological constraints. In addition to showing that the bias on very large scales is not simply linear, the model also shows that the halo-halo and halo

  2. Oracle database performance and scalability a quantitative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Henry H

    2011-01-01

    A data-driven, fact-based, quantitative text on Oracle performance and scalability With database concepts and theories clearly explained in Oracle's context, readers quickly learn how to fully leverage Oracle's performance and scalability capabilities at every stage of designing and developing an Oracle-based enterprise application. The book is based on the author's more than ten years of experience working with Oracle, and is filled with dependable, tested, and proven performance optimization techniques. Oracle Database Performance and Scalability is divided into four parts that enable reader

  3. Scalable-to-lossless transform domain distributed video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Ukhanova, Ann; Veselov, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is a novel approach providing new features as low complexity encoding by mainly exploiting the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of decoder side information. In this paper, scalable-tolossless DVC is presented based on extending a lossy Tran...... codec provides frame by frame encoding. Comparing the lossless coding efficiency, the proposed scalable-to-lossless TDWZ video codec can save up to 5%-13% bits compared to JPEG LS and H.264 Intra frame lossless coding and do so as a scalable-to-lossless coding....

  4. Design issues for numerical libraries on scalable multicore architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heroux, M A

    2008-01-01

    Future generations of scalable computers will rely on multicore nodes for a significant portion of overall system performance. At present, most applications and libraries cannot exploit multiple cores beyond running addition MPI processes per node. In this paper we discuss important multicore architecture issues, programming models, algorithms requirements and software design related to effective use of scalable multicore computers. In particular, we focus on important issues for library research and development, making recommendations for how to effectively develop libraries for future scalable computer systems

  5. Scalable inference for stochastic block models

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2017-12-08

    Community detection in graphs is widely used in social and biological networks, and the stochastic block model is a powerful probabilistic tool for describing graphs with community structures. However, in the era of "big data," traditional inference algorithms for such a model are increasingly limited due to their high time complexity and poor scalability. In this paper, we propose a multi-stage maximum likelihood approach to recover the latent parameters of the stochastic block model, in time linear with respect to the number of edges. We also propose a parallel algorithm based on message passing. Our algorithm can overlap communication and computation, providing speedup without compromising accuracy as the number of processors grows. For example, to process a real-world graph with about 1.3 million nodes and 10 million edges, our algorithm requires about 6 seconds on 64 cores of a contemporary commodity Linux cluster. Experiments demonstrate that the algorithm can produce high quality results on both benchmark and real-world graphs. An example of finding more meaningful communities is illustrated consequently in comparison with a popular modularity maximization algorithm.

  6. Building Scalable Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.; Gatlin, P. N.; Zhang, J.; Duan, X.; Bugbee, K.; Christopher, S. A.; Miller, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates indicate that the world's information will grow by 800% in the next five years. In any given field, a single researcher or a team of researchers cannot keep up with this rate of knowledge expansion without the help of cognitive systems. Cognitive computing, defined as the use of information technology to augment human cognition, can help tackle large systemic problems. Knowledge graphs, one of the foundational components of cognitive systems, link key entities in a specific domain with other entities via relationships. Researchers could mine these graphs to make probabilistic recommendations and to infer new knowledge. At this point, however, there is a dearth of tools to generate scalable Knowledge graphs using existing corpus of scientific literature for Earth science research. Our project is currently developing an end-to-end automated methodology for incrementally constructing Knowledge graphs for Earth Science. Semantic Entity Recognition (SER) is one of the key steps in this methodology. SER for Earth Science uses external resources (including metadata catalogs and controlled vocabulary) as references to guide entity extraction and recognition (i.e., labeling) from unstructured text, in order to build a large training set to seed the subsequent auto-learning component in our algorithm. Results from several SER experiments will be presented as well as lessons learned.

  7. CODA: A scalable, distributed data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.A. III; Chen, J.; Heyes, G.; Jastrzembski, E.; Quarrie, D.

    1994-01-01

    A new data acquisition system has been designed for physics experiments scheduled to run at CEBAF starting in the summer of 1994. This system runs on Unix workstations connected via ethernet, FDDI, or other network hardware to multiple intelligent front end crates -- VME, CAMAC or FASTBUS. CAMAC crates may either contain intelligent processors, or may be interfaced to VME. The system is modular and scalable, from a single front end crate and one workstation linked by ethernet, to as may as 32 clusters of front end crates ultimately connected via a high speed network to a set of analysis workstations. The system includes an extensible, device independent slow controls package with drivers for CAMAC, VME, and high voltage crates, as well as a link to CEBAF accelerator controls. All distributed processes are managed by standard remote procedure calls propagating change-of-state requests, or reading and writing program variables. Custom components may be easily integrated. The system is portable to any front end processor running the VxWorks real-time kernel, and to most workstations supplying a few standard facilities such as rsh and X-windows, and Motif and socket libraries. Sample implementations exist for 2 Unix workstation families connected via ethernet or FDDI to VME (with interfaces to FASTBUS or CAMAC), and via ethernet to FASTBUS or CAMAC

  8. Ancestors protocol for scalable key management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Gollmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Group key management is an important functional building block for secure multicast architecture. Thereby, it has been extensively studied in the literature. The main proposed protocol is Adaptive Clustering for Scalable Group Key Management (ASGK. According to ASGK protocol, the multicast group is divided into clusters, where each cluster consists of areas of members. Each cluster uses its own Traffic Encryption Key (TEK. These clusters are updated periodically depending on the dynamism of the members during the secure session. The modified protocol has been proposed based on ASGK with some modifications to balance the number of affected members and the encryption/decryption overhead with any number of the areas when a member joins or leaves the group. This modified protocol is called Ancestors protocol. According to Ancestors protocol, every area receives the dynamism of the members from its parents. The main objective of the modified protocol is to reduce the number of affected members during the leaving and joining members, then 1 affects n overhead would be reduced. A comparative study has been done between ASGK protocol and the modified protocol. According to the comparative results, it found that the modified protocol is always outperforming the ASGK protocol.

  9. Scalable Combinatorial Tools for Health Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Langston

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite staggering investments made in unraveling the human genome, current estimates suggest that as much as 90% of the variance in cancer and chronic diseases can be attributed to factors outside an individual’s genetic endowment, particularly to environmental exposures experienced across his or her life course. New analytical approaches are clearly required as investigators turn to complicated systems theory and ecological, place-based and life-history perspectives in order to understand more clearly the relationships between social determinants, environmental exposures and health disparities. While traditional data analysis techniques remain foundational to health disparities research, they are easily overwhelmed by the ever-increasing size and heterogeneity of available data needed to illuminate latent gene x environment interactions. This has prompted the adaptation and application of scalable combinatorial methods, many from genome science research, to the study of population health. Most of these powerful tools are algorithmically sophisticated, highly automated and mathematically abstract. Their utility motivates the main theme of this paper, which is to describe real applications of innovative transdisciplinary models and analyses in an effort to help move the research community closer toward identifying the causal mechanisms and associated environmental contexts underlying health disparities. The public health exposome is used as a contemporary focus for addressing the complex nature of this subject.

  10. Percolator: Scalable Pattern Discovery in Dynamic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Sutanay; Purohit, Sumit; Lin, Peng; Wu, Yinghui; Holder, Lawrence B.; Agarwal, Khushbu

    2018-02-06

    We demonstrate Percolator, a distributed system for graph pattern discovery in dynamic graphs. In contrast to conventional mining systems, Percolator advocates efficient pattern mining schemes that (1) support pattern detection with keywords; (2) integrate incremental and parallel pattern mining; and (3) support analytical queries such as trend analysis. The core idea of Percolator is to dynamically decide and verify a small fraction of patterns and their in- stances that must be inspected in response to buffered updates in dynamic graphs, with a total mining cost independent of graph size. We demonstrate a) the feasibility of incremental pattern mining by walking through each component of Percolator, b) the efficiency and scalability of Percolator over the sheer size of real-world dynamic graphs, and c) how the user-friendly GUI of Percolator inter- acts with users to support keyword-based queries that detect, browse and inspect trending patterns. We also demonstrate two user cases of Percolator, in social media trend analysis and academic collaboration analysis, respectively.

  11. Scalable Notch Antenna System for Multiport Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahim Toktas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel and compact scalable antenna system is designed for multiport applications. The basic design is built on a square patch with an electrical size of 0.82λ0×0.82λ0 (at 2.4 GHz on a dielectric substrate. The design consists of four symmetrical and orthogonal triangular notches with circular feeding slots at the corners of the common patch. The 4-port antenna can be simply rearranged to 8-port and 12-port systems. The operating band of the system can be tuned by scaling (S the size of the system while fixing the thickness of the substrate. The antenna system with S: 1/1 in size of 103.5×103.5 mm2 operates at the frequency band of 2.3–3.0 GHz. By scaling the antenna with S: 1/2.3, a system of 45×45 mm2 is achieved, and thus the operating band is tuned to 4.7–6.1 GHz with the same scattering characteristic. A parametric study is also conducted to investigate the effects of changing the notch dimensions. The performance of the antenna is verified in terms of the antenna characteristics as well as diversity and multiplexing parameters. The antenna system can be tuned by scaling so that it is applicable to the multiport WLAN, WIMAX, and LTE devices with port upgradability.

  12. Scalable conditional induction variables (CIV) analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Oancea, Cosmin E.

    2015-02-01

    Subscripts using induction variables that cannot be expressed as a formula in terms of the enclosing-loop indices appear in the low-level implementation of common programming abstractions such as Alter, or stack operations and pose significant challenges to automatic parallelization. Because the complexity of such induction variables is often due to their conditional evaluation across the iteration space of loops we name them Conditional Induction Variables (CIV). This paper presents a flow-sensitive technique that summarizes both such CIV-based and affine subscripts to program level, using the same representation. Our technique requires no modifications of our dependence tests, which is agnostic to the original shape of the subscripts, and is more powerful than previously reported dependence tests that rely on the pairwise disambiguation of read-write references. We have implemented the CIV analysis in our parallelizing compiler and evaluated its impact on five Fortran benchmarks. We have found that that there are many important loops using CIV subscripts and that our analysis can lead to their scalable parallelization. This in turn has led to the parallelization of the benchmark programs they appear in.

  13. A Programmable, Scalable-Throughput Interleaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. C. Rijshouwer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interleaver stages of digital communication standards show a surprisingly large variation in throughput, state sizes, and permutation functions. Furthermore, data rates for 4G standards such as LTE-Advanced will exceed typical baseband clock frequencies of handheld devices. Multistream operation for Software Defined Radio and iterative decoding algorithms will call for ever higher interleave data rates. Our interleave machine is built around 8 single-port SRAM banks and can be programmed to generate up to 8 addresses every clock cycle. The scalable architecture combines SIMD and VLIW concepts with an efficient resolution of bank conflicts. A wide range of cellular, connectivity, and broadcast interleavers have been mapped on this machine, with throughputs up to more than 0.5 Gsymbol/second. Although it was designed for channel interleaving, the application domain of the interleaver extends also to Turbo interleaving. The presented configuration of the architecture is designed as a part of a programmable outer receiver on a prototype board. It offers (near universal programmability to enable the implementation of new interleavers. The interleaver measures 2.09 mm2 in 65 nm CMOS (including memories and proves functional on silicon.

  14. A Programmable, Scalable-Throughput Interleaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijshouwer EJC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interleaver stages of digital communication standards show a surprisingly large variation in throughput, state sizes, and permutation functions. Furthermore, data rates for 4G standards such as LTE-Advanced will exceed typical baseband clock frequencies of handheld devices. Multistream operation for Software Defined Radio and iterative decoding algorithms will call for ever higher interleave data rates. Our interleave machine is built around 8 single-port SRAM banks and can be programmed to generate up to 8 addresses every clock cycle. The scalable architecture combines SIMD and VLIW concepts with an efficient resolution of bank conflicts. A wide range of cellular, connectivity, and broadcast interleavers have been mapped on this machine, with throughputs up to more than 0.5 Gsymbol/second. Although it was designed for channel interleaving, the application domain of the interleaver extends also to Turbo interleaving. The presented configuration of the architecture is designed as a part of a programmable outer receiver on a prototype board. It offers (near universal programmability to enable the implementation of new interleavers. The interleaver measures 2.09 m in 65 nm CMOS (including memories and proves functional on silicon.

  15. The QuakeFinder Magnetometer Network - a Platform for Earth and Space Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleier, T.; Kappler, K. N.; Schneider, D.

    2016-12-01

    QuakeFinder (QF) is a humanitarian research and development project attempting to characterize earth-emitting electromagnetic (EM) signals as potential precursors to earthquakes. Beginning in 2005, QF designed, built, deployed and now maintains an array of 165 remote monitoring stations in 6 countries (US/California, Taiwan, Greece, Indonesia, Peru and Chile). Having amassed approximately 70 TB of data and greater than 140 earthquakes (M4+), QF is focused on the data analysis and signal processing algorithms in our effort to enable a forecasting capability. QF's autonomous stations, located along major fault lines, collect and transmit electromagnetic readings from 3-axis induction magnetometers and positive/negative ion sensors, a geophone, as well as various station health status and local conditions. The induction magnetometers, oriented N-S,E-W and vertically, have a 40 nT range and 1 pT sensitivity. Data is continuously collected at 50 samples/sec (sps), GPS time-stamped and transmitted, primarily through cell phone networks, to our data center in Palo Alto, California. The induction magnetometers routinely detect subtle geomagnetic and ionospheric disturbances as observed worldwide. QF seeks to make available both historic data and the array platform to strategic partners in the EM-related research and operation fields. The QF system will be described in detail with examples of local and regional geomagnetic activity. The stations are robust and will be undergoing a system-level upgrade in the near future. Domestically, QF maintains a 98% `up time' among the 120 stations in California while internationally our metric is typically near 80%. Irregular cell phone reception is chief among the reasons for outages although little data has been lost as the stations can store up to 90 days of data. These data are retrieved by QF personnel or, when communication is reestablished, the QF data ingest process automatically updates the database. Planned station upgrades

  16. Event and Apparent Horizon Finders for 3+1 Numerical Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornburg Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Event and apparent horizons are key diagnostics for the presence and properties of black holes. In this article I review numerical algorithms and codes for finding event and apparent horizons in numerically-computed spacetimes, focusing on calculations done using the 3+1 ADM formalism. The event horizon of an asymptotically-flat spacetime is the boundary between those events from which a future-pointing null geodesic can reach future null infinity and those events from which no such geodesic exists. The event horizon is a (continuous null surface in spacetime. The event horizon is defined nonlocally in time: it is a global property of the entire spacetime and must be found in a separate post-processing phase after all (or at least the nonstationary part of spacetime has been numerically computed.There are three basic algorithms for finding event horizons, based on integrating null geodesics forwards in time, integrating null geodesics backwards in time, and integrating null surfaces backwards in time. The last of these is generally the most efficient and accurate.In contrast to an event horizon, an apparent horizon is defined locally in time in a spacelike slice and depends only on data in that slice, so it can be (and usually is found during the numerical computation of a spacetime. A marginally outer trapped surface (MOTS in a slice is a smooth closed 2-surface whose future-pointing outgoing null geodesics have zero expansion Theta. An apparent horizon is then defined as a MOTS not contained in any other MOTS. The MOTS condition is a nonlinear elliptic partial differential equation (PDE for the surface shape, containing the ADM 3-metric, its spatial derivatives, and the extrinsic curvature as coefficients. Most “apparent horizon” finders actually find MOTSs.There are a large number of apparent horizon finding algorithms, with differing trade-offs between speed, robustness, accuracy, and ease of programming. In axisymmetry, shooting

  17. The opto-mechanical design of the GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Mark; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Baldwin, Daniel; Bean, Jacob; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Brennan, Patricia; Budynkiewicz, J.; Chun, Moo-Yung; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Epps, Harland; Evans, Ian; Evans, Janet; Foster, Jeff; Frebel, Anna; Gauron, Thomas; Glenday, Alex; Hare, Tyson; Jang, Bi-Ho; Jang, Jeong-Gyun; Jordan, Andreas; Kim, Jihun; Kim, Kang-Min; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; McCracken, Kenneth; McMuldroch, Stuart; Miller, Joseph; Oh, Jae Sok; Onyuksel, Cem; Ordway, Mark; Park, Chan; Park, Sung-Joon; Paxson, Charles; Phillips, David; Plummer, David; Podgorski, William; Seifahrt, Andreas; Steiner, Joao; Uomoto, Alan; Walsworth, Ronald; Yu, Young-Sam

    2016-08-01

    The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is a fiber-fed, optical echelle spectrograph selected as the first light instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) now under construction at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. G-CLEF has been designed to be a general-purpose echelle spectrograph with precision radial velocity (PRV) capability for exoplanet detection. The radial velocity (RV) precision goal of G-CLEF is 10 cm/sec, necessary for detection of Earth-sized exoplanets. This goal imposes challenging stability requirements on the optical mounts and the overall spectrograph support structures especially when considering the instrument's operational environment. The accuracy of G-CLEF's PRV measurements will be influenced by minute changes in temperature and ambient air pressure as well as vibrations and micro gravity-vector variations caused by normal telescope slewing. For these reasons we have chosen to enclose G-CLEF's spectrograph in a well-insulated, vibration isolated vacuum chamber in a gravity invariant location on GMT's azimuth platform. Additional design constraints posed by the GMT telescope include: a limited space envelope, a thermal emission ceiling, and a maximum weight allowance. Other factors, such as manufacturability, serviceability, available technology and budget are also significant design drivers. All of the above considerations must be managed while ensuring performance requirements are achieved. In this paper, we discuss the design of G-CLEF's optical mounts and support structures including the choice of a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) carbon-fiber optical bench to minimize the system's sensitivity to thermal soaks and gradients. We discuss design choices made to the vacuum chamber geared towards minimize the influence of daily ambient pressure variations on image motion during observation. We discuss the design of G-CLEF's insulated enclosure and thermal control systems which will maintain the spectrograph at

  18. The opto-mechanical design of the GMT-consortium large earth finder (G-CLEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Mark; Baldwin, Daniel; Bean, Jacob; Bergner, Henry; Bigelow, Bruce; Chun, Moo-Young; Crane, Jeffrey; Foster, Jeff; Fżrész, Gabor; Gauron, Thomas; Guzman, Dani; Hertz, Edward; Jordán, Andrés.; Kim, Kang-Min; McCracken, Kenneth; Norton, Timothy; Ordway, Mark; Park, Chan; Park, Sang; Podgorski, William A.; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Uomoto, Alan; Yuk, In-Soo

    2014-08-01

    The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is a fiber fed, optical echelle spectrograph that has been selected as a first light instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) currently under construction at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile's Atacama desert region. We designed G-CLEF as a general-purpose echelle spectrograph with precision radial velocity (PRV) capability used for exoplanet detection. The radial velocity (RV) precision goal of GCLEF is 10 cm/sec, necessary for detection of Earth-sized planets orbiting stars like our Sun in the habitable zone. This goal imposes challenging stability requirements on the optical mounts and the overall spectrograph support structures. Stability in instruments of this type is typically affected by changes in temperature, orientation, and air pressure as well as vibrations caused by telescope tracking. For these reasons, we have chosen to enclose G-CLEF's spectrograph in a thermally insulated, vibration isolated vacuum chamber and place it at a gravity invariant location on GMT's azimuth platform. Additional design constraints posed by the GMT telescope include: a limited space envelope, a thermal emission ceiling, and a maximum weight allowance. Other factors, such as manufacturability, serviceability, available technology and budget are also significant design drivers. All of the previously listed considerations must be managed while ensuring that performance requirements are achieved. In this paper, we discuss the design of G-CLEF's optical mounts and support structures including technical choices made to minimize the system's sensitivity to thermal gradients. A more general treatment of the properties of G-CLEF can be found elsewhere in these proceedings1. We discuss the design of the vacuum chamber which houses the irregularly shaped optical bench and optics while conforming to a challenging space envelope on GMT's azimuth platform. We also discuss the design of G-CLEF's insulated enclosure and thermal

  19. Gene analogue finder: a GRID solution for finding functionally analogous gene products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licciulli Flavio

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date more than 2,1 million gene products from more than 100000 different species have been described specifying their function, the processes they are involved in and their cellular localization using a very well defined and structured vocabulary, the gene ontology (GO. Such vast, well defined knowledge opens the possibility of compare gene products at the level of functionality, finding gene products which have a similar function or are involved in similar biological processes without relying on the conventional sequence similarity approach. Comparisons within such a large space of knowledge are highly data and computing intensive. For this reason this project was based upon the use of the computational GRID, a technology offering large computing and storage resources. Results We have developed a tool, GENe AnaloGue FINdEr (ENGINE that parallelizes the search process and distributes the calculation and data over the computational GRID, splitting the process into many sub-processes and joining the calculation and the data on the same machine and therefore completing the whole search in about 3 days instead of occupying one single machine for more than 5 CPU years. The results of the functional comparison contain potential functional analogues for more than 79000 gene products from the most important species. 46% of the analyzed gene products are well enough described for such an analysis to individuate functional analogues, such as well-known members of the same gene family, or gene products with similar functions which would never have been associated by standard methods. Conclusion ENGINE has produced a list of potential functionally analogous relations between gene products within and between species using, in place of the sequence, the gene description of the GO, thus demonstrating the potential of the GO. However, the current limiting factor is the quality of the associations of many gene products from non

  20. SCCmecFinder, a Web-Based Tool for Typing of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec in Staphylococcus aureus Using Whole-Genome Sequence Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaya, Hülya; Hasman, Henrik; Larsen, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is important in infection control and surveillance. The current nomenclature of MRSA includes the genetic background of the S. aureus strain determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) or equivalent methods like spa typing and typing...... of the genetic background and SCCmec, but so far, no bioinformatic tools for SCCmec typing have been available. Here, we report the development and evaluation of SCCmecFinder for characterization of the SCCmec element from S. aureus WGS data. SCCmecFinder is able to identify all SCCmec element types, designated...... a diverse collection of clinical isolates (n = 93) showed a high typeability level of 96.7%, which increased to 98.9% upon modification of the default settings. In conclusion, SCCmecFinder can be an alternative to more laborious SCCmec typing methods and is freely available at https...

  1. Chameleon halo modeling in f(R) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yin; Hu, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    We model the chameleon effect on cosmological statistics for the modified gravity f(R) model of cosmic acceleration. The chameleon effect, required to make the model compatible with local tests of gravity, reduces force enhancement as a function of the depth of the gravitational potential wells of collapsed structure and so is readily incorporated into a halo model by including parameters for the chameleon mass threshold and rapidity of transition. We show that the abundance of halos around the chameleon mass threshold is enhanced by both the merging from below and the lack of merging to larger masses. This property also controls the power spectrum in the nonlinear regime and we provide a description of the transition to the linear regime that is valid for a wide range of f(R) models.

  2. Relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov description of the halo nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, J.; Ring, P. [Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Here the authors report the development of the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory in coordinate space. Pairing correlations are taken into account by both density dependent force of zero range and finite range Gogny force. As a primary application the relativistic HB theory is used to describe the chain of Lithium isotopes reaching from {sup 6}Li to {sup 11}Li. In contrast to earlier investigations within a relativistic mean field theory and a density dependent Hartree Fock theory, where the halo in {sup 11}Li could only be reproduced by an artificial shift of the 1p{sub 1/2} level close to the continuum limit, the halo is now reproduced in a self-consistent way without further modifications using the scattering of Cooper pairs to the 2s{sub 1/2} level in the continuum. Excellent agreement with recent experimental data is observed.

  3. Scraping beam halo in {mu} {sup +} {mu} {sup minus} colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozhdin, A.; Mokhov, N.; Johnstone, C.; Wan, W.; Garren, A.

    1998-01-01

    Beam halo scraping schemes have been explored in the 50 x 50 GeV and 2 x 2 TeV {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} colliders using both absorbers and electrostatic deflectors. Utility sections have been specially designed into the rings for scraping. Results of realistic STRUCT- MARS Monte-Carlo simulations show that for the low-energy machine a scheme with a 5 m long steel absorber suppresses losses in the interaction region by three orders of magnitude. The same scraping efficiency at 2 TeV is achieved only by complete extraction of beam halo from the machine. The effect of beam-induced power dissipation in the collider superconducting magnets and detector backgrounds is shown both for the first few turns after injection and for the rest of the cycle.

  4. Mass models for disk and halo components in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.

    1987-01-01

    The mass distribution in spiral galaxies is investigated by means of numerical simulations, summarizing the results reported by Athanassoula et al. (1986). Details of the modeling technique employed are given, including bulge-disk decomposition; computation of bulge and disk rotation curves (assuming constant mass/light ratios for each); and determination (for spherical symmetry) of the total halo mass out to the optical radius, the concentration indices, the halo-density power law, the core radius, the central density, and the velocity dispersion. Also discussed are the procedures for incorporating galactic gas and checking the spiral structure extent. It is found that structural constraints limit disk mass/light ratios to a range of 0.3 dex, and that the most likely models are maximum-disk models with m = 1 disturbances inhibited. 19 references

  5. Toward a combined SAGE II-HALOE aerosol climatology: an evaluation of HALOE version 19 stratospheric aerosol extinction coefficient observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. Thomason

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient data is evaluated in the low aerosol loading period after 1996 as the first necessary step in a process that will eventually allow the production of a combined HALOE/SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment aerosol climatology of derived aerosol products including surface area density. Based on these analyses, it is demonstrated that HALOE's 3.46 μm is of good quality above 19 km and suitable for scientific applications above that altitude. However, it is increasingly suspect at lower altitudes and should not be used below 17 km under any circumstances after 1996. The 3.40 μm is biased by about 10% throughout the lower stratosphere due to the failure to clear NO2 but otherwise appears to be a high quality product down to 15 km. The 2.45 and 5.26 μm aerosol extinction coefficient measurements are clearly biased and should not be used for scientific applications after the most intense parts of the Pinatubo period. Many of the issues in the aerosol data appear to be related to either the failure to clear some interfering gas species or doing so poorly. For instance, it is clear that the 3.40 μm aerosol extinction coefficient measurements can be improved through the inclusion of an NO2 correction and could, in fact, end up as the highest quality overall HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient measurement. It also appears that the 2.45 and 5.26 μm channels may be improved by updating the Upper Atmosphere Pilot Database which is used as a resource for the removal of gas species otherwise not available from direct HALOE measurements. Finally, a simple model to demonstrate the promise of mixed visible/infrared aerosol extinction coefficient ensembles for the retrieval of bulk aerosol properties demonstrates that a combined HALOE/SAGE II aerosol climatology is feasible and may represent a substantial improvement over independently derived

  6. DARK MATTER HALOS IN GALAXIES AND GLOBULAR CLUSTER POPULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, Michael J.; Harris, Gretchen L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Harris, William E., E-mail: mjhudson@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2014-05-20

    We combine a new, comprehensive database for globular cluster populations in all types of galaxies with a new calibration of galaxy halo masses based entirely on weak lensing. Correlating these two sets of data, we find that the mass ratio η ≡ M {sub GCS}/M {sub h} (total mass in globular clusters, divided by halo mass) is essentially constant at (η) ∼ 4 × 10{sup –5}, strongly confirming earlier suggestions in the literature. Globular clusters are the only known stellar population that formed in essentially direct proportion to host galaxy halo mass. The intrinsic scatter in η appears to be at most 0.2 dex; we argue that some of this scatter is due to differing degrees of tidal stripping of the globular cluster systems between central and satellite galaxies. We suggest that this correlation can be understood if most globular clusters form at very early stages in galaxy evolution, largely avoiding the feedback processes that inhibited the bulk of field-star formation in their host galaxies. The actual mean value of η also suggests that about one-fourth of the initial gas mass present in protogalaxies collected into giant molecular clouds large enough to form massive, dense star clusters. Finally, our calibration of (η) indicates that the halo masses of the Milky Way and M31 are (1.2 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} and (3.9 ± 1.8) × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}, respectively.

  7. Caustic ring model of the Milky Way halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L. D.; Sikivie, P.

    2008-01-01

    We present a proposal for the full phase-space distribution of the Milky Way halo. The model is axially and reflection symmetric and its time evolution is self-similar. It describes the halo as a set of discrete dark matter flows with stated densities and velocity vectors everywhere. We first discuss the general conditions under which the time evolution of a cold collisionless self-gravitating fluid is self-similar, and show that symmetry is not necessary for self-similarity. When spherical symmetry is imposed, the model is the same as described by Fillmore and Goldreich, and by Bertschinger, twenty-three years ago. The spherically symmetric model depends on one dimensionless parameter ε and two dimensionful parameters. We set ε=0.3, a value consistent with the slope of the power spectrum of density perturbations on galactic scales. The dimensionful parameters are determined by the galactic rotation velocity (220 km/s) at the position of the Sun and by the age of the Galaxy (13.7 Gyr). The properties of the outer caustics are derived in the spherically symmetric model. The structure of the inner halo depends on the angular momentum distribution of the dark matter particles. We assume that distribution to be axial and reflection symmetric, and dominated by net overall rotation. The inner caustics are rings whose radii are determined in terms of a single additional parameter j max . We summarize the observational evidence in support of the model. The evidence is consistent with j max =0.18 in Concordance cosmology, equivalent to j max,old =0.26 in Einstein-de Sitter cosmology. We give formulas to estimate the flow densities and velocity vectors anywhere in the Milky Way halo. The properties of the first 40 flows at the location of the Earth are listed.

  8. Can $\\beta$-decay probe excited state halos?

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In the first experiment at the newly constructed ISOLDE Facility the first-forbidden $\\beta$-decay of $^{17}$Ne into the first excited state of $^{17}$F has been measured. It is a factor two faster than the corresponding mirror decay and thus gives one of the largest recorded asymmetries for $\\beta$-decays feeding bound final states. Shell-model calculations can only reproduce the asymmetry if the halo structure of the $^{17}$F state is taken into account.

  9. The LAMOST stellar spectroscopic survey and the Galactic halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Deng Licai

    2015-01-01

    The formation and evolution of galaxies is an extremely important and fundamental question in modern astrophysics. Among the galaxies, the Milky Way is a very special sample not only because we live in it, but also because it is the only one in which we can carefully and individually observe its member stars. It has been confirmed that the Galactic halo, including both the stellar spheroid and the dark matter halo, contains fairly complicated structures, from which the overall shape, formation, and evolutionary history of our Galaxy can be unveiled. Moreover, some very rare and special stars in the Milky Way can be used as tracers to indirectly detect the core region of the Galaxy around the central super-massive black hole, which is also a hot topic of astrophysics. The LAMOST survey of the Milky Way will collect millions of stellar spectra at low wavelength resolution, making it the largest of such projects throughout the world. Its data base is very suitable for the study of the structure and evolution of the Milky Way. In this article, we report our on-going studies on the Galactic halo with LAMOST data, and present some early scientific results. (authors)

  10. Halo Formation During Solidification of Refractory Metal Aluminide Ternary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, N.; Feitosa, L. M.; West, G. D.; Dong, H. B.

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of eutectic morphologies following primary solidification has been studied in the refractory metal aluminide (Ta-Al-Fe, Nb-Al-Co, and Nb-Al-Fe) ternary systems. The undercooling accompanying solid growth, as related to the extended solute solubility in the primary and secondary phases can be used to account for the evolution of phase morphologies during ternary eutectic solidification. For small undercooling, the conditions of interfacial equilibrium remain valid, while in the case of significant undercooling when nucleation constraints occur, there is a departure from equilibrium leading to unexpected phases. In Ta-Al-Fe, an extended solubility of Fe in σ was observed, which was consistent with the formation of a halo of μ phase on primary σ. In Nb-Al-Co, a halo of C14 is formed on primary CoAl, but very limited vice versa. However, in the absence of a solidus projection it was not possible to definitively determine the extended solute solubility in the primary phase. In Nb-Al-Fe when nucleation constraints arise, the inability to initiate coupled growth of NbAl3 + C14 leads to the occurrence of a two-phase halo of C14 + Nb2Al, indicating a large undercooling and departure from equilibrium.

  11. Exhaust, ELM and halo physics using the MAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counsell, G. F.

    2002-01-01

    Scalings for the SOL width on MAST extend the parameter range of conventional devices but confirm a negative dependence on power flow across the separatrix. In L-mode and at ELM peaks, >95% of power to the targets arrives to the outboard side. Peak heat flux densities rise by a factor 2∼6 during ELMs and are accompanied by a shift in the strike-point location but by little change in the target heat flux width. Energy loss per ELM as a percentage of pedestal energy and pedestal collisionality appear uncorrelated, possibly because ELMs on MAST are dominated by convective transport. Modelling shows that parallel gradients in the magnitude of the magnetic field in MAST may drive strong upstream flows. Broadening of the target heat flux width by divertor biasing is being explored as a means of reducing target power loading in next-step devices and has facilitated halo current measurements using series resistors. Halo currents are always less than 30% of plasma current and the product of toroidal peaking factor and halo current fraction is ∼50% of the ITER design limit. Varying the series resistance demonstrates that the VDE behaves more as a voltage source than a current source. (author)

  12. Precision measurement of the local bias of dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazeyras, Titouan; Wagner, Christian; Schmidt, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Garching, 85748 Germany (Germany); Baldauf, Tobias, E-mail: titouan@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: cwagner@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: t.baldauf@tbaweb.de, E-mail: fabians@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ, 08540 United States (United States)

    2016-02-01

    We present accurate measurements of the linear, quadratic, and cubic local bias of dark matter halos, using curved 'separate universe' N-body simulations which effectively incorporate an infinite-wavelength overdensity. This can be seen as an exact implementation of the peak-background split argument. We compare the results with the linear and quadratic bias measured from the halo-matter power spectrum and bispectrum, and find good agreement. On the other hand, the standard peak-background split applied to the Sheth and Tormen (1999) and Tinker et al. (2008) halo mass functions matches the measured linear bias parameter only at the level of 10%. The prediction from the excursion set-peaks approach performs much better, which can be attributed to the stochastic moving barrier employed in the excursion set-peaks prediction. We also provide convenient fitting formulas for the nonlinear bias parameters b{sub 2}(b{sub 1}) and b{sub 3}(b{sub 1}), which work well over a range of redshifts.

  13. Exhaust, ELM and Halo physics using the MAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counsell, G.F.; Ahn, J-W.; Kirk, A.; Helander, P.; Martin, R.; Tabasso, A.; Wilson, H.R.; Cohen, R.H.; Ryutov, D.D.; Yang, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The scrape-off layer (Sol) and divertor target plasma of a large spherical tokamak (ST) is characterised in detail for the first time. Scalings for the SOL heat flux width in MAST are developed and compared to conventional tokamaks. Modelling reveals the significance of the mirror force to the ST SOL. Core energy losses, including during ELMs, in MAST arrive predominantly (>80%) to the outboard targets in all geometries. Convective transport dominates energy losses during ELMs and MHD analysis suggests ELMs in MAST are Type III even at auxiliary heating powers well above the L-H threshold. ELMs are associated with a poloidally and/or toroidally localised radial efflux at ∼1 km/s well into the far SOL but not with any broadening of the target heat flux width. Toroidally asymmetric divertor biasing experiments have been conducted in an attempt to broaden the target heat flux width, with promising results. During vertical displacement events, the maximum product of the toroidal peaking factor and halo current fraction remains below 0.3, around half the ITER design limit. Evidence is presented that the resistance of the halo current path may have an impact on the distribution of halo current. (author)

  14. KINEMATICS OF OUTER HALO GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veljanoski, J.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Bernard, E. J.; Peñarrubia, J.; Mackey, A. D.; Huxor, A. P.; Irwin, M. J.; Chapman, S. C.; Côté, P.; Tanvir, N. R.; McConnachie, A.; Ibata, R. A.; Martin, N. F.; Fardal, M.; Lewis, G. F.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first kinematic analysis of the far outer halo globular cluster (GC) population in the Local Group galaxy M31. Our sample contains 53 objects with projected radii of ∼20-130 kpc, 44 of which have no previous spectroscopic information. GCs with projected radii ∼> 30 kpc are found to exhibit net rotation around the minor axis of M31, in the same sense as the inner GCs, albeit with a smaller amplitude of 79 ± 19 km s –1 . The rotation-corrected velocity dispersion of the full halo GC sample is 106 ± 12 km s –1 , which we observe to decrease with increasing projected radius. We find compelling evidence for kinematic coherence among GCs that project on top of halo substructure, including a clear signature of infall for GCs lying along the northwest stream. Using the tracer mass estimator, we estimate the dynamical mass of M31 within 200 kpc to be M M31 = (1.2-1.5) ± 0.2 × 10 12 M ☉ . This value is highly dependent on the chosen model and assumptions within.

  15. Possible Halo Depictions in the Prehistoric Rock Art of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    In western American rock art the concentric circle symbol, which is widely regarded as a sun symbol, is ubiquitous. We provide evidence from Archaic and Fremont Indian rock art sites in northwestern Utah that at least one depiction was motivated by an observation of a complex halo display. Cirrus cloud optical displays are linked in both folklore and meteorology to precipitation-producing weather situations, which, in combination with an abundance of weather-related rock art symbolism, indicate that such images reflected the ceremonial concerns of the indigenous cultures for ensuring adequate precipitation. As has been shown to be the case with rock art rainbows, conventionalization of the halo image may have resulted in simple patterns that lacked recognizable details of atmospheric optical phenomena. However, in one case in which an Archaic-style petroglyph (probably 1500 yr or more old) satisfactorily reproduced a complicated halo display that contained parhelia and tangent arcs, sufficient geometric information is rendered to indicate a solar elevation angle of approx. 40 deg. at the time of observation.

  16. On the core-halo structure of NGC 604

    CERN Document Server

    Melnick, Yu M

    1980-01-01

    A detailed study is presented of the core-halo structure of the largest H II region in M 33, NGC 604, using newly obtained multi- aperture H/sub beta / photometry and Fabry-Perot interferometry, in conjunction with published radio continuum observations. Based on a comparison between the radio continuum and H/sub beta / luminosities of NGC 604, a dust density of rho /sub d/=6 10/sup -25/ g cm/sup -3/ is derived for the nebular core, in good agreement with published far- infrared results. By contrast, the halo of NGC 604 appears to contain virtually no dust. It is also shown that the turbulent component of the H/sub alpha /-line profile width of the halo of NGC 604 is significantly lower than that of the nebular core. This result is found to be inconsistent with models in which the highly supersonic velocities implied by the observed emission line profile widths in both nebular components are interpreted in terms of expansion motions. (14 refs).

  17. Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC di PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekka Rismayanti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research aims to describe the effectiveness of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC in PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi which, from the perspective of marketing strategy, could be studied by analyzing the segmentation, targeting, and positioning. Using case-study method with in-depth interview, the result shows that the implementation of IMC at PT Halo Rumah Bernyayi is arranged in one single strategy and tend to neglect the complexities of running multi-brand family karaoke-house. This considers as ineffective because it leads to “cannibalization” among brands, especially when costumer’s targetting is overlooked before drafting the IMC plan. Keywords: Business, Integrated Marketing Communication, Marketing   Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan efektivitas penerapan Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC yang dilihat dari aspek segmentation, targeting dan positioning. Metode penelitian adalah studi kasus dengan menggunakan wawancara mendalam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan IMC di PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi dibuat dalam satu strategi dan tidak memerhatikan kompleksitas dari aspek segmentation, targeting dan positioning sebagai pedoman dasar. Langkah tersebut dinilai tidak efektif karena dapat mengakibatkan “kanibalisasi” antar brand, terlebih jika perhatian terhadap target konsumen diabaikan sebelum menyusun perencanaan IMC. Kata Kunci: Bisnis, Integrated Marketing Communications, Pemasaran

  18. Decay Properties of the Halo Nucleus $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    During the past years a considerable experimental effort has been devoted to the production and study of nuclei close to the neutron and proton drip-lines. The most spectacular phenomenon encountered is the occurrence of neutron halos in the loosely bound neutron rich nuclei. \\\\ \\\\ Another interesting feature, observed at ISOLDE, which most likely is connected to the halo structure, is the very strong (super-allowed) Gamow-Teller $\\beta$- transitions to highly excited states which are systematically observed for the lightest neutron rich drip-line nuclei. These transitions might be viewed as arising from the quasi-free $\\beta$ -decay of the halo neutrons. It is proposed to make a detailed study of the $\\beta$- strength function for $^{11}$Li, a nuclide having a half-life of 8.2 ms and a Q $\\beta$-value of 20.73~MeV. \\\\ \\\\ So far only a lower limit of the Gamow-Teller transition rate to highly excited states ($\\approx$~18.5~MeV) in the daughter nucleus has been obtained from measurements of $\\beta$-delayed tri...

  19. CARBON STARS IN THE SATELLITES AND HALO OF M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Katherine; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Rockosi, Constance M.; Smith, Graeme H. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Beaton, Rachael L. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institutions for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M.; Tollerud, Erik J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Boyer, Martha L. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Howley, Kirsten, E-mail: khamren@ucolick.org [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We spectroscopically identify a sample of carbon stars in the satellites and halo of M31 using moderate-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda’s Stellar Halo survey. We present the photometric properties of our sample of 41 stars, including their brightness with respect to the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) and their distributions in various color–color spaces. This analysis reveals a bluer population of carbon stars fainter than the TRGB and a redder population of carbon stars brighter than the TRGB. We then apply principal component analysis to determine the sample’s eigenspectra and eigencoefficients. Correlating the eigencoefficients with various observable properties reveals the spectral features that trace effective temperature and metallicity. Putting the spectroscopic and photometric information together, we find the carbon stars in the satellites and halo of M31 to be minimally impacted by dust and internal dynamics. We also find that while there is evidence to suggest that the sub-TRGB stars are extrinsic in origin, it is also possible that they are are particularly faint members of the asymptotic giant branch.

  20. New halo formation mechanism at the KEK compact energy recovery linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Olga; Nakamura, Norio; Shimada, Miho; Miyajima, Tsukasa; Ueda, Akira; Obina, Takashi; Takai, Ryota

    2018-02-01

    The beam halo mitigation is a very important challenge for reliable and safe operation of a high-energy machine. A systematic beam halo study was conducted at the KEK compact energy recovery linac (cERL) since non-negligible beam loss was observed in the recirculation loop during a common operation. We found that the beam loss can be avoided by making use of the collimation system. Beam halo measurements have demonstrated the presence of vertical beam halos at multiple locations in the beam line (except the region near the electron gun). Based on these observations, we made a conjecture that the transverse beam halo is attributed to the longitudinal bunch tail arising at the photocathode. The transfer of particles from the longitudinal space to a transverse halo may have been observed and studied in other machines, considering nonlinear effects as their causes. However, our study demonstrates a new unique halo formation mechanism, in which a transverse beam halo can be generated by a longitudinal bunch tail due to transverse rf kicks from the accelerating (monopole) fields of the radio-frequency cavities. This halo formation occurs when nonrelativistic particles enter the cavities with a transverse offset, even if neither nonlinear optics nor nonlinear beam effects are present. A careful realignment of the injector system will mitigate the present halo. Another possible cure is to reduce the bunch tails by changing the photocathode material from the present GaAs to a multi-alkali that is known to have a shorter longitudinal tail.

  1. Hierarchical formation of dark matter halos and the free streaming scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    The smallest dark matter halos are formed first in the early universe. According to recent studies, the central density cusp is much steeper in these halos than in larger halos and scales as ρ∝r –(1.5-1.3) . We present the results of very large cosmological N-body simulations of the hierarchical formation and evolution of halos over a wide mass range, beginning from the formation of the smallest halos. We confirmed early studies that the inner density cusps are steeper in halos at the free streaming scale. The cusp slope gradually becomes shallower as the halo mass increases. The slope of halos 50 times more massive than the smallest halo is approximately –1.3. No strong correlation exists between the inner slope and the collapse epoch. The cusp slope of halos above the free streaming scale seems to be reduced primarily due to major merger processes. The concentration, estimated at the present universe, is predicted to be 60-70, consistent with theoretical models and earlier simulations, and ruling out simple power law mass-concentration relations. Microhalos could still exist in the present universe with the same steep density profiles.

  2. A Testbed for Highly-Scalable Mission Critical Information Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Birman, Kenneth P

    2005-01-01

    ... systems in a networked environment. Headed by Professor Ken Birman, the project is exploring a novel fusion of classical protocols for reliable multicast communication with a new style of peer-to-peer protocol called scalable "gossip...

  3. Scalable Partitioning Algorithms for FPGAs With Heterogeneous Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selvakkumaran, Navaratnasothie; Ranjan, Abhishek; Raje, Salil; Karypis, George

    2004-01-01

    As FPGA densities increase, partitioning-based FPGA placement approaches are becoming increasingly important as they can be used to provide high-quality and computationally scalable placement solutions...

  4. Strong orientation dependence of surface mass density profiles of dark haloes at large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osato, Ken; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Oguri, Masamune; Takada, Masahiro; Okumura, Teppei

    2018-06-01

    We study the dependence of surface mass density profiles, which can be directly measured by weak gravitational lensing, on the orientation of haloes with respect to the line-of-sight direction, using a suite of N-body simulations. We find that, when major axes of haloes are aligned with the line-of-sight direction, surface mass density profiles have higher amplitudes than those averaged over all halo orientations, over all scales from 0.1 to 100 Mpc h-1 we studied. While the orientation dependence at small scales is ascribed to the halo triaxiality, our results indicate even stronger orientation dependence in the so-called two-halo regime, up to 100 Mpc h-1. The orientation dependence for the two-halo term is well approximated by a multiplicative shift of the amplitude and therefore a shift in the halo bias parameter value. The halo bias from the two-halo term can be overestimated or underestimated by up to {˜ } 30 per cent depending on the viewing angle, which translates into the bias in estimated halo masses by up to a factor of 2 from halo bias measurements. The orientation dependence at large scales originates from the anisotropic halo-matter correlation function, which has an elliptical shape with the axis ratio of ˜0.55 up to 100 Mpc h-1. We discuss potential impacts of halo orientation bias on other observables such as optically selected cluster samples and a clustering analysis of large-scale structure tracers such as quasars.

  5. SOL: A Library for Scalable Online Learning Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yue; Hoi, Steven C. H.; Liu, Chenghao; Lu, Jing; Sahoo, Doyen; Yu, Nenghai

    2016-01-01

    SOL is an open-source library for scalable online learning algorithms, and is particularly suitable for learning with high-dimensional data. The library provides a family of regular and sparse online learning algorithms for large-scale binary and multi-class classification tasks with high efficiency, scalability, portability, and extensibility. SOL was implemented in C++, and provided with a collection of easy-to-use command-line tools, python wrappers and library calls for users and develope...

  6. Modular Universal Scalable Ion-trap Quantum Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The main goal of the original MUSIQC proposal was to construct and demonstrate a modular and universally- expandable ion...Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 02-06-2016 1-Aug-2010 31-Jan-2016 Final Report: Modular Universal Scalable Ion-trap Quantum Computer The views...P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Ion trap quantum computation, scalable modular architectures REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11

  7. Architectures and Applications for Scalable Quantum Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Gershenfeld and I. Chuang. Quantum computing with molecules. Scientific American, June 1998. [16] A. Globus, D. Bailey, J. Han, R. Jaffe, C. Levit , R...AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2007-12 Final Technical Report January 2007 ARCHITECTURES AND APPLICATIONS FOR SCALABLE QUANTUM INFORMATION SYSTEMS...NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8750-01-2-0521 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ARCHITECTURES AND APPLICATIONS FOR SCALABLE QUANTUM INFORMATION SYSTEMS 5c

  8. On the scalability of LISP and advanced overlaid services

    OpenAIRE

    Coras, Florin

    2015-01-01

    In just four decades the Internet has gone from a lab experiment to a worldwide, business critical infrastructure that caters to the communication needs of almost a half of the Earth's population. With these figures on its side, arguing against the Internet's scalability would seem rather unwise. However, the Internet's organic growth is far from finished and, as billions of new devices are expected to be joined in the not so distant future, scalability, or lack thereof, is commonly believed ...

  9. Scalable, full-colour and controllable chromotropic plasmonic printing

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Jiancai; Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Wei, Zhiqiang; Su, Rongbin; Lai, Juan; Li, Juntao; Li, Chao; Zhang, Tengwei; Wang, Xue-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic colour printing has drawn wide attention as a promising candidate for the next-generation colour-printing technology. However, an efficient approach to realize full colour and scalable fabrication is still lacking, which prevents plasmonic colour printing from practical applications. Here we present a scalable and full-colour plasmonic printing approach by combining conjugate twin-phase modulation with a plasmonic broadband absorber. More importantly, our approach also demonstrates ...

  10. Forecast-based Integrated Flood Detection System for Emergency Response and Disaster Risk Reduction (Flood-FINDER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcorace, Mauro; Silvestro, Francesco; Rudari, Roberto; Boni, Giorgio; Dell'Oro, Luca; Bjorgo, Einar

    2016-04-01

    Most flood prone areas in the globe are mainly located in developing countries where making communities more flood resilient is a priority. Despite different flood forecasting initiatives are now available from academia and research centers, what is often missing is the connection between the timely hazard detection and the community response to warnings. In order to bridge the gap between science and decision makers, UN agencies play a key role on the dissemination of information in the field and on capacity-building to local governments. In this context, having a reliable global early warning system in the UN would concretely improve existing in house capacities for Humanitarian Response and the Disaster Risk Reduction. For those reasons, UNITAR-UNOSAT has developed together with USGS and CIMA Foundation a Global Flood EWS called "Flood-FINDER". The Flood-FINDER system is a modelling chain which includes meteorological, hydrological and hydraulic models that are accurately linked to enable the production of warnings and forecast inundation scenarios up to three weeks in advance. The system is forced with global satellite derived precipitation products and Numerical Weather Prediction outputs. The modelling chain is based on the "Continuum" hydrological model and risk assessments produced for GAR2015. In combination with existing hydraulically reconditioned SRTM data and 1D hydraulic models, flood scenarios are derived at multiple scales and resolutions. Climate and flood data are shared through a Web GIS integrated platform. First validation of the modelling chain has been conducted through a flood hindcasting test case, over the Chao Phraya river basin in Thailand, using multi temporal satellite-based analysis derived for the exceptional flood event of 2011. In terms of humanitarian relief operations, the EO-based services of flood mapping in rush mode generally suffer from delays caused by the time required for their activation, programming, acquisitions and

  11. Responsive, Flexible and Scalable Broader Impacts (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decharon, A.; Companion, C.; Steinman, M.

    2010-12-01

    In many educator professional development workshops, scientists present content in a slideshow-type format and field questions afterwards. Drawbacks of this approach include: inability to begin the lecture with content that is responsive to audience needs; lack of flexible access to specific material within the linear presentation; and “Q&A” sessions are not easily scalable to broader audiences. Often this type of traditional interaction provides little direct benefit to the scientists. The Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence - Ocean Systems (COSEE-OS) applies the technique of concept mapping with demonstrated effectiveness in helping scientists and educators “get on the same page” (deCharon et al., 2009). A key aspect is scientist professional development geared towards improving face-to-face and online communication with non-scientists. COSEE-OS promotes scientist-educator collaboration, tests the application of scientist-educator maps in new contexts through webinars, and is piloting the expansion of maps as long-lived resources for the broader community. Collaboration - COSEE-OS has developed and tested a workshop model bringing scientists and educators together in a peer-oriented process, often clarifying common misconceptions. Scientist-educator teams develop online concept maps that are hyperlinked to “assets” (i.e., images, videos, news) and are responsive to the needs of non-scientist audiences. In workshop evaluations, 91% of educators said that the process of concept mapping helped them think through science topics and 89% said that concept mapping helped build a bridge of communication with scientists (n=53). Application - After developing a concept map, with COSEE-OS staff assistance, scientists are invited to give webinar presentations that include live “Q&A” sessions. The webinars extend the reach of scientist-created concept maps to new contexts, both geographically and topically (e.g., oil spill), with a relatively small

  12. Microscopic Characterization of Scalable Coherent Rydberg Superatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Zeiher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Strong interactions can amplify quantum effects such that they become important on macroscopic scales. Controlling these coherently on a single-particle level is essential for the tailored preparation of strongly correlated quantum systems and opens up new prospects for quantum technologies. Rydberg atoms offer such strong interactions, which lead to extreme nonlinearities in laser-coupled atomic ensembles. As a result, multiple excitation of a micrometer-sized cloud can be blocked while the light-matter coupling becomes collectively enhanced. The resulting two-level system, often called a “superatom,” is a valuable resource for quantum information, providing a collective qubit. Here, we report on the preparation of 2 orders of magnitude scalable superatoms utilizing the large interaction strength provided by Rydberg atoms combined with precise control of an ensemble of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. The latter is achieved with sub-shot-noise precision by local manipulation of a two-dimensional Mott insulator. We microscopically confirm the superatom picture by in situ detection of the Rydberg excitations and observe the characteristic square-root scaling of the optical coupling with the number of atoms. Enabled by the full control over the atomic sample, including the motional degrees of freedom, we infer the overlap of the produced many-body state with a W state from the observed Rabi oscillations and deduce the presence of entanglement. Finally, we investigate the breakdown of the superatom picture when two Rydberg excitations are present in the system, which leads to dephasing and a loss of coherence.

  13. Myria: Scalable Analytics as a Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, B.; Halperin, D.; Whitaker, A.

    2014-12-01

    At the UW eScience Institute, we're working to empower non-experts, especially in the sciences, to write and use data-parallel algorithms. To this end, we are building Myria, a web-based platform for scalable analytics and data-parallel programming. Myria's internal model of computation is the relational algebra extended with iteration, such that every program is inherently data-parallel, just as every query in a database is inherently data-parallel. But unlike databases, iteration is a first class concept, allowing us to express machine learning tasks, graph traversal tasks, and more. Programs can be expressed in a number of languages and can be executed on a number of execution environments, but we emphasize a particular language called MyriaL that supports both imperative and declarative styles and a particular execution engine called MyriaX that uses an in-memory column-oriented representation and asynchronous iteration. We deliver Myria over the web as a service, providing an editor, performance analysis tools, and catalog browsing features in a single environment. We find that this web-based "delivery vector" is critical in reaching non-experts: they are insulated from irrelevant effort technical work associated with installation, configuration, and resource management. The MyriaX backend, one of several execution runtimes we support, is a main-memory, column-oriented, RDBMS-on-the-worker system that supports cyclic data flows as a first-class citizen and has been shown to outperform competitive systems on 100-machine cluster sizes. I will describe the Myria system, give a demo, and present some new results in large-scale oceanographic microbiology.

  14. A study of 11 Be an 11 Li halo nuclei by core breakup reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grevy, S.

    1997-01-01

    The study of light nuclei with large neutron excess are very useful for the understanding of nuclear matter far from stability. The nuclear halo phenomenon has been observed for the first time for Z 11 Be and 11 Li halo nuclei. In this channel, the neutron is supposed not to participate to the reaction and then, when detected, to carry out the same properties as in the halo nucleus. The deduced widths of the neutron momentum distributions are different from the one extracted from the core distributions and with the more recent theoretical models. From these studies, it is also stressed that the properties of the core are essential to understand the halo phenomenon. In particular, the correlation between the core vibrations and the halo neutron are able to explain the emergence of the halo in 11 Be. (author)

  15. Longitudinal halo in beam bunches with self-consistent 6-D distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluckstern, R. L.; Fedotov, A. V.; Kurennoy, S. S.; Ryne, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    We have explored the formation of longitudinal and transverse halos in 3-D axisymmetric beam bunches by starting with a self-consistent 6-D phase space distribution. Stationary distributions allow us to study the halo development mechanism without being obscured by beam redistribution and its effect on halo formation. The beam is then mismatched longitudinally and/or transversely, and we explore the rate, intensity and spatial extent of the halos which form, as a function of the beam charge and the mismatches. We find that the longitudinal halo forms first because the longitudinal tune depression is more severe than the transverse one for elongated bunches and conclude that it plays a major role in halo formation

  16. Injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with super-high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.V.

    1979-09-01

    We studied the origin of injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with anomalously high formation pressures (AHFP). Using fields in Azerbaydzhan and Chechen-Ingushetiya as an example, we demonstrate the effect of certain factors (in particular, faults and zones of increased macro- and micro-jointing) on the morpholoy of the halos. The intensity of micro-jointing (jointing permeability, three-dimensional density of micro-jointing) is directly connected with vertical dimensions of the halos. We measured halos based on transverse profiles across the Khayan-Kort field and studied the distribution of bitumen saturation within the injection halo. Discovery of injection halos during drilling has enabled us to improve the technology of wiring deep-seated exploratory wells for oil and gas in regions with development of AHFP.

  17. Group support system and explanatory feedback: An experimental study of mitigating halo effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intiyas Utami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive assessment potentially leads to halo effect that will affect accuracy of auditors decision-making process. Biased initial audit decision will potentially influence final audit decision. It is there-fore necessary to mitigate halo effect that is the consequence of auditors good impression on clients initial condition. This re-search aims to empirically show that halo effect can be mitigated by explanatory feedback and Group Support System (GSS. The researchers experimentally mani-pulate explanatory feedback and GSS using online web-site. The subjects are stu-dents who have already taken auditing courses. The results show that: 1 explanato-ry feedback can mitigate halo effect so that audit decision will be more accurate 2 GSS can also mitigate halo effect 3 explanatory feedback and GSS are the best me-thods to mitigate halo effect.

  18. Enceladus life finder: the search for life in a habitable moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, Jonathan; Waite, Hunter; Postberg, Frank; Spilker, Linda; Clark, Karla

    2015-04-01

    Is there life elsewhere in the solar system? Guided by the principle that we can most easily recognize life as we know it -- life that requires liquid water -- Enceladus is particularly attractive because liquid water from its deep interior is actively erupting into space, making sampling of the interior straightforward. The Cassini Saturn Orbiter has provided the motivation. In particular, at high resolution, spatial coincidences between individual geysers and small-scale hot spots revealed the liquid reservoir supplying the eruptions to be not in the near-surface but deeper within the moon [1], putting on a firm foundation the principle that sampling the plume allows us to know the composition of the ocean. Sensitive gravity and topography measurements established the location and dimensions of that reservoir: ~ 35 km beneath the SPT ice shell and extending out to at least 50 degrees latitude, implying an interior ocean large enough to have been stable over geologic time [2]. The Cassini ion neutral mass spectrometer (INMS) discovered organic and nitrogen-bearing molecules in the plume vapour, and the Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) detected salts in the plume icy grains, arguing strongly for ocean water being in con-tact with a rocky core [3], [4]. As much as Cassini has done, it cannot provide detailed information on the ocean environment that allow for a quantitative assessment of the potential for life. Acquiring such knowledge represents the essential first step in characterizing the nature of the subsurface ocean and its biological potential. Enceladus Life Finder, or ELF, is a solar-powered Saturn orbiter designed to fly multiple times through the plume of Enceladus.The goals of the mission are derived directly from the most recent decadal survey: first, to determine primordial sources of organics and the sites of organic synthesis today, and second, to determine if there are modern habitats in the solar system beyond Earth where the conditions for life exist

  19. ZOMG - I. How the cosmic web inhibits halo growth and generates assembly bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzyszkowski, Mikolaj; Porciani, Cristiano; Romano-Díaz, Emilio; Garaldi, Enrico

    2017-07-01

    The clustering of dark matter haloes with fixed mass depends on their formation history, an effect known as assembly bias. We use zoom N-body simulations to investigate the origin of this phenomenon. For each halo at redshift z = 0, we determine the time in which the physical volume containing its final mass becomes stable. We consider five examples for which this happens at z ˜ 1.5 and two that do not stabilize by z = 0. The zoom simulations show that early-collapsing haloes do not grow in mass at z = 0 while late-forming ones show a net inflow. The reason is that 'accreting' haloes are located at the nodes of a network of thin filaments feeding them. Conversely, each 'stalled' halo lies within a prominent filament that is thicker than the halo size. Infalling material from the surroundings becomes part of the filament while matter within it recedes from the halo. We conclude that assembly bias originates from quenching halo growth due to tidal forces following the formation of non-linear structures in the cosmic web, as previously conjectured in the literature. Also the internal dynamics of the haloes change: the velocity anisotropy profile is biased towards radial (tangential) orbits in accreting (stalled) haloes. Our findings reveal the cause of the yet unexplained dependence of halo clustering on the anisotropy. Finally, we extend the excursion-set theory to account for these effects. A simple criterion based on the ellipticity of the linear tidal field combined with the spherical-collapse model provides excellent predictions for both classes of haloes.

  20. The Impact of Assembly Bias on the Galaxy Content of Dark Matter Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehavi, Idit; Contreras, Sergio; Padilla, Nelson; Smith, Nicholas J.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Norberg, Peder

    2018-01-01

    We study the dependence of the galaxy content of dark matter halos on large-scale environment and halo formation time using semi-analytic galaxy models applied to the Millennium simulation. We analyze subsamples of halos at the extremes of these distributions and measure the occupation functions for the galaxies they host. We find distinct differences among these occupation functions. The main effect with environment is that central galaxies (and in one model, also the satellites) in denser regions start populating lower-mass halos. A similar, but significantly stronger, trend exists with halo age, where early-forming halos are more likely to host central galaxies at lower halo mass. We discuss the origin of these trends and the connection to the stellar mass–halo mass relation. We find that, at fixed halo mass, older halos and to some extent also halos in dense environments tend to host more massive galaxies. Additionally, we see a reverse trend for the occupation of satellite galaxies where early-forming halos have fewer satellites, likely due to having more time for them to merge with the central galaxy. We describe these occupancy variations in terms of the changes in the occupation function parameters, which can aid in constructing realistic mock galaxy samples. Finally, we study the corresponding galaxy auto- and cross-correlation functions of the different samples and elucidate the impact of assembly bias on galaxy clustering. Our results can inform theoretical modeling of galaxy assembly bias and attempts to detect it in the real universe.