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Sample records for sc mn cr

  1. Electronic structure and half-metallicity in new Heusler alloys CoYO2 (Y = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteki, S.; Ahmadian, F.

    2017-09-01

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) using the self-consistent full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method were applied to study the electronic structures and magnetic properties of new Heusler alloys CoYO2 (Y = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn). The calculated formation energies of these compounds were negative, therefore, they can be synthesized experimentally. All compounds were stable in ferromagnetic AlCu2Mn-type structure. In AlCu2Mn-type structure, CoScO2, CoFeO2, and CoNiO2 compounds were HM ferromagnets, CoCuO2 was a nearly half-metal, CoZnO2 was a spin gapless semiconductor, and other compounds were conventional ferromagnets. In CuHg2Ti-type structure, CoTiO2 compound had a nearly HM characteristic, CoVO2 was a spin gapless semiconductor, and other compounds were conventional ferromagnets. The origin of the half-metallic band gap for CoScO2 alloy Heusler alloy was well understood. The total magnetic moments of the three HM compounds obeyed Slater-Pauling rules (Mtot = 22-Ztot and Mtot = 32-Ztot). CoScO2 had the widest region of half-metallicity between the three half-metals indicating its high robustness of half-metallicity with respect to the variation of lattice constants.

  2. Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP): Updated decay data evaluations for (24)Na, (46)Sc, (51)Cr, (54)Mn, (57)Co, (59)Fe, (88)Y, (198)Au.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechev, Valery P; Kuzmenko, Nikolay K

    2016-03-01

    Updated DDEP evaluations have been presented for the decay characteristics of the radionuclides (24)Na, (46)Sc, (51)Cr, (54)Mn, (57)Co, (59)Fe, (88)Y and (198)Au. Previous DDEP evaluations for these radionuclides were published in the BIPM-5 monographie in 2004. The experimental data published during the intervening period of 2004-2014 were taken into account in the current evaluations as well as other information: new compilations, analyses, and corrections. The updated evaluations are compared to previous results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of (n,2n) cross-sections for Sc, Mn, Cr and In between 12 and 19 MeV with activation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, S.; Win, Than; Matsuyama, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Odano, N.

    1997-03-01

    Activation cross-sections for scandium, manganese, chromium and indium have been measured in the neutron energies from 12 to 19 MeV. Source neutrons were produced via the T(d,n){sup 4}He reaction by bombarding a 3.2-MeV deuteron beam from the Dynamitron accelerator of Fast Neutron Laboratory at Tohoku University. Ten packages of high or ultra-high purity metal foils for chromium and indium, alloy foils for manganese, and oxide powder for scandium were set around the neutron source at 5 cm from the target in the angular range from 0 to 140 deg covering the incident neutron energies from 19 to 12 MeV at the center position of each package. Activation rates of the samples were obtained by the gamma-ray measurements using a high purity germanium detector. Neutron flux at each sample was determined using the activation rates of two niobium foils locating both sides of that sample; the reference reaction was {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92m}Nb of which cross-section data was taken from the 1991 NEANDC/INDC standard files. The source neutrons distributions have been measured in detail by the time-of-flight technique. The measured cross-sections are the following important dosimetry or activation reactions: {sup 45}Sc(n,2n){sup 44m}Sc, {sup 55}Mn(n,2n){sup 54}Mn, {sup 52}Cr(n,2n){sup 51}Cr, and {sup 115}In(n,2n){sup 114m}In. These cross-sections are compared with available activation file, dosimetry files and previous experimental data. (author)

  4. Balance between thermopower, electric and magnetic interactions in CuCrO2, Bi8Rh7O22 and MnSc2Se4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, Truong

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal based compounds with Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni are essential for many electronic functionalities. These compounds show rich physics with complex structural features that lead to interesting magnetic and electrical properties. Specific transition metal oxides reveal coupling between

  5. Precipitation in cold-rolled Al-Sc-Zr and Al-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy

    KAUST Repository

    Vlach, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The effects of cold-rolling on thermal, mechanical and electrical properties, microstructure and recrystallization behaviour of the AlScZr and AlMnScZr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy were studied. The powder was produced by atomising in argon with 1% oxygen and then consolidated by hot extrusion at 350 C. The electrical resistometry and microhardness together with differential scanning calorimetry measurements were compared with microstructure development observed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Fine (sub)grain structure developed and fine coherent Al3Sc and/or Al3(Sc,Zr) particles precipitated during extrusion at 350 C in the alloys studied. Additional precipitation of the Al3Sc and/or Al3(Sc,Zr) particles and/or their coarsening was slightly facilitated by the previous cold rolling. The presence of Sc,Zr-containing particles has a significant antirecrystallization effect that prevents recrystallization at temperatures minimally up to 420 C. The precipitation of the Al6Mn- and/or Al 6(Mn,Fe) particles of a size ~ 1.0 μm at subgrain boundaries has also an essential antirecrystallization effect and totally suppresses recrystallization during 32 h long annealing at 550 C. The texture development of the alloys seems to be affected by high solid solution strengthening by Mn. The precipitation of the Mn-containing alloy is highly enhanced by a cold rolling. The apparent activation energy of the Al3Sc particles formation and/or coarsening and that of the Al6Mn and/or Al 6(Mn,Fe) particle precipitation in the powder and in the compacted alloys were determined. The cold deformation has no effect on the apparent activation energy values of the Al3Sc-phase and the Al 6Mn-phase precipitation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  6. Wavelengths, energy levels and hyperfine structure of Mn II and Sc II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Gillian; Pickering, Juliet C.; Townley-Smith, Keeley I. M.; Hala, .

    2015-08-01

    For many decades, the Atomic Spectroscopy Groups at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Imperial College London (ICL) have measured atomic data of astronomical interest. Our spectrometers include Fourier transform (FT) spectrometers at NIST and ICL covering the region 1350 Å to 5.5 μm and a 10.7-m grating spectrometer at NIST covering wavelengths from 300 - 5000 Å. Sources for these spectra include high-current continuous and pulsed hollow cathode (HCL) lamps, Penning discharges, and sliding spark discharges. Recent work has focused on the measurement and analysis of wavelengths, energy levels, and hyperfine structure (HFS) constants for iron-group elements. The analysis of FT spectra of Cr I, Mn I, and Mn II is being led by ICL and is described in a companion poster [1]. Current work being led by NIST includes the analysis of HFS in Mn II, analysis of Mn II in the vacuum ultraviolet, and a comprehensive analysis of Sc II.Comprehensive HFS constants for Mn II are needed for the interpretation of stellar spectra and incorrect abundances may be obtained when HFS is omitted. Holt et al. [2] have measured HFS constants for 59 levels of Mn II using laser spectroscopy. We used FT spectra of Mn/Ni and Mn/Cu HCLs covering wavelength ranges from 1350 Å to 5.4 μm to confirm 26 of the A constants of Holt et al. and obtain values for roughly 40 additional levels. We aim to obtain HFS constants for the majority of lines showing significant HFS that are observed in chemically-peculiar stars.Spectra of Sc HCLs have been recorded from 1800 - 6700 Å using a vacuum ultraviolet FT spectrometer at NIST. Additional measurements to cover wavelengths above 6700 Å and below 1800 Å are in progress. The spectra are being analyzed by NIST and Alighar Muslim University, India in order to derive improved wavelengths, energy levels, and hyperfine structure parameters.This work was partially supported by NASA, the STFC and PPARC (UK), the Royal Society of the UK

  7. The 52Cr(p, γ)53Mn reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuister, P.H.

    The 52Cr(p, γ)53Mn reaction was investigated in the energy region Ep = 1.36–2.26 MeV. The resonance energies, the corresponding 53Mn excitation energies and the resonance strengths of 199 resonances, assigned to this reaction, are reported. The excitation energies and gamma-ray branchings of 13

  8. Beta-decay studies of neutron-rich Sc-Cr nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudefroy, L.; Sorlin, O.; Donzaud, C.; Azaiez, F.; Bourgeois, C.; Chiste, V.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Ibrahim, F.; Pougheon, F.; Stanoiu, M. [IN2P3-CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); Angelique, J.C.; Grevy, S. [LPC, ISMRA, Caen Cedex (France); Dlouhy, Z.; Mrasek, J. [AS CR, Nuclear Physics Institute, Rez (Czech Republic); Kratz, K.-L.; Pfeiffer, B. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernchemie, Mainz (Germany); Lewitowicz, M.; Matea, I.; De Oliveira Santos, F.; Saint-Laurent, M.G. [GANIL, B.P. 5027, Caen Cedex (France); Lukyanov, S.M. [FLNR, JINR, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Nowacki, F.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.-E. [Universite Louis Pasteur, IReS, IN2P3-CNRS, BP 28, Strasbourg Cedex (France)

    2005-01-01

    The neutron-rich nuclei{sup 57,58}{sub 21}Sc,{sup 58-60}{sub 22}Ti,{sup 60-63}{sub 23}V,{sup 62-66}{sub 24}Cr have been produced at Ganil via interactions of a 61.8A MeV {sup 76}Ge beam with a {sup 58}Ni target. Beta-decay studies have been performed using combined {beta}- and {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. Half-lives have been determined and {beta}-decay schemes are proposed for {sup 58}Ti, {sup 61}V and {sup 62}Cr. From these studies, new hints for the existence of {beta}-decaying isomers in {sup 60}V and in {sup 62}Mn are provided. These results are compared to shell model calculations. The role of the {pi}f{sub 7/2}- {nu}f{sub 5/2} proton-neutron interaction is examined through its influence on the lifetime values. (orig.)

  9. Corrosion related iron oxides: Cu, Mn and Cr doped hematite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez, G.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We have obtained Cu, Mn, and Cr doped hematites, by a thermal treatment of doped goethites at 500 and 880 °C in air for 24 h. The goethites were prepared in the laboratory from iron chloride solutions in the presence of Cu2+, Mn2+, and Cr3+ ions. The samples are characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It is found that at 500 °C all the goethites have transformed into hematites. However, the thermal treatment at 880 °C produces hematites with better crystallinity.

    Hemos obtenido hematitas dopadas con Cu, Mn y Cr, por un tratamiento térmico de goethitas dopadas a 500 y 880 °C en aire durante 24 h. Las goethitas fueron preparadas en el laboratorio a partir de soluciones de cloruro de hierro en presencia de iones de Cu2+, Mn2+ y Cr3+. Las muestras fueron caracterizadas por espectroscopia Mössbauer y difracción de rayos X. Se encontró que a 500 °C todas las goethitas se han transformado a hematitas. Sin embargo, el tratamiento térmico a 880 °C produce hematitas con mejor cristalinidad.

  10. Early Stages of Precipitation Process in Al-(Mn-)Sc-Zr Alloy Characterized by Positron Annihilation

    KAUST Repository

    Vlach, Martin

    2015-01-29

    Thermal effects on the precipitation stages in as-cast Al-0.70 at. pct Mn-0.15 at. pct Sc-0.05 at. pct Zr alloy were studied. The role of lattice defects was elucidated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening) enabling investigation of solutes clustering at the atomic scale. This technique has never been used in the Al-Sc- and/or Al-Zr-based alloys so far. Studies by positron annihilation were combined with resistometry, hardness measurements, and microstructure observations. Positrons trapped at defects are preferentially annihilated by Sc electrons. Lifetime of trapped positrons indicates that Sc atoms segregate at dislocations. Maximum fraction of positrons annihilated by Sc electrons occurring at 453 K (180 °C) suggests that clustering of Sc bound with vacancies takes place. It is followed by peak of this fraction at 573 K (300 °C). A rise of the contribution of trapped positrons annihilated by Zr electrons starting at 513 K (240 °C) and attaining maximum also at 573 K (300 °C) confirms that Zr participates in precipitation of the Al3Sc particles already at these temperatures. The pronounced hardening at 573 K (300 °C) has its nature in the precipitation of the Al3Sc particles with a Zr-rich shell. The contribution of trapped positrons annihilated by Mn electrons was found to be negligible. © 2015, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.

  11. Spin glass-like behavior in spin-density-wave CrCoMn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galkin, Vladimir Yu. E-mail: galkin@magn.ru; Ortiz, Wilson A.; Ali, Naushad

    2003-03-01

    Magnetic susceptibility and magnetization of spin-density-wave (SDW) alloy systems (Cr+3.2%Co){sub 1-x}Mn{sub x} and (Cr+6.5%Co){sub 1-x}Mn{sub x} have been measured with a SQUID magnetometer. Magnetic properties of the studied alloys are compared with those exhibited by binary Cr{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x} and ternary (CrFe){sub 1-x}Mn{sub x} and (CrSi){sub 1-x}Mn{sub x} alloys. All these alloys show spin glass (SG)-like behavior; however, some of their magnetic properties are quite different from those exhibited by conventional metallic spin glasses. Though both Fe and Co produce a local moment in Cr and CrMn, addition of Co to CrMn does not result in suppression of SG-like phase like that in (CrFe){sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}. This seems to be a result of essentially different strengths of Fe-Cr and Co-Cr couplings. All alloys studied show a low-temperature SG-like magnetic hysteresis. Such hysteresis is shifted to negative fields by cooling the alloys in a strong magnetic field through the Neel temperature. This effect is caused by unidirectional anisotropy of Co atoms frozen in the SDW matrix.

  12. Fatigue behaviors and damage mechanism of a Cr-Mn-N austenitic steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Z.; Cai, P.; Yu, Tianbo

    2017-01-01

    Four-point bending fatigue tests were conducted on a Cr-Mn-N austenitic steel at room temperature, at frequency of 20 Hz and the stress ratio of R = 0.1, in air. The fatigue strength of this Cr-Mn-N austenitic steel was measured to be 503 MPa in the maximum stress from the S-N curve obtained...

  13. type phase LaSr2MnCrO7

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    LaSr2MnCrO7; structure; rietveld XRD analysis; magnetoresistance; ferromagnetic. 1. Introduction. The Ruddlesden–Popper (RP) type ... K2NiF4-type structure with only one layer of corner- sharing BO6 octahedra along the c direction. .... ered manganites exhibit I–M transition at low tem- peratures and the Mn. 3+. /Mn. 4+.

  14. Homogenous adsorption of Mn{sub 6}Cr single-molecule-magnets on substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koop, Peter; Gryzia, Aaron; Helmstedt, Andreas; Hachmann, Wiebke; Brechling, Armin; Sacher, Marc; Heinzmann, Ulrich [Molecular and Surface Physics, Bielefeld University (Germany); Hoeke, Veronika; Glaser, Thorsten [Anorganic Chemistry I, Bielefeld University (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Mn{sub 6}Cr is a single-molecule-magnet (SMM) consisting of two bowl-shaped compounds, each containing three Mn-atoms. These compounds are bound together by a Cr-complex. For charge neutrality, counterions have to be coupled to the SMM. Investigation of separated SMM, the molecule-substrate interaction and/or possible future applications e.g. data storage, requires preparation of monolayers or thin films. This preparation is done by solving Mn{sub 6}Cr in methanol, and dropping few {mu}l of the solution onto a 9 x 9 mm sized substrate. Depending on the choice of substrate Au, SiO{sub 2} (native Oxide, 50 nm Oxide), HOPG, Ru, Mn{sub 6}Cr concentration, the angle of the sample while being prepared and the amount of applied solution Mn{sub 6}Cr yields strongly varying kinds of assembly. On the one hand, clusters emerge in the solution just a moment before the solvent dries, depending on the concentration of Mn{sub 6}Cr in the solution. On the other hand the lateral distribution of the SMM is correlated with the droplet-size, the angle of the sample during preparation and the counterions, e.g. lactate anions cause Mn{sub 6}Cr to create membranes. The samples have been investigated by means of optical microscopy, SEM, surface profilometry and AFM.

  15. Direct synthesis of an heterometallic {Mn(II)3Cr(III)4} wheel by decomposition of Reineckes salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenaka, Valentyna V; Nesterova, Oksana V; Kokozay, Volodymyr N; Zybatyuk, Roman I; Shishkin, Oleg V; Boca, Roman; Shevchenko, Denys V; Huang, Ping; Styring, Stenbjörn

    2010-03-07

    A new heterometallic Mn/Cr molecular wheel complex has been synthesized using zerovalent manganese, Reineckes salt, ammonium thiocyanate and triethanolamine (H(3)tea) as starting materials. The compound [Mn(3)Cr(4)(NCS)(6)(Htea)(6)] (1) has been characterized in terms of its electrochemical, IR and EPR spectroscopic as well as its magnetic properties. The magnetic susceptibility and magnetization data were treated simultaneously during the optimization routine and resulted in J(Mn-Cr) = +0.43 cm(-1), J(Cr-Cr) = -4.75 cm(-1), J(Mn-Mn) = +1.78 cm(-1), g(eff) = 1.878 with the ground state S = 15/2.

  16. Oxidation of CoCrFeMnNi High Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Tylczak, Joseph; Carney, Casey

    2015-06-01

    Eight model high entropy alloys (HEAs) in the CoCrFeMnNi family (including one alloy each in the CoCrFeNi and CoFeMnNi subfamilies) were made, prepared, and exposed to laboratory air for 1100 h at 650°C and 750°C. Two commercial alloys, nickel-base superalloy 230 (N06230) and austenitic stainless steel 304H (S30409), were simultaneously exposed for comparison. Mass change oxidation kinetics were measured and cross-sections of exposed samples were observed. Seven of these HEAs contained much more Mn (12-24 wt.%) than is found in commercial heat-resistant stainless steels and superalloys. The oxidation resistance of CoCrFeNi was excellent and comparable to 304H at 650°C and only slightly worse at 750°C. The thin oxide scale on CoCrFeNi was primarily Cr oxide (presumably Cr2O3) with some Mn oxide at the outer part of the scale. The CoCrFeMnNi HEAs all experienced more rapid oxidation than CoCrFeNi and, especially at 750°C, experienced oxide scale spallation. The addition of Y in the alloy to lower S improved the oxidation resistance of these HEAs. Alloy CoFeMnNi, without Cr, experienced much higher oxidation rates and scale spallation than the Cr-containing alloys. A linear regression analysis of the log of the parabolic rate constant, log(kp), as functions of wt.% Cr and Mn found a good correlation for the compositional dependence of the oxidation rate constant, especially at 650°C. Mn was found to be more detrimental increasing log(k p) than Cr was helpful reducing log(k p). If CoCrFeMnNi HEAs are to be used in high temperature oxidizing environments, then examining lower levels of Mn, while maintaining Cr levels, should be pursued.

  17. Manganese-mediated ferromagnetism in La 2 Fe Mn 2 Cr O 6 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have investigated the structure and magnetic properties of the perovskite oxides of the formula La2Fe1-Mn2Cr1-O6 (0 < < 1.0). For 0 < ≤ 0.5, the members adopt the orthorhombic (Pbnm) structure, where the transition metal atoms are disordered at the 4b sites and the MO6 (M = Fe, Mn, Cr) octahedra become ...

  18. Synthesis of new (Bi, La) 3MSb2O11 phases (M= Cr, Mn, Fe) with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The magnetic measurements on Bi2LaCrSb2O11 and Bi2LaMnSb2O11 show paramagnetic behaviour with magnetic moments close to the expected spin only magnetic moments of Cr+3 and Mn+3. The UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra are broad and indicate that these materials possess a bandgap of ∼ 2 eV.

  19. Theoretical approach to the magnetic properties of Mn(II), Cr(III), and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    3+. , and Mn. 2+ ions in the newly reported. 12- and 15-membered macrocyclic complexes are analysed by a theoretical approach. The calculated magnetic ... Cr(III), and Mn(II) ions in 12-membered macrocyclic ligands are 1.98 BM, 3.72 .... and the results of the EPR spectroscopy, one can easily calculate the amount of.

  20. Effects of Cr, Mo, W, Mn and Ni on toughness of 2. 25Cr-Mo-V rotor steel. 2. 25Cr-Mo-V tanko no jinsei ni oyobosu Cr, Mo, W, Mn oyobi Ni no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoya, Y. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Takasago Research and Development Center); Kitai, T.; Tsuji, I.; Matsuo, A. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Tanaka, Y.; Azuma, T. (The Japan Steel Works Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Muroran Research Lab.); Ikeda, Y. (The Japan Steel Works Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    2.25Cr-Mo-V rotor steel is developed and put into practical use as a high and low pressure suitable rotor steel and the gas turbine disk materials. In this study, as a basic component of 2.25Cr-Mo-V steel, 12 kinds of alloys with the additions of Cr, Mo, W, Mn and Ni were made, the impact experiments were carried out, effect of the alloying elements on toughness was examined, and effect of the alloying elements on the precipitation of carbide was investigated. Main results obtained were as follows: Cr, Mo, Mn and Ni additions decreased the Bainite start temperature (Bs) of 2.25Cr-Mo-V steel, Cr and Ni additions decreased Fracture Appearance Transition Temperature (FATT), and Mn addition did not give a significant change on the FATT. Mo addition decreased the FATT, when this addition is more than 1.5%, the FATT was increased. W addition increased the FATT. 17 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Oxide Transformation in Cr-Mn-Prealloyed Sintered Steels: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryha, Eduard; Nyborg, Lars

    2014-04-01

    The main obstacle for utilization of Cr and Mn as alloying elements in powder metallurgy is their high oxygen affinity leading to oxidation risk during powder manufacturing, handling, and especially during further consolidation. Despite the high purity of the commercially available Cr- and Mn-prealloyed iron powder grades, the risk of stable oxide formation during the sintering process remains. Thermodynamic and kinetic simulation of the oxide formation/transformation on the former powder surface during heating and sintering stages using thermodynamic modeling tools (Thermo-Calc and HSC Chemistry) was performed. Simulation is based on the results from the analysis of amount, morphology, and composition of the oxide phases inside the inter-particle necks in the specimens from interrupted sintering trials utilizing advanced analysis tools (HRSEM + EDX and XPS). The effect of the processing parameters, such as sintering atmosphere composition, temperature profile as well as graphite addition on the possible scenarios of oxide reduction/formation/transformation for Fe-Cr-Mn-C powder systems, was evaluated. Results indicate that oxide transformation occurs in accordance with the thermodynamic stability of oxides as follows: Fe2O3 → FeO → Fe2MnO4 → Cr2FeO4 → Cr2O3 → MnCr2O4 → MnO/MnSiO x → SiO2. Spinel MnCr2O4 was identified as the most stable oxide phase at applied sintering conditions up to 1393 K (1120 °C). Controlled conditions during the heating stage minimize the formation of stable oxide products and produce oxide-free sintered parts.

  2. Comparative study of Co, Cr and Al-doped LiMnO2 prepared by ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As compared to LiMnO2, Co, Cr and Al-doped LiMnO2 offers higher discharge capacity and better cycling performance. The discharge capacities of Co, Cr and Al-doped LiMnO2 decreases yet the cycling performance improves with the increase of doping concentration. For these doped LiMnO2 at the same doping ...

  3. Structural, magnetic, magnetocaloric and specific heat investigations on Mn doped PrCrO3 orthochromites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Surendra; Coondoo, Indrani; Vasundhara, M.; Kumar, Sandeep; Kholkin, A. L.; Panwar, Neeraj

    2017-05-01

    We have synthesized PrCr0.85Mn0.15O3 (PCMO) chromite and investigated the influence of manganese (Mn) doping at Cr-sites on the structural, magnetic, magnetocaloric and thermal properties of PrCrO3 compound. No structural transition was observed with Mn substitution and the doped compound crystallized into distorted orthorhombic structure with Pnma space group which was confirmed by Rietveld refinement of x-ray powder diffraction patterns. Neel temperature, noticed at 168 K from the temperature variation of magnetization, smaller than that reported for PrCrO3, indicated the influence of Mn3+ substitution in decreasing the antiferromagnetic ordering. Magnetization was almost eight times higher than that reported for undoped sample. Magnetocaloric effect measured via the magnetic entropy change and relative cooling power demonstrated significant values in the temperature range 10-20 K. The values of magnetic entropy change are much superior to that reported for other polycrystalline orthochromites and even at smaller applied field strength. The material exhibited second order magnetic phase transition. The Debye temperature and the density of states at Fermi level were also calculated. The overall results make PrCr0.85Mn0.15O3 chromite a potential candidate to replace the existing materials for low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  4. Pressure-induced superconductivity in CrAs and MnP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinguang; Luo, Jianlin

    2017-09-01

    Transition-metal monopnictides, CrAs and MnP, were studied over 50 years ago due to the presence of interesting magnetic properties: CrAs forms a double-helical magnetic structure below T N  ≈  270 K accompanied by a strong first-order structural transition, while MnP first undergoes a ferromagnetic transition at T C  ≈  290 K and then adopts a similar double-helical order below T s  ≈  50 K. Both compounds are correlated metals and exhibit distinct anomalies at these characteristic magnetic transitions. By using high pressure as a clean tuning knob, we recently observed superconductivity with a maximum superconducting transition temperature of T c  ≈  2 K and 1 K when their helimagnetic orders are suppressed under a critical pressure of P c  ≈  0.8 and 8 GPa for CrAs and MnP, respectively. Despite a relatively low T c, CrAs and MnP are respectively the first superconductor among the Cr- and Mn-based compounds in that the electronic density of states at the Fermi energy are dominated by Cr/Mn-3d electrons. These discoveries, in particular the close proximity of superconductivity to the helimagnetic order reminiscent of many unconventional superconducting systems, have attracted considerable attention in the community of superconductivity. The evolution of the helimagnetic order under pressure and its relationship with superconductivity have been actively investigated recently. Much effort has also been devoted to exploring more novel Cr- or Mn-based superconductors, leading to the discovery of quasi-1D A2Cr3As3 (A  =  K, Rb, Cs) superconductors. In this review article, we will summarize the current progress achieved regarding superconductivity in CrAs and MnP.

  5. Large magnetic entropy changes and magnetoresistance in Ni45Mn42Cr2Sn11 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. H.; Zhang, C. L.; Han, Z. D.; Xuan, H. C.; Gu, B. X.; Du, Y. W.

    2008-02-01

    The magnetic entropy changes and magnetoresistance were studied in Ni45Mn42Cr2Sn11 ferromagnetic shape memory alloy near the martensitic transition temperature. The substitution of Mn by Cr leads to the rapid decrease of the martensitic transition temperature. A large magnetic entropy change, ΔSM, of 15 J/kg K in a magnetic field of 10 kOe and a large negative MR of 45% in a magnetic field up to 50 kOe were observed in this alloy. The temperature and magnetic field induced martensitic transition should be the origin of large ΔSM and MR in Ni45Mn42Cr2Sn11 ferromagnetic shape memory alloy.

  6. Diode-pumped Cr-doped ZnMnSe and ZnMgSe lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Říha, A.; Němec, M.; Jelínková, H.; Čech, M.; Vyhlídal, D.; Doroshenko, M. E.; Komar, V. K.; Gerasimenko, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Chromium ions Cr2+ are known to have good fluorescence properties in the mid-infrared spectral region around the wavelength of 2.5 μm. The aim of this study was the investigation of new laser crystal materials - Zn0.95Mn0.05Se, Zn0.70Mn 0.30Se, and Zn0.75Mg0.25Se doped by Cr2+ ions and comparison of their spectral and laser characteristics. The spectroscopic parameters as absorption and fluorescence spectra as well as lifetimes were measured. As optical pumping the laser diode generating radiation at the wavelength of 1.69 μm (pulse repetition rate 10 Hz, pulse width 2 ms) was used. The longitudinal-pumped resonator was hemispherical with an output coupler radius of curvature 150 mm. The laser emission spectra were investigated and the highest intensity of emitted radiation was achieved at wavelengths 2451 nm, 2469 nm, and 2470 nm from the Cr:Zn0.95Mn0.05Se, Cr:Zn0.70Mn0.30Se, and Cr:Zn0.75Mg0.25Se laser systems, respectively. The input-output characteristics of laser systems were measured; the maximum output peak power 177 mW was obtained for Cr:Zn0.95Mn0.05Se laser system with slope efficiency of 6.3 % with respect to absorbed peak power. The output peak power as well as output beam spatial structure were stable during measurements. For the selection of the lasing wavelength, the single 1.5 mm thick quartz plate was placed at the Brewster angle inside the optical resonator between the output coupler and laser active medium. This element provided the tuning in the wavelength range 2290-2578 nm, 2353-2543 nm, and 2420-2551 nm for Cr:Zn0.95Mn0.05Se, Cr:Zn0.70Mn0.30Se, and Cr:Zn0.75Mg0.25Se, respectively. The obtained spectral FWHM linewidth of the individual output radiation was 10 nm. A comparison with previously measured Cr:ZnSe laser system was added in the end

  7. Characterization of phase development in non-isothermally annealed mould-cast and heat-treated Al-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlach, M., E-mail: martin.vlach@mff.cuni.cz; Stulikova, I.; Smola, B.; Zaludova, N.

    2010-12-15

    The effect of Mn addition on microstructure and mechanical properties during isochronal annealing in the temperature range of 20 deg. C - 570 deg. C of the mould-cast and heat-treated Al-Sc-Zr alloys with a various content of Mn and Zr was studied. The electrical resistometry together with the microhardness (HV0.3) measurements were compared to microstructure development. The microstructure development was examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Relative resistivity changes and the microhardness of the mould-cast and heat-treated Al-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys exhibit similar dependence on annealing temperature. Precipitation of the Al{sub 3}Sc particles is responsible for the peak microhardness in all these alloys. The microhardness decrease is slightly delayed during the isochronal annealing and during the high temperature heat treatment in the mould-cast alloy with the higher Zr-content due to a higher oversaturation of Zr. The decomposition sequence of the oversaturated solid solution of the studied Al-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys is compatible with the recently published decomposition sequence of the Al-Sc-Zr system and also with the formation of Mn,Fe-containing particles. It seems very probable that the addition of Mn does not influence the decomposition of solid solution of the ternary Al-Sc-Zr system. - Research Highlights: {yields} Al{sub 3}Sc particles are responsible for the peak microhardness in all the studied alloys. {yields} The microhardness decrease is delayed in the alloy with the higher Zr-content. {yields} The peak hardening of the heat-treated alloys is shifted to higher temperatures. {yields} Mn does not influence the decomposition sequence of the Al-Sc-Zr system.

  8. Chemical shift of Mn and Cr K-edges in X-ray absorption ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Measurements have been carried out at the energy dispersive EXAFS beamline at INDUS-2 Synchrotron Radiation Source at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. Energy shifts of ∼8–16 eV were observed for Mn K edge in the Mn-compounds while a shift of 13–20 eV was observed for Cr K edge in ...

  9. INFLUENCE OF ANNEALING ON HARDNESS OF Cr-Mn-Ni CAST IRONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Netrebko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessary level of material’s hardness is determined by the exploitation conditions and presence of technological operations during manufacturing of articles. Mechanical edge cutting machining of wear resistant materials is impeded because of their high hardness. It is recommended to apply annealing in order to decrease hardness and improve machinability. The purpose of the work consisted in obtaining of regression dependences of cast iron’s macrohardness on its chemical content after annealing at 730 °С. With the use of mathematical experimental design the regression dependences of cast iron’s macrohardness and structural components’ microhardness on С, Cr, Mn, Ni content have been established. The minimal hardness of 27,6 HRC after annealing at 730 °С is obtained in the cast iron containing: 3,9% С; 11,4% Cr; 0,6% Mn; 0,2% Ni. The maximal hardness of 70,4 HRC is obtained when the content is as follows: 1,1% С; 25,6% Cr; 5,4% Mn; 3,0% Ni. Annealing at 730 °С decreases the cast irons’ hardness containing the minimal amount of Cr, Mn and Ni. Annealing at 730 °С is recommended for cast irons alloyed by Mn and Ni for increasing of hardness.

  10. New type of Schottky diode-based Cu-Al-Mn-Cr shape memory material films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu Canbay, C.; Dere, A.; Mensah-Darkwa, Kwadwo; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Karagoz Genç, Z.; Gupta, R. K.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2016-07-01

    Cr-doped CuAlMn shape memory alloys were produced by arc melting method. The effects of Cr content on microstructure and transformation parameters of were investigated. The alloys were characterized by X-ray analysis, optical microscope observations and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The grain size of the alloys was decreased by the addition of Cr into CuAlMn alloy system. The martensite transformation temperature was shifted both the lower temperature and higher temperature with the addition of chromium. This change was explained on the basis of the change in the thermodynamics such as enthalpy, entropy and activation energy values. The obtained results indicate that the phase transformation temperatures of the CuAlMn alloy system can be controlled by addition of Cr. We fabricated a Schottky barrier diode and observed that ideality factor and barrier height increase with increasing temperature. The diodes exhibited a thermal sensor behavior. This indicates that Schottky diode-based Cu-Al-Mn-Cr shape memory material films can be used as a sensor in high-temperature measurement applications.

  11. Ab initio calculations of structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Co-Mn-Cr-Sn alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagrebin Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition dependences of crystal lattice parameters, bulk modulus, magnetic moments, magnetic exchange parameters in Ni2-yCoyMn1.5-xCrxSn0.5 (y = 0.2, 0.4; 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4 Heusler alloys are investigated with the help of ab initio calculations. Our simulations have shown that crystal lattice parameter firstly increased and then decreased with Cr content (x increasing. The strongest ferromagnetic interaction for Ni1.6Co0.4Mn1.4Cr0.1Sn0.5 is nearest-neighbor interaction between Co and Mn1 (on own sites. The strongest antiferromagnetic interaction is observed between nearest-neighbor Mn1-Cr atoms in the first coordination sphere and it is equal to -15meV. Total magnetic moment of Ni2-yCoyMn1.5-xCrxSn0.5 (y =0.2, 0.4; 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4 takes value in region from 6.1 μB to 6.6 μB.

  12. Composition Influence on Magnetic Properties in Fe-Cr-Co-Ni-Si-Mn Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Mariusz, SZPRYNGACZ; Masato, ENOKIZONO; Takashi, TODAKA; Oita University

    2004-01-01

    A new ferromagnetic shape memory alloy consisting of Fe-Cr-Co-Ni-Si-Mn has been developed by means of the melt spinning technique. The alloy has both shape memory effect and comparatively good magnetic properties, however a small modification of its chemical composition can change its properties considerably. This paper discusses such modifications and presents their influence on magnetic material properties.

  13. A note on urinary Cd, Cr, Mn and Pb, in students of the University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A note on urinary Cd, Cr, Mn and Pb, in students of the University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria. GA Odeniran, R Sha'Ato. Abstract. A preliminary investigation of heavy metals exposure of students of the University of Agriculture, Makurdi in Central Nigeria involved AAS analysis of urine from ten (10) of the students (five ...

  14. Kα X-ray satellite spectra of Ti, V, Cr and Mn induced by photons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K X-ray emission spectra of Ti, V, Cr and Mn generated by photon excitation have been studied with a crystal spectrometer. The measured energy shifts of K satellite relative to the diagram line are compared with values obtained by electron excitation and with different theoretical estimates. The present experimental ...

  15. Corrosion Behavior of 35CrMn and Q235 Steel in Simulated Acid Rain Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiu-li; Xiang, Bin; Li, Xing; Wei, Zi-dong

    2012-04-01

    Effects of pH value, chloride ion concentration and alternation of wetting and drying time in acid rain on the corrosion of 35CrMn and Q235 steel were investigated through the measurement of polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and quantum mechanical calculations. The corrosion rate of 35CrMn and Q235 steel increased with decreasing pH values of the simulated acid rain, whereas the corrosion potential of 35CrMn and Q235 steel became more negative. The impedance became higher and the corrosion rate decreased with increasing test time. The dissolution rate of samples increased with chloride ion concentration. Results suggested that the corrosion rate of 35CrMn steel was obviously lower than that of Q235 steel for a more compact rust, α-FeOOH. Quantum chemical calculations further revealed that the increase in corrosion rate of the steel resulted from pitting corrosion caused by the corrosive chloride ion.

  16. Chemical effect on the K shell fluorescence yield of Fe, Mn, Co, Cr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical effect on the K shell fluorescence yield of Fe, Mn, Co, Cr and Cu compounds. U TURGUT. Ataturk University, K.K. Education Faculty, Department of Physics, 25240 Erzurum,. Turkey. E-mail: umitturgut2000@yahoo.com. MS received 5 November 2003; revised 30 March 2004; accepted 15 June 2004. Abstract.

  17. Assessment of the concentration of Cr, Mn and Fe in sediment using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied for the determination of levels of Cr, Mn and Fe in sediment samples and the results have been compared with that of flame-atomic absorption spectroscopy (F-AAS). Fourteen sediment samples were collected from Tinishu Akaki River ...

  18. Theoretical approach to the magnetic properties of Mn (II), Cr (III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The magnetic properties of Cu2+, Cr3+, and Mn2+ ions in the newly reported 12- and 15-membered macrocyclic complexes are analysed by a theoretical approach. The calculated magnetic moment and magnetic anisotropy for various situations, especially for Cu(II) ion, suggest that the magnetic properties may lead to a ...

  19. HIGH TEMPERATURE TENSILE PROPERTIES OF NEW FE-CR-MN DEVELOPED STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahmoudiniya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Ni-free austenitic stainless steels are being developed rapidly and high price of nickel is one of the most important motivations for this development. At present research a new FeCrMn steel was designed and produced based on Fe-Cr-Mn-C system. Comparative studies on microstructure and high temperature mechanical properties of  new steel and AISI 316 steel were done. The results showed that new FeCrMn developed steel has single austenite phase microstructure, and its tensile strength and toughness were higher than those of 316 steel at 25, 200,350 and 500°C. In contrast with 316 steel, the new FeCrMn steel did not show strain induced transformation and dynamic strain aging phenomena during tensile tests that represented higher austenite stability of new developed steel. Lower density and higher strength of the new steel caused higher specific strength in comparison with the 316 one that can be considered as an important advantage in structural applications but in less corrosive environment

  20. Photoemission of Mn{sub 6}Cr single-molecule magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzmann, U; Merschjohann, F; Helmstedt, A; Gryzia, A; Winter, A; Steppeler, S; Mueller, N; Brechling, A; Sacher, M [Molecular and Surface Physics, 33501 Bielefeld University (Germany); Richthofen, C-G Freiherr v; Glaser, T [Faculty of Chemistry, 33501 Bielefeld University (Germany); Voss, S; Fonin, M; Ruediger, U, E-mail: uheinzm@physik.uni-bielefeld.d [Faculty of Physics, 78457 Konstanz University (Germany)

    2009-11-01

    We present the status of new experimental studies of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, magnetic circular dichroism in photoemission and spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of Mn{sub 6}Cr single-molecule magnet systems by use of circularly-polarized synchrotron radiation of the electron storage rings in Maxlab Lund, Sweden und BESSY, Berlin, Germany.

  1. Effect of Manganese on Microstructures and Solidification Modes of Cast Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huabei; Wen, Yuhua; Du, Yangyang; Yu, Qinxu; Yang, Qin

    2013-10-01

    We investigated microstructures and solidification modes of cast Fe-(13-27)Mn-5.5Si-8.5Cr-5Ni shape memory alloys to clarify whether Mn was an austenite former during solidification. Furthermore, we examined whether the Creq/Nieq equations (Delong, Hull, Hammer and WRC-1992 equations) and Thermo-Calc software® together with database TCFE6 were valid to predict the solidification modes of cast Fe-(13-27)Mn-5.5Si-8.5Cr-5Ni shape memory alloys. The results have shown that the solidification modes of Fe-(13-27)Mn-5.5Si-8.5Cr-5Ni alloys changed from the F mode to the FA mode with increasing the Mn concentration. Mn is an austenite former during the solidification for the cast Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni shape memory alloys. The Delong, Hull, Hammer, and WRC-1992 equations as well as Thermo-Calc software® together with database TCFE6 are invalid to predict the solidification modes of cast Fe-(13-27)Mn-5.5Si-8.5Cr-5Ni SMAs. To predict the solidification modes of cast Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni alloys, a new Creq/Nieq equation should be developed or the thermodynamic database of Thermo-Calc software® should be corrected.

  2. Room temperature magnetocaloric effect in Ni-Mn-In-Cr ferromagnetic shape memory alloy thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkera, Harish Sharma; Singh, Inderdeep; Kaur, Davinder

    2017-02-01

    The influence of Cr substitution for In on the martensitic phase transformation and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) has been investigated in Ni-Mn-Cr-In ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) thin films fabricated by magnetron sputtering. Temperature dependent magnetization (M-T) measurements demonstrated that the martensitic transformation temperatures (TM) monotonously increase with the increase of Cr content due to change in valence electron concentration (e/a) and cell volume. From the study of isothermal magnetization curves (M-H), magnetocaloric effect around the martensitic transformation has been investigated in these FSMA thin films. The magnetic entropy change ∆SM of 7.0 mJ/cm3-K was observed in Ni51.1Mn34.9In9.5Cr4.5 film at 302 K in an applied field of 2 T. Further, the refrigerant capacity (RC) was also calculated for all the films in an applied field of 2 T. These findings indicate that the Cr doped Ni-Mn-In FSMA thin films are potential candidates for room temperature micro-length-scale magnetic refrigeration applications.

  3. Structure, magnetism, and electron-transport properties of Mn2CrGa-based nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyong Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mn2CrGa in the disordered cubic structure has been synthesized using rapid quenching and subsequent annealing. The cubic phase transforms to a stable tetragonal phase when a fraction of Cr or Ga is replaced by Pt or Al, respectively. All samples are ferrimagnetic with high Curie temperatures (Tc; Mn2CrGa exhibits the highest Tc of about 813 K. The tetragonal samples have appreciable values of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy, which leads to an increase in coercivity (Hc that approaches about 10 kOe in the Pt-doped sample. The Hc linearly increases with a decrease of temperature, concomitant with the anisotropy change with temperature. All samples are metallic and show negative magnetoresistance with room-temperature resistivities on the order of 1 mΩcm. The magnetic properties including high Tc and low magnetic moment suggest that these tetragonal materials have potential for spin-transfer-torque-based devices.

  4. Reentrant behavior in Cr doped bilayer manganite LaSr2Mn2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, S. N.; Mohapatra, Niharika

    2017-07-01

    We have studied the effect of replacing Mn3+ by Cr3+ on the structure, transport and magnetism in the bilayered manganite LaSr2Mn2O7. Although no structural transition was observed in LaSr2Mn2-yCryO7 (0.1 ≤ y ≤ 0.6), the electrical transport and the magnetic properties were found to be affected significantly by this substitution. Substitution of Cr3+ reduces the conductivity by restricting the hopping of small polarons. Magnetization increases with increasing Cr3+ concentration suggesting that Cr3+-ions induce ferromagnetic moments. The ferromagnetic and an antiferromagnetic phase observed above ∼60 K merge into an inhomogeneous phase below this temperature. Thermopower yields an essentially concentration independent charge density nearly equal to its value for chromium free composition inspite of its expected decrease with this substitution suggesting that the small charge density of the insulating AFM phase is supplemented by the free carriers in the FM phase. The inhomogeneous phase shows a relaxor type behavior which contrasts with the spin glass behavior seen in La0.46Sr0.54Mn0.98Cr0.02O3 having an identical AFM magnetic state. The difference is attributed to the non-JT character of Cr-ions which reduce the distortion of the Mnsbnd O octahedra located within the FM domains. With a higher lattice strain in the surrounding AFM matrix the carriers remain confined within the FM domains leading to the relaxor type behavior.

  5. Magnetic properties of the CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Friák, Martin; Dudová, Marie; Holec, David; Šob, Mojmír; Kriegner, Dominik; Holý, Václav; Beran, Přemysl; George, Easo P.; Neugebauer, Jörg; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2017-07-01

    We present experimental data showing that the equiatomic CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy undergoes two magnetic transformations at temperatures below 100 K while maintaining its fcc structure down to 3 K. The first transition, paramagnetic to spin glass, was detected at 93 K and the second transition of the ferromagnetic type occurred at 38 K. Field-assisted cooling below 38 K resulted in a systematic vertical shift of the hysteresis curves. Strength and direction of the associated magnetization bias was proportional to the strength and direction of the cooling field and shows a linear dependence with a slope of 0.006 ±0.001 emu T . The local magnetic moments of individual atoms in the CrMnFeCoNi quinary fcc random solid solution were investigated by ab initio (electronic density functional theory) calculations. Results of the numerical analysis suggest that, irrespective of the initial configuration of local magnetic moments, the magnetic moments associated with Cr atoms align antiferromagnetically with respect to a cumulative magnetic moment of their first coordination shell. The ab initio calculations further showed that the magnetic moments of Fe and Mn atoms remain strong (between 1.5 and 2 μB ), while the local moments of Ni atoms effectively vanish. These results indicate that interactions of Mn- and/or Fe-located moments with the surrounding magnetic structure account for the observed macroscopic magnetization bias.

  6. Redox Dynamics of Mixed Metal (Mn, Cr, and Fe) Ultrafine Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nico, Peter S.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Anastasio, Cort

    2008-08-01

    The impact of particle composition on metal oxidation state, and on changes in oxidation state with simulated atmospheric aging, are investigated experimentally in flame-generated nanoparticles containing Mn, Cr, and Fe. The results demonstrate that the initial fraction of Cr(VI) within the particles decreases with increasing total metal concentration in the flame. In contrast, the initial Mn oxidation state was only partly controlled by metal loading, suggesting the importance of other factors. Two reaction pathways, one reductive and one oxidative, were found to be operating simultaneously during simulated atmospheric aging. The oxidative pathway depended upon the presence of simulated sunlight and O{sub 3}, whereas the reductive pathway occurred in the presence of simulated sunlight alone. The reductive pathway appears to be rapid but transient, allowing the oxidative pathway to dominate with longer aging times, i.e. greater than {approx}8 hours. The presence of Mn within the particles enhanced the importance of the oxidative pathway, leading to more net Cr oxidation during aging implying that Mn can mediate oxidation by removal of electrons from other particulate metals.

  7. Effect of Aging Treatment on the Sensitization of Fe-Cr-Mn-N Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Young; Park, Yong Soo [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Sik [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    In this work, the effects of aging treatment on the precipitation and mechanical properties of Fe-Cr-Mn-N stainless steels were studied. Experimental alloys were designed by the change of Creq/Nieq ratio, and two kinds of alloys having a austenitic phase and a duplex(austenite + ferrite) phase were manufactured. Optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and XRD were used to identify the precipitates formed by aging treatment. Mechanical properties were measured using techniques of a hardness test, a tensile test, and an impact test. In austenitic Fe-Cr-Mn-N steel, carbide and/or nitride were first precipitated in grain boundary by aging and then the increased aging time made intragranular precipitations which showed lamellar structures and grew from grain boundary into grain. Hardness, yield strength, and tensile strength were slightly increased, and the elongation and impact energy were largely decreased by aging treatment. However, duplex stainless steel showed the ferrite decomposition to sigma phase and austenite Il phase as like in case of Fe-Cr-Ni steels. In case of duplex Fe-Cr-Mn-N steels, the effects of aging treatment on the hardness, yield strength, and tensile strength were relatively small, but its effects were strong on the decrease of elongation and impact energy.

  8. Phase evolution and magnetic characteristics of TiFeNiCr and TiFeNiCrM (M = Mn, Co) high entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rajesh K.; Shahi, Rohit R.

    2017-11-01

    The report describes the effect of elemental addition (Mn and Co) on the phase evolution and magnetic properties of equiatomic TiFeNiCr based high entropy alloys (HEAs). HEAs were synthesized through mechanical alloying (MA) of constituent elements for different milling duration. XRD analysis confirms that simple solid solution of face cantered cubic structure is formed for all the three selected HEAs. Double FCC and a sigma phase are evolved for TiFeNiCr and TiFeNiCrMn HEAs. However, for TiFeNiCrCo HEA single FCC phase is formed. Synthesized HEAs show soft magnetic characteristics and the value of saturation magnetization increases as the content of magnetic element increases. Moreover, the investigation also describes the effect of annealing on phase evolution and magnetic properties of synthesized HEAs. The value of saturation magnetization altered for annealed TiFeNiCrM (M = Mn, Co) HEAs.

  9. Synergetic effects of Sc and Zr microalloying and heat treatment on mechanical properties and exfoliation corrosion behavior of Al-Mg-Mn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yongyi; Li, Shu [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Deng, Ying, E-mail: csudengying@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Materials Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhou, Hua [Southwest Aluminium (Group) Co., Ltd., Chongqing 401326 (China); Xu, Guofu, E-mail: csuxgf66@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Materials Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Yin, Zhimin [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2016-06-01

    Mechanical properties, exfoliation corrosion behavior and microstructure of Al-5.98Mg-0.47Mn and Al-6.01Mg-0.45Mn-0.25Sc-0.10Zr (wt%) alloy sheets under various homogenizing and annealing processes were investigated comparatively by tensile tests, electrochemical measurements, X-ray diffraction technique and microscopy methods. The as-cast alloys mainly consist of Fe and Mn enriched impurity phases, Mg and Mn enriched non-equilibrium aluminides and Mg{sub 3}Al{sub 2} phases. During homogenization treatment, solvable intermetallics firstly precipitate and then dissolve into matrix. The optimized homogenization processes for removing micro-segregation and obtaining maximum precipitation strengthening of secondary Al{sub 3}(Sc, Zr) particles are 440 °C×8 h and 300 °C×8 h, respectively. Sc and Zr additions can make the yield strength of Al-Mg-Mn alloy increase by 21 MPa (6.9%), 120 MPa (61.2%) and 127 MPa (68.3%), when annealed at 270 °C, 300 °C and 330 °C, respectively, indicating that Orowan precipitation strengthening caused by secondary Al{sub 3}(Sc, Zr) nano-particles is much greater than grain boundary strengthening from primary Al{sub 3}(Sc, Zr) micro-particles. Increasing homogenization and annealing degrees and adding Sc and Zr all can decrease corrosion current density and improve exfoliation corrosion resistance. The exfoliation corrosion behavior is dominant by anodic dissolution occurring at the interface between intermetallics and α(Al) matrix. After homogenizing at 440 °C for 8 h and annealing at 300 °C for 1 h, yield strength, ultimate strength, elongation to failure and exfoliation corrosion rank are 196 MPa, 360 MPa, 20.2% and PA (slight pitting corrosion) in Al-Mg-Mn alloy, and reach to 316 MPa, 440 MPa, 17.0% and PA in Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy, respectively, revealing that high strength, high ductility and admirable corrosion resistance of Al-Mg-Mn alloys can be achieved by the synergetic effects of Sc and Zr microalloying and heat treatment.

  10. Metabolismo del Mg, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, y Ni en la diabetes melitus

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra Vallejo, Ma. Pilar

    1995-01-01

    En los últimos años, a los elementos traza y al mg se las ha implicado en la patologenesis de las complicaciones crónicas de la diabetes mellitus (dm). Las alteraciones del estado mineral asociadas a la dm podrían estar influidas, entre otros factores, por el grado de control metabólico y la asociación, o no, de otras patologías metabólicas como la hipertensión arterial (hta), la dislipemia y la obesidad. A pesar de que el mg, cu, zn, cr, mn y ni son cationes de localización principalmente in...

  11. Numerical analysis of residual stress of Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy subjected to surface strengthening by shot peening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Stegliński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we presented the results of the analysis of the stresses in the Al-Mg5%-Mn1,5%-Sc0,8%-Zr0,4% alloy after shot peening process using solver ANSYSANSYSANSYS LS-Dyna. The computational model illustrates the phenomena occurring as a result of plastic deformation caused by hitting a steel ball on the surface of the analyzed aluminium alloy. We analyzed two input variables: diameter and speed of a ball. The resulting normal stress distribution centred exposes the minimum compressive stress at a position located at a depth point of Belayev 0.125 mm with a value of σ = –345 MPa. Variable parameter shows the correlation of the boundary conditions of minimum stress increase with increasing ball’s diameter and its speed. Selected points of numerical analysis were verified with experimental results.[b]Keywords[/b]: materials science, numerical analysis, metal forming, shot peening, aluminium

  12. Synergy of the Plastic Treatment HPT and Shot Peening in Aluminium Alloy Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegliński M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An improvement in fatigue strength is one of the main factors enabling the use of high-durability Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys in functional components of mobile robots. As part of this study, a computer simulation was carried out using ANSYS LS-DYNA software that involved the hybridization of high pressure torsion (HPT and shot peening (SP forming processes. The numerical analysis was aimed at determining residual stresses and strains that affect the durability and stress characteristics of the analyzed Al alloy. Results of the study indicate that tensile stresses of σ = 300 MPa generated as a result of HPT are transformed into a beneficial stress of σ = 25 MPa resulting from plastic strains caused by SP surface treatment.

  13. Microstructure and corrosion properties of CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Qingfeng [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Feng, Kai, E-mail: fengkai@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Lu, Fenggui [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Li, Ruifeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212003 (China); Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Equimolar CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy coating are prepared by laser cladding. • The cladding layer forms a simple FCC phase solid solution with identical dendritic structure. • The cladding layer exhibits a noble corrosion resistance in both 3.5 wt.% NaCl and 0.5 M sulfuric acid. • Element segregation makes Cr-depleted interdendrites the starting point of corrosion reaction. - Abstract: Equimolar CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy (HEA) is one of the most notable single phase multi-component alloys up-to-date with promising mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. However, the study on the corrosion behavior of CrMnFeCoNi HEA coating has still been lacking. In this paper, HEA coating with a nominal composition of CrMnFeCoNi is fabricated by laser surface alloying and studied in detail. Microstructure and chemical composition are determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are used to investigate the corrosion behavior. The coating forms a simple FCC phase with an identical dendritic structure composed of Fe/Co/Ni-rich dendrites and Mn/Ni-rich interdendrites. Both in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution and 0.5 M sulfuric acid the coating exhibits nobler corrosion resistance than A36 steel substrate and even lower i{sub corr} than 304 stainless steel (304SS). EIS plots coupled with fitted parameters reveal that a spontaneous protective film is formed and developed during immersion in 0.5 M sulfuric acid. The fitted R{sub t} value reaches its maximum at 24 h during a 48 h’ immersion test, indicating the passive film starts to break down after that. EDS analysis conducted on a corroded surface immersed in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} reveals that corrosion starts from Cr-depleted interdendrites.

  14. Magnetic and magnetoelastic properties of M-substituted cobalt ferrites (M=Mn, Cr, Ga, Ge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sang-Hoon [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Magnetic and magnetoelastic properties of a series of M-substituted cobalt ferrites, CoMxFe2-xO4 (M=Mn, Cr, Ga; x=0.0 to 0.8) and Ge-substituted cobalt ferrites Co1+xGexFe2-2xO4 (x=0.0 to 0.6) have been investigated.

  15. Preparation and characterization of Mn{sub 6}Cr single-molecule-magnets on surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacher, Marc; Helmstedt, Andreas; Gryzia, Aaron; Koop, Peter; Steppeler, Sebastian; Mueller, Norbert; Brechling, Armin; Heinzmann, Ulrich [Fak. f. Physik, Univ. Bielefeld (Germany); Hoeke, Veronika; Glaser, Thorsten [Fak. f. Chemie, Univ. Bielefeld (Germany); Fonin, Mikhail; Ruediger, Ulrich [Fak. f. Physik, Univ. Konstanz (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The single-molecule-magnet (SMM) Mn{sub 6}Cr consists of two bowl-shaped Mn{sub 3}-salen complexes, bridged by a complex containing a Cr atom. Three counterions are coupled to the SMM to ensure charge neutrality. To study the influence of the molecule-substrate-interaction on the electronic and the magnetic properties a homogeneous preparation of the SMM on the substrate is necessary. The preparation is done by dropping SMM, dissolved in methanol with certain concentration. Depending on the choice of the substrate, the Mn{sub 6}Cr concentration, the substrate inclination and the droplet size the arrangement of the SMM strongly varies. This is visualized in videos of the drying process obtained by optical microscopy with a magnification of up to 1000. The electronic properties of the deposited SMM are investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These properties change with exposure time due to a low stability of the SMM against X-rays. These changes can be accelerated or slowed down via the choice of the counterions and the SMM concentration on the substrate. Possible reasons are discussed.

  16. Effects of Cr, Mo, W, Mn and Ni on creep properties of 2. 25Cr-Mo-V rotor steel. 2. 25Cr-Mo-V tanko no creep tokusei ni oyobosu Cr, Mo, W, Mn oyobi Ni no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoya, Y. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Takasago Research and Development Center); Kitai, T.; Matsuo, A.; Tsuji, I. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Azuma, T.; Tanaka, Y. (The Japan Steel Works Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Muroran Research Lab. ); Ikeda, Y. (The Japan Steel Works Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    2.2SCr-Mo-V rotor steel is developed and put into practical use as a high and low pressure suitable rotor steel and the gas turbine disk materials. In this study, the creep experiments subjected to stresses of the levels of 220, 250 and 280 MPa at 565[degree]C for 2.25Cr-Mo-V steel were carried out, effect of the alloying elements on creep properties was examined, and effect of the alloying elements on the precipitation of carbides was investigated. Main results obtained were as follows: Cr, Ni and Mn additions decreased the creep rupture strength of 2.25Cr-Mo-V steel, and W addition increased the creep rupture strength. Mo addition did not give a remarkable change on the seep rupture strength. Ni addition up to 1.8% did not exert a significant effect on the creep rupture strength, and its addition more than that value remarkably decreased the creep rupture strength. 20 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Cationic doping effect on the structural, magnetic and spectroscopic properties of delafossite oxides CuCr{sub 1-x}(Sc,Mg){sub x}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amami, M., E-mail: mongi.amami@ipein.rnu.tn [Laboratoire des Sciences de Materiaux et d' environnement, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, BP 763,3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Institut Neel, CNRS et Universite Joseph Fourier, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Smari, S.; Tayeb, K. [Laboratoire des Sciences de Materiaux et d' environnement, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, BP 763,3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Strobel, P. [Institut Neel, CNRS et Universite Joseph Fourier, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Salah, A. Ben [Laboratoire des Sciences de Materiaux et d' environnement, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, BP 763,3038 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} (Sc,Mg) non-magnetic replacement of the Cr in the magnetic frustrated CuCrO{sub 2}. {yields} Delafossite solid solution is maintained in this system. {yields} Strain generated by (Sc,Mg) substitution is strongly anisotropic. {yields} Thermal stability in oxygen is affected. {yields} High temperature paramagnetic behavior and weak ferromagnetism at low temperature. - Abstract: This article reports the effect of Sc and (Sc + Mg) substitution on the structural and physical properties of delafossite-type CuCrO{sub 2} oxide. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy show that the structure is maintained for 10% Sc and (10% Sc + 4% Mg) substitutions for chromium. The incorporation of these elements generates very anisotropic microstrains in the structure. Strain also increases with oxygen intercalation, probably because a non-uniform distribution of intercaled oxygen. Thermal stability in oxygen was found to decrease with increasing the M{sup 3+} cation size. The evolution of relative intensities of Raman bands points towards an increase in lattice distortion with substitution, in agreement with ionic radii considerations. Comparing the substitution effect of Mg{sup 2+} to those of the nonmagnetic Sc{sup 3+}, magnetization around the AF transition does not seem to correlate with randomness and lattice parameter but with itinerancy of the doped hole.

  18. Redox reactions and the influence of natural Mn oxides on Cr oxidation in a contaminated site in northern Italy: evidence from Cr stable-isotopes and EPR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marafatto F. F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium-contaminated groundwaters and sediments in northern Italy have been studied using the Cr stable-isotope systematics and electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR, in order to explore redox changes and soil-groundwater interactions. The isotopic data indicate a possible Cr(VI source released into the environment from an industrial plant. EPR spectra on the sediments which constitute the aquifers show a broad asymmetric absorption due to coupled Fe(III and coupled Cr(III ions and a well resolved hyperfine structure due to manganese ions, resulting from Mn(IV and Mn(II. The isotopic and EPR data support the hypothesis of Cr(III being oxidized by Mn oxides which are widespread in the aquifer, possibly related to the oscillation of the phreatic level. The obtained results highlight the usefulness of chromium stable isotopes as environmental tracers and support the observations that naturally occurring Mn oxides in soils may catalize Cr oxidation from the stable Cr(III form to the toxic Cr(VI soluble form, yielding valuable information in planning remediation interventions.

  19. Comparative study of Co, Cr and Al-doped LiMnO2 prepared by ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    –xO2 (M = Cr, Co, Al). After. NaMnO2, NaMxMn1–xO2 were added into LiBr n- .... This work was supported by the Scientific Research Fund of Hunan Provincial Education Department (No. 07B060) and the Backbone Young Teacher Fund of ...

  20. A New Set of Creq and Nieq Equations for Predicting Solidification Modes of Cast Austenitic Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huabei; Wen, Yuhua; Du, Yangyang; Chen, Jie; Yang, Qin

    2013-12-01

    Solidification microstructures and solidification modes in different austenitic Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni shape memory alloys were investigated. Based on these results, a new set of Creq and Nieq equations (Creq = Cr + 1.5Si; Nieq = Ni + 0.164Mn + 22C) were developed. The above results show that Mn is still an austenite former in austenitic Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni alloys containing above 12 wt pct Mn and 4 wt pct Si, but its effect is weaker than that in austenitic stainless steels with lower Mn content.

  1. A DFT + U study of V, Cr and Mn doped CeO2(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Gong, Xue-Qing

    2018-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations corrected by on-site Coulomb interactions have been performed on CeO2(111) surfaces doped with three different transition metals, namely V-CeO2(111), Cr-CeO2(111) and Mn-CeO2(111). The unique physicochemical properties and catalytic reactivities of these doped surfaces were carefully studied, and specifically, the oxygen formation energies and CO reactions with surface O at different sites were systematically calculated. It has been shown that the dopants can help to form surface oxygen vacancies and increase surface reactivities, and in particular, Mn doped surface gives the best performance in surface reactions.

  2. Analysis of Co, Cr and Mn Concentrations in Atmospheric Dry Deposition in Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shokri Ragheb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Heavy metals are major pollutants that can spread in the atmosphere with particulate matter and dust and because of the toxic and carcinogenic effects, their meas-urement and control is very important. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess Co, Cr and Mn concentration in the atmospheric dry deposition collected from Hamadan city in 2014. Materials & Methods: After collection of 12 dust samples from 3 sampling stations and their laboratory preparation, metals concentrations were determined using ICP–OES. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Results: The results showed that the minimum and maximum mean concentrations of Co were 0.19 and 0.29 mg/kg for high and low traffic intensity sampling stations, respectively. The min and max mean concentrations of Cr were 0.65and 1.02 mg/kg for high traffic intensity and suburb sampling stations, respectively and the min and max mean concentrations of Mn were 7.23and 8.82 mg/kg for high and low traffic intensity sampling stations , respectively. Also comparing the mean concentrations of assessed metals with WHO permissible limits showed a significant difference (P< 0.05. The mean concentrations of metals were signifi-cantly lower than the maximum permissible limits. Conclusion: Although the mean concentrations of Co, Cr and Mn are lower than the standard levels, lack of continuous monitoring of heavy metals concentrations in the dust and particu-late matters in the air can lead to the entrance of various types of toxic pollutants such as heavy metals into the air and result in adverse health effects. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:149-156

  3. Chemical zoning and diffusion of Ca, Al, Mn, and Cr in olivine of springwater pallasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Steele, Ian M.

    1993-01-01

    The pallasites, consisting mainly of Fe-Ni metal and olivine, are thought to represent the interior of a planetary body which slowly cooled from high temperature. Although the olivines are nearly homogeneous, ion microprobe studies revealed variations of Ca, Ti, Co, Cr, and Ni near grain edges. These variations were thought to represent diffusion in response to falling temperature of the parent body. Pallasite cooling rates have been estimated based on kamacite taenite textures but results differ by x100. In principle elemental profiles in olivine can allow estimates of cooling rate if diffusion coefficients are known; in addition, given a cooling rate, diffusion coefficients could be derived. Data are presented which show that apparent diffusion profiles can be measured for Al, Ca, Cr, and Mn which qualitatively agree with expected diffusion rates and have the potential of providing independent estimates of pallasite cooling rates.

  4. Exploring the Cr{sup 2+} doping effect on structural, vibrational and dielectric properties of Mn-Zn ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Pankaj; Dar, M. A.; Varshney, Dinesh, E-mail: vdinesh33@rediffmail.com, E-mail: ty.ru123@gmail.com [School of Physics, Vigyan Bhavan, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Tyagi, Tarun, E-mail: vdinesh33@rediffmail.com, E-mail: ty.ru123@gmail.com [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida 201303 (India)

    2016-05-23

    A series of Cr doped Mn-Zn ferrites with compositional formula Mn{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5-x}Cr{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5) were prepared by solid-state reaction route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that the samples prepared are polycrystalline cubic spinel in structure (Fd3m) with some secondary phase of α–Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Slight variation in the lattice parameter of Cr doped Mn{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been observed due to difference in ionic radii of cations. Small shift in Raman modes towards higher wave number has been observed. Further the line width decreases with the doping ions. A giant dielectric constant ~10{sup 4} is observed for parent Mn{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} which is found to decrease with increase in Cr{sup 2+} doping. Low dielectric loss is observed for Mn{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and improves with Cr{sup 2+} doping at Zn{sup 2+} site.

  5. Structural classification of RAO3( MO) n compounds ( R =Sc, In, Y, or lanthanides; A =Fe(III), Ga, Cr, or Al; M =divalent cation; n = 1-11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimizuka, Noboru; Mohri, Takahiko

    1989-01-01

    A series of new compounds RAO3( MO) n ( n = 1-11) having spinel, YbFe 2O 4, or InFeO 3(ZnO) n types of structures were newly synthesized ( R =Sc, In, Y, Lu, Yb, Tm, or Er; A =Fe(III), Ga, Cr, or Al; M =Mg, Mn, Fe(II), Co, Ni, Zn, or Cd) at elevated temperatures. The conditions of synthesis and the lattice constants for these compounds are reported. The stacking sequences of the InO 1.5, (FeZn)O 2.5, and ZnO layers for InFeO 3(ZnO) 10 and the TmO 1.5, (AlZn)O 2.5, and ZnO layers for TmAlO 3(ZnO) 11 are presented, respectively. The crystal structures of the( RAO3) m( MO) n phases ( R =Sc, In, Y, or lanthanide elements; A =Fe(III), Ga, Cr, or Al; M =divalent cation elements; m and n =integer) are classified into four crystal structure types (K 2NiF 4, CaFe 2O 4, YbFe 2O 4, and spinel), based upon the constituent cations R, A, and M

  6. Oxygen permeation flux through 10Sc1YSZ-MnCo2O4 asymmetric membranes prepared by two-step sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirou, Stéven; Gurauskis, Jonas; Gil, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric membranes based on a dual phase composite consisting of (Y2O3)0.01(Sc2O3)0.10(ZrO2)0.89 (10Sc1YSZ) as ionic conductor and MnCo2O4 as electronic conductor were prepared and characterized with respect to sinterability, microstructure and oxygen transport properties. The composite membranes...... were prepared by tape casting, lamination and fired in a two-step sintering process. Microstructural analysis showed that a gastight thin membrane layer with the desired ratio of ionic/electronic conducting phases could be fabricated. Oxygen permeation fluxes across the 10SclYSZ/MnCo2O4 (70/30 vol...

  7. Slurry Erosion Behavior of Destabilized and Deep Cryogenically Treated Cr-Mn-Cu White Cast Irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gupta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of destabilization treatment and destabilization followed by cryogenic treatment have been evaluated on the microstructural evolution and sand-water slurry erosion behavior of Cr-Mn-Cu white cast irons. The phase transformations after the destabilization and cryotreatment have been characterized by bulk hardness measurement, optical and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis. The static corrosion rate has been measured in tap water (with pH=7 and the erosion-corrosion behavior has been studied by slurry pot tester using sand-water slurry. The test results indicate that the cryogenic treatment has a significant effect in minimizing the as-cast retained austenite content and transforming into martensitic and bainitic matrix embedded with ultra-fine M7C3 alloy carbides. In contrast, by conventional destabilization treatment retained austenite in the matrix are not fully eliminated. The slurry erosive wear resistance has been compared with reference to destabilized and cryotreated high chromium iron samples which are commonly employed for such applications. The cryotreated Cr-Mn-Cu irons have exhibited a comparable erosive wear performance to those of high chromium irons. Higher hardness combined with improved corrosion resistance result in better slurry erosion resistance.

  8. Defective LPS Signaling in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr Mice: Mutations in Tlr4 Gene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander Poltorak; Xiaolong He; Irina Smirnova; Mu-Ya Liu; Christophe Van Huffel; Xin Du; Dale Birdwell; Erica Alejos; Maria Silva; Chris Galanos; Marina Freudenberg; Paola Ricciardi-Castagnoli; Betsy Layton; Bruce Beutler

    1998-01-01

    Mutations of the gene Lps selectively impede lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signal transduction in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice, rendering them resistant to endotoxin yet highly susceptible to Gram-negative infection. The codominant Lps$^d...

  9. Ab initio study of structural and magnetic properties of TM(n)(ferrocene)(n+1) (TM = Sc, Ti, V, Mn) sandwich clusters and nanowires (n = infinity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuyun; Wang, Jinlan; Gao, Yi; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2009-03-24

    Structural and magnetic properties of multidecker sandwich clusters TM(n)(ferrocene)(n+1) [TM = V, Ti, Sc, Mn, ferrocene=FeCp(2), n = 1-3] and corresponding one-dimensional sandwich nanowires (n = infinity) are studied by means of gradient-corrected density functional theory. The TM(n)(FeCp(2))(n+1) clusters are highly stable polyferrocene-like sandwich structures due to strong Fe-Cp interaction. The total magnetic moment of TM(n)(FeCp(2))(n+1) (TM = V, Ti, Mn) increases linearly with the size n. More strikingly, Ti(n)(FeCp(2))(n+1) and V(n)(FeCp(2))(n+1) (n = 1-3) exhibit high magnetic moments 4, 8, 12 mu(B) and 1, 6, 11 mu(B), respectively. In contrast, Sc(n)(FeCp(2))(n+1) clusters are paramagnetic. The [TM(FeCp(2))](infinity) sandwich nanowires are ferromagnetic semiconductors whose band gap is 0.361, 0.506, 0.51, and 1.310 eV, respectively, for TM = Ti, Sc, V, and Mn. Among the four sandwich nanowires, [V(FeCp(2))](infinity) nanowire possesses the highest magnetic moment (5 mu(B)) per unit cell.

  10. Thermonuclear 46Cr(p ,γ )47Mn rate in type-I x-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J. J.; Parikh, A.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhou, X. H.; Xu, H. S.

    2017-10-01

    The thermonuclear rate of the 46Cr(p ,γ )47Mn reaction has been determined using a newly evaluated proton separation energy of Sp(47Mn) =380 ±30 keV and nuclear structure information from the mirror nucleus 47Ti. The astrophysical impact of this new rate and previously available rates has been investigated through one-zone postprocessing type-I x-ray burst calculations. The present 46Cr(p ,γ )47Mn rate leads to a mass fraction at A =46 that is 60 times larger than that obtained using a statistical model rate. The new results constrain the calculated maximum and minimum mass fractions at A =46 and A =48 to be within factors of 12 and 4, respectively. Experimental studies of the level structure of 47Mn near the proton threshold are required to improve these model predictions.

  11. Wear behavior of self-lubricating Fe-Cr-C-Mn-Cu alloys: Smearing effect of second phase particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Nam; Kim, Byung Sik; Shin, Gyeong Su; Park, Myung Chul; Lee, Deok Hyun; Kim, Seon Jin

    2011-08-01

    Newly developed self-lubricating Fe-Cr-C-Mn-Cu cast composite alloys were investigated to study the role of Cu-rich second phase particles which smear on the wear surface during sliding. The wear resistance of the material was improved with an increasing copper concentration. The improved wear resistance was probably obtained by forming a protective tribofilm, which prevented metal-to-metal contact through smearing of the embedded Cu-rich second phase particles. This formation of protective oxide films during sliding is likely to improve the wear resistance of austenitic Fe-Cr-C-Mn-Cu cast composite alloys.

  12. Visible light-induced electron transfer from di-mu-oxo-bridged dinuclear Mn complexes to Cr centers in silica nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weare, Walter W; Pushkar, Yulia; Yachandra, Vittal K; Frei, Heinz

    2008-08-27

    The compound (bpy) 2Mn (III)(mu-O) 2Mn (IV)(bpy) 2, a structural model relevant for the photosynthetic water oxidation complex, was coupled to single Cr (VI) charge-transfer chromophores in the channels of the nanoporous oxide AlMCM-41. Mn K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy confirmed that the di-mu-oxo dinuclear Mn core of the complex is unaffected when loaded into the nanoscale pores. Observation of the 16-line EPR signal characteristic of Mn (III)(mu-O) 2Mn (IV) demonstrates that the majority of the loaded complexes retained their nascent oxidation state in the presence or absence of Cr (VI) centers. The FT-Raman spectrum upon visible light excitation of the Cr (VI)-O (II) --> Cr (V)-O (I) ligand-to-metal charge transfer reveals electron transfer from Mn (III)(mu-O) 2Mn (IV) (Mn-O stretch at 700 cm (-1)) to Cr (VI), resulting in the formation of Cr (V) and Mn (IV)(mu-O) 2Mn (IV) (Mn-O stretch at 645 cm (-1)). All initial and final states are directly observed by FT-Raman or EPR spectroscopy, and the assignments are corroborated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements. The endoergic charge separation products (Delta E o = -0.6 V) remain after several minutes, which points to spatial separation of Cr (V) and Mn (IV)(mu-O) 2Mn (IV) as a consequence of hole (O (I)) hopping as a major contributing mechanism. This is the first observation of visible light-induced oxidation of a potential water oxidation complex by a metal charge-transfer pump in a nanoporous environment. These findings will allow for the assembly and photochemical characterization of well-defined transition metal molecular units, with the ultimate goal of performing endothermic, multielectron transformations that are coupled to visible light electron pumps in nanostructured scaffolds.

  13. Visible Light-Induced Electron Transfer from Di-mu-oxo Bridged Dinuclear Mn Complexes to Cr Centers in Silica Nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, Heinz; Weare, Walter W.; Pushkar, Yulia; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Frei, Heinz

    2008-06-03

    The compound (bpy)2MnIII(mu-O)2MnIV(bpy)2, a structural model relevant for the photosynthetic water oxidation complex, was coupled to single CrVI charge-transfer chromophores in the channels of the nanoporous oxide AlMCM-41. Mn K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy confirmed that the di-mu-oxo dinuclear Mn core of the complex is unaffected when loaded into the nanoscale pores. Observation of the 16-line EPR signal characteristic of MnIII(mu-O)2MnIV demonstrates that the majority of the loaded complexes retained their nascent oxidation state in the presence or absence of CrVI centers. The FT-Raman spectrum upon visible light excitation of the CrVI-OII --> CrV-OI ligand-to-metal charge-transfer reveals electron transfer from MnIII(mu-O)2MnIV (Mn-O stretch at 700 cm-1) to CrVI, resulting in the formation of CrV and MnIV(mu-O)2MnIV (Mn-O stretch at 645 cm-1). All initial and final states are directly observed by FT-Raman or EPR spectroscopy, and the assignments corroborated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements. The endoergic charge separation products (DELTA Eo = -0.6 V) remain after several minutes, which points to spatial separation of CrV and MnIV(mu-O)2MnIV as a consequence of hole (OI) hopping as a major contributing mechanism. This is the first observation of visible light-induced oxidation of a potential water oxidation complex by a metal charge-transfer pump in a nanoporous environment. These findings will allow for the assembly and photochemical characterization of well defined transition metal molecular units, with the ultimate goal of performing endothermic, multi-electron transformations that are coupled to visible light electron pumps in nanostructured scaffolds.

  14. Synthesis of LiMn2O4 and LiCr0.2Mn1.8O4 powders by modified Pechini process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Urbano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available LiMn2O4 and LiCr0.2Mn1.8O4 powders were synthesized by Pechini process, modified in order to reduce the number of steps and to work at temperatures below or equal to 400oC. Both phases crystallize in the same spinel structure with lattice constants of 8.21 and 8.22 Å respectively. Although the annealing temperature was low, the cristallinity is good and no residual amounts of organic material were detected.

  15. First-principle study of structural, electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties of HCN adsorbed graphene doped with Cr, Mn and Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Li Bin, E-mail: slb0813@sohu.com; Wang, Yong Ping; Dong, Hai Kuan

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cr, Mn and Fe doped graphene is more active to adsorb HCN molecule than pristine graphene. • The conductivity of Fe and Mn doped graphene hardly changes after adsorption HCN molecule. • The conductivity of Cr doped graphene can be affected significantly due to HCN adsorption. • The Cr, Mn and Fe may destroy the long range order in graphene. • Phonon density of states suggests that Cr doped graphene is stable. - Abstract: The adsorption energy, electronic structure, lattice vibration and magnetic properties of Cr, Mn and Fe doped graphene with and without HCN adsorption are investigated by the first principles based on density functional theory. The physisorption and chemisorption have been identified. In the paper, Cr-NG, Mn-NG and Fe-NG denote HCN adsorption on Cr, Mn and Fe doped graphene with N atom toward the adsorption site. It is found that the adsorption energy is −1.36 eV for Fe-NG, −0.60 eV for Mn-NG and −0.86 eV for Cr-NG. The Cr-NG will convert from half-metallic behavior to semiconductor after adsorbing HCN molecule, which indicates that the conductivity changes significantly. Phonon density of states (PDOS) shows that the long range order in graphene can be destroyed by doping Fe, Mn and Cr. The imaginary frequency mode in PDOS suggests that Fe and Mn doped graphene is unstable, while Cr doped graphene is stable. The electronic properties are sensitive toward adsorbing HCN, indicating that Cr doped graphene is a promising sensor for detecting HCN molecule. This study provides a useful basis for understanding of a wide variety of physical properties on graphene.

  16. Magnetic properties of Fe Cr Mn Si based ferromagnetic shape memory ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaka, Takashi; Sonoda, Masashi; Enokizono, Masato

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents measured properties of Fe-Cr-Mn-Si-based ferromagnetic shape memory ribbons. The alloys are multi-functional materials, which have both the ferromagnetic and shape memory properties. To improve ferromagnetic function, we investigated to add rare earth elements, and showed that the ferromagnetic functions can be improved by adding up to 1 wt% rare earth elements. The additions worked to shift the Curie point upward and to increase the residual saturation magnetization even after heat treatment. In this paper, to improve ductility of the samples, we made clear the effect of Ni addition. The result shows that addition of Ni over 1.2 wt% improves ductility; however, the Curie temperature is slightly decreased and the region of a ferromagnetic austenitic phase becomes narrower with increasing Ni contents.

  17. Wear Resistance of Steel 20MnCr5 After Surfacing with Micro-jet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasiuk W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of experimental research concerning the impact of an innovative method of micro-jet cooling on the padding weld performed with MIG welding. Micro-jet cooling is a novel method patented in 2011. It enables to steer the parameters of weld cooling in a precise manner. In addition, various elements which may e.g. enhance hardness or alter tribological properties can be entered into its top surface, depending on the applied cooling gas. The material under study was steel 20MnCr5, which was subject to the welding process with micro-jet cooling and without cooling. Nitrogen was used as a cooling gas. The main parameter of weld assessment was wear intensity. The tests were conducted in a tribological pin-on-disc type position. The following results exhibit growth at approximately 5% in wear resistance of padding welds with micro-jet cooling.

  18. Pressure dependence of resistivity and magnetic properties in a Mn1.9Cr0.1Sb alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Maheswar Repaka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report magnetic-field and hydrostatic pressure dependent electrical resistivity and magnetic properties of a Mn1.9Cr0.1Sb alloy. Upon cooling, the magnetization of Mn1.9Cr0.1Sb exhibits a first-order ferrimagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition at the exchange inversion temperature, TS = 261 K under a 0.1 T magnetic field. Our experimental results show that TS decreases with increasing magnetic field but increase with increasing hydrostatic pressure. The pressure induced transition is accompanied by a large positive baro-resistance of 30.5% for a hydrostatic pressure change of 0.69 GPa. These results show that the lattice parameters as well as the bond distance between Mn-Mn atoms play a crucial role in the magnetic and electronic transport properties of Mn1.9Cr0.1Sb. This sample also exhibits a large inverse magnetocaloric effect with a magnetic entropy change of ΔSm = +6.75 J/kg.K and negative magnetoresistance (44.5% for a field change of 5 T at TS in ambient pressure which may be useful for magnetic cooling and spintronics applications.

  19. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High-Alloyed 23Cr-5Mn-2Ni-3Mo Cast Steel / Mikrostruktura I Właściwości Mechaniczne Wysokostopowego Staliwa 23Cr-5Mn-2Ni-3Mo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalandyk B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the microstructure and mechanical properties of cast duplex stainless steel type 23Cr-5Mn-2Ni-3Mo. It has been shown that the structure of the tested cast steel is composed of ferrite enriched in Cr, Mo and Si, and austenite enriched in Mn and Ni. In the initial state, at the interface, precipitates rich in Cr and Mo were present. A high carbon content (0.08%C in this cast steel indicates that probably those were complex carbides of the M23C6 type and/or σ phase. Studies have proved that the solution annealing conducted at 1060°C was not sufficient for their full dissolution, while at the solutioning temperature of 1150°C, the structure of the tested material was composed of ferrite and austenite.

  20. Electronic structure, magnetism and robust half-metallicity of new quaternary Heusler alloy FeCrMnSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mukhtiyar [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119, Haryana (India); Saini, Hardev S. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra 136 119, Haryana (India); Thakur, Jyoti [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119, Haryana (India); Reshak, Ali H. [Institute of Complex Systems, FFPW, CENAKVA, University of South Bohemia in CB, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Kashyap, Manish K., E-mail: manishdft@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119, Haryana (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •A new quaternary Heusler alloy FeCrMnSb is identified with robust half metallicity. •The stability of FeCrMnSb has been examined using elastic constants. •Effect of uniform and tetragonal strains on half metallicity has been studied. -- Abstract: A new quaternary Heusler alloy FeCrMnSb is identified by employing ab initio electronic structure calculations. It is stable in Y-structure which is also verified by various conditions governed by elastic constants c{sub ij}. It is a true half-metallic (HM) ferromagnet with integer magnetic moment of 2.00 μ{sub B} per formula unit. The values of minority band gap and HM gap are found to be 0.65 eV and 0.1 eV, respectively. The HM character of FeCrMnSb sustains for −6% to 9% of uniform strain and −9% to 12% of tetragonal strain. This new quaternary Heusler alloy can be proved as an ideal candidate for spin valves and magnetic tunnel junction applications (MTJs)

  1. Sharp Lines Due to Cr3+ and Mn2+ Impurities in Insulators: Going Beyond the Usual Tanabe−Sugano Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Lastra, Juan Maria; García-Fernández, P.; Barriuso, M. T.

    2014-01-01

    This work is aimed at understanding the different behavior of optical sharp lines (corresponding to 10Dq-independent transitions) of Mn(2+) and Cr(3+) in normal and inverted perovskites that cannot be explained within the usual Tanabe-Sugano approach. In particular, we want to clarify why...

  2. Effect of Cr addition on the structural, magnetic and mechanical properties of magnetron sputtered Ni-Mn-In ferromagnetic shape memory alloy thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkera, Harish Sharma; Kaur, Davinder

    2016-12-01

    The effect of Cr substitution for In on the structural, martensitic phase transformation and mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-In ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) thin films was systematically investigated. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the Ni-Mn-In-Cr thin films possessed purely austenitic cubic L21 structure at lower content of Cr, whereas higher Cr content, the Ni-Mn-In-Cr thin films exhibited martensitic structure at room temperature. The temperature-dependent magnetization ( M- T) and resistance ( R- T) results confirmed that the monotonous increase in martensitic transformation temperatures ( T M) with the addition of Cr content. Further, the room temperature nanoindentation studies revealed the mechanical properties such as hardness ( H), elastic modulus ( E), plasticity index ( H/ E) and resistance to plastic deformation ( H 3/ E 2) of all the samples. The addition of Cr content significantly enhanced the hardness (28.2 ± 2.4 GPa) and resistance to plastic deformation H 3/ E 2 (0.261) of Ni50.4Mn34.96In13.56Cr1.08 film as compared with pure Ni-Mn-In film. As a result, the appropriate addition of Cr significantly improved the mechanical properties with a decrease in grain size, which could be further attributed to the grain boundary strengthening mechanism. These findings indicate that the Cr-doped Ni-Mn-In FSMA thin films are potential candidates for microelectromechanical systems applications.

  3. Study of magnetic compensation behavior in Mn(Cr1-xFex)2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Junmoni; Ravi, S.

    2017-09-01

    We report the preparation of single phase samples of Mn(Cr1-xFex)2O4 for x = 0-0.50 and study of their structural and magnetic properties. These samples are found to crystallize in cubic structure with Fd 3 bar m space group with typical lattice constant varying from a = 8.4396 Å for x = 0 to 8.4588 Å for x = 0.50. The ferrimagnetic transition temperature as per magnetic measurements is found to increase from 46 K for x = 0 to 402 K for x = 0.50 due to the strengthening of the superexchange interaction. The Saturation magnetization value is found to decrease monotonously with increase in Fe concentration beyond x = 0.10 and approaches magnetic compensation at x = 0.40. In addition to composition induced magnetic compensation, we have observed magnetic compensation due to change in temperature for x = 0.40 with a compensation temperature of 267 K. This is explained by considering the substitution of Fe3+ ions in one of the Cr3+ sites and the different temperature dependence of two sublattice moments.

  4. Magnetism and structure of a half-metallic Heusler compound Co-Mn-Cr-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yung; Joshi, Swarangi; Jain, Sanmati; Pathak, Ojas; Kharel, Parashu

    Half metallic ferromagnetic Heusler compounds have a potential in the development of spintronic devices for its high spin polarization at the Fermi level and lattice structure compatibility. Heusler compounds based on cobalt are considered a good candidate for room temperature half-metals due to their high Curie temperature. Co2CrSi is one of such predicted half-metal, but it is meta-stable and difficult to synthesize in the desired crystal structure. We have successfully synthesized a Heusler compound Co2Mn0.5Cr0.5Si by using arc melting and rapid quenching followed by thermal treatment under high vacuum to control any parasitic contamination. Crystal X-ray diffraction pattern shows the samples crystallize in a cubic Heusler structure with some degrees of structural disorder. Curie temperatures of the prepared samples are observed well beyond room temperature near 900 K. Magnetic anomalies present in as-prepared samples are cleared, and its magnetic properties are improved by thermal treatment. This research is supported by Academic and Scholarly Excellence Funds, and Research/Scholarship Support Fund, South Dakota State University.

  5. Generalized Synthesis of EAs [E = Fe, Co, Mn, Cr] Nanostructures and Investigating Their Morphology Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Desai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates a novel route for the synthesis of nanostructured transition metal arsenides including those of FeAs, CoAs, MnAs, and CrAs through a generalized protocol. The key feature of the method is the use of one-step hot-injection and the clever use of a combination of precursors which are low-melting and highly reactive such as metal carbonyls and triphenylarsine in a solventless setup. This method also facilitates the formation of one-dimensional nanostructures as we move across the periodic table from CrAs to CoAs. The chemical basis of this reaction is simple redox chemistry between the transition metals, wherein the transition metal is oxidized from elemental state (E0 to E3+in lieu of reduction of As3+ to As3−. While the thermodynamic analysis reveals that all these conversions are spontaneous, it is the kinetics of the process that influences morphology of the product nanostructures, which varies from extremely small nanoparticles to nanorods. Transition metal pnictides show interesting magnetic properties and these nanostructures can serve as model systems for the exploration of their intricate magnetism as well as their applications and can also function as starting materials for the arsenide based nanosuperconductors.

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF STEEL SATURATION PROCESSES USING CARBIDE-FORMING ELEMENTS IN SYSTEMS BASED ON Cr-Ti-V AND Cr-Ti-Mn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shmatov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of saturating mixture compositions has been carried out in two three-component systems, namely: Cr-Ti-V and Cr-Ti-Mn in respect of micro-hardness and wear resistance of carbide coatings obtained by thermo-chemical treatment of high carbon steel. «Composition - properties» diagrams have been plotted using mathematical models. Treatment with optimum compositions of powder media permits to increase wear resistance of steel by factor of 30-70 as compared with untreated steel. 

  7. Competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions by Cr doping at Mn sites in antiperovskite Mn{sub 3−x}Cr{sub x}ZnN (0≤x≤0.5) compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Muhammad Imran; Sun, Ying; Wang, Lei; Deng, Sihao; Shi, Kewen; Hu, Pengwei; Lu, Huiqing; Wang, Cong, E-mail: congwang@buaa.edu.cn

    2016-05-01

    The Cr doping effect on the lattice and magnetic properties in Mn{sub 3−x}Cr{sub x}ZnN was reported in the antiferromagnetic intermetallic host material Mn{sub 3}ZnN. The lattice parameter decreases with the increase of the Cr concentration. Measurements of magnetization from 10 K to 350 K reveal that sharp antiferromagnetic (AFM)-to-paramagnetic (PM) transitions of the host material exist at 185 K (ZFC) and 177 K (FC). The peak is broadened clearly as the Cr doping was increased and when the Cr concentration exceeded 0.3, a significant ferromagnetic (FM) character was found to coexist with an AFM phase. At x=0.4 and 0.5, the M–H curves exhibit small magnetic hysteresis loop, indicating the dominant FM interactions in these samples. Also, a positive value of Weiss Temperature (Θ{sub W}) at x=0.5 in H/M–T plot suggests that the FM interaction is dominant when the Cr doping increases.

  8. Synthesis and structural stability of Cr-doped Li2MnSiO4/C cathode materials by solid-state method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Shi-Xi; Wu, Xia; Zhao, Jian-Wei; Wei, Lei; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2018-03-01

    The crystal structure of the Li2MnSiO4 cathode material would collapse during the charge and discharge process because of that the Mn-O coordination polyhedron changed from [MnO4] into [MnO6] in the process of Mn+2 to Mn+4, but the Cr element could remain [CrO4] crystal ligand from Cr+2 to Cr+4, so Cr element substitution was used to improve the structural stability of the Li2MnSiO4 cathode material. In this work, Li2Mn1-xCrxSiO4/C nanocomposites were synthesized by solid-state method. XRD, SEM and TEM observations show that the as-prepared Li2Mn1-xCrxSiO4/C materials presents an orthorhombic crystal structure (S.G. Pmn21), the particle size of Li2Mn1-xCrxSiO4/C powder ranges from 50 to 100 nm. The XRD and XPS results indicate that Cr+2 is successfully doped into Li2MnSiO4 lattice and has well compatibility with Li2MnSiO4. The electrochemical results display that Li2Mn92.5%Cr7.5%SiO4/C exhibits significantly enhanced cycle stability and discharge capability. The initial discharge capacity of the Li2Mn92.5%Cr7.5%SiO4/C sample is 255 mAh g-1, and the discharge capacity was still about 60 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles. Furthermore, the XRD patterns, TEM images and Raman analysis reveal that the Cr doping enhances the structural stability of Li2Mn1-xCrxSiO4/C and improves the electrochemical activity of the cathode. Thus, the Li2Mn92.5%Cr7.5%SiO4/C have shown potential applications for lithium ion batteries.

  9. Parameters of superfine interactions in Laves ScFe sub 2 alloy with hexagonal MnZn sub 2 structure

    CERN Document Server

    Pokatilov, V S

    2001-01-01

    The superfine fields, amplification coefficients and quadrupole splitting on the sup 4 sup 5 Sc nuclei in the ScFe sub 2 , Sc sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 5 Fe sub 2 sub . sub 0 sub 5 and ScFe sub 1 sub . sub 9 sub 7 Al sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 3 alloys are measured at the room temperature and 77 K through the method of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The NMR spectra peculiarities are studied and the superfine field shifts on the sup 4 sup 5 Sc nuclei in the considered alloys by appearance of the Fe atoms at the Sc atoms places and the Al atoms at the Fe atoms places in the Sc atoms nearest coordination sphere are determined. It is established that the electron quadrupole splitting in the considered alloys does not depend on the technology of obtaining the samples, on insignificant deviations from the alloy stoichiometric composition or on the minor additions of the Al atoms

  10. Spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of Mn{sub 6}Cr single-molecule-magnets and of manganese compounds as reference layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmstedt, Andreas; Gryzia, Aaron; Dohmeier, Niklas; Mueller, Norbert; Brechling, Armin; Sacher, Marc; Heinzmann, Ulrich [Faculty of Physics, Bielefeld University (Germany); Hoeke, Veronika; Glaser, Thorsten [Faculty of Chemistry, Bielefeld University (Germany); Fonin, Mikhail; Ruediger, Ulrich [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz (Germany); Neumann, Manfred [Department of Physics, Osnabrueck University (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The properties of the manganese-based single-molecule-magnet (SMM) Mn{sub 6}Cr are studied. This molecule exhibits a large spin ground state of S{sub T}=21/2. It contains six manganese centres arranged in two bowl-shaped Mn{sub 3}-triplesalen building blocks linked by a hexacyanochromate. The Mn{sub 6}Cr complex can be isolated with different counterions which compensate for its triply positive charge. The spin polarization of photoelectrons emitted from the manganese centres in Mn{sub 6}Cr SMM after resonant excitation with circularly polarized synchrotron radiation has been measured at selected energies corresponding to the prominent Mn L{sub 3}VV and L{sub 3}M{sub 2,3}V Auger peaks. Spin-resolved photoelectron spectra of the reference substances MnO, Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Mn(II)acetate recorded after resonant excitation at the Mn-L{sub 3}-edge around 640eV are presented as well. The spin polarization value obtained from MnO at room temperature in the paramagnetic state is compared to XMCD measurements of Mn(II)-compounds at 5K and a magnetic field of 5T.

  11. On new ternary equiatomic scandium transition metal aluminum compounds ScTAl with T = Cr, Ru, Ag, Re, Pt, and Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzieowski, Mathis; Janka, Oliver [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Benndorf, Christopher [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Haverkamp, Sandra [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Eckert, Hellmut [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    The new equiatomic scandium transition metal aluminides ScTAl for T = Cr, Ru, Ag, Re, Pt, and Au were obtained by arc-melting of the elements followed by subsequent annealing for crystal growth. The samples were studied by powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures of three compounds were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: ScCrAl, MgZn{sub 2} type, P6{sub 3}/mmc, a = 525.77(3), c = 858.68(5) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0188, wR{sub 2} = 0.0485, 204 F{sup 2} values, 13 variables, ScPtAl, TiNiSi type, Pnma, a = 642.83(4), b = 428.96(2), c = 754.54(5) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0326, wR{sub 2} = 0.0458, 448 F{sup 2} values, 20 variables and ScAuAl, HfRhSn type, P anti 62c, a = 722.88(4), c = 724.15(4) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0316, wR{sub 2} = 0.0653, 512 F{sup 2} values, 18 variables. Phase pure samples of all compounds were furthermore investigated by magnetic susceptibility measurements, and Pauli-paramagnetism but no superconductivity was observed down to 2.1 K for all of them. The local structural features and disordering phenomena have been characterized by {sup 27}Al and {sup 45}Sc magic angle spinning (MAS) and static NMR spectroscopic investigations.

  12. Exposure of single-molecule-magnets Mn{sub 6}Cr and Mn{sub 7} to soft X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merschjohann, Fabian; Helmstedt, Andreas; Gryzia, Aaron; Winter, Andreas; Steppeler, Sebastian; Mueller, Norbert; Brechling, Armin; Sacher, Marc D.; Heinzmann, Ulrich [Fak. f. Physik, Univ. Bielefeld (Germany); Freiherr v. Richthofen, Carl-Georg; Glaser, Thorsten [Fak. f. Chemie, Univ. Bielefeld (Germany); Voss, Soenke; Fonin, Mikhail; Ruediger, Ulrich [Fak. f. Physik, Univ. Konstanz (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Mn{sub 6}Cr and Mn{sub 7} are two representatives of the new 7-core single-molecule-magnets (SMM) with a large spin moment. Adsorbed on surfaces their electronic configuration may change depending on the substrate material. Possible modifications of the electronic configuration can be studied element-specificly by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and by measuring the spin-polarization of photoelectrons ejected by circularly polarized synchrotron radiation. Drawback of the above mentioned methods is the bad stability of the SMM during X-ray exposure. The SMM degrade due to photoreduction with increasing time of exposure. The trivalent metallic components (here Mn and Cr) become divalent ones. This degradation process was observed by using very small photon fluxes at Maxlab III. Within about one hour of X-ray exposure the degradation saturates. The rate of degradation depends on the substrate material as well as on the SMM-concentration on the substrate. Beneath these results we will present first spin-resolved photo-emission measurements of SMM-crystals.

  13. Reentrant behavior in Cr doped bilayer manganite LaSr{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, S.N., E-mail: snbhatia@phy.iitb.ac.in; Mohapatra, Niharika

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • The FM and the AFM states merge into each other thereby creating an inhomogeneous state. • Cr{sup 3+} creates ferromagnetic moments which behave like FM relaxors. • Electric conduction takes via hopping of small polaron and not by variable range hopping of these polarons. - Abstract: We have studied the effect of replacing Mn{sup 3+} by Cr{sup 3+} on the structure, transport and magnetism in the bilayered manganite LaSr{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Although no structural transition was observed in LaSr{sub 2}Mn{sub 2−y}Cr{sub y}O{sub 7} (0.1 ≤ y ≤ 0.6), the electrical transport and the magnetic properties were found to be affected significantly by this substitution. Substitution of Cr{sup 3+} reduces the conductivity by restricting the hopping of small polarons. Magnetization increases with increasing Cr{sup 3+} concentration suggesting that Cr{sup 3+}-ions induce ferromagnetic moments. The ferromagnetic and an antiferromagnetic phase observed above ∼60 K merge into an inhomogeneous phase below this temperature. Thermopower yields an essentially concentration independent charge density nearly equal to its value for chromium free composition inspite of its expected decrease with this substitution suggesting that the small charge density of the insulating AFM phase is supplemented by the free carriers in the FM phase. The inhomogeneous phase shows a relaxor type behavior which contrasts with the spin glass behavior seen in La{sub 0.46}Sr{sub 0.54}Mn{sub 0.98}Cr{sub 0.02}O{sub 3} having an identical AFM magnetic state. The difference is attributed to the non-JT character of Cr-ions which reduce the distortion of the Mn−O octahedra located within the FM domains. With a higher lattice strain in the surrounding AFM matrix the carriers remain confined within the FM domains leading to the relaxor type behavior.

  14. Effect of Microstructure on the Localized Corrosion of Fe-Cr-Mn-N Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Park, Y.S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Yonsei University (Korea); Kim, Y.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Andong National University (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    This paper dealt with the effect of microstructure on the localized corrosion of Fe-Cr-Mn-N stainless steels. The experimental alloys were made by vacuum induction melting and then hot rolled. The alloys were designed by controlling Creq/Nieq ratio. Two alloys had austenitic phase and one alloy showed (austenite + ferrite) duplex phase. High nitrogen addition in austenitic alloys stabilized the austenitic structure and then suppressed the formations of ferrite and a' martensite, but martensite was formed in the case of large Creq/Nieq ratio and low nitrogen addition. Pitting initiation site was grain boundary in austenitic alloys and was ferrite / austenite phase boundary in duplex alloy in the HCl solution. In sulfuric acids, austenitic alloys showed uniform corrosion, but ferrite phase was preferentially corroded in duplex alloy. The preferential dissolution seems to be related with the distribution of alloying elements between ferrite and austenite. Intergranular corrosion test showed that corrosion rate by immersion Huey test had a linear relation with degree of sensitization by EPR test. 22 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  15. NEW Fe-C-Mn-Si-Cr BEARING ALLOY: TEMPERING CURVES AND TEMPERED MARTENSITE EMBRITTLEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Benedito Marcomini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available SAE 52100 steel is not only used as a rolled raw material for bearing manufacturing but for building some rolling devices as well, such as guide rollers and straightener rollers. The purpose of this work is the characterization of a Fe-C-Mn-Si-Cr bearing alloy (SAE 52100 steel, modified with 1.74% Si by plotting the variation of quenched and tempered hardness curve (tempering curve and tempered martensite embrittlement susceptibility. The present application is based on the same idea as 300M steel regarding SAE 4340 steel. The effect of silicon on the kinetics of cementite precipitation leads to a rise in temperature of tempered martensite embrittlement. Quench and temper treatments were carried out and impact tests were performed with modified and commercial steels and the results were compared. Microstructure aspects are studied by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. The silicon alloyed steel presents great resistance to softening after tempering and no tempered martensite embrittlement.

  16. Effects of Alloying Elements (Cr, Mn) on Corrosion Properties of Carbon Steel in Synthetic Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Youngmin; Kim, Heesan [Hongik University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Effects of alloying elements, manganese and chromium, on corrosion resistance of carbon steel were examined using weight loss test and electrochemical tests (polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) in synthetic seawater at 60 ℃. The results from the weight loss test showed that chromium effectively improved corrosion resistance of carbon steel during the entire immersion time, but manganese improved corrosion resistance after the lowered corrosion resistance at the beginnings of immersion. Unlike the weight loss test, the electrochemical tests showed that the corrosion resistance did not increase with immersion time, in all the specimens. This disagreement is explained by the presence of rust involved in electrochemical reaction during electrochemical tests. The analysis of rust with transmission electron microscopy (TEM)−energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed that the amorphous-like rust layer located at the metal/rust interface with enriched alloying element (Cr, Mn) prevents diffusion of corrosive species into a metal/rust interface effectively, which leads to increased corrosion resistance. The initial corrosion behaviour is also affected by the rust types. In other words, manganese accelerated the formation of spinel oxides, negatively affecting corrosion resistance. Meanwhile, chromium accelerated the formation of goethite but impeded the formation of spinel oxides, positively affecting the corrosion resistance. From the above results, the corrosion resistance of steel is closely related with a rust type.

  17. Prediction of half-metallic properties for the Heusler alloys Mn{sub 2}CrZ (Z=Al, Ga, Si, Ge, Sb): A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Hongzhi [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: luohz@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Zhu Zhiyong; Liu Guodong; Xu Shifeng; Wu Guangheng [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Liu Heyan; Qu Jingping; Li Yangxian [School of Material Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2008-02-15

    First-principles FLAPW calculations were performed on the Mn{sub 2}CrZ (Z=Al, Ga, Si, Ge and Sb) alloys. Based on these results we predict two half-metallic ferromagnets (HMFs) namely Mn{sub 2}CrAl and Mn{sub 2}CrSb, and also find an energy gap in Mn{sub 2}CrGa which lies near the Fermi level. The energy gap lies in the majority spin band for Mn{sub 2}CrAl and Mn{sub 2}CrGa, whereas in the minority one for Mn{sub 2}CrSb. The calculated total spin magnetic moments M{sub t}{sup cal} are -1{mu}{sub B} per unit cell for Mn{sub 2}CrAl and Mn{sub 2}CrGa, +1{mu}{sub B} per unit cell for Mn{sub 2}CrSb and zero for Mn{sub 2}CrSi and Mn{sub 2}CrGe, which agree with the Slater-Pauling rule. The calculation indicates a large and localized magnetic moment of Cr at B site. This is meaningful for searching for new half-metallic antiferromagnets in Heusler alloys. The magnetic moment of Cr is found to increase with increasing atomic number of Z and is antiparallel to that of Mn. The change of Mn and Cr spin moments compensates each other and keeps the total spin moment as an integer when the Z atom is changed.

  18. Two-dimensional Ising behavior in c(2×2) antiferromagnetic Mn and Cr monolayers on Ag(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, M. C.; Krembel, C.; Bolmont, D.; Gewinner, G.

    2003-10-01

    The magnetic order MS(T) is determined as a function of temperature for the c(2×2) antiferromagnetic monolayers of Mn and Cr on Ag(001), using the intensity of the coherent superlattice (1/2,1/2) reflections in low-energy electron diffraction to obtain the sublattice magnetization MS. The data fit the Onsager-Yang theoretical result rather well for the spontaneous magnetization of the plane square lattice in the Ising model with critical temperatures TC≈198 and 462 K for Mn and Cr, respectively. Near TC a fit to a universal power law MS(T)˜(1-T/TC)β confirms the two-dimensional Ising class with β close to 1/8 and indicates the importance of second-order magnetic anisotropy in these two-dimensional antiferromagnets.

  19. The Effects of Helium Bubble Microstructure on Ductility in Annealed and HERF 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosten, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Morgan, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the effects of microstructure on the ambient temperature embrittlement from hydrogen isotopes and decay helium in 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel. Hydrogen and tritium-exposed 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel tensile samples were pulled to failure and then characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical microscopy. This study determined that ductility differences between annealed and high-energy-rate-forged (HERF) stainless steel containing tritium and its decay product, helium, could be related to differences in the helium bubble microstructures. The HERF microstructures were more resistant to tritium-induced embrittlement than annealed microstructures because the high number density of helium bubbles on dislocations trap tritium within the matrix and away from the grain boundaries.

  20. Effect of Mn on hardenability of 25CrMo axle steel by an improved end-quench test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yutuo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the sixth large-scale railway speed-up, the quality of the axles is essential to the safety of the locomotive. According to the high-speed axle technical standard for the control of alloy elements in axle steel, optimization experiments of 25CrMo steel composition were performed by vacuum inductive melting. In order to study the hardenability of high-speed rail axles, an improved end-quench test was put forward. The advantage is that it enables the heat to transfer along the axial direction, thus avoiding edge effects. The hardenability of 25CrMo axle steels with Mn content of 0.60wt.% and 0.80wt.% was investigated mainly by means of optical microscopy and hardness tests. The experimental results indicate that the Mn has a pronounced effect on the hardenability of the steel. With an increase in Mn content from 0.60wt.% and 0.80wt.%, the hardenability of 25CrMo axle steel increases and the hard microstructure is maintained at an increasing distance from the quenched end. From the surface of the water quenched end to the center of the sample, the microstructure is martensite, martensite with bainite, and bainite.

  1. Nano-twin mediated plasticity in carbon-containing FeNiCoCrMn high entropy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Parish, C.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Bei, H., E-mail: beih@ornl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2015-10-25

    Equiatomic FeNiCoCrMn alloy has been reported to exhibit promising strength and ductility at cryogenic temperature and deformation mediated by nano-twining appeared to be one of the main reasons. We use the FeNiCoCrMn alloy as a base alloy to seek further improvement of its mechanical properties by alloying additional elements, i.e., interstitial carbon. The effects of carbon on microstructures, mechanical properties and twinning activities were investigated in two different temperatures (77 and 293 K). With addition of 0.5 at% C, the high entropy alloy still remains entirely single phase face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure. The materials can be cold rolled and recrystallized to produce a microstructure with equiaxed grains. Both strain hardening rate and strength are enhanced while high uniform elongations to fracture (∼70% at 77 K and ∼40% at 293 K) are still maintained. The increased strain hardening and strength could be caused by the promptness of deformation twinning in C-containing high entropy alloys. - Highlights: • Interstitial atom C was successfully added into FeNiCoCrMn high entropy alloys. • The strain hardening rate and strength are enhanced in the C-containing alloy. • The increased strain-hardening and strength are caused by the nano-twinning.

  2. Hierarchical ZnGa2O4 and Cr doped Zn1 - x Mn x Ga2O4 nanostructures for room temperature light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, I.; Nogales, E.; Méndez, B.; Piqueras, J.; Castaldini, A.; Cavallini, A.

    2014-04-01

    Branched, hierarchically grown ZnGa2O4 and Zn1 - x Mn x Ga2O4 (0.1 ZnGa2O4 structures emit the characteristic defect-related UV-blue band and Zn1 - x Mn x Ga2O4 nanowires show efficient green emission due to intraionic Mn2+ transitions. Zn1 - x Mn x Ga2O4 structures have been doped with Cr3+ during thermal treatments in presence of Cr. This leads to structures with additional red emission related to Cr3+. The excitation conditions allow selection of the dominant luminescence band. Photocurrent measurements have also been carried out in ZMGO structures, showing the characteristic intraionic Mn2+ transitions.

  3. Theoretical investigations of Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}Sn and Co{sub 2}MnSn{sub 1-y}Si{sub y} pseudo-ternary alloys: First principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charifi, Z., E-mail: charifizoulikha@gmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of M' sila, 28000 M' sila (Algeria); Hamad, B. [Physics Department, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan); Physics Department, University of Arkansas, 825 W. Dickson St., Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Baaziz, H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of M' sila, 28000 M' sila (Algeria); Soyalp, F. [Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Education, Department of Physics, Van 65080 (Turkey)

    2015-11-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}Sn and Co{sub 2}MnSn{sub 1−y}Si{sub y} alloys are investigated using density functional theory (DFT) within a full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave (FP-LAPW) method. Amongst the systems under investigation, Co{sub 2}MnSn{sub 1−y}Si{sub y} alloys show half metallicity with 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level, however Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}Sn are found to be pseudo-half metals with few minority states at the Fermi level and high spin polarization. The substitution of Si with Sn keeps the magnetic moment constant in Co{sub 2}MnSn{sub 1−y}Si{sub y} alloys, whereas the substitution of Mn with Cr decreases the magnetic moment and degrade the half-metallicity in Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}Sn alloys. The Curie temperature is calculated and it is found to be about 928 K for all Co{sub 2}MnSn{sub 1−y}Si{sub y} alloys, whereas it decreases linearly with x for Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}Sn alloys. The lattices constants, bulk modulii, energy gaps, polarization ratio and density of states are calculated and their variation versus x or y are discussed. - Highlights: • The band structure calculations show that Co{sub 2}MnSn{sub 1−y}Si{sub y} alloys are half-metallic ferromagnets. • The effect of substituting Sn by Si is a slight change in the position of the Fermi level and an increase in the band gap. • For Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}Sn alloys, the results suggest that there is a finite density of states in the minority-spin d band of manganese. • The Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}Sn compounds cannot be classified as half-metallic ferromagnets. • The substitution of Mn with Cr decreases the magnetic moment per formula unit from 5.0 to 4.0µ{sub B}.

  4. A first principle study of phase stability, electronic structure and magnetic properties for Co{sub 2−x}Cr{sub x}MnAl Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rached, H. [Laboratoire des Matériaux Magnétiques, Faculté des Sciences exactes, Université Djillali Liabès de Sidi Bel-Abbès, Sidi Bel-Abbès 22000 (Algeria); Rached, D., E-mail: rachdj@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire des Matériaux Magnétiques, Faculté des Sciences exactes, Université Djillali Liabès de Sidi Bel-Abbès, Sidi Bel-Abbès 22000 (Algeria); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique de la Matière, (LPQ3M), Université de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Abidri, B.; Rabah, M.; Benkhettou, N. [Laboratoire des Matériaux Magnétiques, Faculté des Sciences exactes, Université Djillali Liabès de Sidi Bel-Abbès, Sidi Bel-Abbès 22000 (Algeria); Omran, S. Bin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O.Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-04-01

    The structural stabilities, electronic and magnetic properties of Co{sub 2−x}Cr{sub x}MnAl alloys with (x=0,1 and 2) were investigated using the full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital (FP-LMTO) method, in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange correlation functional. The ground state properties including lattice parameter, bulk modulus for the two considered crystal structures Hg{sub 2}CuTi-Type (X-Type) and Cu{sub 2}MnAl-Type (L2{sub 1}-Type) are calculated. The half-metallicity within ferromagnetic ground state starts to appear in CoCrMnAl and Cr2MnAl. In the objective for the proposition of the new HM-FM in the Full-Heusler alloys, our results classified CoCrMnAl as new HM-FM material with high spin polarization. - Highlights: • Based on DFT calculations, Co2-xCrxMnAl Heusler alloys have been investigated. • The magnetic phase stability was determined from the total energy calculations. • The LMTO calculations have classified CoCrMnAl as new HM-FM material with high spin polarization.

  5. CuMn1.8O4 protective coatings on metallic interconnects for prevention of Cr-poisoning in solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhihao; Wang, Ruofan; Nikiforov, Alexey Y.; Gopalan, Srikanth; Pal, Uday B.; Basu, Soumendra N.

    2018-02-01

    Cr-poisoning of the cathodes due to the presence of metallic interconnects is detrimental to the performance of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell stacks. Applying a protective coating on the interconnect is an effective solution to preventing Cr-poisoning. In this study, the application of a protective CuMn1.8O4 spinel coating is explored. Dense coatings are deposited on both metallic flat plates and meshes by electrophoretic deposition followed by thermal densification steps. The coating is found to be a mixture of Mn3O4 and cubic spinel phases at room temperature but is a pure cubic spinel phase between 750 °C and 850 °C. A reaction layer between the Cr2O3 scale at the coating/interconnect interface and CuMn1.8O4 coating is found to be a mixture of (Cu,Mn,Cr)3-xO4 cubic spinel phases with Cr-rich precipitates believed to be Cr2O3, indicating that the coating layer acts as a Cr getter. Solubility experiments show that 1 mol of the CuMn1.8O4 phase can getter at least 1.83 mol of Cr2O3 at 800 °C. Electrochemical testing of cells in the presence of coated interconnects show that the CuMn1.8O4 coating getters Cr effectively for 12 days at 800 °C, leading to no performance loss of the cell due to Cr-poisoning.

  6. Effect of Cr addition on the structural, magnetic and mechanical properties of magnetron sputtered Ni-Mn-In ferromagnetic shape memory alloy thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkera, Harish Sharma [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Functional Nanomaterials Research Lab, Department of Physics, Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India); Madanapalle Institute of Technology and Science, Department of Physics, Madanapalle, Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh (India); Kaur, Davinder [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Functional Nanomaterials Research Lab, Department of Physics, Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India)

    2016-12-15

    The effect of Cr substitution for In on the structural, martensitic phase transformation and mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-In ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) thin films was systematically investigated. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the Ni-Mn-In-Cr thin films possessed purely austenitic cubic L2{sub 1} structure at lower content of Cr, whereas higher Cr content, the Ni-Mn-In-Cr thin films exhibited martensitic structure at room temperature. The temperature-dependent magnetization (M-T) and resistance (R-T) results confirmed that the monotonous increase in martensitic transformation temperatures (T{sub M}) with the addition of Cr content. Further, the room temperature nanoindentation studies revealed the mechanical properties such as hardness (H), elastic modulus (E), plasticity index (H/E) and resistance to plastic deformation (H{sup 3}/E {sup 2}) of all the samples. The addition of Cr content significantly enhanced the hardness (28.2 ± 2.4 GPa) and resistance to plastic deformation H{sup 3}/E{sup 2} (0.261) of Ni{sub 50.4}Mn{sub 34.96}In{sub 13.56}Cr{sub 1.08} film as compared with pure Ni-Mn-In film. As a result, the appropriate addition of Cr significantly improved the mechanical properties with a decrease in grain size, which could be further attributed to the grain boundary strengthening mechanism. These findings indicate that the Cr-doped Ni-Mn-In FSMA thin films are potential candidates for microelectromechanical systems applications. (orig.)

  7. Low temperature transport anomaly in Cr substituted (La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33})MnO{sub 3} manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tank, Tejas M., E-mail: tejas.physics2020@gmail.com [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462 026 (India); Shelke, Vilas [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462 026 (India); Das, Sarmistha; Rana, D.S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Scientific Education and Research, Bhopal-462 023 (India); Thaker, C.M. [M.V.M. Science and Home Science College, Rajkot-360 005 (India); Samatham, S.S.; Ganesan, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore-452 001 (India); Sanyal, S.P. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462 026 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The effect of Cr substitution at the Mn-site of La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} has been studied. • Electrical and magnetic behaviors correlate with various theoretical models. • First time the low temperature transport anomaly has been explained in terms of e-e scattering phenomenon. • This study shows that FM interaction among Cr{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 3+} is like to the traditional Mn{sup 3+}-O{sup 2−}-Mn{sup 4+} process. - Abstract: The structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) manganites have been studied by substitution of antiferromagnetic trivalent Cr ion at Mn-site. Systematic efforts have been carried out to understand the electrical resistivity behavior in the ferromagnetic metallic and paramagnetic semi-conducting phases of Cr substituted La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} manganites. Polycrystalline samples show a resistivity minimum at a temperature (T{sub min}) of <40 K in the ferromagnetic metallic phase. T{sub min} shifts to higher temperatures on application of magnetic fields. The appearance of this resistivity minimum was analyzed by fittings the data according to the model that considers e-e scattering caused by enhanced Coulombic interactions. The electrical resistivity data has been best fitted in the metallic and semiconducting regime using various models. Present results suggest that intrinsic magnetic inhomogeneity like Cr{sup 3+} ions in these strongly electron-correlated manganite systems is originating due to the existence of the ferromagnetic interactions.

  8. EPR spectroscopy of a family of Cr(III) 7M(II) (M = Cd, Zn, Mn, Ni) "wheels": studies of isostructural compounds with different spin ground states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piligkos, Stergios; Weihe, Høgni; Bill, Eckhard

    2009-01-01

    spin states is observed.We present highly resolved multifrequency (X-, K-, Q- and W-band) continous wave EPR spectra of the heterooctametalic "wheels", [(CH(3))(2)NH(2)][Cr(III) (7)M(II)F(8)((CH(3))(3)CCOO)(16)], hereafter Cr(7)M, where M=Cd, Zn, Mn, and Ni. These experimental spectra provide rare...

  9. Facile preparation of magnetic mesoporous MnFe2O4@SiO2-CTAB composites for Cr(VI) adsorption and reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Fu, Fenglian; Lu, Jianwei; Ding, Zecong; Tang, Bing; Pang, Jiabin

    2017-01-01

    Chromium-contaminated water is regarded as one of the biggest threats to human health. In this study, a novel magnetic mesoporous MnFe2O4@SiO2-CTAB composite was prepared by a facile one-step modification method and applied to remove Cr(VI). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area, and vibrating sample magnetometer were used to characterize MnFe2O4@SiO2-CTAB composites. The morphology analysis showed that the composites displayed a core-shell structure. The outer shell was mesoporous silica with CTAB and the core was MnFe2O4 nanoparticles, which ensured the easy separation by an external magnetic field. The performance of MnFe2O4@SiO2-CTAB composites in Cr(VI) removal was far better than that of bare MnFe2O4 nanoparticles. There were two reasons for the effective removal of Cr(VI) by MnFe2O4@SiO2-CTAB composites: (1) mesoporous silica shell with abundant CTA(+) significantly enhanced the Cr(VI) adsorption capacity of the composites; (2) a portion of Cr(VI) was reduced to less toxic Cr(III) by MnFe2O4, followed by Cr(III) immobilized on MnFe2O4@SiO2-CTAB composites, which had been demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results. The adsorption of Cr(VI) onto MnFe2O4@SiO2-CTAB followed the Freundlich isotherm model and pseudo-second-order model. Tests on the regeneration and reuse of the composites were performed. The removal efficiency of Cr(VI) still retained 92.4% in the sixth cycle. MnFe2O4@SiO2-CTAB composites exhibited a great potential for the removal of Cr(VI) from water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigating half-metallicity in PtXSb alloys (X=V, Mn, Cr, Co) at ambient and high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habbak, Enas L., E-mail: enas_habbak@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University (Egypt); Shabara, Reham M., E-mail: rehamph@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University (Egypt); Aly, Samy H., E-mail: samy.ha.aly@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University (Egypt); Yehia, Sherif, E-mail: sherif542002@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-08-01

    The structural, electronic, magnetic and elastic properties of half-Heusler alloys PtMnSb, PtVSb, PtCrSb and PtCoSb are investigated using first-principles calculation based on Density Functional Theory DFT. The Full Potential local Orbital (FPLO) method, within the General Gradient Approximation (GGA) and Local Spin Density Approximation (LSDA), have been used. The calculated structural, electronic and magnetic properties are in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical data. Using GGA approximation, only PtVSb shows a half-metallic behavior with a spin-down band gap and total magnetic moment of 0.802 eV and 2 µ{sub B} respectively. Both of PtVSb and PtMnSb alloys are half-metallic with spin-down band gaps of 0.925 eV and 0.832 eV and magnetic moments of 2 µ{sub B} and 4 µ{sub B} respectively using LSDA approximation. The bulk modulus and its first pressure-derivative of these alloys are calculated using the modified Birch–Murnaghan equation of state (EOS). The effect of pressure on the lattice constant, energy gap and bulk modulus is investigated. Under pressure, PtMnSb and PtCrSb turn into half-metallic alloys at nearly 6 GPa and 27 GPa respectively using GGA approximation.

  11. Ultra-robust high-field magnetization plateau and supersolidity in bond-frustrated MnCr2S4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurkan, Vladimir; Zherlitsyn, Sergei; Prodan, Lilian; Felea, Viorel; Cong, Pham Thanh; Skourski, Yurii; Wang, Zhe; Deisenhofer, Joachim; von Nidda, Hans-Albrecht Krug; Wosnitza, Joahim; Loidl, Alois

    2017-01-01

    Frustrated magnets provide a promising avenue for realizing exotic quantum states of matter, such as spin liquids and spin ice or complex spin molecules. Under an external magnetic field, frustrated magnets can exhibit fractional magnetization plateaus related to definite spin patterns stabilized by field-induced lattice distortions. Magnetization and ultrasound experiments in MnCr2S4 up to 60 T reveal two fascinating features: (i) an extremely robust magnetization plateau with an unusual spin structure and (ii) two intermediate phases, indicating possible realizations of supersolid phases. The magnetization plateau characterizes fully polarized chromium moments, without any contributions from manganese spins. At 40 T, the middle of the plateau, a regime evolves, where sound waves propagate almost without dissipation. The external magnetic field exactly compensates the Cr–Mn exchange field and decouples Mn and Cr sublattices. In analogy to predictions of quantum lattice-gas models, the changes of the spin order of the manganese ions at the phase boundaries of the magnetization plateau are interpreted as transitions to supersolid phases. PMID:28345038

  12. Influence of the thermodynamic parameters on the temper embrittlement of SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel with variation of Ni, Cr and Mn contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Gyu; Lee, Ki-Hyoung; Min, Ki-Deuk; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Bong-Sang

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel offers improved fracture toughness and strength compared to commercial low alloy steels such as SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel. In this study, the effects of Cr, Mn, and Ni on temper embrittlement in SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel were evaluated from the viewpoint of thermodynamic parameters such as P diffusivity and C activity. The changes of the ductile-brittle transition temperatures before and after aging were correlated with varying alloying element content, and the diffusivity of P and the activity of C were calculated and correlated with the transition behaviors. The addition of Ni, Cr, and Mn reduce the resistance to temper embrittlement, showing increased Transition-Temperature Shift (TTS) and an increased fraction of intergranular fracture. Although the diffusivity of P is changed by the addition of alloying elements, it does not considerably affect the temper embrittlement. The Mn and Cr content in the matrix significantly reduce the C activity, with showing an inversely proportional relationship to TTS. The change of susceptibility to temper embrittlement caused by Cr and Mn addition could be explained by the variation of C activity. Unlike Cr and Mn, Ni has little effect on the temper embrittlement and C activity.

  13. Influence of the thermodynamic parameters on the temper embrittlement of SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel with variation of Ni, Cr and Mn contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang-Gyu; Lee, Ki-Hyoung [Nuclear Materials Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150-1 Deogjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Ki-Deuk [Division of Material Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-Chul, E-mail: mckim@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Materials Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150-1 Deogjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bong-Sang [Nuclear Materials Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150-1 Deogjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    It is well known that SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel offers improved fracture toughness and strength compared to commercial low alloy steels such as SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel. In this study, the effects of Cr, Mn, and Ni on temper embrittlement in SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel were evaluated from the viewpoint of thermodynamic parameters such as P diffusivity and C activity. The changes of the ductile-brittle transition temperatures before and after aging were correlated with varying alloying element content, and the diffusivity of P and the activity of C were calculated and correlated with the transition behaviors. The addition of Ni, Cr, and Mn reduce the resistance to temper embrittlement, showing increased Transition-Temperature Shift (TTS) and an increased fraction of intergranular fracture. Although the diffusivity of P is changed by the addition of alloying elements, it does not considerably affect the temper embrittlement. The Mn and Cr content in the matrix significantly reduce the C activity, with showing an inversely proportional relationship to TTS. The change of susceptibility to temper embrittlement caused by Cr and Mn addition could be explained by the variation of C activity. Unlike Cr and Mn, Ni has little effect on the temper embrittlement and C activity.

  14. Effects of the partial substitution of Ni by Cr on the transport, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of Ni50Mn37In13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Pandey

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The structural, magnetic, and magnetotransport properties of Ni50-xCrxMn37In13 Heusler alloys have been synthesized and investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD, field and pressure dependent magnetization, and electrical resistivity measurements. The partial substitution of Ni by Cr in Ni50Mn37In13 significantly improves the magnetocaloric effect in the vicinity of the martensitic transition (TM. This system also shows a large negative entropy change at the Curie temperature (TC, making it a candidate material for application in a refrigeration cycle that exploits both positive and negative magnetic entropy changes. The refrigeration capacity (RC values at TM and TC increase significantly by more than 20 % with Cr substitution. The application of hydrostatic pressure increases the temperature stability of the martensitic phase in Ni45Cr5Mn37In13. The influence of Cr substitution on the transport properties of Ni48Cr2Mn37In13 is discussed. An asymmetric magnetoresistance, i.e., a spin-valve-like behavior, has been observed near TM for Ni48Cr2Mn37In13.

  15. The half-metallicity of LiMgPdSn-type quaternary Heusler alloys FeMnScZ (Z=Al, Ga, In: A first-principle study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Gao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the first-principles calculations, quaternary Heusler alloys FeMnScZ (Z=Al, Ga, In including its phase stability, band gap, the electronic structures and magnetic properties has been studied systematically. We have found that, in terms of the equilibrium lattice constants, FeMnScZ (Z=Al, Ga, In are half-metallic ferrimagnets, which can sustain the high spin polarization under a very large amount of lattice distortions. The half-metallic band gap in FeMnScZ (Z=Al, Ga, In alloys originates from the t1u-t2g splitting instead of the eu-t1u splitting. The total magnetic moments are 3μB per unit cell for FeMnScZ (Z=Al, Ga, In alloys following the Slater–Pauling rule with the total number of valence electrons minus 18 rather than 24. According to the study, the conclusion can be drawn that all of these compounds which have a negative formation energy are possible to be synthesized experimentally.

  16. Essential trace (Zn, Cu, Mn and toxic (Cd, Pb, Cr elements in the liver of birds from Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komosa A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have focused our study on the concentrations of essential heavy metals (Zn, Cu and Mn and non-essential trace metals (Pb, Cd and Cr in the livers of birds from Eastern Poland. The largest mean amount of Zn - as much as 279 mg/kg dry mass (d.m. - was found in mute swans. However, only in one of the analysed buzzard specimens the concentration of Zn, found to be 664 mg/kg d.m., exceeded the level indicative of poisoning for this element. Birds specializing in catching rodents accumulated Mn in their livers in a very narrow range of concentrations, around 5.0 mg/kg d.m. on average. The range of mean Mn concentrations (around 6.5 mg/kg d.m. was also found to be narrow for piscivorous birds. The highest mean levels of Pb were found in mute swans (2.7 mg/kg d.m., and the highest levels of Cd (2.0 mg/kg d.m. for rooks. Concentrations of total Cr above detection level were found in 22 specimens (53.7%, and concentration values were highest for rooks. Analyses showed that the concentrations of biogenic elements did not exceed the levels indicative of poisoning (except in one specimen. The study demonstrated that lead shots remain a hazard to water ecosystems. Pb, Cd and Cr levels in the livers of omnivorous and piscivorous species indicate the permanent presence of these elements in the environment and may confirm the thesis about the growing role of electronic waste, including metallic e-waste, in the emission of the total amount of contamination with these elements.

  17. Synthesis and Structural Studies of Cr(III, Mn(II and Fe(III Complexes of N(2-Benzimidazolylacetylacetohydrazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Anuradha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ligand N(2-benzimidazolylacetylacetohydrazone (BAAH have been synthesized and characterized. Coordination complexes of Cr(III, Mn(II and Fe(III have been synthesized with the ligand BAAH. These complexes were characterized on the basis of analytical, conductance, thermal, magnetic data and infrared and electronic spectral data. The ligand BAAH is behaving as a neutral tridentate NNO donar employing two azomethine nitrogens (ring and side chain and carbonyl oxygen. The ligand and it's metal complexes were tested for anti microbial activity on the gram positive S. Aureus, E. coli and Proteus.

  18. Stability of Mn{sub 6}Cr single-molecule-magnets adsorbed on surfaces: The influence of X-ray exposure, layer thickness, choice of substrate and counterions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmstedt, Andreas; Gryzia, Aaron; Steppeler, Sebastian; Mueller, Norbert; Sacher, Marc D.; Heinzmann, Ulrich [Fak. f. Physik, Univ. Bielefeld (Germany); Hoeke, Veronika; Glaser, Thorsten [Fak. f. Chemie, Univ. Bielefeld (Germany); Fonin, Mikhail; Ruediger, Ulrich [Fak. f. Physik, Univ. Konstanz (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The single-molecule-magnet (SMM) Mn{sub 6}Cr consists of three main components: Two bowl-shaped Mn{sub 3}-salen complexes are bridged by a complex containing one Cr atom. Three counterions are coupled to the triply charged SMM to ensure charge neutrality. Mn{sub 6}Cr-SMM have a low stability against X-ray exposure, which adversely affects a study of the electronic properties by X-ray absorption- and photoelectron spectroscopy. With increasing exposure time, the spectral features of trivalent Mn representing intact molecules disappear while Mn(II)-typical features increase. This degradation process and its dependence on the photon flux, the substrate and the SMM concentration were observed during beamtimes at BESSY II and MAXLAB III. The rate of degradation shows also a strong dependence on the choice of counterions. The choosen preparation method allows the adsorption of Mn{sub 6}Cr-SMM with varying layer thickness on various substrates. This study reveals an influence of the substrate and the molecule layer thickness on the initial electronic state of the adsorbed molecule layer, i.e. the molecules seem to degrade already during the adsorption process.

  19. Variations of Ni, Cr and Mn Concentration in Soils Formed Along a Toposequence of Ultrabasic Rocks in Western Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Akbari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parent materials as one of the main soil formation factors have a great impact on the concentration of heavy metals in the soil. Heavy metals are released to the soil during weathering and pedogenic processes. Ultrabasic rocks are known as the potential natural source of heavy metals, especially Ni, Cr and Mn in the soil. Average concentrations of Ni and Cr in the soils are 84 and 34 mg kg-1, respectively; while, in soil derived from ultrabasic parent material, the concentration of these elements may reach up to 100000 mg kg-1. Binaloud zone in northeastern composed of different geological materials. There is a narrow band of ophiolitic rocks in this zone that located along Mashhad city. The geochemical behavior of ultrabsic rocks and the associated soil have been frequently studied mostly in humid regions. But, there are a few research works done in arid environments. The objective of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical properties and concentrations of Ni, Cr and Mn in soils formed along a toposequence of ultrabasic rocks in western Mashhad. Materials and Methods: The study area is located in the hilly land landscape of Binaloud zone in the Western part of Mashhad. Mean annual precipitation and temperature is 260 mm and 13.7 oC, respectively. Soil temperature and moisture regimes are thermic and aridic boarder on mesic, respectively. Studied soils developed on hornblendite rocks that are ultrabasic rocks with SiO2 less than 45% and contain ferromagnesian minerals. A toposequence was selected and, three soil profiles on shoulder, backslope and footslope geomorphic positions were described acoording to key to soil taxonmy 2014 and the soil horizons were sampled. Air-dried samples were passed through 2 mm sieve and were used for laboratory analysis. Pseudo-total concentrations of Ni, Cr and Mn were extracted by aqua regia digestion procedure. Free iron oxides (Fed and amorphous iron oxides (Feo were extracted by

  20. One-pot synthesis of Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} grown on graphene and the mechanism for removal of Cr(VI) and Cr(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zengping; Li, Yaru; Guo, Meng; Xu, Fengyun; Wang, Peng [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Du, Yu [China Tobacco Yunnan Industrial Co., Ltd., Yunnan 651600 (China); Na, Ping, E-mail: naping@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-06-05

    Highlights: • rGO-Mn-TiO{sub 2} is synthesized through one-pot hydrothermal method. • Cr(total) removal effectiveness reaches to 97.32% in 30 min under visible light, as the initial concentration of Cr(VI) is 20 mg/L. • Mn-TiO{sub 2} and rGO synergistically contribute to the adsorption and photocatalytic reduction of Cr. • Cr(III) being adsorbed by rGO helps to the release of abundant photocatalytic sites of Mn-TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} grown on reduced graphene oxide(rGO) was synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal method and the photocatalytic removal of Cr by the material was investigated under sunlight. The materials were characterized by a combination of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra, photoluminescence spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cr(total) removal efficiency of the material is 97.32% in 30 min and 99.02% in 60 min under sunlight irradiation, as the initial concentration of Cr(VI) is 20 mg/L. The high photocatalytic activity under visible light is considered mainly due to the Mn-doping, and rGO plays an important role in the synergetic effect of adsorption and photocatalysis to sustain the high efficient removal of Cr(VI) and Cr(III). Cr(VI) adsorbed on the surface of rGO is reduced to Cr(III) by photo electrons which are transported through rGO, and the reaction product Cr(III) continues to be adsorbed. The process contributes to the release of abundant photocatalytic sites of Mn-TiO{sub 2} and improves photocatalytic efficiency. The excellent adsorption and photocatalytic effect with the explanation of the synergetic mechanism are very useful not only for fundamental research but also for the potential practical applications.

  1. Delta-Ferrite Distribution in a Continuous Casting Slab of Fe-Cr-Mn Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Cheng, Guoguang

    2017-10-01

    The delta-ferrite distribution in a continuous casting slab of Fe-Cr-Mn stainless steel grade (200 series J4) was analyzed. The results showed that the ferrite fraction was less than 3 pct. The "M" type distribution was observed in the thickness direction. For the distribution at the centerline, the maximum ferrite content was found in the triangular zone of the macrostructure. In addition, in this zone, the carbon and sulfur were severely segregated. Furthermore, an equilibrium solidification calculation by Thermo-Calc® software indicates that the solidification mode of the composition in this triangular zone is the same as the solidification mode of the averaged composition, i.e., the FA (ferrite-austenite) mode. None of the nickel-chromium equivalent formulas combined with the Schaeffler-type diagram could predict the ferrite fraction of the Cr-Mn stainless steel grade in a reasonable manner. The authors propose that more attention should be paid to the development of prediction models for the ferrite fraction of stainless steels under continuous casting conditions.

  2. Effect of disorder on the magnetic and electronic structure of a prospective spin-gapless semiconductor MnCrVAl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kharel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent discovery of a new class of materials, spin-gapless semiconductors (SGS, has attracted considerable attention in the last few years, primarily due to potential applications in the emerging field of spin-based electronics (spintronics. Here, we investigate structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of one potential SGS compound, MnCrVAl, using various experimental and theoretical techniques. Our calculations show that this material exhibits ≈ 0.5 eV band gap for the majority-spin states, while for the minority-spin it is nearly gapless. The calculated magnetic moment for the completely ordered structure is 2.9 μB/f.u., which is different from our experimentally measured value of almost zero. This discrepancy is explained by the structural disorder. In particular, A2 type disorder, where Mn or Cr atoms exchange their positions with Al atoms, results in induced antiferromagnetic exchange coupling, which, at a certain level of disorder, effectively reduces the total magnetic moment to zero. This is consistent with our x-ray diffraction measurements which indicate the presence of A2 disorder in all of our samples. In addition, we also show that B2 disorder does not result in antiferromagnetic exchange coupling and therefore does not significantly reduce the total magnetic moment.

  3. Quality of Metal Deposited Flux Cored Wire With the System Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Mo-Ni-V-Co

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Aleksander I.; Kozyrev, Nikolay A.; Osetkovskiy, Ivan V.; Kryukov, Roman E.; Kozyreva, Olga A.

    2017-10-01

    Studied the effect of the introduction of vanadium and cobalt into the charge powder fused wire system Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Ni-Mo-V, used in cladding assemblies and equipment parts and mechanisms operating under abrasive and abrasive shock loads. the cored wires samples were manufactured in the laboratory conditions and using appropriate powder materials and as a carbonfluoride contained material were used the dust from gas purification of aluminum production, with the following components composition, %: Al2O3 = 21-46.23; F = 18-27; Na2O = 8-15; K2O = 0.4-6; CaO = 0.7-2.3; Si2O = 0.5-2.48; Fe2O3 = 2.1-3.27; C = 12.5-30.2; MnO = 0.07-0.9; MgO = 0.06-0.9; S = 0.09-0.19; P = 0.1-0.18. Surfacing was produced on the St3 metal plates in 6 layers under the AN-26C flux by welding truck ASAW-1250. Cutting and preparation of samples for research had been implemented. The chemical composition and the hydrogen content of the weld metal were determined by modern methods. The hardness and abrasion rate of weld metal had been measured. Conducted metallographic studies of weld metal: estimated microstructure, grain size, contamination of oxide non-metallic inclusions. Metallographic studies showed that the microstructure of the surfaced layer by cored wire system Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Mo-Ni-V-Co is uniform, thin dendrite branches are observed. The microstructure consists of martensite, which is formed inside the borders of the former austenite grain retained austenite present in small amounts in the form of separate islands, and thin layers of δ-ferrite, which is located on the borders of the former austenite grains. Carried out an assessment the effect of the chemical composition of the deposited metal on the hardness and wear and hydrogen content. In consequence of multivariate correlation analysis, it was determined dependence to the hardness of the deposited layer and the wear resistance of the mass fraction of the elements included in the flux-cored wires of the system Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr

  4. Chemical reactions during sintering of Fe-Cr-Mn-Si-Ni-Mo-C-steels with special reference to processing in semi-closed containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cias A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sintering of Cr, Mn and Si bearing steels has recently attracted both experimental and theoretical attention and processing in semiclosed containers has been reproposed. This paper brings together relevant thermodynamic data and considers the kinetics of some relevant chemical reactions. These involve iron and carbon, water vapour, carbon monoxide and dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen of the sintering atmospheres and the alloying elements Cr, Mn, Mo and Si. The paper concludes by presenting mechanical properties data for three steels sintered in local microatmosphere with nitrogen, hydrogen, nitrogen-5% hydrogen and air as the furnace gas.

  5. The Effect of Si and Mn on Microstructure and Selected Properties of Cr-Ni Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalandyk B.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cast stainless steel of the Cr-Ni duplex type is used, among others, for the cast parts of pumps and valves handling various chemically aggressive media. Therefore, the main problem discussed in this article is the problem of abrasion wear resistance in a mixture of SiC and water and resistance to electrochemical corrosion in a 3% NaCl-H2O solution of selected cast steel grades, i.e. typical duplex cast steel, high silicon and manganese duplex cast steel, and Cr-Ni austenitic cast steel (type AISI 316L. The study shows that the best abrasion wear resistance comparable to Ni-Hart cast iron was obtained in the cast duplex steel, where Ni was partially replaced with Mn and N. This cast steel was also characterized by the highest hardness and matrix microhardness among all the tested cast steel grades. The best resistance to electrochemical corrosion in 3% NaCl-H2O solution showed the cast duplex steel with high content of Cr, Mo and N. The addition of Ni plays rather insignificant role in the improvement of corrosion resistance of the materials tested.

  6. A note on urinary Cd, Cr, Mn and Pb, in students of the University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orbuter

    A preliminary investigation of heavy metals exposure of students of the University of. Agriculture, Makurdi in Central Nigeria ... the concentration of these metals was in the order Mn > C r > Pb > Cd, at levels that raise some concern about the health risks .... Nigeria's future prosperity. REFERENCES. 1. Radwan, M. A. and ...

  7. Deposition of La0.8Sr0.2Cr0.97V0.03O3 and MnCr2O4 thin films on ferritic alloy for solid oxide fuel cell application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars; Chen, Ming; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2007-01-01

    Single layer dense films of La0.8Sr0.2Cr0.97V0.03O3 (LSC) and MnCr2O4 with a thickness of 500 nm were deposited on a commercially available ferritic alloy (Crofer 22APU) by large-area Pulsed Laser Deposition. The deposited samples were subsequently oxidized at 1173 K for 500 h in humidified air...

  8. DFT study on the adsorption sensitivity of graphane doped with Cr and Mn toward H2CO molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingxiao; Ju, Weiwei; Yong, Yongliang; Su, Xiangying; Li, Xiaohong; Fu, Zhibing; Wang, Chaoyang

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction between the hydrogenated graphene (graphane) monolayer and the formaldehyde gas molecule using density functional theory calculations. The atomic structures and electronic properties of the adsorption of H2CO molecule on pure, H-vacancy defected and transition-metal doped graphane sheet were performed. The calculated results suggested that the appearance of H-vacancy increased the activity of graphane sheet. However, the small adsorption energies revealed the weak binding of H2CO to the pure and defected graphane. After introducing the dopants (Cr and Mn), the adsorption stability was enhanced and the O atom of H2CO formed chemical bonds with the dopants. To achieve better accuracy for the adsorption energies, we selected Grimme dispersion corrections to calculate the weak binding configurations.

  9. Nickel and Copper-Free Sintered Structural Steels Containing Mn, Cr, Si, and Mo Developed for High Performance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cias A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to study the sinterability of potential high-strength nickel-free sintered structural steels containing Mn, Cr, Si and Mo compacts were prepared based on sponge and water atomised iron powders and on Astaloy prealloyed powders. To these were admixed ferromanganese, ferroslicon, and graphite. The samples were sintered at temperatures 1120 and 1250°C in laboratory tube furnaces in hydrogen, hydrogen-nitrogen atmospheres with dew points better than -60°C or in nitrogen in a semiclosed container in a local microatmosphere. After sintering the samples were slowly cooled or sinterhardened. Generally resultant microstructures were inhomogeneous, consisted of pearlite/ bainite/martensite, but were characterised by an absence of oxide networks. Sintering studies performed over a range of compositions have shown that superior strength, ranging beyond 900 MPa, along with reasonable tensile elongation, can be achieved with these new steels.

  10. Biosorption of Cd, Cr, Mn, and Pb from aqueous solutions by Bacillus sp strains isolated from industrial waste activate sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los microorganismos tienen capacidad de acumular metales pesados como agentes bioadsorbentes ofreciendo una alternativa para la remoción de metales tóxicos en aguas de efluentes industriales. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue aislar e identificar bacterias tolerantes a los metales pesados (Cd, Cr, Mn y Pb de lodos activados provenientes de la planta de tratamiento de agua del Municipio de Santa Rosa Jáuregui, Querétaro. Para seleccionar las bacterias que son tolerantes a los metales se aislaron 37 cepas bacterianas de las cuales se seleccionaron la Cepa-13 y Cepa-16 (C-13 y C-16, que presentaron una máxima capacidad de adsorción para los metales estudiados. En este artículo, el término biosorción describe la remoción de contaminantes y la utilización de biomasas (muerta mediante mecanismos fisicoquímicos como el proceso de adsorción o de intercambio iónico. Para obtener las condiciones de máxima adsorción se aplicó un tratamiento alcalino y uno ácido. La capacidad de adsorción fue menor en medio ácido que el bioadsorbente con tratamiento alcalino. Una segunda etapa del estudio fue la biosorción de metales pesados (Cd, Cr, Mn, y Pb utilizando las biomasas muertas de Bacillus sp (cepa C13 y C16 aisladas de los lodos activados de la primera etapa.

  11. [Measurement and comparison of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Pb and Cd in rabbit liver of high-adipose group and normal group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Kai; Cao, Hong; Mao, Chang-Jie; Gu, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Yuan

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the present paper is to explore the experimental changes in the content of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Pb and Cd in white rabbit liver with atherosclerosis disease. The method is to reproduce white rabbit liver with atherosclerosis disease by a high-fat diet, and then measure the Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Pb and Cd content with atomic absorption spectrometry. Results show that the Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Pb and Cd contents in the fodders of the normal group are 137.6, 362.3, 14.39, 9.599 mg x kg(-1) and 159.3, 355.0, 290.0 microg x kg(-1), and 86.09, 277.1, 11.07, 5.366 mg x kg(-1) and 115.2, 286.0, 210.5 microg x kg(-1), in high-adipose group. It was concluded that Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Pb and Cd contents in white rabbit liver decline, which may have something to do with the intake of foods and the abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism.

  12. Effect of the Austempering Process on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 27MnCrB5-2 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morri A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of austempering parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 27MnCrB5-2 steel has been investigated by means of: dilatometric, microstructural and fractographic analyses; tensile and Charpy V-notch (CVN impact tests at room temperature and a low temperature.

  13. Thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and thermopower of aerospace alloys from 4 to 300 K. 6: Fe-22Cr-13Ni-5Mn stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hust, J. G.; Sparks, L. L.

    1971-01-01

    The equipment and techniques for determining the thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity Lorenz ratio, and thermopower characteristics of Fe-22Cr-13Ni-5Mn stainless steel are discussed. The dimensions of the specimen and its preparation are described. The experimental data are represented by arbitrary functions over the entire range and smooth tables are generated from these functions.

  14. Magnetization reversal and tunable exchange bias in GdCr{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0−0.50)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, Bibhuti B.; Ravi, S., E-mail: sravi@iitg.ernet.in

    2017-05-01

    Single phase samples of GdCr{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0−0.50) were prepared and their magnetic properties were studied by measuring temperature and field variations of magnetization. The Neel temperature, T{sub N} is found to decrease from T{sub N}=174 K for x=0 to 91 K for x=0.50. The magnetization reversal persists upto 5 at% of Mn substitution with a magnetic compensation temperature, T{sub comp} of 136 K and 139 K for x=0 and 0.05 respectively. However, spin reorientation induced magnetization reversal emerges for x=0.40 and 0.50 samples around 30 K. Tunable positive and negative exchange bias fields in the range of −1.0 kOe to +1.6 kOe have been observed. The origin of magnetization reversal and exchange bias field is explained in terms of antiparallel alignment of canted ferromagnetic component of Cr{sup 3+} ions and the paramagnetic moments of Gd{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 3+} ions under the influence of negative internal field due to antiferromagnetically ordered Cr{sup 3+} ions. - Highlights: • Magnetization reversal and bipolar switching in Mn substituted GdCrO{sub 3} • Tunable exchange bias field in the range of −1.0 kOe to +1.6 kOe. • Low temperature spin reorientation transition is observed.

  15. Structural, magnetic and phonon properties of Cr(III)-doped perovskite metal formate framework [(CH3)2NH2][Mn(HCOO)3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mączka, Mirosław; Gągor, Anna; Hermanowicz, Krzysztof; Sieradzki, Adam; Macalik, Lucyna; Pikul, Adam

    2016-05-01

    We have incorporated Cr(III) into [(CH3)2NH2][Mn(HCOO)3] (DMMn) multiferroic metal organic framework (MOF). The highest concentration of Cr(III) in the synthesized samples reached 15.9 mol%. The obtained samples were characterized by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, DSC, magnetic susceptibility, dielectric, EPR, Raman and IR methods. These methods and the performed chemical analysis revealed that electrical charge neutrality after substitution of Cr(III) for Mn(II) is maintained by partial replacement of dimethylammonium (DMA+) cations by neutral HCOOH molecules. These changes in the chemical composition are responsible for weakening of the hydrogen bonds and decreased flexibility of the framework. This in turn leads to lowering of the ferroelectric phase transition temperature, observed around 185 K for undoped DMMn and around 155 K for the sample containing 3.1 mol% of Cr(III), and lack of macroscopic phase transition for the samples with Cr(III) content of 8.2 and 15.9 mol %. Another interesting effect observed for the studied samples is pronounced strengthening of the weak ferromagnetism of in Cr(III)-doped samples, associated with slight decrease of the ferromagnetic ordering temperature from 8.5 K for DMMn to 7.0 K for the sample with 15.9 mol % Cr(III) content.

  16. Aging precipitation behavior and its influence on mechanical properties of Mn18Cr18N austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fengming; Li, Yajie; He, Wenwu; Zhao, Xiaodong; Chen, Huiqin

    2017-11-01

    The aging precipitation behavior in Mn18Cr18N austenitic stainless steel was investigated at temperatures from 600 °C to 900 °C. During isothermal aging treatment, the primary precipitate was Cr2N with a = 0.478 nm and c = 0.444 nm, and it preferentially nucleates along initial grain boundaries and gradually grows towards the interior of grains in discontinuous cellular way. Meanwhile, a small amount of granular face-centred cubic M23C6 with a = 1.066 nm also were observed, which mainly form along grain boundaries. The effect of these precipitates on mechanical properties of the alloy was studied. It was found that precipitates result in degeneration of the matrix hardness. Meanwhile, the SEM morphologies of aged tensile sample show that the brittle fracture predominates during deformation, i.e. the fracture mode transforms from intergranular fracture to transgranular fracture with the increasing of aging time. Compared with the solution-treated sample, the strength of the aged tensile samples slightly decreases and plasticity remarkably deteriorates.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel near-α titanium alloy Ti6.0Al4.5Cr1.5Mn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong-bin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Special Casting Engineering Technology Research Center, Shanghai 201605 (China); Wang, Shu-sen; Gao, Peng-yue; Jiang, Tao [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lu, Xiong-gang; Li, Chong-he [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Special Casting Engineering Technology Research Center, Shanghai 201605 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Based on previous Ti-Al-Cr-Mn quaternary system thermodynamic database, a novel near-α titanium alloy Ti-6.0Al-4.5Cr-1.5Mn alloy was designed and successfully prepared by the water-cooled copper crucible. Microscopic observation showed that both as-cast and annealing status consist of α phase, which coincides with the theoretical expectation. The mechanical properties at room temperature were measured and this alloy possesses good mechanical properties, its average yield-strength reaches 1051.5 MPa and tensile-strength is up to 1091.2 MPa while its average elongation is just 8.3%. Compared with the TA15, it has better mechanical strength and worse elongation. In the new alloy Laves phase Cr{sub 2}Ti were detected by XRD pattern and TEM, which may cause the alloy's poor plasticity.

  18. Interface Resistance between FeCr Interconnects and La0.85Sr0.15Mn1.1O3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars; Neufeld, Kai; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2009-01-01

    The long term oxidation behaviour and the electrical interface resistance between FeCr interconnects and La0,85Sr0,15Mn1,1O3 plates was studied by a DC four-point method in air at 750{degree sign}C for 10000 h. The tested FeCr alloys were: Crofer 22 APU, Sanergy HT, Plansee IT10, Plansee IT11, an....... Low degradation rates of less than 1 mcm2/1000 h were measured on all interfaces. The microstructure analysis showed that a duplex Cr2O3-(Mn,Co,Cr)3O4 oxide scale with a thickness of 3-5 µm had evolved on the alloys.......The long term oxidation behaviour and the electrical interface resistance between FeCr interconnects and La0,85Sr0,15Mn1,1O3 plates was studied by a DC four-point method in air at 750{degree sign}C for 10000 h. The tested FeCr alloys were: Crofer 22 APU, Sanergy HT, Plansee IT10, Plansee IT11......, and Plansee IT14. The alloys were slurry sprayed with a dual layer coating consisting of an inner Co3O4 layer and an outer layer consisting of La0,85Sr0,15Mn1,1O3 with some Co3O4 added. The microstructure and composition of the oxide scales formed at the interfaces were investigated using SEM/EDX analysis...

  19. Double Q-switch Ho:Sc2SiO5 laser by acousto-optic modulator combined with Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-tao; Zhang, Peng; Xie, Wen-qiang; Li, Lin-jun

    2018-01-01

    A double Q-switch (DQS) Ho:Sc2SiO5 laser modulated by a acousto-optic modulators (AOM) combined with a Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorber (SA) was reported for the first time. The actively Q-switch (AQS) and passively Q-switch (PQS) were also studied. For the DQS mode, a maximum average output power of 2.49 W under the incident pump power of 12.5 W was obtained, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 24%. The characteristics of the DQS Ho:SSO laser versus different repetition frequencies (RF) of the AOM were researched. The maximum single-pulse energy of the DQS Ho:SSO laser was calculated to 1.98 mJ. The maximum peak power of the DQS Ho:SSO laser was 49.5 kW. The output beam quality factor M2 of DQS Ho:SSO laser was measured to be 1.15 with the highest peak power by knife-edge method at different positions.

  20. Effects of Cr-doping on the electronic transport properties in antiperovskite nitrides Mn{sub 3−x}Cr{sub x}ZnN (0≤x≤0.5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Muhammad Imran; Sun, Ying, E-mail: sunying@buaa.edu.cn; Wang, Lei; Deng, Sihao; Shi, Kewen; Hu, Pengwei; Lu, Huiqing; Wang, Cong, E-mail: congwang@buaa.edu.cn

    2016-06-15

    Antiperovskite intermetallic Mn{sub 3−x}Cr{sub x}ZnN (0≤x≤0.5) compounds have been prepared to study the Cr doping effect on the electronic transport properties. The temperature dependent resistivity ρ(T) for x≤0.3 shows notable and broader slope change. Meanwhile, with increasing Cr doping, the slope change shifts to lower temperatures and is gradually suppressed for x>0.3. For x=0.0 and 0.5, the measurements of magnetization from 10 K to 350 K reveal that Mn{sub 3−x}Cr{sub x}ZnN compounds go through a transition from the dominant AFM interactions to one where the FM and AFM interactions coexist. For low-temperature region (15–80 K), the electron–electron scattering is dominant, and the number of phonons abruptly increases with increasing temperature. Small polaron hopping model (SPH) is used to understand the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity in the high-temperature range of 200–300 K and a clear decrease of the polaron activation energy was observed for x≤0.2. The residual resistivity ratio (RRR) decreases while the residual resistivity increases (ρ{sub 0}) with increasing Cr-doping level. The maximum total entropy change (ΔS{sub max}) decreases by increasing the Cr doping from x=0.0 to 0.2.

  1. Contamination assessment of heavy metals in the soils around Khouzestan Steel Company (KSC (Ni, Mn, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh hormozi Nejad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soil plays a vital role in human life as the very survival of mankind is tied to the preservation of soil productivity (Kabata- Pendies and Mukherjee, 2007. The purpose of this study is the assessment of heavy metal contamination (Zn, Mn, Pb, Fe, Ni, Cr of the soil around the Khuzestan Steel Complex. Materials and methods For this purpose, 13 surface soil samples (0-10 cm were taken. Also a control sample was taken from an area away from the steel complex. The coordinates of each point were recorded by Global Positioning System (GPS. The samples were transferred to the laboratory and then were air dried at room temperature for 72 hours. Then they were sieved through a 2mm sieve for determining physical and chemical parameters (soil texture, pH, OC, and a 63-micron sieve for measurement of heavy metal concentration. pH was measured using a calibrated pH meter at a 2: 1 mixture (soil: water, and soil texture was determined using a hydrometer. The amount of organic matter was measured using the Valkey black method (Chopin and Alloway, 2007. After preparation of the samples in the laboratory, the samples were analyzed using the ICP-OES method to assess concentration of heavy metals. Measurement of heavy metals concentration was carried out at the Zar azma laboratory in Tehran. To ensure the accuracy of the analysis of soil samples, replicate samples were also sent to the laboratory. In order to assess the heavy metal pollution in the soil samples, different indices including contamination factor (CF, contamination degree (Cd, anthropogenic enrichment percent (An%, and saturation degree of metals (SDM were calculated. Discussion In addition, the mean concentrations of heavy metals in soil samples were compared to the concentration of these metals in Control Sample and unpolluted soil standard. Measurement of soil pH showed that the soil has a tendency to alkalinity. Also, soil texture is sandy loam (Moyes, 2011. The results showed that

  2. A rare mu-hydroxo-bridged species. synthesis, structure, and properties of mu-hydroxo(tetraphenylporphyrinatomanganese(III))(phthalocyaninato(azido)chromium(III)), [(TPP)Mn-O(H)-CrPc(N3)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzello, Maria Pia; Bartolino, Laura; Ercolani, Claudio; Rizzoli, Corrado

    2006-08-21

    A novel ditetrapyrrolic, heteroleptic, and heterometallic (Mn-Cr) mu-hydroxo-bridged complex has been prepared, and its structural and general properties have been studied. The species mu-hydroxo(tetraphenylporphyrinatomanganese(III))(phthalocyaninato(azido)chromium(III)), [(TPP)Mn-O(H)-CrPc(N3)], isolated as a chloronaphthalene (ClNP) solvate, has been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray work. The two (TPP)Mn and CrPc(N3) fragments are held together by the bridging mu-hydroxo ion with long Mn-O [1.993(5) A] and Cr-O [1.976(5) A] bond distances and a Mn-O(H)-Cr angle of 163.7(3) degrees . The five-coordinate Mn center in the (TPP)Mn fragment is displaced from the TPP rigorously planar central N4 core by 0.128 A, and the environment is typical of a Mn(III) high-spin site. The six-coordinate Cr(III) in the CrPc(N3) moiety lies practically in the plane of the phthalocyanine macrocycle (displacement toward the azido group: 0.054 A). The average Mn-N(pyr) and Cr-N(pyr) bond distances are 2.011(6) and 1.982(6) A, respectively, and the Mn-Cr bond distance is 3.929(2) A. The porphyrin and phthalocyanine rings are in an almost eclipsed position [5.16(2) degrees ], and the mean planes of the two macrocycles form a dihedral angle of 5.79(4) degrees. Crystal data for [(TPP)Mn-O(H)-CrPc(N3)].2ClNP, C76H45CrMnN15O.2C10H7Cl: a = 16.645(3) A, b = 17.692(4) A, c = 25.828(5) A, alpha = 90 degrees , beta = 98.79(3) degrees , gamma = 90 degrees , space group P2(1)/c (No. 14), V = 7517(3) A(3), Z = 4, R1 = 0.086, and wR2 = 0.267. IR and UV-vis-near-IR spectral and room temperature magnetic susceptibility data of the [Mn-Cr] species are also presented.

  3. Tempering of Martensite and Subsequent Redistribution of Cr, Mn, Ni, Mo, and Si Between Cementite and Martensite Studied by Magnetic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola, Javad; Luan, Guoqing; Brochnow, David; Volkova, Olena; Wu, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Tempering reactions in ternary Fe-2M-0.7C steels (M=Cr, Ni, Mn, Mo, and Si) were studied by correlative dilatometry and magnetic measurements at room temperature. Magnetic measurements were conducted after tempering at progressively higher temperatures. Based on the magnitude of demagnetization in the temperature range associated with the tempering stage I contraction, Mn- and Si-added steels formed the largest and smallest fractions of transition carbides, respectively. Estimation of the magnetization of paraequilibrium cementite indicated that Cr, Mn, and Mo reduced the magnetization while Ni increased it. In the presence of Si, the decomposition of retained austenite and cementite formation were shifted to higher temperatures. At temperatures above approximately 723 K (450 °C), the enrichment of cementite with Mn and Cr significantly reduced the total magnetization. In the Mo-added steel, on the other hand, the magnetization slightly increased implying the formation of ferromagnetic Mo-rich carbides. For the Ni- and Si-added steels, the magnetization remained almost constant indicating minimal redistribution of Ni and Si subsequent to the formation of cementite. The possibility of analyzing the latter redistribution is one of the main advantages of sequential tempering and magnetic measurements at room temperature compared to in situ thermomagnetic measurements.

  4. High magnetic field phase diagram in electron-doped manganites La(0.4)Ca(0.6)Mn(1-y)Cr(y)O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chengliang; Hu, Ni; Yang, Ming; Xia, Shuangcheng; Wang, Haowen; Wang, Junfeng; Xia, Zhengcai; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2014-05-09

    We report the charge-order to ferromagnetic phase transition induced by pulsed high magnetic field and impurity doping effects in manganites La(0.4)Ca(0.6)(Mn(1-y)Cr(y))O3 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.2). Significant charge-order suppression and ferromagnetic tendency upon the Cr(3+)-doping are evidenced, and three different ground states are identified, namely the charge-order state, the phase separated state, and the spin-glass like state. Phase diagram in the H-y plane at 4.2 K is determined by the high magnetic field study, in which the charge-order and ferromagnetic phase boundary is clearly figured out. The critical magnetic field for melting the charge-order phase of La(0.4)Ca(0.6)MnO3 is revealed to reach up to 46 T at 4.2 K. Interestingly, distinct responses of the three states to the high magnetic field are observed, indicating the special physics regarding the charge order melting process in each state. The mechanism of the doping induced charge-order suppression and ferromagnetism promotion can be understood by the competition between the antiferromagnetic interaction of Cr-Mn and local enhancement of electron hopping by Cr(3+).

  5. Large refrigeration capacities near room temperature in Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, Jeffrey; Khan, Mahmud, E-mail: khanm2@miamioh.edu

    2017-03-01

    We report on the observation of large refrigeration capacities near room temperature in Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}In Heusler alloys. The alloys exhibit the L2{sub 1} cubic crystal structure and undergo a second order ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition. The respective Curie temperatures vary with Cr concentration from 315 K to 290 K. Net refrigerant capacities of up to 60 J/kg and 168 J/kg are observed in the alloys for applied magnetic fields of 20 kOe and 50 kOe, respectively. Due to the second order phase transition, the materials do not exhibit any hysteresis loss or other problems usually associated with materials exhibiting first order phase transitions. The observed refrigeration capacities in Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}In are higher than those observed in many Heusler alloys with first order magnetic transitions. - Highlights: • The magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}In have been investigated. • The materials exhibit ferromagnetic transitions and associated magnetocaloric effects near room temperature. • The materials exhibit refrigeration capacities that are superior to those of Heusler alloys with first order phase transition.

  6. Competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions by Cr doping at Mn sites in antiperovskite Mn3-xCrxZnN (0≤x≤0.5) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Imran; Sun, Ying; Wang, Lei; Deng, Sihao; Shi, Kewen; Hu, Pengwei; Lu, Huiqing; Wang, Cong

    2016-05-01

    The Cr doping effect on the lattice and magnetic properties in Mn3-xCrxZnN was reported in the antiferromagnetic intermetallic host material Mn3ZnN. The lattice parameter decreases with the increase of the Cr concentration. Measurements of magnetization from 10 K to 350 K reveal that sharp antiferromagnetic (AFM)-to-paramagnetic (PM) transitions of the host material exist at 185 K (ZFC) and 177 K (FC). The peak is broadened clearly as the Cr doping was increased and when the Cr concentration exceeded 0.3, a significant ferromagnetic (FM) character was found to coexist with an AFM phase. At x=0.4 and 0.5, the M-H curves exhibit small magnetic hysteresis loop, indicating the dominant FM interactions in these samples. Also, a positive value of Weiss Temperature (ΘW) at x=0.5 in H/M-T plot suggests that the FM interaction is dominant when the Cr doping increases.

  7. 139La nuclear magnetic resonance characterisation of La2O3 and La1-xSrxMO3 where M = Cr, Mn or Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastow, T J

    1994-02-01

    139La Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra have been used to obtain nuclear quadrupole coupling parameters for La2O3 and a series of perovskites La1-xSrxMO3 (where M = Cr, Mn or Co). Depending on the doping level of SrO2 these materials are either paramagnetic or ferromagnetic at room temperature. Magnetic transferred hyperfine effects are strongly in evidence in the Mn compounds. A 59Co NMR spectrum was observed in LaCoO3. A precision measurement of the nuclear quadrupole coupling constant in La2O3 was made by nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy.

  8. Dry sliding wear of Al-Fe-Cr-Mn quasicrystalline phase former alloy obtained by spray forming; Estudo do comportamento ao desgaste de liga Al-Fe-Cr-Mn obtida por conformacao por spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, S.M.T.; Rios, C.T.; Botta Filho, W.J.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Gargarella, P.; Mendes, M.A.B., E-mail: marcio.andreato@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPG-CEMUFSCar), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Samples from different regions of a spray formed billet of Al{sub 92}Fe{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}Mn{sub 3} quasicrystalline phase former alloy were analyzed and their wear behavior has been studied. The microstructures observed depend on the cooling rate imposed to the material. The border of the billet exhibits a very fine structure with presence of quasicrystalline phase and the base showed a fine structure but without presence of quasicrystalline phase. Dry sliding wear tests were made using three loads and samples of these two different regions. The wear surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Similar wear behavior was observed in the border and the base samples at the same load. The wear mechanism verified is the adhesive and the applied load increases the formation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These particles can take off the surface and act as abrasive, which can explain the large increase in the wear rate for the samples loaded at 30N.(author)

  9. Effect of minor elements and a Ce surface treatment on the oxidation behavior of an Fe-22Cr-0.5Mn (Crofer 22 APU) ferritic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alman, D.E.; Jablonski, P.D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, 1450 Queen Ave., S.W. Albany, OR (United States)

    2007-11-15

    This paper details the oxidation behavior of coupons from three different Crofer 22 APU sheets. Oxidation tests were conducted at 800 {sup circle} C in moist air for 2300 h. The major features of the scales were similar in all three coupons, with a continuous Cr-Mn spinel layer forming at the gas-oxide interface and a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer forming at the oxide-metal interface. Also, at the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-metal interface, large Cr-Mn oxide particles formed in the base metal. Metal extrusions in the oxide scale were observed in the vicinity of these Cr-Mn oxide particles. All three alloys had internal oxide particles forming in the base metal beneath the oxide scale, and the extent of this internal oxidation was related to the Al and Si-content in the coupons (as also reported by Piron-Abellan J, Huczkowski P, Ertl S, Shemet V, Singheiser L, Quadakkers W. In: Fuel cell seminar, 2004. San Antionio, TX, November 1-5, 2004). Of note, discontinuous Ti-oxide and Mn-oxide particles formed above the outer spinel layer on the coupons with relatively high Al and Si contents. The effectiveness of rare-earth surface modification on improving oxidation resistance of this alloy was demonstrated. Pack cementation-like processes were used to treat the surface of the coupons with Ce. A continuous Cr-Mn outer oxide layer and a continuous inner Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer formed on the surface of the treated coupons during oxidation. However, the thickness of the scales and amount of internal oxidation were significantly reduced with the treatment, leading to the decrease in oxidation rate. The amount of internal oxidation was also reduced with the treatment. The treatment appeared to suppress the formation of SiO{sub 2} at the scale-metal interface in high Si containing alloys. ASR measurements indicate that the treatment decreases the electrical resistance, which is a benefit for SOFC interconnect application. (author)

  10. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 2}YSi (Y = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) Heusler alloys: a theoretical and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Hongzhi [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhu Zhiyong [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Ma Li [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xu Shifeng [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Liu Heyan [School of Material Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Qu Jingping [School of Material Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Li Yangxian [School of Material Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Wu Guangheng [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2007-11-21

    A series of Fe{sub 2}YSi (Y = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) alloys were synthesized and their electronic and magnetic properties were studied both theoretically and experimentally. In particular, a novel Heusler alloy Fe{sub 2}CrSi single phase was synthesized by means of the melt-spinning method. First principles FLAPW calculations were performed on Fe{sub 2}YSi alloys. Based on the results, Fe{sub 2}CrSi is predicted to be a half-metallic ferromagnet with a spin moment of 2{mu}{sub B}/f.u. and a gap of 0.42 eV. Fe{sub 2}MnSi is also half-metallic in the ferromagnetic state. The saturation magnetic moments at 5 K for this series of alloys fit the theoretical calculations well. Specifically, the saturation magnetic moment of Fe{sub 2}CrSi is 2.05{mu}{sub B}/cell, which agrees with the ideal value of 2{mu}{sub B} derived from the Slater-Pauling rule. The Curie temperatures of Fe{sub 2}YSi alloys are all higher than 500 K except for Fe{sub 2}MnSi, which has a T{sub C} below room temperature. Finally, the effect of lattice distortion on the electronic and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 2}CrSi and Fe{sub 2}CoSi was studied. It is found that Fe{sub 2}CrSi is half-metallic from -3% to +1% uniform lattice distortion, and this character is preferred in systems containing large strain, such as melt-spun ribbons or thin films.

  11. Understanding the physical metallurgy of the CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy: an atomistic simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Mi; Jo, Yong Hee; Sohn, Seok Su; Lee, Sunghak; Lee, Byeong-Joo

    2018-01-01

    Although high-entropy alloys (HEAs) are attracting interest, the physical metallurgical mechanisms related to their properties have mostly not been clarified, and this limits wider industrial applications, in addition to the high alloy costs. We clarify the physical metallurgical reasons for the materials phenomena (sluggish diffusion and micro-twining at cryogenic temperatures) and investigate the effect of individual elements on solid solution hardening for the equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi HEA based on atomistic simulations (Monte Carlo, molecular dynamics and molecular statics). A significant number of stable vacant lattice sites with high migration energy barriers exists and is thought to cause the sluggish diffusion. We predict that the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure is more stable than the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure at 0 K, which we propose as the fundamental reason for the micro-twinning at cryogenic temperatures. The alloying effect on the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) is well predicted by the atomistic simulation, used for a design of non-equiatomic fcc HEAs with improved strength, and is experimentally verified. This study demonstrates the applicability of the proposed atomistic approach combined with a thermodynamic calculation technique to a computational design of advanced HEAs.

  12. Antifungal and Spectral Studies of Cr(III and Mn(II Complexes Derived from 3,3′-Thiodipropionic Acid Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cr(III and Mn(II complexes with a ligand derived from 3,3′-thiodipropionic acid have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, UV, and EPR spectral studies. The complexes are found to have [Cr(LX]X2 and [Mn(LX]X, compositions, where L = quinquedentate ligand and X=NO3−, Cl− and OAc−. The complexes possess the six coordinated octahedral geometry with monomeric compositions. The evaluated bonding parameters, Aiso and β, account for the covalent type metal-ligand bonding. The fungicidal activity of the compounds was evaluated in vitro by employing Food Poison Technique.

  13. Microstructural, mechanical and tribological investigation of 30CrMnSiNi2A ultra-high strength steel under various tempering temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan Hafeez, Muhammad; Farooq, Ameeq

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the variation in microstructural, mechanical and tribological characteristics of 30CrMnSiNi2A ultra-high strength steel as a function of tempering temperatures. Steel was quenched at 880 °C and tempered at five different tempering temperatures ranging from 250 °C to 650 °C. Optical microscopy and pin on disc tribometer was used to evaluate the microstructural and wear properties. Results show that characteristics of 30CrMnSiNi2A are highly sensitive to tempering temperatures. Lathe and plate shaped martensite obtained by quenching transform first into ε-carbide, second cementite, third coarsened and spheroidized cementite and finally into recovered ferrite and austenite. Hardness, tensile and yield strengths decreased while elongation increased with tempering temperatures. On the other hand, wear rate first markedly decreased and then increased. Optimum amalgamation of characteristics was achieved at 350 °C.

  14. Effect of deep cryogenic treatment on the microstructure and wear performance of Cr-Mn-Cu white cast iron grinding media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyarthi, M. K.; Ghose, A. K.; Chakrabarty, I.

    2013-12-01

    The phase transformation and grinding wear behavior of Cr-Mn-Cu white cast irons subjected to destabilization treatment followed by air cooling or deep cryogenic treatment were studied as a part of the development program of substitute alloys for existing costly wear resistant alloys. The microstructural evolution during heat treatment and the consequent improvement in grinding wear performance were evaluated with optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, bulk hardness, impact toughness and corrosion rate measurements, laboratory ball mill grinding wear test etc. The deep cryogenic treatment has a significant effect in minimizing the retained austenite content and converts it to martensite embedded with fine M7C3 alloy carbides. The cumulative wear losses in cryotreated alloys are lesser than those with conventionally destabilized alloys followed by air cooling both in wet and dry grinding conditions. The cryotreated Cr-Mn-Cu irons exhibit comparable wear performance to high chromium irons.

  15. XMCD at the L/sub 2,3/-edges of Pt in ordered TPt/sub 3/ alloys (T=Cr, Mn, Co)

    CERN Document Server

    Grange, W; Maret, M; Rogalev, A; Goulon, J

    1999-01-01

    We present X-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments at the L/sub 2,3/ edges of Pt in ordered TPt/sub 3/ alloys (T=Cr, Mn and Co). The derived Pt 5d spin and orbital magnetic moments are found to be in good agreement with band $9 structure calculations. The extraction of 5d magnetic moments from measured X-ray-absorption spectra is discussed in detail. (13 refs).

  16. Distribution of /sup 51/Cr, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 59/Fe, /sup 60/Co, /sup 109/Cd and /sup 124/Sb in organs of lactating cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruwaene, R. van; Kirchmann, R.; Gerber, G.B.; Colard, J.; Vankerkom, J. (Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium))

    1983-05-01

    Lactating cows were given /sup 51/Cr, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 59/Fe, /sup 60/Co, /sup 109/Cd and /sup 124/Sb together with maize silage. The animals were slaughtered 97 days later and the distribution of the isotopes in the body was determined. With some notable exceptions, the isotopes accumulated in the large parenchymal organs (liver, kidney and spleen), but substantial amounts, particularly of cadmium and chromium, were also found in the intestine. Manganese concentrated in the pancreas and brain.

  17. Semimicroanalysis of silicate minerals by means of XRF thin layer method. Determination of selected chromatic elements - V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurczyk, J.; Buhl, F.; Sitko, R.; Fabis, M.; Czaja, M. [Silesian University, Katowice (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    50 mg of powdered silicate mineral is spread on a substrate, dissolved in a concentrated hydrofluoric acid and dried under the infrared heater; a sample is then protected with a mylar film. Statistical parameters of XRF detection limits for 50 mg samples: V(3-6 ppm), Cr(3-6 ppm), Mn(25 ppm), Fe(4-5 ppm), Co(2-7 ppm). 13 refs, 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  18. Strong pressure dependences of the magnetization and Curie temperature for CrTe and MnAs with NiAs-type structure

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, H; Kondo, K; Goto, T

    2002-01-01

    To study the strong magneto-volume effects observed in CrTe and MnAs with NiAs-type crystal structure, first-principle band calculations are carried out by a self-consistent linear muffin-tin orbital method within the atomic sphere approximation. The equilibrium volume of the unit cell is obtained as a function of the magnetization M, which gives the volume magnetostriction. The dependence on M of the bulk modulus is also estimated. The coefficients a sub 0 and b sub 0 in the Landau expansion, DELTA E(M) = a sub 0 M sup 2 /2 + b sub 0 M sup 4 /4, are estimated by the fixed-spin-moment method. The calculated results for CrTe and MnAs are compared with those for bcc Fe. It is shown that the values of vertical bar a sub 0 vertical bar and b sub 0 for CrTe and MnAs are so small that the correction term from the magneto-volume coupling constants becomes significant. This fact gives a strong pressure dependence of the spontaneous magnetization. The pressure dependence of the Curie temperature is also discussed by m...

  19. Phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn from aqueous solution using Phragmites cummunis, Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ram; Yadav, Sangeeta

    2011-07-01

    A comparative bioaccumulation pattern and ultra structural changes were studied in Phragmites cummunis, Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus in mixed metals solution of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). P. cummunis was observed to be a shoot accumulator for Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. However, T. angustifolia was found to be a root accumulator for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb. In addition, C. esculentus also accumulated most of the tested heavy metals in the roots, while Mn and Fe were translocated up to leaves. Further, the long term metal treatment showed maximum accumulation of all heavy metals in P. cummunis followed by T. angustifolia and C. esculentus. Among heavy metals, Fe was accumulated maximum, i.e., >1000 microg g(-1) by all three plants. Simultaneously, the adverse effects on biochemical parameters were noted earlier in C. esculentus than T. angustifolia and P. cummunis. Ultra structural observation showed the cellular changes in wetland plants after longer exposure. Results revealed that P. cummunis and T. angustifolia had more potential for tested metals than C. esculentus. This study established that these wetland plants could be used for heavy metals phytoremediation from metal containing industrial wastewater.

  20. STM/STS analysis of molecular chains consisting of Mn{sub 6}Cr single molecule magnets and single molecules on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryzia, Aaron; Brechling, Armin; Hachmann, Wiebke; Sacher, Marc D.; Heinzmann, Ulrich [Molecular and Surface Physics, Bielefeld University (Germany); Heidemeier, Maik; Glaser, Thorsten [Anorganic Chemistry I, Bielefeld University (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    We report on the preparation and characterization of Mn{sub 6}Cr-Single Molecule Magnets on a HOPG(0001) surface. The Mn{sub 6}Cr-molecules show 1D molecular arrangements with many interesting features, such as the occurrence of discrete kink angles in the molecular chains of 30 deg., only two different molecular orientations, the orientation of the chains along the main crystal axis of HOPG and much larger molecule-molecule distances than expected from the van der Waals radii of the molecules. By STS we characterized Mn{sub 6}Cr, thus gaining information on the electronic levels of the molecule and the shift of the levels whether it is part of a chain or not. One of our goals is to obtain data about the exact orientation of the molecule in respect to the surface; thus we can make a statement for the physical interaction why the molecules are assembling in chains. First results of these measurements are presented.

  1. Cyclic voltammetry of LiCr 0.15Mn 1.85O 4 in an aqueous LiNO 3 solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjeticanin, Nikola; Stojkovic, Ivana; Mitric, Miodrag; Mentus, Slavko

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV) of LiCr 0.15Mn 1.85O 4, synthesized by rapid glycine-nitrate method (GNM), was performed in a saturated aqueous LiNO 3 (∼9 M) solution. At rather high polarization rate of 10 mV s -1 two well separated characteristic pairs of redox peaks can be clearly observed, which is not entirely the case for LiMn 2O 4 synthesized in the same way. At a reduced scan rate of 1 mV s -1, the shape and position of redox peaks evidence that deintercalation/intercalation of Li + ion is highly reversible and much faster than in the case of organic electrolytes. Faster "CV response" of LiCr 0.15Mn 1.85O 4 is in correlation with higher capacity retention (93%) in comparison to LiMn 2O 4 (88%), registered after 50 charging/discharging cycles in organic electrolyte solution (1 M LiClO 4 in propylene carbonate).

  2. Core-shell Prussian blue analogue molecular magnet Mn(1.5)[Cr(CN)6]·mH2O@Ni(1.5)[Cr(CN)6]·nH2O for hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Pramod; Banerjee, Seemita; Anwar, Sharmistha; Mukadam, Mayuresh D; Meena, Sher Singh; Yusuf, Seikh M

    2014-10-22

    Core-shell Prussian blue analogue molecular magnet Mn1.5[Cr(CN)6]·mH2O@Ni1.5[Cr(CN)6]·nH2O has been synthesized using a core of Mn1.5[Cr(CN)6]·7.5H2O, surrounded by a shell of Ni1.5[Cr(CN)6]·7.5H2O compound. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study confirms the core-shell nature of the nanoparticles with an average size of ∼25 nm. The core-shell nanoparticles are investigated by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and elemental mapping, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The Rietveld refinement of the XRD pattern reveals that the core-shell compound has a face-centered cubic crystal structure with space group Fm3m. The observation of characteristic absorption bands in the range of 2000-2300 cm(-1) in IR spectra corresponds to the CN stretching frequency of Mn(II)/Ni(II)-N≡C-Cr(III) sequence, confirming the formation of Prussian blue analogues. Hydrogen absorption isotherm measurements have been used to investigate the kinetics of molecular hydrogen adsorption into core-shell compounds of the Prussian blue analogue at low temperature conditions. Interestingly, the core-shell compound shows an enhancement in the hydrogen capacity (2.0 wt % at 123 K) as compared to bare-core and bare-shell compounds. The hydrogen adsorption capacity has been correlated with the specific surface area and TGA analysis of the core-shell compound. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the hydrogen storage properties of core-shell Prussian blue analogue molecular magnet that could be useful for hydrogen storage applications.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Thermal Decomposition Studies of Cr(III), Mn(II) and Fe(III) Complexes of N, N '-Bis[1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethylene]butane-1,4-diamine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prasad M. Alex; K. K. Aravindakshan

    2009-01-01

    ... (3,4-dioxymethylenebenzaldehyde) with butane-1,4-diamine. Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III) complexes of this chelating ligand were synthesised using acetates, chlorides, bromides, nitrates and perchlorates of these metals...

  4. Studies of electrical resistance in Ni{sub 75}Cr{sub 7}Si{sub 7.5}Mn{sub 10.5} and Ni{sub 80.5}Cr{sub 4.2}Si{sub 6.5}Mn{sub 5}B{sub 3.8}glass-coated wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, C. [Dpto. de Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian (Spain); Dpt. Material Science and Engineering, MIT, Cambridge (United States); Zhukova, V.; Blanco, J.M. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, EUPDS, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian (Spain); Val, J.J. del; Zhukov, A. [Dpto. de Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian (Spain)

    2009-04-15

    In this paper we studied thermal stability of Ni{sub 75}Cr{sub 7}Si{sub 7.5}Mn{sub 10.5} and Ni{sub 80.5}Cr{sub 4.2}Si{sub 6.5}Mn{sub 5}B{sub 3.8} glass coated microwires with metallic nucleus diameters ranging between 10 {mu}m and 20 {mu}m using electrical resistance measurements, X-ray diffraction and DSC methods. Electrical resistance was measured during Joule heating of the sample i.e. flowing the DC current. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the crystalline structure in as-prepared microwires. It was found that electrical resistance per length, {rho}, depends on the sample geometry. Besides this dependence is opposite for Ni{sub 75}Cr{sub 7}Si{sub 7.5}Mn{sub 10.5} and Ni{sub 80.5}Cr{sub 4.2}Si{sub 6.5}Mn{sub 5}B{sub 3.8} glass coated microwires. Such dependences have been related with effect of rapid solidification conditions on the grain sizes and consequently on grain growth process during annealing. Temperature coefficient of resistivity in the case of Ni{sub 75}Cr{sub 7}Si{sub 7.5}Mn{sub 10.5}microwires is much smaller (about 5 times smaller). Considerable dependence of the current density for beginning of phase transition on metallic nucleus diameter has been attributed to the thermal transfer conditions. Efficiently of Joule heating for the case of thinner microwires is smaller and the current density for achieving the phase transition-higher. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Effects of Cr-doping on the electronic transport properties in antiperovskite nitrides Mn3-xCrxZnN (0≤x≤0.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Imran; Sun, Ying; Wang, Lei; Deng, Sihao; Shi, Kewen; Hu, Pengwei; Lu, Huiqing; Wang, Cong

    2016-06-01

    Antiperovskite intermetallic Mn3-xCrxZnN (0≤x≤0.5) compounds have been prepared to study the Cr doping effect on the electronic transport properties. The temperature dependent resistivity ρ(T) for x≤0.3 shows notable and broader slope change. Meanwhile, with increasing Cr doping, the slope change shifts to lower temperatures and is gradually suppressed for x>0.3. For x=0.0 and 0.5, the measurements of magnetization from 10 K to 350 K reveal that Mn3-xCrxZnN compounds go through a transition from the dominant AFM interactions to one where the FM and AFM interactions coexist. For low-temperature region (15-80 K), the electron-electron scattering is dominant, and the number of phonons abruptly increases with increasing temperature. Small polaron hopping model (SPH) is used to understand the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity in the high-temperature range of 200-300 K and a clear decrease of the polaron activation energy was observed for x≤0.2. The residual resistivity ratio (RRR) decreases while the residual resistivity increases (ρ0) with increasing Cr-doping level. The maximum total entropy change (ΔSmax) decreases by increasing the Cr doping from x=0.0 to 0.2.

  6. Investigation on the parameter optimization and performance of laser cladding a gradient composite coating by a mixed powder of Co50 and Ni/WC on 20CrMnTi low carbon alloy steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Li, Yunfeng; Liu, Jia; Yuan, Zhenyu

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a gradient composite coating was manufactured on 20CrMnTi alloy steel by laser cladding. The laser power, cladding scan velocity and powder flow rate were selected as influencing factors of the orthogonal cladding experiments. The influencing factors were optimized by the comprehensive analysis of Taguchi OA and TOPSIS method. The high significant parameters and the predicted results were confirmed by the ANOVA method. The macromorphology and microstructures are characterized by using laser microscope, SEM, XRD and microhardness tester. Comparison tests of wear resistance of gradient composite coating, 20CrMnTi cemented quenching sample and the 20CrMnTi sample were conducted on the friction-wear tester. The results show that the phases are γ-Co solid solution, Co3B, M23C6 and etc. The interlayers and wear-resisting layer also contain new hard phases as WC, W2C. The microhardness of the gradient coating was increased to 3 times as compared with that of the 20CrMnTi substrate. The wear resistance of the gradient composite coating and 20CrMnTi cemented quenching sample was enhanced to 36.4 and 15.9 times as compared with that of the 20CrMnTi.

  7. Corrosion Resistance of The Bearing Steel 67SiMnCr6-6-4 with Nanobainitic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skołek E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a comparative study of the corrosion resistance of bearing steel 67SiMnCr6-6-4 after two kinds of nanostructuring treatments and two kinds of conventional quenching and tempering treatments. The nanostructuring treatment consisted of austempering with an isothermal quenching at 240°C and 300°C. The conventional heat treatment consisted on quenching and tempering at 350°C for 1 h and quenching and tempering at 550°C for 1 h. Time and temperature of tempering was chosen so that the hardness of both samples (nanostructured as well as quenched and tempered was similar. The microstructure of steel after each heat treatment was described with the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM. It was shown, that the austempering conducted at 240°C produced homogenous nanobainitic structure consisting of carbide-free bainite plates with nanometric thickness separated by the layers of retained austenite. The austempering at 300°C produced a sub-micrometric carbide-free bainite with retained austenite in form of layers and small blocks. The conventional heat treatments led to a tempered martensite microstructure. The corrosion resistance study was carried out in Na2SO4 acidic and neutral environment using potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS methods. The corrosion resistance of nanostructured steel samples were compared to the steel samples with tempered martensite. The obtained results indicate, that the corrosion resistance of bearing steel with nanobainitic structure is similar to steel with tempered martensite in both acidic and neutral environment. This means that the high density of intercrystalline boundaries in nanobinite does not deteriorate the corrosion properties of the bearing steel.

  8. New aspects of magnetocaloric effect in NiMn{sub 0.89}Cr{sub 0.11}Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaworska-Gołąb, T., E-mail: teresa.jaworska-golab@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Baran, S. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Duraj, R. [Institute of Physics, Cracow University of Technology, Podchorążych 1, 30-084 Kraków (Poland); Marzec, M. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Dyakonov, V. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); A.A. Galkin Donetsk Physico-Technical Institute, 83-114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Sivachenko, A. [A.A. Galkin Donetsk Physico-Technical Institute, 83-114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Tyvanchuk, Yu. [Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 79-005 Lviv (Ukraine); Szymczak, H. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Szytuła, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    Investigations of structural and magnetic phase transitions in the NiMn{sub 0.89}Cr{sub 0.11}Ge half-Heusler alloy were carried out by DSC, XRD (80–400 K), magnetic susceptibility and magnetization (1.9–400 K, magnetic field up to 9.0 T, pressure up to 5.25 kbar) measurements. At high temperatures the sample is a single phase crystallizing in the hexagonal crystal structure (Ni{sub 2}In-type, space group P6{sub 3}/mmc) while below 260 K, down to 100 K, some amount of the hexagonal phase coexists with the orthorhombic (TiNiSi-type, space group Pnma) one. Strong magnetostructural coupling is observed. Magnetic data indicate that with increasing temperature magnetic properties of the sample change from antiferro- to ferro- and then to paramagnetic ones. The latter magnetic phase transition is associated with the crystal structure change and results in large magnetic entropy change equal to −51 J/kg K at μ{sub 0}H= 9.0 T near 260 K. Application of external pressure shifts T{sub C} towards lower temperatures. - Highlights: • # Pnma below 210 K, # P6{sub 3}/mmc above 260 K, for 210 K

  9. High-Strength Ultra-Fine-Grained Hypereutectic Al-Si-Fe-X (X = Cr, Mn Alloys Prepared by Short-Term Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Průša

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn (wt % alloys were prepared by a combination of short-term mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The microstructure was composed of homogeneously dispersed intermetallic particles forming composite-like structures. X-ray diffraction analysis and TEM + EDS analysis determined that the α-Al along with α-Al15(Fe,Cr3Si2 or α-Al15(Fe,Mn3Si2 phases were present, with dimensions below 130 nm. The highest hardness of 380 ± 7 HV5 was observed for the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloy, exceeding the hardness of the reference as-cast Al-12Si-1Cu-1 Mg-1Ni alloy (121 ± 2 HV5 by nearly a factor of three. Both of the prepared alloys showed exceptional thermal stability with the hardness remaining almost the same even after 100 h of annealing at 400 °C. Additionally, the compressive strengths of the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloys reached 869 MPa and 887 MPa, respectively, and had virtually the same values of 870 MPa and 865 MPa, respectively, even after 100 h of annealing. More importantly, the alloys showed an increase in ductility at 400 °C, reaching several tens of percent. Thus, both of the investigated alloys showed better mechanical properties, including superior hardness, compressive strength and thermal stability, as compared to the reference Al-10Si-1Cu-1Mg-1Ni alloy, which softened remarkably, reducing its hardness by almost 50% to 63 ± 8 HV5.

  10. Redox reactions and the influence of natural Mn oxides on Cr oxidation in a contaminated site in northern Italy: evidence from Cr stable-isotopes and EPR spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Marafatto F. F.; Petrini R.; Pinzino C.; Pezzetta E.; Slejko F.; Lutman A.

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium-contaminated groundwaters and sediments in northern Italy have been studied using the Cr stable-isotope systematics and electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), in order to explore redox changes and soil-groundwater interactions. The isotopic data indicate a possible Cr(VI) source released into the environment from an industrial plant. EPR spectra on the sediments which constitute the aquifers show a broad asymmetric absorption due to coupled Fe(III) and coupled Cr(III)...

  11. Temperature dependence of local structural changes around transition metal centers Cr3+ and Mn2+ in RAl3(BO3)4 crystals studied by EMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açıkgöz, Muhammed; Rudowicz, Czesław; Gnutek, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    Theoretical investigations are carried out to determine the temperature dependence of the local structural parameters of Cr3+ and Mn2+ ions doped into RAl3(BO3)4 (RAB, R = Y, Eu, Tm) crystals. The zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters (ZFSPs) obtained from the spin Hamiltonian (SH) analysis of EMR (EPR) spectra serve for fine-tuning the theoretically predicted ZFSPs obtained using the semi-empirical superposition model (SPM). The SPM analysis enables to determine the local structure changes around Cr3+ and Mn2+ centers in RAB crystals and explain the observed temperature dependence of the ZFSPs. The local monoclinic C2 site symmetry of all Al sites in YAB necessitates consideration of one non-zero monoclinic ZFSP (in the Stevens notation, b21) for Cr3+ ions. However, the experimental second-rank ZFSPs (D =b20 , E = 1 / 3b22) were expressed in a nominal principal axis system. To provide additional insight into low symmetry aspects, the distortions (ligand's distances ΔRi and angular distortions Δθi) have been varied while preserving monoclinic site symmetry, in such way as to obtain the calculated values (D, E) close to the experimental ones, while keeping b21 close to zero. This procedure yields good matching of the calculated ZFSPs and the experimental ones, and enables determination of the corresponding local distortions. The present results may be useful in future studies aimed at technological applications of the Huntite-type borates with the formula RM3(BO3)4. The model parameters determined here may be utilized for ZFSP calculations for Cr3+ and Mn2+ ions at octahedral sites in single-molecule magnets and single-chain magnets.

  12. ⁵³Mn-⁵³Cr and ²⁶Al-²⁶Mg ages of a feldspathic lithology in polymict ureilites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, Cyrena Anne [Planetary Science Institute. Tucson, AZ (United States); Hutcheon, Ian D. [Glenn T. Seaborg Institute. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kita, Noriko T. [Dept. of Geoscience. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Huss, Gary R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, AL (United States); Cohen, Barbara Anne [Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology. Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Keil, Klaus

    2010-07-01

    We report 53Mn–53Cr and 26Al–26Mg isotopic data, obtained by in-situ SIMS analysis, for feldspathic clasts in polymict ureilites DaG 319 and DaG 165. The analyzed clasts belong to the “albitic lithology,” the most abundant population of indigenous feldspathic materials in polymict ureilites, and are highly fractionated igneous assemblages of albitic plagioclase, Fe-rich pyroxenes, phosphates, ilmenite, silica, and Fe(Mn, K, P, Ti)-enriched glass. Glass in DaG 165 clast 19 has extremely high and variable 55Mn/52Cr ratios (500–58,000) and shows correlated 53Cr excesses up to ~ 1500‰, clearly indicating the presence of live 53Mn at the time of formation. The slope of the well-correlated isochron defined by glass and pyroxenes from this clast corresponds to (53Mn/55Mn) = (2.84 ± 0.10) × 10-6 (2σ). Data for less 55Mn/52Cr-enriched glasses from DaG 319 clast B1, as well as phosphates from several other clasts, are consistent with this isochron. The 53Mn/55Mn ratio obtained from the isochron implies that these clasts are 0.70 ± 0.18 Ma younger than the D'Orbigny angrite, corresponding to the absolute age of 4563.72 ± 0.22 Ma. Plagioclase in DaG 319 clast B1 has a fairly constant 27Al/24Mg ratio of ~ 900 and shows resolvable 26Mg excesses of ~ 2‰. The slope of the isochron defined by pyroxene and plagioclase in this clast is (3.0 ± 1.1) × 10-7 (2σ), corresponding to a time difference of 5.4 (-0.3/+0.5) Ma after CAI (assuming the canonical initial 26Al/27Al ratio of 5 × 10-5) and an age 0.5 (-0.3/+0.5) Ma younger than D'Orbigny. Its absolute age (relative to D'Orbigny) is 4563.9 (+ 0.4/-0.5) Ma, in agreement with the 53Mn–53Cr age from clast 19. These data provide the first

  13. Structural, electrical and magnetic phase evolution of Cr substituted GdMn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.2) manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modi, Anchit, E-mail: anchitmodi87@gmail.com; Gaur, N.K.

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • GdMn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.2) synthesized via a solid state reaction route. • Rietveld refinements of high quality powder XRD show good convergences. • Samples show the semiconducting behavior and fits well with VRH and SPH model. • Magnetization study shows that all samples show weak ferromagnetic nature. - Abstract: A series of GdMn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.2) have been synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction method mainly to understand the response of Cr substitution on structural, microstructural, magnetic and electrical transport properties. The X-ray diffraction shows that all samples crystallize with orthorhombic perovskite type symmetry with Pbnm space group. The room temperature Raman spectroscopy shows the reduction of Raman shift as doping concentration increase that related to anti-symmetric Jahn Teller stretching mode and symmetric-stretching mode. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity show the semiconducting nature of these compounds and support the small polaron hoping model (SPH) and variable range hopping conduction model (VRH). The calculated hopping distance and activation energy increased as rate of Cr content increased whereas density of state at Fermi level decreased. The temperature dependence of magnetization presents that under the zero field cooling (ZFC) mode as doping concentration increases the net magnetization reverses its nature below irreversibility temperature. The magnetization results show that all samples show weak ferromagnetic nature that can further be improved with increasing Cr ions concentration.

  14. EPR spectroscopy of a family of Cr(III) 7M(II) (M = Cd, Zn, Mn, Ni) "wheels": studies of isostructural compounds with different spin ground states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piligkos, Stergios; Weihe, Høgni; Bill, Eckhard; Neese, Frank; El Mkami, Hassane; Smith, Graham M; Collison, David; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P; McInnes, Eric J L

    2009-01-01

    Spinning wheels: The presented highly resolved multifrequency continuous wave EPR spectra (e.g., see figure) of the heterooctametalic "wheels" Cr(7)M provide rare examples of high nuclearity polymetallic systems where detailed information on the spin-Hamiltonian parameters of the ground and excited spin states is observed.We present highly resolved multifrequency (X-, K-, Q- and W-band) continous wave EPR spectra of the heterooctametalic "wheels", [(CH(3))(2)NH(2)][Cr(III) (7)M(II)F(8)((CH(3))(3)CCOO)(16)], hereafter Cr(7)M, where M=Cd, Zn, Mn, and Ni. These experimental spectra provide rare examples of high nuclearity polymetallic systems where detailed information on the spin-Hamiltonian parameters of the ground and excited spin states is observed. We interpret the EPR spectra by use of restricted size effective subspaces obtained by the rigorous solution of spin-Hamiltonians of dimension up to 10(5) by use of the Davidson algorithm. We show that transferability of spin-Hamiltonian parameters across complexes of the Cr(7)M family is possible and that the spin-Hamiltonian parameters of Cr(7)M do not have sharply defined values, but are rather distributed around a mean value.

  15. Possibility of martensite transition in Pt–Y–Ga (Y=Cr, Mn, and Fe) system: An ab-initio calculation of the bulk mechanical, electronic and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Tufan [HBNI, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore - 452013 (India); Chakrabarti, Aparna, E-mail: aparnachakrabarti@gmail.com [HBNI, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore - 452013 (India); ISUD,Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

    2016-03-01

    Using first principles calculations based on density functional theory we have studied the effects of Fe and Cr doping at the Mn site on mechanical, electronic, and magnetic properties of Pt{sub 2}MnGa and Ni{sub 2}MnGa. We predict on the basis of formation energy that all the substituted X{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Y{sub x}Ga alloys (x=0.00, 0.25, 0.75, 1.00; X=Pt, Ni; Y=Fe and Cr) are stable materials. Further, all the substituted materials which we have studied here are likely to undergo martensite transition. In this work, we have reported how the stability of the austenite and martensite phase varies with the extent of substitution by Fe as well as Cr at the Mn site. Further, we study the bulk mechanical properties of the austenite and martensite phases of the stoichiometric systems only. We observe that Pt-based systems are inherently much less brittle in comparison to the Ni-based systems studied here. We also study the magnetic properties. Interestingly, contrary to the unsubstituted case as well as the case when Mn is substituted by Fe, the substitution by Cr at the Mn site leads to lowering of energy in case of an intra-sublattice anti-ferromagnetic configuration compared to the ferromagnetic configuration. - Highlights: • Effect of substitution of Mn by Fe and Cr in Ni{sub 2}MnGa, Pt{sub 2}MnGa has been studied. • We predict stable martensitic phases of Pt{sub 2}FeGa, Pt{sub 2}CrGa and Ni{sub 2}CrGa. • We predict that Pt{sub 2}FeGa is inherently the least brittle one among all the materials. • Trend of martensitic transition temperature as a function of substitution has been studied. • We predict Cr substitution at Mn site leads to intra-sublattice antiferromagnetism.

  16. Air oxidation of a Mn-Cr austenitic steel of potential use for fusion reactor structural applications between 1073 and 1473 K at 10 sup 5 Pa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, P. (Genoa Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Chimica); Buscaglia, V.; Battilana, G. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Genoa (Italy). ICFAM); Ruedl, E. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Inst. for Advanced Materials)

    Oxidation tests have been conducted with samples of the Mn-Cr austenitic steel AMCR 0033 to evaluate the behaviour of this material in a fusion reactor in the case of abnormal heating. The tests were carried out in dry air at 1073 and 1273 K up to 20 h and at 1473 K up to 5 h. It was found that the initial experimental conditions strongly influence the oxidation. Slow heating to the test temperature in a moderate vacuum leads to the formation of thin scales which define the oxidation, whereas quick temperature increases in a high vacuum cause preferential Mn evaporation which is probably responsable for the slow kinetics. For longer air exposures the oxidation processes are determined more by thermodynamics than by kinetics. (orig.).

  17. [Determination of Al, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Tl in whole blood by atomic absorption spectrometry without preliminary sample digestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, N B; Ivanenko, A A; Solov'ev, N D; Navolotskiĭ, D V; Pavlova, O V; Ganeev, A A

    2014-01-01

    Methods of whole blood trace element determination by Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (in the variant of Zeeman's modulation polarization spectrometry) have been proposed. They do not require preliminary sample digestion. Furnace programs, modifiers and blood dilution factors were optimized. Seronorm™ human whole blood reference materials were used for validation. Dynamic ranges (for undiluted blood samples) were: Al 8 ¸ 210 мg/L; Be 0.3 ¸ 50 мg/L; Cd 0.2 ¸ 75 мg/L; Сo 5 ¸ 350 мg/L; Cr 10 ¸ 100 мg/L; Mn 6 ¸ 250 мg/L; Ni 10 ¸ 350 мg/L; Pb 3 ¸ 240 мg/L; Se 10 ¸ 500 мg/L; Tl 2 ¸ 600 мg/L. Precision (RSD) for the middle of dynamic range ranged from 5% for Mn to 11 for Se.

  18. Evaluation of the heavy metals Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in water penny wort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) from the upper course of the Lerma River, Mexico; Evaluacion de los metales pesados Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn y Pb en sombrerillo de agua (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) del curso alto del Rio Lerma, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarazua, G.; Avila P, P.; Tejeda, S. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Valdivia B, M.; Macedo M, G. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Zepeda G, C., E-mail: graciela.zarazua@inin.gob.mx [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Cerro de Coatepec s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 50100 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    The Lerma river is one of the most polluted water bodies in Mexico, it presents low biodiversity and lets grow up aquatic plants resistant to the pollution. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration and bioaccumulation factors of Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in aerial and submerged structures of water penny wort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) from the upper course of the Lerma river. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals in water and H. ranunculoides. Results show that the bioaccumulation factors of Fe and Zn were higher than those of Cu, Mn, Cr and Pb; with the exception of Zn, bioaccumulation factors were higher in the submerged structures of the plant, which shows low mobility of analyzed metals. As a result of this study H. ranunculoides can be considered as good indicator of metal pollution in water bodies. (Author)

  19. Drinking water interlaboratory ring test. Part IV. Results of some cationic analytes. Al, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu and V; Circuito interlaboratorio Unichim sulle acque potabili. Parte IV. Risultati di alcuni cationi metallici. Al, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu e V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaterra, E.; Divo, C.; Bottazzini, N. [Unichim, Milan (Italy); Alava, F. [Bergamo Ambiente e Servizi, Bergamo (Italy); Bettinelli, M. [Electric Power Production Company, Piacenza (Italy); Bonfiglioli, F. [Azienda Mediterranea Gas e Acqua SpA, Genoa (Italy)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper results of statistical treatment of experimental data obtained in some cycles of an interlaboratory ring test of content of Al, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu and V in drinking water are reported. Means, variances and parameters of precision and accuracy of some analytical techniques and methods employed by laboratories participating to the ring test will be reported and discussed. [Italian] Nel presente lavoro vengono riportati i risultati dell'elaborazione statistica dei dati sperimentali ottenuti in alcuni cicli del circuito interlaboratorio e relativi ai seguenti cationi metallici: Al, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu e V. Vengono riportati e discussi i valori medi e la varianza ed infine i dati di accuratezza e precisione delle tecniche o metodi d'analisi impiegati dai laboratori partecipanti al circuito.

  20. Effect of variable thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity on the calculation of the critical metal hydride thickness for Ti1.1CrMn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    model is applied to the metal hydride system, with Ti 1.1 CrMn as the absorbing alloy, to predict the weight fraction of absorbed hydrogen and solid bed temperat ure . Dependencies of thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity upon pressure and hydrogen content respectively , are accounted for...... with activated powder and embedded heat exchanger makes difficult to set up experimental facilities. Trustable simulation models that can address the system ́s performances to a particular design are then a funda mental step to be taken prior any experimental setup. This study considers a detailed 1D fueling...

  1. Monte Carlo and Ab-initio calculation of TM (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) doped MgH2 hydride: GGA and SIC approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani, E.; Laghrissi, A.; Laamouri, R.; Benchafia, E.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2017-02-01

    MgH2: TM (TM: V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) based dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are investigated using first principle calculations. Our results show that the ferromagnetic state is stable when TM introduces magnetic moments as well as intrinsic carriers in TM: Co, V, Cr, Ti; Mg0.95TM0.05H2. Some of the DMS Ferro magnets under study exhibit a half-metallic behavior, which make them suitable for spintronic applications. The double exchange is shown to be the underlying mechanism responsible for the magnetism of such materials. The exchange interactions obtained from first principle calculations and used in a classical Ising model by a Monte Carlo approach resulted in ferromagnetic states with Curie temperatures within the ambient conditions.

  2. Structural, magnetic and phonon properties of Cr(III)-doped perovskite metal formate framework [(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}NH{sub 2}][Mn(HCOO){sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mączka, Mirosław, E-mail: m.maczka@int.pan.wroc.pl [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland); Gągor, Anna; Hermanowicz, Krzysztof [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland); Sieradzki, Adam [Department of Experimental Physics, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Macalik, Lucyna; Pikul, Adam [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland)

    2016-05-15

    We have incorporated Cr(III) into [(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}NH{sub 2}][Mn(HCOO){sub 3}] (DMMn) multiferroic metal organic framework (MOF). The highest concentration of Cr(III) in the synthesized samples reached 15.9 mol%. The obtained samples were characterized by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, DSC, magnetic susceptibility, dielectric, EPR, Raman and IR methods. These methods and the performed chemical analysis revealed that electrical charge neutrality after substitution of Cr(III) for Mn(II) is maintained by partial replacement of dimethylammonium (DMA{sup +}) cations by neutral HCOOH molecules. These changes in the chemical composition are responsible for weakening of the hydrogen bonds and decreased flexibility of the framework. This in turn leads to lowering of the ferroelectric phase transition temperature, observed around 185 K for undoped DMMn and around 155 K for the sample containing 3.1 mol% of Cr(III), and lack of macroscopic phase transition for the samples with Cr(III) content of 8.2 and 15.9 mol %. Another interesting effect observed for the studied samples is pronounced strengthening of the weak ferromagnetism of in Cr(III)-doped samples, associated with slight decrease of the ferromagnetic ordering temperature from 8.5 K for DMMn to 7.0 K for the sample with 15.9 mol % Cr(III) content. - Graphical abstract: Incorporation of Cr(III) into [(CH3)2NH2[Mn(HCOO)3] framework increases the magnetization. - Highlights: • Chromium(III) substitutes for Mn(II) in the studied MOF. • Charge neutrality is maintained by replacing DMA{sup +} cations by neutral HCOOH molecules. • Compounds with 8.2 and 15.9% of Cr(III) show no phase transition above 100 K. • Doping with Cr(III) increases magnetization.

  3. On-Line pre-concentration of Cr(III) and Mn(II) in FI-FAAS: A critical study involving interference effects and analytical use of an immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline minicolumn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn, C.G.; Pino, F.E.; Campos, V.H. [Depto. de Analisis Instrumental, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Concepcion, P.O. Box 237, Concepcion (Chile); Nobrega, J.A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2002-09-01

    A flow injection system with a pre-concentration minicolumn based on a chelating resin was coupled to a flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The focus of this work was the investigation of interference effects and the analytical applicability of the azo-immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline on controlled-pore glass for the determination of Cr and Mn in mussel and non-fat milk powder. All studied concomitants affected the retention of Cr(III). These effects are probably related to the formation of hydroxo-complexes at the optimum pH range 9.0-10. The positive effect caused by Ca(II) was exploited to increase the retention of Cr(III) species and to improve the slope by 70%. The interferences on Mn(II) retention were less severe. The quantification of Cr and Mn was performed by standard additions. The proposed methodology was validated by analysis of three certified reference materials of mussels (Cr and Mn) and non-fat milk powder (Mn) with a mean relative percent error of <6.5% and mean relative standard deviation of <13%. Chromium and Mn were determined in typical Chilean mussels samples, and Mn was determined in non-fat milk powder samples. Results agreed at the 95% confidence level with those obtained by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) using graphite furnace atomization. The method detection limits for a 30 s pre-concentration time were 0.9 and 1.1 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Mn, and 2.2 and 2.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cr in acid digested solutions of mussel and non-fat milk, respectively. The methodology is simple, fast (sampling frequency 60-72 h{sup -1}), reliable, of low cost, and can be applied to the determination of traces of Cr ({>=}0.18 {mu}g g{sup -1}) and Mn ({>=}0.6 {mu}g g{sup -1}) in mussel samples, and Mn ({>=}0.37 {mu}g g{sup -1}) in non-fat milk powder. (orig.)

  4. High pressure synthesis of a hexagonal close-packed phase of the high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, Cameron L.; Park, Sulgiye; Rittman, Dylan R.; Zinkle, Steven J.; Bei, Hongbin; Lang, Maik; Ewing, Rodney C.; Mao, Wendy L.

    2017-05-25

    High-entropy alloys, near-equiatomic solid solutions of five or more elements, represent a new strategy for the design of materials with properties superior to those of conventional alloys. However, their phase space remains constrained, with transition metal high-entropy alloys exhibiting only face- or body-centered cubic structures. Here, we report the high-pressure synthesis of a hexagonal close-packed phase of the prototypical high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi. This martensitic transformation begins at 14 GPa and is attributed to suppression of the local magnetic moments, destabilizing the initial fcc structure. Similar to fcc-to-hcp transformations in Al and the noble gases, the transformation is sluggish, occurring over a range of >40 GPa. However, the behaviour of CrMnFeCoNi is unique in that the hcp phase is retained following decompression to ambient pressure, yielding metastable fcc-hcp mixtures. This demonstrates a means of tuning the structures and properties of high-entropy alloys in a manner not achievable by conventional processing techniques.

  5. Zeolitic tuffs for acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment in Ecuador: breakthrough curves for Mn2+, Cd2+, Cr3+, Zn2+, and Al3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenaño, Xavier; Canoira, Laureano; Martin Sánchez, Domingo; Costafreda, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    Zeolitic tuff constitutes a technical and economical feasible alternative to manage acidic waters in initial phases of generation. A study of cation exchange with two zeolitic tuffs from Ecuador and one from Cuba has been conducted using breakthrough curve methodology. Cations Mn2+, Cd2+, Cr3+, Zn2+, and Al3+ have been chosen owing to their presence in underground water in exploration activities (decline development) in Fruta del Norte (Ecuador). Zeolites characterized by X-ray diffraction and thermal stability after heating overnight as heulandites show a similar exchange behavior for the five cations studied. The clinoptilolite sample Tasajeras shows a relevant cation exchange performance expressed in the important increment of spatial time to reach the breakthrough point in comparison with heulandite samples. The maximum length of unused beds was found for Cr3+ and Zn2+ cations showing, therefore, a lower adsorption performance in relation with Mn2+ and Cd2+. A final disposal method of metal-loaded zeolites with cement is proposed.

  6. AlM2B2 (M  =  Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni): a group of nanolaminated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádas, K.; Iuşan, D.; Hellsvik, J.; Cedervall, J.; Berastegui, P.; Sahlberg, M.; Jansson, U.; Eriksson, O.

    2017-04-01

    Combining theory with experiments, we study the phase stability, elastic properties, electronic structure and hardness of layered ternary borides AlCr2B2, AlMn2B2, AlFe2B2, AlCo2B2, and AlNi2B2. We find that the first three borides of this series are stable phases, while AlCo2B2 and AlNi2B2 are metastable. We show that the elasticity increases in the boride series, and predict that AlCr2B2, AlMn2B2, and AlFe2B2 are more brittle, while AlCo2B2 and AlNi2B2 are more ductile. We propose that the elasticity of AlFe2B2 can be improved by alloying it with cobalt or nickel, or a combination of them. We present evidence that these ternary borides represent nanolaminated systems. Based on SEM measurements, we demonstrate that they exhibit the delamination phenomena, which leads to a reduced hardness compared to transition metal mono- and diborides. We discuss the background of delamination by analyzing chemical bonding and theoretical work of separation in these borides.

  7. Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 0Cr12Mn5Ni4Mo3Al Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xue; Zheng, Linbin; Cui, Jinyan; Wu, Sujun; Song, Ruokang; Xie, Di; Wang, Dawei; Li, Haisheng

    2017-10-01

    This paper systematically investigated the effect of cryogenic temperature and soaking time on the 0Cr12Mn5Ni4Mo3Al steel. Microstructure observation and mechanical tests were performed on the specimens by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Vickers hardness tests and tensile tests. Cryogenic treatments were carried out at different temperatures of -73, -120, -160 and -196 °C for a given soaking time of 4 h and at a specific temperature of -73 °C for different soaking time of 8, 12, 21 and 32 h, followed by the subsequent tempering treatment. The results showed that the volume fraction of martensite in this steel has significantly increased and the size of martensite lath has decreased after cryogenic treatment, which leads to the improvement of the mechanical properties of the steel. The cryogenic treatment affected the microstructure by promoting the transformation of retained austenite to martensite and the formation of reversed austenite in the steel. The optimal hardness and strength of this steel were obtained by cryogenic treatment at -73 °C for 8 h. It has been found that the soaking time is a critical parameter for the mechanical properties of 0Cr12Mn5Ni4Mo3Al steel. When the cryogenic temperature is lower than -73 °C, there is no further improvement of the mechanical properties.

  8. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of [CrGe/MnGe/FeGe] superlattices: Toward artificial B20 skyrmion materials with tunable interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adam S.; Esser, Bryan D.; Rowland, James; McComb, David W.; Kawakami, Roland K.

    2017-06-01

    Skyrmions are localized magnetic spin textures whose stability has been shown theoretically to depend on material parameters including bulk Dresselhaus spin orbit coupling (SOC), interfacial Rashba SOC, and magnetic anisotropy. Here, we establish the growth of a new class of artificial skyrmion materials, namely B20 superlattices, where these parameters could be systematically tuned. Specifically, we report the successful growth of B20 superlattices comprised of single crystal thin films of FeGe, MnGe, and CrGe on Si(1 1 1) substrates. Thin films and superlattices are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and are characterized through a combination of reflection high energy electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) distinguishes layers by elemental mapping and indicates good interface quality with relatively low levels of intermixing in the [CrGe/MnGe/FeGe] superlattice. This demonstration of epitaxial, single-crystalline B20 superlattices is a significant advance toward tunable skyrmion systems for fundamental scientific studies and applications in magnetic storage and logic.

  9. Health Risk Assessment of Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr in Drinking Water in some Wells and Springs of Shush and Andimeshk, Khuzestan Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Sakizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the current study,the hazard quotient, the hazard index (HI and spatial variations of Fe,Mn,Cu and Cr in drinking water sources of Andimesk-Shush, Khuzestan Province, Southern Iranaquifer were assessed. Methods: We compared theconcentrations of aforementioned heavy metals in wells and springs inAndimeshk and Shush regions. The non-carcinogenic risk assessment of heavy metals was implemented usingUnited States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA index.The spatial maps in the area were developed by geostatistical methods. Results: Mean concentrations of heavy metals in groundwater sources of the study area in decreasing order was as follows: Cu >Mn> Fe> Cr. Except for iron,mean heavy metal concentrations were higher than the standard levels. Manganese concentration in 41.5% of the samples exceeded the permissible limits. Copper was higher than the safety limit in 74% of the samples, and chromium in 54% of the cases. The spatial pattern of heavy metals concentrations indicated higher concentrations in the southern parts of the region. The mean hazard quotients of most samples for the four heavy metals were lower than one, indicating that there was no immediate threat due to the exposure to these heavy metals. The calculated accumulated hazards of these heavy metals produced different results, with hazard indices of higher than one. Conclusion: The accumulated hazard indicesfor the evaluated metals were higher than one, indicating that chronic ingestion of these waters threatens the health of local consumers on the long run.

  10. Concentration of heavy metal As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sn, Zn, Cr, Fe and radon gas in bottom sediment from abandoned tin mines in the Phuket Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suteerasak, T.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at analyzing the heavy metals: As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sn, Zn, Cr, Fe, and radon gas emission in bottom sediment from six abandoned tin mines in Phuket Province. Fe, Mn, and Sn were found in higher concentrations (but non-polluting than Cr and Ni. As, Pb, and Zn were polluting at lower levels. The concentration ranges for As, Pb, and Zn were 75.3-169, 98.6-547.5, and 120.4-323.3 mg/kg respectively. The activity of radon gas emission from bottom sediment from an abandoned tin mine in Amphur Muang was in the range of 162-212 Bq/kg., in the Amphur Katoo mine the range was 122-266 Bq/kg. and in the Amphur Talang mine the range was 180-263 Bq/kg. All these sites have higher concentrations of radon gas emissions than other similar sites. The heavy metals and radon gas come from geochemical materials such as soil and granite rock, found around the abandoned tin mines.

  11. Study of critical behavior in ferromagnetic LaCr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.7}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bora, Tribedi, E-mail: t.bora@nitm.ac.in [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Meghalaya, 793003 (India); Ravi, S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, 781039 (India)

    2016-11-15

    The critical exponent behavior of LaCr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.7}O{sub 3} compound in the vicinity of ferromagnetic transition was studied by measuring isothermal dc magnetization and by analyzing them in terms of modified Arrott plot method. The critical exponents β, γ and δ corresponding to the spontaneous magnetization, initial magnetic susceptibility and isothermal magnetization with T{sub C}=186 K were determined to be 0.325±0.006, 1.247±0.066 and 4.823±0.004 respectively and are found to be comparable to the values predicted by 3D Ising model. The obtained result is discussed in terms of presence of strong magnetic anisotropy. - Highlights: • We have reported the critical exponent study of LaCr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.7}O{sub 3} compound. • It was analyzed in terms of modified Arrott plot method. • The estimated values of β, γ and δ are found to be close to 3D Ising model values.

  12. The effect of annealing on the transformation and the microstructure of Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}CoGe alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrens-Serra, J., E-mail: j.torrens@uib.es [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Biffi, C.A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche CNR—IENI, C.so P.Sposi 29, 23900 Lecco (Italy); Santamarta, R. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Recarte, V.; Pérez-Landazábal, J.I. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadía, E-31006 Pamplona (Spain); Tuissi, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche CNR—IENI, C.so P.Sposi 29, 23900 Lecco (Italy); Cesari, E. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In this work the effect of different thermal treatments on the transformation behavior of Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}CoGe alloys, with x = 0.15 and 0.20 has been analyzed. The changes in the transformation temperatures have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that the structural transition temperature depends on the previous annealing. However, under the same heat treatment no significant change is observed on the transformation temperatures when replacing Mn by Cr. The microstructural evolution has been monitored using in-situ X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The effect of an applied magnetic field on the transformation has been explored by SQUID magnetometry. Two different magnetic transitions are found: a first order paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FM) corresponding to the transformation observed by calorimetry and a re-entrant spin glass to ferromagnetic transition. - Highlights: • The annealing conditions determine the magnetostructural transition. • A laminar microstructure along preferential planes observed by TEM • A RSG to ferromagnetic transition at low temperatures is detected.

  13. Reaction of hydrogen with the Laves phase (C14) TiCr{sub 1.78-x}Mn{sub x} compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agresti, F. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Settore Materiali and CNISM, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Lo Russo, S. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Maddalena, A.; Principi, G. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Settore Materiali and CNISM, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Mazzolai, G. [Universita di Perugia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via A. Pascoli 5, 06100 Perugia (Italy); Universita Telematica e-Campus, Via Isimbardi 10, Novedrate (Colombia) (Italy); Coluzzi, B.; Biscarini, A. [Universita di Perugia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via A. Pascoli 5, 06100 Perugia (Italy); Mazzolai, F.M., E-mail: fabio.mazzolai@fisica.unipg.it [Universita di Perugia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via A. Pascoli 5, 06100 Perugia (Italy); Tuissi, A. [Istituto per l' Energia e le Interfasi, CNR-IENI, C.so Promessi Sposi, 29, Lecco (Italy)

    2009-09-15

    The lattice constants a and c of the as cast hexagonal (C14) Laves phase TiCr{sub 1.78-x}Mn{sub x} (x = 0, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8) have been measured by X-ray diffraction at room temperature as a function of the Mn content. It has been found that a decreases with increasing x while c remains almost unchanged. Being this alloy interesting as material for solid state hydrogen storage, pressure-composition isotherms have been traced on desorption mode for the H{sub 2} gas pressure and temperature varying from 10 to 0.01 MPa and from 209 to 307 K, respectively. From the temperature dependence of the plateau pressure the molar quantities {Delta}H-bar{sub H{sub 2}} and {Delta}S-bar{sub H{sub 2}} associated with the hydride decomposition have been determined as a function of the Mn content. With increasing x, both {Delta}H-bar{sub H{sub 2}} and {Delta}S-bar{sub H{sub 2}} progressively decrease, and the desorption pressure initially decreases (for x {<=} 0.4) then slightly increases. At the same time, the pseudo-plateaus become flatter.

  14. Exposure of [Mn{sup III}{sub 6}Cr{sup III}]{sup 3+} single-molecule magnets to soft X-rays: The effect of the counterions on radiation stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmstedt, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.helmstedt@uni-bielefeld.de [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, Universitaetsstrasse 25, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Sacher, Marc D.; Gryzia, Aaron; Harder, Alexander; Brechling, Armin; Mueller, Norbert; Heinzmann, Ulrich [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, Universitaetsstrasse 25, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Hoeke, Veronika; Krickemeyer, Erich; Glaser, Thorsten [Fakultaet fuer Chemie, Universitaet Bielefeld, Universitaetsstrasse 25, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Bouvron, Samuel; Fonin, Mikhail [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer [Mn{sup III}{sub 6}Cr{sup III}]{sup 3+} single-molecule magnets adsorbed on gold are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxidation state of the Mn{sup III} constituents changes under X-ray exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The change is monitored by Mn-L{sub 3}-edge XAS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Choice of anions strongly influences radiation stability of the SMM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No influence of the sample morphology on radiation stability could be observed. - Abstract: X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of the [Mn{sup III}{sub 6}Cr{sup III}]{sup 3+} single-molecule magnet deposited as a microcrystalline layer on gold substrates are presented. The oxidation state of the manganese centers changes from Mn{sup III} to Mn{sup II} due to irradiation with soft X-rays. The influence of the charge-neutralizing anions on the stability of [Mn{sup III}{sub 6}Cr{sup III}]{sup 3+} against soft X-ray exposure is investigated for the different anions tetraphenylborate (BPh{sub 4}{sup -}), lactate (C{sub 3}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}{sup -}) and perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}). The exposure dependence of the radiation-induced reduction process is compared for [Mn{sup III}{sub 6}Cr{sup III}]{sup 3+} with the three different anions.

  15. Study of the analytic quality in the determinations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg through conventional and nuclear analytical techniques in mosses of the MATV; Estudio de la calidad analitica en las determinaciones de Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb y Hg a traves de tecnicas analiticas nucleares y convencionales en musgos de la ZMVT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero S, B.

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the environmental risks of air pollution and to facilitate the decision-making for control, is necessary to have the capacity to generate data with analytical quality. A comparison between nuclear (Neutron activation analysis and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and no nuclear analytical techniques (atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) for simultaneous determination of metal content (Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn) in mosses from Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (MATV) was performed. Epiphytic mosses (Fabriona ciliaris and Leskea angustata) were sampled in two campaigns, 16 sites (urban, transition and natural) and were prepared for each technique. The biological certified reference materials were used for the quality control and to evaluate accuracy, precision, linearity, detection and quantification limits. Results show that nuclear analytical techniques and no nuclear applied in chemical analysis of Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn in moss from MATV are comparable and therefore all of these can potentially be used for this purpose. However, if its considered both, the performance parameters and economic/operational characteristics is widely recommended inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, conventional analytical technique, which showed the highest analytical grade quality. Also were observed spatial and temporal variations in the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn in mosses from MATV and was discussed its potential origin. The urban sites had the highest concentration of anthropogenic elements as Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn because are strongly impacted by roads with high vehicle traffic. (Author)

  16. Influence of Mn contents in 0Cr18Ni10Ti thin wall stainless steel tube on TIG girth weld quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo

    2017-03-01

    Three kinds of cold worked 0Cr18Ni10Ti thin wall stainless steel tubes with the manganese contents of 1.27%, 1.35% and 1.44% and the cold worked 0Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel end plug with manganese content of 1.35% were used for TIG girth welding in the present investigation. The effect of different manganese contents in stainless steel tube on weld quality was studied. The results showed that under the same welding conditions, the metallographic performance of the girth weld for the thin wall stainless steel tube with the manganese element content 1.44% welded with end plug was the best. Under the appropriate welding conditions, the quality of the girth weld increased with the increase of the manganese content till 1.44%. It was found that in the case of the Mn content of 1.44%, and under the proper welding condition the welding defects, such as welding cracks were effectively avoided, and the qualified weld penetration can be obtained.. It is concluded that the appropriate increase of the manganese content can significantly improve the TIG girth weld quality of the cold worked 0Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel tube.

  17. Chemical looping of metal nitride catalysts: low-pressure ammonia synthesis for energy storage† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental and computational details, free energy plots for the NH3 evolution and N2 reduction with Co3N/Co, Fe4N/Fe, Mn5N2/Mn4N, Mo2N/Mo, CrN/Cr2N, TaN/Ta2N, NbN/Nb2N, Li3N/LiH, Ba3N2/BaH2, Sr3N2/SrH2, and Ca3N2/CaH2, surface oxidation energetics, ΔGvac[NH*x, yH*] based on gas phase H2 as hydrogen source, NH3 evolution with Fe-doped Mn4N, NH3 evolution with Mn6N2.58, Ca3N2 and Sr2N after correcting for partial nitride hydrolysis, NH3 yield from Ca3N2vs. time and H2 gas flow rate. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00789e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, A. M.; Peterson, B. A.; Pfromm, P. H.; Peterson, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The activity of many heterogeneous catalysts is limited by strong correlations between activation energies and adsorption energies of reaction intermediates. Although the reaction is thermodynamically favourable at ambient temperature and pressure, the catalytic synthesis of ammonia (NH3), a fertilizer and chemical fuel, from N2 and H2 requires some of the most extreme conditions of the chemical industry. We demonstrate how ammonia can be produced at ambient pressure from air, water, and concentrated sunlight as renewable source of process heat via nitrogen reduction with a looped metal nitride, followed by separate hydrogenation of the lattice nitrogen into ammonia. Separating ammonia synthesis into two reaction steps introduces an additional degree of freedom when designing catalysts with desirable activation and adsorption energies. We discuss the hydrogenation of alkali and alkaline earth metal nitrides and the reduction of transition metal nitrides to outline a promoting role of lattice hydrogen in ammonia evolution. This is rationalized via electronic structure calculations with the activity of nitrogen vacancies controlling the redox-intercalation of hydrogen and the formation and hydrogenation of adsorbed nitrogen species. The predicted trends are confirmed experimentally with evolution of 56.3, 80.7, and 128 μmol NH3 per mol metal per min at 1 bar and above 550 °C via reduction of Mn6N2.58 to Mn4N and hydrogenation of Ca3N2 and Sr2N to Ca2NH and SrH2, respectively. PMID:29218166

  18. Concentrations of As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn in uruguayan rice determined by atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. Rivero Huguet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations General Assembly declared the year 2004 the International Year of Rice and the concept "Rice is life". The largest nutritional problems occurring globally are protein-energy malnutrition, and Ca, Fe, I, Zn, and vitamin A deficiency. In this report, 49 rice samples (Oryza sativa L. were digested by dry ashing in order to determine As, Cd, Cr, and Pb by ETA-AAS; while Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, Ni, and Zn were determined by FAAS; and Hg by CV-AAS using microwave-assisted decomposition. The following concentration ranges were obtained for Ca (9.1-15 mg/100 g, Cd (2.30-4.12 µg/kg, Co (41-60 µg/kg, Cu (1.33-180 mg/kg, Fe (4.41-7.15 mg/kg, K (167-217 mg/100 g, Mg (45-121 mg/100 g, Mo (0.52-0.97 mg/kg, Mn (5.45-25.4 mg/kg, Na (0.95-2.50 mg/100g, Ni (0.53-0.72 mg/kg, and Zn (5.86-12.6 mg/kg. Mean recoveries of elements from fortified rice were: 87±12% for As, 95.3±8.9% for Ca, 106.2±7.7% for Cd, 103.3±6.5% for Co, 89.4±8.1% for Cr, 99.3±4.6% for Cu, 103±10% for Fe, 96.3±9.3% for Hg, 95.4±12% for K, 98.3±8.0% for Mg, 93.4±7.8% for Mo, 95.3±9.9% for Mn, 89±12% for Na, 90.3±9.7% for Ni, 91.2±5.5% for Pb and 92.0±9.4% for Zn. The concentrations of the minerals and microelements studied fall within the typical range of rice grown around the world. Potassium was the most abundant mineral, followed by Mg and Ca; among microelements, the concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mo, Mn, Na, and Zn in rice were outstanding. It was also found that the milling process highly affects the K, Mg, Mn, Na, and Zn concentrations, while it has little influence on Ca, Co, Cu, and Fe. On the other hand, there is a loss of Ca, Fe, and Mn during the parboiling process. Recent studies have shown the potential to exploit the genetic variation of rice seeds with regard to the concentration of some minerals (Ca, Fe, Zn, etc. without affecting yield or adding new traits. All rice samples tested showed lower levels of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb in comparison

  19. Transition Metal Complexes of Cr, Mo, W and Mn Containing η1(S)-2,5-Dimethylthiophene, Benzothiophene and Dibenzothiophene Ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-09-21

    The UV photolysis of hexanes solutions containing the complexes M(CO)6 (M=Cr, Mo, W) or CpMn(CO)3 (Cp=η5-C5H5) and excess thiophene (T*) (T*=2,5-dimethylthiophene (2,5-Me2T), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT)) produces the η1(S)-T* complexes (CO)5M(η1(S)-T*) 1-8 or Cp(CO)2Mn1(S)-T*)9-11, respectively. However, when T*=DBT, and M=Mo, a mixture of two products result which includes the η1(S)-DBT complex (CO)5Mo(η1(S)-DBT) 4a and the unexpected π-complex (CO)3Mo(η{sup 6}-DBT) 4b as detected by 1H NMR. The liability of the η1(S)-T* ligands is illustrated by the rapid displacement of DBT in the complex (CO)5W(η1(S)-DBT) (1) by THF, and also in the complexes (CO)5Cr1(S)-DBT) (5) and CpMn(CO)21(S)-DBT) (9) by CO (1 atm) at room temperature. Complexes 1-11 have been characterized spectroscopically (1H NMR, IR) and when possible isolated as analytically pure solids (elemental analysis, EIMS). Single crystal, X-ray structural determinations are reported for (Cη)5W(η1(S)-DBT) and Cp(CO)2Mn1(S)-DBT).

  20. Powder metallurgy and mechanical alloying effects on the formation of thermally induced martensite in an FeMnSiCrNi SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricop Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By ingot metallurgy (IM, melting, alloying and casting, powder metallurgy (PM, using as-blended elemental powders and mechanical alloying (MA of 50 % of particle volume, three types of FeMnSiCrNi shape memory alloy (SMA specimens were fabricated, respectively. After specimen thickness reduction by hot rolling, solution treatments were applied, at 973 and 1273 K, to thermally induce martensite. The resulting specimens were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, in order to reveal the presence of ε (hexagonal close-packed, hcp and α’ (body centred cubic, bcc thermally induced martensites. The reversion of thermally induced martensites, to γ (face centred cubic, fcc austenite, during heating, was confirmed by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, which emphasized marked increases of storage modulus and obvious internal friction maxima on DMA thermograms. The results proved that the increase of porosity degree, after PM processing, increased internal friction, while MA enhanced crystallinity degree.

  1. Structural stability, mechanical properties, electronic structures and thermal properties of XS (X = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) binary compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangzhen; Xing, Jiandong; Fu, Hanguang; Li, Yefei; Sun, Liang; Lv, Zheng

    2017-08-01

    The properties of sulfides are important in the design of new iron-steel materials. In this study, first-principles calculations were used to estimate the structural stability, mechanical properties, electronic structures and thermal properties of XS (X = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) binary compounds. The results reveal that these XS binary compounds are thermodynamically stable, because their formation enthalpy is negative. The elastic constants, Cij, and moduli (B, G, E) were investigated using stress-strain and Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation, respectively. The sulfide anisotropy was discussed from an anisotropic index and three-dimensional surface contours. The electronic structures reveal that the bonding characteristics of the XS compounds are a mixture of metallic and covalent bonds. Using a quasi-harmonic Debye approximation, the heat capacity at constant pressure and constant volume was estimated. NiS possesses the largest CP and CV of the sulfides.

  2. Cr(III,Mn(II,Fe(III,Co(II,Ni(II,Cu(II and Zn(II Complexes with Diisobutyldithiocarbamato Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tarique

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of sulphur and nitrogen containing dithiocarbamato ligand derived from diisobutylamine as well as its coordination compounds with 3d series transition metals is presented. These synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, conductometric measurements and IR spectral studies. The analytical data showed the stoichiometry 1:2 and 1:3 for the compounds of the types ML2 {M=Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II} and M'L3{M'=Cr(III and Fe(III} respectively. The conductometric measurements proved the non-electrolytic behaviour of all the compounds. The bidentate nature of dithiocarbamato moiety was confirmed on the basis of IR spectral data.

  3. Effect of cooling conditions on the magnetic properties of bainite transformation in an Fe-2%Mn-0.5%Cr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocak, S. [Department of Physics, Science and Arts Faculty of Kirikkale University, Yahsihan 71450, Kirikkale (Turkey); Akturk, S. [Department of Physics, Science and Arts Faculty of Mugla University, Koetekli, Mugla (Turkey)], E-mail: akturk_selcuk@yahoo.com; Talas, S. [Technical Education Faculty, A. Kocatepe University, A. Karahisar 03200 (Turkey); Aktas, H. [Department of Physics, Science and Arts Faculty of Kirikkale University, Yahsihan 71450, Kirikkale (Turkey)

    2008-11-30

    The effect of cooling conditions on the magnetic properties of bainitic reaction in Fe-2%Mn-0.5%Cr alloy have been investigated using Moessbauer spectroscopy. Results showed that the bainite phase is magnetically ordered and the amount of magnetic bainite increases by decrease in grain size or increase in cooling rate. It is also shown that the retained austenite has paramagnetic behavior. The morphology of the alloy has been analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in heat-treated specimens at different cooling rates. In addition, the bainite start (B{sub s}) and finish (B{sub f}) temperatures and reverse transformation start (A{sub s}) and finish (A{sub f}) temperatures have been investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) system for different heat treatment conditions.

  4. A DFT investigation on geometry and chemical bonding of isoelectronic Si8N6V-, Si8N6Cr, and Si8N6Mn+ clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Nguyen Minh; Pham, Hung Tan; Cuong, Ngo Tuan; Tung, Nguyen Thanh

    2017-10-01

    The geometric feature and chemical bonding of isoelectronic systems Si8N6Mq (M = V, Cr, Mn and q = -1, 0, 1, respectively) are investigated by means of density-functional-theory calculations. The encapsulated form is found for all ground-state structures, where the metal atom locates at the central site of the hollow Si8N6 cage. The Si8N6 cage is established by adding two Si atoms to a distorted Si6N6 prism, which is a combination of Si4N2 and Si2N4 strings. Chemical bonding of Si8N6Mq systems is explored by using the electron localization indicator and theory of atom in molecule, revealing the vital role of metal center in stabilizing the clusters.

  5. Effects of Nitrogen and Tensile Direction on Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Ni-Free FeCrMnC-Based Duplex Stainless Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Heon-Young; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Sangshik

    2017-03-15

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of Ni-free duplex stainless steels containing N and C (Fe balance -19Cr-8Mn-0.25C-(0.03, 0.21)N, in wt %) was investigated by using a slow strain rate test (SSRT) in air and aqueous NaCl solution with different tensile directions, including parallel (longitudinal) and perpendicular (transverse) to the rolling direction. It was found that alloying N was effective in increasing the resistance to SCC, while it was higher along the longitudinal direction than the transverse direction. The SCC susceptibility of the two alloys was assessed based on the electrochemical resistance to pitting corrosion, the corrosion morphology, and the fractographic analysis.

  6. Spin-polarized electron gas in Co2MSi/SrTiO3(M= Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe) heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, S.

    2016-06-08

    Spin-polarized density functional theory is used to study the TiO2 terminated interfaces between the magnetic Heusler alloys Co2Si (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe) and the non-polar band insulator SrTiO3. The structural relaxation at the interface turns out to depend systematically on the lattice mis- match. Charge transfer from the Heusler alloys (mainly the M 3d orbitals) to the Ti dxy orbitals of the TiO2 interface layer is found to gradually grow from M = Ti to Fe, resulting in an electron gas with increasing density of spin-polarized charge carriers. (© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  7. Effect of cold deformation on pitting corrosion of 00Cr18Mn15Mo2N0.86 stainless steel for coronary stent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yibin; Zhao, Haochuan; Liu, Wenpeng; Yang, Ke

    2016-03-01

    The high nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel has offered an alternative to further improve the performance of the coronary stents, and simultaneously avoids the potential harms of nickel element. Both cold deformation and pitting corrosion are very important for coronary stents made of stainless steel. In this work, the effect of cold deformation on the pitting corrosion resistance of a high nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel (00Cr18Mn15Mo2N0.86) in 0.9% saline solution was investigated. The results showed that the pitting corrosion of the steel was nearly unchanged with increases of the cold deformation up to 50%, indicating that the higher nitrogen content can reduce the negative effect of cold deformation on the pitting corrosion resistance, which is beneficial for the long term service of coronary stents in blood vessel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Nitrogen and Tensile Direction on Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Ni-Free FeCrMnC-Based Duplex Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heon-Young Ha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress corrosion cracking (SCC behavior of Ni-free duplex stainless steels containing N and C (Febalance-19Cr-8Mn-0.25C-(0.03, 0.21N, in wt % was investigated by using a slow strain rate test (SSRT in air and aqueous NaCl solution with different tensile directions, including parallel (longitudinal and perpendicular (transverse to the rolling direction. It was found that alloying N was effective in increasing the resistance to SCC, while it was higher along the longitudinal direction than the transverse direction. The SCC susceptibility of the two alloys was assessed based on the electrochemical resistance to pitting corrosion, the corrosion morphology, and the fractographic analysis.

  9. Succulent species differ substantially in their tolerance and phytoextraction potential when grown in the presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengjun; Sale, Peter W G; Clark, Gary J; Liu, Wuxing; Doronila, Augustine I; Kolev, Spas D; Tang, Caixian

    2015-12-01

    Plants for the phytoextraction of heavy metals should have the ability to accumulate high concentrations of such metals and exhibit multiple tolerance traits to cope with adverse conditions such as coexistence of multiple heavy metals, high salinity, and drought which are the characteristics of many contaminated soils. This study compared 14 succulent species for their phytoextraction potential of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. There were species variations in metal tolerance and accumulation. Among the 14 succulent species, an Australian native halophyte Carpobrotus rossii exhibited the highest relative growth rate (20.6-26.6 mg plant(-1) day(-1)) and highest tolerance index (78-93%), whilst Sedum "Autumn Joy" had the lowest relative growth rate (8.3-13.6 mg plant(-1) day(-1)), and Crassula multicava showed the lowest tolerance indices (wetlands.

  10. Efficient carbon dioxide electrolysis with metal nanoparticles loaded La0·75Sr0·25Cr0·5Mn0·5O3-δ cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changli; Hou, Linxi; Li, Shisong; Gan, Lizhen; Xie, Kui

    2017-09-01

    Solid oxide electrolysis cells with La0·75Sr0·25Cr0·5Mn0·5O3-δ (LSCM) cathode can electrolyze CO2 to generate chemical fuels. Nevertheless, the cathode performance is limited by its electrocatalytic activity. In this work, metal nanoparticles including Ni, Cu and NiCu metals are successfully impregnated in LSCM electrode to improve its activity. XRD, XPS, SEM and TEM together confirm the metal nanocatalysts are homogeneously distributed on LSCM backbone and therefore create active electrochemical interface for CO2 splitting. Electrical properties of LSCM with impregnated metal nanoparticles are investigated and correlated to electrode performances. Electrochemical measurements show that the NiCu-LSCM demonstrates the optimum performance without degradation after operation for ∼100 h and ∼10 redox cycles. It is believed that the enhanced performance of CO2 electrolysis may be attributed to the synergetic effect of metal nanocatalyst and LSCM ceramic electrode.

  11. DFT investigation of NH{sub 3}, PH{sub 3}, and AsH{sub 3} adsorptions on Sc-, Ti-, V-, and Cr-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buasaeng, Prayut; Rakrai, Wandee [Computational Chemistry Center for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University, Maha Sarakham, 44000 (Thailand); Wanno, Banchob [Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry and Supramolecular Chemistry Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham, 44150 (Thailand); Tabtimsai, Chanukorn, E-mail: tabtimsai.c@gmail.com [Computational Chemistry Center for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University, Maha Sarakham, 44000 (Thailand)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Transition metal-doped single wall carbon nanotubes and their adsorption with NH{sub 3}, PH{sub 3} and AsH{sub 3} molecules were investigated using a DFT method. • Adsorptions of NH{sub 3}, PH{sub 3} and AsH{sub 3} molecules on pristine single wall carbon nanotubeswere improved by transition metal doping. • Structural and electronic properties of single wall carbon nanotubes were significantly changed by transition metal doping and gas adsorptions. - Abstract: The adsorption properties of ammonia (NH{sub 3}), phosphine (PH{sub 3}), and arsine (AsH{sub 3}) on pristine and transition metal- (TM = Sc, Ti, V, and Cr) doped (5,5) armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were theoretically investigated. The geometric and electronic properties and adsorption abilities for the most stable configuration of NH{sub 3}, PH{sub 3}, and AsH{sub 3} adsorptions on pristine and TM-doped SWCNTs were calculated. It was found that the binding abilities of TMs to the SWCNT were in the order: Cr > V > Sc > Ti. However, the adsorption energy showed that the pristine SWCNT weakly adsorbed gas molecules and its electronic properties were also insensitive to gas molecules. By replacing a C atom with TM atoms, all doping can significantly enhance the adsorption energy of gas/SWCNT complexes and their adsorption ability was in the same order: NH{sub 3} > PH{sub 3} > AsH{sub 3}. A remarkable increase in adsorption energy and charge transfer of these systems was expected to induce significant changes in the electrical conductivity of the TM-doped SWCNTs. This work revealed that the sensitivity of SWCNT-based chemical gas adsorptions and sensors can be greatly improved by introducing an appropriate TM dopant. Accordingly, TM-doped SWCNTs are more suitable for gas molecule adsorptions and detections than the pristine SWCNT.

  12. The Synergy Effect of Ni-M (M = Mo, Fe, Co, Mn or Cr Bicomponent Catalysts on Partial Methanation Coupling with Water Gas Shift under Low H2/CO Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Dong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ni-M (M = Mo, Fe, Co, Mn or Cr bicomponent catalysts were prepared through the co-impregnation method for upgrading low H2/CO ratio biomass gas into urban gas through partial methanation coupling with water gas shift (WGS. The catalysts were characterized by N2 isothermal adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD, H2 temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR, H2 temperature programmed desorption (H2-TPD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermogravimetry (TG. The catalytic performances demonstrated that Mn and Cr were superior to the other three elements due to the increased fraction of reducible NiO particles, promoted dispersion of Ni nanoparticles and enhanced H2 chemisorption ability. The comparative study on Mn and Cr showed that Mn was more suitable due to its smaller carbon deposition rate and wider adaptability to various H2/CO and H2O/CO conditions, indicating its better synergy effect with Ni. A nearly 100 h, the lifetime test and start/stop cycle test further implied that 15Ni-3Mn was stable for industrial application.

  13. Composition Dependence of Phase Stability, Deformation Mechanisms, and Mechanical Properties of the CoCrFeMnNi High-Entropy Alloy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasan, C. C.; Deng, Y.; Pradeep, K. G.; Yao, M. J.; Springer, H.; Raabe, D.

    2014-10-01

    The proposal of configurational entropy maximization to produce massive solid-solution (SS)-strengthened, single-phase high-entropy alloy (HEA) systems has gained much scientific interest. Although most of this interest focuses on the basic role of configurational entropy in SS formability, setting future research directions also requires the overall property benefits of massive SS strengthening to be carefully investigated. To this end, taking the most promising CoCrFeMnNi HEA system as the starting point, we investigate SS formability, deformation mechanisms, and the achievable mechanical property ranges of different compositions and microstructural states. A comparative assessment of the results with respect to room temperature behavior of binary Fe-Mn alloys reveals only limited benefits of massive SS formation. Nevertheless, the results also clarify that the compositional requirements in this alloy system to stabilize the face-centered cubic (fcc) SS are sufficiently relaxed to allow considering nonequiatomic compositions and exploring improved strength-ductility combinations at reduced alloying costs.

  14. Tunable magnetocaloric effect around room temperature by Fe doping in Mn0.98Cr (0.02 - x)Fex As compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipus, Jhon J.; Ribeiro, Paula O.; von Ranke, P.; Caraballo Vivas, R. J.; Carvalho, Alexandre M. G.; Coelho, Adelino A.; Franco, Victorino; Rocco, Daniel L.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we present an investigation of the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Mn0.98Cr (0.02 - x)Fex As compounds with x = 0.002, 0.005 and 0.010. Our findings show that as Fe content increases the unit cell volume decreases, which indicates that Fe doping emulates the pressure effect on the crystalline structure. The transition temperature TC decreases as x increases and it can be set at approximate value of room temperature by changing the doping level. In addition, the magnetic entropy change ΔSM was determined using a discontinuous measurement protocol, and realistic values from the magnetocaloric effect presented by MnAs-type compounds under pressure (emulated pressure) could be obtained. The values of Δ SMMAX are very large, around -11 Jkg-1K-1 with ΔH = 15 kOe, which is higher than that observed for most compounds with TC around room temperature. However, ΔSM is confined to a narrow temperature range of 11 K. To overcome this drawback, the composition of a theoretical composite formed by our samples was calculated in order to obtain a table-shaped ΔSM curve. The simulated composite showed a high value of full width at half maximum δTFWHM of 33 K, which is much higher than that of single sample.

  15. Apply Woods model in the predictions of ambient air particles and metallic elements (Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, and Cu) at industrial, suburban/coastal, and residential sampling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Huang, Ci-Song

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose for this study was to monitor ambient air particles and metallic elements (Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, and Cu) in total suspended particulates (TSPs) concentration, dry deposition at three characteristic sampling sites of central Taiwan. Additionally, the calculated/measured dry deposition flux ratios of ambient air particles and metallic elements were calculated with Woods models at these three characteristic sampling sites during years of 2009-2010. As for ambient air particles, the results indicated that the Woods model generated the most accurate dry deposition prediction results when particle size was 18 μm in this study. The results also indicated that the Woods model exhibited better dry deposition prediction performance when the particle size was greater than 10 μm for the ambient air metallic elements in this study. Finally, as for Quan-xing sampling site, the main sources were many industrial factories under process around these regions and were severely polluted areas. In addition, the highest average dry deposition for Mn, Fe, Zn, and Cu species occurred at Bei-shi sampling site, and the main sources were the nearby science park, fossil fuel combustion, and Taichung thermal power plant (TTPP). Additionally, as for He-mei sampling site, the main sources were subjected to traffic mobile emissions.

  16. Magnetic interactions in La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Me{sub x}O{sub 3} (Me=Ga, Fe, Cr) manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyanchuk, I.O., E-mail: troyan@physics.by [Scientific-Practical Materials Research Centre of NAS of Belarus, P. Brovki str. 19, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Bushinsky, M.V.; Karpinsky, D.V.; Tereshko, N.V. [Scientific-Practical Materials Research Centre of NAS of Belarus, P. Brovki str. 19, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Dobryansky, V.M. [Belarussian State Agrarian Technical University, Nezavisimosti av. 99, 220023 Minsk (Belarus); Többens, D.M. [Helmholt-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Sikolenko, V. [Helmholt-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Efimov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    Magnetic properties and crystal structure of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Me{sub x}O{sub 3} (Me=Ga, Fe, Cr; x≤0.3) have been studied by neutron powder diffraction and magnetization measurements. It is shown that substitution of manganese ions by chromium or gallium ions (x=0.3) leads to phase separation into antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic phases whereas replacement by Fe ions stabilizes spin glass state (x=0.3). Ferromagnetic interactions in Cr-substituted compounds are much more pronounced than in Fe- and Ga-doped ones. Magnetic properties are discussed in the model assuming a dominance of superexchange interactions. It is considered that ferromagnetism in the Cr-substituted compositions is associated with nearly equal contributions from positive and negative components of the superexchange interaction between Mn{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} ions as well as to mixed valence of chromium ions. The spin glass state observed for the Fe-doped sample (x=0.3) is associated with strong antiferromagnetic superexchange between Fe{sup 3+}–O–Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+}–O–(Mn{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 4+}). - Highlights: • Magnetic structure of the compounds has been clarified by NPD. • Magnetic properties of the compounds has been explained using superexchange scenario. • Mn–O–Fe and Fe–O–Fe superexchange interactions are strongly antiferromagnetic.

  17. Mathematical modeling of the hot strip rolling of microalloyed Nb, multiply-alloyed Cr-Mo, and plain C-Mn steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, F. Jr.; Jonas, J.J.

    2000-02-01

    Industrial mill logs from seven different hot strip mills (HSMs) were analyzed in order to calculate the mean flow stresses (MFSs) developed in each stand. The schedules were typical of the processing of microalloyed Nb, multiply-alloyed Cr-Mo, and plain C-Mn steels. The calculations, based on the Sims analysis, take into account work roll flattening, redundant strain, and the forward slip ratio. The measured stresses are then compared to the predictions of a model based on an improved Misaka MFS equation, in which solute effects, strain accumulation, and the kinetics of static recrystallization (SRX) and metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX) are fully accounted for. Good agreement between the measured and predicted MFSs is obtained over the whole range of rolling temperatures. The evolution of grain size and the fractional softening are also predicted by the model during all stages of strip rolling. Special attention was paid to the Nb steels, in which the occurrence of Nb(C, N) precipitation strongly influences the rolling behavior, preventing softening between passes. The present study leads to the conclusion that Mn addition retards the strain-induced precipitation of Nb; by contrast, Si addition has an accelerating effect. The critical strain for the onset of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) in Nb steels is derived, and it is shown that the critical strain/peak strain ratio decreases with increasing Nb content; furthermore, Mn and Si have marginal but opposite effects. It is demonstrated that DRX followed by MDRX occurs under most conditions of hot strip rolling; during the initial passes, it is due to high strains, low strain rates, and high temperatures, and, in the final passes, it is a consequence of strain accumulation.

  18. First-Principles Study on the Structural Stability and Segregation Behavior of γ-Fe/Cr2N Interface with Alloying Additives M (M = Mn, V, Ti, Mo, and Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the structural stability and electrochemical properties of alloying additives M (M = Mn, V, Ti, Mo, or Ni at the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface by the first-principles method. Results indicated that V and Ti were easily segregated at the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface and enhanced interfacial adhesive strength. By contrast, Ni and Mo were difficult to segregate at the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface. Moreover, the results of the work function demonstrated that alloying additives Mn reduced local electrochemical corrosion behavior of the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface by cutting down Volta potential difference (VPD between clean γ-Fe(111 and Cr2N(0001, while alloying additives V, Ti, Mo, and Ni at the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface magnified VPD between clean γ-Fe(111 and Cr2N(0001, which were low-potential sites that usually serve as local attack initiation points.

  19. Spin resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of [Mn{sub 6}{sup III}Cr{sup III}]{sup 3+} single-molecule magnets and of manganese compounds as reference layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmstedt, Andreas; Mueller, Norbert; Gryzia, Aaron; Dohmeier, Niklas; Brechling, Armin; Sacher, Marc D; Heinzmann, Ulrich [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Hoeke, Veronika; Krickemeyer, Erich; Glaser, Thorsten [Fakultaet fuer Chemie, Universitaet Bielefeld, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Bouvron, Samuel; Fonin, Mikhail [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Neumann, Manfred, E-mail: andreas.helmstedt@uni-bielefeld.de [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Osnabrueck, Barbarastrasse 7, 49069 Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2011-07-06

    Properties of the manganese-based single-molecule magnet [Mn{sup III}{sub 6}Cr{sup III}]{sup 3+} are studied. It contains six Mn{sup III} ions arranged in two bowl-shaped trinuclear triplesalen building blocks linked by a hexacyanochromate and exhibits a large spin ground state of S{sub t} = 21/2. The dominant structures in the electron emission spectra of [Mn{sup III}{sub 6}Cr{sup III}]{sup 3+} resonantly excited at the L{sub 3}-edge are the L{sub 3}M{sub 2,3}M{sub 2,3}, L{sub 3}M{sub 2,3}V and L{sub 3}VV Auger emission groups following the decay of the primary p{sub 3/2} core hole state. Significant differences of the Auger spectra from intact and degraded [Mn{sup III}{sub 6}Cr{sup III}]{sup 3+} show up. First measurements of the electron spin polarization in the L{sub 3}M{sub 2,3}V and L{sub 3}VV Auger emission peaks from the manganese constituents in [Mn{sup III}{sub 6}Cr{sup III}]{sup 3+} resonantly excited at the L{sub 3}-edge near 640 eV by circularly polarized synchrotron radiation are reported. In addition spin resolved Auger electron spectra of the reference substances MnO, Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Mn{sup II}(acetate){sub 2{center_dot}}4H{sub 2}O are given. The applicability of spin resolved electron spectroscopy for characterizing magnetic states of constituent atoms compared to magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) is verified: the spin polarization obtained from Mn{sup II}(acetate){sub 2{center_dot}}4H{sub 2}O at room temperature in the paramagnetic state compares to the MCD asymmetry revealed for a star-shaped molecule with a Mn{sub 4}{sup II}O{sub 6} core at 5 K in an external magnetic field of 5 T.

  20. Determination of rare earth elements and other trace elements (Y, Mn, Co, Cr) in seawater using Tm addition and Mg(OH)₂ co-precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freslon, Nicolas; Bayon, Germain; Birot, Dominique; Bollinger, Claire; Barrat, Jean Alix

    2011-07-15

    This paper reports on a novel procedure for determining trace element abundances (REE and Y, Cr, Mn, Co) in seawater by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). The procedure uses a combination of pre-concentration using co-precipitation onto magnesium hydroxides and addition of thulium spike. The validity of the method was assessed onto 25 ml volumes of certified reference materials (NASS- and CASS-4) and in house seawater standard. Procedural blanks were determined by applying the same procedure to aliquots of seawater previously depleted in trace elements by successive Mg(OH)(2) co-precipitations, yielding estimated contributions to the studied samples better than 1.1% for all elements, with the exception of Cr (<3.3%) and Co (up to 8%). The reproducibility of the method over the six month duration of the study was smaller than 11% RSD for all the studied elements. Results obtained for NASS-5 and CASS-4 agree well with published working values for trace elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Small angle neutron scattering study of magnetic clustering in (Pr{sub 0.55}Ca{sub 0.45})(Mn{sub 1-y}Cr{sub y})O{sub 3} manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, C., E-mail: carlo.castellano@unimi.it [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Martinelli, A. [CNR-SPIN, C.so Perrone 24, 16152 Genova (Italy); Ferretti, M. [CNR-SPIN, C.so Perrone 24, 16152 Genova (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Genova, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Cimberle, M.R. [CNR-IMEM, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Mondelli, C. [CNR-IOM-OGG and TOF at Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Genoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2012-11-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic clusters formation in (Pr{sub 0.55}Ca{sub 0.45})(Mn{sub 1-y}Cr{sub y})O{sub 3} manganites is pointed out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We indicate that magnetic clusters formation is favoured by Mn/Cr substitution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The importance of magnetic polarons in manganites phase behaviour is thus emphasized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tune by chemical substitution the weight of the different phase components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic clusters formation in Mn/Cr substituted manganites results to be softened. - Abstract: In the present paper we report a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of magnetic clusters formation in (Pr{sub 0.55}Ca{sub 0.45})(Mn{sub 1-y}Cr{sub y})O{sub 3} (y = 0.00, 0.03, 0.06) manganites which was performed by analyzing, above and below the magnetic phase transitions, the momentum transfer q dependence of the SANS intensity on temperature and on the applied magnetic field 0 < H < 5 T. Thermal scans between 5 and 300 K in zero field, 1 and 5 T as well as isothermal field-scans at three different temperatures were collected in the suitable q range on each sample. These measurements allowed us to determine the spatial dimensions, density and distribution of the non-overlapping ferromagnetic clusters before, during and after their formation, both in the insulating high temperature and in the percolating low temperature phases. Our results indicate that the magnetic clusters formation is favoured by Mn/Cr partial substitution, thus emphasizing the importance of magnetic polarons in the natural tendency of manganites to phase separation and the possibility to tune by chemical substitution the relative weight of one phase component with respect to the other one.

  2. In situ formation of oxygen vacancy in perovskite Sr0.95Ti0.8Nb0.1M0.1O3 (M = Mn, Cr) toward efficient carbon dioxide electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Xie, Kui; Wei, Haoshan; Qin, Qingqing; Qi, Wentao; Yang, Liming; Ruan, Cong; Wu, Yucheng

    2014-01-01

    In this work, redox-active Mn or Cr is introduced to the B site of redox stable perovskite Sr0.95Ti0.9Nb0.1O3.00 to create oxygen vacancies in situ after reduction for high-temperature CO2 electrolysis. Combined analysis using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirms the change of the chemical formula from oxidized Sr0.95Ti0.9Nb0.1O3.00 to reduced Sr0.95Ti0.9Nb0.1O2.90 for the bare sample. By contrast, a significant concentration of oxygen vacancy is additionally formed in situ for Mn- or Cr-doped samples by reducing the oxidized Sr0.95Ti0.8Nb0.1M0.1O3.00 (M = Mn, Cr) to Sr0.95Ti0.8Nb0.1M0.1O2.85. The ionic conductivities of the Mn- and Cr-doped titanate improve by approximately 2 times higher than bare titanate in an oxidizing atmosphere and 3–6 times higher in a reducing atmosphere at intermediate temperatures. A remarkable chemical accommodation of CO2 molecules is achieved on the surface of the reduced and doped titanate, and the chemical desorption temperature reaches a common carbonate decomposition temperature. The electrical properties of the cathode materials are investigated and correlated with the electrochemical performance of the composite electrodes. Direct CO2 electrolysis at composite cathodes is investigated in solid-oxide electrolyzers. The electrode polarizations and current efficiencies are observed to be significantly improved with the Mn- or Cr-doped titanate cathodes. PMID:25403738

  3. Critical behavior near the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transformation in the austenite phase of Ni43Mn46Sn8X3 (X = In and Cr) Heusler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, W. Z.; Thanh, Tran Dang; Nam, G.; You, T. S.; Piao, H. G.; Pan, L. Q.; Yu, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present a detailed study on the magnetic property and critical behavior in the austenitic phase of Ni43Mn46Sn8X3 alloys with X = Cr and In, which were prepared by an arc-melting method in an argon ambience. The M(T) curve of the Cr sample (X = Cr) exhibits a single magnetic phase transition at the Curie temperature of the ferromagnetic (FM) austenitic phase with TAC = 303 K. In contrast, the In sample (X = In) exhibits multiple magnetic phase transitions, including a magnetic phase transition from a FM state to weakly magnetic state at TMC = 165 K of the martensitic phase, a martensitic transition from the weakly magnetic to the FM austenite phase at TM-A = 259 K, and a magnetic phase transition from the FM to paramagnetic (PM) at TAC = 297 K of the austenite phase. Based on the Landau theory and M(H) data measured at different temperatures, we pointed that the FM-PM phase transitions around TAC in both samples were the second-order phase transition. Our results suggest an existence of the long-range FM interactions in the austenite phase. A small deviation from the mean-field theory of the critical exponents has been also observed pointing out an existence of the inhomogeneous magnetism that could be associated with the presence of the anti-FM interactions in these samples. Besides, their effective exponents βeff(ε) and γeff(ε) have been also calculated.

  4. Experimental studies and nuclear model calculations on proton induced reactions on manganese up to 45 MeV with reference to production of (55)Fe, (54)Mn and (51)Cr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abyad, M; Spahn, I; Qaim, S M

    2010-12-01

    Excitation functions of the reactions (55)Mn(p,n)(55)Fe, (55)Mn(p,x)(54)Mn and (55)Mn(p,x)(51)Cr were measured from their respective thresholds up to 18 MeV in the first case and up to 45 MeV in the latter two cases, using the conventional stacked-foil technique. The radioactivity of (55)Fe was determined via high resolution X-ray spectrometry and of other radionuclides via high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. Nuclear model calculations were performed using the codes ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE and TALYS. In some cases, good agreement was found between the experimental and theoretical data while in others considerable deviations were observed. From the experimental data the expected integral yields of the three investigated radionuclides were calculated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimization of the Arc Spraying Process Parameters of the Fe–Base Mn-Si-Cr-Mo-Ni Coatings for the Best Wear Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justinas GARGASAS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of Fe–base Mn-Si-Cr-Mo-Ni and Fe–base Mn-Si-Cr wires for thermal arc spraying is presented. For this purpose the mechanical and physical properties of coatings were evaluated. The quality of the coating’s was dependent on the selected equipment, spray materials, technological parameters of the spray and spray technology. The aim was to qualify and optimize the parameters for spray coating to get the best coatings properties with good tribological properties. All coatings were deposited on mild steel S235JR substrates. Two experimental cored wires of unique chemical composition – STEIN-MESYFIL 932 V and STEIN-MESYFIL 954 V – were used for thermal arc spraying. The wires of 1.6 mm diameter were used for the surfacing material. Hardness, porosity and oxide measurements were used to verify the spray parameters and analyze the coatings. Rubber wheel test, which is based on the standard ASTM G65, was used. Dry-sand, rubber-wheel procedure according ASTM G65 was used to investigate low stress abrasion, whereas for high stress abrasion investigations a rubber wheel was used. This experiment was carried out by changing the speed of disc friction, travel distance and measuring the mass loss of surface friction. Miller Test according to ASTM G75-95 Standard was carried out in experiment with friction. The samples were immersed in water with corundum and polished with 22 N load, for 8 hours. Furthermore a correlation was performed between the spraying current and voltage parameter. The coatings’ cross sections were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM and optical microscopy. The influence of the composite components of the coatings’ microstructure, such as porosity, microhardness, oxide inclusions, on the tribological properties of thermal sprayed coatings is discussed in this paper. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.7339

  6. Effect of Cr substitution on magnetic and magnetic entropy change of La{sub 0.65}Eu{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} (0.05≤x≤0.15) rhombohedral nanocrystalline near room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellouz, R., E-mail: bellouzridha@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Matériaux, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir,Université de Monastir, 5019 (Tunisia); Oumezzine, M. [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Matériaux, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir,Université de Monastir, 5019 (Tunisia); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, National Centre for Scientific Research, Université Joseph Fourier, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Dhahri, E. [Laboratoire de Physique appliqué, Département de physique, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, 3018 (Tunisia)

    2015-02-01

    We have studied the effect of Cr substitution on magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in nanocrystalline La{sub 0.65}Eu{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0.05, 0.1 and 0.15). The materials were prepared using the Pechini sol–gel method. All the studied samples were crystallized into a single phase rhombohedral structure with R−3C space group. Magnetic measurements indicate that the ferromagnetic double exchange interaction is weakened with increasing Cr concentration, resulting in a shift in T{sub C} from 338 K to 278 K as x varied between 0.05 and 0.15. Detailed analyzes in the vicinity of the ferromagnetic (FM)–paramagnetic (PM) phase-transition temperature prove the samples undergoing a second-order phase transition. The magnetocaloric effect is calculated from the measurement of initial isothermal magnetization versus magnetic field at various temperatures. The maximum magnetic entropy change |ΔS{sub M}{sup max}| is found to decrease with increasing of Cr content from 4.04 J/Kg K for x=0.05–0.78 J/KgK for x=0.15 upon 5 T applied field change. The relative cooling power (RCP) of La{sub 0.65}Eu{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} series is nearly 54% of pure Gd, which will be an interesting system for application in room temperature refrigeration. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline materials La{sub 0.65}Eu{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} were obtained. • The Cr substitution decreases the T{sub C} from 338 K for x=0.05–278 K for x=0.15. • The relative cooling power of La{sub 0.65}Eu{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} is nearly 54% of pure Gd. • Arrott plot analyses was applied to study the order of the magnetic transition. • La{sub 0.65}Eu{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} samples show second order PM–FM transition at T=T{sub C}.

  7. Microstructure of CrMnNi Cast Steel After Explosive-Driven Flyer-Plate Impact at Room Temperature and Below

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckner, R.; Reichel, B.; Savinykh, A. S.; Krüger, L.; Razorenov, S. V.; Garkushin, G. V.

    2016-01-01

    A low-carbon metastable austenitic CrMnNi cast steel was investigated under shock conditions in a flyer-plate impact test. The samples were impacted by aluminum flyer-plates with impact velocities of 620 ± 30 m/s. Depending on deformation temperature and strain rate, the material exhibited different deformation mechanisms (dislocation glide, martensitic transformation, and mechanical twinning), which determined the microstructural evolution and mechanical behavior. Flyer-plate impact tests were carried out at 213 K and 293 K (-60 °C and +20 °C). A soft recovered sample revealed microstructural changes directly after impact. The subsequent microstructural investigations via light-optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP effect) was the primary deformation mechanism. Moreover, it was possible to quantify the martensite volume fraction by different methods and to identify the hcp ɛ-martensite phase as an intermediate transformation stage. A decrease in temperature also increased the driving force for the martensitic transformation.

  8. Properties of Goethite Grown under the Presence of Cr{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, A. L. [Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica (Colombia); Barrero, C. A. [Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellin, Colombia, Grupo de Corrosion y Proteccion, Facultad de Ingenierias (Colombia); Jaramillo, F.; Arroyave, C. [Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Corrosion y Proteccion, Facultad de Ingenierias (Colombia); Greneche, J.-M. [UMR CNRS 6087, Universite du Maine, Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense (France)

    2003-06-15

    This study is focused on properties of goethite related to the inhibition of the corrosion process in low alloy, weathering steels. These steels are characterized by the presence of small amounts of Cr{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions, which drive their protecting behavior in mild atmospheres. Several goethite samples with 5 mole % content of the alloying elements in nominal composition are synthesized by a hydrolysis route. Additionally, Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} are used as precursor ions in order to simulate the presence of atmospheric pollutants. All samples are analyzed by X-ray diffraction and {sup 57}Fe transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS). The presence of the alloying elements and pollutant ions reduces the overall magnetic interactions in goethite, which is reflected in the lowering of the hyperfine field of maximum probability at 77 K, in comparison to that of pure goethites. However, the mechanisms of the magnetic interaction reductions are different for each combination of alloying element and pollutant ions. Finally the combined effect of anions and cations produces a wider distribution of particle sizes.

  9. Insights into the deformation behavior of the CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy revealed by elevated temperature nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier-Kiener, Verena [Montanuniversitat Leoben, Leoben (Austria); Schuh, Benjamin [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Leoben (Austria); George, Easo P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Clemens, Helmut [Montanuniversitat Leoben, Leoben (Austria); Hohenwarter, Anton [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Leoben (Austria)

    2017-07-27

    A CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy was investigated by nanoindentation from room temperature to 400 °C in the nanocrystalline state and cast plus homogenized coarse-grained state. In the latter case a < 100 >-orientated grain was selected by electron back scatter diffraction for nanoindentation. It was found that hardness decreases more strongly with increasing temperature than Young’s modulus, especially for the coarse-grained state. The modulus of the nanocrystalline state was slightly higher than that of the coarse-grained one. For the coarse-grained sample a strong thermally activated deformation behavior was found up to 100–150 °C, followed by a diminishing thermally activated contribution at higher testing temperatures. For the nanocrystalline state, different temperature dependent deformation mechanisms are proposed. At low temperatures, the governing processes appear to be similar to those in the coarse-grained sample, but with increasing temperature, dislocation-grain boundary interactions likely become more dominant. Finally, at 400 °C, decomposition of the nanocrystalline alloy causes a further reduction in thermal activation. Furthermore, this is rationalized by a reduction of the deformation controlling internal length scale by precipitate formation in conjunction with a diffusional contribution.

  10. Solid-state reactions during mechanical alloying of ternary Fe–Al–X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadef, Fatma, E-mail: hadef77@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Physico-Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, LRPCSI, Université 20 Août 1955, BP 26, Route d’El-Haddaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université 20 Août 1955, BP 26, Route d’El-Haddaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria)

    2016-12-01

    The last decade has witnessed an intensive research in the field of nanocrystalline materials due to their enhanced properties. A lot of processing techniques were developed in order to synthesis these novel materials, among them mechanical alloying or high-energy ball milling. In fact, mechanical alloying is one of the most common operations in the processing of solids. It can be used to quickly and easily synthesize a variety of technologically useful materials which are very difficult to manufacture by other techniques. One advantage of MA over many other techniques is that is a solid state technique and consequently problems associated with melting and solidification are bypassed. Special attention is being paid to the synthesis of alloys through reactions mainly occurring in solid state in many metallic ternary Fe–Al–X systems, in order to improve mainly Fe–Al structural and mechanical properties. The results show that nanocrystallization is the common result occurring in all systems during MA process. The aim of this work is to illustrate the uniqueness of MA process to induce phase transformation in metallic Fe–Al–X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems. - Highlights: • A review of state of the art on binary Fe–Al alloys was presented. • Structural and microstructural properties of MA ternary Fe–Al–X alloys were summerized. • MA process is a powerful tool for producing metallic alloys at the nanometer scale.

  11. Preparation, structural, optical, electrical, and magnetic characterisation of orthorhombic GdCr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.7}O{sub 3} multiferroic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Deepa; Bamzai, K.K. [Jammu Univ. (India). Crystal Growth and Materials Research Laboratory

    2017-04-01

    In this article, chromium-doped gadolinium manganate (GdCr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.7}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles has been prepared by wet-chemical route in order to investigate their structural, optical, electrical, and room temperature magnetic properties. Microstructural and compositional analyses have been carried out by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Synthesised material is found to be in orthorhombic crystal structure with Pbnm space group. The spherical morphology of the nanoparticles has been examined from the SEM images. Functional groups have been identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Dielectric constant, dielectric loss, AC conductivity (σ{sub ac}), and activation energy in the range of 1 kHz-1 MHz from room temperature to high temperature (400 C) have been investigated. The frequency dependence of AC conductivity obeys the universal power law. The value of activation energy depends on increase in frequency. Room temperature magnetic behaviour suggests the material to be paramagnetic in nature.

  12. Spectroscopic and biological approach in the characterization of Cr(III, Mn(II and Co(II complexes with a novel hexaaza-macrocyclic ligand derived from semicarbazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARCHANA GAUTAM

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of Cr(III, Mn(II and Co(II with a novel 5,7,12,14-tetraphenyl-1,2,4,8,10,11-hexaazacyclotetradecane-3,9-dione macrocyclic ligand, THTD (L, were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements, as well as by mass, 1H-NMR, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. Based on the spectral studies, an octahedral geometry was assigned for the Cr(III, Mn(II and Co(II complexes. The ligand and its complexes were screened in vitro against some species of bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi. The metal complexes were found to be more active antimicrobial agents than the free ligand from which they were derived.

  13. Features of electronic properties of band ferromagnets Co2 MeAl and Fe2 MeAl (Me  =  Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Korolev, A. V.; Lukoyanov, A. V.; Shirokov, A. A.; Perevozchikova, Yu A.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the low-temperature (2  Me  =  Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni) ordered in the L21 crystal structure are presented. A comparative analysis of the behaviour of electronic properties as a function of the number of valence electrons z in the alloys Co2 MeAl and Fe2 MeAl is carried out.

  14. The comparison of micro elements (Mn, Fe and Zn and heavy metals (Co, Cr and Cd in the soil of perennial farms of saffron (Crocus sativus L. in southern Khorasan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Behdani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study concentrations of soil micro and heavy metal elements in some saffron planting regions of Birjand Province, an experiment was performed as factorial layout based on a completely randomized block design with three replications at year 2013. Treatments were three field ages (annual, triennial and quinquennial and five saffron regions including Aryan shahr, Hosseinabad, Khosef, Golferiz and Mahmoei. Soil microelement and hevey methal concentrations such as Fe, Zn, Mn, Co, Cr and Cd of soil were measured. The results showed that the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Mn and Cr in soil were significantly affected by field age (p≤0.05. Effect of planting region was significant on soil Fe, Zn, Mn, Co and Cr concentrations (p≤0.01. Interaction effects between field age and planting region were significant on Fe, Zn and Co concentrations (p≤0.01. By increasing in field age soil Zn concentration was declined and heavy metal concentrations such as Co, Cr and Cd of soil were enhanced. Mn concentration in the quinquennial fields was 29 and 34% higher than annual and triennial first fields, respectively. Co content in the quinquennial fields was 53 and 46% higher than annual and triennial first fields, respectively. The maximum and minimum Fe concentrations were observed with 1.65 and 0.77 ppm for the fields of Khosef and Hosseinabad, respectively. The highest and lowest Fe concentrations were obtained with 2.436 and 0.77 ppm for the annual fields of Khosef and Hosseinabad, respectively. The highest Co concentrations were recorded in Hosseinabad and Khosef fields with 8.7 and 4.31 ppm, respectively. Thus, it is recommended to use ecological managemens such as reducing the application of chemical fertilizers and improving the organic fertilizers to decline the concentrations of these elements in saffron fields.

  15. Measurement and ab initio calculation of the structural parameters and physical properties of 3d transition intermetallics TiMP (M  =  Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Ni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuaki; Asahi, Ryoji; Kishida, Yoshihiro; Masuoka, Yumi; Sugiyama, Jun

    2017-04-01

    In this study, 3d transition metal phosphides TiMP, where M  =  Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Ni, were synthesized via solid-state reactions. At 293 K, both TiCrP and TiMnP exhibited hexagonal symmetry with P6-2m space groups, while TiFeP, TiCoP, and TiNiP possessed orthorhombic symmetry with Pnma space groups. The electrical resistivity ρ of each compound was on the order of 10-5 Ω m and was relatively temperature independent above 2 K, except in the case of TiFeP, for which ρ linearly decreased with decreasing temperature. The absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient was small (<30 µV K-1) between 2 K and 300 K and exhibited linear temperature dependence except in the case of TiNiP. The magnetic susceptibilities χ for TiCrP, TiCoP, and TiNiP, which ranged from 1  ×  10-4 emu mol-1 to 3  ×  10-4 emu mol-1, were temperature independent above 2 K, indicating that these species exhibit Pauli paramagnetism. The temperature-independent χ of TiFeP was relatively high, ~2.5  ×  10-3 emu mol-1. The Stoner enhancement factor estimated from the Pauli paramagnetic susceptibility that was determined based on the calculated density of states and the Wilson ratio were 21.2 and 14.1, respectively, for TiFeP, suggesting that the magnetism of TiFeP may be exchange-enhanced Pauli paramagnetism. In contrast, for TiMnP, χ obeyed a Curie-Weiss law, and an effective magnetic moment per TiMnP formula unit of 1.07 μ B and a Weiss temperature of  -8.0 K were obtained. The ab initio calculations for TiMnP yielded a predicted magnetic moment of 1.0 μ B per TiMnP formula unit, which is consistent with the experimental result. On the other hand, the measured electronic specific heat coefficient of TiMnP (48.1 mJ mol-1 · K-2) was about seven times higher than that estimated based on the calculated density of states. These results for TiMnP imply that spin fluctuations may determine its properties.

  16. Preparation of monolayers of [MnIII 6CrIII]3+ single-molecule magnets on HOPG, mica and silicon surfaces and characterization by means of non-contact AFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoeke Veronika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on the characterization of various salts of [MnIII 6CrIII]3+ complexes prepared on substrates such as highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG, mica, SiO2, and Si3N4. [MnIII 6CrIII]3+ is a single-molecule magnet, i.e., a superparamagnetic molecule, with a blocking temperature around 2 K. The three positive charges of [MnIII 6CrIII]3+ were electrically neutralized by use of various anions such as tetraphenylborate (BPh4 -, lactate (C3H5O3 -, or perchlorate (ClO4 -. The molecule was prepared on the substrates out of solution using the droplet technique. The main subject of investigation was how the anions and substrates influence the emerging surface topology during and after the preparation. Regarding HOPG and SiO2, flat island-like and hemispheric-shaped structures were created. We observed a strong correlation between the electronic properties of the substrate and the analyzed structures, especially in the case of mica where we observed a gradient in the analyzed structures across the surface.

  17. Theoretical investigation of electronic, magnetic and optical properties of ZnSe doped TM and co-doped with MnTM (TM: Fe, Cr, Co): AB-initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behloul, M. [LMPHE (URAC 12), Departement of Physique, B.P. 1014, Faculty of Science, University Mohammed V, Rabat (Morocco); Salmani, E., E-mail: elmehdisalmani@gmail.com [LMPHE (URAC 12), Departement of Physique, B.P. 1014, Faculty of Science, University Mohammed V, Rabat (Morocco); Ez-Zahraouy, H. [LMPHE (URAC 12), Departement of Physique, B.P. 1014, Faculty of Science, University Mohammed V, Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [LMPHE (URAC 12), Departement of Physique, B.P. 1014, Faculty of Science, University Mohammed V, Rabat (Morocco); The Institute for Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, MAScIR (Moroccan Fondation for Advanced Science, Innovation and Research), Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-12-01

    Based upon the first principal spin density functional calculation, the electronic, magnetic and optical properties of ZnTMSe and ZnMnTMSe where TM=Fe, Cr, Co are studied using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent potential approximation (KKR-CPA) method within the local density (LDA)and the self-interaction-corrected(SIC) approximation. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different type of dopant and concentration on ferromagnetic and half metallic behavior of ZnSe. Therefore the magnetic disorder local moment (DLM) and the ferromagnetic state are investigated for different concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cr and Co; also the advantages of co-doped ZnSe with TM elements, behavior at room temperature are discussed. The electronic structure and optical properties are studied employing the local density (LDA) and the self-interaction-corrected (SIC) approximation. Moreover, the X-ray spectra modeling are in good agreement with the electronic and magnetic properties results. - Highlights: • The magnetic properties of ZnSe codoped with MnY(Y: Fe, Cr, Co) has been investigated. • The half-metallic appears in ZnSe codoped with impurities at low concentration. • The advantages of codoped ZnSe with impurities at room temperature are discussed.

  18. Cyclic voltammetry of LiCr{sub 0.15}Mn{sub 1.85}O{sub 4} in an aqueous LiNO{sub 3} solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvjeticanin, Nikola; Stojkovic, Ivana; Mentus, Slavko [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Belgrade University, Studentski trg 12-16, P.O. Box 137, 11001 Belgrade (RS); Mitric, Miodrag [The Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Laboratory for Theoretical and Condensed Matter Physics, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (RS)

    2007-12-06

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV) of LiCr{sub 0.15}Mn{sub 1.85}O{sub 4}, synthesized by rapid glycine-nitrate method (GNM), was performed in a saturated aqueous LiNO{sub 3} ({proportional_to}9 M) solution. At rather high polarization rate of 10 mV s{sup -1} two well separated characteristic pairs of redox peaks can be clearly observed, which is not entirely the case for LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} synthesized in the same way. At a reduced scan rate of 1 mV s{sup -1}, the shape and position of redox peaks evidence that deintercalation/intercalation of Li{sup +} ion is highly reversible and much faster than in the case of organic electrolytes. Faster ''CV response'' of LiCr{sub 0.15}Mn{sub 1.85}O{sub 4} is in correlation with higher capacity retention (93%) in comparison to LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} (88%), registered after 50 charging/discharging cycles in organic electrolyte solution (1 M LiClO{sub 4} in propylene carbonate). (author)

  19. Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Materials with Cr(3+) and F(-) Composite Doping for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Li, Shaofang; Xu, Shuaijun; Huang, Si; Zhu, Jianxin

    2017-12-01

    A Cr(3+) and F(-) composite-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material was synthesized by the solid-state method, and the influence of the doping amount on the material's physical and electrochemical properties was investigated. The structure and morphology of the cathode material were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and HRTEM, and the results revealed that the sample exhibited clear spinel features. No Cr(3+) and F(-) impurity phases were found, and the spinel structure became more stable. The results of the charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test results suggested that LiCr0.05Ni0.475Mn1.475O3.95F0.05 in which the Cr(3+) and F(-) doping amounts were both 0.05, had the optimal electrochemical properties, with discharge rates of 0.1, 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 C and specific capacities of 134.18, 128.70, 123.62, 119.63, and 97.68 mAh g(-1) , respectively. After 50 cycles at a rate of 2 C, LiCr0.05Ni0.475Mn1.475O3.95F0.05 showed extremely good cycling performance, with a discharge specific capacity of 121.02 mAh g(-1) and a capacity retention rate of 97.9%. EIS test revealed that the doping clearly decreased the charge-transfer resistance.

  20. Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Materials with Cr3+ and F- Composite Doping for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Li, Shaofang; Xu, Shuaijun; Huang, Si; Zhu, Jianxin

    2017-06-01

    A Cr3+ and F- composite-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material was synthesized by the solid-state method, and the influence of the doping amount on the material's physical and electrochemical properties was investigated. The structure and morphology of the cathode material were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and HRTEM, and the results revealed that the sample exhibited clear spinel features. No Cr3+ and F- impurity phases were found, and the spinel structure became more stable. The results of the charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test results suggested that LiCr0.05Ni0.475Mn1.475O3.95F0.05 in which the Cr3+ and F- doping amounts were both 0.05, had the optimal electrochemical properties, with discharge rates of 0.1, 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 C and specific capacities of 134.18, 128.70, 123.62, 119.63, and 97.68 mAh g-1 , respectively. After 50 cycles at a rate of 2 C, LiCr0.05Ni0.475Mn1.475O3.95F0.05 showed extremely good cycling performance, with a discharge specific capacity of 121.02 mAh g-1 and a capacity retention rate of 97.9%. EIS test revealed that the doping clearly decreased the charge-transfer resistance.

  1. Studies on magneto-resistance, magnetization and thermoelectric power of Cr substituted La{sub 0.65}Ca{sub 0.35}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} (0≤x≤0.07) manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunatha, S.O. [Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Rao, Ashok, E-mail: ashokanu_rao@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Babu, P.D. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Mumbai Centre, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tarachand; Okram, G.S. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001, MP (India)

    2015-10-15

    A systematic investigation has been carried out on effect of Cr-doping on structural, magneto-resistance, magnetic and thermoelectric power properties of La{sub 0.65}Ca{sub 0.35}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} compounds. Samples were prepared using conventional solid state reaction method. The XRD analysis using Rietveld refinement reveals that the samples are single phased. Temperature dependent electrical resistivity measurements show the existence of the expected metal–insulator transition (T{sub MI}) which is followed by a small hump at temperatures lower than T{sub MI}. With the application of magnetic field, resistivity of all the samples is found to decrease and T{sub MI} is observed to shift towards higher temperature. This is attributed to induced magnetic ordering of the localized t{sub 2g} spins and increased electron transfer integral between Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} via oxygen by the application of magnetic field. MR% is observed to increase with the increasing Cr concentration. Magnetic studies show that the Curie temperature, T{sub C} and magnetic moment decreases with Cr-content which is consistent with the electrical studies. Electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power data have been analyzed using theoretical models and both suggest that the small polaron hopping (SPH) model is operative in the high temperature insulating region for the entire series of samples.

  2. Structural and Electrochemical Investigation of Li1.02Mn1.92Al0.02Fe0.02Cr0.02O4 - x Fx (x=0, 0.08 Synthesized by Solid-State Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Lang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the cycle performance of spinel LiMn2O4 as the cathode of 4-V-class lithium secondary batteries, spinel phases Li1.02Mn1.92Al0.02Fe0.02Cr0.02O4 - xFx (x=0, 0.08 have been successfully prepared by a conventional solid-state method. The structure and physicochemical properties of this as-prepared powder were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and galvanostatic charge-discharge test in detail. The results reveal that the multiple doping spinel Li1.02Mn1.92Al0.02Fe0.02Cr0.02O4F0.08 have better electrochemical performance than the undoped or only metal-element doped material, which may be contributed to the multiple cation and anion doping to lead to a more stable spinel framework with good capacity retention rate.

  3. Spectroscopy and tunable mid-infrared lasing of a novel gain medium: Cr sup 2 sup + doped Cd sub 0 sub . sub 8 sub 5 Mn sub 0 sub . sub 1 sub 5 Te

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, J T; Trivedi, S B; Kutcher, S W; Chen, R J; Wang, C C; Zong, H; Boyd, P R; Tardiff, W

    1999-01-01

    A novel mid-infrared transition-metal laser has been developed based on chromium (II)-doped Cd sub 0 sub . sub 8 sub 5 Mn sub 0 sub . sub 1 sub 5 Te. The characteristic spectroscopy features of Cr sup 2 sup + : Cd sub 0 sub . sub 8 sub 5 Mn sub 0 sub . sub 1 sub 5 Te are large absorption and emission cross sections (approx 10 sup - sup 1 sup 8 cm sup 2), a predicted absence of excited state absorption (ESA), and a broad emission band extending from 2.1 approx 3.5 mu m. The broad emission band makes Cr sup 2 sup + : Cd sub 0 sub . sub 8 sub 5 Mn sub 0 sub . sub 1 sub 5 Te very attractive for the development of a widely tunable mid-infrared laser. In initial studies, a laser tunability from 2.3 to 2.75 mu m has been demonstrated with a full width at half maximum of 2.3 nm. A larger tuning range seems possible with the appropriate optics. The highest slope efficiency achieved for a pulsed (2 Hz) free-running laser was 44.2%.

  4. Electrochemical behaviour of LiMyMn2–yO4 (M= Cu, Cr; 0≤ y≤ 0⋅ 4)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we report on the effect of partial substitution of manganese in the LiMn2O4 phase with copper (II) and chromium (III) ions. It has been shown that the higher octahedral stabilization energy of trivalent chromium imparts greater structural stability to chromium-doped LiMn2O4 spinels. Both copper and chromium ...

  5. Bulk modulus and specific heat of B-site doped (La0.3Pr0.7)0.65Ca0.35Mn1-xBxO3 (B=Fe, Cr, Ru, Al, Ga)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Archana; Thakur, Rasna; Gaur, N. K.

    2014-04-01

    Specific heat (Cp) thermal expansion (α) and Bulk modulus (BT) of lightly doped Rare Earth manganites (La0.3Pr0.7)0.65Ca0.35Mn1-xBxO3 (B3+ = Fe3+,Cr3+,Ga3+,Al3+,Ru4+); (0.3specific heat (Cp)lat of (La0.3Pr0.7)0.65Ca0.35Mn0.97Fe0.03O3 as a function of temperature (10K≤T≤ 200K) is found to be in agreement with the published data. The trend of variation of Debye temperature with B-site cationic radius is predicted probably for the first time for the B-site doped rare earth manganites.

  6. Luminescence quenching of [Os(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} by Mn{sup 7+}, Cr{sup 6+} and Ce{sup 4+} ions in acidic aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Shafi, Ayman A., E-mail: aabdelshafi@kfu.edu.sa [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Faisal University, PO Box 400, Hufof 31982 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo 11566 (Egypt)

    2014-11-15

    Luminescence quenching of [Os(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} by Mn{sup 7+}, Cr{sup 6+} and Ce{sup 4+} ions in acidic aqueous media are studied. Ground state interactions between [Os(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} and these ions show ground state association with stoichiometric ratios in accordance with the electron transfer process. Positive deviation is observed from the linear Stern–Volmer relationship which with the ground state association is in support of static quenching mechanism. Benesi-HildEbrand equation was used to evaluate the association constant which were found to be 5×10{sup 3} M{sup −1}, 6.6×10{sup 4} M{sup −1} and be 1.1×10{sup 5} M{sup −1} for association of [Os(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} with Ce{sup 4+}, Cr{sup 6+} and Mn{sup 7+}, respectively, based on luminescence intensity measurements. Different models for static luminescence quenching were employed to discuss the results. - Highlights: • Pure luminescence static quenching of [Os(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} by strong oxidizing agents are reported. • Ground state association is observed between [Os(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} and Ce{sup 4+}, Cr{sup 6+} and Mn{sup 7+} ions. • Interaction of [Os(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} with these ions was found to depend on their stoichiometric ratios. • Emission intensity of [Os(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} was found to depend on its uncomplexed concentration.

  7. Investigations of the spin Hamiltonian parameters and local structures for Fe{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} in rutile TiO{sub 2} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Hui-Ning [College of Physics and Engineering, Chengdu Normal University, Chengdu 611130 (China); College of Science, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing (China); Liu, Xu-Sheng, E-mail: xsliu999@126.com [College of Physics and Engineering, Chengdu Normal University, Chengdu 611130 (China); College of Science, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing (China); Zhou, Hong-Fei [College of Science, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing (China)

    2015-11-15

    The spin Hamiltonian parameters (g factors, hyperfine structure constants and zero-field splittings (ZFSs)) and local structures for the rhombic substitutional Fe{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} in rutile (TiO{sub 2}) single crystal are theoretically investigated from the high order perturbation calculations based on the cluster approach including both the crystal-field (CF) and charge-transfer (CT) contributions to the g factors and hyperfine structure constants. The impurity centers are found to undergo the local axial distortions ΔZ (≈0.22, 0.14 and –0.18 Ǻ) and the planar bond angle variations Δφ (≈4.3, 5.9 and 0.2°) for Fe{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+}, respectively. The signs for ZFSs D and E are analyzed in the light of those for ΔZ and rhombic distortion angle δφ (=φ′–π/4) related to an ideal octahedron. The magnitudes of ΔZ and Δφ are conveniently illustrated by the axial and perpendicular ZFS relative variations ΔF and ΔG for the deviations of D and E based on the local distortion parameters from those (D{sub H} and E{sub H}) based on the host structural data of Ti{sup 4+} site. The validity of the above local structures is discussed in view of size and charge mismatch of the various impurity centers. The CT contributions to g-shift are opposite in sign and about 13–56% in magnitude compared with the CF ones, indicating the increasing importance (Cr{sup 3+}Mn{sup 4+}). The CT contributions to hyperfine structure constants are the same in sign and about 19–22% in magnitude with respect to the corresponding CF contributions.

  8. Resistência à erosão por cavitação de aços inoxidáveis austeníticos CrMnSiN depositados por PTA Cavitation erosion resistance of CrMnSiN austenitic stainless steels deposited by PTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Ormeu Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A erosão por cavitação deteriora componentes em serviço, tais como partes metálicas de bombas de água, válvulas e, em especial, pás de turbinas hidráulicas, sendo nesse último caso responsável por elevados prejuízos ligados tanto aos custos da manutenção direta, como sobretudo às perdas por interrupção na geração de energia elétrica. Dentre os materiais aplicados no reparo por soldagem de danos por cavitação incluem-se aços inoxidáveis tradicionais tipo AISI 308 e 309, aços inoxidáveis ao Co e ligas à base de Co (stellites, caracterizando-se essas últimas pela maior sensibilidade a trincas, dificuldade de esmerilhamento e pelo mais alto custo. Nesse contexto este trabalho buscou formular, depositar e analisar o desempenho de aços inoxidáveis austeníticos CrMnSiN, soldados pelo processo PTA. A resistência à erosão por cavitação foi avaliada segundo a norma ASTM G 32-92. A microestrutura foi caracterizada por microscopia ótica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura e a formação de martensitas α' e ε, induzida pela cavitação, foi avaliada por difração de raios-X. A integridade da superfície dos depósitos foi controlada por END, além disso a dureza e a facilidade de acabamaneto por esmerilhamento serviram como critérios para avaliar os revestimentos soldados. Verificou-se que os revestimentos aplicados por PTA eram livres de trincas de solidificação, com baixa porosidade, boa molhabilidade e adequado acabamento superficial. A melhor liga inoxidável austenítica elaborada (0,03%C; 0,35% N; 13,2%Cr; 11,8% Mn; 2,8%Si; bal %Fe mostrou uma resistência à erosão por cavitação próxima aquela das principais ligas comerciais.Cavitation erosion deteriorates components like metallic parts of water pumps, valves and blades of hydraulic turbines, in this last case being responsible for high economical losses, associated to direct maintenance costs, but above all due to the interruption of the electric

  9. Determinación de Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn y As en aguas del río Rímac por fluorescencia de rayos-X en reflexión total.

    OpenAIRE

    Tiznado, William; Olivera, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Se han analizado muestras tomadas en trece estaciones a lo largo de la cuenca del río Rímac. Los muestreos se realizaron durante un período de un año (septiembre 1998 – agosto 1999), con una frecuencia de un muestreo por mes. Se ha utilizado la técnica de Análisis por Fluorescencia de Rayos-X en Reflexión Total para determinar los elementos Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn y As en su fase disuelta. De los resultados obtenidos se observa: que la relación de la presencia de estaciones mineras con e...

  10. Investigation of pitting resistance in ultra clean IQ-Steel vs commonly used conventional steel; 158Q vs 16MnCr5 : Back-to-back pitting tests

    OpenAIRE

    Bergseth, Ellen; Sosa, Mario; Andersson, Martin; Olofsson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    KTH Machine Design has conducted pitting tests on gears made out of two different types of steel in a standard back-to-back pitting test rig (FZG). The tested gears were produced from Ovako’s IQ-Steel in grade 158Q and compared to the behaviour of a reference steel, commonly used conventional steel in grade 16MnCr5 (reference steel, RS). The test method is a mechanical test procedure generally used to determine the pitting load capacity of gear transmission lubricants, but in this study the p...

  11. Influence of Mn site doping on electrical resistivity of polycrystalline La1-yAyMn1-xBxO3 (A=Ba, Sr; B=Cu, Cr, Co Manganites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have the measured electrical resistivity of La1-yBayMn1-xCuxO3 (0.17≤y≤0.30; 0.04≤x≤0.10, La1-ySryMn1-xCrxO3 and La1-ySryMn1-xCoxO3 (0.270≤y≤0.294; 0.02≤x≤0.10 polycrystalline samples in the 25-325 K temperature range. The increase of Mn site doping concentration leads to an increase of the electrical resistivity of the samples and the appearance of a “double-peak” structure in the electrical resistivity versus temperature graphs. The first peak represents the insulator-metal transition in vicinity of the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition (TC. We have found that the intensity of the second peak increases with an increase of concentration of Mn substituents, due to the hole scattering by the random potential of the Mn site impurities.

  12. Large adiabatic temperature change in magnetoelastic transition in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}Cr{sub 2}Sn{sub 13} Heusler alloy of granular nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, H. R.; Sharma, S. K.; Ram, S., E-mail: prakashhr73@gmail.com [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Chatterjee, S. [High Magnetic Field Lab, UGC-DAE Consortium of Scientific Research, Kolkata-700098 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The Ni-Mn-Sn alloys are a pioneering series of magnetocaloric materials of a huge heat-energy exchanger in the martensite transition. A small additive of nearly 2 at% Cr effectively tunes the valence electron density of 8.090 electrons per atom and a large change in the entropy ΔS{sub M←A} = 4.428 J/kg-K (ΔS{sub M→A} = 3.695 J/kg-K in the recycle) at the martensite ← austenite phase transition as it is useful for the magnetic refrigeration and other cooling devices. The Cr additive tempers the tetragonality with the aspect ratio c/a = 0.903 of the martensite phase and exhibits an adiabatic temperature change of 10 K. At room temperature, a hysteresis loop exhibits 48.91 emu/g saturation magnetization and 82.1 Oe coercivity.

  13. Critical behavior of resistivity in the pressure-induced first to second order transition in Pr0.6Ca0.4Mn0.96B0.04O3 (B=Co and Cr) polycrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, R.; Mahendiran, R.; Arumugam, S.

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated the hydrostatic pressure (P) dependence of the resistivity on Pr0.6Ca0.4Mn0.96B0.04O3 (B = Co and Cr) polycrystals. At ambient pressure, the temperature dependence of resistivity [ρ(T)] of both the samples show a first order paramagnetic insulator-ferromagnetic metallic transition at T=TIM. The application of P on both the samples increases the TIM, reduces the resistivity, and suppresses the hysteresis width, indicating a crossover from first to second order transition. The critical pressure, where the first-second order crossover takes place, are 2.02 and 2.40 GPa for Co and Cr doped samples respectively. The critical property of both systems around second order transition is investigated using Fisher-Langer relation and Suezaki-Mori method. The estimated critical exponents are close to the three-dimensional Heisenberg model for the Co doped sample suggesting short range interaction, and the exponents for the Cr doped sample follow the mean field theory suggesting long range ferromagnetic order. Further, the application of P suppresses the high temperature resistivity by reducing high temperature polarons in the case of the Cr doped sample, but it does not happen for the Co doped sample. The application of P helps to examine the stability of polarons in the high temperature regime.

  14. Evaluation of charge storage ability of chrome doped Mn2O3 nanostructures derived by cathodic electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Darjazi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A facile synthetic route has been proposed to prepare cauliflower-like nanostructures of Cr doped Mn2O3. The synthesis was carried out by constant current cathodic electrodeposition from Mn2+ nitrate solutions containing minor amounts of dichromate. It was found that the presence of Cr mediates the formation of cathodic MnO2 which then reacts with the excess Mn2+ species to form Mn2O3 nanostructures. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA were used to characterize the nanostructures. The storage ability of the obtained nanostructures was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV in 0.5 M Na2SO4 solution. The results indicated that the Cr doped manganese oxide material shows better performance than the non-doped one, and the charge capacity (SC of doped manganese oxide (218 F/g was higher than pure manganese oxide (208 F/g.

  15. Study on the behavior of the heavy metals Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn and {sup 137}Cs in an estuarine ecosystem using Mytilus galloprovincialis as a bioindicator species: the case of Thermaikos gulf, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catsiki, Vassiliki-Angelique [Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Mavro Lithari, 46.7 Km Athens-Sounio, Anavyssos Attikis 19013 (Greece)]. E-mail: cats@ath.hcmr.gr; Florou, H. [National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Ag. Paraskevi 153 10, Athens (Greece)

    2006-07-01

    Mussels are worldwide recognized as pollution bioindicators and used in Mussel Watch programs, because they accumulate pollutants in their tissues at elevated levels in relation to pollutant biological availability in the marine environment. The present study deals with the use of Mytilus galloprovincialis as a local bioindicator of heavy metal and {sup 137}Cs contamination in an estuarine ecosystem (Thermaikos gulf, Greece in Eastern Mediterranean). M. galloprovincialis samples were collected monthly from two aquaculture farms during the period April to October 2000. Analyses for the heavy metals Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn and {sup 137}Cs showed that the concentrations measured were low and similar to those from other non-polluted Mediterranean areas. In terms of the two sampling stations, there were no statistically significant differences between them. On the contrary, the seasonal evolution of either heavy metals or {sup 137}Cs levels presented high variation. The levels were found to increase during the cold period of the year, especially for Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr which are essential for life. Stable metals were positively inter-related and moreover, metals more involved in biochemical activities seem to present more correlations than others with less significant role in the metabolism of the organisms.

  16. The effect of particle size of iron powder on {alpha} to {gamma} transformation in the nanostructured high nitrogen Fe-Cr-Mn-Mo stainless steel produced by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehrani, F.; Abbasi, M.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golozar, M.A., E-mail: golozar@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panjepour, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} High nitrogen austenitic Fe18Cr10Mn4Mo stainless steel can be produced by MA and without annealing. {yields} The initial powder particle size plays an important role on the rate of nitrogen absorption and consequently on phase transformation kinetics. {yields} Nitrogen content in the steel is the most effective parameter for {alpha} to {gamma} kinetic enhancement. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of particle size of iron powder on {alpha} to {gamma} transformation in the nanostructured high nitrogen Fe-18Cr-10Mn-4Mo stainless steel, produced by mechanical alloying (MA) was investigated. For this purpose iron powders with two different particle sizes were used. MA was performed under nitrogen atmosphere, using a high-energy planetary ball mill. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and nitrogen analysis revealed that by decreasing the iron mean particle size, a higher transformation rate is obtained due to increase in the rate of nitrogen absorption. Moreover, nitrogen solubility in both milled samples was increased noticeably by increasing the milling time. This is believed to be due to the increase of lattice defects and development of nanostructure through MA. Variations of grain size and internal lattice strain versus milling time, for both iron particle sizes, showed that the critical ferrite grain size for austenite nucleation is less than 10 nm.

  17. Effect of microstructure on the corrosion and deformation behavior of a newly developed 6Mn-5Cr-1.5Cu corrosion-resistant white iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. N. V. R. S. S. V. Prasada; Patwardhan, A. K.; Jain, N. C.

    1993-02-01

    An experimental study has been made of the effect of heat treatment on the transformation behavior of a 4.8 pct Cr white iron, alloyed with 6 pct Mn and 1.5 pct Cu, by employing optical metallography, X-ray diffractometry, and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques, with a view to assess the suitability of the different microstructures in resisting aqueous corrosion. The matrix microstructure in the as-cast condition, comprising pearlite + bainite/martensite, transformed to austenite on heat-treating at all the temperatures between 900 °C and 1050 °C. Increasing the soaking period at each of the heat-treating temperatures led to an increase in the volume fraction and stability of austenite. M3C was the dominant carbide present in the as-cast condition. On heat-treating, different carbides formed: M23C6 carbide was present on heat-treating at 900 °C and 950 °C; on heat-treating at 1000 °C, M7C3 formed and persisted even on heattreating at 1050 °C. The possible formation of M5C2 carbide in the as-cast and heat-treated conditions (900 °C and 950 °C) is also indicated. Dispersed carbides (DC), present in austenite up to 950 °C, mostly comprised M3C and M5C2. On stress relieving of the heat-treated samples, M7C3-type DC also formed. The hardness changes were found to be consistent with the micro-structural changes occurring on heat-treating. The as-cast state was characterized by a reasonable resistance to corrosion in 5 pct NaCl solution. On heat-treating, the corrosion resistance improved over that in the as-cast state. After 4 hours soaking, increasing the temperature from 900 °C to 1050 °C led to an improvement in corrosion resistance. However, after 10 hours soaking, corrosion resistance decreased on increasing the temperature from 900 °C to 950 °C and improved thereafter on increasing the heat-treating temperature. Deformation behavior responded to the microstructure on similar lines as the corrosion behavior. Although in an early stage of

  18. Estudo de metais pesados (Co, Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Pb e Zn na Bacia do Tarumã-Açu Manaus (AM Heavy metal (Co, Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Pb e Zn study in the Tarumã-Açu Basin Manaus (AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genilson Pereira Santana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos gerados em domicílios incluem diversos produtos, como pesticidas, produtos farmacêuticos, detergentes, óleos de cozinha, metais pesados contidos em baterias e outros utensílios. Esses resíduos são lançados continuamente em aterro sanitário ou lixões em cidades como Manaus. O chorume produzido nesses aterros, quando não tratados, contamina recursos hídricos superficiais e subterrâneos. Neste estudo foi feita uma avaliação das conseqüências da liberação do chorume no sistema hídrico da bacia do Tarumã-Açu. Amostras de água e sedimento foram coletadas nos igarapés Matrinxã, Acará, Bolívia, bacia do Tarumã-Açu e dentro do aterro sanitário (Manaus - Amazonas - Brasil em março 2001. As amostras de água foram filtradas em filtro Milipore (0,45 mm de poro e, em seguida, tratadas com HNO3 concentrado. As amostras de sedimento foram peneiradas em malha de 0,053 mm e digeridas com HCl:HNO3 (1:3 a 150ºC. As concentrações de alguns metais pesados (Co, Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Pb e Zn foram determinadas nas amostras de água e sedimento por espectrometria de absorção atômica de chama. Os resultados revelaram que a concentração dos metais pesados é muito acima dos permitidos pela resolução 357/2005 do CONAMA em praticamente todos os locais amostrados, mostrando que o Aterro Sanitário é um dos principais responsáveis pelo impacto ambiental observado nos corpos hídricos estudados. As análises dos componentes principais (PCA e hierárquica de cluster (HCA, revelam que os pontos de coleta localizados dentro do aterro sanitário apresentam características diferentes dos outros locais amostrados. Além disso, o HCA e PCA mostraram que existe uma similaridade entre os pontos de coleta localizados fora do aterro o que permite afirmar que o chorume do aterro se dissolve por todo corpo hídrico estudado.Domestic sewage involves several products, such as pesticides, pharmaceutics products, detergents, soybean oil

  19. Thermodynamic modeling of La2O3-SrO-Mn2O3-Cr2O3 for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povoden-Karadeniz, E.; Chen, Ming; Ivas, Toni

    2012-01-01

    The thermodynamic La–Sr–Mn–Cr–O oxide database is obtained as an extension of thermodynamic descriptions of oxide subsystems using the calculation of phase diagrams approach. Concepts of the thermodynamic modeling of solid oxide phases are discussed. Gibbs energy functions of SrCrO4, Sr2.67Cr2O8,...... thermodynamics of traditional lanthanum manganite cathode with Cr-impurities. It represents the fundament for extensions to higher orders, aiming on thermodynamic calculations in noble symmetric solid oxide fuel cells...

  20. First-principles investigations into the thermodynamics of cation disorder and its impact on electronic structure and magnetic properties of spinel Co(Cr1-x Mn x )2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debashish; Ghosh, Subhradip

    2017-02-01

    Cation disorder over different crystallographic sites in spinel oxides is known to affect their properties. Recent experiments on Mn doped multiferroic \\text{CoC}{{\\text{r}}2}{{\\text{O}}4} indicate that a possible distribution of Mn atoms among tetrahedrally and octahedrally coordinated sites in the spinel lattice give rise to different variations in the structural parameters and saturation magnetisations in different concentration regimes of Mn atoms substituting the Cr. A composition dependent magnetic compensation behaviour points to the role conversions of the magnetic constituents. In this work, we have investigated the thermodynamics of cation disorder in \\text{Co}{{≤ft(\\text{C}{{\\text{r}}1-x}\\text{M}{{\\text{n}}x}\\right)}2}{{\\text{O}}4} system and its consequences on the structural, electronic and magnetic properties, using results from first-principles electronic structure calculations. We have computed the variations in the cation-disorder as a function of Mn concentration and the temperature and found that at the annealing temperature of the experiment many of the systems exhibit cation disorder. Our results support the interpretations of the experimental results regarding the qualitative variations in the sub-lattice occupancies and the associated magnetisation behaviour, with composition. We have analysed the variations in structural, magnetic and electronic properties of this system with variations in the compositions and the degree of cation disorder from the variations in their electronic structures and by using the ideas from crystal field theory. Our study provides a complete microscopic picture of the effects that are responsible for composition dependent behavioural differences of the properties of this system. This work lays down a general framework, based upon results from first-principles calculations, to understand and analyse the substitutional magnetic spinel oxides A{{≤ft({{B}1-x}{{C}x}\\right)}2}{{\\text{O}}4} in presence of

  1. Evolution of secondary phases in 0.17C-16Cr-11Mn-0.43N austenitic stainless steel at 800 and 850°C: Thermodynamic modeling of phase equilibria and experimental kinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čička R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The precipitation of secondary phases was investigated in the 0.17C-16Cr-11Mn-0.43N austenitic stainless steel during annealing at 800 and 850°C for times between 5 min and 100 h. Light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and differential thermal analysis were used in experiments. Thermodynamic calculations were done by the ThermoCalc database software package. Cr2N and M23C6 were considered to be stable phases at the annealing temperatures. Cells consisting of alternating Cr2N and austenite lamellae were observed in the steel microstructure after sufficiently long annealing. The metastable chi phase was also found in all the annealed samples. After 100 h of annealing the equilibrium sigma started to precipitate. The thermodynamically predicted M6C was not confirmed experimentally in any of the annealed samples. DTA analysis showed the initial precipitation stage was followed by the phase dissolution. For the investigated steel the computational thermodynamics can be used only for qualitative interpretation of the experimental results as the measured endothermal peaks were found to be shifted of about 50 ÷ 70°C related to the computed results.

  2. Tris(pyridinealdoximato)metal complexes as ligands for the synthesis of asymmetric heterodinuclear Cr(III)M species [M = Zn(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), Mn(II), Cr(II), Co(III)]: a magneto-structural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S; Weyhermüller, T; Bill, E; Wieghardt, K; Chaudhuri, P

    2001-12-17

    Reactions of the LCr(III) unit with an in situ prepared M(PyA)(3)(n-) ion, where L represents 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane and PyA(-) is the monoanion of pyridine-2-aldoxime, yield heterodinuclear complexes of general formula [LCr(III)(PyA)(3)M](2+/3+) as perchlorate salts, where M = Cr(II) (1), Mn(II) (2), low-spin Fe(II) (3), Ni(II) (4), Cu(II) (5), Zn(II) (6), and low-spin Co(III) (7). These compounds contain three oximato anions as bridging ligands. The hexadentate ligand with the identical donor atoms, tris(2-aldoximato-6-pyridyl)phosphine, P(PyA)(3), has been employed to prepare a second Cr(III)Ni(II) species 8, whose magnetic properties differ significantly from those of 4. Complexes 1-8 have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, IR, UV-vis, Mössbauer, and EPR spectroscopies, and variable-temperature (2-295 K) magnetic susceptibility measurements. They are isostructural in the sense that they all contain a terminal Cr(III) ion in a distorted octahedral environment, CrN(3)O(3), and a second six-coordinated metal ion M in a mostly trigonal prismatic MN(6) geometry. The crystal structures of the perchlorate salts of 2-5, 7, and 8 have been determined by X-ray crystallography at 100 K. The structures consist of mixed-metal Cr(III)M(II) and Cr(III)Co(III) complexes with a geometry in which two pseudooctahedral polyhedra are joined by three oximato (=N-O(-)) groups, with an intramolecular Cr.M(Co) distance in the range of 3.4-3.7 A. The cyclic voltammograms of the complexes reveal ligand oxidation and reduction processes, and in addition, metal-centered oxidation processes have been observed. X-band EPR spectroscopy has been used to establish the electronic ground state of the heterodinuclear complexes. Analysis of the susceptibility data indicates the presence of weak exchange interactions, both ferro- and antiferromagnetic, between the paramagnetic centers. A qualitative rationale on the basis of the Goodenough

  3. Site occupancy of transition elements in C15 NbCr2 laves phase: A first-principles study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Q.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using first-principles calculations, site occupancy behaviors of transition elements in C15 NbCr2 Laves phase are systematically investigated. Elements Y, Sc, Zr, Hf, Cd, Ta, Ti and Ag prefer to occupy the Nb site, and elements Zn, Pt, Re, Tc, Ir, V, Os, Rh, Ru, Ni, Co, Mn, Fe and Cu favor to occupy the Cr site; whereas elements Mo, W, Pd and Au have weak site preference for Cr or Nb site. The present calculations agree well with the available experimental and previously calculated results. It was found that the site occupancy behavior of transition elements in NbCr2 is mainly affected by the radii of transition elements. The present calculations also propose the correlation between the site preference energy and radii of transition elements.

  4. Electrochemical behaviour of LiMyMn2–yO4 (M = Cu, Cr; 0 ≤ y ≤ 0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Spinel lithium manganese oxide, LiMn2O4, is beset with problems of capacity fade upon repeated cycling. The loss in capacity upon cycling is attributable to Jahn–Teller distortion and manganese dissolution in the electrolyte in the charged state. One way to circumvent this capacity fade is to introduce other 3d ...

  5. Reactions of M(+)(H2O)n, n < 40, M = V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, with D2O reveal water activation in Mn(+)(H2O)n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Christian; Beyer, Martin K

    2012-11-08

    Reactions of M(+)(H(2)O)(n), n hydrogen occurs. For manganese, HDO formation occurs in the size regime n ≈ 8-20. Additional experiments show that, in this size regime, Mn(+)(H(2)O)(n) is slowly converted into HMnOH(+)(H(2)O)(n-1) under the influence of room temperature blackbody radiation. The reaction is mildly exothermic; ΔH ≈ -21 ± 10 kJ mol(-1).

  6. S-C Mylonites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lister, G.S.; Snoke, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    Two types of foliations are commonly developed in mylonites and mylonitic rocks: (a) S-surfaces related to the accumulation of finite strain and (b) C-surfaces related to displacement discontinuities or zones of relatively high shear strain. There are two types of S-C mylonites. Type I S-C

  7. Species Composition (SC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Caratti

    2006-01-01

    The FIREMON Species Composition (SC) method is used to provide ocular estimates of cover and height measurements for plant species on a macroplot. The SC method provides plant species composition and coverage estimates to describe a stand or plant community and can be used to document changes over time. It is suited for a wide variety of vegetation types and is...

  8. Magnetotransport in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/CuCr2O4/Fe3O4 magnetic junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata-Harms, Jodi M.; Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Wong, Franklin J.; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany B.; Jenkins, Catherine A.; Arenholz, Elke; Suzuki, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate distinct magnetic and resistive switching with junction magnetoresistance up to -6% in magnetic tunnel junctions with a CuCr2O4 barrier. Junction magnetoresistance is inversely related to barrier thickness and reveals a maximum at a finite applied bias that converges to zero bias at low temperatures for all barrier thicknesses. The non-monotonic bias dependence is attributed to a charge gap from the Fe3O4 electrode and possible spin filtering from the spin-split conduction band of the ferrimagnetic CuCr2O4 barrier.

  9. Empirical constraints on partitioning of platinum group elements between Cr-spinel and primitive terrestrial magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Woo; Kamenetsky, Vadim; Campbell, Ian; Park, Gyuseung; Hanski, Eero; Pushkarev, Evgeny

    2017-11-01

    Recent experimental studies and in situ LA-ICP-MS analysis on natural Cr-spinel have shown that Rh and IPGEs (Ir-group platinum group elements: Ru, Ir, Os) are enriched in the lattice of Cr-spinel. However, the factors controlling the partitioning behaviour of these elements are not well constrained. In this study, we report the Rh, IPGE, and trace element contents in primitive Cr-spinel, measured by LA-ICP-MS, from nine volcanic suites covering various tectonic settings including island arc picrites, boninites, large igneous province picrites and mid-ocean ridge basalts. The aim is to understand the factors controlling the enrichment of Rh and IPGEs in Cr-spinels, to estimate empirical partition coefficients between Cr-spinel and silicate melts, and to investigate the role of Cr-spinel fractional crystallization on the PGE geochemistry of primitive magmas during the early stages of fractional crystallization. There are systematic differences in trace elements, Rh and IPGEs in Cr-spinels from arc-related magmas (Arc Group Cr-spinel), intraplate magmas (Intraplate Group Cr-spinel), and mid-ocean ridge magmas (MORB Group Cr-spinel). Arc Group Cr-spinels are systematically enriched in Sc, Co and Mn and depleted in Ni compared to the MORB Group Cr-spinels. Intraplate Group Cr-spinels are distinguished from the Arc Group Cr-spinels by their high Ni contents. Both the Arc and Intraplate Group Cr-spinels have total Rh and IPGE contents of 22-689 ppb whereas the MORB Group Cr-spinels are depleted in Rh and IPGE (total diagrams the Arc Group Cr-spinels are characterized by a fractionated pattern with high Rh and low Os. The Intraplate Group Cr-spinels show flat patterns with positive Ru anomalies. Our results, together with the experimental and empirical data from previous studies, show that PGE patterns of Cr-spinel largely mimic that of the rock in which they are found, and that Rh, Ir and Os contents increase with increasing Fe3+ contents (i.e. magnetite component) in Cr

  10. Influence of different combined severe shot peening and laser surface melting treatments on the fatigue performance of 20CrMnTi steel gear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, You, E-mail: llvvyou@163.com.cn; Lei, Liqun; Sun, Lina

    2016-03-21

    In this paper, the effect of severe shot peening combined with laser melting (LSMSSP for short) on the fatigue resistance of 20CrMiTi steel gears is investigated in comparison with the effect of traditional shot peening on the fatigue resistance of the laser surface melted (LSMTSP for short) 20CrMiTi steel gear. The surface characteristics of the gear have been analyzed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The Forschungsstelle für Zahnräder und Getriebebau (FZG) back-to-back spur gear test rig was used for fatigue experiments. Experimental results showed that the residual stresses, full width at half maximum (FWHM), microhardness and retained austenite of the LSMSSP gears and LSMTSP gear were entirely different. Although the LSMSSP gears had higher surface roughness than the LSMTSP gear, the LSMSSP gears still had better fatigue resistance than the LSMTSP gear and laser surface melted gear. The nanocrystallized surface layer on the gear tooth flank created by severe shot peening might be a very important factor for improving the fatigue property of the LSMSSP gears.

  11. The effect of solid solution treatment on the hardness and microstructure of 0.6%wt C-10.8%wt Mn-1.44%wt Cr austenitic manganese steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjaman, F.; Bahfie, F.; Astuti, W.; Shofi, A.

    2017-04-01

    Austenitic manganese steel is steel alloy that has high manganese content (10-14%wt Mn). The characteristics of austenitic manganese steel are good in toughness, ductility, and wear resistance. Effect of solid solution treatment on the hardness and microstructure of austenitic manganese steel was studied in this experiment. The solid solution treatment process of austenitic manganese steel, 0.6%wt C-10.8%wt Mn-1.44%wt Cr, was conducted by heating the material at varied temperatures (950°C, 1000°C, 1050°C) for an hour and then quenching it in two different quenching media, i.e. oil and water. Further, the samples were tempered at three different temperatures (300°C, 400°C, and 500°C) for 2 hours. The treated materials were analyzed by Rockwell Hardness Tester to obtain the information of materials hardness and by an optical microscope and XRD to investigate the microstructure phase of the treated materials. Heating the austenitic manganese steel at 950°C for an hour followed by water quenching dissolved all carbide in as-cast condition and resulted the fully austenitic on its microstructure. Carbide precipitation occurred due to the prolongation of soaking time in solid solution treatment and tempering process. The optimum hardness of sample was 53.3 HRC, which was resulted by heating this material until 1000°C for an hour, followed by water quenching and tempering at 400°C for 2 hours.

  12. Spark plasma sintering of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}–LaCr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} composite thermistor ceramics and a comparison investigation with conventional sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Qing [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments of CAS, Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry of CAS, Urumqi 830011 (China); Chang, Aimin, E-mail: changam@ms.xjb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments of CAS, Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry of CAS, Urumqi 830011 (China); Wu, Yiquan, E-mail: wuy@alfred.edu [Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States); Li, Hongyi [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments of CAS, Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry of CAS, Urumqi 830011 (China); Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Institute of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Urumqi 830013 (China)

    2016-08-05

    The microstructure and negative temperature coefficient (NTC) electrical properties of the MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}–LaCr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} composite ceramics prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) were investigated. The effects of SPS and conventional sintering (CS) on electrical properties and high temperature aging characteristics of 0.6MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}–0.4LaCr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} ceramics were comparatively studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed both SPS- and CS-sintered ceramics were indexed to be cubic spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase and orthorhombic perovskite LaCr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} phase isomorphic to LaCrO{sub 3}. Microstructural study reveled that SPS-sintered specimens had a higher relative density more than 96%. The electrical properties of the SPS-sintered NTC thermistors could be adjusted by changing MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} content and sintering temperature. The SPS-sintered samples possessed a higher resistivity than that from conventionally sintered ceramics. The reasons for the increase of resistivity in the SPS-sintered samples, and the aging mechanism of the thermistor ceramics were investigated through applying the defect chemistry theory. - Highlights: • MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}–LaCr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} composite ceramics have been successfully fabricated by SPS. • Comparison investigation has been performed on the SPS- and CS-sintered ceramics. • The NTC electrical properties of these composite ceramics have been investigated. • The aging mechanism of the thermistor ceramics has been investigated.

  13. DNA interaction, antimicrobial, anticancer activities and molecular docking study of some new VO(II), Cr(III), Mn(II) and Ni(II) mononuclear chelates encompassing quaridentate imine ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Laila H; Abu-Dief, Ahmed M; Aboelez, Moustafa O; Hassan Abdel-Mawgoud, Azza A

    2017-05-01

    The present study was conducted to synthesis of some new imine Cr(III), VO(II), Mn(II) and Ni(II) complexes derived from the condensation of 2-amino phenol with 2-hydroxynapthaldehyde were synthesized. The prepared HNPN imine ligand was analyzed by its melting point, IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopies. The investigated HNPN imine complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT IR, UV-vis and thermal analysis (TGA) under nitrogen atmosphere from ambient temperature to 750°C. The experimental results revealed that the investigated complexes contain hydrated water molecules. The molar conductance values of complexes are relatively low, indicating the non-electrolytic nature of these complexes. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show that the investigated complexes are paramagnetic. Moreover, the stability constants of the preparing complexes were determined spectrophotometrically. All the complexes were found to be monomeric 1:1 (M:L) stoichiometry in nature with octahedral geometry for Cr(III), tetrahedral for Mn(II), square planner for Ni(II) and square pyramidal for VO(II). Moreover, the prepared HNPN imine ligand and its complexes were evaluated for antimicrobial effect against some types of bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis (+ve), Escherichia coli(-ve) and Staphylococcus aureus (+ve) and some types of fungi such as Aspergillusniger, Candida glabrata and Trichophyton rubrum. The results of these studies indicate that the metal complexes exhibit a stronger antibacterial and antifungal efficiency compared to their corresponding imine ligand. Moreover, the interaction of the investigated complexes with CT-DNA was checked using spectral studies, viscosity measurements and gel electrophoreses. The absorption titration studies revealed that each of these complexes is an avid binder to calf thymus-DNA. Also, there was appreciable changes in the relative viscosity of DNA, which is consistent with enhanced hydrophobic interaction of the aromatic rings and

  14. SC tuning fork

    CERN Multimedia

    The tuning fork used to modulate the radiofrequency system of the synchro cyclotron (SC) from 1957 to 1973. This piece is an unused spare part. The SC was the 1st accelerator built at CERN. It operated from August 1957 until it was closed down at the end of 1990. In the SC the magnetic field did not change with time, and the particles were accelerated in successive pulses by a radiofrequency voltage of some 20kV which varied in frequency as they spiraled outwards towards the extraction radius. The frequency varied from 30MHz to about 17Mz in each pulse. The tuning fork vibrated at 55MHz in vacuum in an enclosure which formed a variable capacitor in the tuning circuit of the RF system, allowing the RF to vary over the appropriate range to accelerate protons from the centre of the macine up to 600Mev at extraction radius. In operation the tips of the tuning fork blade had an amplitude of movement of over 1 cm. The SC accelerator underwent extensive improvements from 1973 to 1975, including the installation of a...

  15. Preparation and characterization of (Ba,Cs)(M,Ti) 8O 16 (M = Al 3+, Fe 3+, Ga 3+, Cr 3+, Sc 3+, Mg 2+) hollandite ceramics developed for radioactive cesium immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin-Chevaldonnet, V.; Caurant, D.; Dannoux, A.; Gourier, D.; Charpentier, T.; Mazerolles, L.; Advocat, T.

    2007-06-01

    Among the different matrices proposed for selective and durable immobilization of radioactive cesium, (Ba x,Cs y)(M,Ti) 8O 16 hollandite ceramics, with x + y risks of Cs vaporization during synthesis, calcined powders were sintered in air at moderate temperature (1200 °C). This oxide route appeared as an alternative to the alkoxide route generally proposed to prepare hollandite waste form. For y = 0, single phase Ba x(M,Ti) 8O 16 was obtained only for M 3+ = Al 3+, Cr 3+ and Fe 3+. For y ≠ 0 and Fe 3+, all cesium was incorporated in hollandite and ceramic was well densified. For Cr 3+ and Ga 3+, only 46% and 63%, respectively, of Cs were retained in hollandite phase. For these samples, a high fraction of Cs was either evaporated and/or concentrated in a Cs-rich parasitic phase. Mixed hollandite samples with M 3+ = Ga 3+ + Al 3+ and M 3+ = Fe 3+ + Al 3+ were also synthesized and the best results regarding Cs immobilization and ceramic density were obtained with iron + aluminum but the sample porosity was higher than that of the sample containing only iron. All results were discussed by considering cations size and refractory character of oxides and hollandite ceramics.

  16. Statistical theory of diffusion in concentrated bcc and fcc alloys and concentration dependencies of diffusion coefficients in bcc alloys FeCu, FeMn, FeNi, and FeCr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaks, V. G.; Khromov, K. Yu., E-mail: khromov-ky@nrcki.ru; Pankratov, I. R. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute,” (Russian Federation); Popov, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The statistical theory of diffusion in concentrated bcc and fcc alloys with arbitrary pairwise interatomic interactions based on the master equation approach is developed. Vacancy–atom correlations are described using both the second-shell-jump and the nearest-neighbor-jump approximations which are shown to be usually sufficiently accurate. General expressions for Onsager coefficients in terms of microscopic interatomic interactions and some statistical averages are given. Both the analytical kinetic mean-field and the Monte Carlo methods for finding these averages are described. The theory developed is used to describe sharp concentration dependencies of diffusion coefficients in several iron-based alloy systems. For the bcc alloys FeCu, FeMn, and FeNi, we predict the notable increase of the iron self-diffusion coefficient with solute concentration c, up to several times, even though values of c possible for these alloys do not exceed some percent. For the bcc alloys FeCr at high temperatures T ≳ 1400 K, we show that the very strong and peculiar concentration dependencies of both tracer and chemical diffusion coefficients observed in these alloys can be naturally explained by the theory, without invoking exotic models discussed earlier.

  17. Study of the properties of flux cored wire of Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Mo-Ni-V-Co system for the strengthening of nodes and parts of equipment used in the mineral mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, A. I.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Usoltsev, A. A.; Kryukov, R. E.; Osetkovsky, I. V.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of the introduction of vanadium and cobalt into the charge of the powder surfacing wire of Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Mo-Ni system is studied. In the laboratory conditions, the samples of flux cored wires were produced. The surfacing made by the prepared wire was produced under the flux AN-26C, on the plates of steel St3 in 6 layers with the help of ASAW-1250 welding tractor. Reduction of carbon content in the deposited layer to 0.19-0.2% with simultaneous change in the content of chromium, nickel, molybdenum and other elements present in it contributes to the enlargement of the martensite needles and the increase in the size of the former austenite grain. The obtained dependences of hardness of the deposited layer and its wear resistance on the mass fraction of elements, included in the composition of powder wires of the proposed system, can be used to predict the hardness of the welded layer and its wear resistance under different operating conditions for mining equipment and coal mining equipment.

  18. Effects of Ag addition on electrical transport and magnetic properties of La{sub 0.67}Ba{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 0.88}Cr{sub 0.12}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Xiaobo [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Liu Yihua [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China)]. E-mail: yhliu@sdu.edu.cn; Yin Na [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Wang Chengjian [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Mei Liangmo [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China)

    2006-11-15

    We have prepared a series of polycrystalline manganites with the nominal compositions, La{sub 0.67}Ba{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 0.88}Cr{sub 0.12}O{sub 3}/Ag{sub x} (LBMCO/Ag{sub x}) (x is the mole fraction) with x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.23, 0.27, 0.3, 0.35. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the samples with x>0.05 are two-phase composites. The Ag addition in LBMCO improves the properties of grain surfaces/boundaries and reduces the resistivity of the composites. For x=0.30 sample, a minimum resistivity is obtained and a maximum room temperature magnetoresistance up to -54.5% was observed at 288K, 1T field. The room temperature T{sub C} and the reduced resistivity are responsible for the enhancement of room temperature MR.

  19. SCC investigation of low alloy ultra-high strength steel 30CrMnSiNi2A in 3.5wt% NaCl solution by slow strain rate technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jianhua

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate stress corrosion cracking (SCC mechanism of low alloy ultra-high strength steel 30CrMnSiNi2A in environment containing NaCl, SCC behavior of the steel in 3.5wt% NaCl solution is investigated by slow strain rate technique (SSRT with various strain rates and applied potentials, surface analysis technique, and electrochemical measurements. SCC susceptibility of the steel increases rapidly with strain rate decreasing from 1 × 10−5 s−1 to 5 × 10−7 s−1, and becomes stable when strain rate is lower than 5 × 10−7 s−1. SCC propagation of the steel in the solution at open circuit potential (OCP needs sufficient hydrogen which is supplied at a certain strain rate. Fracture surface at OCP has similar characteristics with that at cathodic polarization −1000 mVSCE, which presents characteristic fractography of hydrogen induced cracking (HIC. All of these indicate that SCC behavior of the steel in the solution at OCP is mainly controlled by HIC rather than anodic dissolution (AD.

  20. Characterization of La1-xSrxMnO3±d (x = 0.15, d 0) and La1-xSrxCrO3±d (x = 0.2, d 0) Powders by X-ray Powder Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf; Andersen, Mette M.; Bjerrum, Niels

    1996-01-01

    C, resulting in homogeneous single phased ceramic powders. X-ray diffraction diagrams were taken using copper Ka radiation with a Bragg-Brentano diffractometer. The obtained X-ray diagrams of the synthesised La0.85Sr0.15MnO3±d and La0.8Sr0.2CrO3±d (d 0) powders were compared to data in the literature which...

  1. Influence of annealing temperature on the electrochemical and surface properties of the 5-V spinel cathode material LiCr0.2Ni0.4Mn1.4O4 synthesized by a sol–gel technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza; Malmgren, Sara; Edström, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    LiCr0.2Ni0.4Mn1.4O4 was synthesized by a sol–gel technique in which tartaric acid was used as oxide precursor. The synthesized powder was annealed at five different temperatures from 600 to 1,000 °C and tested as a 5-V cathode material in Li-ion batteries. The study shows that annealing at higher...

  2. Effect of A-site cation size on the structural, magnetic, and electrical properties of La{sub 1−x}Nd{sub x}Mn{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Devinder, E-mail: drdssambyal@rediffmail.com; Mahajan, Arun

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Rare earth chromium manganites have been synthesized by sol–gel method. • Upon Nd doping on La site, unit cell volume and the B–O–B bond angle are reduced. • The magnetic interactions are predominantly ferromagnetic. • The Curie temperature decreases with increasing Nd content. • Electric transport behavior can be described by the small polaron hoping model. - Abstract: A systematic investigation of rare earth chromium manganites with general formula La{sub 1−x}Nd{sub x}Mn{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (x = 0.0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9) has been undertaken mainly to understand their structural, magnetic as well as electrical behavior. Upon Nd doping on La site, unit cell volume and the B–O–B bond angle are reduced. The magnetic interactions in the materials are predominantly ferromagnetic and we believe that double exchange interactions between Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+}, and Mn{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} should be the origin of ferromagnetism. The Curie temperature decreases with increasing Nd content. All the samples are semiconducting throughout the temperature range studied. The electric transport behavior can be described by the adiabatic small polaron hoping model, with an apparent increase of polaron activation energy with Nd content.

  3. DiSC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Sloth, Christoffer; Bruun Andresen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the MATLAB simulation framework, DiSC, for verifying voltage control approaches in power distribution systems. It consists of real consumption data, stochastic models of renewable resources, flexible assets, electrical grid, and models of the underlying communication channels....... The simulation framework makes it possible to validate control approaches, and thus advance realistic and robust control algorithms for distribution system voltage control. Two examples demonstrate the potential voltage issues from penetration of renewables in the distribution grid, along with simple control...

  4. Behaviour of DFT-based approaches to the spin-orbit term of zero-field splitting tensors: a case study of metallocomplexes, MIII(acac)3(M = V, Cr, Mn, Fe and Mo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, Kenji; Toyota, Kazuo; Sato, Kazunobu; Shiomi, Daisuke; Takui, Takeji

    2017-11-15

    Spin-orbit contributions to the zero-field splitting (ZFS) tensor (D SO tensor) of M III (acac) 3 complexes (M = V, Cr, Mn, Fe and Mo; acac = acetylacetonate anion) are evaluated by means of ab initio (a hybrid CASSCF/MRMP2) and DFT (Pederson-Khanna (PK) and natural orbital-based Pederson-Khanna (NOB-PK)) methods, focusing on the behaviour of DFT-based approaches to the D SO tensors against the valence d-electron configurations of the transition metal ions in octahedral coordination. Both the DFT-based approaches reproduce trends in the D tensors. Significantly, the differences between the theoretical and experimental D (D = D ZZ - (D XX + D YY )/2) values are smaller in NOB-PK than in PK, emphasising the usefulness of the natural orbital-based approach to the D tensor calculations of transition metal ion complexes. In the case of d 2 and d 4 electronic configurations, the D SO (NOB-PK) values are considerably underestimated in the absolute magnitude, compared with the experimental ones. The D SO tensor analysis based on the orbital region partitioning technique (ORPT) revealed that the D SO contributions attributed to excitations from the singly occupied region (SOR) to the unoccupied region (UOR) are significantly underestimated in the DFT-based approaches to all the complexes under study. In the case of d 3 and d 5 configurations, the (SOR → UOR) excitations contribute in a nearly isotropic manner, which causes fortuitous error cancellations in the DFT-based D SO values. These results indicate that more efforts to develop DFT frameworks should be directed towards the reproduction of quantitative D SO tensors of transition metal complexes with various electronic configurations and local symmetries around metal ions.

  5. Gaseous Phase and Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage Properties of Ti50Zr1Ni44X5 (X = Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Cu for Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Nei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural, gaseous phase hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties of a series of the Ti50Zr1Ni44X5 (X = Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Cu metal hydride alloys were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed the multi-phase nature of all alloys, which were composed of a stoichiometric TiNi matrix, a hyperstoichiometric TiNi minor phase, and a Ti2Ni secondary phase. Improvement in synergetic effects between the main TiNi and secondary Ti2Ni phases, determined by the amount of distorted lattice region in TiNi near Ti2Ni, was accomplished by the substitution of an element with a higher work function, which consequently causes a dramatic increase in gaseous phase hydrogen storage capacity compared to the Ti50Zr1Ni49 base alloy. Capacity performance is further enhanced in the electrochemical environment, especially in the cases of the Ti50Zr1Ni49 base alloy and Ti50Zr1Ni44Co5 alloy. Although the TiNi-based alloys in the current study show poorer high-rate performances compared to the commonly used AB5, AB2, and A2B7 alloys, they have adequate capacity performances and also excel in terms of cost and cycle stability. Among the alloys investigated, the Ti50Zr1Ni44Fe5 alloy demonstrated the best balance among capacity (394 mAh·g−1, high-rate performance, activation, and cycle stability and is recommended for follow-up full-cell testing and as the base composition for future formula optimization. A review of previous research works regarding the TiNi metal hydride alloys is also included.

  6. The effect of interstitial carbon on the mechanical properties and dislocation substructure evolution in Fe 40.4 Ni 11.3 Mn 34.8 Al 7.5 Cr 6 high entropy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhangwei; Baker, Ian; Cai, Zhonghou; Chen, Si; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Guo, Wei

    2016-11-01

    A systematic study of the effects of up to 1.1 at. % carbon on the mechanical properties and evolution of the dislocation substructure in a series of a high entropy alloys (HEA) based on Fe40.4Ni11.3Mn34.8Al7.5Cr6 is presented. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atom probe tomography (APT) were used to show that all the alloys are single-phase f.c.c. random solid solutions. The lattice constant, determined from synchrotron XRD measurements, increases linearly with increasing carbon concentration, which leads to a linear relationship between the yield strength and the carbon concentration. The dislocation substructures, as determined by a TEM, show a transition from wavy slip to planar slip and, at higher strains, and from cell-forming structure (dislocations cells, cell blocks and dense dislocation walls) to non-cell forming structure (Taylor lattice, microbands and domain boundaries) with the addition of carbon, features related to the increase in lattice friction stress. The stacking fault energy (measured via weak-beam imaging of the separation of dislocation partials) decreases with increasing carbon content, which also contributes to the transition from wavy slip to planar slip. The formation of non-cell forming structure induced by carbon leads to a high degree of strain hardening and a substantial increase in the ultimate tensile strength. The consequent postponement of necking due to the high strain hardening, along with the plasticity accommodation arising from the formation of microbands and domain boundaries, result in an increase of ductility due to the carbon addition. (C) 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrical and magnetic properties of La{sub 0.67}Ba{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 1-x}(Me){sub x}O{sub 3} perovskite manganites: case of manganese substituted by trivalent (Me = Cr) and tetravalent (Me = Ti) elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oumezzine, Marwene [Universite de Monastir, Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, Monastir (Tunisia); Universite de Rennes 1, Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226, Rennes Cedex (France); Pena, Octavio; Guizouarn, Thierry [Universite de Rennes 1, Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226, Rennes Cedex (France); Kallel, Sami; Kallel, Nabil; Oumezzine, Mohamed [Universite de Monastir, Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, Monastir (Tunisia); Gouttefangeas, Francis [Universite de Rennes 1, C.M.E.B.A. (Centre de Microscopie Electronique a Balayage et Microanalyse), Rennes Cedex (France)

    2014-03-15

    The effects of non-magnetic Ti{sup 4+} substitution on the structural, electrical and magnetic properties of La{sub 0.67}Ba{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} (0 ≤x ≤0.1) are investigated and compared to those existing in La{sub 0.67}Ba{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} (magnetic Cr{sup 3+}). The structural refinement by the Rietveld method revealed that Ti-doped samples crystallize in the cubic lattice with space group Pm anti 3m, while samples with Cr crystallize in the hexagonal setting of the rhombohedral R anti 3C space group for identical contents of dopant. The most relevant structural features are an increase of the lattice parameters, of the cell volume and of the inter-ionic distances with increasing Ti doping level. Both series of samples show a decrease of the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition temperature when the amount of chromium or titanium increases. Transport measurements show that when increasing the metal doping, the resistivity increases whereas the metallic behavior of the parent compound La{sub 0.67}Ba{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} is destroyed. For a substitution higher than 5 at.% of Ti and 10 at.% of Cr, the samples exhibit a semiconducting behavior in the whole range of temperature, for which the electronic transport can be explained by variable range hopping and/or small polaron hopping models. (orig.)

  8. Influência da refusão por plasma na microestrutura de um revestimento Fe-Mn-Cr-Si depositado por aspersão térmica arco elétrico sobre aço inoxidável ASTM A743-CA6NM Influence of plasma remelting on the microstructure of Fe-Mn-Cr-Si arc thermal spray coating deposited on ASTM A743-CA6NM stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Geraldo Marenda Pukasiewicz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ASTM A743-CA6NM é um aço inoxidável martensítico muito utilizado na fabricação de turbinas hidráulicas devido a sua elevada tenacidade, entretanto apresenta restrições com relação à regiões recuperadas por soldagem. Diferentes técnicas de deposição tem sido aplicadas com o intuito de reduzir ou eliminar a tensão residual. A deposição de revestimentos resistentes a cavitação é outra forma importante de aumentar a vida útil destes componentes. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a influência do tipo e intensidade de corrente de refusão por plasma na microestrutura, composição química e microdureza de um revestimento Fe-Mn-Cr-Si resistente a cavitação depositado por aspersão térmica arco elétrico sobre aço ASTMA743-CA6NM. Observou-se que a adoção de menores valores de corrente média, assim como a utilização de corrente pulsada reduziram a formação de ferrita δ e a espessura final da ZTA, possibilitando a formação do revestimento com menores alterações na microestrutura do metal base. Verificou-se que a microestrutura e microdureza dos revestimentos refundidos não se mostraram muito sensível a variações na diluição do metal base. A utilização de corrente contínua promoveu um alinhamento da estrutura dendrítica no sentido da movimentação da tocha, entretanto este comportamento não foi observado em revestimentos refundidos com corrente pulsada.ASTM A743-CA6NM martensitic stainless steel have been used in hydraulic turbines manufacturing, but show some restrictions in welded recovered areas. Different techniques have been applied in order to reduce or eliminate residual stress, with life increase. The deposition of cavitation resistant coatings is another important way to increase the service life of these components. The objective of this study is evaluate the influence of type and intensity of plasma remelting current on the microstructure, chemical composition and microhardness of the Fe-Cr-Mn

  9. Balanced Scorecard: uma abordagem voltada ao cliente na Cooperativa de Crédito de Livre Admissão de Associados - Sicoob Canoinhas/SC = Balanced Scorecard: an approach back to customer in the Cooperative Credit for Free Admission to Associate - Sicoob Canoinhas/SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana Ferreira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Devido às constantes mudanças que estão ocorrendo no ambiente empresarial, existe a necessidade da implantação de ferramentas que auxiliem o processo de tomada de decisão de forma rápida e eficaz. Atualmente, a concorrência está fazendo com que as empresas direcionem sua atenção para a fidelização de seus clientes. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo tem como tema a satisfação dos clientes como indicador de desempenho em uma cooperativa de crédito, apoiando-se na metodologia do Balanced Scorecard, em que o objetivo principal é avaliar o nível de satisfação dos associados e não associados do SICOOB Canoinhas. A pesquisa, quanto aos objetivos, caracteriza-se como exploratória; quanto aos procedimentos, caracteriza-se como bibliográfica, estudo de caso e estudo de survey e, em relação ao problema, qualifica-se como quantitativa e qualitativa. No decorrer da pesquisa, foi possível identificar o nível de satisfação dos clientes da cooperativa por meio da aplicação de um questionário, que abordou as propostas de valor sugeridas pela perspectiva de clientes do Balanced Scorecard. Por meio dos dados obtidos pôde-se realizar uma comparação entre essas informações e os objetivos específicos da entidade para o segmento de clientes. Após a análise, elaborou-se um plano de melhorias, que foi encaminhado à administração da cooperativa, sendo que sua aplicabilidade pode ou não ser considerada nas tomadas de decisões.Due to constant changes that are occurring in the business environment, there is a need for implementation of tools which aid the process of decision-making in a quick and effective way. Nowadays, competition is causing companies direct their attention to the loyalty of their customers. In this sense, the current study has the theme of customer satisfaction as an indicator of performance in a credit union, relying on the Balanced Scorecard methodology, where the main purpose is to assess the satisfaction

  10. Investigations on MnSb and related compounds with b8-type structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwma, Jakob

    1972-01-01

    This thesis describes investigations on phases with hexagonal B8-type structures in the systems Mn-Sb-Sn, Mn-Sb-Te, Mn-Cr-Sb and Mn-V-Sb. In -chapter 1 some general remarks are made on compounds with B8-type structures. The preparation of the samples, and the X-ray crystallographic investigations

  11. Effect of small quantity of chromium on the electrical, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Pr{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.98}Cr{sub 0.02}O{sub 3} manganite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettaibi, A.; Rahmouni, H. [Universite de Gabes, Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux et des Nanomateriaux appliquee a l' Environnement, Faculte des Sciences de Gabes cite Erriadh, Gabes (Tunisia); M' nassri, R. [Kairouan University, Higher Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology of Kasserine, Kasserine (Tunisia); Universite de Monastir, Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, Monastir (Tunisia); Selmi, A.; Cheikhrouhou, A. [Sfax University, Laboratory of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax, Sfax (Tunisia); Khirouni, K. [Kairouan University, Higher Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology of Kasserine, Kasserine (Tunisia); Chniba Boudjada, N. [Institut NEEL, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2016-03-15

    Structural, electrical and thermomagnetic properties of Pr{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.98}Cr{sub 0.02}O{sub 3} were investigated. Sample was prepared by solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction revealed that the sample crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with Pnma space group. Electrical conductivity and complex impedance studies of Pr{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.98}Cr{sub 0.02}O{sub 3} system are analyzed. The investigated compound exhibits a semiconductor behavior in the whole explored temperature range. From 100 to 206 K, the increase in DC conductance is more than two decade. At higher temperatures, the conductance varies slowly and a saturation region appears. The conduction mechanism is found to be governed by small polaron hopping process which is explained by the short range thermally activated energy. Conductance spectrum is well described by Jonsher law, and the temperature dependence of the frequency exponent confirms that conduction mechanism is governed by hopping process of the localized carriers. Using complex impedance analysis, the compound is modeled by an electrical equivalent circuit. Also, such analysis confirms the contribution of grain boundary to the transport properties. The substitution of Mn by 2 % Cr destroyed the charge order state observed in the parent compound and induced a ferromagnetic phase at low temperatures. For a magnetic field change of 5 T, the material shows a maximum magnetic entropy change ∇S {sup max} = 2.69 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1} with a full width at half maximum δ {sub TFWHM} = 145 K, and a relative cooling power RCP = 389 J kg{sup -1}. Pr{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.98}Cr{sub 0.02}O{sub 3} material demonstrates potential proprieties to be used in electronic and thermal devices and as magnetic refrigerant. (orig.)

  12. Critical behavior of resistivity in the pressure-induced first to second order transition in Pr{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.96}B{sub 0.04}O{sub 3} (B = Co and Cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiyagarajan, R.; Esakki Muthu, S.; Kalai Selvan, G. [Centre for High Pressure Research, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahendiran, R. [Department of Physics, 2 Science Drive 3, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore); Arumugam, S., E-mail: sarumugam1963@yahoo.com [Centre for High Pressure Research, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • 1st order PMI–FMM transition at T{sub IM} Pr{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.96}B{sub 0.04}O{sub 3} (B = Co and Cr) samples. • Crossover from 1st to 2nd order is observed by the application of P on both the samples. • Critical exponents’ are close to the 3D Heisenberg model for the Co doped sample. • Critical exponents’ are close to the Mean field model for the Cr doped sample. - Abstract: We have investigated the hydrostatic pressure (P) dependence of the resistivity on Pr{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.96}B{sub 0.04}O{sub 3} (B = Co and Cr) polycrystals. At ambient pressure, the temperature dependence of resistivity [ρ(T)] of both the samples show a first order paramagnetic insulator–ferromagnetic metallic transition at T = T{sub IM}. The application of P on both the samples increases the T{sub IM}, reduces the resistivity, and suppresses the hysteresis width, indicating a crossover from first to second order transition. The critical pressure, where the first–second order crossover takes place, are 2.02 and 2.40 GPa for Co and Cr doped samples respectively. The critical property of both systems around second order transition is investigated using Fisher–Langer relation and Suezaki–Mori method. The estimated critical exponents are close to the three-dimensional Heisenberg model for the Co doped sample suggesting short range interaction, and the exponents for the Cr doped sample follow the mean field theory suggesting long range ferromagnetic order. Further, the application of P suppresses the high temperature resistivity by reducing high temperature polarons in the case of the Cr doped sample, but it does not happen for the Co doped sample. The application of P helps to examine the stability of polarons in the high temperature regime.

  13. Monitor of SC beam profiles

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    A high-resolution secondary emission grid for the measurement of SC beam profiles. Modern techniques of metal-ceramic bonding, developed for micro-electronics, have been used in its construction. (See Annual Report 1977 p. 105 Fig. 12.)

  14. First coil for the SC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1955-01-01

    The coils for the SC magnet were stored in the large hangar of the Cointrin Airport (to make sure that they would be available before snow and ice would block the roads and canals from Belgium, where they were built).

  15. Cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on {sup nat}Cr up to 50 MeV: Experiments and comparison with theoretical codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanne, A., E-mail: aherman@vub.ac.be [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussel 1090 (Belgium); Adam Rebeles, R. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussel 1090 (Belgium); Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Science, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Takacs, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Debrecen, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Ignatyuk, A. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk 246020 (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-01

    Activation of Cr-containing components around high energy deuteron accelerator can pose radioprotection problems for maintenance personnel. In a stacked foil irradiation, followed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy the cross sections for production of {sup 46,47,48}Sc, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 52,54}Mn and {sup 48}V were measured up to 50 MeV resulting in first systematic assessment above 15 MeV. Reduced uncertainty is obtained by simultaneous remeasurement of the Al(d,x){sup 24}Na or Ti(d,x){sup 48}V monitor reactions over the whole energy range. A comparison with experimental literature values and results from updated theoretical codes (ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D and the TENDL2010 on-line library) is discussed.

  16. Cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on natCr up to 50 MeV: Experiments and comparison with theoretical codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanne, A.; Adam Rebeles, R.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Takács, M.; Ignatyuk, A.

    2011-11-01

    Activation of Cr-containing components around high energy deuteron accelerator can pose radioprotection problems for maintenance personnel. In a stacked foil irradiation, followed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy the cross sections for production of 46,47,48Sc, 51Cr, 52,54Mn and 48V were measured up to 50 MeV resulting in first systematic assessment above 15 MeV. Reduced uncertainty is obtained by simultaneous remeasurement of the Al(d,x) 24Na or Ti(d,x) 48V monitor reactions over the whole energy range. A comparison with experimental literature values and results from updated theoretical codes (ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D and the TENDL2010 on-line library) is discussed.

  17. Comparison of renal allograft (AG) biopsy diagnosis and temporal quantitation of Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC) in clinically suspected AG rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, E.A.; Brown, W.N.; Carney, K.; Naidu, R.G.; Palmer, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of temporal quantitation of SC compared to tissue diagnosis of AG needle biopsy (Bx). The principal clinical criteria for patient selection were sequential or persistent reduction (at least 40-50%) of AG function as determined by serial serum creatinine levels. Thirty-four AG recipients were examined with SC and subsequent AG Bx in 37 instances. %SC AG accumulation and bone marrow extraction were interpreted in view of the significant sequential of persistent reduction of Ag function. Each AG Bx was collected from multiple needle aspirates and processed for light microscopy and immunoflorescent staining. Bx and SC exam were evaluated for acute rejection (AR), chronic rejection (CR) or other, non-rejection pathology. Acute tissue changes superimposed on chronic were regarded as AR. Acute tissue changes and % SC AG accumulation in the rejection range were graded as mild, moderate and marked. In AR there was 28/28 agreement of Bx and SC diagnosis; of which 7/28 were superimposed on CR. In Cr Bx and SC agreed in 3/7 instances, in 3/7 SC Dx was AR and in 1/7 SC exam was normal. Sensitivity and specificity of the SC diagnosis in this series was 100% and 63% for AR, 43% and 100% for CR and 97% and 100% in all instances of rejection. Bx and SC grading of AR agreed in 64%. In conclusion, temporal quantitation of SC demonstrated overall good correlation with AG Bx diagnosis in this series. The poor sensitivity of 43% of SC in Cr and only 64% correlation in grading AR may be due to inherent Bx sampling and SC data analysis error.

  18. Electrochemical Studies of Passive Film Stability on Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4 Amorphous Metal in Seawater at 90oCElectrochemical Studies of Passive Film Stability on Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4 Amorphous Metal in Seawater at 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Haslam, J; Day, S D; Lian, T; Saw, C K; Hailey, P D; Choi, J S; Rebak, R B; Yang, N; Payer, J H; Perepezko, J H; Hildal, K; Lavernia, E J; Ajdelsztajn, L; Branagan, D J; Buffa, E J; Aprigliano, L F

    2007-04-25

    An iron-based amorphous metal, Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} (SAM2X5), with very good corrosion resistance was developed. This material was prepared as a melt-spun ribbon, as well as gas atomized powder and a thermal-spray coating. During electrochemical testing in several environments, including seawater at 90 C, the passive film stability was found to be comparable to that of high-performance nickel-based alloys, and superior to that of stainless steels, based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates. This material also performed very well in standard salt fog tests. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provided corrosion resistance, and boron (B) enabled glass formation. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal made it an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. This material and its parent alloy maintained corrosion resistance up to the glass transition temperature, and remained in the amorphous state during exposure to relatively high neutron doses.

  19. Sc-45 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of precipitation in dilute Al-Sc alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celotto, S; Bastow, TJ

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with Sc-45 is used to determine the solid solubility of scandium in aluminium and to follow the precipitation of Al3Sc during the ageing of an Al-0.06 at.% Sc alloy via the two fully resolved peaks, corresponding to Sc in the solid solution Al matrix and to Sc in the

  20. Rotary condenser for SC2

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    During 1975 the SC2 performance was improved among other things by redesigning some of the elements of the ROTCO (Annual Report 1975, p. 55). The photo shows an interior wiew of the housing of the rotary condenser and of the sixteen sets of shaped stator blades.

  1. and Deltamethrin 1% SC (Pali)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control. During the experimental period (10 to 29 January 2011), the three groups of cattle were attended separately to avoid contacts. A high degree of efficacy of. Deltamethrin 1% pour-on (Smash) and Deltamethrin 1% SC (Pali) against single- and multi-host ticks was achieved by a single application of each product.

  2. The improvement of the Li-ion insertion behaviour of Li{sub 1.05}Cr{sub 0.10}Mn{sub 1.85}O{sub 4} in an aqueous medium upon addition of vinylene carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovic, Ivana B.; Cvjeticanin, Nikola D.; Mentus, Slavko V. [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Studentski Trg 12-16, Belgrade 11158 (RS)

    2010-03-15

    The influence of vinylene carbonate addition to aqueous LiNO{sub 3} solution on the Li-ion insertion performance of a Li{sub 1.05}Cr{sub 0.10}Mn{sub 1.85}O{sub 4} was studied by galvanostatic charging/discharging. Without additive, the coulombic capacity amounted initially to 80 mA h g{sup -1} and, during 50 galvanostatic charging/discharging cycles, decreased to 44.1% of the initial value. Upon VC addition in an amount of 1 wt.%, the initial discharge capacity of 112 mA h g{sup -1} was registered which after 100th charging/discharging cycles retained even 82% of the initial value. This is the first report of a successful use of an additive to improve the behaviour of a Li-intercalation material in an aqueous solution. (author)

  3. CASSCF/CI calculations for first row transition metal hydrides - The TiH(4-phi), VH(5-delta), CrH(6-sigma-plus), MnH(7-sigma-plus), FeH(4,6-delta) and NiH(2-delta) states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, S. P.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations are performed for the predicted ground states of TiH(4-phi), VH(5-delta), CrH(6-sigma-plus), MnH(7-sigma-plus), Fett(4,6-delta) and NiH(2-delta). For FeH both the 6-delta and 4-delta states are studied, since both are likely candidates for the ground state. The ground state symmetries are predicted based on a combination of atomic coupling arguments and coupling of 4s(2)3d(n) and 4s(1)3d(n+1) terms in the molecular system. Electron correlation is included by a CASSCF/CI (SD) treatment. The CASSCF includes near-degeneracy effects, while correlation of the 3d electrons in included at the CI level.

  4. A Comparison of Two Yeast MnSODs: Mitochondrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae versus Cytosolic Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Y.; Cabelli D.; Stich, T.A.; Barnese, K.; Gralla, E.B.; Cascio, D.; Britt, R.D.; Valentine, J.S.

    2011-12-28

    Human MnSOD is significantly more product-inhibited than bacterial MnSODs at high concentrations of superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}). This behavior limits the amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} produced at high [O{sub 2}{sup -}]; its desirability can be explained by the multiple roles of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in mammalian cells, particularly its role in signaling. To investigate the mechanism of product inhibition in MnSOD, two yeast MnSODs, one from Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria (ScMnSOD) and the other from Candida albicans cytosol (CaMnSODc), were isolated and characterized. ScMnSOD and CaMnSODc are similar in catalytic kinetics, spectroscopy, and redox chemistry, and they both rest predominantly in the reduced state (unlike most other MnSODs). At high [O{sub 2}{sup -}], the dismutation efficiencies of the yeast MnSODs surpass those of human and bacterial MnSODs, due to very low level of product inhibition. Optical and parallel-mode electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra suggest the presence of two Mn{sup 3+} species in yeast Mn{sup 3+}SODs, including the well-characterized 5-coordinate Mn{sup 3+} species and a 6-coordinate L-Mn{sup 3+} species with hydroxide as the putative sixth ligand (L). The first and second coordination spheres of ScMnSOD are more similar to bacterial than to human MnSOD. Gln154, an H-bond donor to the Mn-coordinated solvent molecule, is slightly further away from Mn in yeast MnSODs, which may result in their unusual resting state. Mechanistically, the high efficiency of yeast MnSODs could be ascribed to putative translocation of an outer-sphere solvent molecule, which could destabilize the inhibited complex and enhance proton transfer from protein to peroxide. Our studies on yeast MnSODs indicate the unique nature of human MnSOD in that it predominantly undergoes the inhibited pathway at high [O{sub 2}{sup -}].

  5. Antiferromagnetism in semiconducting SrMn2Sb2 and BaMn2Sb2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, N. S.; Smetana, V.; Mudring, A.-V.; Johnston, D. C.

    2018-01-01

    Crystals of SrMn2Sb2 and BaMn2Sb2 were grown using Sn flux and characterized by powder and single-crystal x-ray diffraction, respectively, and by single-crystal electrical resistivity ρ , heat capacity Cp, and magnetic susceptibility χ measurements versus temperature T , and magnetization versus field M (H ) isotherm measurements. SrMn2Sb2 adopts the trigonal CaAl2Si2 -type structure, whereas BaMn2Sb2 crystallizes in the tetragonal ThCr2Si2 -type structure. The ρ (T ) data indicate semiconducting behaviors for both compounds with activation energies of ≳0.35 eV for SrMn2Sb2 and 0.16 eV for BaMn2Sb2 . The χ (T ) and Cp(T ) data reveal antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering at TN = 110 K for SrMn2Sb2 and 450 K for BaMn2Sb2 . The anisotropic χ (T ≤TN) data also show that the ordered moments in SrMn2Sb2 are aligned in the hexagonal a b plane, whereas the ordered moments in BaMn2Sb2 are aligned collinearly along the tetragonal c axis. The a b -plane M (H ) data for SrMn2Sb2 exhibit a continuous metamagnetic transition at low fields 0 literature for Mn pnictides with the CaAl2Si2 and ThCr2Si2 crystal structures show that the TN values for the CaAl2Si2 -type compounds are much smaller than those for the ThCr2Si2 -type materials.

  6. Microstructural Influence on Dynamic Properties of Age Hardenable FeMnAl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Hardening The aging temperature of 550°C is the most common aging temperature reported in this system.10,11,12,16,21,28 Kayak reported strength...AIME, Vol. 215, pp. 112-114 (1959). 10. Kayak , G. L., “Fe-Mn-Al Precipitation-Hardening Austenitic Alloys,” Met. Sc. And Heat Tr., Vol. 11, pp. 95...Hardenable Fe-Mn-Al-C Alloys,” Met. Trans A, vol. 21A, pp 5-11 (1990). 10. Kayak , G. L., “Fe-Mn-Al Precipitation-Hardening Austenitic Alloys,” Met. Sc. And

  7. 2010 ARRA Lidar: Bamberg County (SC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Provide high density LiDAR elevation data map of Bamberg County, SC. Provide Bare Earth DEM (vegetation removal) of Bamberg County, SC.

  8. Red luminescence from ZnO : Cr nanophosphors under visible ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    3+ nanophosphors under visible excitation. N PUSHPA1, M K KOKILA1,*, B M NAGABHUSHANA2, H NAGABHUSHANA3 and. A JAGANNATHA REDDY. 4 ... method at the temperature of 400°C. Powder X-ray diffraction results confirmed that Cr3+-doped and un- ... different transition metal dopants such as (Ni, Cr, Mn,.

  9. Observation of a remarkable reduction of correlation effects in BaCr2As2 by ARPES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Jayita; Filsinger, Kai; Fecher, Gerhard H; Chadov, Stanislav; Minár, Ján; Rienks, Emile D L; Büchner, Bernd; Parkin, Stuart P; Fink, Jörg; Felser, Claudia

    2017-11-06

    The superconducting phase in iron-based high-[Formula: see text] superconductors (FeSC), as in other unconventional superconductors such as the cuprates, neighbors a magnetically ordered one in the phase diagram. This proximity hints at the importance of electron correlation effects in these materials, and Hund's exchange interaction has been suggested to be the dominant correlation effect in FeSCs because of their multiband nature. By this reasoning, correlation should be strongest for materials closest to a half-filled [Formula: see text] electron shell (Mn compounds, hole-doped FeSCs) and decrease for systems with both higher (electron-doped FeSCs) and lower (Cr-pnictides) [Formula: see text] counts. Here we address the strength of correlation effects in nonsuperconducting antiferromagnetic BaCr2As2 by means of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and first-principles calculations. This combination provides us with two handles on the strength of correlation: First, a comparison of the experimental and calculated effective masses yields the correlation-induced mass renormalization. In addition, the lifetime broadening of the experimentally observed dispersions provides another measure of the correlation strength. Both approaches reveal a reduction of electron correlation in BaCr2As2 with respect to systems with a [Formula: see text] count closer to five. Our results thereby support the theoretical predictions that Hund's exchange interaction is important in these materials. Published under the PNAS license.

  10. Bioaccumulation of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in trophosome and vestimentum of the tube worm Riftia pachyptila from Guaymas basin, Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelas-Inzunza, J.; Páez-Osuna, F.; Soto, Luis A.

    2005-07-01

    Twenty two specimens of vestimentiferan tube worms Riftia pachyptila were collected from Guaymas Basin. The distribution of ten trace metals in trophosome and vestimentum was investigated. Highest mean concentrations of Co, Cu and Fe were detected in the trophosome; while higher mean levels of Cd, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in the vestimentum. However, the t-student test resulted in significant differences (p<0.05) only in the case of Co. Cd and Fe concentrations in vestimentum increased accordingly with the size of specimens. With respect to vent fluids, extreme uptake seems to be a characteristic of R. pachyptila in the case of Cu and Zn but not for the rest of the analyzed metals. Studies concerning accumulation mechanisms of trace metals in R. pachyptila are needed, particularly on the capacity of this organism to tolerate elevated levels of elements considered as non-essential.

  11. Structural, elastic and magnetic properties of Mn and Sb doped chromium nitride – An ab initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikram Un Nabi Lone; Sheik Sirajuddeen M Mohamed, E-mail: msheiksiraj@bsauniv.ac.in; Shameem Banu, I.B.; Sathik Basha, S.

    2017-05-01

    Structural, magnetic and elastic properties of Mn and Sb doped CrN were investigated by the electronic band structure calculations using Full Potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave (FP-LAPW) method. The host compound CrN was doped with Mn and Sb separately, in the doping concentration of 12.5% to replace Cr atoms. The introduction of Mn and Sb atoms replacing the Cr atoms does not change the structural stability of the compound. The changes in magnetic and elastic properties were investigated and compared in GGA and GGA+U methods. The doped CrN undergoes a relative increase in the magnetic order with the substitution of Mn and Sb atoms. In GGA method, the magnetic moments are found to be greater in Mn doped CrN than that found in Sb doped Cr{sub 0.875}NSb{sub 0.125}. When doped with Sb, the elastic moduli such as Young’s modulus, bulk modulus and rigidity modulus show a relative increase in comparison with that in Mn doped CrN. Using Hubbard model in GGA+U method, both the magnetic and elastic properties increase in Mn and Sb doped compounds. - Highlights: • Mn and Sb doped Chromium Nitride. • Structural properties. • Magnetic properties. • Elastic properties.

  12. Thin film nano-photocatalyts with low band gap energy for gas phase degradation of p-xylene: TiO2 doped Cr, UiO66-NH2 and LaBO3 (B  =  Fe, Mn, and Co)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loc Luu, Cam; Thuy Van Nguyen, Thi; Nguyen, Tri; Nguyen, Phung Anh; Hoang, Tien Cuong; Ha, Cam Anh

    2018-03-01

    By dip-coating technique the thin films of nano-photocatalysts TiO2, Cr-doped TiO2, LaBO3 perovskites (B  =  Fe, Mn, and Co) prepared by sol-gel method, and UiO66-NH2 prepared by a solvothermal were obtained and employed for gas phase degradation of p-xylene. Physicochemical characteristics of the catalysts were examined by the methods of BET, SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, TGA, Raman and UV–vis spectroscopies. The thickness of film was determined by a Veeco-American Dektek 6M instrument. The activity of catalysts was evaluated in deep photooxidation of p-xylene in a microflow reactor at room temperature with the radiation sources of a UV (λ  =  365 nm) and LED lamps (λ  =  400–510 nm). The obtained results showed that TiO2 and TiO2 doped Cr thin films was featured by an anatase phase with nanoparticles of 10–100 nm. Doping TiO2 with 0.1%mol Cr2O3 led to reduce band gap energy from 3.01 down to 1.99 eV and extend the spectrum of photon absorption to the visible region (λ  =  622 nm). LaBO3 perovkite thin films were also featured by a crystal phase with average particle nanosize of 8–40 nm, a BET surface area of 17.6–32.7 m2 g‑1 and band gap energy of 1.87–2.20 eV. UiO66-NH2 was obtained in the ball shape of 100–200 nm, a BET surface area of 576 m2 g‑1 and a band gap energy of 2.83 eV. The low band gap energy nano-photocatalysts based on Cr-doped TiO2 and LaBO3 perovskites exhibited highly stable and active for photo-degradation of p-xylene in the gas phase under radiation of UV–vis light. Perovskite LaFeO3 and Cr–TiO2 thin films were the best photocatalysts with a decomposition yield being reached up to 1.70 g p-xylene/g cat.

  13. Influencia de la distribución de precipitados de Al (Mn, Fe, Cr en la reproducibilidad de la respuesta electroquímica de la aleación AA5083 en disolución de NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aballe, A.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of alloy AA5083 in solutions of NaCl at 3.5% is controlled by the cathodic precipitates of Al(Mn, Fe, Cr present in the alloy. These precipitates are not distributed homogeneously on the surface of the alloy. Further, their presence influence the electrochemical response of the alloy. For these reasons, in order to guarantee the reproducibility of electrochemical tests on this alloy, it is necessary to determine the minimum surface area exposed to the medium, which represents the average behavior of the system. In the present study, a systematic analysis has been conducted of the degree of reproducibility of OCP and LP tests as a function of the area of surface exposed for the alloy AA5083 in solutions of NaCl at 3.5%. The results obtained from three sizes of area studied indicate that the minimum area available for exposure required to provide results of good reproducibility is 25.5 cm2.

    El comportamiento frente a la corrosión de la aleación AA5083 en disoluciones de NaCl al 3,5 % está controlado por los precipitados de Al(Mn, Fe, Cr presentes en la misma. Estos precipitados no se encuentran homogéneamente distribuidos en la superficie de la aleación, debido al tipo de proceso de conformado de la misma. Por otra parte, su presencia condiciona la respuesta electroquímica de la aleación. Por estas razones, para garantizar la reproducibilidad de los ensayos electroquímicos sobre esta aleación, es necesario que el área de la superficie expuesta al medio represente el comportamiento medio del sistema. En el presente trabajo se ha llevado a cabo un estudio sistemático del grado de reproducibilidad de ensayos OCP y LP en función del área de superficie expuesta para la aleación AA5083 en disolución de NaCl al 3,5 %. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, se requiere disponer de un mínimo de 25,5 cm2 de exposición para garantizar la reproducibilidad de los resultados.

  14. Atom transfer as a preparative tool in coordination chemistry. Synthesis and characterization of Cr(V) nitrido complexes of bidentate ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Torben; Bendix, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    The transfer of a terminal nitrido ligand from MnV(N)(salen) to Cr(III) complexes is explored as a new preparative route to CrV nitrido complexes. Reaction of MnV(N)(salen) with labile CrCl3(THF)3 in acetonitrile solution precipitate [Mn(Cl)(salen)]·(CH3CN) and yields a solution containing a mixt...

  15. Theoretical corrections and world data for the superallowed f t values in the β decays of 42Ti,46Cr,50Fe , and 54Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, I. S.; Hardy, J. C.

    2015-11-01

    Prompted by recent measurements, we surveyed world data and calculated radiative and isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections for the superallowed 0+→0+ Fermi transitions from 42Ti,46Cr,50Fe , and 54Ni. This increases the number of such transition with a complete set of calculated corrections from 20 to 23. The results are compared with their equivalents for the mirror superallowed transitions from 42Sc,46V,50Mn , and 54Co. The predicted f t -value asymmetries of these mirror pairs are sensitive to the correction terms and provide motivation for improving measurement precision so as to be able to test the corrections. To aid in that endeavor, we present a parametrization for calculating the f values for the new transitions to ±0.01 % .

  16. Academic Training - Pulsed SC Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 2, 3, June 29, 30, 31 May, 1, 2 June 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Pulsed SC Magnets by M. Wilson Lecture 1. Introduction to Superconducting Materials Type 1,2 and high temperature superconductors; their critical temperature, field & current density. Persistent screening currents and the critical state model. Lecture 2. Magnetization and AC Loss How screening currents cause irreversible magnetization and hysteresis loops. Field errors caused by screening currents. Flux jumping. The general formulation of ac loss in terms of magnetization. AC losses caused by screening currents. Lecture 3. Twisted Wires and Cables Filamentary composite wires and the losses caused by coupling currents between filaments, the need for twisting. Why we need cables and how the coupling currents in cables contribute more ac loss. Field errors caused by coupling currents. Lecture 4. AC Losses in Magnets, Cooling and Measurement Summary of all loss mech...

  17. Structures of Mn clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The geometries of several Mn clusters in the size range Mn13–Mn23 are studied via the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory. For the 13- and 19-atom clusters, the icosahedral structures are found to be most stable, while for the 15-atom cluster, the bcc structure is more favoured.

  18. Structures of Mn clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The geometries of several Mn clusters in the size range Mn13–Mn23 are studied via the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory. For the 13- and 19-atom clusters, the icosahedral struc- tures are found to be most stable, while for the 15-atom cluster, the bcc structure is more favoured.

  19. Characteristics of radiation porosity and structural phase state of reactor austenitic 07C-16Cr-19Ni-2Mo-2Mn-Ti-Si-V-P-B Steel after neutron irradiation at a temperature of 440-600°C to damaging doses of 36-94 dpa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnykh, I. A.; Panchenko, V. L.

    2016-06-01

    The phase composition and the characteristics of vacancy voids in cold-worked steel 07C-16Cr-19Ni-2Mo-2Mn-Ti-Si-V-P-B (CW EK164-ID) after neutron irradiation at damaging doses of 36-94 dpa and temperatures of 440-600°C are investigated. In the entire range of damaging doses and temperatures, voids with different sizes are observed in the material. The maximum void size increases with irradiation temperature up to ~550°C, whereas their concentration decreases. At higher irradiation temperatures, almost no coarse voids are observed. The concentration of fine voids (to 10 nm in size) sharply increases with temperature from 440 to 480°C. Further increases in the temperature do not result in the noticeable concentration growth. In the irradiation temperature range of 440-515°C, second phases precipitate ( G phase, γ' phase, and complex fcc carbides). At higher irradiation temperatures, there are Laves-phase particles, fine second carbides of the MC type, and needle shape precipitates identified as phosphides in the material.

  20. Comparison of structural and magnetic properties of Zn{sub x}Mg{sub 1.5-x}Mn{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 4} and MgAl{sub x}Cr{sub x}Fe{sub 2-2x}O{sub 4} spinel oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thummer, K. P., E-mail: kpthummer@yahoo.co.in [Department of Electronics, Saurashtra University, Rajkot-360005 (India); Tanna, A. R., E-mail: ashish.tanna@rku.ac.in [School of Science, RK University, Rajkot (India); Joshi, H. H. [Department of Physics, Saurashtra University, Rajkot-360005 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The spinel oxides Zn{sub x}Mg{sub 1.5-x}Mn{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 4} (x = 0.0 to 0.6) and MgAl{sub x}Cr{sub x}Fe{sub 2-2x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0 to 0.6) abbreviated as ZMMFO and MACFO respectively, were synthesized by standard ceramic processing. The compositional purity of all the specimens was checked by EDAX technique. The X-ray diffractometry was employed to determine the lattice constants and distribution of cations in the interstitial voids. The initial decrease of cell edge parameter (a) for ZMMFO up to x = 0.2 and thereafter expected rise in the ‘a’ and the initial slower rate of reduction in the lattice constant for MACFO are explained as basic of cation occupancy. The magnetic ordering in both systems is explained by invoking statistical canting models. The compositional variation of magneton number (n{sub B}) for ZMMFO could be very well explained by Localized canting of spin (LCS) model while Random canting of spin (RCS) model was used for MACFO system.

  1. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted Whistle...

  2. Electromagnetic switches, NEO SC Series; Denji kaiheiki NEO SC series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    The medium to large size electromagnetic switches, NEO SC Series were developed under the following five concepts: 'internationality,' 'safety,' 'practical applicability,' 'compactness' and 'environmentality'. Under the circumstances that safety and environmentality are given greater importance, internationalization of the JIS standard is in progress. These switches are the global products that are based on the newly established JIS standard and the international standard, and have acquired certification for the overseas standards in the standard products. Assurance of quick supply of the products including maintenance parts contribute to convenience of the customers. Enhancement was made on the performance to prevent consequential accident in the event of short circuit accident, as well as on the arc space free structure and safety as a result of making a full product line, including terminal covers and intra-phase barriers. Practical applicability was enhanced by expanding models attached with rails, and increasing the operating ambient temperature to 55 degrees C, and the coverage of additional auxiliary contacts. (translated by NEDO)

  3. Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to inform you that the Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP) located on the Prévessin site has moved from Building 865 (ground floor) to new premises in Wing A of Building 892 (second floor). Telephone numbers remain the same. SC/SL/RP section

  4. rotor of the SC rotating condenser

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The rotor of the rotating condenser was installed instead of the tuning fork as the modulating element of the radiofrequency system, when the SC accelerator underwent extensive improvements between 1973 to 1975 (see object AC-025). The SC was the first accelerator built at CERN. It operated from August 1957 until it was closed down at the end of 1990.

  5. High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Based Amorphous Metals - The Effects of Composition, Structure and Environment: Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Haslam, J; Day, S; Lian, T; Saw, C; Hailey, P; Choi, J; Yang, N; Bayles, R; Aprigliano, L; Payer, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Lavernia, E; Ajdelsztajn, L; Branagan, D J; Beardsely, M B

    2006-10-20

    Several Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been identified that appear to have corrosion resistance comparable to (or better than) that of Ni-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022), based on measurements of breakdown potential and corrosion rate in seawater. Both chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) provide corrosion resistance, boron (B) enables glass formation, and rare earths such as yttrium (Y) lower critical cooling rate (CCR). SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) has no yttrium, and is characterized by relatively high critical cooling rates of approximately 600 Kelvin per second. Data for the SAM2X5 formulation is reported here. In contrast to yttrium-containing iron-based amorphous metals, SAM2X5 can be readily gas atomized to produce spherical powders which enable more facile thermal spray deposition. The reference material, nickel-based Alloy C-22, is an outstanding corrosion-resistant engineering material. Even so, crevice corrosion has been observed with C-22 in hot sodium chloride environments without buffer or inhibitor. SAM2X5 also experiences crevice corrosion under sufficiently harsh conditions. Both Alloy C-22 and Type 316L stainless lose their resistance to corrosion during thermal spraying, due to the formation of deleterious intermetallic phases which depletes the matrix of key alloy elements, whereas SAM2X5 can be applied as coatings with the same corrosion resistance as a fully-dense completely amorphous melt-spun ribbon, provided that its amorphous nature is preserved during thermal spraying. The hardness of Type 316L Stainless Steel is approximately 150 VHN, that of Alloy C-22 is approximately 250 VHN, and that of HVOF SAM2X5 ranges from 1100-1300 VHN [MRS12-13]. Such hardness makes these materials particularly attractive for applications where corrosion-erosion and wear are also issues. Since SAM2X5 has high boron content, it can absorb neutrons efficiently, and may therefore find

  6. Phase relations in the pseudobinary systems RAO3-R2Ti2O7 (R: rare earth element and Y, A: Fe, Ga, Al, Cr and Mn) and syntheses of new compounds R(A1-xTix)O3+x/2 (2/3≤x≤3/4) at elevated temperatures in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Francisco; Jacobo-Herrera, Ivan; Alvarez-Montaño, Victor; Kimizuka, Noboru; Kurashina, Keiji; Michiue, Yuichi; Matsuo, Yoji; Mori, Shigeo; Ikeda, Naoshi; Medrano, Felipe

    2017-07-01

    Phase relations in the pseudo-binary systems RFeO3-R2Ti2O7 (R: Lu, Ho and Dy), RGaO3-R2Ti2O7 (R: Lu and Er), LuAlO3-Lu2Ti2O7 and RAO3-R2Ti2O7 (R: Lu and Yb. A: Cr and Mn) at elevated temperatures in air were determined by means of a classic quenching method. There exist Lu(Fe1-xTix)O3+x/2, R(Ga1-xTix)O3+x/2 (R: Lu and Er) and Lu(Al1-xTix)O3+x/2 (2/3≤ x≤3/4) having the Yb(Fe1-xTix)O3+x/2-type of crystal structure (x=0.72, space group: R3m, a(Å)=17.9773 and c(Å)=16.978 as a hexagonal setting) in these pseudo binary systems. Eighteen compounds R(A1-xTix)O3+x/2 (R: Lu-Sm and Y, A: Fe, Ga and Al) were newly synthesized and their lattice constants as a hexagonal setting were measured by means of the X-ray powder diffraction method. The R occupies the octahedral site and both A and Ti does the trigonalbipyramidal one in these compounds. Relation between lattice constants for the rhombic R(A1-xTix)O3+x/2 and the monoclinic In(A1-xTix)O3+x/2 are as follows, ah≈5 x bm, ch≈3 x cm x sin β and am=31/2 x bm, where ah and ch are the lattice constants as a hexagonal setting for R(A1-xTix)O3+x/2 and am, bm, cm and β are those of the monoclinic In(A1-xTix)O3+x/2. Crystal structural relationships among α-InGaO3 (hexagonal, high pressure form, space group: P63/mmc), InGaO3 (rhombic, hypothetical), (RAO3)n(BO)m and RAO3(ZnO)m (R: Lu-Ho, Y and In, A: Fe, Ga, and Al, B: divalent cation element, m, n: natural number), the orthorhombic-and monoclinic In(A1-xTix)O3+x/2 (A: Fe, Ga, Al, Cr and Mn) and the hexagonal-and rhombic R(A1-xTix)O3+x/2 (R: Lu-Sm and Y, A: Fe, Ga and Al) are schematically presented. We concluded that the crystal structures of both the α-InGaO3 (high pressure form, hexagonal, space group: P63/mmc) and the hypothetical InGaO3 (rhombic) are the key structures for constructing the crystal structures of these compounds having the cations with CN=5.

  7. Speciation of Cr, Fe, Cu, Pb in the surface and under water sediment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and carbonate bound fractions (2.01 µg/g and 4.02 µg/g) respectively. The result also indicated an increase in Cr concentrations at Fe-Mn oxide fraction of the bottom sediment (14.04 µg/g) compared to the surface sediment where Cr was not detected at the Fe-Mn oxide phase. Copper and Pb were generally not detected ...

  8. The role of particle size on the electrochemical properties at 25 and at 55 deg. C of the LiCr{sub 0.2}Ni{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 1.4}O{sub 4} spinel as 5 V-cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aklalouch, Mohamed [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3 28049-Madrid (Spain); ECME, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques Marrakech, Universite Cadi Ayyad, Av. A. El Khattabi, B.P.549 Marrakech (Morocco); Rojas, Rosa M.; Rojo, Jose Maria [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3 28049-Madrid (Spain); Saadoune, Ismael [ECME, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques Marrakech, Universite Cadi Ayyad, Av. A. El Khattabi, B.P.549 Marrakech (Morocco); Amarilla, Jose Manuel, E-mail: amarilla@icmm.csic.e [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3 28049-Madrid (Spain)

    2009-12-01

    The role of the particle size on the electrochemical properties at 25 and at 55 deg. C of the LiCr{sub 0.2}Ni{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 1.4}O{sub 4} spinel synthesized by combustion method has been determined. Samples with different particle size were obtained by heating the raw spinel from 700 to 1100 deg. C, for 1 h in air. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that all the prepared materials are single-phase spinels. The main effect of the thermal treatment is the remarkable increase of the particles size from approx60 to approx3000 nm as determined by transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties were determined at high discharge currents (1C rate) in two-electrode Li-cells. At 25 and at 55 deg. C, in spite of the great differences in particle size, the discharge capacity drained by all samples is similar (Q{sub dch} approx 135 mAh g{sup -1}). Instead, the cycling performances strongly change with the particle size. The spinels with PHI > 500 nm show better cycling stability at 25 and at 55 deg. C than those with PHI < 500 nm. The samples heated at 1000 and 1100 deg. C, with high potential (E approx 4.7 V), elevate capacity (Q approx 135 mAh g{sup -1}), and remarkable cycling performances (capacity retention after 250 cycles >96%) are very attractive materials as 5V-cathodes for high-energy Li-ion batteries.

  9. z206sc_video_observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents video observations from cruise Z206SC for the Santa Barbara Channel region and beyond in southern California. The vector data file is...

  10. Bandwidth challenge teams at SC2003 conference

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Results from the fourth annual High-Performance Bandwidth Challenge, held in conjunction with SC2003, the international conference on high-performance computing and networking which occurred last week in Phoenix, AZ (1 page).

  11. Improving the Ethanol Oxidation Activity of Pt-Mn Alloys through the Use of Additives during Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Zamanzad Ghavidel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, sodium citrate (SC was used as an additive to control the particle size and dispersion of Pt-Mn alloy nanoparticles deposited on a carbon support. SC was chosen, since it was the only additive tested that did not prevent Mn from co-depositing with Pt. The influence of solution pH during deposition and post-deposition heat treatment on the physical and electrochemical properties of the Pt-Mn alloy was examined. It was determined that careful control over pH is required, since above a pH of four, metal deposition was suppressed. Below pH 4, the presence of sodium citrate reduced the particle size and improved the particle dispersion. This also resulted in larger electrochemically-active surface areas and greater activity towards the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR. Heat treatment of catalysts prepared using the SC additive led to a significant enhancement in EOR activity, eclipsing the highest activity of our best Pt-Mn/C prepared in the absence of SC. XRD studies verified the formation of the Pt-Mn intermetallic phase upon heat treatment. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that catalysts prepared using the SC additive were more resistant to particle size growth during heat treatment.

  12. {sup 27}Al and {sup 45}Sc NMR spectroscopy on ScT{sub 2}Al and Sc(T{sub 0.5}T{sup '}{sub 0.5}){sub 2}Al (T = T{sup '} = Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au) Heusler phases and superconductivity in Sc(Pd{sub 0.5}Au{sub 0.5}){sub 2}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benndorf, Christopher [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Niehaus, Oliver; Janka, Oliver [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Eckert, Hellmut [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    The intermetallic Heusler compounds with ScT{sub 2}Al and Sc(T{sub 0.5}T{sup '}{sub 0.5}){sub 2}Al composition with T = T{sup '} = Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au were synthesized from the elements by arc melting. They crystallize in the cubic MnCu{sub 2}Al type structure, space group Fm anti 3m. The unit cell parameters were determined by powder X-ray diffraction and the structure of Sc(Pd{sub 0.5}Au{sub 0.5}){sub 2}Al was refined on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction. While the majority of the compounds show Pauli-paramagnetism, ScAu{sub 2}Al and the newly synthesized solid solution Sc(Pd{sub 0.5}Au{sub 0.5}){sub 2}Al exhibit superconductivity with transition temperatures of T{sub C} = 4.4 K and T{sub C} = 3.0(1) K, respectively. The superconducting state of Sc(Pd{sub 0.5}Au{sub 0.5}){sub 2}Al was also investigated by electrical resistivity measurements. All the synthesized compounds were furthermore studied by {sup 27}Al and {sup 45}Sc MAS-NMR spectroscopy. The resonance shifts of the synthesized compounds were determined and in Sc(Pd{sub 1-x}Au{sub x}){sub 2}Al a linear relationship between the resonance shifts and the composition was found. Line broadening effects and enhanced quadrupolar interaction strengths observed in the mixed samples can be attributed to the effect of Pd/Au mixing on the 8c Wyckoff site. The NMR spectroscopic data give no clear evidence for or against Sc/Al site disordering. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Sc3N and Sc2C2 encapsulated B40: Smarter than its carbon analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Esha V.; Roy, Debesh R.

    2016-10-01

    A detailed comparative investigation on the recently synthesised B40 and C40 along with their metal nitride (Sc3N)and carbide (Sc2C2) encapsulated endohedral fullerenes, is performed under density functional theory for the first time. The structures, electronic, thermodynamic and magnetic properties of all the considered compounds are explored in detail. The present study identifies borospherene (B40) and its encapsulated nitride (Sc3N@B40) and carbide (Sc2C2@B40) endohedral borofullerenes as the better candidates for future novel nano-applications compared to their carbon bucky ball analogues.

  14. ScPd2Al3 - New polymorphic phase in Al-Pd-Sc system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospíšil, Jiří; Haga, Yoshinori; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Ishikawa, Norito; Císařová, Ivana; Tateiwa, Naoyuki; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Yamamura, Tomoo

    2017-12-01

    We have discovered a new compound of the composition ScPd2Al3 crystallizing in unknown structure type. Moreover, ScPd2Al3 reveals polymorphism. We have found an orthorhombic crystal structure at room temperature and a high temperature cubic phase. The polymorphic phases are separated by a reversible first order transition at 1053 °C with a hysteresis of 19 °C. ScPd2Al3 exists as a very stable intermetallic phase just in the vicinity of the icosahedral quasicrystal Tsai-type i-phase Al54Pd30Sc16.

  15. Epitaxial Growth of Hard Ferrimagnetic Mn3Ge Film on Rhodium Buffer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Sugihara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mn\\(_3\\Ge has a tetragonal Heusler-like D0\\(_{22}\\ crystal structure, exhibiting a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and small saturation magnetization due to its ferrimagnetic spin structure; thus, it is a hard ferrimagnet. In this report, epitaxial growth of a Mn\\(_3\\Ge film on a Rh buffer layer was investigated for comparison with that of a film on a Cr buffer layer in terms of the lattice mismatch between Mn\\(_3\\Ge and the buffer layer. The film grown on Rh had much better crystalline quality than that grown on Cr, which can be attributed to the small lattice mismatch. Epitaxial films of Mn\\(_3\\Ge on Rh show somewhat small coercivity (\\(H_{\\rm c}\\ = 12.6 kOe and a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (\\(K_{\\rm u}\\ = 11.6 Merg/cm\\(^3\\, comparable to that of the film grown on Cr.

  16. 33 CFR 80.707 - Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, SC. 80.707 Section 80.707 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the western extremity of Cape Romain 292° true to... southernmost extremity of Bull Island to the easternmost extremity of Capers Island. (d) A line formed by the...

  17. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris Island...

  18. ASSESSMENT OF THE CONCENTRATION OF Cr, Mn AND Fe IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    , Ethiopia. 2Department of ... Quantification of these metals was conducted against certified reference materials of sediments and soils. The .... stain textile and fixtures that can cause permanent damage on industrial boilers, equipment and.

  19. Atomic resolution imaging of precipitate transformation from cubic TaN to tetragonal CrTaN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson; Hald, John; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2012-01-01

    In 9–12% Cr creep-resistant steels Cr(V,Nb,Ta)N Z-phase is known to replace metastable (V,Nb,Ta)N MN precipitates at high temperatures. The precipitation process of Z-phase does not follow the classical nucleation theory, where dissolving MN particles provide constituents for Z-phase nucleation...... in the matrix. Using atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy, the current work demonstrates that metastable cubic TaN precipitates in a complex steel gradually transform compositionally and crystallographically into stable tetragonal CrTaN precipitates under the influence of Cr indiffusion from...... the steel matrix....

  20. Rates of Cr(VI) Generation from CrxFe1-x(OH)3Solids upon Reaction with Manganese Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chao; Liu, Huan; Catalano, Jeffrey G; Qian, Ao; Wang, Zimeng; Giammar, Daniel E

    2017-11-07

    The reaction of manganese oxides with Cr(III)-bearing solids in soils and sediments can lead to the natural production of Cr(VI) in groundwater. Building on previous knowledge of MnO 2 as an oxidant for Cr(III)-containing solids, this study systematically evaluated the rates and mechanisms of the oxidation of Cr(III) in iron oxides by δ-MnO 2 . The Fe/Cr ratio (x = 0.055-0.23 in Cr x Fe 1-x (OH) 3 ) and pH (5-9) greatly influenced the Cr(VI) production rates by controlling the solubility of Cr(III) in iron oxides. We established a quantitative relationship between Cr(VI) production rates and Cr(III) solubility of Cr x Fe 1-x (OH) 3 , which can help predict Cr(VI) production rates at different conditions. The adsorption of Cr(VI) and Mn(II) on solids shows a typical pH dependence for anions and cations. A multichamber reactor was used to assess the role of solid-solid contact in Cr x Fe 1-x (OH) 3 -MnO 2 interactions, which eliminates the contact of the two solids while still allowing aqueous species transport across a permeable membrane. Cr(VI) production rates were much lower in multichamber than in completely mixed batch experiments, indicating that the redox interaction is accelerated by mixing of the solids. Our results suggest that soluble Cr(III) released from Cr x Fe 1-x (OH) 3 solids to aqueous solution can migrate to MnO 2 surfaces where it is oxidized.

  1. Observation of magnetization reversal and magnetocaloric effect in manganese modified EuCrO3 orthochromites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Surendra; Coondoo, Indrani; Vasundhara, M.; Puli, Venkata S.; Panwar, Neeraj

    2017-08-01

    We report here an investigation on the structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Mn doped EuCr0.85Mn0.15O3 (ECMO) chromites synthesized via ceramic route. The compound crystallized into distorted orthorhombic structure with Pnma space group similar to that of its parent EuCrO3 compound, as revealed from the refined of x-ray powder diffraction pattern, but with an increase in the lattice volume. Neel temperature, noticed at 162 K from the temperature variation of magnetization, smaller than that reported for pristine EuCrO3; indicated the influence of Mn3+ substitution in decreasing the antiferromagnetic ordering. Magnetization reversal evolved in the studied compound under lower field while such feature was absent in the undoped EuCrO3. Magnetocaloric effect was measured through the magnetic entropy change and relative cooling power. Near the spin reorientation transition temperature 40 K, the magnetic entropy change was equal to 3.788 J kg-1 K-1 under 90 kOe field with 215.22 J kg-1relative cooling power. The results have been understood in terms of the competition between Cr-rich clusters, Mn-rich clusters and local Mn-Cr ordered clusters and their different temperature dependency.

  2. From single- to double-first-order magnetic phase transition in magnetocaloric Mn1?xCrxCoGe compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, N.T.; Biharie, V.; Zhang, L.; Caron, L.; Buschow, K.H.J.; Brück, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Substitution of some Cr for Mn atoms in MnCoGe was employed to control the magnetic and structural transitions in this alloy to coincide, leading to a single first-order magnetostructural transition from the ferromagnetic to the paramagnetic state with a giant magnetocaloric effect observed near

  3. Magnet measuring equipment of SC2

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Checking the positioning of the magnet measuring equipment installed between the poles of SC2. The steel structure in front of the magnet is designed to house the rotary condenser and to shield it from the stray magnetic field of the accelerator. On the left, Marinus van Gulik. (See Photo Archive 7402005 and Annual Report 1974, p. 44.)

  4. Final Scientific Report: DE-SC0008580

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidler, Gerald T. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-03-16

    We report scientific, technical, and organizational accomplishments under DE-SC0008580. This includes 10 publications, 5 patent or provisional patent applications, beamtime with important results at both LCLS and APS, and new progress in understanding target design for x-ray heating experiments at x-ray heating facilities.

  5. The Synchrocyclotron (SC) in building 300

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    The red magnet of CERN's first accelerator, the Synchrocyclotron (SC), has occupied a large part of Hall 300 since it was installed in the late 1950s. The remaining part of the 300-square-metre building has been used as a storage room since the accelerator was shut down in 1990. Now a public exhibition will breathe new life into the hall.

  6. Magnet measuring equipment of SC2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    Checking the positioning of the magnet measuring equipment installed between the poles of SC2. The steel structure in front of the magnet is designed to house the rotary condenser and to shield it from the stray magnetic field of the accelerator.

  7. Knowledge insufficient: the management of haemoglobin SC disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecker, Lydia H; Schaefer, Beverly A; Luchtman-Jones, Lori

    2017-02-01

    Although haemoglobin SC (HbSC) accounts for 30% of sickle cell disease (SCD) in the United States and United Kingdom, evidence-based guidelines for genotype specific management are lacking. The unique pathology of HbSC disease is complex, characterized by erythrocyte dehydration, intracellular sickling and increased blood viscosity. The evaluation and treatment of patients with HbSC is largely inferred from studies of SCD consisting mostly of haemoglobin SS (HbSS) patients. These studies are underpowered to allow definitive conclusions about HbSC. We review the pathophysiology of HbSC disease, including known and potential differences between HbSS and HbSC, and highlight knowledge gaps in HbSC disease management. Clinical and translational research is needed to develop targeted treatments and to validate management recommendations for efficacy, safety and impact on quality of life for people with HbSC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Chromium and iron contained half-Heusler MnNiGe-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budzynski, M. [UMCS, Institute of Physics, 1 sq.M.Curie-Skłodowska, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Valkov, V.I.; Golovchan, A.V.; Kamenev, V.I. [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering, 72, R.Luxemburg str., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Mitsiuk, V.I., E-mail: vmitsiuk@gmail.com [Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 19 P.Brovky Str., 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Sivachenko, A.P. [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering, 72, R.Luxemburg str., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Surowiec, Z. [UMCS, Institute of Physics, 1 sq.M.Curie-Skłodowska, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Tkachenka, T.M. [Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 19 P.Brovky Str., 220072 Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-12-15

    The magnetic characteristics of chromium and iron containing MnNiGe-based alloys with several types of quenching and annealing were investigated. It was found that the quenched Mn{sub 0.89}Cr{sub 0.11}NiGe has a spontaneous and magnetic field induced magnetostructural first-order transitions at room temperature. These transitions might be accompanied by a large magnetocaloric effect. In general, Mn{sub 0.89}Cr{sub 0.11}NiGe can be classified as promising material for use in the magnetocaloric application at room temperatures. The first order magnetostructural phase transition from the ferromagnetic to paramagnetic state is not realized in MnNi0.90Fe0.10Ge. In contrast to Mn{sub 0.89}Cr{sub 0.11}NiGe, however, the FM state in quenched-on-wheel MnNi0.90Fe0.10Ge is preserved to the lowest temperatures. Based on the set of the magnetic properties, it has been concluded that the iron containing MnNiGe-based alloys are less promising for practical use.

  9. Studies on Transient-Stage-Scale Growth on Fe-22wt.% Cr Alloys Containing 120 PPM La + 270 PPM Ce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    diffuse towards the surface where a scale rich in spinel starts to form. This spinel evolves becoming richer in Cr and Mn and nodules made out of chromium ... chromium content iron alloys Abstract Reactive elements (RE), such as Ce, La or Y, are known to improve oxidation resistance of Fe based alloys that...but when the oxidation time is long enough, Cr and Mn oxides will bury it under an oxides layer. This indicates the formation of chromium and

  10. Sucrose-aided combustion synthesis of nanosized LiMn{sub 1.99-y}Li{sub y}M{sub 0.01}O{sub 4} (M = Al{sup 3+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Co{sup 3+}, y = 0.01 and 0.06) spinels. Characterization and electrochemical behavior at 25 and at 55 C in rechargeable lithium cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarilla, J.M.; Pico, F.; Rojo, J.M.; Rojas, R.M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz no. 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Petrov, K.; Avdeev, G. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-06-15

    Doubly doped LiMn{sub 1.99-y}Li{sub y}M{sub 0.01}O{sub 4} (M = Al{sup 3+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Co{sup 3+}; y = 0.01 and 0.06) spinels have been synthesized by the sucrose-aided combustion method. Combined TG/DTA and XRD studies have shown that stoichiometric single-phase spinels are formed after annealing of the samples at 700 C for 1 h. The samples obtained are nanocrystalline materials having a narrow size-distribution and a coherent domain size between 40 and 60 nm, depending on the amount of fuel (sucrose) used in the synthesis. The influence of the Li-excess, the type of M{sup n+}-dopant cation and the amount of fuel used in the synthesis on the electrochemical behavior of the spinels in a Li-cell at room and at elevated temperature (55 C) has been studied. At 25 C all the spinels synthesized have a good capacity retention after 100 cycles, QRt-100 > 92%. At 55 C the increase of the Li-excess improves the cycling performances. Rate capability studies show that the spinels retain >90% of their capacity even at 5C rate. The synergic effect of the Li-excess and the particle size on the electrochemical properties of the spinels as cathode material has been settled. The LiMn{sub 1.93}Li{sub 0.06}M{sub 0.01}O{sub 4}, (M = Al{sup 3+}, Ni{sup 2+}) spinels, with cyclabilities >99.9% by cycle at both 25 and 55 C, and high rate capabilities, are the ones that show the best electrochemical properties. (author)

  11. High Mn austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-13

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy includes, in weight percent: >4 to 15 Mn; 8 to 15 Ni; 14 to 16 Cr; 2.4 to 3 Al; 0.4 to 1 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; 0.05 to 0.2 C; 0.01 to 0.02 B; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1W; up to 3 Cu; up to 1 Si; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, the particles including at least one of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure that is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  12. Crystal structure and phase stability of AlSc in the near-equiatomic Al–Sc alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan; Huang, Li; Liang, Yongfeng [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Ye, Feng, E-mail: yefeng@skl.ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Lin, Junpin [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Shang, Shunli; Liu, Zikui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Two lattice structures of equiatomic Al–Sc compounds are confirmed. • Al–Sc phase at Sc 50 at.% has a space group of Pbam. • Al–Sc phase at Sc 55 at.% has a space group of B2. • B2 AlSc is a metastable phase with Sc 50 at.%. • Lattice transition between two compounds is proposed under local thermal stress. - Abstract: Intermetallic compound AlSc is found in the equiatomic Al–Sc binary alloy. The present work indicates that the orthorhombic AlSc with the Au{sub 2}CuZn-type structure can be formed at 50 at.% Sc, while the CsCl-type (B2) AlSc will be formed at 55 at.% Sc. After annealing at 1100 °C, some orthorhombic AlSc grains transit to the B2 structure, and the annealing at lower temperatures leads to the disappearance of B2 phase, indicating that the B2 AlSc is also a metastable phase in the alloy at lower Sc content (<50 at.%). First-principle calculations at 0 K reveal that the orthorhombic AlSc is more stable than the B2 AlSc with the energy difference between them being 5.4 meV/atom. The fast transition between these two phases, which cannot be interpreted by the mechanism of atomic diffusion, was tentatively analyzed by the volume change based on the calculated atomic positions of these two phases.

  13. Electronic structure and band alignments of ZnTe/CrTe(0 0 1), CdSe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-02

    Heusler NiMnSb and PtMnSb alloys, several half-metallic ferro- magnets such as rutile CrO2 [2], double perovskite Sr2FeMoO6 [3], spinel Fe3O4 [4], pyrite-type CoS2 [5,6] and Heusler alloys [7] have been theoretically predicted ...

  14. Prevalência e distribuição dos fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis entre adultos da cidade de Lages (SC, sul do Brasil, 2007 Prevalence and distribution of risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases among adults from Lages city, south of Brazil, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giana Zarbato Longo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as prevalências e distribuições dos fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis (DCNT entre adultos da cidade de Lages, Santa Catarina, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Entrevistou-se amostra probabilística (n= 2022 da população adulta na faixa etária de 20 a 59 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos e residentes na zona urbana do município. O processo de amostragem foi por meio de conglomerados. O projeto aplicou questionário estruturado com questões relativas a variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, comportamentais e doenças autorreferidas. Para este estudo foram utilizadas as informações sobre os fatores de risco/proteção para DCNT: sexo, idade, escolaridade, índice de massa corporal, circunferência da cintura, tabagismo, atividade física, níveis pressóricos, diabetes mellitus autorreferida e características da alimentação. Foram calculadas as prevalências para os fatores de risco/proteção para DCNT na população total, de acordo com sexo e escolaridade. RESULTADOS: A população estudada é uma população eminente para DCNT, apresentando proporções expressivas de hipertensos (33,78% e indivíduos com excesso de peso (33,46%, obesidade (23,46% e obesidade abdominal (43,81%. Com relação às características da alimentação, as mulheres apresentaram maiores prevalências de comportamentos considerados fatores de proteção, em relação aos homens. Foram encontrados menos de 30,0% de indivíduos fisicamente inativos e 45,9% de fumantes ou ex-fumantes. CONCLUSÕES: Estudos descritivos como o presente poderão servir de base para o desenvolvimento de políticas públicas específicas para a população adulta de Lages, de forma a orientar a organização, planejamento e melhoria da qualidade dos serviços de assistência à saúde, buscando a redução na incidência e no impacto das DCNT.OBJECTIVE: To describe prevalence and the distribution of risk factors to non-communicable chronic

  15. Hemoglobin C, S-C, and E Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more quickly than others, resulting in chronic anemia. Hemoglobin C disease Hemoglobin C disease occurs mostly in ... are a common complication of hemoglobin C disease. Hemoglobin S-C disease Hemoglobin S-C disease occurs in people ...

  16. LHCb Data Replication During SC3

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, A

    2006-01-01

    LHCb's participation in LCG's Service Challenge 3 involves testing the bulk data transfer infrastructure developed to allow high bandwidth distribution of data across the grid in accordance with the computing model. To enable reliable bulk replication of data, LHCb's DIRAC system has been integrated with gLite's File Transfer Service middleware component to make use of dedicated network links between LHCb computing centres. DIRAC's Data Management tools previously allowed the replication, registration and deletion of files on the grid. For SC3 supplementary functionality has been added to allow bulk replication of data (using FTS) and efficient mass registration to the LFC replica catalog.Provisional performance results have shown that the system developed can meet the expected data replication rate required by the computing model in 2007. This paper details the experience and results of integration and utilisation of DIRAC with the SC3 transfer machinery.

  17. Single chain Fab (scFab fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenneis Mariam

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The connection of the variable part of the heavy chain (VH and and the variable part of the light chain (VL by a peptide linker to form a consecutive polypeptide chain (single chain antibody, scFv was a breakthrough for the functional production of antibody fragments in Escherichia coli. Being double the size of fragment variable (Fv fragments and requiring assembly of two independent polypeptide chains, functional Fab fragments are usually produced with significantly lower yields in E. coli. An antibody design combining stability and assay compatibility of the fragment antigen binding (Fab with high level bacterial expression of single chain Fv fragments would be desirable. The desired antibody fragment should be both suitable for expression as soluble antibody in E. coli and antibody phage display. Results Here, we demonstrate that the introduction of a polypeptide linker between the fragment difficult (Fd and the light chain (LC, resulting in the formation of a single chain Fab fragment (scFab, can lead to improved production of functional molecules. We tested the impact of various linker designs and modifications of the constant regions on both phage display efficiency and the yield of soluble antibody fragments. A scFab variant without cysteins (scFabΔC connecting the constant part 1 of the heavy chain (CH1 and the constant part of the light chain (CL were best suited for phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. Beside the expression system E. coli, the new antibody format was also expressed in Pichia pastoris. Monovalent and divalent fragments (DiFabodies as well as multimers were characterised. Conclusion A new antibody design offers the generation of bivalent Fab derivates for antibody phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. This antibody format is of particular value for high throughput proteome binder generation projects, due to the avidity effect and the possible use of

  18. Carsim : un système pour convertir des textes en scènes tridimensionnelles animées

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugues, P.; Dupuy, S.; Egges, A.

    2004-01-01

    Cet article décrit un système de conversion de textes en scènes tridimensionnelles animées. Les textes sont des constats d’accidents de voitures rédigés par un des conducteurs. Le processus de conversion comporte de deux étapes. Un premier module d’extraction d’informations crée une description

  19. The SC gets ready for visitors

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Hall 300, which houses the Synchrocyclotron (SC), CERN’s first accelerator, is getting ready to host a brand-new exhibition. The site will be one of the stops on the new visit itineraries that will be inaugurated for the 2013 CERN Open Day.   The Synchrocyclotron through the years. Just as it did in the late 1950s, when the accelerator was first installed, the gigantic red structure of the Synchrocyclotron's magnet occupies a large part of the 300-square-metre hall. “We have completed the first phase of the project that will give the SC a new lease of life,” says Marco Silari, the project leader and a member of CERN’s Radiation Protection Group. “We have removed all the equipment that was not an integral part of the accelerator. The hall is now ready for the civil-engineering work that will precede the installation of the exhibition.” The SC was witness to a big part of the history of CERN. The accelerator produced ...

  20. Chromium doping effects on structural and dielectric properties of Mn-Zn cobaltites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, A. [School of Physics, Vigyan Bhavan, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Department of Physics, MEDICAPS Institute of Science and Technology, Pithampur 45331 (India); Dar, Mashkoor A., E-mail: darmashkoor.phst@gmail.com; Choudhary, P.; Varshney, Dinesh, E-mail: vdinesh33@rediffmail.com [School of Physics, Vigyan Bhavan, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Shah, P. [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida 201303 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The effect of transition metal Cr{sup 2+} ion as a dopant of Zn{sup 2+} in Mn{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Co{sub 2}O{sub 4} is investigated. Co-doped Mn{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5-x}Cr{sub x}Co{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.3 and 0.5) cobaltites were prepared by solid-state reaction route. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that the samples prepared are polycrystalline single-phase cubic spinel in structure having a space group Fd3m. An increase in average particle size observed with Cr{sup 2+} doping. However other structural parameters such as X-ray density, micro strain and dislocation density shows almost a similar decreasing trend with increase in Cr{sup 2+}. High value of permittivity ∼10{sup 5} is observed for the parent Mn{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Co{sub 2}O{sub 4} and shows a substantial decrease with increase in the Cr{sup 2+} doping. Higher doping of Cr{sup 2+} also increases the dielectric loss and hence limits its technological importance. At lower frequencies ac conductivity has been found to increase with increase in Cr{sup 2+} content.

  1. Effect of iron addition on the crystal structure of the α-AlFeMnSi phase formed in the quaternary Al-Fe-Mn-Si system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna-Álvarez, S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cubic and hexagonal α-phases, formed during thermal analysis experiments and specific isothermal treatments, have been analyzed for a series of Al-Mn-Si alloys with different iron contents. In these alloys, the Fe/Mn weight ratio was varied from 0.1 to 8.4. This study shows that in Al-Fe-Mn-Si alloys with Fe/Mn weight ratios up to 4, the a-phase has a cubic crystal structure, while in alloys with a Fe/Mn weight ratio of 5.3 or more, the a-phase has a hexagonal crystal structure. Hence, the critical Fe/Mn weight ratio for the cubic to hexagonal crystal structure transition falls between 4 and 5.3 for the studied alloys.Las fases α de estructura cristalina cúbica y hexagonal, formadas durante los ensayos de análisis térmico y tratamientos isotérmicos específicos, han sido analizadas para una serie de aleaciones Al-Mn-Si con diferente contenido de hierro. En estas aleaciones, la relación en peso Fe/Mn se varió de 0,1 a 8,4. Este estudio muestra que las aleaciones Al-13,4Si-1,1 Mn-Fe con relación en peso Fe/Mn menor o igual a 4, la fase a presenta estructura cristalina cúbica, mientras que en aleaciones con una relación Fe/Mn igual o mayor a 5,3, la fase a presenta estructura cristalina hexagonal. Por lo tanto, la relación crítica Fe/Mn para la transición de estructura cristalina de cúbica a hexagonal se encuentra entre 4 y 5,3 para las aleaciones estudiadas.

  2. Energy levels of 56Mn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Assche, P. H. M.; Baader, H. A.; Koch, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    The low-energy spectrum of the 55Mn(n,γ)56 Mn reaction has been studied with a γ-diffraction spectrometer. These data allowed the construction of a level scheme for 56Mn with two previously unobserved doublets. High-energy γ-transitions to the low-energy states have been measured for different...

  3. Synthesis and characterization of reduced scandium halide containing one- and two-dimensional metal bonded arrays. [Sc--ScCl3; Cs3Sc2Cl9; CsScCl3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeppelmeier, K.R.

    1978-08-01

    The stabilization effect of metal-metal bond formation on reduced scandium compounds was studied. The binary compounds Sc/sub 7/Cl/sub 12/, Sc/sub 5/Cl/sub 8/, Sc/sub 7/Cl/sub 10/ and ScCl were prepared by high temperature techniques and were characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction. The respective metal arrays in these compounds can be viewed as fragments of scandium metal ranging from discrete six atom metal cluster species (Sc(Sc/sub 6/Cl/sub 12/)), through intermediate single and double infinite chain configurations ((ScCl/sub 2/)(Sc/sub 4/Cl/sub 6/)) and ((ScCl/sub 2/)(Sc/sub 6/Cl/sub 8/)) to double metal close-packed sheets (ScCl). The halogen atoms effectively isolate the clusters, chains and sheets by bonding face, edge or exo positions on the metal arrays. The common occurrence of isolated scandium (III) ions emphasizes that a minimum number of bonding electrons is required to stabilize what are formally anionic metal arrays. The distribution of the reduction electrons in these anisotropic materials was studied by magnetic susceptibility, EPR and uv-X photoelectron spectroscopy. The ternary compounds studied were Cs/sub 3/Sc/sub 2/Cl/sub 9/ and CsScCl/sub 3/. The anion-bridged metal chain of the hexagonal perovskite structure was found to stabilize scandium (II). CsScCl/sub 3/ was found to be grossly nonstoichiometric on the transition metal site and the effects of the mixed valence character were studied between the single valence extremes Cs/sub 3/Sc/sub 2 + x/Cl/sub 9/; 0< x < 1.0.

  4. Atomic resolution investigations of phase transformation from TaN to CrTaN in a steel matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson; Hald, John

    2012-01-01

    atoms diffuse from the steel matrix into TaN precipitates and physically transform them into CrTaN. The crystal structure of the precipitates changes from that of a typical MN NaCl type crystal structure to a Z-phase crystal structure with alternating double layers of Cr and TaN. Since there is a large...

  5. Study of the magnetic structure and the cation distributions in MnCo spinel ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, L.L. [Hebei Advanced Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang City 050024 (China); Xu, J. [Hebei Advanced Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang City 050024 (China); School of Science, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan City 050038 (China); Li, Z.Z.; Qi, W.H. [Hebei Advanced Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang City 050024 (China); Tang, G.D., E-mail: tanggd@mail.hebtu.edu.cn [Hebei Advanced Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang City 050024 (China); Shang, Z.F.; Zhang, X.Y.; Wu, L.Q.; Xue, L.C. [Hebei Advanced Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang City 050024 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Single-phase powder samples of the spinel ferrites Mn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.0≤x≤0.3) were prepared using a conventional co-precipitation method. Comparing with the samples Cr{sub x}Ni{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.0≤x≤0.3) reported recently by our group, we found that there are two different trends in the magnetic moments (μ{sub exp}) per formula of samples measured at 10 K: the value of μ{sub exp} increased when Mn (Mn{sup 2+} with 3d{sup 5} electron configuration) substituted for Co (Co{sup 2+} with 3d{sup 7} electron configuration), while μ{sub exp} decreased when Cr (Cr{sup 2+} with 3d{sup 4}) substituted for Ni (Ni{sup 2+} with 3d{sup 8}). The dependences of μ{sub exp} on the doping level x for the two series of samples were fitted successfully, using the quantum-mechanical potential barrier model earlier proposed by our group. In the fitting process, the magnetic moment directions of the Cr{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} cations were assumed to be antiparallel to those of the other cations in the same sublattices due to constraints arising from Hund's rules.

  6. Synthesis of magnetically separable MnFe2O4 nanocrystals via salt-assisted solution combustion method and their utilization as dye adsorbent

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ZHONG, Xiaochao; YANG, Jun; CHEN, Yuanyuan; QIU, Xiaoyan; ZHANG, Yuanming

    2015-01-01

      MnFe2O4 nanocrystals with spinel structure were prepared by conventional solution combustion synthesis and salt-assisted solution combustion synthesis, respectively, and their adsorption capacities for Congo red (CR...

  7. Synthesis of magnetically separable MnFe2O4 nanocrystals via salt-assisted solution combustion method and their utilization as dye adsorbent

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ZHONG, Xiaochao; YANG, Jun; CHEN, Yuanyuan; QIU, Xiaoyan; ZHANG, Yuanming

    2015-01-01

    MnFe2O4 nanocrystals with spinel structure were prepared by conventional solution combustion synthesis and salt-assisted solution combustion synthesis, respectively, and their adsorption capacities for Congo red (CR...

  8. First principles study of the structural properties of Ni1.75Co0.25Mn1.5-xCrxIn0.5 Heusler alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlukhina Oksana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the structural and magnetic properties of Cr – doped Ni1.75Co0.25MnCr0.5In0.5 Heusler alloys are investigated by using the density functional theory calculations. The chemical disorder is treated by the 16-atom supercell approach. Three compositions with substitution of 6.25%, 12.5 %, 18.75%, and 25% Cr for Mn are taken into consideration. The formation energy, magnetic moments and lattice parameters depending on the Cr content are found. It is shown that compositions with 6.25% and 12.5% of Cr are energetically stable in austenite.

  9. Effect of genotype, Cr(III and Cr(VI on plant growth and micronutrient status in Silene vulgaris (Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Pradas-del-Real

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromium released into the environment from industrial activities has become an important environmental concern. Silene vulgaris has been proven to be tolerant to many heavy metals, so it is considered an interesting species in the revegetation and restoration of polluted soils, but no information is available about its response to Cr. The objective of this work was to study uptake and influence on plant growth of Cr(III and Cr(VI in six genotypes (four hermaphrodites and two females of S. vulgaris from different sites of Madrid (Spain. Plants were treated for 12 days with 60 µM of Cr(III or Cr(VI in semihydroponics. Dry weights, soil-plant analysis development values (SPAD reading with chlorophylls and micronutrient and total Cr concentrations were determined. Metal uptake was higher in presence of Cr(VI than of Cr(III and poorly translocated to the shoots. In both cases S. vulgaris did not show visual toxicity symptoms, biomass reduction, or differences among SPAD values as consequence of Cr additions. However genotypes SV36 and SV38 showed Fe and Mn imbalance. This is the first report on the relatively good performance of hermaphrodite and female S. vulgaris genotypes in Cr uptake and physiological traits, but further studies will be necessary to elucidate the mechanisms by which the gender may influence these variables. S. vulgaris presented high diversity at genotypic level; the treatment with hexavalent Cr increased the differences among genotypes so the use of cuttings from an homogeneous genotype seems to be an adequate method for the study of this species.

  10. Manganese-mediated ferromagnetism in La2 Mn2x O6 perovskite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    nent in figure 4) which are not accountable in the refinement, indicating the presence of minor impu- rity phase (also perovskite-like). The orthorhombic structure of the La2Fe1–xMn2x. Cr1–xO6 samples for x ≤ 0⋅5 is similar to the parent. La2FeCrO6, having c/a > √2; a < b (O-orthorhombic structure). We do however find ...

  11. Magnetic properties of mixed valence La 2/3 Sr Mn T O 3 (T= Fe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polycrystalline manganites of composition La2/3Sr1/3Mn1−TO3 (T = Cr3+ or Fe3+, x = 0.0-0.10) were obtained by the Pechini method. Their magnetic properties exhibited a marked dependence on Fe/Cr content, with significant reduction of the magnetic moment per formula unit and their Curie temperatures. In addition ...

  12. TAGE-SC-L Branch Predictors Again

    OpenAIRE

    Seznec, André

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Outline In this study, we explore the performance limits of these TAGE-SC-L predictors for respectively 8Kbytes and 64Kbytes of storage budget. For a 8KB storage budget, our submitted predictor used most of its storage budget on the TAGE predictor, features a very small loop predictor LP and a neural statistical cor-rector exploiting global history path and very limited local history. The submitted 8Kbytes predictor achieves 4.991 MPKI on the CBP-5 train traces. With a...

  13. crRNA biogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charpentier, E.; Oost, van der J.; White, M.

    2013-01-01

    Mature crRNAs are key elements in CRISPR-Cas defense against genome invaders. These short RNAs are composed of unique repeat/spacer sequences that guide the Cas protein(s) to the cognate invading nucleic acids for their destruction. The biogenesis of mature crRNAs involves highly precise processing

  14. Thermoelectric transport properties of Mn4 Si7 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yooleemi; Duong, Anh Tuan; Choi, Jeongyong; Cho, Sunglae

    2014-03-01

    The deposition of transition metal layers on silicon and their reaction with substrate are important issues in semiconductor device technology. The interface between metal and semiconductor determines the device performance. The 3d transition metal monosilicides such as FeSi, CoSi, MnSi and CrSi have attracted much attention because they are easily formed in the interface between transition metal and Si. On the other hand, the Mn4Si7 compound is well known a pseudo-direct band gap semiconductor (0.42 ~ 0.98 eV) with a fundamental gap increasing linearly with the compression along c- or a-axis. We have grown Mn thin films on Si (111) substrates at 600 °C using MBE, resulting in the formation of Mn4Si7. In order to investigate the correlation between magnetization and charge carrier transport, we performed magnetoresistance and Hall resistance measurements by using a physical property measurement system. Interestingly, we observed the Seebeck coefficient of -565 μV/K and electrical resistivity of 2.26 m Ω cm in Mn4Si7 films grown on Si substrate, resulting in the power factor of 14 mW/K2m.

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Assessing Sc1 for GCSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, H.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that investigations that `fit' the National Curriculum or examination board criteria are few in number. The fair testing emphasis means that pupils all over the country are finding out what affects the rate of a chemical reaction, the rate of photosynthesis or, in the case of Physics, the resistance of a wire. This book focuses on nine of the most common Sc1 investigations and how to prepare for them, manage and assess them. The author, a GCSE examiner, has turned his expertise into a handbook for improving Sc1 performance in the classroom. He has produced a book that would be extremely useful to both newly qualified teachers and experienced teachers. The first aim of the book, however, is to explain the requirements of Sc1. This is done comprehensively with examples of what the jargon means in practice. By breaking down the elements of planning, obtaining evidence, analysing evidence and evaluating, it is easy to see the subtleties of the mark descriptors. At first glance there seems to be little difference between the type of scientific knowledge needed for planning at level 6 and level 8. However, the level 8 statement specifies `detailed' scientific knowledge and understanding, which would mean a student should use equations from physics or symbolic chemical equations to support their arguments. One of the most useful sections in the book details the marking problems that can arise with some investigations. For example, in an investigation into electromagnets it is difficult for students to provide sufficient relevant scientific theory to satisfy the requirements of planning at level 6. One of the problems with Sc1 is that certain requirements, such as graph plotting, are difficult for many students. This book provides exercises that can be given to students to improve those skills. Each of the nine investigations is covered in great detail. Each investigation begins with an introduction detailing the rationale for choosing it, whether students

  16. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation Involving Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds - Design and Deployment Guidelines (Parris Island, SC, U.S. Marine Corp Recruit Depot, Site 45 Pilot Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) demonstration, involving subsurface injections of sodium permanganate (NaMnO4), was performed at the US Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), site 45 (Parris Island (PI), SC). The ground water was originally contaminated with perchloroe...

  17. Stark broadening parameter tables for Sc X, Sc XI, Ti XI and Ti XII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the semiclassical-perturbation formalism, we have calculated electron-, proton-, and He III-impact line widths and shifts for 4 Sc X, 10 Sc XI, 4 Ti XI and 27 Ti XII multiplets, significant for investigation and modeling of different plasmas in astrophysics and physics. For Sc X calculations have been performed within the temperature range from 200,000 K to 5,000,000 K, and for perturber densities 1019cm−3 - 1022cm−3. Stark broadening data for Sc XI are tabulated for temperatures from 500,000 K to 5,000,000 K, and perturber densities 1018cm−3 - 1022cm−3. For Ti XI calculations were performed within the temperature range from 500,000 K to 5,000,000 K, and perturber densities 1018cm−3 - 1022cm−3, while for Ti XII results are given for temperatures from 500,000 K to 6,000,000 K, and perturber densities 1018cm−3 - 1023cm−3.

  18. Surface activation of MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanosheets by oxalic acid for enhanced photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Junshu; Wang, Jinshu, E-mail: wangjsh@bjut.edu.cn; Li, Hongyi; Li, Yongli; Du, Yucheng; Yang, Yilong; Jia, Xinjian

    2017-05-01

    Graphical abstract: Visible light driven photoreduction of Cr(VI) over MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanosheets is enhanced via oxalic acid surface complex to generate activation layer. - Highlights: • MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanosheets are crystallized by a surface capping route of sulfonate groups. • Oxalic acid on MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanosheets forms an excited surface complex hybrid layer. • Surface activation enhances visible-light induced reduction of Cr(VI) into Cr(III). - Abstract: MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanosheets (P-MNOs) is selectively crystallized by using surface capping ligand with functional sulfonate group (sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate), which binds to the (131) surface of MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} inducing the morphology-controlled crystallization of MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} materials. Surface modification of photoactive P-MNOs with electron-rich oxalic acid ligands establishes an excited surface complex layer on phase-pure P-MNO as evidenced by spectroscopic analyses (FT-IR, UV–vis, Raman, PL, etc.), and thus more efficiently photocatalyzes the reduction of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) than solely P-MNOs or oxalic acid under visible light (λ > 420 nm) via a ligand-to-metal interfacial electron transfer pathway. However, the interaction between oxalic acid and MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} is highly dependent upon the morphology of solid MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} substrate due to the higher surface-area-to-volume ratio and higher surface activity of (131) planes in the sheet-like morphology. This study could assist the construction of stable niobate material systems to allow a versatile solid surface activation for establishing more energy efficient and robust catalysis process under visible light.

  19. Natural attenuation of Cr(VI) contaminated groundwater at two industrial sites in the eastern U.S.A.: A Cr isotope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Martin; Hellerich, Lucas A.; Sebek, Ondrej; Andronikov, Alexandre; Chrastny, Vladislav; Curik, Jan; Stepanova, Marketa; Pacherova, Petra; Martinkova, Eva; Prechova, Eva; Veselovsky, Frantisek

    2017-04-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], found in various compartments of the environment, has generated much interest due to its extreme toxicity and mobility. We studied natural attenuation of Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater at one site in Connecticut (site A), and one site in New Jersey (site B), U.S.A. Shallow groundwater was contaminated by electroplating solutions at site A, and by water-soluble chromite ore-processing residues at site B. Site A had lower Cr(VI) concentrations of less than 1 mg L-1 in comparison to site B (200 mg L-1). Site A also had lower mean del53Cr values (1.4 per mil) than site B (2.9 per mil). Chromium isotope composition of the pollution sources (plating bath, ore) was known (del53Cr of 0.0 to 0.2 per mil). The positive Cr isotope shift from the pollution source Cr(VI) to groundwater Cr(VI) at both sites indicated that spontaneous Cr(VI) reduction to insoluble Cr(III) is under way. This process is removing toxicity from the groundwater. Del53Cr values of groundwater were strongly positively correlated with the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), but not with divalent Fe and Mn, indicating that DOC may be the main Cr-reducing agent. A Rayleigh model indicated that 30 and 57 % of the original contaminant may have been removed from the groundwater by natural attenuation at site A and B, respectively. Interestingly, del53Cr values of the residual Cr(VI) in the groundwater at site A decreased significantly over the past 15 years, during which the water is being extracted for chemical treatment. At present, older, less fractionated Cr(VI) may be extracted at site A.

  20. Suppressing the Coffee-Ring Effect in Semitransparent MnO2 Film for a High-Performance Solar-Powered Energy Storage Window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huanyu; Qian, Jiasheng; Zhou, Limin; Yuan, Jikang; Huang, Haitao; Wang, Yu; Tang, Wing Man; Chan, Helen Lai Wa

    2016-04-13

    We introduce a simple and effective method to deposit a highly uniform and semitransparent MnO2 film without coffee-ring effect (CRE) by adding ethanol into MnO2 ink for transparent capacitive energy storage devices. By carefully controlling the amount of ethanol added in the MnO2 droplet, we could significantly reduce the CRE and thus improve the film uniformity. The electrochemical properties of supercapacitor (SC) devices using semitransparent MnO2 film electrodes with or without CRE were measured and compared. The SC device without CRE shows a superior capacitance, high rate capability, and lower contact resistance. The CRE-free device could achieve a considerable volumetric capacitance of 112.2 F cm(-3), resulting in a high volumetric energy density and power density of 10 mWh cm(-3) and 8.6 W cm(-3), respectively. For practical consideration, both flexible SC and large-area rigid SC devices were fabricated to demonstrate their potential for flexible transparent electronic application and capacitive energy-storage window application. Moreover, a solar-powered energy storage window which consists of a commercial solar cell and our studied semitransparent MnO2-film-based SCs was assembled. These SCs could be charged by the solar cell and light up a light emitting diode (LED), demonstrating their potential for self-powered systems and energy-efficient buildings.

  1. Cyclotron Produced 44gSc from Natural Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, G.W.; Engle, J.W.; Valdovinos, H.F.; Barnhart, T.E.; Nickles, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    44gSc was produced by 16 MeV proton irradiation of unenriched calcium metal with radionuclidic purity greater than 95%. The thick target yield at saturation for 44gSc was 213 MBq/μA, dwarfing the yields of contaminants 43Sc,44mSc, 47Sc and 48Sc for practical bombardment times of 1–2 h. Scandium was isolated from the dissolved calcium target by filtration, and reconstituted in small volumes of dilute HCl. Reactions with the chelate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) indicated a reactivity of 54±14 Gbq/μmol at end-of-bombardment. PMID:22728844

  2. Exploring branch predictability limits with the MTAGE+SC predictor *

    OpenAIRE

    Seznec, André

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In the previous championship CBP-4, the winner of the unlimited storage track [5], poTAGE-SC was combining several TAGE based predictors using different forms of histories (local, global, and frequency), a COLT inspired [3] prediction combiner and a statistical corrector (SC) predictor [8, 10] fed with various forms of branch histories. With MTAGE-SC, we improve this predictor in two ways. First through incorporating new forms of branch histories, adding a new TAGE com...

  3. A Mn-54 Radiotracer Study of Mn Isotope Solid-Liquid Exchange during Reductive Transformation of Vernadite (δ-MnO₂) by Aqueous Mn(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzinga, Evert J.; Kustka, Adam B. [Rutgers

    2015-04-09

    We employed Mn-54 radiotracers to characterize the extent and dynamics of Mn atom exchange between aqueous Mn(II) and vernadite (δ-Mn(IV)O2) at pH 7.5 under anoxic conditions. Exchange of Mn atoms between the solid and liquid phase is rapid, reaching dynamic equilibrium in 2–4 days. We propose that during the initial stages of reaction, Mn atom exchange occurs through consecutive comproportionation-disproportionation reactions where interfacial electron transfer from adsorbed Mn(II) to lattice Mn(IV) generates labile Mn(III) cations that rapidly disproportionate to reform aqueous Mn(II) and solid-phase Mn(IV). Following nucleation of Mn(III)OOH phases, additional exchange likely occurs through electron transfer from aqueous Mn(II) to solid-phase Mn(III). Our results provide evidence for the fast and extensive production of transient Mn(III) species at the vernadite surface upon contact of this substrate with dissolved Mn(II). We further show that HEPES buffer is a reductant of lattice Mn(IV) in the vernadite structure in our experiments. The methods and results presented here introduce application of Mn-54 tracers as a facile tool to further investigate the formation kinetics of labile Mn(III) surface species and their impacts on Mn-oxide structure and reactivity over a range of environmentally relevant geochemical conditions.

  4. SC2: Secure Communication over Smart Cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragoni, Nicola; Lostal, Eduardo; Papini, Davide

    2012-01-01

    The Security-by-Contract (S×C) framework has recently been proposed to support software evolution in open multi-application smart cards. The key idea lies in the notion of contract, a specification of the security behavior of an application that must be compliant with the security policy...... of the card hosting the application. In this paper we address a key issue to realize the S×C idea, namely the outsourcing of the contractpolicy matching service to a Trusted Third Party (TTP). In particular, we present the design and implementation of (SC)2 (Secure Communication over Smart Cards), a system...... securing the communication between a smart card and the TTP which provides the S×C matching service....

  5. Final Scientific Report: DE-SC0002194

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidler, Gerald [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-04-07

    We provide the final scientific report for DE-SC0002194. During the term of this grant, 28 publications spanning a variety of topics were addressed under the rubric of advanced x-ray methods and their application to extreme conditions of time-resolution or x-ray intensities. Notable accomplishments include a new observation of XANES features associated with f-shell reconfiguration in lanthanides, size-dependent x-ray heating effects under XFEL illumination conditions, theoretical development of improved treatments of inelastic x-ray scattering for 'warm dense matter' conditions, and several new instrument develop efforts for atomic, molecular, and condensed phase studies in the lab and at major facility lightsources.

  6. The SC State NSF PAARE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Donald; Ajello, Marco; Brittain, Sean; Cash, Jennifer; Fogle, Bryan; Hartmann, Dieter; Ho, Shirley; Howell, Steve; King, Jeremy; Leising, Mark; Smith, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    We report on the activities of our NSF PAARE program during Year 3 of the project. Our partnership under this award includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) and individual investigators at NASA Ames and elsewhere. Our partnership with the Citizen CATE Experiment and involvement in the total solar eclipse which passed through our campus on August 21, 2017, will be discussed. The PAARE project continues to strengthen our partnership with Clemson. We are close to completing a memorandum of agreement between the two institutions that will allow for the seamless transfer of an undergraduate from SC State to Clemson’s graduate program in physics and astronomy. Additionally, we have worked together under the Citizen CATE project and through other research activities. SC State is a member of the National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) and participates through its faculty and undergraduates, one of whom (Wesley Red) is reporting on his summer internship at this conference. We also served as the state coordinator for South Carolina for the Citizen CATE Experiment. The August 21st path of totality crossed through our campus and the campus of our partner Clemson University. Additional colleges, universities and citizen scientist groups partnered with us to provide 7 sites of coverage across South Carolina from the foothills of the Appalachian mountains to the Atlantic Ocean near the site of departure of the shadow from the continental U.S. Support for this work includes our NSF PAARE award AST-1358913 as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. CATE work has been supported by NASA SMD award NNX16AB92A to the National Solar Observatory. Additional details can be found at: http://physics.scsu.edu

  7. Magnetic interactions and electronic structure of Pt2Mn1− xYxGa (Y ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-19

    Jun 19, 2017 ... We study the magnetic exchange interaction between the atoms for the materials with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic configurations to show the effects of Fe and Cr substitution at Mn site on the magnetic interactions of these systems. Detailed analysis of electronic structure in terms of density of states ...

  8. Novel Preparation Methods of 52Mn for ImmunoPET Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Stephen A.; Hernandez, Reinier; Fonslet, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    52Mn (t1/2 =5.59 d, ß+ = 29.6%, Eßave = 0.24 MeV) shows promise in positron emission tomography (PET) and in dual-modality manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) applications including neural tractography, stem cell tracking, and biological toxicity studies. The extension to biocon......52Mn (t1/2 =5.59 d, ß+ = 29.6%, Eßave = 0.24 MeV) shows promise in positron emission tomography (PET) and in dual-modality manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) applications including neural tractography, stem cell tracking, and biological toxicity studies. The extension...... to bioconjugate application requires high specific activity 52Mn in a state suitable for macromolecule labeling. To that end a 52Mn production, purification, and labeling system is presented, and its applicability in preclinical, macromolecule PET is shown using the conjugate 52Mn-DOTA-TRC105. 52Mn is produced......% efficient (n=7) in 52Mn recovery, leading to a separation factor from Cr of (1.6 ± 1.0) x106 (n = 4), and an average effective specific activity of 0.8 GBq/µmol (n = 4) in titration against DOTA. 52Mn-DOTA-TRC105 conjugation and labeling demonstrate the potential for chelation applications. In vivo images...

  9. Preparation and electrochemical properties of Li-rich spinel-type lithium manganate coated LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yumei; Lin, Zhenzhen [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, Yongliang [Analytical and Testing Center, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chen, Caifeng; He, Yi [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Yang, Xiaojing, E-mail: yang.xiaojing@bnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Composites in which Li-rich spinel-type lithium manganate was coated on surface of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles were prepared, and the cycling stabilities of composites were much improved. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A composite of Li-rich spinel-type lithium manganate and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Li-rich spinel-type lithium manganate coating on the surface of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A synthetic method of sol-gel followed by heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cycling stability without large degradation of initial capacity. -- Abstract: Li-rich spinel-type lithium manganate (SC) coated LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} composites were prepared and characterized by XRD, SEM, FT-IR, ICP, etc. Their charge/discharge behaviors were studied between 3.0 and 4.3 V at 40 mA g{sup -1} under room temperature, and the results showed that SC coated on surface of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} could improve cycling stability of composite electrodes. The composite (S1) containing 4.8 wt% of SC exhibited noticeably improved cycling stability, whereas the initial specific capacity was very close to that of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  10. EPR and 55Mn cw-ENDOR study of an antiferrogmagnetically coupled dinuclear manganese (Mn III Mn IV) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweygart, W.; Bittl, R.; Wieghardt, K.; Lubitz, W.

    1996-10-01

    X- and Q-band EPR and 55Mn cw-ENDOR experiments are reported on a binuclear oxo-bridged dimanganese Mn III Mn IV complex. Consistent simulations of spectra from both frequency bands using one parameter set for the orthorhombic g tensor and Mn III and Mn IV hyperfine tensors are achieved. Information on the manganese hyperfine couplings is independently obtained from 55Mn cw-ENDOR spectroscopy performed on both ions.

  11. Phase Transformation and Magnetic Property of Ni-Mn-Ga Powders Prepared by Dry Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, B.; Chen, F.; Tong, Y. X.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y. F.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the phase transformations and magnetic properties of Ni-Mn-Ga alloy powders prepared by dry ball milling in argon atmosphere. The Fe and Cr elements were found to be introduced in the alloy after ball milling, which should result from the severe collision and friction among the particles, balls, and vial. The x-ray diffraction result indicated that the Fe and Cr elements should have alloyed with the Ni-Mn-Ga matrix. The martensitic transformation temperature and Curie temperature of the 800 °C annealed powders decreased by ~33 °C and increased by ~28 °C, respectively, as compared to that of the bulk alloy. The comprehensive effect of the changing of valence electron concentration of the alloy due to the introduction of Fe and Cr and the grain refinement of the alloy caused by ball milling should be responsible for the reduction of martensitic transformation temperature. The saturation magnetization of the 800 °C annealed powders became larger (~5 emu/g) than that of the bulk alloy. The enhancement of magnetic properties, such as the increase of Curie temperature and enhancement of saturation magnetization of the annealed Ni-Mn-Ga powders, should be attributed to the increase of magnetic exchange caused by introduction of Fe in the alloy. The contaminations of Fe and Cr elements emerging from the dry ball milling process changed the phase transformation and magnetic properties of the Ni-Mn-Ga alloy. Therefore, the dry ball milling process is difficult to control the contamination from the milling medium and not suitable to prepare Ni-Mn-Ga powders. On the contrary, the wet ball milling method under liquid medium should be a better method to prevent the contamination and fabricate pure Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloy powders.

  12. Comparison of {sup 55}Mn NMR between two kinds of Mn{sub 12} molecular magnets: Mn{sub 12}Ac and Mn{sub 12}Ph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Takeji E-mail: kubotk@nara-edu.ac.jp; Nagano, Akinori; Goto, Takao; Takeda, Keiji; Awaga, Kunio

    2004-05-01

    The seven kinds of {sup 55}Mn NMR observed for Mn{sub 12} benzoate having the faster relaxation have been analyzed in comparison with those of Mn{sub 12} acetate. It has been shown that the Mn{sup 3+} ions at the Mn(7) sites are the probable cause of the fast relaxation with weakening the molecular anisotropy energy for the Mn{sub 12} benzoate cluster.

  13. Superemission of Cr nanolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khmelinskii, Igor [Universidade do Algarve, FCT, DQB and CIQA, 8005-139, Faro (Portugal); Makarov, Vladimir, E-mail: vmvimakarov@gmail.com [University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, P.O. Box 23343, San Juan, PR 00931-3343 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Development of novel nanodevices for superemission generation. • Development of nanolasers based on metal nanofilms. • Development of theory of nanolasers based on metal nanofilms. - Abstract: We continue our studies of metal nanolayers started earlier [1]. Presently, we investigate absorption, emission and superemission in Cr nanolayers. We provide experimental estimates of the energy density and power density of superemission of Cr nanolayers, along with estimates of the diffraction-limited light divergence. We report that the divergence of the superemission along the direction normal to the nanolayer corresponds to that of a point source, with the divergence angle of ca. 0.2 rad. Additionally, we report surprising long-range transfer of the excitation energy in Cr metal films, at macroscopic distances of 1 cm.

  14. Deferoxamine pretreatment prevents Cr(VI)-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidant stress: role of Cr(VI) chelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Jijón, Eduardo; Zarco-Márquez, Guillermo; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Zataraín-Barrón, Zyanya Lucía; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Pinzón, Enrique; Zavaleta, Rosa Marina; Tapia, Edilia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2012-01-27

    Deferoxamine (DFO) is a recognized iron chelator which has been shown to exert nephroprotection in models of toxic nephropathies. In the present work the potential protective effects of DFO against Cr(VI)-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidant stress were evaluated. Rats were injected with a single injection (15mg/kg, s.c.) of potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)). DFO was given as a single i.p. injection 30min before K(2)Cr(2)O(7) administration at three different doses (100, 200 and 400mg/kg). It was found that DFO pretreatment attenuated, in a dose-dependent way, K(2)Cr(2)O(7)-induced renal dysfunction and structural alterations evaluated by serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine clearance, proteinuria, plasma glutathione peroxidase activity, urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and histological analyses. Furthermore, DFO prevented the K(2)Cr(2)O(7)-induced renal oxidant stress and the decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase. Finally it was found that DFO, at 400mg/kg, decreases renal Cr(VI) content which prompted us to evaluate the potential Cr(VI) chelating properties of this compound. Indeed was found in an in vitro assay that DFO was an effective Cr(VI) chelator with an IC(50) of 800μg. In additional groups of rats was found that DFO posttreatment was ineffective to attenuate K(2)Cr(2)O(7)-induced nephrotoxicity and renal oxidant stress. Furthermore, DFO was unable to modify urinary excretion of total chromium. The nephroprotective effect of DFO against Cr(VI)-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidant stress may be explained, at least partially, by the ability of DFO to chelate Cr(VI) and to attenuate renal Cr(VI) content. However, it cannot be excluded that the ability of DFO to chelate iron may also be involved in the protection observed in our study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. MCD spectroscopy of hexanuclear Mn(III) salicylaldoxime single-molecule magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Justin M; Thomson, Andrew J; Inglis, Ross

    2010-01-01

    The hexanuclear cages [Mn(6)O(2)(R-sao)(6)L(2)(EtOH)(x)(H(2)O)(y)] "Mn(6)" behave as single-molecule magnets (SMMs) below a characteristic blocking temperature. As with [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CR)(16)(H(2)O)(4)] "Mn(12)" the electronic absorption spectra are rather featureless, yielding little information......)(MeOH)(3)](ClO(4)) (4) cast into polymer film. SMM behaviour has previously been observed using magnetic susceptibility measurements on powder and single-crystal samples. The ligand field environment of the magnetic ions is assumed to be similar in (1) and (2) and their different blocking temperatures...

  16. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy growth of GaN, InGaN, ScN, and ScAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohnen, T.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD); hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE); gallium nitride (GaN); indium gallium nitride (InGaN); scandium nitride (ScN); scandium aluminum nitride (ScAlN); semiconductors; thin films; nanowires; III nitrides; crystal growth - We studied the HVPE growth of different III

  17. Electronic and thermoelectric properties of nonmagnetic inverse Heusler semiconductors Sc2FeSi and Sc2FeGe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Yang, Guang; Yang, Yanmin; Ma, Hongran; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhidong; Fang, Wei; Yin, Fuxing; Li, Jia

    2017-11-01

    The electronic and thermoelectric properties of two nonmagnetic Hg2CuTi-type or called inverse Heusler semiconductors Sc2FeSi and Sc2FeGe are predicted by using first principles calculations and Boltzmann transport theory. The band gaps of Sc2FeSi and Sc2FeGe are 0.54 eV and 0.60 eV, respectively. Their zero total magneticmoments both satisfy the Mt = Zt-18 while not the Mt = Zt-24 rule. The good thermoelectric properties are achieved under the condition of electron doping. At the room temperature 300 K, the peak value of Seebeck coefficient is -592.02 μVK-1 for Sc2FeSi, and -609.38 μVK-1 for Sc2FeGe by electron doping. The maximum power factor is 48.77(1014 μW cm-1 K-2 s-1) for Sc2FeSi and 47.11(1014 μW cm-1 K-2 s-1) for Sc2FeGe with electron doping concentration -2.29 × 1026 m-3 and -2.42 × 1026 m-3, respectively, which are close to the power factor of well-known thermoelectric material Bi2Te3, indicating their potential applying values for thermoelectric devices.

  18. Fermi surface study of ScAu{sub 2}(Al, In) and ScPd{sub 2}(Sn, Pb) compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, P. V. Sreenivasa; Kanchana, V., E-mail: kanchana@iith.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Ordnance Factory Estate, Yeddumailaram-502205, Telangana (India); Vaitheeswaran, G. [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad-500046 (India)

    2015-06-24

    A detailed study on the electronic structure and Fermi surface (FS) of superconducting Heusler compounds ScAu{sub 2}(Al, In) and ScPd{sub 2}(Sn, Pb) has been carried out using first principles electronic structure calculations. The spin orbit coupling is found to play a major role in understanding the band structure and FS. Analysis of the data shows the importance of spin orbit coupling effect in the above compounds. The bands which cross Fermi level (EF) are found to be dominated by the Sc d{sub t2g}-states. The calculated total density of states are in good agreement with the experimentally reported value for ScPd{sub 2}Sn. Under compression we find a change in the Fermi surface topology of ScPd{sub 2}Sn at V/V{sub 0} = 0.95 (pressure of≈15 GPa), which is explained using the band structure calculations.

  19. The high-temperature modification of ScRuSi - Structure, 29Si and 45Sc solid state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Rodewald, Ute Ch.; Haverkamp, Sandra; Benndorf, Christopher; Eckert, Hellmut; Heying, Birgit; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2017-10-01

    A polycrystalline sample of the TiNiSi type low-temperature (LT) modification of ScRuSi was synthesized by arc-melting. Longer annealing in a sealed silica tube (6 weeks at 1270 K) followed by quenching led to the high-temperature (HT) phase. HT-ScRuSi adopts the ZrNiAl structure type: P 6 bar 2 m , a = 688.27(9), c = 336.72(5) pm, wR2 = 0.0861, 260 F2 values, 14 variables. The striking structural building units are regular, tricapped trigonal prisms Si1@Ru3Sc6 and Si2@Ru6Sc3. Both polymorphs have been characterized by 29Si and 45Sc MAS-NMR spectroscopy. The local scandium environments in the two polymorphs are easily distinguished by their electric field gradient tensor values, in agreement with theoretically calculated values.

  20. Cyclotron production of {sup 43}Sc for PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczak, Rafał [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Krajewski, Seweryn [Synektik S.A., Research and Development Center, Warsaw (Poland); Szkliniarz, Katarzyna [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Sitarz, Mateusz [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Abbas, Kamel [Nuclear Security Unit, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, European Commission, Ispra (Italy); Choiński, Jarosław; Jakubowski, Andrzej; Jastrzębski, Jerzy [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Majkowska, Agnieszka [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Simonelli, Federica [Nuclear Decommissioning Unit, Joint Research Centre, Ispra Site Management Directorate, European Commission, Ispra (Italy); Stolarz, Anna; Trzcińska, Agnieszka [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Zipper, Wiktor [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Bilewicz, Aleksander [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-12-04

    Recently, significant interest in {sup 44}Sc as a tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been observed. Unfortunately, the co-emission by {sup 44}Sc of high-energy γ rays (E{sub γ} = 1157, 1499 keV) causes a dangerous increase of the radiation dose to the patients and clinical staff. However, it is possible to produce another radionuclide of scandium—{sup 43}Sc—having properties similar to {sup 44}Sc but is characterized by much lower energy of the concurrent gamma emissions. This work presents the production route of {sup 43}Sc by α irradiation of natural calcium, its separation and purification processes, and the labeling of [DOTA,Tyr3] octreotate (DOTATATE) bioconjugate. Natural CaCO{sub 3} and enriched [{sup 40}Ca]CaCO{sub 3} were irradiated with alpha particles for 1 h in an energy range of 14.8–30 MeV at a beam current of 0.5 or 0.25 μA. In order to find the optimum method for the separation of {sup 43}Sc from irradiated calcium targets, three processes previously developed for {sup 44}Sc were tested. Radiolabeling experiments were performed with DOTATATE radiobioconjugate, and the stability of the obtained {sup 43}Sc-DOTATATE was tested in human serum. Studies of {sup nat}CaCO{sub 3} target irradiation by alpha particles show that the optimum alpha particle energies are in the range of 24–27 MeV, giving 102 MBq/μA/h of {sup 43}Sc radioactivity which creates the opportunity to produce several GBq of {sup 43}Sc. The separation experiments performed indicate that, as with {sup 44}Sc, due to the simplicity of the operations and because of the chemical purity of the {sup 43}Sc obtained, the best separation process is when UTEVA resin is used. The DOTATATE conjugate was labeled by the obtained {sup 43}Sc with a yield >98 % at elevated temperature. Tens of GBq activities of {sup 43}Sc of high radionuclidic purity can be obtainable for clinical applications by irradiation of natural calcium with an alpha beam.

  1. Universal effect of Mn-site doping on charge ordering in La{sub 1/3}Ca{sub 2/3}MnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlova, T.S., E-mail: orlova.t@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Laval, J.Y.; Monod, Ph. [Laboratoire de Physique du Solide, CNRS ESPCI, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Noudem, J.G. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie et Sciences des Materiaux, ENSICAEN, 14050 Caen (France); Greshnov, A.A. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-15

    Comparison of doping effect on the charge ordering in La{sub 1/3}Ca{sub 2/3}Mn{sub 1−y}M{sub y}O{sub 3} (M: Fe, Ga, Cr, Ni, Cu, Ru, Mg and 0≤y≤0.07) has been investigated by combining magnetic and transport measurements and local compositional analysis in situ in transmission electron microscope. The effect of Mn-site doping on the charge ordering temperature T{sub CO} is shown for the first time to be universal for a given dopant valence and y≤0.05. T{sub CO} is governed by the effective relative concentration n{sub Mn3+}=Mn{sup 3+}/(Mn{sup 3+}+Mn{sup 4+}) of Mn{sup 3+} ions, T{sub CO}∼Cn{sub Mn3+}, where the coefficient C depends on the valence but not on d-shell filling of a dopant ion. This dependence indicates that any of the considered dopants do not participate in charge transfer during charge ordering formation, however, indirectly affects the charge redistribution between manganese ions. Consideration of Mn-site doping effect on charge ordering temperature using a simple order–disorder model supports the concept of universality for a given dopant valence and dominating role of the factor of entropy over energy change. Analysis of the remanent magnetization together with the obtained behavior of T{sub CO}(n{sub Mn3+}) testify that it is the dopant valence (Ru{sup 5+}), but not formation of Ru-based magnetic clusters, that is responsible for antiferromagnetic (AFM) insulator–ferromagnetic (FM) ‘bad-metal’ phase transition observed in the Ru-doped system at y=0.07. - Highlights: • Effect of Mn-site doping on charge ordering temperature in manganites was studied. • T{sub CO} scales linearly with effective relative concentration of Mn3+ for all dopants. • The scaling rate depends on dopant valence, but not on its d-shell filling. • The Mn-site doping effect on T{sub CO} was described by an effective order–disorder model. • The model supports dominating role of entropy factor in the doping effect on T{sub CO}.

  2. Supercritical SC-CO2 and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Jrad, Amel; Barth, Danielle; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form) were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny) and 8.91% (thornless) against 3.4% (spiny) and 1.94% (thornless) by SC-CO2 extract (T = 40°C, P = 180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO2 flow rate = 15 mL·s−1). Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO2: 57.60% (spiny), 59.98% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny), 60.66% (thornless), followed by oleic acid, SC-CO2: 22.31% (spiny), 22.40% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny), 20.58% (thornless) and palmitic acid, SC-CO2: 14.3% (spiny), 12.92% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny), 13.08% (thornless). The SC-CO2 profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C20:1, C20:2, and C22.The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44–5.25), and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C) and 4.13 (T = 70°C). PMID:22754699

  3. Supercritical SC-CO2 and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Yeddes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny and 8.91% (thornless against 3.4% (spiny and 1.94% (thornless by SC-CO2 extract (T = 40°C, P=180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO2 flow rate = 15 mL·s−1. Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO2: 57.60% (spiny, 59.98% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny, 60.66% (thornless, followed by oleic acid, SC-CO2: 22.31% (spiny, 22.40% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny, 20.58% (thornless and palmitic acid, SC-CO2: 14.3% (spiny, 12.92% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny, 13.08% (thornless. The SC-CO2 profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C20:1, C20:2, and C22.The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44–5.25, and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C and 4.13 (T = 70°C.

  4. On the origin of the giant magnetic moment of the Al-Mn quasicrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocharov P.V.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ab initio calculations of magnetic moments for icosahedral clusters contained in crystal structures Al10Mn3, Al5Co2, Al17Mn4 (Al13Cr4Si4-type fulfilled in the framework of Density Functional Theory. The AlMn cluster having the trigonal D3h symmetry with the triangle of Mn ions in the interior has the moment being equal to three magnetic moments of a single manganese ion (4.4 μB, the moment of the tetrahedral Td cluster with the Mn tetrahedron in the interior is equal approximately to twelve magnetic moments of the single manganese ion (15.5 μB. The magnetic moment of icosahedral Al-Co clusters having the same configuration is equal to zero. The magnetic moments of the rod assembled from the icosahedral clusters with the sequence Td D3h - Td was found to be 20.5 μB. This value permits to explain the giant magnetic moment of icosahedral and decagonal Al-Mn quasicrystals and gives the indirect evidence to the hierarchical model of the quasicrystals structure proposed by the authors recently. An arrangement of magnetic moment carriers in the interior of the aluminum shell of icosahedral clusters permits to suggest the interaction between contacting manganese ions as the main origin of the giant magnetic moment of the Al-Mn quasicrystals.

  5. 3d-Metal Doped into LiMn2O4 Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.B.; Ueda, A.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1998-11-01

    3d-metal (Me) doped LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li[Mn{sub 1.9}Me{sub 0.1}]O{sub 4} targets in Ar + N{sub 2} and Ar + O{sub 2} gas mixtures and annealed at 750{degrees}C in O{sub 2} for 1 h. From XRD measurements, the structure of the Me-doped thin film was dependent upon the element and the deposition conditions. The doping level of Me/Mn of cubic phase was less than 0.1 by EDX measurements. The Ti-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films exhibited a capacity close to theoretical for stoichiometric LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. This improvement at 4 V comes at the expense of the capacity at 5 V. Cells with Ti-doped films exhibited the same low capacity fade as those with undoped LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathodes. Similar electrochemical changes were observed with the Cr- and Zn-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films. The discharge capacities above 4.5 V for the Ni-doped films were about equal to those below 4.5 V, and the thin-film cells could be cycled reversibility between 3.5 and 5.3 V.

  6. SrMnII2MnIII(PO43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaleb Alhakmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, strontium trimanganese tris(orthophosphate, was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Its structure is isotypic to that of the lead analogue PbMnII2MnIII(PO43. Two O atoms are in general positions, whereas all others atoms are in special positions. The Sr and one P atom exhibit mm2 symmetry, the MnII atom 2/m symmetry, the MnIII atom and the other P atom .2. symmetry and two O atoms are located on mirror planes. The three-dimensional network of the crystal structure is made up of two types of chains running parallel to [010]. One chain is linear and is composed of alternating MnIIIO6 octahedra and PO4 tetrahedra sharing vertices; the other chain has a zigzag arrangement and is built up from two edge-sharing MnIIO6 octahedra connected to PO4 tetrahedra by edges and vertices. The two types of chains are linked through PO4 tetrahedra, leading to the formation of channels parallel to [100] and [010] in which the SrII ions are located. They are surrounded by eight O atoms in the form of a slightly distorted bicapped trigonal prism.

  7. Pascal-SC a computer language for scientific computation

    CERN Document Server

    Bohlender, Gerd; von Gudenberg, Jürgen Wolff; Rheinboldt, Werner; Siewiorek, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Perspectives in Computing, Vol. 17: Pascal-SC: A Computer Language for Scientific Computation focuses on the application of Pascal-SC, a programming language developed as an extension of standard Pascal, in scientific computation. The publication first elaborates on the introduction to Pascal-SC, a review of standard Pascal, and real floating-point arithmetic. Discussions focus on optimal scalar product, standard functions, real expressions, program structure, simple extensions, real floating-point arithmetic, vector and matrix arithmetic, and dynamic arrays. The text then examines functions a

  8. SC-System of convergence theory and foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio G. De los Cobos Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel system of convergence (SC is presented as well as its fundamentals and computing experience. An implementation using a novel mono-objetive particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm with three phases (PSO-3P: stabilization, generation with broad-ranging exploration and generation with in-depth exploration, is presented and tested in a diverse benchmark problems. Evidence shows that the three-phase PSO algoritm along with the SC criterion (SC-PSO-3Pcan converge to the global optimum in several difficult test functions for multiobjective optimization problems, constrained optimization problems and unconstrained optimization problems with 2 until 120,000 variables.

  9. Pre-edge features in X-ray absorption structure of Mn in GaMnN, GaMnAs and GeMn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, A. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov str. 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation) and ' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' , CEA-CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 St Martin d' Heres cedex (France)]. E-mail: titov@nsc.gpi.ru; Kulatov, E. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov str. 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Uspenskii, Yu.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii prosp. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Biquard, X. [DRFMC-SP2M, CEA Grenoble-38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Halley, D. [' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' , CEA-CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 St Martin d' Heres cedex (France); Kuroda, S. [' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' , CEA-CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 St Martin d' Heres cedex (France); Bellet-Amalric, E. [' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' , CEA-CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 St Martin d' Heres cedex (France); DRFMC-SP2M, CEA Grenoble-38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Mariette, H. [' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' , CEA-CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 St Martin d' Heres cedex (France); Cibert, J. [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2006-05-15

    Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N samples with a wide range of concentrations, from x=0.003 to 0.057, were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction and the simulation of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) confirmed the wurtzite structure of the samples, without any secondary phase, and the location of Mn in the gallium sublattice of GaN. The valence state of Mn was studied using the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) at the K-edge of Mn. The shape of the measured XANES spectra does not depend on the Mn concentration: that implies the same valence state and local atomic structure around the Mn atom in all samples. A calculation of the electronic band structure of GaMnN, GaMnAs, GeMn and the XANES spectra of Mn in GaMnN was performed using the linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) method. The calculated spectra fit well our experimental data. In particular, the comparison demonstrates that a peak in the pre-edge structure is directly related to the 3+ valence state of Mn. This was confirmed experimentally by measurements of the Mn K-edge in GaMn{sup 2+}As and ZnMn{sup 2+}Te. An application of proposed interpretation for GeMn is discussed.

  10. Maurice Scève - Délie, object de plus haulte vertu. Approche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Zărnescu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Parler de Maurice Scève dans la lignée des symbolistes et de Mallarmé n’est pas chose surprenante mais édifiante parce que censée opérer des perspectives valorisantes sur les processus sémiotiques qui réactivent à chaque nouvelle lecture des directions inédites qui font le passage d’un parcours linéaire du poème à un parcours volumique. Cette approche poïétique, centrée sur le livre fondamental de Maurice Scève, Délie, object de plus haulte vertu, poursuit à travers certaines techniques formelles la configuration d’un dispositif sémiotique supposé créer des rapports intra- et intertextuels des plus évocateurs. Le symbolisme numéral relevant en égale mesure de Pythagore et de la Cabale, le chiasme qui établit une série de parallélismes sur la verticale et l’horizontale du texte poétique, le jeu d’équivoques ou les écarts délibérés de la norme grammaticale contribuant eux-aussi à la sensation d’hermétisme représentent autant de niveaux d’analyse que de procédés poétiques qui rattachent Maurice Scève aux poètes modernes des XIXe et XXe siècles.

  11. Excitation functions for the radionuclide46Sc produced in the irradiation of 45Sc with deuterons and 6He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skobelev, N. K.; Kulko, A. A.; Kroha, V.; Burjan, V.; Hons, Z.; Daniel, A. V.; Demekhina, N. A.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Kugler, A.; Mrázek, J.; Penionzhkevich, Yu E.; Piskoř, Š.; Šimečková, E.; Voskoboynik, E. I.

    2011-03-01

    Results of the measurements of the excitation function in the deuteron-induced reaction 45Sc(d, p)46Sc have been obtained at the energy of incident deuterons up to 11.7 MeV. In addition, data for the 45Sc(d, t)44Sc reaction were obtained. The experiments were performed using the variable energy cyclotron U-120M (NPI, Řež) and the Electrostatic Generator EG-5 (FLNP, JINR). The cross sections of the induced activities were measured using the stacked-foil technique. The measured excitation functions were similar to those observed for the 45Sc(6He, 5He*)46Sc reaction, studied at the accelerator complex for radioactive beams DRIBs (FLNR, JINR). The maximum probability of producing 46Sc was also found close to the Coulomb barriers of these reactions. The compilation of available experimental data, obtained at deuteron and 6He-energies near the Coulomb barrier, showed that the values of the cross sections at the maxima of the excitation functions obtained in (d, p) reactions and the reactions for one-neutron pickup from the 6He projectiles have a different Z-dependence.

  12. Surface activation of MnNb2O6 nanosheets by oxalic acid for enhanced photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junshu; Wang, Jinshu; Li, Hongyi; Li, Yongli; Du, Yucheng; Yang, Yilong; Jia, Xinjian

    2017-05-01

    MnNb2O6 nanosheets (P-MNOs) is selectively crystallized by using surface capping ligand with functional sulfonate group (sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate), which binds to the (131) surface of MnNb2O6 inducing the morphology-controlled crystallization of MnNb2O6 materials. Surface modification of photoactive P-MNOs with electron-rich oxalic acid ligands establishes an excited surface complex layer on phase-pure P-MNO as evidenced by spectroscopic analyses (FT-IR, UV-vis, Raman, PL, etc.), and thus more efficiently photocatalyzes the reduction of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) than solely P-MNOs or oxalic acid under visible light (λ > 420 nm) via a ligand-to-metal interfacial electron transfer pathway. However, the interaction between oxalic acid and MnNb2O6 is highly dependent upon the morphology of solid MnNb2O6 substrate due to the higher surface-area-to-volume ratio and higher surface activity of (131) planes in the sheet-like morphology. This study could assist the construction of stable niobate material systems to allow a versatile solid surface activation for establishing more energy efficient and robust catalysis process under visible light.

  13. The influence of cooling rate and Fe/Cr content on the evolution of Fe-rich compounds in a secondary Al-Si-Cu diecasting alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, A.; Timelli, G.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the morphological evolution of primary α-Al(Fe,Mn,Cr)Si phase in a secondary Al-Si-Cu alloy with respect to the initial Fe and Cr contents as well as to the cooling rate. The solidification experiments have been designed in order to cover a wide range of cooling rates, and the Fe and Cr contents have been varied over two levels. Metallographic and image analysis techniques have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructural changes occurring at different experimental conditions. The morphological evolution of the α-Fe phase has been also analysed by observing deep etched samples. By changing the cooling rate, α-Al15(Fe,Mn,Cr)3Si2 dodecahedron crystals, as well as Chinese- script, branched structures and dendrites form, while primary coarse β-Al5(Fe,Mn)Si needles appear in the alloy with the highest Fe content at low cooling rates.

  14. Design of SC walls and slabs for impulsive loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Amit H. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-11-11

    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures have historically been the preferred choice for blast resistant structures because of their mass and the ductility provided by steel reinforcement. Steel-plate composite (SC) walls are a viable alternative to RC for protecting the infrastructure against explosive threats. SC structures consist of two steel faceplates with a plain concrete core between them. The steel faceplates are anchored to the concrete using stud anchors and connected to each other using tie bars. SC structures provide mass from the concrete infill and ductility from the continuous external steel faceplates. This dissertation presents findings and recommendations from experimental and analytical investigations of the performance of SC walls subjected to far-field blast loads.

  15. Fabrication of (Mn,Co)3O4 Surface Coatings onto Alloy Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guanguang; Li, Xiaohong S.; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2007-04-30

    Ferritic stainless steels are promising candidates for IT-SOFC interconnect applications due to their low cost and resistance to oxidation at SOFC operating temperatures. However, several challenges remain, including long term electrical conductivity and surface stability under interconnect exposure conditions and chromia scale evaporation. One means of extending interconnect lifetime and improving performance is to apply a protective coating, such as (Mn,Co)3O4 spinel, to the cathode side of the interconnect. These coatings have proven effective in reducing scale growth kinetics and Cr volatility. This report describes several procedures developed at PNNL for fabricating (Mn,Co)3O4 spinel coatings onto ferritic stainless steels.

  16. CR reliability testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.; Rill, Lynn; Frost, Meryll M.; Staab, Edward V.

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a method for systematically testing the reliability of a CR system under realistic daily loads in a non-clinical environment prior to its clinical adoption. Once digital imaging replaces film, it will be very difficult to revert back should the digital system become unreliable. Prior to the beginning of the test, a formal evaluation was performed to set the benchmarks for performance and functionality. A formal protocol was established that included all the 62 imaging plates in the inventory for each 24-hour period in the study. Imaging plates were exposed using different combinations of collimation, orientation, and SID. Anthropomorphic phantoms were used to acquire images of different sizes. Each combination was chosen randomly to simulate the differences that could occur in clinical practice. The tests were performed over a wide range of times with batches of plates processed to simulate the temporal constraints required by the nature of portable radiographs taken in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Current patient demographics were used for the test studies so automatic routing algorithms could be tested. During the test, only three minor reliability problems occurred, two of which were not directly related to the CR unit. One plate was discovered to cause a segmentation error that essentially reduced the image to only black and white with no gray levels. This plate was removed from the inventory to be replaced. Another problem was a PACS routing problem that occurred when the DICOM server with which the CR was communicating had a problem with disk space. The final problem was a network printing failure to the laser cameras. Although the units passed the reliability test, problems with interfacing to workstations were discovered. The two issues that were identified were the interpretation of what constitutes a study for CR and the construction of the look-up table for a proper gray scale display.

  17. Experimental and theoretical investigation of Cr1-xScxN solid solutions for thermoelectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerdsongpanya, Sit; Sun, Bo; Eriksson, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    The ScN- and CrN-based transition-metal nitrides have recently emerged as a novel and unexpected class of materials for thermoelectrics. These materials constitute well-defined model systems for investigating mixing thermodynamics, phase stability, and band structure aiming for property tailoring....... Here, we demonstrate an approach to tailor their thermoelectric properties by solid solutions. The trends in mixing thermodynamics and densities-of-states (DOS) of rocksalt-Cr1-xScxN solid solutions (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) are investigated by first-principles calculations, and Cr1-xScxN thin films are synthesized...... factors above that expected from the rule-of-mixture. These results corroborate the theoretical predictions and enable tailoring and understanding of structure-transport-property correlations of Cr1-xScxN....

  18. Magnetic dilution and steric effects in the multiferroic delafossite CuCrO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachoud, E.; Singh, K.; Bréard, Y.; Martin, C.; André, G.; Hardy, V.; Simon, Ch.; Maignan, A.

    2012-08-01

    In order to get to the bottom of substitution effects reported in CuCrO2 delafossite, structural, magnetic, and electric properties of several CuCr1-xMxO2 series, where M3+ is a S = 0 cation (M3+ = Al3+, Ga3+, Sc3+, Rh3+), have been investigated. It is shown that the homogeneity of the substitution is element dependent and is particularly difficult to achieve for the smallest Al3+ cation. Ferroelectricity and dielectric properties are found to depend on the x value, but also on the nature of M: The largest substitution effects are observed for the larger elements, owing to the decrease of the Cr3+-Cr3+ interaction resulting from the enlargement of the in-plane lattice parameter. However, the magnetic structures of CuCr0.9Ga0.1O2 and CuCr0.9Rh0.1O2, revealed close to that of CuCrO2 by neutron diffraction, demonstrate the great stability of this antiferromagnetic incommensurate structure against the presence of {M3+, S = 0} cations. This emphasizes the very different nature of the magnetic ground state of CuCrO2, as compared to CuFeO2, despite their common structural characteristics.

  19. Mitigation of chromium poisoning of cathodes in solid oxide fuel cells employing CuMn1.8O4 spinel coating on metallic interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruofan; Sun, Zhihao; Pal, Uday B.; Gopalan, Srikanth; Basu, Soumendra N.

    2018-02-01

    Chromium poisoning is one of the major reasons for cathode performance degradation in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). To mitigate the effect of Cr-poisoning, a protective coating on the surface of interconnect for suppressing Cr vaporization is necessary. Among the various coating materials, Cu-Mn spinel coating is considered to be a potential candidate due to their good thermal compatibility, high stability and good electronic conductivity at high temperature. In this study, Crofer 22 H meshes with no protective coating, those with commercial CuMn2O4 spinel coating and the ones with lab-developed CuMn1.8O4 spinel coating were investigated. The lab-developed CuMn1.8O4 spinel coating were deposited on Crofer 22 H mesh by electrophoretic deposition and densified by a reduction and re-oxidation process. With these different Crofer 22 H meshes (bare, CuMn2O4-coated, and CuMn1.8O4-coated), anode-supported SOFCs with Sr-doped LaMnO3-based cathode were electrochemically tested at 800 °C for total durations of up to 288 h. Comparing the mitigating effects of the two types of Cu-Mn spinel coatings on Cr-poisoning, it was found that the performance of the denser lab-developed CuMn1.8O4 spinel coating was distinctly better, showing no degradation in the cell electrochemical performance and significantly less Cr deposition near the cathode/electrolyte interface after the test.

  20. Stopping power of the elements Z=20 through Z=30 for 5-12-MeV protons and deuterons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Henrik; Hanke, C.C.; Simonsen, H.

    1968-01-01

    The stopping power for 5-12-MeV protons and deuterons of Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn has been measured. For most of the materials, the accuracy is ±0.3%. For Ca, Sc, Cr, and Mn, which were rather difficult to handle, the results are somewhat less accurate. The results have been...

  1. Heteronuclear transition metal diatomics - The bonding and electronic structure of ScNi, YNi, ScPd, and YPd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faegri, Knut, Jr.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    High quality ab initio calculations show that ScNi, YNi, ScPd, and YPd all have 2Sigma(+) ground states in agreement with electron spin resonance experiments. For ScNi and YNi, this is expected based on the lowest atomic asymptote. For ScPd and YPd, the lowest atomic asymptote would give the order of stability 2Delta greater than 2Pi equal to about 2Sigma(+), but the calculations show that mixing in of the excited asymptotes preferentially lowers the 2Sigma(+) state. The calculations show that the quartet states are about 20-30 kcal/mol above the ground state, and therefore probably do not contribute significantly to the unexpected g(vertical) values found in experiment. Calculations of excited states for YPd reveal some strong transitions that should be amenable to spectroscopic studies.

  2. Theoretical studies of the low-lying states of ScO, ScS, VO, and VS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1986-01-01

    Bonding in the low-lying states of ScO, ScS, VO, and VS is theoretically studied. Excellent agreement is obtained with experimental spectroscopic constants for the low-lying states of ScO and VO. The results for VS and ScS show that the bonding in the oxides and sulfides is similar, but that the smaller electronegativity in S leads to a smaller ionic component in the bonding. The computed D0 of the sulfides are about 86 percent of the corresponding oxides, and the low-lying excited states are lower in the sulfides than in the corresponding oxides. The CPF method is shown to be an accurate and cost-effective method for obtaining reliable spectroscopic constants for these systems.

  3. Magnetic investigation of Mn ions in (Cd 1- xMn x)Mn 2O 4 spinels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzoni, C. B.; Mozzati, M. C.; Ghigna, P.; Malavasi, L.; Flor, G.

    2001-02-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and static magnetic susceptibility measurements on (Cd 1- xMn x)Mn 2O 4 samples with 0.03Mn(II) cation substitution. The EPR results are in agreement with the existence of Cd 1- xtMn(II) xtMn(III) 2oO 4 solid solution, where o and t refer to the octahedral and tetrahedral sites of the spinel structure. The EPR and magnetization techniques also allowed detecting the presence of spurious phases, like Cd 2Mn 3O 8 and relating them to the sample preparation.

  4. Compensation of native donor doping in ScN: Carrier concentration control and p-type ScN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bivas; Garbrecht, Magnus; Perez-Taborda, Jaime A.; Fawey, Mohammed H.; Koh, Yee Rui; Shakouri, Ali; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol; Hultman, Lars; Sands, Timothy D.

    2017-06-01

    Scandium nitride (ScN) is an emerging indirect bandgap rocksalt semiconductor that has attracted significant attention in recent years for its potential applications in thermoelectric energy conversion devices, as a semiconducting component in epitaxial metal/semiconductor superlattices and as a substrate material for high quality GaN growth. Due to the presence of oxygen impurities and native defects such as nitrogen vacancies, sputter-deposited ScN thin-films are highly degenerate n-type semiconductors with carrier concentrations in the (1-6) × 1020 cm-3 range. In this letter, we show that magnesium nitride (MgxNy) acts as an efficient hole dopant in ScN and reduces the n-type carrier concentration, turning ScN into a p-type semiconductor at high doping levels. Employing a combination of high-resolution X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and room temperature optical and temperature dependent electrical measurements, we demonstrate that p-type Sc1-xMgxN thin-film alloys (a) are substitutional solid solutions without MgxNy precipitation, phase segregation, or secondary phase formation within the studied compositional region, (b) exhibit a maximum hole-concentration of 2.2 × 1020 cm-3 and a hole mobility of 21 cm2/Vs, (c) do not show any defect states inside the direct gap of ScN, thus retaining their basic electronic structure, and (d) exhibit alloy scattering dominating hole conduction at high temperatures. These results demonstrate MgxNy doped p-type ScN and compare well with our previous reports on p-type ScN with manganese nitride (MnxNy) doping.

  5. MCD spectroscopy of hexanuclear Mn(III) salicylaldoxime single-molecule magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Justin M; Thomson, Andrew J; Inglis, Ross; Milios, Constantinos J; Brechin, Euan K; Piligkos, Stergios

    2010-11-07

    The hexanuclear cages [Mn(6)O(2)(R-sao)(6)L(2)(EtOH)(x)(H(2)O)(y)] "Mn(6)" behave as single-molecule magnets (SMMs) below a characteristic blocking temperature. As with [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CR)(16)(H(2)O)(4)] "Mn(12)" the electronic absorption spectra are rather featureless, yielding little information on the electronic structure of the magnetic ions. Low temperature Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD) spectra afford greater resolution of the optical transitions and also probe the magnetic properties of the system. Both the ground state spin and blocking temperature of the Mn(6) cages are determined by subtle structural perturbations of a generic Mn(6)O(2) core. Absorbance and MCD spectra are reported for [Mn(6)O(2)(Et-sao)(6){O(2)CPh(Me)(2)}(2)(EtOH)(6)] (1), [Mn(6)O(2)(Et-sao)(6){O(2)CPh}(2)(EtOH)(4)(H(2)O)(2)] (2), [Mn(6)O(2)(sao)(6){O(2)CPh}(2)(EtOH)(4)]·EtOH (3) and the trinuclear precursor [Mn(3)O(Et-sao)(3)(MeOH)(3)](ClO(4)) (4) cast into polymer film. SMM behaviour has previously been observed using magnetic susceptibility measurements on powder and single-crystal samples. The ligand field environment of the magnetic ions is assumed to be similar in (1) and (2) and their different blocking temperatures are attributed to the magnitude of the effective exchange constant. The MCD spectra of (1) and (2), in which the ground state spin S = 12, show that the ligand field environments of the Mn ions are almost identical and that magnetic hysteresis persists for isolated molecules when crystal packing forces are removed. The subtle structural differences between (1) and (2) are manifested in the field dependence of the MCD response at different wavelengths that reflect changes in band polarisation. The MCD spectrum of (3) contains features not apparent in those of (1) and (2). These are attributed to 5-coordinate Mn(iii), which is unique to (3) among the compounds studied. (3) has ground state spin S = 4, a lower blocking temperature and consequently no observable

  6. Structural characterization of LiCrxMn2-xO4 via a simple reflux technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwaningsih, Dyah; Roto, Roto; Sutrisno, Hari; Purwanto, Agus

    2017-03-01

    LiCrxMn2-xO4 (x=0; 0.02; 0.04; 0.06; 0.08, 0.10) have been successfully synthesized via a facile and simple reflux technique. The SEM-EDS data confirm the presence of Cr, Mn and O elements in the products, while the XRD pattern suggests that the materials have well-developed cubic crystals. Direct method was applied to extract structural parameters of LiCrxMn2-xO4 using the Fullprof and Oscail software in WinPlotr package program. Materials were refined in the crystal system, and space group of structures Fd3m phase were then identified. The lattice parameters decrease with the decrease in Cr content. The highest Li-O bond length was found for LiCr0.10Mn1.90O4. It was observed that there is no significant change in particle size as Cr content increased.

  7. Effect of MnO on High-Alumina Slag Viscosity and Corrosion Behavior of Refractory in Slags

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Renze; Zhang, Jianliang; Fan, Xiaoyue; Zheng, Weiwei; Zhao, Yongan

    2017-01-01

    The influence of MnO on viscosities of CaO–SiO2–MgO–Al2O3–Cr2O3-based slags and the corrosion mechanism of carbon composite brick used in blast furnace hearth by slags was investigated in this work...

  8. High-temperature Oxidation of Fe-Cr Steels in Steam Condition – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedi Kurniawan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of supercritical (SC and ultra-supercritical (USC power plants requires materials with better corrosion properties. Deep understanding on the oxidation mechanism in the boiler environment is one of the important factors to support this development. In this work, high temperature oxidation of Fe-Cr steels in steam condition is reviewed.  Several mechanisms that explain the effect of water vapor in the oxidation behavior the steel were presented.

  9. Influence of Z-phase on long-term creep stability of martensitic 9-12%Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hald, J. [DONG Energy (Denmark)]|[Vattenfall Europe AG, Berlin (Germany)]|[DTU Mechanical Engineering (Denmark); Danielsen, H.K. [DTU Mechanical Engineering (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    The long-term creep strength of the new generation of martensitic creep resistant 9- 12% Cr steels since the well-known steel Grade 91 relies strongly on particle strengthening by fine MN nitrides based on V and Nb. During long-term hightemperature exposures the MN nitrides may be replaced by the thermodynamically more stable Z-phases (Cr(V,Nb)N) causing a breakdown in creep strength. Cr contents above 10.5% strongly accelerate Z-phase precipitation, which explains the lack of success for all attempts to develop martensitic creep resistant steels with high Cr content for oxidation protection. The Z-phase nucleation process by Cr-diffusion into pre-existing MN nitrides is rate controlling for the Z-phase transformation. More work is needed before effects of chemical composition on the nucleation process can be reliably modeled. Careful control of the Z-phase precipitation process has led to the design of experimental 12%Cr martensitic steels strengthened by Z-phase. Such steels may again enable the combination of high strength and oxidation resistance in the same alloy. This opens a new pathway for further alloy development of the heat resistant martensitic steels. (orig.)

  10. Magnetoelasticity in ACr2O4 spinel oxides (A= Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, V.; Bordács, S.; Varjas, D.; Penc, K.; Abouelsayed, A.; Kuntscher, C. A.; Ohgushi, K.; Tokura, Y.; Kézsmárki, I.

    2013-02-01

    Dynamical properties of the lattice structure were studied by optical spectroscopy in ACr2O4 chromium spinel oxide magnetic semiconductors over a broad temperature region of T=10-335 K. The systematic change of the A-site ions (A= Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) showed that the occupancy of 3d orbitals on the A site has strong impact on the lattice dynamics. For compounds with orbital degeneracy (FeCr2O4, NiCr2O4, and CuCr2O4), clear splitting of infrared-active phonon modes and/or activation of silent vibrational modes have been observed upon the Jahn-Teller transition and at the onset of the subsequent long-range magnetic order. Although MnCr2O4 and CoCr2O4 show multiferroic and magnetoelectric character, no considerable magnetoelasticity was found in spinel compounds without orbital degeneracy as they closely preserve the high-temperature cubic spinel structure even in their magnetic ground state. Aside from lattice vibrations, intra-atomic 3d-3d transitions of the A2+ ions were also investigated to determine the crystal field and Racah parameters and the strength of the spin-orbit coupling.

  11. Freestanding graphene/MnO2 cathodes for Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyma Özcan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Different polymorphs of MnO2 (α-, β-, and γ- were produced by microwave hydrothermal synthesis, and graphene oxide (GO nanosheets were prepared by oxidation of graphite using a modified Hummers’ method. Freestanding graphene/MnO2 cathodes were manufactured through a vacuum filtration process. The structure of the graphene/MnO2 nanocomposites was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of freestanding cathodes were investigated by scanning electron microcopy (SEM. The charge–discharge profile of the cathodes was tested between 1.5 V and 4.5 V at a constant current of 0.1 mA cm−2 using CR2016 coin cells. The initial specific capacity of graphene/α-, β-, and γ-MnO2 freestanding cathodes was found to be 321 mAhg−1, 198 mAhg−1, and 251 mAhg−1, respectively. Finally, the graphene/α-MnO2 cathode displayed the best cycling performance due to the low charge transfer resistance and higher electrochemical reaction behavior. Graphene/α-MnO2 freestanding cathodes exhibited a specific capacity of 229 mAhg−1 after 200 cycles with 72% capacity retention.

  12. Visible light Cr(VI) reduction and organic chemical oxidation by TiO2 photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Reddy, Ettireddy P; Smirniotis, Panagiotis G

    2005-08-15

    Here we report the simultaneous Cr(VI) reduction and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) oxidation in water under visible light (wavelength > 400 nm) using commercial Degussa P25 TiO2. This remarkable observation was attributed to a synergistic effect among TiO2, Cr(VI), and 4-CP. It is well known that TiO2 alone cannot remove either 4-CP or Cr(VI) efficiently under visible light. Moreover, the interaction between Cr(VI) and 4-CP is minimal if not negligible. However, we found that the combination of TiO2, Cr(VI), and 4-CP together can enable efficient Cr(VI) reduction and 4-CP oxidation under visible light. The specific roles of the three ingredients in the synergistic system were studied parametrically. It was found that optimal concentrations of Cr(VI) and TiO2 exist for the Cr(VI) reduction and 4-CP oxidation. Cr(VI) was compared experimentally with other metals such as Cu(ll), Fe(lll), Mn(IV), Ce(IV), and V(V). Among all these metal ions, only Cr(VI) promotes the photocatalytic oxidation of 4-CP. The amount of 4-CP removed was directly related to the initial concentration of Cr(VI). The system was also tested with four other chemicals (aniline, salicylic acid, formic acid, and diethyl phosphoramidate). We found that the same phenomenon occurred for organics containing acid and/or phenolic groups. Cr(VI) was reduced at the same time as the organic chemicals being oxidized during photoreaction under visible light. The synergistic effect was also found with pure anatase TiO2 and rutile TiO2. This study demonstrates a possible economical way for environmental cleanup under visible light.

  13. Electrophoretic deposition of Mn1.5Co1.5O4 on metallic interconnect and interaction with glass-ceramic sealant for solid oxide fuel cells application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeacetto, Federico; De Miranda, Auristela; Cabanas Polo, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Cr-containing stainless steels are widely used as metallic interconnects for SOFCs. Volatile Cr-containing species, which originate from the oxide formed on steel, can poison the cathode material and subsequently cause degradation in the SOFC stack. Mn1.5Co1.5O4 spinel is one of the most promisin...

  14. Manganese (Mn oxidation increases intracellular Mn in Pseudomonas putida GB-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Banh

    Full Text Available Bacterial manganese (Mn oxidation plays an important role in the global biogeochemical cycling of Mn and other compounds, and the diversity and prevalence of Mn oxidizers have been well established. Despite many hypotheses of why these bacteria may oxidize Mn, the physiological reasons remain elusive. Intracellular Mn levels were determined for Pseudomonas putida GB-1 grown in the presence or absence of Mn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Mn oxidizing wild type P. putida GB-1 had higher intracellular Mn than non Mn oxidizing mutants grown under the same conditions. P. putida GB-1 had a 5 fold increase in intracellular Mn compared to the non Mn oxidizing mutant P. putida GB-1-007 and a 59 fold increase in intracellular Mn compared to P. putida GB-1 ∆2665 ∆2447. The intracellular Mn is primarily associated with the less than 3 kDa fraction, suggesting it is not bound to protein. Protein oxidation levels in Mn oxidizing and non oxidizing cultures were relatively similar, yet Mn oxidation did increase survival of P. putida GB-1 when oxidatively stressed. This study is the first to link Mn oxidation to Mn homeostasis and oxidative stress protection.

  15. Final Technical Report for Award SC0008613

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knopf, Daniel A. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-04-05

    Discovering how aerosol particles, present in the atmosphere in sizes of a few nanometers to hundred micrometers, initiate ice crystal formation represents a great challenge. Atmospheric ice nucleation is important because ice crystals alter the radiative properties of clouds and thus climate, and impact precipitation and thus the hydrological cycle. The difficulty in predicting atmospheric ice formation is attributable at least in part, to the diversity of ice nucleation pathways, the physical and chemical complexity of the ice nucleating particles (INPs), and the relatively small numbers of INPs (compared with all other aerosol particles), sometimes less than one in 100000. These factors in turn makes constraining ice nucleation parameterizations for modeling applications challenging. The majority of airborne particles are known to be organic in nature or contain organic biogenic material. The presence of organic material adds to the complexity of the particles and therefore the predictability of ice nucleation events since the organic species can display different phase states, e.g. liquid or solid, in response to temperature and humidity. The award DE-SC0008613 to PI Prof. Daniel Knopf at Stony Brook University, “Relating the Chemical and Physical Properties of Aerosols to the Water Uptake and Ice Nucleation Potential of Particles Collected During the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)”, allowed examination of laboratory generated aerosol particles and field-collected particles for their propensity to nucleate ice under typical tropospheric conditions and relate ice nucleation to the physicochemical properties of the particles including their morphology and chemical composition. This in turn allowed for development of ice nucleation parameterizations for implementation in cloud models. The award resulted in 10 peer-reviewed publications and more than 20 seminar and conference presentations. We demonstrated that the rate of immersion

  16. Piezoelectric coefficients and spontaneous polarization of ScAlN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Miguel A; Zhang, Siyuan; Riekkinen, Tommi; Ylilammi, Markku; Moram, Michelle A; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga; Molarius, Jyrki; Laurila, Tomi

    2015-06-24

    We present a computational study of spontaneous polarization and piezoelectricity in Sc(x)Al(1-x)N alloys in the compositional range from x = 0 to x = 0.5, obtained in the context of density functional theory and the Berry-phase theory of electric polarization using large periodic supercells. We report composition-dependent values of piezoelectric coefficients e(ij), piezoelectric moduli d(ij) and elastic constants C(ij). The theoretical findings are complemented with experimental measurement of e33 for a series of sputtered ScAlN films carried out with a piezoelectric resonator. The rapid increase with Sc content of the piezoelectric response reported in previous studies is confirmed for the available data. A detailed description of the full methodology required to calculate the piezoelectric properties of ScAlN, with application to other complex alloys, is presented. In particular, we find that the large amount of internal strain present in ScAlN and its intricate relation with electric polarization make configurational sampling and the use of large supercells at different compositions necessary in order to accurately derive the piezoelectric response of the material.

  17. Monazite-type SrCrO4 under compression

    CERN Document Server

    Gleissner, J; Segura, A; Pellicer-Porres, J; Hakeem, M A; Proctor, J; Raju, S V; Kumar, R S; Rodriguez-Hernandez, P; Munoz, A; Lopez-Moreno, S; Bettinelli, M

    2016-01-01

    We report a high-pressure study of monoclinic monazite-type SrCrO4 up to 26 GPa. Therein we combined x-ray diffraction, Raman and optical-absorption measurements with ab initio calculations, to find a pressure-induced structural phase transition of SrCrO4 near 8-9 GPa. Evidence of a second phase transition was observed at 10-13 GPa. The crystal structures of the high-pressure phases were assigned to the tetragonal scheelite-type and monoclinic AgMnO4-type structures. Both transitions produce drastic changes in the electronic band gap and phonon spectrum of SrCrO4. We determined the pressure evolution of the band gap for the low-pressure and high-pressure phases as well as the frequencies and pressure dependences of the Raman-active modes. In all three phases most Raman modes harden under compression; however the presence of low-frequency modes which gradually soften is also detected. In monazite-type SrCrO4, the band gap blue-shifts under compression, but the transition to the scheelite phase causes an abrupt...

  18. Correlation of the thermodynamic calculation and the experimental observation of Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel changing Ni, Mo, and Cr contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Gyu; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Bong-Sang; Wee, Dang-Moon

    2010-12-01

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel has improved fracture toughness and strength compared to commercial low alloy steels such as SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, which has less than 1% Ni. Higher strength and fracture toughness of low alloy steels can be achieved by increasing the Ni and Cr contents. In this study, the effects of the alloying elements of Ni and Cr on the microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel are evaluated. Changes in the stable phases of SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel with these alloying elements were evaluated using thermodynamic calculation software. These values were then compared with the observed microstructural results. Additionally, tensile tests and Charpy impact test were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties. The thermodynamic calculations show that Ni mainly affects the change of the matrix phase of γ and α rather than the carbide phase. Contrary to the Ni effect, Cr and Mo primarily affect the precipitation behavior of the carbide phases of Cr 23C 6, Cr 7C 3 and Mo 2C. In the microscopic observations, the lath martensitic structure becomes finer as the Ni content increases without affecting the carbides. When the Cr content decreases, the Cr carbide becomes unstable and carbide coarsening occurs. Carbide Mo 2C in the form of fine needles were observed in the high-Mo alloy. Greater strength was obtained after additions of Ni and Mo and the transition properties were improved as the Ni and Cr contents increased. These results were correlated with the thermodynamic calculation results.

  19. Correlation of the thermodynamic calculation and the experimental observation of Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel changing Ni, Mo, and Cr contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang-Gyu, E-mail: sg121243@kaist.ac.k [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Bong-Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deogjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Wee, Dang-Moon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel has improved fracture toughness and strength compared to commercial low alloy steels such as SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, which has less than 1% Ni. Higher strength and fracture toughness of low alloy steels can be achieved by increasing the Ni and Cr contents. In this study, the effects of the alloying elements of Ni and Cr on the microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel are evaluated. Changes in the stable phases of SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel with these alloying elements were evaluated using thermodynamic calculation software. These values were then compared with the observed microstructural results. Additionally, tensile tests and Charpy impact test were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties. The thermodynamic calculations show that Ni mainly affects the change of the matrix phase of {gamma} and {alpha} rather than the carbide phase. Contrary to the Ni effect, Cr and Mo primarily affect the precipitation behavior of the carbide phases of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6}, Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} and Mo{sub 2}C. In the microscopic observations, the lath martensitic structure becomes finer as the Ni content increases without affecting the carbides. When the Cr content decreases, the Cr carbide becomes unstable and carbide coarsening occurs. Carbide Mo{sub 2}C in the form of fine needles were observed in the high-Mo alloy. Greater strength was obtained after additions of Ni and Mo and the transition properties were improved as the Ni and Cr contents increased. These results were correlated with the thermodynamic calculation results.

  20. H-TiO2/C/MnO2 nanocomposite materials for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Jing; Fu, Xincui; Zheng, Huajun; Jia, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Functionalized TiO2 nanotube arrays with decoration of MnO2 nanoparticles (denoted as H-TiO2/C/MnO2) have been synthesized in the application of electrochemical capacitors. To improve both areal and gravimetric capacitance, hydrogen treatment and carbon coating process were conducted on TiO2 nanotube arrays. By scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, it is confirmed that the nanostructure is formed by the uniform incorporation of MnO2 nanoparticles growing round the surface of the TiO2 nanotube arrays. Impedance analysis proves that the enhanced capacitive is due to the decrease of charge transfer resistance and diffusion resistance. Electrochemical measurements performed on this H-TiO2/C/MnO2 nanocomposite when used as an electrode material for an electrochemical pseudocapacitor presents quasi-rectangular shaped cyclic voltammetry curves up to 100 mV/s, with a large specific capacitance (SC) of 299.8 F g-1 at the current density of 0.5 A g-1 in 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. More importantly, the electrode also exhibits long-term cycling stability, only 13 % of SC loss after 2000 continuous charge-discharge cycles. Based on the concept of integrating active materials on highly ordered nanostructure framework, this method can be widely applied to the synthesis of high-performance electrode materials for energy storage.

  1. Transport of one SC coil through the village of Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    1956-01-01

    In 1952, before CERN was officially founded, two accelerator projects were launched: one for an innovative accelerator to operate at an energy level unequalled at the time, the other for a more standard machine, a Synchro-Cyclotron (SC) to operate at 600 MeV. Design work on the SC was started in 1952 and carried out by teams scattered throughout Europe. Once construction began in 1954, CERN had to arrange road transport for the first of what has since been a long series of spectacular component deliveries, such as those of the machine's two magnetic coils each weighing 60 tonnes and measuring 7.2 metres in diameter. Above, one of them is seen passing through the village of Meyrin. The SC was commissioned in 1957 and was operational for 34 years!

  2. Experience with OpenMP for MADX-SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Imperio, Nicholas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Montag, Christophe [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Yu, Kwangmin [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Kapin, Valery [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); McIntosh, Eric [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Renshall, Harry [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Schmidt, Frank [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    MADX-SC allows the treatment of frozen space charge using beam-beam elements in a thin lattice, i.e. one can take advantage of the standard set-up of MAD-X lattices without the need for specialized codes for the space-charge (SC) evaluation. The idea is to simulate over many turns without the problem of noise as in the PIC SC codes. For the examples under study, like the PS and RHIC, it would be desirable to simulate up to 1 million turns or more. To this end one had to make an effort to optimize the scalar speed and, most importantly, get a speed-up of approximately a factor of 5 using OpenMP.

  3. Experience with OpenMP 1 for MADX-SC

    CERN Document Server

    D’Imperio, N; Yu, K; Kapin, V; McIntosh, E; Renshall, H; Schmidt, F

    2014-01-01

    MADX-SC [1–3] allows the treatment of frozen space charge using beam-beam elements in a thin lattice, i.e. one can take advantage of the standard set-up of MAD-X [4] lattices without the need for specialized codes for the space-charge (SC) evaluation. The idea is to simulate over many turns without the problem of noise as in the PIC 1 SC codes. For the examples under study, like the PS and RHIC, it would be desirable to simulate up to 1 million turns or more. To this end one had to make an effort to optimize the scalar speed and, most importantly, get a speed-up of approximately a factor of 5 using OpenMP [5].

  4. Paracyclophane functionalized with Sc and Li for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Rohit Y.; Dhilip Kumar, T. J.

    2018-01-01

    Li and Sc metals functionalized on the delocalized π -electrons of benzene rings in [2,2]paracyclophane structure are studied for hydrogen storage efficiency by using the M06 DFT functional with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. It is found that Sc and Li functionalized [2,2]paracyclophane complexes can hold up to 10 H2 molecules and 8 H2 molecules by Kubas-Niu-Jena interaction and charge polarization mechanism with hydrogen weight percentage of 11.4 and 13.5, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulation at various temperatures showed appreciable thermal stability while the chemical potential calculation at room temperature reveals that Sc functionalized [2,2]paracyclophane system will be a promising hydrogen storage material.

  5. Structural and magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic Heusler Ru2MnGe Epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatani, Naoto; Fujita, Hirohito; Miyawaki, Tetsuya; Ueda, Kenji; Asano, Hidefumi

    2013-08-01

    Structural and magnetic properties were investigated for Heusler-type alloy Ru2MnGe thin films. Ru2MnGe films on MgO substrate were subjected to an in-plane compressive strain, and exhibited enhanced antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition temperature ( T N ) up to 353 K, which exceeds by 37 K from the cubic bulk material ( T N = 316 K). We also observed the exchange coupling between Ru2MnGe and Heusler-type ferromagnetic (FM) half-metal Fe2CrSi thin films. The present AFM Heusler alloy with relatively high T N is useful to fabricate high-quality all Heusler-type half-metal AFM/FM junctions and is a promising material for the emerging field of AFM spintronics.

  6. Calix[4]arene supported clusters: a dimer of [Mn(III)Mn(II)] dimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Stephanie M; McIntosh, Ruaraidh D; Beavers, Christine M

    2011-01-01

    Phosphinate ligands allow for the transformation of a calix[4]arene supported [Mn(III)(2)Mn(II)(2)] tetramer cluster motif into an unusual [Mn(III)Mn(II)](2) dimer of dimers; the clusters self-assemble in the crystal to form bi-layer arrays reminiscent of the typical packing of calixarene solvates....

  7. Manganese bioconcentration in aquatic insects: Mn oxide coatings, molting loss, and Mn(II) thiol scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittman, Elizabeth K; Buchwalter, David B

    2010-12-01

    Streams below mountaintop removal-valley fill coal mining operations often have elevated Mn concentrations, but it remains unclear if Mn plays a role in biodiversity reduction. We examined various aspects of aqueous Mn interactions with aquatic insects exposed to environmentally relevant Mn concentrations, revealing complex behavior. First, Mn accumulation rates varied widely among 9 species. A significant percentage of total Mn accrued (mean 74%, range 24-95%) was associated with the cuticle, predominantly in the form of Mn-oxides, and to a lesser degree Mn(II). Mn II is also absorbed into tissues, possibly through calcium transporters. Increased ambient calcium concentrations decreased both adsorbed and absorbed Mn accumulation from solution. Though species showed similar Mn efflux rate constants (0.032-0.072 d(-1)), the primary mode of Mn loss was through molting. Both adsorbed and absorbed Mn is lost during the molt. Subcellular compartmentalization studies revealed an overwhelming tendency for internalized Mn to associate with the heat stable cytosolic protein fraction. After short dissolved Mn exposures, intracellular glutathione and cysteine levels were markedly reduced relative to controls. These findings suggest that Mn exposure results in transient physiological stress in aquatic insects which is likely relieved, in part, during the molting process.

  8. Attempting to understand (and control) the relationship between structure and magnetism in an extended family of Mn(6) single-molecule magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inglis, Ross; Jones, Leigh F; Milios, Constantinos J

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of a large family of hexametallic [Mn(III)(6)] Single-Molecule Magnets of general formula [Mn(III)(6)O(2)(R-sao)(6)(X)(2)(sol)(4-6)] (where R = H, Me, Et; X = (-)O(2)CR' (R' = H, Me, Ph etc) or Hal(-); sol = EtOH, MeOH and/or H(2)O) are presented. We show how...

  9. Activation of a water molecule using a mononuclear Mn complex: from Mn-aquo, to Mn-hydroxo, to Mn-oxylviacharge compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Hureau, Christelle; Pantazis, Dimitrios A; Pushkar, Yulia; Guillot, Régis; Yachandra, Vittal K; Yano, Junko; Neese, Frank; Anxolabéhère-Mallart, Elodie

    2010-07-01

    Activation of a water molecule by the electrochemical oxidation of a Mn-aquo complex accompanied by the loss of protons is reported. The sequential (2 × 1 electron/1 proton) and direct (2 electron/2 proton) proton-coupled electrochemical oxidation of a non-porphyrinic six-coordinated Mn(II)OH 2 complex into a mononuclear Mn(O) complex is described. The intermediate Mn(III)OH 2 and Mn(III)OH complexes are electrochemically prepared and analysed. Complete deprotonation of the coordinated water molecule in the Mn(O) complex is confirmed by electrochemical data while the analysis of EXAFS data reveals a gradual shortening of an Mn-O bond upon oxidation from Mn(II)OH 2 to Mn(III)OH and Mn(O). Reactivity experiments, DFT calculations and XANES pre-edge features provide strong evidence that the bonding in Mn(O) is best characterized by a Mn(III)-oxyl description. Such oxyl species could play a crucial role in natural and artificial water splitting reactions. We provide here a synthetic example for such species, obtained by electrochemical activation of a water ligand.

  10. Low-{beta} SC linacs : past, present, and future.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L. M.

    1998-11-18

    This paper is a general review of superconducting low-{beta} technology and applications from its beginning in 1969 into the near-term future. The emphasis is on studies of accelerating resonators and on SC linacs that boost the energy of heavy-ion beams from tandem electrostatic accelerators used for nuclear-physics research. Other topics are positive-ion SC injectors to replace tandems and the need for accelerating structures with {beta} outside of the present proven range, 0.008 < {beta} < 0.2.

  11. Thermoelectric performance of functionalized Sc2C MXenes

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S.

    2016-07-05

    Functionalization of the MXene Sc2C, which has the rare property to realize semiconducting states for various functionalizations including O, F, and OH, is studied with respect to the electronic and thermal behavior. The lowest lattice thermal conductivity is obtained for OH functionalization and an additional 30% decrease can be achieved by confining the phonon mean free path to 100 nm. Despite a relatively low Seebeck coefficient, Sc2C(OH)2 is a candidate for intermediate-temperature thermoelectric applications due to compensation by a high electrical conductivity and very low lattice thermal conductivity.

  12. QEC value of the superallowed β emitter 42Sc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eronen, T.; Hardy, J. C.; Canete, L.; Jokinen, A.; Hakala, J.; Kankainen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Koponen, J.; Moore, I. D.; Murray, I. M.; Penttilä, H.; Pohjalainen, I.; Poleshchuk, O.; Reinikainen, J.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Soukouti, N.; Voss, A.; ńystö, J.

    2017-02-01

    The QEC value of the superallowed β+ emitter 42Sc has been measured with the JYFLTRAP Penning-trap mass spectrometer at the University of Jyväskylä to be 6426.350(53) keV. This result is at least a factor of four more precise than all previous measurements, which were also inconsistent with one another. As a byproduct we determine the excitation energy of the 7+ isomeric state in 42Sc to be 616.762(46) keV, which deviates by 8 σ from the previous measurement.

  13. Experimental Progress of DC-SC Photoinjector at Peking University

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, G M; Ding, Y T; Hao, J; Huang, S L; Lin, L; Lu, X Y; Quan, S W; Wang, L F; Xiang, R; Zhang, B C; Zhao, K; Jiao, F; Xie, D; Yang, L; Zhu, F; Liu, C; Wang, F; Xu, W; Liu, Z

    2005-01-01

    Beam loading experiments on DC-SC photoinjector test facility have been finished at 4.4 K. Upon the present experiments, the gradient of 6 MV/m is achieved. The maximum energy gain is 1.1 MeV at 4.4 K. With average beam current of 270 mA, the measured rms emittance is about 5 mm-mrad at the beam energy of 500 keV. Experiments on the test facility has validated that the DC-SC photoinjector is a good choice to provide moderate average current electron beams with low bunch charge and very high repetition rate.

  14. Radiation protection Group (SC/RP) desperately seeking...

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Hervé, Y. Donjoux / SC

    2006-01-01

    We are trying to trace two transit permits (passavants), which constitute the customs clearance documentation for two 'AD6'portable radiation detectors. The two permits (No. 1308 and No. 1309) were sent in the same internal mail envelope towards the middle of March 2006 but never reached their final destination. After weeks of searching in vain, we are now appealing for your help. If you have these two permits in your possession, please get in touch with us. Many thanks in advance. A.HERVE - SC/RP- ( 163168 / 70927) Y.DONJOUX - SC/RP - (160105 / 73171)

  15. Bayesian narrowband interference mitigation in SC-FDMA

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Anum

    2015-08-12

    This paper presents a novel narrowband interference (NBI) mitigation scheme for SC-FDMA systems. The proposed scheme exploits the frequency domain sparsity of the unknown NBI signal and adopts a low complexity Bayesian sparse recovery procedure. In practice, however, the sparsity of the NBI is destroyed by a grid mismatch between NBI sources and SC-FDMA system. Towards this end, an accurate grid mismatch model is presented and a sparsifying transform is utilized to restore the sparsity of the unknown signal. Numerical results are presented that depict the suitability of the proposed scheme for NBI mitigation.

  16. Identification of the interstitial Mn site in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2093111; Wahl, Ulrich; Augustyns, Valerie; Silva, Daniel; Granadeiro Costa, Angelo Rafael; Houben, K; Edmonds, Kevin W; Gallagher, BL; Campion, RP; Van Bael, MJ; Castro Ribeiro Da Silva, Manuel; Martins Correia, Joao; Esteves De Araujo, Araujo Joao Pedro; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André; Da Costa Pereira, Lino Miguel

    2015-01-01

    We determined the lattice location of Mn in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As using the electron emission channeling technique. We show that interstitial Mn occupies the tetrahedral site with As nearest neighbors (TAs) both before and after thermal annealing at 200 °C, whereas the occupancy of the tetrahedral site with Ga nearest neighbors (TGa) is negligible. TAs is therefore the energetically favorable site for interstitial Mn in isolated form as well as when forming complexes with substitutional Mn. These results shed new light on the long standing controversy regarding TAs versus TGa occupancy of interstitial Mn in (Ga,Mn)As.

  17. Effect of 3d transition elements substitution for Ni in Ni2Mn1+xSn1-x on the phase stability and magnetic properties: A first principle investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Shang, Jia-Xiang; Wang, Fu-He; Jiang, Cheng-Bao; Xu, Hui-Bin

    2014-11-01

    In hope of understanding the origin of the 3d-transition elements doping effect on the phase stability and magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic shape memory Heusler alloy Ni-Mn-Sn, the Ni-Z-Mn-Sn system with Z=Ni, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn and Cr is investigated using first-principles calculations. The calculated results show that the energetically favorable magnetic order of the L21 structure is antiferromagnetic for Z=Ni and Cu, and ferromagnetic for the Z=Co, Fe, Mn and Cr. However, for L10 structure, the antiferromagnetic state has an energetical preference for each alloy. Accordingly, a magnetic transition accompanies with the martensite phase transformation and a large change in the magnetic moment can be observed in the alloys with the L21 under the ferromagnetic state, which is mainly dependent on the coupling behaviors of the doped atoms. The weak ferromagnetic coupling between the Ni/Cu and Mn, the strong ferromagnetic coupling between Co/Fe and Mn and the antiferromagnetic coupling between Mn/Cr and Mn play an important role on the magnetic order of L21 structures. Furthermore, the Bethe-Slater model is employed to gain a further understanding and regulation of the coupling behaviors of different doping elements, which is very sensitive to the interatomic distance. These calculated results may help in gaining an insight into the doping behavior of these transition metals and provide some theoretical aid to the material design.

  18. Spin diffusion in bulk GaN measured with MnAs spin injector

    KAUST Repository

    Jahangir, Shafat

    2012-07-16

    Spin injection and precession in bulk wurtzite n-GaN with different doping densities are demonstrated with a ferromagnetic MnAs contact using the three-terminal Hanle measurement technique. Theoretical analysis using minimum fitting parameters indicates that the spin accumulation is primarily in the n-GaN channel rather than at the ferromagnet (FM)/semiconductor (SC) interface states. Spin relaxation in GaN is interpreted in terms of the D’yakonov-Perel mechanism, yielding a maximum spin lifetime of 44 ps and a spin diffusion length of 175 nm at room temperature. Our results indicate that epitaxial ferromagnetic MnAs is a suitable high-temperature spin injector for GaN.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Transition probabilities for 183 lines of Cr II (Lawler+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Nave, G.; den Hartog, E. A.; Emrahoglu, N.; Cowan, J. J.

    2017-03-01

    New emission branching fraction (BF) measurements for 183 lines of the second spectrum of chromium (Cr II) and new radiative lifetime measurements from laser-induced fluorescence for 8 levels of Cr+ are reported. The goals of this study are to improve transition probability measurements in Cr II and reconcile solar and stellar Cr abundance values based on Cr I and Cr II lines. Eighteen spectra from three Fourier Transform Spectrometers supplemented with ultraviolet spectra from a high-resolution echelle spectrometer are used in the BF measurements. Radiative lifetimes from this study and earlier publications are used to convert the BFs into absolute transition probabilities. These new laboratory data are applied to determine the Cr abundance log{epsilon} in the Sun and metal-poor star HD 84937. The mean result in the Sun is =5.624+/-0.009 compared to =5.644+/-0.006 on a scale with the hydrogen abundance log{epsilon}(H)=12 and with the uncertainty representing only line-to-line scatter. A Saha (ionization balance) test on the photosphere of HD 84937 is also performed, yielding =3.417+/-0.006 and potential E.P.>0eV)>=3.374+/-0.011 for this dwarf star. We find a correlation of Cr with the iron-peak element Ti, suggesting an associated nucleosynthetic production. Four iron-peak elements (Cr along with Ti, V, and Sc) appear to have a similar (or correlated) production history-other iron-peak elements appear not to be associated with Cr. (1 data file).

  20. Electrochemical Characterization of Multilayer Cr/CrN-Based Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio C. Caiazzo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a series of mono-and multilayer coatings were considered. They consisted of CrN and Cr prepared by physical vapor deposition with a cathodic arc. The most common steels for molds of plastics were chosen as substrates: X37CrMoV5-1 (SMV3, X2NiCoMo18-8-5 (MARVAL M1, X105CrCoMo18-2 (N690 and X40CrMo15 (X13T6. The samples were made with surface state conditions reproducing the main finishes required for molding of plastics: mirror, electro-eroded, sandblasted and ground finish. The coatings were characterized morphologically and chemically. The corrosion behavior of bare and coated steels was evaluated by electrochemical methods.

  1. Ab-initio studies of the Sc adsorption and the ScN thin film formation on the GaN(000-1)-(2 × 2) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Sánchez, J., E-mail: guerrero@ifuap.buap.mx [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Instituto de Física “Ing Luis Rivera Terrazas”, Apartado Postal J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Sánchez-Ochoa, F.; Cocoletzi, Gregorio H.; Rivas-Silva, J.F. [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Instituto de Física “Ing Luis Rivera Terrazas”, Apartado Postal J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Takeuchi, Noboru [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Apartado Postal 2681, Ensenada, Baja California 22800 (Mexico)

    2013-12-02

    First principles total energy calculations have been performed to investigate the initial stages of the Sc adsorption and ScN thin film formation on the GaN(000-1)-(2 × 2) surface. Studies are done within the periodic density functional theory as implemented in the PWscf code of the Quantum ESPRESSO package. The Sc adsorption at high symmetry sites results in the bridge site as the most stable structure. When a Sc monolayer is deposited above the surface the T4 site results as the most stable geometry. The Sc migration into the first Ga monolayer induces the Ga displaced ad-atom to be adsorbed at the T4-2 site. A ScN bilayer may be obtained under the Ga monolayer. Finally a ScN bilayer may be formed in the wurtzite phase above the surface. The formation energy plots show that in the moderate Ga-rich conditions we obtain the formation of a ScN bilayer under the gallium monolayer. However at N-rich conditions the formation of ScN bilayer above the surface is the most favorable structure. We report the density of states to explain the electronic structure of the most favorable geometries. - Highlights: • Studies of the initial stages in the formation of Sc and ScN structures on GaN • In the adsorption of Sc on the GaN the Br site is the most favorable geometry. • When a Sc replaces a Ga of the first monolayer the displaced Ga occupies a T4-2 site. • For Ga-rich conditions there is formation of ScN under the Ga monolayer. • In N-rich conditions there is formation of ScN in the wurtzite phase.

  2. Magnetic and Structural Studies of Sc Containing Ruthenate Double Perovskites A2ScRuO6 (A = Ba, Sr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Paula; Injac, Sean; Ranjbar, Ben; Kennedy, Brendan J; Avdeev, Maxim; Yamaura, Kazunari

    2017-08-07

    Ruthenium-containing double perovskites A2ScRuO6 have been synthesized as polycrystalline powders and structurally characterized using a combination of synchrotron X-ray and neutron powder diffraction methods. When A = Ba, a hexagonal 6L perovskite structure is obtained if the synthesis is conducted at ambient pressure and a rock-salt ordered cubic structure is obtained if the sample is quenched from high pressures. The Sr oxide Sr2ScRuO6 is obtained with a rock-salt ordered corner sharing topology. Heat capacity and bulk magnetic susceptibility measurements show that the three oxides are antiferromagnets. Cubic Ba2ScRuO6 undergoes a metal-insulator transition near 270 K and hexagonal Ba2ScRuO6 is a semiconductor with an activation energy of 0.207 eV. The magnetic structures of the two rock-salt ordered double perovskites were established using powder neutron diffraction and are described by k = (0,0,1) and k = (0,0,0) for the Ba and Sr oxides, respectively, corresponding to type I antiferromagnetic structures, with ferromagnetic layers stacked antiferromagnetically. The ambient-pressure hexagonal polymorph of Ba2ScRuO6 has partial Sc-Ru ordering at both the face-sharing B2O9 dimer and corner-sharing BO6 sites. The magnetic structure is described by k = (1/2,0,0) with the basis vector belonging to the irreducible representation Γ3.

  3. Effect of site preference of 3d atoms on the electronic structure and half-metallicity of Heusler alloy Mn2YAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongzhi; Zhu, Zhiyong; Ma, Li; Xu, Shifeng; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Jiang, Chengbao; Xu, Huibin; Wu, Guangheng

    2008-03-01

    The site preference of 3d atoms Y in Mn2YAl (Y = V, Fe, Co) alloys and its influence on their electronic structures and magnetism have been studied by first-principles calculations. The results prove that elements with more valence electrons than Mn tend to enter the A (0, 0, 0) and C (½, ½, ½) sites and elements with fewer electrons prefer the B (¼, ¼, ¼) site (Wyckoff positions). Meanwhile, it is found that for Mn2VAl and Mn2FeAl, a high spin polarization can be obtained whether the Y atom enters the (A, C) or the B site. In particular, Mn2VAl is half-metallic whether it forms the Cu2MnAl type or the Hg2CuTi type of structure. And a 100% spin polarization can be retained even when a 25% Mn-V antisite disorder occurs. This is quite preferable in practical applications. It is also found that the higher-valent element such as Co at the B (¼, ¼, ¼) site has opposite effects and tends to close the energy gap. Finally, a systemic summarization on the electronic and magnetic properties of Mn2YAl (Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co) alloys was made. All of them except for Mn2TiAl are predicted as half-metals. The calculated total spin moment is an integral value and increases from -3µB/f.u. for Mn2TiAl to +2µB/f.u. for Mn2CoAl with increasing number of valence electrons. This agrees with the Slater-Pauling curve quite well. All the Mn2YAl alloys studied here are ferrimagnets.

  4. Activation of a water molecule using a mononuclear Mn complex: from Mn-aquo, to Mn-hydroxo, to Mn-oxyl via charge compensation†

    OpenAIRE

    Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Hureau, Christelle; Pantazis, Dimitrios A.; Pushkar, Yulia; Guillot, Régis; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko; Neese, Frank; Anxolabéhère-Mallart, Elodie

    2010-01-01

    Activation of a water molecule by the electrochemical oxidation of a Mn-aquo complex accompanied by the loss of protons is reported. The sequential (2 × 1 electron/1 proton) and direct (2 electron/2 proton) proton-coupled electrochemical oxidation of a non-porphyrinic six-coordinated Mn(II)OH2 complex into a mononuclear Mn(O) complex is described. The intermediate Mn(III)OH2 and Mn(III)OH complexes are electrochemically prepared and analysed. Complete deprotonation of the coordinated water mo...

  5. Introducing Ratiometric Fluorescence to MnO2 Nanosheet-Based Biosensing: A Simple, Label-Free Ratiometric Fluorescent Sensor Programmed by Cascade Logic Circuit for Ultrasensitive GSH Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Daoqing; Shang, Changshuai; Gu, Wenling; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

    2017-08-09

    Glutathione (GSH) plays crucial roles in various biological functions, the level alterations of which have been linked to varieties of diseases. Herein, we for the first time expanded the application of oxidase-like property of MnO2 nanosheet (MnO2 NS) to fluorescent substrates of peroxidase. Different from previously reported fluorescent quenching phenomena, we found that MnO2 NS could not only largely quench the fluorescence of highly fluorescent Scopoletin (SC) but also surprisingly enhance that of nonfluorescent Amplex Red (AR) via oxidation reaction. If MnO2 NS is premixed with GSH, it will be reduced to Mn2+ and lose the oxidase-like property, accompanied by subsequent increase in SC's fluorescence and decrease in AR's. On the basis of the above mechanism, we construct the first MnO2 NS-based ratiometric fluorescent sensor for ultrasensitive and selective detection of GSH. Notably, this ratiometric sensor is programmed by the cascade logic circuit (an INHIBIT gate cascade with a 1 to 2 decoder). And a linear relationship between ratiometric fluorescent intensities of the two substrates and logarithmic values of GSH's concentrations is obtained. The detection limit of GSH is as low as 6.7 nM, which is much lower than previous ratiometric fluorescent sensors, and the lowest MnO2 NS-based fluorescent GSH sensor reported so far. Furthermore, this sensor is simple, label-free, and low-cost; it also presents excellent applicability in human serum samples.

  6. Kampelite, Ba3Mg1.5Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3·4H2O, a new very complex Ba-Sc phosphate mineral from the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenchuk, Victor N.; Ivanyuk, Gregory Yu.; Pakhomovsky, Yakov A.; Panikorovskii, Taras L.; Britvin, Sergei N.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Shilovskikh, Vladimir V.; Bocharov, Vladimir N.

    2017-06-01

    Kampelite, Ba3Mg1.5Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3·4H2O, is a new Ba-Sc phosphate from the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia). It is orthorhombic, Pnma, a = 11.256(1), b = 8.512(1), c = 27.707(4) Å, V = 2654.6(3) Å3 and Z = 4 (from powder diffraction data) or a = 11.2261(9), b = 8.5039(6), c = 27.699(2) Å, V = 2644.3(3) Å3 (from single-crystal diffraction data). The mineral was found in a void within the calcite-magnetite phoscorite (enriched in hydroxylapatite and Sc-rich baddeleyite) inside the axial zone of the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite pipe. Kampelite forms radiated aggregates (up to 1.5 mm in diameter) of platy crystals grown on the surfaces of crystals of quintinite-2H in close association with pyrite, bobierrite and quintinite-3R. Kampelite is colourless, with a pearly lustre and a white streak. The cleavage is perfect on {001}, the fracture is smooth. Mohs hardness is about 1. In transmitted light, the mineral is colourless without pleochroism or dispersion. Kampelite is biaxial + (pseudouniaxial), α ≈ β = 1.607(2), γ = 1.612(2) (589 nm), and 2V calc = 0°. The calculated and measured densities are 3.28 and 3.07(3) g·cm-3, respectively. The mean chemical composition determined by electron microprobe is: MgO 4.79, Al2O3 0.45, P2O5 31.66, K2O 0.34, Sc2O3 16.17, Mn2O3 1.62, Fe2O3 1.38, SrO 3.44, and BaO 29.81 wt%. The H2O content estimated from the crystal-structure refinement is 7.12 wt%, giving a total of 96.51 wt%. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of P = 6 apfu (atoms per formula unit) is (Ba2.62Sr0.45K0.10Ca0.06)Σ3.23Mg1.60Mn0.28(Sc3.15Fe3+ 0.23Al0.12)Σ3.50(PO4)6(OH)2.61·4.01H2O. The simplified formula is Ba3Mg1.5Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3·4H2O. The mineral easily dissolves in 10% cold HCl. The strongest X-ray powder-diffraction lines [listed as d in Å (I) (hkl)] are as follows: 15.80(100)(001), 13.86(45)(002), 3.184(18)(223), 3.129(19)(026), 2.756(16)(402), 2.688(24)(1010). The crystal structure of kampelite was refined to

  7. The antitumor activity of hydrophobin SC3, a fungal protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akanbi, Marijke Haas Jimoh; Post, Eduard; van Putten, Sander M; de Vries, Louwe; Smisterova, Jarmila; Meter-Arkema, Anita H; Wösten, Han A B; Rink, Rick; Scholtmeijer, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The use of mushroom extracts has been common practice in traditional medicine for centuries, including the treatment of cancer. Proteins called hydrophobins are very abundant in mushrooms. Here, it was examined whether they have antitumor activity. Hydrophobin SC3 of Schizophyllum commune was

  8. Electrochemical Characterization of Ni/(Sc)YSZ Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Tania; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of Ni/(Sc)YSZ cermets for solid oxide cells (SOCs) were performed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), under varying experimental conditions and upon redox cycling, using three different designs of symmetric cells. The deconvolution and fitting of the obtained impedance...

  9. Construct Validation of the Sc Scale of the MMPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Susan Phillips; Gibbs, Margaret

    1980-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that subjects with elevated MMPI profiles would exhibit qualitatively different word associations from those with normal MMPI profiles. Results are interpreted as demonstrating the construct validity of the Sc scale in that the more pathological the profile, the greater degree of cognitive disturbance exhibited. (Author)

  10. Cytogenetic diagnosis of Roberts SC phocomelia syndrome: First ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tahir M. Malla

    2015-07-14

    Jul 14, 2015 ... of diagnoses in dysmorphology by approximately 15%. However, metaphase anomalies like PCS/HR and PSCS can- not be detected by techniques like array studies and therefore milder forms of syndromes like those of Roberts SC pho- comelia may remain undetected. We therefore conclude from.

  11. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The catalogue contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short candidate projects as well as regular 3rd semester...... projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  12. Calibration of the DLP-SC-3300-02 probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    This report douments the calibration measurement of the DLP-SC-3300-02 dual-linearly polarized near-field probe. The measurement comprises radiation pattern, diretivity, gain, spetra of spherial wave coefients, polarization charateristis, and complex channel balance at 41 frequencies, as well...

  13. 44gSc from metal calcium targets for PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Gregory; Gagnon, K.; Engle, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost and efficient method for producing pre-clinical scale quantities of 44gSc is presented. Production involves proton irradiation of natural unenriched calcium metal followed by rapid separation of radioscandium from the target using hydroxmate functionalized resin.© 2012 American Institu...

  14. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The following pages contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short master projects as well as regular 3rd...... semester projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  15. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan

    The report contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short candidate projects as well as regular 3rd semester...... projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  16. M.Sc. in Civil and Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This catalogue contains a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short candidate projects as well as regular 3rd...... semester projects at the M.Sc. programme in Civil and Structural Engineering....

  17. Cytogenetic diagnosis of Roberts SC phocomelia syndrome: First ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tahir M. Malla

    2015-07-14

    Jul 14, 2015 ... comelia [2]. These two syndromes had varying phenotypic expression and were later concluded as the same entity because of resemblance of thalidomide embryopathy with Robert's syndrome and were therefore termed as Roberts SC pho- comelia syndrome [3]. The gene responsible for the syndrome.

  18. 78 FR 20369 - South Carolina Disaster #SC-00021

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION South Carolina Disaster SC-00021 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... dated 03/29/2013. Incident: Windsor Green Condo Complex Fire. Incident Period: 03/16/2013. Effective...

  19. South Carolina's SC LENDS: Optimizing Libraries, Transforming Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, Rogan; McBride, Ray; Lundberg, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Since SC LENDS started operating in June 2009, more public libraries have come on board. All of this on the back end connects to a Mozilla-based staff client that has distributions for Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows, using SSL encryption to keep communications secure and private between remote libraries and the servers hosted at a high-end…

  20. Annual evapotranspiration of a forested wetland watershed, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Carl Trettin

    2007-01-01

    In this study, hydro-meteorological data collected from 1 964 to 1 9 76 on an approximately 5, 000 ha predominantly forested coastal watershed (Turkey Creek) at the Francis Marion National Forest near Charleston, SC were analyzed to estimate annual evapotranspiration (E T) using four different empirical methods. The first one, reported by Zhang et a/. (2001), that...

  1. Toelating Herbasan SC welkom voor dahlia, A. coronaria en narcis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Koster, A.T.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2005-01-01

    Onlangs is Herbasan SC voor de onkruidbestrijding in onder meer dahlia, narcis en Anemone coronaria toegelaten. PPO ging na hoe het middel het beste is in te zetten. In dit artikel zijn de resultaten van het onderzoek vermeld en een advies voor toepassing

  2. MOZART1 and γ-tubulin complex receptors are both required to turn γ-TuSC into an active microtubule nucleation template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tien-Chen; Neuner, Annett; Flemming, Dirk; Liu, Peng; Chinen, Takumi; Jäkle, Ursula; Arkowitz, Robert; Schiebel, Elmar

    2016-12-19

    MOZART1/Mzt1 is required for the localization of γ-tubulin complexes to microtubule (MT)-organizing centers from yeast to human cells. Nevertheless, the molecular function of MOZART1/Mzt1 is largely unknown. Taking advantage of the minimal MT nucleation system of Candida albicans, we reconstituted the interactions of Mzt1, γ-tubulin small complex (γ-TuSC), and γ-tubulin complex receptors (γ-TuCRs) Spc72 and Spc110 in vitro. With affinity measurements, domain deletion, and swapping, we show that Spc110 and Mzt1 bind to distinct regions of the γ-TuSC. In contrast, both Mzt1 and γ-TuSC interact with the conserved CM1 motif of Spc110/Spc72. Spc110/Spc72 and Mzt1 constitute "oligomerization chaperones," cooperatively promoting and directing γ-TuSC oligomerization into MT nucleation-competent rings. Consistent with the functions of Mzt1, human MOZART1 directly interacts with the CM1-containing region of the γ-TuCR CEP215. MOZART1 depletion in human cells destabilizes the large γ-tubulin ring complex and abolishes CEP215(CM1)-induced ectopic MT nucleation. Together, we reveal conserved functions of MOZART1/Mzt1 through interactions with γ-tubulin complex subunits and γ-TuCRs. © 2016 Lin et al.

  3. Activation of a water molecule using a mononuclear Mn complex: from Mn-aquo, to Mn-hydroxo, to Mn-oxyl via charge compensation†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Hureau, Christelle; Pantazis, Dimitrios A.; Pushkar, Yulia; Guillot, Régis; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko; Neese, Frank; Anxolabéhère-Mallart, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    Activation of a water molecule by the electrochemical oxidation of a Mn-aquo complex accompanied by the loss of protons is reported. The sequential (2 × 1 electron/1 proton) and direct (2 electron/2 proton) proton-coupled electrochemical oxidation of a non-porphyrinic six-coordinated Mn(II)OH2 complex into a mononuclear Mn(O) complex is described. The intermediate Mn(III)OH2 and Mn(III)OH complexes are electrochemically prepared and analysed. Complete deprotonation of the coordinated water molecule in the Mn(O) complex is confirmed by electrochemical data while the analysis of EXAFS data reveals a gradual shortening of an Mn–O bond upon oxidation from Mn(II)OH2 to Mn(III)OH and Mn(O). Reactivity experiments, DFT calculations and XANES pre-edge features provide strong evidence that the bonding in Mn(O) is best characterized by a Mn(III)-oxyl description. Such oxyl species could play a crucial role in natural and artificial water splitting reactions. We provide here a synthetic example for such species, obtained by electrochemical activation of a water ligand. PMID:24772190

  4. High-field EPR investigations of Mn(III)Mn(IV) and Mn(II)Mn(III) states of dimanganese catalase and related model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutloff, Christian; Schäfer, Kai-Oliver; Sinnecker, Sebastian; Barynin, Vladimir; Bittl, Robert; Wieghardt, Karl; Lendzian, Friedhelm; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2005-11-01

    Multi-frequency EPR experiments at 9, 34 and 94 GHz are reported on the antiferromagnetically coupled mixed valence Mn(II)Mn(III) complex of manganese catalase and on several dinuclear manganese model systems. They are compared with similar experiments obtained earlier for the Mn(III)Mn(IV) states. It is demonstrated how accurate information on the G- and 55Mn hyperfine tensors can be derived from this approach. Furthermore, the effect of oxidation state, planarity of the manganese-oxygen core and the type of ligands bridging the manganese ions on the magnetic resonance parameters and the related electronic structure is investigated. 'Broken-symmetry' density functional calculations on two Mn(III)Mn(IV) complexes, including the superoxidized state of the catalase, are presented. The agreement between calculated and experimental EPR parameters and complex geometries is remarkably good. Implications of these results for the structure and function of the dimanganese catalase are discussed. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  5. Update on the NSF PAARE Program at SC State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Donald K.; Ajello, Marco; Brittain, Sean D.; Cash, Jennifer; Hartmann, Dieter; Ho, Shirley; Howell, Steve B.; King, Jeremy R.; Leising, Mark D.; Smith, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    We report on results from our NSF PAARE program during Year 2 of the project. Our partnership under this PAARE award includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) as well as individual investigators at NASA Ames and Carnegie Mellon University. Our recent work on variable and peculiar stars, work with the Kepler Observatory and our educational products in cosmology for non-STEM majors will be presented. We have successfully piloted sharing our teaching resources by offering an upper-level astrophysics course taught at Clemson via video conferencing , allowing a graduating senior from SC State to take a course not available through his home institution. Additionally, we are working on a memorandum of agreement between the two institutions that will allow for the seamless transfer of an undergraduate from SC State to Clemson’s graduate program in physics and astronomy. Our curriculum work includes new web-based cosmology activities and laboratory experiments. SC State undergraduates are reporting at this conference on their work with the light curves of semiregular variables using Kepler data. Additionally, we are heavily involved in the Citizen CATE Experiment. A PAARE scholarship student from SC State and the PAARE PI traveled to Indonesia for the March 2016 solar eclipse. Their results are also being presented elsewhere at this conference (see Myles McKay’s poster). Support for this work includes our NSF PAARE award AST-1358913 as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Additional support has been provided by the South Carolina Space Grant Consortium and from NASA to SC State under awards NNX11AB82G and NNX13AC24G. CATE work has been supported by NASA SMD award NNX16AB92A to the National Solar Observatory. Additional details can be found at: http://physics.scsu.edu

  6. Observations on the oxidation of Mn-modified Ni-base Haynes 230 alloy under SOFC exposure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z Gary; Xia, Gordon; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2005-07-01

    The commercial Ni-base Haynes 230 alloy (Ni-Cr-Mo-W-Mn) was modified with two increased levels of Mn (1 and 2 wt per cent) and evaluated for its oxidation resistance under simulated SOFC interconnect exposure conditions. Oxidation rate, oxide morphology, oxide conductivity and thermal expansion were measured and compared with commercial Haynes 230. It was observed that additions of higher levels of Mn to the bulk alloy facilitated the formation of a bi-layered oxide scale that was comprised of an outer M3O4 (M=Mn, Cr, Ni) spinel-rich layer at the oxide – gas interface over a Cr2O3-rich sub-layer at the metal – oxide interface. The modified alloys showed higher oxidation rates and the formation of thicker oxide scales compared to the base alloy. The formation of a spinel-rich top layer improved the scale conductivity, especially during the early stages of the oxidation, but the higher scale growth rate resulted in an increase in the area-specific electrical resistance over time. Due to their face-centered cubic crystal structure, both commercial and modified alloys demonstrated a coefficient of thermal expansion that was higher than that of typical anode-supported and electrolyte-supported SOFCs.

  7. Large magnetoresistance of MnBi/Bi/MnBi spin valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarawneh, Khaldoun, E-mail: Khaldoun@psut.edu.jo [Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman 11941 (Jordan); Al-Aqtash, Nabil; Sabirianov, Renat [University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    A transport magetoresistance (MR) of MnBi/Bi/MnBi spin valve device was calculated using density functional theory coupled with nonequilibrium Green's function method. The calculated transmission MR of the MnBi/Bi/MnBi spin valve device is around 750%, Obtained MR is very large compared with MR observed experimentally in MnBi junctions at room temperature (MR∼70%). Large MR is consistent with a large transport spin polarization was demonstrated in MnBi films by the point contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy. MR of experimental point contacts is observed to be low is probably due to the rough interfaces that increased scattering and contact resistance. Consequently, a spin-valve MnBi/Bi/MnBi device could potentially have large MR that could be controlled by varying the thickness of the Bi spacer. Thus, MnBi is a promising candidate for high MR devices with tunable spacer properties. - Highlights: • We calculate the transport magetoresistance (MR) of MnBi/Bi/MnBi spin valve device. • The calculated transmission MR of the MnBi/Bi/MnBi spin valve device is around 750%. • MR depend on the thickness of Bi layer. • MnBi is a promising candidate for high MR devices using spin polarizing current.

  8. Mn local order in room temperature ferromagnetic Mn/ZnO multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cespedes, E; Castro, G R; Jimenez-Villacorta, F; Andres, A de; Prieto, C [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Cantoblanco, Madrid, 28049 (Spain)

    2008-03-05

    The local environment of Mn atoms in (ZnO{sub 300A}/Mn{sub t}){sub n} multilayers (ML) has been studied by means of x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Mn K edge. A series of ML has been prepared by sputtering with approximately constant total amount of Mn (300 A) while the Mn layer thickness (t) has been varied from 60 to 1 A (modifying consequently the number of Mn-ZnO interfaces) in order to study the Mn-Zn-O system. Variation of the Mn layer thickness (t) has been directly associated with changes in the Mn oxidation states within the sample series. Absorption spectroscopy results for films with t{<=}15 A indicate mostly MnO{sub 2} formation and no signal of Mn in the ZnO lattice is found. Conversely, films with t{>=}30 A present two different Mn environments, that have been related to the coexistence of rocksalt and wurtzite phases, formed by Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O mixed solid solutions. The magnetic behaviour of samples is correlated with structural properties. That correlation strongly points towards substitutional Mn in the wurtzite phase as the origin of the observed ferromagnetism above room temperature.

  9. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis (ENAA) of Cr(VI)-reducer Basalt-inhabiting Bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Tsibakhashvili, N Ya; Kirkesali, E I; Aksenova, N G; Kalabegishvili, T L; Murusidze, I G; Mosulishvili, L M; Holman, H Y N

    2005-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) has been applied to studying elemental composition of Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria isolated from polluted basalts from the Republic of Georgia. Cr(VI)-reducing ability of the bacteria was examined by electron spin resonance (ESR) demonstrating that the bacteria differ in the rates of Cr(VI) reduction. A well-pronounced correlation between the ability of the bacteria to accumulate Cr(V) and their ability to reduce Cr(V) to Cr(III) observed in our experiments is discussed. Elemental analysis of these bacteria also revealed that basalt-inhabiting bacteria are distinguished by relative contents of essential elements such as K, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Co. A high rate of Cr(III) formation correlates with a high concentration of Co in the bacterium. ENAA detected some similarity in the elemental composition of the bacteria. The relatively high contents of Fe detected in the bacteria (140-340 $\\mu $g/g of dry weight) indicate bacterial adaptation to the environmental condition...

  10. Flow-through Column Experiments and Modeling of Microbially Mediated Cr(VI) Reduction at Hanford 100H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Molins, S.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E. L.; Steefel, C.; Nico, P. S.; Han, R.

    2010-12-01

    Microbially mediated Cr(VI) reduction at the Hanford 100H area was investigated by flow-through column experiments. Three separate experiments were conducted to promote microbial activities associated with denitrification, iron and sulfate reduction, respectively. Replicate columns packed with natural sediments from the site under anaerobic environment were injected with 5mM Lactate as the electron donor and 5 μM Cr(VI) in all experiments. Sulfate and nitrate solutions were added to act as the main electron acceptors in the respective experiments, while iron columns relied on the indigenous sediment iron (and manganese) oxides as electron acceptors. Column effluent solutions were analyzed by IC and ICP-MS to monitor the microbial consumption/conversion of lactate and the associated Cr(VI) reduction. Biogeochemical reactive transport modeling was performed to gain further insights into the reaction mechanisms and Cr(VI) bioreduction rates. All experimental columns showed a reduction of the injected Cr(VI). Columns under denitrifying conditions showed the least Cr(VI) reduction at early stages (adverse effect on Cr(VI) reduction rates. Reactive transport simulations indicated that biomass growth completely depleted influent ammonium, and called for an additional source of N to account for the measured reduction rates. Iron columns were the least active with undetectable consumption of the injected lactate, slowest cell growth, and the smallest change in Cr(VI) concentrations during the course of the experiment. In contrast, columns under sulfate-reducing/fermentative conditions exhibited the greatest Cr(VI) reduction capacity. Two sulfate columns evolved to complete lactate fermentation with acetate and propionate produced in the column effluent after 40 days of experiments. These fermenting columns showed a complete removal of injected Cr(VI), visible precipitation of sulfide minerals, and a significant increase in effluent Fe and Mn concentrations. Reactive

  11. Relationship Between Inoculants and the Morphologies of MnS and Graphite in Gray Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhmond, H. M.; Fredriksson, H.

    2013-04-01

    The influence of oxides and sulfides in gray cast iron on the growth morphologies of MnS and on the nucleation of graphite was experimentally investigated using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analysis with evidences that shows the possible nucleation sites for graphite nucleation. Thermodynamic studies have been done on the influence of varying sulfur concentrations on the nucleation of MnS in the melt and during solidification. The consumption of dissolved oxygen and sulfur in the melt during the cooling process was analyzed and we explored how this influenced the nucleation process of oxides and sulfides. A sequential nucleation concept of oxides and MnS is proposed in relation to the growth morphology of MnS and graphite with respect to the mechanical properties of cast iron. The nucleation of new oxides and sulfides was analyzed using thermodynamics and compared to our experimental results. Graphite nucleation on substrates other than MnS, such as MoS2 oxides and (Mo,Cr)S, was experimentally analyzed along with the influence of the substrates on graphite nucleation and growth morphology.

  12. Nanoscale mechanical surface properties of single crystalline martensitic Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, A. M.; Müller, M.; Rauschenbach, B.; Mayr, S. G.

    2012-03-01

    Located beyond the resolution limit of nanoindentation, contact resonance atomic force microscopy (CR-AFM) is employed for nano-mechanical surface characterization of single crystalline 14M modulated martensitic Ni-Mn-Ga (NMG) thin films grown by magnetron sputter deposition on (001) MgO substrates. Comparing experimental indentation moduli—obtained with CR-AFM—with theoretical predictions based on density functional theory (DFT) indicates the central role of pseudo plasticity and inter-martensitic phase transitions. Spatially highly resolved mechanical imaging enables the visualization of twin boundaries and allows for the assessment of their impact on mechanical behavior at the nanoscale. The CR-AFM technique is also briefly reviewed. Its advantages and drawbacks are carefully addressed.

  13. Ferrimagnetism in 2D networks of porphyrin-X and -XO (X=Sc,...,Zn) with acetylene bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierzbowska, Małgorzata, E-mail: wierzbowska@ifpan.edu.pl; Sobolewski, Andrzej L.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetism in 2D networks of the acetylene-bridged transition metal porphyrins M(P)-2(C–C)-2 (denoted P-TM), and oxo-TM-porphyrins OM(P)-2(C–C)-2 (denoted P-TMO), is studied with the density functional theory (DFT) and the self-interaction corrected pseudopotential scheme (pSIC). Addition of oxygen lowers magnetism of P-TMO with respect to the corresponding P-TM for most of the first-half 3d-row TMs. In contrast, binding O with the second-half 3d-row TMs or Sc increases the magnetic moments. Ferrimagnetism is found for the porphyrin networks with the TMs from V to Co and also for these cases with oxygen. This is a long-range effect of the delocalized spin-polarization, extended even to the acetylene bridges. - Highlights: • The comprehensive calculations for the series of porphyrin 2D-networks connected with the acetylene bridges and containing all transition metals from the 3d-row, with and without the oxygen atom on top. • Comparison of two approaches DFT and DFT+pSIC. • The spin-polarization delocalization effect even to the acetylene bridge. • Ferrimagnetism and metallicity in some cases. • Different magnetization tendension after adding O on top of the transition metals before Mn and after Mn.

  14. ZnO:Mn as a member of II-VI:Mn family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikoidze, E.; Dumont, Y.; von Bardeleben, H. J.; Gleize, J.; Jomard, F.; Rzepka, E.; Berrerar, G.; Ferrand, D.; Gorochov, O.

    2007-07-01

    ZnO:Mn thin films are grown by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique. Mn (x) varies in the 0EPR) measurements prove the substitutional incorporation of Mn2+ on zinc sites. The behavior of the EPR line width regarding temperature is discussed. All ZnO:Mn layers show antiferromagnetic interaction and a J1/kB=-15 K effective exchange constant. The optical band gap of ZnO:Mn increases with the manganese concentration. Raman spectroscopy reveals a Mn-related scattering band.

  15. Does the 18-Electron Rule Apply to CrSi12?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Marissa Baddick; Chauhan, Vikas; Reber, Arthur; Khanna, Shiv

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the bonding between silicon and transition metals is valuable for devising strategies for incorporating magnetic species into silicon. CrSi12 is the standard example of a cluster whose apparent high stability has been explained by the 18-electron rule. We critically examine the bonding and nature of stability of CrSi12 and show that its electronic structure does not conform to the 18-electron rule. Through theoretical studies we find that CrSi12 has 16 effective valence electrons assigned to the Cr atom and an unoccupied 3dz2orbital. We demonstrate that the cluster's apparent stability is rooted in a crystal field-like splitting of the 3d orbitals analogous to that of square planar complexes. CrSi14 is shown to follow the 18-electron rule and exhibits all the conventional markers characteristic of a magic cluster. We will also present results on the stability and electronic structure of FeSin clusters and in particular examine the valence configuration of FeSi12 since Fe has two additional valence electrons compared to Cr. We acknowledge support from the Department of Energy (DOE) under Award Number DE-SC0006420.

  16. New mixed-valent Mn clusters from the use of N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (edteH4): Mn3, Mn4, Mn6, and Mn10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Arpita; Abboud, Khalil A; Christou, George

    2011-12-19

    The syntheses, crystal structures, and magnetochemical characterization are reported for the new mixed-valent Mn clusters [Mn(2)(II)Mn(III)(O(2)CMe)(2)(edteH(2))(2)](ClO(4)) (1), [Mn(II)(2)Mn(III)(2)(edteH(2))(2)(hmp)(2)Cl(2)](Mn(II)Cl(4)) (2), [Mn(III)(6)O(2)(O(2)CBu(t))(6)(edteH)(2)(N(3))(2)] (3), [Na(2)Mn(III)(8)Mn(II)(2)O(4)(OMe)(2)(O(2)CEt)(6)(edte)(2)(N(3))(6)] (4), and (NEt(4))(2)[Mn(8)(III)Mn(2)(II)O(4)(OH)(2)-(O(2)CEt)(6)(edte)(2)(N(3))(6)](5), where edteH(4) is N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine and hmpH is 2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine. 1-5 resulted from a systematic exploration of the effect of different Mn sources, carboxylates, the presence of azide, and other conditions, on the Mn/edteH(4) reaction system. The core of 1 consists of a linear Mn(II)Mn(III)Mn(II) unit, whereas that of 2 is a planar Mn(4) rhombus within a [Mn(II)(2)Mn(III)(2)(μ(3)-OR)(2)] incomplete-dicubane unit. The core of 3 comprises a central [Mn(III)(4)(OR)(2)] incomplete-dicubane on either side of which is edge-fused a triangular [Mn(III)(3)(μ(3)-O)] unit. The cores of 4 and 5 are similar and consist of a central [Mn(II)(2)Mn(III)(2)(μ(3)-OR)(2)] incomplete-dicubane on either side of which is edge-fused a distorted [Mn(II)Mn(III)(3)(μ(3)-O)(2)(μ(3)-OR)(2)] cubane unit. Variable-temperature, solid-state direct current (dc) and alternating current (ac) magnetization studies were carried out on 1-5 in the 5.0-300 K range, and they established the complexes to have ground state spin values of S = 3 for 1, S = 9 for 2, and S = 4 for 3. The study of 3 provided an interesting caveat of potential pitfalls from particularly low-lying excited states. For 4 and 5, the ground state is in the S = 0-4 range, but its identification is precluded by a high density of low-lying excited states. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Chromium(VI) generation in vadose zone soils and alluvial sediments of the southwestern Sacramento Valley, California: a potential source of geogenic Cr(VI) to groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of geogenic Cr(VI) in groundwater that exceed the World Health Organization’s maximum contaminant level for drinking water (50 μg L−1) occur in several locations globally. The major mechanism for mobilization of this Cr(VI) at these sites is the weathering of Cr(III) from ultramafic rocks and its subsequent oxidation on Mn oxides. This process may be occurring in the southern Sacramento Valley of California where Cr(VI) concentrations in groundwater can approach or exceed 50 μg L−1. To characterize Cr geochemistry in the area, samples from several soil auger cores (approximately 4 m deep) and drill cores (approximately 25 m deep) were analyzed for total concentrations of 44 major, minor and trace elements, Cr associated with labile Mn and Fe oxides, and Cr(VI). Total concentrations of Cr in these samples ranged from 140 to 2220 mg per kg soil. Between 9 and 70 mg per kg soil was released by selective extractions that target Fe oxides, but essentially no Cr was associated with the abundant reactive Mn oxides (up to ~1000 mg hydroxylamine-reducible Mn per kg soil was present). Both borehole magnetic susceptibility surveys performed at some of the drill core sites and relative differences between Cr released in a 4-acid digestion versus total Cr (lithium metaborate fusion digestion) suggest that the majority of total Cr in the samples is present in refractory chromite minerals transported from ultramafic exposures in the Coast Range Mountains. Chromium(VI) in the samples studied ranged from 0 to 42 μg kg−1, representing a minute fraction of total Cr. Chromium(VI) content was typically below detection in surface soils (top 10 cm) where soil organic matter was high, and increased with increasing depth in the soil auger cores as organic matter decreased. Maximum concentrations of Cr(VI) were up to 3 times greater in the deeper drill core samples than the shallow auger cores. Although Cr(VI) in these vadose zone soils and sediments was only a

  18. Computational approaches for interpreting scRNA-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostom, Raghd; Svensson, Valentine; Teichmann, Sarah A; Kar, Gozde

    2017-08-01

    The recent developments in high-throughput single-cell RNA sequencing technology (scRNA-seq) have enabled the generation of vast amounts of transcriptomic data at cellular resolution. With these advances come new modes of data analysis, building on high-dimensional data mining techniques. Here, we consider biological questions for which scRNA-seq data is used, both at a cell and gene level, and describe tools available for these types of analyses. This is an exciting and rapidly evolving field, where clustering, pseudotime inference, branching inference and gene-level analyses are particularly informative areas of computational analysis. © 2017 The Authors. FEBS Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. Comparative analysis of equalization methods for SC-FDMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich; Kozlov, Alexander; Ukhanova, Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce comparative analysis for different types of equalization schemes, based on the minimum mean square error (MMSE) optimization. The following types of equalizers were compared: linear equalization, decision feedback equalization (DFE) and turbo equalization. Performance...... and complexity of these schemes were tested for Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) system with Single Input Single Output (SISO) antenna configuration. SC-FDMA is a common technique, which is used in the UTRA LTE Uplink, so the results of complexity and performance analysis could...... be applied to find the appropriate equalization algorithm to be used in the Uplink channel of the LTE – the famous standard in 4G telecommunications. Simulation results in the end in this paper show bit error ratio (BER) and modulation error ratio (MER) for compared schemes....

  20. Collective high spin states in {sup 45}Sc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarczyk, P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland)]|[INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Styczen, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Broda, R. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Lach, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Meczynski, W. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Bazzacco, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita and INFN, Padova (Italy); Brandolini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita and INFN, Padova (Italy); De Angelis, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Lunardi, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita and INFN, Padova (Italy); Mueller, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita and INFN, Padova (Italy); Medina, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita and INFN, Padova (Italy); Petrache, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Rossi-Alvarez, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita and INFN, Padova (Italy); Scarlassara, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita and INFN, Padova (Italy); Segato, G.F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita and INFN, Padova (Italy); Signorini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita and INFN, Padova (Italy); Soramel, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita and INFN, Udine (Italy)

    1995-02-06

    The high-spin states in {sup 45}Sc were studied with the GASP multidetector array. The nuclei were excited by the {sup 30}Si({sup 18}O,p2n){sup 45}Sc reaction at E{sub LAB}=60 MeV and separated with the Recoil Mass Spectrometer. Several new high-spin levels extending the known single-particle and collective structures were observed. Energies of the negative-parity states agree with the shell model predictions whereas the positive-parity-intruder rotational band extends up to very high rotational frequencies and continues beyond the maximum angular momentum available from the single-particle f{sub 7/2} configuration. ((orig.)).