WorldWideScience

Sample records for sba crotalidae polyvalent

  1. Immediate hypersensitivity reaction associated with the rapid infusion of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Christopher P; Wu, Jeffrey; Baer, Alexander B

    2002-06-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with rapidly progressing extremity pain, edema, and ecchymosis after envenomation by a copperhead. Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) (CroFab; FabAV) was infused. Six vials were placed in 250 mL of normal saline solution, and the infusion was gradually increased. Fifty minutes after beginning, the infusion was increased to 640 mL/h. Within minutes of the rate increase, the patient experienced full-body urticaria, facial edema, voice change, and tachycardia. The infusion was stopped. Hydroxyzine pamoate, famotidine, methylprednisolone, and a 1-L bolus of normal saline solution were administered intravenously. The symptoms abated, and the remaining FabAV was infused at a slower rate without return of this reaction. This immediate hypersensitivity reaction was most likely a rate-related anaphylactoid reaction that has not been previously reported with FabAV.[Holstege CP, Wu J, Baer AB. Immediate hypersensitivity reaction associated with the rapid infusion of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine). Ann Emerg Med. June 2002;39:677-679.

  2. Utilisation of Crotalidae polyvalent immune fab (ovine) for Viperidae envenomations in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P N; McGoodwin, L; Banner, W

    2008-12-01

    Snakebite envenomations occur in 45,000 patients in the USA annually and are associated with morbidity especially in children and the elderly. Crotalidae polyvalent immune fab (ovine; FabAV) is a polyvalent antivenom derived from sheep for crotalid envenomations. Limited clinical trials are available in paediatric patients. A literature search using MEDLINE (1950-February 2008), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-February 2008), EMBASE (1988-February 2008) and Cochrane Library (1996-June 2008) was conducted using key words including: antivenom OR snakebites OR children OR Crotalid OR envenomations. All English-language articles were identified from data sources. Pertinent studies pertaining to FabAV in children and adolescents with crotalid envenomations were included for analysis. Ten papers were included for review, representing 47 children. Initial doses ranging from 2 to 18 g were administered and initial control was achieved in most children. Maintenance dosing was continued in 63.8% (30/47) of patients; 4.3% (2/47) of patients had episodes of venom recurrence. Adverse events were noted in 8.5% of children (4/47) when pooled for data analysis. FabAV appears to be a safe and effective agent for children with crotalid envenomations. Clinicians should adapt dosing recommendations used for adults until future large, well-designed trials can confirm the efficacy and safety from observation studies and case reports.

  3. Severe adverse drug reaction following Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) administration for copperhead snakebite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, Maryjoy R; Bochenek, Samantha H; Bush, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    To present the case of a severe anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reaction to Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) in a patient bitten by a copperhead snake. A 68-year-old man presented with progressive envenomation after receiving a copperhead snakebite on each hand. Crotalinae Fab antivenom was administered. While the initial and only dose was partially infusing, the patient developed an adverse drug reaction (ADR) of urticaria and hypotension, which resolved with cessation of the infusion, recurred with resumption of the infusion, and ultimately was completed with supportive care. An additional episode of hypotension, urticaria, and angioedema occurred shortly after antivenom therapy completion. Epinephrine was administered, resolving the reaction with complete patient recovery. The event received a Naranjo score of 10, indicating a definite ADR. Treating copperhead snakebites with antivenom is a matter of debate. Concern over adverse events and cost induce some physicians to manage copperhead bites without antivenom because they are generally milder in severity. As demonstrated in this case, severe ADR can occur with Crotalinae Fab antivenom, and its efficacy for copperhead envenoming needs to be better established via placebo-controlled, randomized trials. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Initial experience with Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom in the treatment of copperhead snakebite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavonas, Eric J; Gerardo, Charles J; O'Malley, Gerald; Arnold, Thomas C; Bush, Sean P; Banner, William; Steffens, Mark; Kerns, William P

    2004-02-01

    Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) (CroFab; FabAV) effectively treats patients bitten by rattlesnakes. The copperhead snake (Agkistrodon contortrix) caused 37% of venomous snakebites reported to US poison centers in 2001 and is the major envenomating reptile in the southeastern United States. FabAV has not been tested in human beings envenomated by copperhead snakes. In this preliminary study, we performed a retrospective chart review of all copperhead snake envenomations reported to the Carolinas Poison Center that were treated with FabAV. Progression of limb swelling, coagulopathy, and hemodynamic status before and after FabAV administration, adverse effects of FabAV therapy, and recurrence phenomena were recorded. Of approximately 400 copperhead envenomation cases reported to the poison center during the study period, 32 received FabAV and were included. Most patients had moderate envenomation. The median time to FabAV administration was 4.0 hours. The median time to achieve initial control was 1.0 hour, with a median dose of 4 vials of FabAV. A rapid initial response, defined as cessation of the progression of local tissue injury within 4 hours of FabAV administration, occurred in 28 cases (88%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 76% to 99%). Four cases (13%; 95% CI 1% to 24%) were considered treatment failures. Recurrent swelling occurred in 6 cases (19%; 95% CI 5% to 32%). The incidence of recurrent swelling was not reduced by administration of repeated doses of antivenom on a planned schedule. One patient developed late-onset coagulopathy. One minor allergic reaction was observed. In this select group of patients bitten by copperhead snakes, local tissue effects of envenomation halted promptly after FabAV treatment in most cases. Treatment failures occurred, and recurrence of swelling and defibrination syndrome was sometimes problematic. Time to return to work and long-term limb function were not assessed. A controlled trial with long-term follow-up is

  5. Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom is effective in the neutralization of South American viperidae venoms in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, William H; Tanen, David A; Tong, Tri C; Betten, David P; Carstairs, Shaun D; Williams, Saralyn R; Cantrell, Frank L; Clark, Richard F

    2005-06-01

    Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) (CroFab; FabAV) is used in the treatment of symptomatic crotaline envenomations in North America. Unlike Antivenin (Crotalidae) Polyvalent, which is approved for treatment of crotaline envenomation in North and South America, FabAV is manufactured using only venoms from crotaline snakes native to the United States. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of FabAV in the neutralization of venom from 2 South American crotaline snakes: Crotalus durissus terrificus (tropical rattlesnake) and Bothrops atrox (fer-de-lance). A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled murine model of intraperitoneal venom injection was used. Venom potency was determined in preliminary median lethal dose (LD 50) dosing studies. Study animals were then divided into 7 groups: (1) C durissus terrificus venom (Sigma-Aldrich Co.)+FabAV, (2) C durissus terrificus venom (Sigma-Aldrich Co.)+0.9% normal saline solution, (3) C durissus terrificus venom (Biotoxins Inc.)+FabAV, (4) C durissus terrificus venom (Biotoxins Inc.)+normal saline solution, (5) B atrox venom+FabAV, (6) B atrox venom+normal saline solution, and (7) FabAV+normal saline solution. Twice the estimated LD 50 was the chosen venom dose, and the amount of FabAV injected was 10 times the amount needed for venom neutralization. Statistical analysis included Fisher's exact test and log-rank testing to compare survival rates and times. The venom LD 50 was found in preliminary studies to be 0.9 mg/kg and 1.35 mg/kg for the C durissus terrificus venom obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Co. and Biotoxins Inc., respectively. The LD 50 for B atrox venom was 5.0 mg/kg. All animals receiving venom only and saline solution died. Animals receiving FabAV together with either venom survived to the end of the 24-hour observation period ( P <.001). Comparison of survival times between groups demonstrated a significant difference in time to death between venom-only control groups and the FabAV+venom groups (P

  6. Acute hypersensitivity reaction to Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (CroFab) as initial presentation of galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizer, Justin; Brill, Kaitlin; Charlton, Nathan; King, Joshua

    2017-08-01

    Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom (CroFab), commonly used for the treatment of clinically significant North American crotalinae envenomation, is generally well-tolerated. A novel form of anaphylaxis due to an IgE antibody response to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) has been established following red-meat consumption as well as IV administration of cetuximab, which contain the α-gal epitope. We present a case of α-gal allergy discovered after acute hypersensitivity reaction to FabAV. A 61-year-old healthy female was bitten on her left ankle by Agkistrodon contortrix. Given the patient's rapid progression of pain and swelling, she was given FabAV. During infusion of FabAV, she developed diffuse hives over her entire body and itching, but denied respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms and her vital signs remained stable. The FabAV was immediately discontinued and she received intravenous diphenhydramine and famotidine with gradual resolution of symptoms. On further discussion, she denied a history of α-gal or papaya allergy but rarely ate red meat and endorsed sustaining frequent tick bites. Subsequent antibody testing was significant for an α-1,3-galactose IgE concentration of 45,000 U/L (normal allergy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of FabAV hypersensitivity associated with an underlying α-gal allergy.

  7. The Efficacy of Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) Antivenom Versus Placebo Plus Optional Rescue Therapy on Recovery From Copperhead Snake Envenomation: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo, Charles J; Quackenbush, Eugenia; Lewis, Brandon; Rose, S Rutherfoord; Greene, Spencer; Toschlog, Eric A; Charlton, Nathan P; Mullins, Michael E; Schwartz, Richard; Denning, David; Sharma, Kapil; Kleinschmidt, Kurt; Bush, Sean P; Ryan, Samantha; Gasior, Maria; Anderson, Victoria E; Lavonas, Eric J

    2017-08-01

    Copperhead snake (Agkistrodon contortrix) envenomation causes limb injury resulting in pain and disability. It is not known whether antivenom administration improves limb function. We determine whether administration of antivenom improves recovery from limb injury in patients envenomated by copperhead snakes. From August 2013 through November 2015, we performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial to evaluate the effect of ovine Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) (CroFab; FabAV) antivenom therapy on recovery of limb function in patients with copperhead snake envenomation at 14 days postenvenomation. The study setting was 18 emergency departments in regions of the United States where copperhead snakes are endemic. Consecutive patients aged 12 years or older with mild- to moderate-severity envenomation received either FabAV or placebo. The primary outcome was limb function 14 days after envenomation, measured by the Patient-Specific Functional Scale. Additional outcomes included the Patient-Specific Functional Scale at other points; the Disorders of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand, Lower Extremity Functional Scale, and Patient's Global Impression of Change instruments; grip strength; walking speed; quality of life (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Physical Fucntion-10); pain; and analgesic use. Seventy-four patients received study drug (45 FabAV, 29 placebo). Mean age was 43 years (range 12 to 86 years). Fifty-three percent were men, 62% had lower extremity envenomation, and 88% had mild initial severity. The primary outcome, the least square mean Patient-Specific Functional Scale score at 14 days postenvenomation, was 8.6 for FabAV-treated subjects and 7.4 for placebo recipients (difference 1.2; 95% confidence interval 0.1 to 2.3; P=.04). Additional outcome assessments generally favored FabAV. More FabAV-treated subjects experienced treatment-emergent adverse events (56% versus 28%), but few were

  8. Management of Tissue Loss After Agkistrodon Snakebite: Appropriate Use of Crotalidae-Fab Antivenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kenneth W; Schaefer, Keith R; Austin, Cindy; Norton, Rhy; Finley, Phillip J

    2016-01-01

    Although initially created for the treatment of rattlesnake (genus: Crotalus) bites, Crotalidae-Fab antivenin is used to treat many different pit viper envenomations. However, the efficacy of Crotalidae-Fab in preventing tissue loss from copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) or cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) snakebites remains unclear. Recent reports show that Agkistrodon-related bites rarely require treatment beyond simple observation and pain control. The purpose of this study was to examine the amount of tissue loss in patients who received Crotalidae-Fab compared with those who did not after an Agkistrodon bite. After institutional review board approval, a retrospective study was completed at a Level 1 trauma center. Between 2009 and 2013, a total of 57 snakebites were identified. Of the 57 bites, the snake species was documented in 36 cases including 31 copperheads, 1 cottonmouth, and 4 rattlesnakes. The other 21 bites were from unknown or nonvenomous species. Of the 32 Agkistrodon-related bites, 15 patients received Crotalidae-Fab (average of 3 vials administered) and 17 did not receive Crotalidae-Fab. None of the 32 patients, regardless of treatment option, had tissue loss or required surgical interventions. Only 1 patient received Crotalidae-Fab and debridement of a vesicle associated with the bite. No clinically significant differences were observed between the groups. These findings support previous literature that failed to show added benefit of Crotalidae-Fab treatment for Agkistrodon bites beyond patient comfort and pain control. Evaluation of current protocols for Agkistrodon envenomations is warranted. Snakebite wound education in trauma physicians and nurses may decrease unnecessary use of antivenom medication.

  9. Polyvalent horse F(Ab`) 2 snake antivenom: Development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method to obtain polyvalent anti-Bitis and polyvalent-anti-Naja antibodies was developed by immunizing horses with B. arietans, B. nasicornis, B. rhinoceros, N. melanoleuca and N. mossambica crude venoms. Antibody production was followed by the ELISA method during the immunization procedure. Once the desired ...

  10. 13 CFR 120.464 - Reports to SBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Supervised Lender must submit such other reports as SBA from time to time may in writing require. (b... determined by SBA. SBA Supervised Lenders must request the waiver in writing and include all supporting... Supervised Lenders § 120.464 Reports to SBA. (a) An SBA Supervised Lender must submit the following to SBA...

  11. Immunogenic Response of Rabbits to Monovalent and Polyvalent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slide agglutination and indirect haemagglutination tests were used for detecting and measuring specific antibodies against the strains used. Antisera against polyvalent immunogens protected 83-100% of rabbits against A1, A7 and 50% of rabbits against A2 challenge while the lowest protection (16- 33%) was seen in ...

  12. Redox ratio and optical absorption of polyvalent ions in industrial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Redox ratio and optical absorption of polyvalent ions in industrial glasses. W THIEMSORN*, K KEOWKAMNERD, P SUWANNATHADA, H HESSENKEMPER. † and. S PHANICHAPHANT. Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202, Thailand. †Institute of Ceramics, Glass and Cement, Freiberg University of ...

  13. Protective effect of a polyvalent influenza DNA vaccine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Ingrid; Borggren, Marie; Rosenstierne, Maiken Worsøe

    2018-01-01

    Background Influenza A virus in swine herds represents a major problem for the swine industry and poses a constant threat for the emergence of novel pandemic viruses and the development of more effective influenza vaccines for pigs is desired. By optimizing the vector backbone and using a needle......-free delivery method, we have recently demonstrated a polyvalent influenza DNA vaccine that induces a broad immune response, including both humoral and cellular immunity. Objectives To investigate the protection of our polyvalent influenza DNA vaccine approach in a pig challenge study. Methods By intradermal...... needle-free delivery to the skin, we immunized pigs with two different doses (500 μg and 800 μg) of an influenza DNA vaccine based on six genes of pandemic origin, including internally expressed matrix and nucleoprotein and externally expressed hemagglutinin and neuraminidase as previously demonstrated...

  14. 78 FR 71704 - Request for Comments on Draft SBA Strategic Plan for FY 2014-2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... plan is available on SBA's Web site at http://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba_performance/strategic_planning... Strategic Plan is provided for public input as part of the strategic planning process under the Government...://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba_performance/strategic_planning . Jonathan I. Carver, Associate Administrator...

  15. 13 CFR 108.509 - Employment of SBA officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment of SBA officials. 108... Employment of SBA officials. Without SBA's prior written approval, for a period of two years after the date of your most recent issuance of Leverage (or the receipt of any SBA Assistance as defined in part 105...

  16. Vapour Phase Hydrogenation of Phenol over Rhodium on SBA-15 and SBA-16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, mesoporous SBA-15 and SBA-16 were synthesised using classical methods, and their physicochemical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, FTIR, TEM and N2 adsorption–desorption. Rhodium (Rh, 1 wt % was loaded on the mesoporous SBA-15 and SBA-16 by an impregnation method. The Rh surface coverage, dispersion and crystallite size were determined by room temperature H2 chemisorption on reduced samples. The catalytic activity of Rh supported on mesoporous SBA-15 and SBA-16 was evaluated for the first time in the hydrogenation of phenol in vapour phase in a temperature range between 130 and 270 °C at atmospheric pressure. The reaction over Rh/SBA-15 at 180 °C produced cyclohexanone as the major product (about 60% along with lower amounts of cyclohexanol (about 35% and cyclohexane (about 15%. The influences of temperature, H2/phenol ratio, contact time and the nature of the solvent on the catalytic performance were systematically investigated. The Rh/SBA-16 system offered lower phenol conversion compared to Rh/SBA-15, but both have a very high selectivity for cyclohexanone (above 60%.

  17. SBA Disaster Loan Data FY2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2012 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...

  18. SBA Disaster Loan Data FY2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2011 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...

  19. Virus inhibition induced by polyvalent nanoparticles of different sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonnemann, Jonathan; Sieben, Christian; Wolff, Christopher; Ludwig, Kai; Böttcher, Christoph; Herrmann, Andreas; Haag, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The development of antiviral agents is one of the major challenges in medical science. So far, small monovalent molecular drugs that inhibit the late steps in the viral replication cycle, i.e., virus budding, have not worked well which emphasizes the need for alternative approaches. Polyvalently presented viral receptors, however, show potential as good inhibitors of virus-cell binding, which is the first step in the viral infection cycle. By gradually increasing the size of ligand functionalized gold nanoparticles, up to virus-like dimensions, we are now able to quantify the polyvalent enhancement of virus-cell binding inhibition and to identify varying mechanisms of virus inhibition with different efficacies: by employing a new binding assay we found that surface area-normalized polysulfated gold nanoparticles of diameters equal to and larger than the virus diameter (>50 nm) more efficiently inhibit the binding of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to cells than smaller particles. On a per particle basis, larger sized gold nanoparticles were surprisingly shown to inhibit the viral infection up to two orders of magnitude more efficiently than smaller particles, which suggests different mechanisms of virus inhibition. Based on complementary electron microscopic data, we noticed that larger gold nanoparticles act as efficient cross-linkers between virions, whereas smaller gold nanoparticles decorate the surface of individual virus particles. Our systematic study accentuates the need for the design of biodegradable, virus-sized inhibitors capitalizing on polyvalent binding.The development of antiviral agents is one of the major challenges in medical science. So far, small monovalent molecular drugs that inhibit the late steps in the viral replication cycle, i.e., virus budding, have not worked well which emphasizes the need for alternative approaches. Polyvalently presented viral receptors, however, show potential as good inhibitors of virus-cell binding, which is the

  20. Simulation of B Cell Affinity Maturation Explains Enhanced Antibody Cross-Reactivity Induced by the Polyvalent Malaria Vaccine AMA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Enhanced Antibody Cross-Reactivity Induced by the Polyvalent Malaria Vaccine AMA1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Induced by the Polyvalent Malaria Vaccine AMA1 Sidhartha Chaudhury, Jaques Reifman, and Anders Wallqvist Polyvalent vaccines use a mixture of Ags... vaccine based on the highly polymorphic malaria Ag apical membrane antigen-1. Our simulations show how polyvalent apical membrane Ag-1 vaccination

  1. Neutralizing properties of Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) juice on phospholipase A2, myotoxic, hemorrhagic and lethal activities of crotalidae venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, M H; Alves, D L F; Raslan, D S; Piló-Veloso, D; Rodrigues, V M; Homsi-Brandeburgo, M I; de Lima, M E

    2005-04-08

    The use of plants as medicine has been referred to since ancient peoples, perhaps as early as Neanderthal man. Plants are a source of many biologically active products and nowadays they are of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. The study of how people of different culture use plants in particular ways has led to the discovery of important new medicines. In this work, we verify the possible activity of Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) against the toxicity of snake venoms. Musa paradisiaca, an important source of food in the world, has also been reported to be popularly used as an anti-venom. Interaction of Musa paradisiaca extract (MsE) with snake venom proteins has been examined in this study. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), myotoxic and hemorrhagic activities, including lethality in mice, induced by crotalidae venoms were significantly inhibited when different amounts of MsE were mixed with these venoms before assays. On the other hand, mice that received MsE and venoms without previous mixture or by separated routes were not protected against venom toxicity. Partial chemical characterization of MsE showed the presence of polyphenols and tannins and they are known to non-specifically inactivate proteins. We suggest that these compounds can be responsible for the in vitro inhibition of the toxic effects of snake venoms. In conclusion, according to our results, using mice as experimental model, MsE does not show protection against the toxic effects of snake venoms in vivo, but if was very effective when the experiments were done in vitro.

  2. Textural and morphological studies of transition metal doped SBA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have led to textural modifications while demonstrating the structural integrity akin to pristine SBA-15. The ... though some exotic morphological SBA-15 structures ... dance with the P123 phase diagram. Indeed the tem- perature effect on ripening step in SBA-15 synthesis indicates the size and shape of hybrid micelles prior.

  3. 13 CFR 120.601 - SBA Secondary Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA Secondary Market. 120.601... Market Fiscal and Transfer Agent (fta) § 120.601 SBA Secondary Market. The SBA secondary market (“Secondary Market”) consists of the sale of Certificates, representing either the entire guaranteed portion...

  4. 13 CFR 107.509 - Employment of SBA officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment of SBA officials. 107... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee General Requirements § 107.509 Employment of SBA... recent issuance of Leverage (or the receipt of any SBA Assistance as defined in part 105 of this chapter...

  5. Polyvalent choline phosphate as a universal biomembrane adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xifei; Liu, Zonghua; Janzen, Johan; Chafeeva, Irina; Horte, Sonja; Chen, Wei; Kainthan, Rajesh K.; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N.; Brooks, Donald E.

    2012-05-01

    Phospholipids in the cell membranes of all eukaryotic cells contain phosphatidyl choline (PC) as the headgroup. Here we show that hyperbranched polyglycerols (HPGs) decorated with the ’PC-inverse’ choline phosphate (CP) in a polyvalent fashion can electrostatically bind to a variety of cell membranes and to PC-containing liposomes, the binding strength depending on the number density of CP groups per macromolecule. We also show that HPG-CPs can cause cells to adhere with varying affinity to other cells, and that binding can be reversed by subsequent exposure to low molecular weight HPGs carrying small numbers of PCs. Moreover, PC-rich membranes adsorb and rapidly internalize fluorescent HPG-CP but not HPG-PC molecules, which suggests that HPG-CPs could be used as drug-delivery agents. CP-decorated polymers should find broad use, for instance as tissue sealants and in the self-assembly of lipid nanostructures.

  6. Carbon material formation on SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 and residue constituents during acetylene decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Wu, Trong-Neng; Ho, Yung-Shou; Zeng, Li-Xuan

    2014-07-15

    Carbon materials including carbon spheres and nanotubes were formed from acetylene decomposition on hydrogen-reduced SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 at 650-850°C. The physicochemical characteristics of SBA-15, Ni-SBA-15 and carbon materials were analyzed by field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FE-SEM), Raman spectrometry, and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). In addition, the contents of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the tar and residue and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the exhaust were determined during acetylene decomposition on SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15. Spherical carbon materials were observed on SBA-15 during acetylene decomposition at 750 and 850°C. Carbon filaments and ball spheres were formed on Ni-SBA-15 at 650-850°C. Raman spectroscopy revealed peaks at 1290 (D-band, disorder mode, amorphous carbon) and 1590 (G-band, graphite sp(2) structure)cm(-1). Naphthalene (2 rings), pyrene (4 rings), phenanthrene (3 rings), and fluoranthene (4 rings) were major PAHs in tar and residues. Exhaust constituents of hydrocarbon (as propane), H2, and C2H2 were 3.9-2.6/2.7-1.5, 1.4-2.8/2.6-4.3, 4.2-2.4/3.2-1.7% when acetylene was decomposed on SBA-15/Ni-SBA-15, respectively, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 650 to 850°C. The concentrations of 52 VOCs ranged from 9359 to 5658 and 2488 to 1104ppm for SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 respectively, at acetylene decomposition temperatures from 650 to 850°C, and the aromatics contributed more than 87% fraction of VOC concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental Study on the Components in Polyvalent “Ghost” Salmonella Vaccine for Veterinary Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vasileva Pencheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of “ghost” Salmonella vaccines, inactivated by using a hybrid nanomaterial based on silver nanoparticles (AgNps stabilized via polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, is an innovative approach in vaccine production. For this purpose, a series of attempts to establish the components of the polyvalent “ghost” Salmonella vaccine and the most suitable methods for its preparation were performed. The following strains S. Enteritidis, S. Newport-Puerto Rico, and S. Typhimurium were chosen as appropriate candidates for their incorporation in order to create polyvalent Salmonella “ghost” vaccine for veterinary use.

  8. 32 CFR 644.511 - Certificate of competency by SBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Certificate of competency by SBA. 644.511 Section 644.511 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Stone § 644.511 Certificate of competency by SBA. Section 8(b)(7) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C...

  9. 13 CFR 120.413 - Advertisement of relationship with SBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertisement of relationship with SBA. 120.413 Section 120.413 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Participation Criteria § 120.413 Advertisement of relationship with SBA. A Lender may...

  10. 75 FR 9257 - SBA Lender Risk Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Rate; 5. Six (6) Month Net Flow Indicator; 6. Average Small Business Predictive Scores (SBPS); 7... Indicator. In general, these 7(a) and CDC components reflect both historical SBA Lender performance and... based on results of reviews, third party information on a SBA Lender's operations, portfolio trends and...

  11. Cross neutralization of Afro-Asian cobra and Asian krait venoms by a Thai polyvalent snake antivenom (Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poh Kuan Leong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snake envenomation is a serious public health threat in the rural areas of Asian and African countries. To date, the only proven treatment for snake envenomation is antivenom therapy. Cross-neutralization of heterologous venoms by antivenom raised against venoms of closely related species has been reported. The present study examined the cross neutralizing potential of a newly developed polyvalent antivenom, termed Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom (NPAV. NPAV was produced by immunization against 4 Thai elapid venoms. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro neutralization study using mice showed that NPAV was able to neutralize effectively the lethality of venoms of most common Asiatic cobras (Naja spp., Ophiophagus hannah and kraits (Bungarus spp. from Southeast Asia, but only moderately to weakly effective against venoms of Naja from India subcontinent and Africa. Studies with several venoms showed that the in vivo neutralization potency of the NPAV was comparable to the in vitro neutralization potency. NPAV could also fully protect against N. sputatrix venom-induced cardio-respiratory depressant and neuromuscular blocking effects in anesthetized rats, demonstrating that the NPAV could neutralize most of the major lethal toxins in the Naja venom. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The newly developed polyvalent antivenom NPAV may find potential application in the treatment of elapid bites in Southeast Asia, especially Malaysia, a neighboring nation of Thailand. Nevertheless, the applicability of NPAV in the treatment of cobra and krait envenomations in Southeast Asian victims needs to be confirmed by clinical trials. The cross-neutralization results may contribute to the design of broad-spectrum polyvalent antivenom.

  12. Cross Neutralization of Afro-Asian Cobra and Asian Krait Venoms by a Thai Polyvalent Snake Antivenom (Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Poh Kuan; Sim, Si Mui; Fung, Shin Yee; Sumana, Khomvilai; Sitprija, Visith; Tan, Nget Hong

    2012-01-01

    Background Snake envenomation is a serious public health threat in the rural areas of Asian and African countries. To date, the only proven treatment for snake envenomation is antivenom therapy. Cross-neutralization of heterologous venoms by antivenom raised against venoms of closely related species has been reported. The present study examined the cross neutralizing potential of a newly developed polyvalent antivenom, termed Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom (NPAV). NPAV was produced by immunization against 4 Thai elapid venoms. Principal Findings In vitro neutralization study using mice showed that NPAV was able to neutralize effectively the lethality of venoms of most common Asiatic cobras (Naja spp.), Ophiophagus hannah and kraits (Bungarus spp.) from Southeast Asia, but only moderately to weakly effective against venoms of Naja from India subcontinent and Africa. Studies with several venoms showed that the in vivo neutralization potency of the NPAV was comparable to the in vitro neutralization potency. NPAV could also fully protect against N. sputatrix venom-induced cardio-respiratory depressant and neuromuscular blocking effects in anesthetized rats, demonstrating that the NPAV could neutralize most of the major lethal toxins in the Naja venom. Conclusions/Significance The newly developed polyvalent antivenom NPAV may find potential application in the treatment of elapid bites in Southeast Asia, especially Malaysia, a neighboring nation of Thailand. Nevertheless, the applicability of NPAV in the treatment of cobra and krait envenomations in Southeast Asian victims needs to be confirmed by clinical trials. The cross-neutralization results may contribute to the design of broad-spectrum polyvalent antivenom. PMID:22679522

  13. 13 CFR 120.462 - What are SBA's additional requirements on capital maintenance for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (iv) Asset quality and the adequacy of the allowance for loan losses within the loan portfolio; (v... Lender's Quarterly Condition Report. (d) Capital impairment. An SBA Supervised Lender must meet its minimum regulatory capital requirement and avoid capital impairment. Capital impairment exists if an SBA...

  14. Impact and Consequences of School-Based Assessment (SBA): Students' and Parents' Views of SBA in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liying; Andrews, Stephen; Yu, Ying

    2011-01-01

    School-based assessment (SBA) has recently been introduced into the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examinations (HKCEE) in English. The present study was conducted within the context of this assessment change to investigate students' and parents' perceptions of the impact of SBA. Two surveys were employed to explore students' and parents'…

  15. 13 CFR 126.306 - How will SBA process the certification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will SBA process the... PROGRAM Certification § 126.306 How will SBA process the certification? (a) The D/HUB or designee is authorized to approve or decline certifications. SBA will receive and review all certifications, but SBA will...

  16. 13 CFR 120.1850 - Will the Collateral be held by SBA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will the Collateral be held by SBA... Loan Program) § 120.1850 Will the Collateral be held by SBA? Yes, SBA or its expressly authorized agent will take physical possession of all Collateral. SBA or its expressly authorized agent shall maintain...

  17. 13 CFR 123.410 - Which loan requests will SBA fund?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Which loan requests will SBA fund... PROGRAM Pre-Disaster Mitigation Loans § 123.410 Which loan requests will SBA fund? SBA will date stamp each application (loan request) as it is received. SBA will fund loan requests which meet the selection...

  18. 75 FR 13145 - SBA Lender Risk Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bryan Hooper, Director, Office of Credit Risk Management, U.S. Small Business... ADMINISTRATION SBA Lender Risk Rating System AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice; extension of... of Credit Risk Management. BILLING CODE 8025-01-P ...

  19. 13 CFR 120.150 - What are SBA's lending criteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reasonably assure repayment. SBA will consider: (a) Character, reputation, and credit history of the... operate on a sound financial basis; (g) Potential for long-term success; (h) Nature and value of...

  20. Experimental Study on the Components in Polyvalent “Ghost” Salmonella Vaccine for Veterinary Use

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Vasileva Pencheva; Elena Ilieva Velichkova; Denis Zdravkov Sandarov; Adrian Draganov Cardoso; Maria Hristova Mileva; Petia Dinkova Genova-Kalou; Rayna Bryaskova

    2015-01-01

    Development of “ghost” Salmonella vaccines, inactivated by using a hybrid nanomaterial based on silver nanoparticles (AgNps) stabilized via polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), is an innovative approach in vaccine production. For this purpose, a series of attempts to establish the components of the polyvalent “ghost” Salmonella vaccine and the most suitable methods for its preparation were performed. The following strains S. Enteritidis, S. Newport-Puerto Rico, and S. Typhimurium were chosen as appropria...

  1. Cross neutralisation of Southeast Asian cobra and krait venoms by Indian polyvalent antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Poh Kuan; Tan, Nget Hong; Fung, Shin Yee; Sim, Si Mui

    2012-12-01

    Cross neutralisation of venoms by antivenom raised against closely-related species has been well documented. The spectrum of paraspecific protection of antivenom raised against Asiatic Naja and Bungarus (krait) venoms, however, has not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined the cross neutralisation of venoms from common Southeast Asian cobras and kraits by two widely used polyvalent antivenoms produced in India: Vins Polyvalent Antivenom (VPAV) and Bharat Polyvalent Antivenom (BPAV), using both in vitro and in vivo mouse protection assays. BPAV was only moderately effective against venoms of N. kaouthia (Thailand) and N. sumatrana, and either very weakly effective or totally ineffective against the other cobra and krait venoms. VPAV, on the other hand, neutralised effectively all the Southeast Asian Naja venoms tested, as well as N. naja, B. candidus and Ophiophagus hannah venoms, but the potency ranges from effective to weakly effective. In an in vivo rodent model, VPAV also neutralised the lethality of venoms from Asiatic Naja and B. candidus. In anesthetised rat studies, both antivenoms effectively protected against the N. kaouthia venom-induced cardio-respiratory depressant and neuromuscular blocking effects. Overall, our results suggest that VPAV could be used as alternative antivenom for the treatment of elapid envenomation in Southeast Asian regions including Malaysia, Thailand and certain regions of Indonesia. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 13 CFR 101.105 - Who may use SBA's official seal and for what purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... identification cards; (5) Business cards for SBA employees; (6) Official SBA signs; (7) Plaques; the design of... with: (1) Contractor operated facilities; (2) Souvenir or novelty items; (3) Toys or commercial gifts or premiums; (4) Letterhead design, except on official SBA stationery; (5) Clothing or equipment; or...

  3. 13 CFR 127.402 - How will SBA conduct an examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will SBA conduct an... SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT ASSISTANCE PROCEDURES Eligibility Examinations § 127.402 How will SBA..., SBA will notify the concern in writing that it will conduct an examination to determine the status of...

  4. 13 CFR 142.9 - When will SBA issue a complaint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will SBA issue a complaint... REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Procedures Leading to Issuance of A Complaint § 142.9 When will SBA issue a complaint? SBA will issue a complaint: (a) If the Attorney General (or designee) approves the referral of...

  5. 13 CFR 126.804 - Will SBA decide all HUBZone status protests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will SBA decide all HUBZone status protests? 126.804 Section 126.804 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION HUBZONE PROGRAM Protests § 126.804 Will SBA decide all HUBZone status protests? SBA will decide all protests not...

  6. 13 CFR 125.27 - How will SBA process an SDVO protest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will SBA process an SDVO... CONTRACTING PROGRAMS Protests Concerning SDVO SBCs § 125.27 How will SBA process an SDVO protest? (a) Notice of receipt of protest. Upon receipt of the protest, SBA will notify the contracting officer and the...

  7. 13 CFR 127.604 - How will SBA process an EDWOSB or WOSB status protest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT ASSISTANCE PROCEDURES Protests § 127.604 How will SBA... a notice of dismissal, citing the reason(s) for the dismissal. Notwithstanding SBA's dismissal of... protestable allegations, SBA will: (1) Notify the protested concern of the protest and of its right to submit...

  8. 13 CFR 120.521 - What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What interest rate applies after... 504 Loans Sba's Purchase of A Guaranteed Portion § 120.521 What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion? When SBA purchases the guaranteed portion of a fixed interest rate loan...

  9. 13 CFR 108.1230 - Draw-downs by NMVC Company under SBA's Leverage commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SBA's Leverage commitment. 108.1230 Section 108.1230 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Nmvc Company § 108.1230 Draw-downs by NMVC Company...

  10. 13 CFR 107.1230 - Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Leverage commitment. 107.1230 Section 107.1230 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1230 Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage...

  11. 13 CFR 108.1600 - SBA authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of any TC. (b) SBA authority to arrange public or private fundings of Leverage. SBA in its discretion may arrange for public or private financing under its guarantee authority. Such financing arranged by... ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage...

  12. 13 CFR 107.1600 - SBA authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to arrange public or private fundings of Leverage. SBA in its discretion may arrange for public or private financing under its guarantee authority. Such financing arranged by SBA may be accomplished by the... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding...

  13. Desidratação de etanol sobre material nanoestruturado do tipo LaSBA-15 Ethanol dehydration over LaSBA-15 nanostrutured material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo E. Luz Jr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La-incorporated SBA-15 mesopourous molecular sieves (LaSBA-15 were directly synthesized with aim to convert ethanol to ethylene. The samples were characterized by XRD, XRF, nitrogen sorption and acidity, by thermodesorption of n-buthylamine. The results have indicated that all the samples have showed high ordered mesostructure with a large average pore size, and that the lanthanum incorporation has caused an increase in the acidity of the SBA-15. The LaSBA-15 samples have improved, with low deactivation rate, the conversion of the ethanol to water, ether, acetaldehyde and ethylene. In addition, they have increased the ethylene selectivity.

  14. Metal-loaded SBA-16-like silica - Correlation between basicity and affinity towards hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouargli-Saker, R.; Bouazizi, N.; Boukoussa, B.; Barrimo, Diana; Paola-Nunes-Beltrao, Ana-.; Azzouz, A.

    2017-07-01

    Nanoparticles of Cuo (CuNPs) and Feo (FeNPs) were dispersed in SBA-16-like silica, resulting metal-loaded materials (Cu-SBA-16 and Fe-SBA-16) with improved affinity towards hydrogen. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that MNP dispersion occurs mainly inside SBA-16 channels. MNP incorporation was found to confer affinity to the silica surface, since higher CO2 retention capacity (CRC) was registered Cu/SBA-16 and Fe/SBA-16. This was accompanied by a significant improvement of the affinity towards hydrogen, as supported by hydrogen adsorption tests. This was explained in terms of strong hydrogen interaction with MNP and lattice oxygen atoms. The results reported herein open new prospects for SBA-16 as potential adsorbents for hydrogen storage.

  15. Successful snakebite treatment in three juvenile African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) with polyvalent antivenom: a Namibian case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Florian J; van Vuuren, Rudie J; Echement, Katherine E; Cleverley, Matthew P; van Vuuren, Marlice

    2013-03-27

    This article reports the first documented treatment of venomous snakebite with a polyvalent snake antivenom from the South African Institute for Medical Research in endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Three juvenile male animals (6.5 months of age) showed clinical signs after being bitten by an unidentified venomous snake. The signs included loss of appetite, disorientation, impaired locomotion, excessive facial swelling, profuse salivation, reduced respiratory effort and an apparent depressed mental state. Intravenous treatment with isotonic Ringer lactate solution, hetastarch 6% and dexamethazone, subcutaneous administration of procaine benzylpenicillin and benzathine benzylpenicillin, and ultimately intravenous administration of the polyvalent snake antivenom resulted in the complete recovery of all three wild dogs.

  16. Significant improvement in the pore properties of SBA-15 brought ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A comparative study of the pore properties of SBA-15 samples prepared under nonhydrothermal and hydrothermal conditions, in the absence and presence of carboxylic acids such as succinic, tartaric and citric acids has been carried out. In the absence of carboxylic acid, flake-like and spheroid particles were generally ...

  17. Significant improvement in the pore properties of SBA-15 brought ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. A comparative study of the pore properties of SBA-15 samples prepared under non- hydrothermal and hydrothermal conditions, in the absence and presence of carboxylic acids such as suc- cinic, tartaric and citric acids has been carried out. In the absence of carboxylic acid, flake-like and sphe- roid particles were ...

  18. Sulfanilic acid functionalized mesoporous SBA-15: A water-tolerant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    led to a water-tolerant solid acid catalyst, SBA-15-PhSO3H, which showed excellent catalytic performance in synthesis of uracil-fused spirooxindoles in aqueous ethanol. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. Keywords.

  19. Sulfanilic acid functionalized mesoporous SBA-15: A water-tolerant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 8. Sulfanilic acid functionalized mesoporous SBA-15: A water-tolerant solid acid catalyst for the synthesis of uracil fused spirooxindoles as antioxidant agents. Robabeh Baharfar Razieh Azimi. Regular Articles Volume 127 Issue 8 August 2015 pp 1389- ...

  20. Inhibition of Nephrotoxic Activity of Mesobuthus Eupeus Scorpion Venom by Commercial Polyvalent Antivenom in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Zayerzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunotherapy is the only specific treatment for scorpion envenomation. In the present study, the protective effects of polyvalent antivenom against histopathological complications in kidneys and marker changes (BUN and creatinine induced by Mesobuthus eupeus (Me scorpion venom was investigated in anesthetized rabbits. Methods: Twenty four rabbits were randomized into four groups: six rabbits in control group were received 1 ml distilled water subcutaneously (group 1. In group 2, sublethal dose of Me venom (4 mg/kg was injected subcutaneously. Simultaneously venom (subcutaneously 1ml of an distilled water solution containing 4 mg/kg of Me venom and antivenom (intravenously 5 ml were administered in six rabbits as group 3 animals. In group 4, rabbits received five ml of antivenom, 60 min after Me venom injection. Results: In group 2, venom injection caused histopathological damages such as glomerular congestion, dilated vessels of interstitium and focal interstitial congestion in the kidney. It also increased creatinine and BUN levels 3 h after envenomation. Simultaneous administration of antivenom and venom prevented histopathological damage and marker changes. In group four, Immunotherapy decreased histopathological damages and prevented creatinine and BUN elevation at 3 h. Conclusion: Polyvalent antivenom administration can prevent and neutralize nephrotoxic effects of Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion envenomation, if used at optimum conditions.

  1. 13 CFR 120.463 - Regulatory accounting-What are SBA's regulatory accounting requirements for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... basis in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) as promulgated by the Financial... set forth in FASB Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 15, Accounting by Debtors and... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory accounting-What are SBA...

  2. Characterization and comprehension of zeolite NaY/mesoporous SBA-15 composite as adsorbent for paraquat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osakoo, Nattawut, E-mail: natawut.work@gmail.com [School of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand); Pansakdanon, Chaianun [School of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani, 34190 (Thailand); Sosa, Narongrit; Deekamwong, Krittanun; Keawkumay, Chalermpan; Rongchapo, Wina [School of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand); Chanlek, Narong [Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand); Jitcharoen, Juthamas [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani, 34190 (Thailand); Prayoonpokarach, Sanchai [School of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand); Wittayakun, Jatuporn, E-mail: jatuporn@g.sut.ac.th [School of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand)

    2017-06-01

    NaY was synthesized from fumed silica and further modified to form a composite with SBA-15. Textural properties and basicity of the composite NaY-SBA-15 were between those of the parent materials. Paraquat adsorption on NaY was 204.1 mg/g, higher than that on NaY synthesized with rice husk silica from the previous work. SBA-15 was a poor adsorbent for paraquat. Based on the weight of NaY, the adsorption capacity of analytical-grade paraquat on the NaY-SBA-15 composite was 241.5 mg/g-NaY. Moreover, the composite adsorbed blue dye from a commercial grade paraquat. Interaction between the NaY-SBA-15 and paraquat could be from C and N atoms in paraquat with oxygen atom on NaY-SBA-15. - Highlights: • Zeolite NaY/mesoporous SBA-15 composite was synthesized with a simple method. • NaY and SBA-15 coexisted in the composite confirmed by FTIR, CO{sub 2}-TPD and XPS. • Adsorption capacity of paraquat (mg/g-NaY) was improved by NaY and SBA-15 composite. • C and N atoms in paraquat could interact with oxygen atom on NaY-SBA-15 composite.

  3. Kinetic modelling of cytochrome c adsorption on SBA-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogawa, Yoshiyuki; Yamauchi, Rie; Saito, Akira; Yamato, Yuta; Toma, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    The adsorption capacity of mesoporous silicate (MPS) materials as an adsorbent for protein adsorption from the aqueous phase and the mechanism of the adsorption processes by comparative analyses of the applicability of five kinetic transfer models, pseudo-first-order model, pseudo-second-order model, Elovich kinetic model, Bangham's equation model, and intraparticle diffusion model, were investigated. A mixture of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and triblock copolymer as a template was stirred, hydrothermally treated to form the mesoporous SBA-15 structure, and heat-treated at 550°C to form the MPS material, SBA-15. The synthesized SBA-15 was immersed in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution containing cytochrome c for 2, 48, and 120 hours at 4°C. The TEM observations of proteins on/in mesoporous SBA-15 revealed the protein behaviors. The holes of the MPS materials were observed to overlap those of the stained proteins for the first 2 hours of immersion. The stained proteins were observed between primary particles and partly inside the mesoporous channels in the MPS material when it had been immersed for 48 hours. For MPS when it had been immersed for 120 hours, stained proteins were observed in almost all meso-scale channels of MPS. The time profiles for adsorption of proteins can be described well by Bangham's equation model and the intraparticle diffusion model. The Bangham's equation model is based on the assumption that pore diffusion was the only rate controlling step during adsorption, whose contribution to the overall mechanism of cytochrome c adsorption on SBA-15 should not be neglected. The kinetic curves obtained from the experiment for cytochrome c adsorption on SBA-15 could show the three steps: the initial rapid increase of the adsorbed amount of cytochrome c, the second gradual increase, and the final equilibrium stage. These three adsorption steps can be interpreted well by the multi-linearity of the intraparticle diffusion model

  4. A Preventive Approach to Impetigo of Treaty Indians Using Staphylococcus Polyvalent Somatic Antigen Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillenberg, H.; Waldron, M. P. D.

    1963-01-01

    In a controlled study, Greenberg's staphylococcal polyvalent somatic antigen vaccine was administered to 190 Indian volunteers of a reserve in Saskatchewan in an attempt to reduce the incidence of impetigo. An intradermal skin test dose of 0.1 ml. was given initially. Reactors were forthwith placed in a separate category, otherwise this test injection was followed by intramuscular injection of 0.25 ml. of the vaccine, repeated a second time after six weeks. One hundred and sixty-nine controls received “placebo vaccine”. Four months later the number of cases of impetigo in the vaccinated group had been reduced from 55 to 16. There was no reduction in the control group. The preventive effect waned after five months. The results of this field trial are considered encouraging. PMID:14052980

  5. Myotoxic activity of phospholipases A2 isolated from cobra venoms: neutralization by polyvalent antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebs, D

    1986-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 which produce myonecrosis when injected i.m. into mice were isolated from venoms of Naja nigricollis, N.h.haje and N.nivea by gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography on SP-Sephadex C-25 and CM-cellulose and by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B. Basic polypeptides of the cardio/cytotoxin-type were essentially free of myotoxic activity. Polyvalent antivenoms were tested for their ability to neutralize the myotoxic activity of the phospholipases A2 when mixed with them prior to injection. Antivenoms from Behringwerke (Orient, Central Africa, North Africa) and from the South African Institute for Medical Research, but not habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis) monovalent antivenom, neutralized the myotoxic activity of the phospholipases A2.

  6. Compact, Polyvalent Mannose Quantum Dots as Sensitive, Ratiometric FRET Probes for Multivalent Protein-Ligand Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuan; Sakonsinsiri, Chadamas; Nehlmeier, Inga; Fascione, Martin A; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Weili; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Turnbull, W Bruce; Zhou, Dejian

    2016-04-04

    A highly efficient cap-exchange approach for preparing compact, dense polyvalent mannose-capped quantum dots (QDs) has been developed. The resulting QDs have been successfully used to probe multivalent interactions of HIV/Ebola receptors DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR (collectively termed as DC-SIGN/R) using a sensitive, ratiometric Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. The QD probes specifically bind DC-SIGN, but not its closely related receptor DC-SIGNR, which is further confirmed by its specific blocking of DC-SIGN engagement with the Ebola virus glycoprotein. Tuning the QD surface mannose valency reveals that DC-SIGN binds more efficiently to densely packed mannosides. A FRET-based thermodynamic study reveals that the binding is enthalpy-driven. This work establishes QD FRET as a rapid, sensitive technique for probing structure and thermodynamics of multivalent protein-ligand interactions.

  7. Novel polyvalent live vaccine against varicella-zoster and mumps virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Masaaki; Somboonthum, Pranee; Murakami, Kouki; Ota, Megumi; Shoji, Masaki; Kawabata, Kenji; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Yamanishi, Koichi; Mori, Yasuko

    2013-10-01

    The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) Oka vaccine strain (vOka) is a highly immunogenic and safe live vaccine that has long been used worldwide. Because its genome is large, making it suitable for inserting foreign genes, vOka is considered a candidate vector for novel polyvalent vaccines. Previously, a recombinant vOka, rvOka-HN, that expresses mumps virus (MuV) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) was generated by the present team. rvOka-HN induces production of neutralizing antibodies against MuV in guinea pigs. MuV also expresses fusion (F) protein, which is important for inducing neutralizing antibodies, in its viral envelope. To induce a more robust immune response against MuV than that obtained with rvOka-HN, here an rvOka expressing both HN and F (rvOka-HN-F) was generated. However, co-expression of HN and F caused the infected cells to form syncytia, which reduced virus titers. To reduce the amount of cell fusion, an rvOka expressing HN and a mutant F, F(S195Y) were generated. Almost no syncytia formed among the rvOka-HN-F(S195Y)-infected cells and the growth of rvOka-HN-F(S195Y) was similar to that of the original vOka clone. Moreover, replacement of serine 195 with tyrosine had no effect on the immunogenicity of F in mice and guinea pigs. Although obvious augmentation of neutralizing antibody production was not observed after adding F protein to vOka-HN, the anti-F antibodies did have neutralizing activity. These data suggest that F protein contributes to induction of immune protection against MuV. Therefore this recombinant virus is a promising candidate vaccine for polyvalent protection against both VZV and MuV. © 2013 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. The Sequencing Bead Array (SBA), a Next-Generation Digital Suspension Array

    OpenAIRE

    Akhras, Michael S.; Pettersson, Erik; Diamond, Lisa; Unemo, Magnus; Okamoto, Jennifer; Davis, Ronald W.; Pourmand, Nader

    2013-01-01

    Here we describe the novel Sequencing Bead Array (SBA), a complete assay for molecular diagnostics and typing applications. SBA is a digital suspension array using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), to replace conventional optical readout platforms. The technology allows for reducing the number of instruments required in a laboratory setting, where the same NGS instrument could be employed from whole-genome and targeted sequencing to SBA broad-range biomarker detection and genotyping. As proof...

  9. Adsorptive removal of selected pharmaceuticals by mesoporous silica SBA-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, Tung Xuan, E-mail: bxtung@gist.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Heechul, E-mail: hcchoi@gist.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    The removal of five selected pharmaceuticals, viz., carbamazepine, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and ketoprofen was examined by batch sorption experiments onto a synthesized mesoporous silica SBA-15. SBA-15 was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurement, and point of zero charge (PZC) measurement. Pharmaceutical adsorption kinetics was rapid and occurred on a scale of minutes, following a pseudo-second-order rate expression. Adsorption isotherms were best fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. High removal rates of individual pharmaceuticals were achieved in acidic media (pH 3-5) and reached 85.2% for carbamazepine, 88.3% for diclofenac, 93.0% for ibuprofen, 94.3% for ketoprofen, and 49.0% for clofibric acid at pH 3 but decreased with increase in pH. SBA-15 also showed high efficiency for removal of a mixture of 5 pharmaceuticals. Except for clofibric acid (35.6%), the removal of pharmaceuticals in the mixture ranged from 75.2 to 89.3%. Based on adsorption and desorption results, the mechanism of the selected pharmaceuticals was found to be a hydrophilic interaction, providing valuable information for further studies to design materials for the purpose. The results of this study suggest that mesoporous-silica-based materials are promising adsorbents for removing pharmaceuticals from not only surface water but also wastewater of pharmaceutical industrial manufactures.

  10. Adsorption properties of proteins on SBA-15 nanoparticles functionalized with aminosilanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Wook; Tra, Pham Thi; Kim, Sul-Il; Roh, Sung-Hee

    2008-10-01

    Since the discovery of ordered mesoporous silica M41S in 1992, a variety of ordered mesoporous materials have been synthesized by using the template technique. In this work, aminosilane-modified SBA-15 nanoparticles were prepared by incorporating various aminosilanes on original SBA-15 via post synthesis method. These aminosilanes were 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, N-2(-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane and (3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)diethylenetriamine. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and FT-IR. Adsorption and release studies of bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme and myoglobin on SBA-15 samples were investigated. It was found that the synthesized SBA-15 nanoparicles can be successfully applied in drug delivery system.

  11. Encapsulation of mangiferin in ordered mesoporous silica type SBA-15: synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes Silva, Cássia Roberta; da Rocha Ferreira, Fabricia; Dresch Webler, Geovana; Osimar Sousa da Silva, Antônio; Caxico de Abreu, Fabiane; Fonseca, Eduardo J. S.

    2017-06-01

    SBA-15 ordered mesoporous silica were synthesized using the method reported by Zhao et al (1998 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120 6024-36). The goal of this work is to study the encapsulation of mangiferin (MGN) into porous SBA-15. SBA-MGN composites were obtained from a mixture of SBA-15 and MGN. The structures of these materials were analyzed using different characterization techniques: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), N2 adsorption-desorption measurement, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), absorbance spectra and electrochemical assay. The isotherms of the adsorption/desorption for SBA-15 and SBA-MGN are type IV, showing that the ordered mesoporous structure of SBA-15 was maintained even after the incorporation of MGN. The decrease in the value of the specific surface area and the reduction in pore volume confirmed the incorporation of MGN at the surface and in the pores of SBA-15. The incorporation of MGN in SBA-15 aims to increase the solubility of mangiferin.

  12. Successful snakebite treatment in three juvenile African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus with polyvalent antivenom: A Namibian case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlice van Vuuren

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the first documented treatment of venomous snakebite with a polyvalent snake antivenom from the South African Institute for Medical Research in endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus. Three juvenile male animals (6.5 months of age showed clinical signs after being bitten by an unidentified venomous snake. The signs included loss of appetite, disorientation, impaired locomotion, excessive facial swelling, profuse salivation, reduced respiratory effort and an apparent depressed mental state. Intravenous treatment with isotonic Ringer lactate solution, hetastarch 6% and dexamethazone, subcutaneous administration of procaine benzylpenicillin and benzathine benzylpenicillin, and ultimately intravenous administration of the polyvalent snake antivenom resulted in the complete recovery of all three wild dogs.

  13. Successful snakebite treatment in three juvenile African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus with polyvalent antivenom: A Namibian case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian J. Weise

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the first documented treatment of venomous snakebite with a polyvalent snake antivenom from the South African Institute for Medical Research in endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus. Three juvenile male animals (6.5 months of age showed clinical signs after being bitten by an unidentified venomous snake. The signs included loss of appetite, disorientation, impaired locomotion, excessive facial swelling, profuse salivation, reduced respiratory effort and an apparent depressed mental state. Intravenous treatment with isotonic Ringer lactate solution, hetastarch 6% and dexamethazone, subcutaneous administration of procaine benzylpenicillin and benzathine benzylpenicillin, and ultimately intravenous administration of the polyvalent snake antivenom resulted in the complete recovery of all three wild dogs.

  14. Immunogenicity of a polyvalent HIV-1 candidate vaccine based on fourteen wild type gp120 proteins in golden hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Ali; Anderson, David E; Ghorbani, Masoud; Gee, Katrina; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Background One of the major obstacles in the design of an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is the hypervariability of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Most HIV-1 vaccine candidates have utilized envelope glycoprotein from a single virus isolate, but to date, none of them elicited broadly reactive humoral immunity. Herein, we hypothesised that a cocktail of HIV-1 gp120 proteins containing multiple epitopes may increase the breadth of immune responses against HIV-1. We compared and evaluated the immunogenicity of HIV-1 vaccines containing either gp120 protein alone or in combinations of four or fourteen gp120s from different primary HIV-1 isolates in immunized hamsters. Results We amplified and characterized 14 different gp120s from primary subtype B isolates with both syncytium and non-syncytium inducing properties, and expressed the proteins in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines. Purified proteins were used either alone or in combinations of four or fourteen different gp120s to vaccinate golden hamsters. The polyvalent vaccine showed higher antibody titers to HIV-1 subtype B isolates MN and SF162 compared to the groups that received one or four gp120 proteins. However, the polyvalent vaccine was not able to show higher neutralizing antibody responses against HIV-1 primary isolates. Interestingly, the polyvalent vaccine group had the highest proliferative immune responses and showed a substantial proportion of cross-subtype CD4 reactivity to HIV-1 subtypes B, C, and A/E Conclusion Although the polyvalent approach achieved only a modest increase in the breadth of humoral and cellular immunity, the qualitative change in the vaccine (14 vs. 1 gp120) resulted in a quantitative improvement in vaccine-induced immunity. PMID:17076905

  15. Immunogenicity of a polyvalent HIV-1 candidate vaccine based on fourteen wild type gp120 proteins in golden hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani Masoud

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major obstacles in the design of an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is the hypervariability of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Most HIV-1 vaccine candidates have utilized envelope glycoprotein from a single virus isolate, but to date, none of them elicited broadly reactive humoral immunity. Herein, we hypothesised that a cocktail of HIV-1 gp120 proteins containing multiple epitopes may increase the breadth of immune responses against HIV-1. We compared and evaluated the immunogenicity of HIV-1 vaccines containing either gp120 protein alone or in combinations of four or fourteen gp120s from different primary HIV-1 isolates in immunized hamsters. Results We amplified and characterized 14 different gp120s from primary subtype B isolates with both syncytium and non-syncytium inducing properties, and expressed the proteins in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines. Purified proteins were used either alone or in combinations of four or fourteen different gp120s to vaccinate golden hamsters. The polyvalent vaccine showed higher antibody titers to HIV-1 subtype B isolates MN and SF162 compared to the groups that received one or four gp120 proteins. However, the polyvalent vaccine was not able to show higher neutralizing antibody responses against HIV-1 primary isolates. Interestingly, the polyvalent vaccine group had the highest proliferative immune responses and showed a substantial proportion of cross-subtype CD4 reactivity to HIV-1 subtypes B, C, and A/E Conclusion Although the polyvalent approach achieved only a modest increase in the breadth of humoral and cellular immunity, the qualitative change in the vaccine (14 vs. 1 gp120 resulted in a quantitative improvement in vaccine-induced immunity.

  16. 13 CFR 123.513 - Does SBA require collateral on its Military Reservist EIDL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Military Reservist EIDL? 123.513 Section 123.513 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans § 123.513 Does SBA require collateral on its Military Reservist EIDL? SBA will not generally require you to pledge collateral to secure...

  17. Metal-loaded SBA-16-like silica – Correlation between basicity and affinity towards hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouargli-Saker, R. [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Science and Technology, El M’naouer, BP 1505, Oran (Algeria); Nanoqam, Department of Chemistry, University of Quebec at Montreal, H3C3P8 (Canada); Bouazizi, N. [Nanoqam, Department of Chemistry, University of Quebec at Montreal, H3C3P8 (Canada); Unité de recherche, Electrochimie, Matériaux et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Université de Gabès, Cité Erriadh, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); Boukoussa, B. [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Science and Technology, El M’naouer, BP 1505, Oran (Algeria); Lqamb, Laboratório de Química Analítica Ambiental, Faculdade de Química, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Barrimo, Diana [Nanoqam, Department of Chemistry, University of Quebec at Montreal, H3C3P8 (Canada); Paola-Nunes-Beltrao, Ana [Nanoqam, Department of Chemistry, University of Quebec at Montreal, H3C3P8 (Canada); Laboratory of Materials Chemistry L.C.M, University of Oran1 Ahmed Ben Bella, BP 1524, El-Mnaouer, 31000 Oran (Algeria); Azzouz, A., E-mail: azzouz.a@uqam.ca [Nanoqam, Department of Chemistry, University of Quebec at Montreal, H3C3P8 (Canada)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Metal dispersion in longitudinal channels confers adsorption properties to SBA-16. • Both Fe{sup 0}-NPs and Cu{sup 0}-NPs seem to be responsible of this effect. • Effect of the repetitive adsorption-desorption cycles on CO{sub 2} and water sorption. • Hydrogen storage on the functionalized materials. - Abstract: Nanoparticles of Cu{sup o} (CuNPs) and Fe{sup o} (FeNPs) were dispersed in SBA-16-like silica, resulting metal-loaded materials (Cu-SBA-16 and Fe-SBA-16) with improved affinity towards hydrogen. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that MNP dispersion occurs mainly inside SBA-16 channels. MNP incorporation was found to confer affinity to the silica surface, since higher CO{sub 2} retention capacity (CRC) was registered Cu/SBA-16 and Fe/SBA-16. This was accompanied by a significant improvement of the affinity towards hydrogen, as supported by hydrogen adsorption tests. This was explained in terms of strong hydrogen interaction with MNP and lattice oxygen atoms. The results reported herein open new prospects for SBA-16 as potential adsorbents for hydrogen storage.

  18. 13 CFR 126.305 - What format must the certification to SBA take?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What format must the certification to SBA take? 126.305 Section 126.305 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... submit the required information in either a written or electronic application form provided by SBA. An...

  19. Adsorptive removal of anionic dyes by modified nanoporous silica SBA-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbia, Mansoor; Hariri, Saba Asl; Ashrafizadeh, S. N.

    2010-03-01

    Batch sorption experiments were carried out to remove dyes, methyl orange (MO), orange G (OG) and brilliant red X-3B (X-3B), from their aqueous solutions using a mesoporous silica SBA-3 as an adsorbent. The effect of surfactant template in SBA-3 on the removal of OG, MO and X-3B was investigated. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of contact time, initial concentration, pH, and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption performance. The adsorption results of anionic dyes on the uncalcined SBA-3 (noted as SBA-3) were compared with those of the calcined SBA-3 (noted as C-SBA-3). The uncalcined SBA-3 adsorbent has a large adsorption capacity and a strong affinity for the anionic dyes. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were employed to model the experimental results, from which the Freundlich isotherm exhibited the most appropriate to predict the same. Freundlich isotherm exhibited the most appropriate to predict the experimental results. The kinetic data were also analyzed through pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model well depicted the kinetics of dyes adsorption on mesoporous SBA-3.

  20. 13 CFR 107.1570 - Distributions by Licensee-optional Distribution to private investors and SBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... private investors and SBA. If you have outstanding Participating Securities or Earmarked Assets, you may... Capital Impairment. (v) The Distribution does not reduce your Regulatory Capital (excluding commitments... contrary to section 303 of the Act. (2) SBA's share of Distribution. (i) If your Capital Impairment...

  1. 13 CFR 121.107 - How does SBA determine a concern's “primary industry”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Applicability § 121.107 How does SBA determine a concern's “primary industry”? In determining the primary industry in which a concern or a concern combined with its affiliates is engaged, SBA considers the distribution of receipts, employees and costs of doing business among the different industries in which...

  2. 13 CFR 120.434 - What are SBA's requirements for loan pledges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and other performance related measurements and information (such as contribution toward SBA mission... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are SBA's requirements for loan pledges? 120.434 Section 120.434 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION...

  3. Modifying the Hierarchical Porosity of SBA-15 via Mild-Detemplation Followed by Secondary Treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zheng; Melian-Cabrera, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Fenton-chemistry-based detemplation combined with secondary treatments offers options to tune the hierarchical porosity of SBA-15. This approach has been studied on a series of SBA-15 mesophases and has been compared to the conventional calcination. The as-synthesized and detemplated materials were

  4. 13 CFR 108.1910 - Non-waiver of SBA's rights or terms of Leverage security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... terms of Leverage security. 108.1910 Section 108.1910 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... or terms of Leverage security. SBA's failure to exercise or delay in exercising any right or remedy...'s failure to require you to perform any term or provision of your Leverage does not affect SBA's...

  5. 13 CFR 107.1700 - Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Licensee's Leverage security. 107.1700 Section 107.1700 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Miscellaneous § 107.1700 Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security. Upon such conditions...

  6. 13 CFR 107.1910 - Non-waiver of SBA's rights or terms of Leverage security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... terms of Leverage security. 107.1910 Section 107.1910 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... of Leverage security. SBA's failure to exercise or delay in exercising any right or remedy under the... failure to require you to perform any term or provision of your Leverage does not affect SBA's right to...

  7. 13 CFR 108.650 - Requirement to report portfolio valuations to SBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies Reporting Requirements for Nmvc Companies § 108.650 Requirement to report portfolio valuations to... valuations to SBA. 108.650 Section 108.650 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW... report such valuations to SBA within 90 days of the end of the fiscal year in the case of annual...

  8. 13 CFR 107.650 - Requirement to report portfolio valuations to SBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... valuations to SBA. 107.650 Section 107.650 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Recordkeeping, Reporting, and Examination Requirements for Licensees Reporting Requirements for Licensees § 107.650 Requirement to report portfolio valuations to SBA. You must...

  9. 75 FR 13329 - Implications of Financial Accounting System (FAS) 166 on SBA Guaranteed Loan Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION Implications of Financial Accounting System (FAS) 166 on SBA Guaranteed Loan Programs AGENCY... Administration (SBA) is soliciting information and views from the public on: (1) The effect that the accounting changes mandated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in Financial Accounting Standard (FAS...

  10. 13 CFR 121.104 - How does SBA calculate annual receipts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does SBA calculate annual... § 121.104 How does SBA calculate annual receipts? (a) Receipts means “total income” (or in the case of a... customers and excluding taxes levied on the concern or its employees; proceeds from transactions between a...

  11. 13 CFR 108.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a NMVC Company-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a... Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Nmvc Company § 108.1200 SBA's Leverage commitment to a NMVC Company—application procedure, amount, and term. (a...

  12. 13 CFR 107.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a Licensee-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a... (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1200 SBA's Leverage... type of Leverage for your future use. You may then apply to draw down Leverage against the commitment...

  13. Selective Preparation of Furfural from Xylose over Sulfonic Acid Functionalized Mesoporous Sba-15 Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Li

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 materials were prepared using the co-condensation and grafting methods, respectively, and their catalytic performance in the dehydration of xylose to furfural was examined. SBA-15-SO3H(C prepared by the co-condensation method showed 92–95% xylose conversion and 74% furfural selectivity, and 68–70% furfural yield under the given reaction conditions. The deactivation and regeneration of the SBA-15-SO3H(C catalyst for the dehydration of xylose was also investigated. The results indicate that the used and regeneration catalysts retained the SBA-15 mesoporous structure, and the S content of SBA-15-SO3H(C almost did not change. The deactivation of the catalysts is proposed to be associated with the accumulation of byproducts, which is caused by the loss reaction of furfural. After regeneration by H2O2, the catalytic activity of the catalyst almost recovered.

  14. Dehydrogenation of Isobutane with Carbon Dioxide over SBA-15-Supported Vanadium Oxide Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunling Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of vanadia catalysts supported on SBA-15 (V/SBA with a vanadia (V content ranging from 1% to 11% were prepared by an incipient wetness method. Their catalytic behavior in the dehydrogenation of isobutane to isobutene with CO2 was examined. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR. It was found that these catalysts were effective for the dehydrogenation reaction, and the catalytic activity is correlated with the amount of dispersed vanadium species on the SBA-15 support. The 7% V/SBA catalyst shows the highest activity, which gives 40.8% isobutane conversion and 84.8% isobutene selectivity. The SBA-15-supported vanadia exhibits higher isobutane conversion and isobutene selectivity than the MCM-41-supported one.

  15. Preclinical Development of Inactivated Rabies Virus–Based Polyvalent Vaccine Against Rabies and Filoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willet, Mallory; Kurup, Drishya; Papaneri, Amy; Wirblich, Christoph; Hooper, Jay W.; Kwilas, Steve A.; Keshwara, Rohan; Hudacek, Andrew; Beilfuss, Stefanie; Rudolph, Grit; Pommerening, Elke; Vos, Adriaan; Neubert, Andreas; Jahrling, Peter; Blaney, Joseph E.; Johnson, Reed F.; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2015-01-01

    We previously described the generation of a novel Ebola virus (EBOV) vaccine based on inactivated rabies virus (RABV) containing EBOV glycoprotein (GP) incorporated in the RABV virion. Our results demonstrated safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in mice and nonhuman primates (NHPs). Protection against viral challenge depended largely on the quality of the humoral immune response against EBOV GP. Here we present the extension and improvement of this vaccine by increasing the amount of GP incorporation into virions via GP codon-optimization as well as the addition of Sudan virus (SUDV) and Marburg virus (MARV) GP containing virions. Immunogenicity studies in mice indicate similar immune responses for both SUDV GP and MARV GP compared to EBOV GP. Immunizing mice with multiple antigens resulted in immune responses similar to immunization with a single antigen. Moreover, immunization of NHP with the new inactivated RABV EBOV vaccine resulted in high titer neutralizing antibody levels and 100% protection against lethal EBOV challenge when applied with adjuvant. Our results indicate that an inactivated polyvalent vaccine against RABV filoviruses is achievable. Finally, the novel vaccines are produced on approved VERO cells and a clinical grade RABV/EBOV vaccine for human trials has been produced. PMID:26063224

  16. Preclinical Development of Inactivated Rabies Virus-Based Polyvalent Vaccine Against Rabies and Filoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willet, Mallory; Kurup, Drishya; Papaneri, Amy; Wirblich, Christoph; Hooper, Jay W; Kwilas, Steve A; Keshwara, Rohan; Hudacek, Andrew; Beilfuss, Stefanie; Rudolph, Grit; Pommerening, Elke; Vos, Adriaan; Neubert, Andreas; Jahrling, Peter; Blaney, Joseph E; Johnson, Reed F; Schnell, Matthias J

    2015-10-01

    We previously described the generation of a novel Ebola virus (EBOV) vaccine based on inactivated rabies virus (RABV) containing EBOV glycoprotein (GP) incorporated in the RABV virion. Our results demonstrated safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in mice and nonhuman primates (NHPs). Protection against viral challenge depended largely on the quality of the humoral immune response against EBOV GP.Here we present the extension and improvement of this vaccine by increasing the amount of GP incorporation into virions via GP codon-optimization as well as the addition of Sudan virus (SUDV) and Marburg virus (MARV) GP containing virions. Immunogenicity studies in mice indicate similar immune responses for both SUDV GP and MARV GP compared to EBOV GP. Immunizing mice with multiple antigens resulted in immune responses similar to immunization with a single antigen. Moreover, immunization of NHP with the new inactivated RABV EBOV vaccine resulted in high titer neutralizing antibody levels and 100% protection against lethal EBOV challenge when applied with adjuvant.Our results indicate that an inactivated polyvalent vaccine against RABV filoviruses is achievable. Finally, the novel vaccines are produced on approved VERO cells and a clinical grade RABV/EBOV vaccine for human trials has been produced. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Polyvalent cationic metals induce the rate of transferrin-independent iron acquisition by HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olakanmi, O; Stokes, J B; Pathan, S; Britigan, B E

    1997-01-31

    The trivalent metals iron, aluminum, and gallium greatly increase the rate of iron acquisition from low molecular weight chelates by human myeloid cells. The present study explores the mechanism responsible. Gallium-induced iron acquisition was shown to lead to stable cellular association of iron, the magnitude of which varied with the chelate to which the iron was bound. The majority of this iron initially associated with the plasma membrane. Cellular depletion of ATP did not affect the response to gallium nor did it require the continued presence of extracellular gallium. However, continued cell association of gallium was needed as subsequent cellular exposure to metal chelators resulted in a rapid loss of the "induced" phenotype. Other trivalent metals (lanthanum and gadolinium) and tetravalent metals (tin and zirconium) but not divalent metals also induced iron acquisition. Neither enhanced iron reduction nor protein kinase C or tyrosine kinases appeared involved in gallium-mediated induction of iron acquisition. Exposure of HL-60 cells to polyvalent cationic metals results in a dramatic and sustained increase in the rate of iron acquisition from low molecular weight chelating agents. This could be important for the rapid clearance of iron by phagocytes from the extracellular environment at sites of local tissue damage.

  18. FMD virus isolates: the candidate strains for polyvalent vaccine development in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayelet, G; Soressa, M; Sisay, T; Belay, A; Gelaye, E; Jembere, S; Skjerve, E; Asmare, K

    2013-06-01

    The study was conducted on foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses with the aim of selecting appropriate vaccinal strain to control of FMD in Ethiopia. The study was conducted in two-dimensional virus neutralization assay to determine the antigenic relationship 'r' value between the candidate vaccine strains and field isolates. A total of 21 serotype O, 7 serotype A, and 8 serotype SAT 2 FMD viruses, which were isolated from cattle and swine. A couple of isolates from each serotype were identified as vaccine candidates in the trial (O-ETH/38/2005, O-ETH/58/2008, A-ETH/7/2008, A-ETH/6/2000, SAT2-ETH/76/2009 and SAT2-ETH/64/2009). The finding revealed all the vaccine candidate depicted high antigenic similarity, above the mean "r" value, to their own serotypes in the studied serotype population except for one serotype A field isolate, A-ETH/13/1981, with "r" value=0.14 and 0.25) which is significantly lower than the minimum requirement. In general, the result indicated that these candidate vaccinal strains can be used for polyvalent vaccine production in the country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Carboxylic acid-functionalized SBA-15 nanorods for gemcitabine delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrami, Zohreh; Badiei, Alireza, E-mail: abadiei@khayam.ut.ac.ir [University of Tehran, School of Chemistry, College of Science (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziarani, Ghodsi Mohammadi [Alzahra University, Research Laboratory of Pharmaceutical (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The present study deals with the functionalization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as drug delivery systems. Mono, di, and tri amino-functionalized SBA-15 nanorods were synthesized by post-grafting method using (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane, N-(2-aminoethyl-)3- aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, and 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino) ethylamino] propyl trimethoxysilane, respectively. The carboxylic acid derivatives of the amino-functionalized samples were obtained using succinic anhydride. Tminopropyltrimethoxysilanehe obtained modified materials were investigated as matrixes for the anticancer drug (gemcitabine) delivery. The prepared samples were characterized by SAXS, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, SEM, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and FTIR and UV spectroscopies. The adsorption and release properties of all samples were studied. It was revealed that the adsorption capacity and release behavior of gemcitabine were highly dependent on the type of the introduced functional groups. The carboxylic acid-modified samples have higher loading content, due to the strong interaction with gemcitabine. The maximum content of deposited drug in the modified SBA-15 nanorods is close to 40 wt%. It was found that the surface functionalization leads toward significant decrease of the drug release rate. The carboxylic acid-functionalized samples have slower release rate in contrast with the amino-functionalized samples.

  20. Carboxylic acid-functionalized SBA-15 nanorods for gemcitabine delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Zohreh; Badiei, Alireza; Ziarani, Ghodsi Mohammadi

    2015-03-01

    The present study deals with the functionalization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as drug delivery systems. Mono, di, and tri amino-functionalized SBA-15 nanorods were synthesized by post-grafting method using (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane, N-(2-aminoethyl-)3- aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, and 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino) ethylamino] propyl trimethoxysilane, respectively. The carboxylic acid derivatives of the amino-functionalized samples were obtained using succinic anhydride. Tminopropyltrimethoxysilanehe obtained modified materials were investigated as matrixes for the anticancer drug (gemcitabine) delivery. The prepared samples were characterized by SAXS, N2 adsorption/desorption, SEM, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and FTIR and UV spectroscopies. The adsorption and release properties of all samples were studied. It was revealed that the adsorption capacity and release behavior of gemcitabine were highly dependent on the type of the introduced functional groups. The carboxylic acid-modified samples have higher loading content, due to the strong interaction with gemcitabine. The maximum content of deposited drug in the modified SBA-15 nanorods is close to 40 wt%. It was found that the surface functionalization leads toward significant decrease of the drug release rate. The carboxylic acid-functionalized samples have slower release rate in contrast with the amino-functionalized samples.

  1. In vitro controlled release of antihypertensive drugs intercalated into unmodified SBA-15 and MgO modified SBA-15 matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, Iuliana Florentina; Ignat, Maria; Popovici, Roxana Florentina; Timpu, Daniel; Popovici, Eveline

    2012-10-15

    The use of nanotechnology in medicine and more specifically in drug delivery systems is set to spread rapidly. In order to broaden the range of matrices and implicitly to develop the class of drug delivery systems based on diffusion mechanism, in this study the starting materials, SBA-15 powder matrices, were engineered by MgO modification for antihypertensive drugs intercalation. Captopril and aliskiren were used as drug models. All powders, unmodified and MgO-modified silica matrices, and their corresponding drug-loaded samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N(2) adsorption and desorption, FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The studied drug carriers were tested in the controlled drug release process and the influence of the silica pore morphology and geometry on drug release profiles was extensively studied. In order to analyze the data obtained from the in vitro release studies and to evaluate the kinetic release mechanism, the Korsmeyer and Peppas equation was used. The obtained drug delivery system based on MgO-SBA-15 matrix exhibits exciting structural features and is therefore promising for its use as antihypertensive drug delivery system, having potential therapeutic benefits resulting in safe and effective management of captopril and aliskiren adsorption and in vitro release. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Highly Sensitive Fluorescence Probe Based on Functional SBA-15 for Selective Detection of Hg2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoyu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An inorganic–organic hybrid fluorescence chemosensor (DA/SBA-15 was prepared by covalent immobilization of a dansylamide derivative into the channels of mesoporous silica material SBA-15 via (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES groups. The primary hexagonally ordered mesoporous structure of SBA-15 was preserved after the grafting procedure. Fluorescence characterization shows that the obtained inorganic–organic hybrid composite is highly selective and sensitive to Hg2+ detection, suggesting the possibility for real-time qualitative or quantitative detection of Hg2+ and the convenience for potential application in toxicology and environmental science.

  3. Methylsulfonyl Zn phthalocyanine: A polyvalent and powerful hydrophobic photosensitizer with a wide spectrum of photodynamic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşci, Ümit; Beyreis, Marlena; Tortik, Nicole; Topal, Sevinc Z; Glueck, Michael; Ahsen, Vefa; Dumoulin, Fabienne; Kiesslich, Tobias; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2016-03-01

    The biomedical photodynamic principle is based on the light-induced and photosensitizer-mediated killing of unwanted or harmful cells by overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Motivated by the success of photodynamic therapy (PDT) against several types of tumors, further applications of this approach are constantly identified which require the design and synthesis of novel photosensitizers with specifically tailored properties for a particular clinical application. Hydrophobic photosensitizers are currently gaining attention and hence a tetramethylsulfonyl Zn(II) phthalocyanine (2) was designed with respect to the desired photoproperties. The photodynamic potential of 2 was assessed by the determination of its photophysical and photochemical properties, and by a large range of biological tests including its phototoxicity against cancer cells and Gram(+) bacteria. Unsubstituted ZnPc was used as a reference compound for comparison purposes. Phthalocyanine 2 has a better oxygen generation and is more photostable than ZnPc. 2 is a polyvalent and powerful hydrophobic photosensitizer with a wide spectrum of photodynamic applications against cancer (tested on A431 cells) and for Gram(+) PDI. Against Staphylococcus aureus, a maximum photokilling efficiency of more than 6 log10 steps was induced by a 5μM concentration of 2, outperforming the 3 log10 criterion for an antimicrobial effect (according to the recommendation of the American Society for Microbiology) by more than three orders of magnitude. Phthalocyanine 2 has attractive photophysical and -chemical characteristics. Initial evaluation of its application in anti-tumor PDT and PDI suggest potential for further pre-clinical and clinical development of this compound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Production of potent polyvalent antivenom against three elapid venoms using a low dose, low volume, multi-site immunization protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotwiwatthanakun, C; Pratanaphon, R; Akesowan, S; Sriprapat, S; Ratanabanangkoon, K

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare a potent polyvalent antivenom against three elapids namely, the Thai cobra (Naja kaouthia, NK), the King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah, OH) and the banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus, BF). Two groups of horses were immunized. Group 1, comprising five horses, was immunized twice with a mixture of postsynaptic neurotoxins followed by an additional six immunizations with a mixture of crude venoms of the three elapids. Group 2, comprising four horses, was immunized with a mixture of crude venoms throughout the course. For the first immunization, the immunogens were emulsified in Complete Freund's adjuvant and injected using a low dose, low volume multi-site immunization protocol previously developed in this laboratory (Pratanaphon, R., Akesowan, S., Khow, O., Sriprapat, S. and Ratanabanangkoon, K. (1997) Production of highly potent horse antivenom against the Thai cobra (Naja kaouthia). Vaccine 15, 1523-1528). The second immunization was carried out with the immunogens in Incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Blood was drawn to assay the antibody titer by ELISA. Sera at the peak of ELISA titers were pooled and assayed for the median effective dose (ED(50)). The ED(50)'s of antivenom from Group 1 horses against NK, OH and BF venoms were 1.44, 0.22 and 0.23 ml serum/mg venom, respectively, while those from Group 2 horse sera were 0.88, 0.20 and 0.49 ml serum/mg venom, respectively. The potency of sera from Group 2 against BF venom was significantly higher, while the potencies against NK and OH venoms were comparable to those of the corresponding monovalent antivenoms produced under the same protocol. This potent, truly polyvalent antivenom should be useful in saving lives of victims envenomed by these elapids and the immunization protocol should be useful in the production of potent polyvalent antivenoms against other medically important elapids.

  5. Dynamical properties of nimodipine molecules confined in SBA-15 matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwilsza, A.; Pajzderska, A.; Mielcarek, J.; Jenczyk, J.; Wąsicki, J.

    2016-08-01

    The paper reports results of 13C and 1H ssNMR for nimodipine confined in mesopores of SBA-15 for the samples (i) containing nimodipine molecules inside and on the external surface of silica, (ii) containing nimodipine only inside pores forming an incomplete monolayer on the surface (iii) for bulk nimodipine. The measurements permitted comparison of the dynamics of nimodipine bulk and confined in pores. The confined nimodipine is in an amorphous state and has additional degrees of rotational freedom with respect to the bulk one. The height of the energy barrier related to the rotation of methyl groups in confined nimodipine is lower than in bulk nimodipine. The higher mobility of nimodipine molecules confined in silica pores can explain the higher release rate of nimodipine from silica matrix than dissolution rate of bulk drug.

  6. Enhanced release of itraconazole from ordered mesoporous SBA-15 silica materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellaerts, Randy; Aerts, Caroline A; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Augustijns, Patrick; Van den Mooter, Guy; Martens, Johan A

    2007-04-07

    This in vitro study reports on the enhanced release of the hydrophobic drug itraconazole from the ordered mesoporous SBA-15 silica material and on the existence of a critical mesopore diameter for enhancing release.

  7. Calorimetric Study of Mesoporous SBA-15 Modified for Controlled Valproic Acid Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available SBA-15 ordered mesoporous silica functionalized with (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES was used as the carrier for anticonvulsant drug 2-propylpentanoic acid (valproic acid. The surface of SBA-15 containing free silanol groups was modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane via postsynthetic reaction. Functionalization of the carrier with basic aminopropyl groups resulted in an ionic interaction with acidic valproic acid. The samples of carriers and carrier-drug complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, N2 adsorption, FTIR, and UV spectroscopy. The adsorption of valproic acid on modified mesoporous matrix was proportional to the amount of introduced aminopropyl groups. A thermodynamic study with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC was made to characterize the modification and encapsulation of SBA-15 with APTES and valproic acid, respectively. The maximum content of deposited drug in modified SBA-15 was close to 30 wt.%. Tests performed in acidic solution (pH 2.0 showed the best pharmaceutical availability.

  8. Study on the adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution on modified SBA-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino-functionalized SBA-15 mesoporous silica was prepared, characterized, and used as an adsorbent for heavy metal ions. The organic - inorganic hybrid material was obtained by a grafting procedure using SBA-15 silica with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272, respectively. The structure and physicochemical properties of the materials were characterized by means of elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, nitrogen adsorption - desorption, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and immersion calorimetry. The organic functional groups were successfully grafted onto the SBA-15 surface and the ordering of the support was not affected by the chemical modification. The behavior of the grafted solids was investigated for the adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. The hybrid materials showed high adsorption capacity and high selectivity for zinc ions. Other ions, such as cooper and cobalt were absorbed by the modified SBA-15 material.

  9. Support enhanced α-pinene isomerization over HPW/SBA-15

    OpenAIRE

    Frattini, Lucia; Isaacs, Mark A.; Parlett, Christopher M.A.; Wilson, Karen; Kyriakou, Georgios; Adam F. Lee

    2017-01-01

    A family of mesoporous SBA-15 supported H3PW12O40 (HPW) catalysts were synthesized by wet-impregnation and compared with fumed silica analogues for the solventless isomerization of α-pinene under mild conditions. Structural and acidic properties of supported HPW materials were characterized by powder XRD, HRTEM, XPS, TGA, N2 porosimetry, DRIFTS, and ammonia and propylamine chemisorption and TPD. The high area, mesoporous SBA-15 architecture facilitates the formation of highly dispersed (isola...

  10. On the roles of polyvalent binding in immune recognition : perspectives in the nanoscience of immunology and the immune response to nanomedicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup-Jensen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Immunology often conveys the image of large molecules, either in the soluble state or in the membrane of leukocytes, forming multiple contacts with a target for actions of the immune system. Avidity names the ability of a polyvalent molecule to form multiple connections of the same kind with liga......Immunology often conveys the image of large molecules, either in the soluble state or in the membrane of leukocytes, forming multiple contacts with a target for actions of the immune system. Avidity names the ability of a polyvalent molecule to form multiple connections of the same kind...

  11. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Gaseous Isopropanol Using Visible-Light Active Silver Vanadates/SBA-15 Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Chung Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An environmentally friendly visible-light-driven photocatalyst, silver vanadates/SBA-15, was prepared through an incipient wetness impregnation procedure with silver vanadates (SVO synthesized under a hydrothermal condition without a high-temperature calcination. The addition of mesoporous SBA-15 improves the formation of nanocrystalline silver vanadates. In situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS confirms the presence of Brønsted and Lewis acids on the SVO/SBA-15 composites. The results of photoluminescence spectra indicated that the electron-hole recombination rate have been effectively inhibited when SVO was loaded with mesoporous SBA-15. All the composites loaded with various amount of SVO inherit the higher adsorption capacity and larger mineralization yield than those of P-25 (commercial TiO2 and pure SVO. The sample loaded with 51% of SVO (51SVO/SBA-15 with mixed phases of Ag4V2O7 and α-Ag3VO4 exhibits the best photocatalytic activity. A favorable crystalline phase combined with high intensities of Brønsted and Lewis acids is considered the main cause of the enhanced adsorption capacity and outstanding photoactivity of the SVO/SBA-15 composites.

  12. Surface acidity effects of Al-SBA-15 mesoporous materials on adsorptive desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiuhong; Wang, Yuan; Duan, Linhai; Qin, Yucai; Yu, Wenguang; Wang, Qiang; Dong, Shiwei; Ruan, Yanjun; Wang, Haiyan; Song, Lijuan

    2014-09-01

    SBA-15 and Aluminum-substituted SBA-15 with Si/Al molar ratio 10 (Al-SBA-15(10)) mesoporous materials were directly synthesized by a hydrolysis approach and characterized by a powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 physisorption analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) etc. The relative number of hydroxyl groups was investigated by in situ FTIR systematically. The acid type and acid strength of the adsorbents were monitord by FTIR at 423 K and 673 K, respectively, utilizing pyridine as a probe. Desulfurization performances of the adsorbents were investigated via static adsorption experiment. Gas chromatography-sulfur chemiluminescence detector (GC-SCD) was employed to detect the sulfur compounds in model fuels before and after treated by the adsorbents. The calcined Al-SBA-15(10) material shows well-ordered hexagonal mesostructure and strong Lewis acid sites (L acid) and weak Brönsted acid sites (B acid). The number of hydroxy on the surface of the Al-SBA-15(10) is more than that of SBA-15, which is beneficial to further modifications such as spontaneous monolayer dispersion. Desulfurization performance of the adsorbents is affected by surface acidity of adsorbents and the constituent of model fuels (olefins, arene, etc.). The thiophene and olefins adsorbed on the B acid site of the adsorbent may occur subsequently alkylation reactions, which may block the pores of the adsorbents and thus cause the reduction of desulfurization capacity.

  13. Cross-reactivity and neutralization of Indian King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom by polyvalent and monovalent antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowtham, Yashonandana J; Mahadeswaraswamy, Y H; Girish, K S; K, Kemparaju

    2014-07-01

    The venom of the largest venomous snake, the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), is still out of league for the production of therapeutic polyvalent antivenom nor it is characterized immunologically in the Indian subcontinent. In the present study, the king cobra venom is comparatively studied for the cross-reactivity/reactivity and toxicity neutralization by the locally available equine therapeutic polyvalent BSV and VB antivenoms, and monovalent antivenom (OH-IgG) prepared in rabbit. None of the two therapeutic antivenoms procured from two different firms showed any signs of cross-reactivity in terms of antigen-antibody precipitin lines in immunodouble diffusion assay; however, a weak and an insignificant cross-reactivity pattern was observed in ELISA and Western blot studies. Further, both BSV and VB antivenoms failed to neutralize proteolytic, hyaluronidase and phospholipase activities as well as toxic properties such as edema, myotoxicity and lethality of the venom. As expected, OH-IgG showed strong reactivity in immunodouble diffusion, ELISA and in Western blot analysis and also neutralized both enzyme activities as well as the toxic properties of the venom. Thus, the study provides insight into the likely measures that are to be taken in cases of accidental king cobra bites for which the Indian subcontinent is still not prepared for. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization of pre-emptive isolations in a polyvalent ICU through implementation of an intervention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Lerma, F; Granado Solano, J; García Sanz, A; López Martínez, C; Herrera Sebastián, R; Salvat Cobeta, C; Rey Pérez, A; Balaguer Blasco, R M; Plasencia, V; Horcajada, J P

    2015-12-01

    Pre-emptive isolation refers to the application of contact precaution measures in patients with strongly suspected colonization by multiresistant bacteria. To assess the impact of an intervention program involving the implementation of a consensus-based protocol of pre-emptive isolation (CPPI) on admission to a polyvalent ICU of a general hospital. A comparative analysis of 2 patient cohorts was made: a historical cohort including patients in which pre-emptive isolation was established according to physician criterion prior to starting CPPI (from January 2010 to February 2011), and a prospective cohort including patients in which CPPI was implemented (from March to November 2011). CPPI included the identification and diffusion of pre-emptive isolation criteria, the definition of sampling methodology, the evaluation of results, and the development of criteria for discontinuation of pre-emptive isolation. Pre-emptive isolation was indicated by the medical staff, and follow-up was conducted by the nursing staff. Pre-emptive isolation was defined as "adequate" when at least one multiresistant bacteria was identified in any of the samples. Comparison of data between the 2 periods was made with the chi-square test for categorical variables and the Student t-test for quantitative variables. Statistical significance was set at P<.05. Among the 1,740 patients admitted to the ICU (1,055 during the first period and 685 during the second period), pre-emptive isolation was indicated in 199 (11.4%); 111 (10.5%) of these subjects corresponded to the historical cohort (control group) and 88 (12.8%) to the posterior phase after the implementation of CPPI (intervention group). No differences were found in age, APACHE II score or patient characteristics between the 2 periods. The implementation of CPPI was related to decreases in non-indicated pre-emptive isolations (29.7 vs. 6.8%, P<.001), time of requesting surveillance cultures (1.56 vs. 0.37 days, P<.001), and days of duration of

  15. Growth and physico-chemical properties of interconnected carbon nanotubes in FeSBA-15 mesoporous molecular sieves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulka Suryavanshi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs with well-defined hollow interiors, and different morphologies have been grown inside the nanochannels of iron substituted SBA-15 (Santa Barbara Amorphous with different iron contents and well-ordered large mesopores by chemical vapour deposition method. This novel method requires only 3 min for the formation of high quality multiwalled CNTs inside the SBA-15. The physico-chemical characteristics of the prepared CNT/Fe-SBA-15 nanocomposite have been analysed with powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. XRD, Raman spectroscopy and TGA results confirm that the formed CNTs in SBA-15 nanochannels are highly pure and graphitic in nature, which can be altered by tuning the Fe content in the support matrix. SEM images show the interconnected network of SBA-15/CNT where CNT bridges the neighbouring SBA-15 nanoparticles. Interestingly, spring like CNTs and multi-terminal junctions such as Y and H junctions were also observed. The morphology of the CNTs inside the nanochannels of the SBA-15 support can also be controlled by the simple adjustment of the iron content in the SBA-15 framework. It has also been found that the content of Fe in the silica framework of SBA-15 plays a significant role in the formation of the CNTs and the amount of deposited CNTs in the nanochannels of SBA-15 increased with increasing the concentration of iron in framework. Among the materials studied, the FeSBA-15 with the nSi/nFe ratio of 2 showed the highest catalytic activity towards the formation of high quality CNTs.

  16. Enhanced dissolution and stability of artemisinin by nano-confinement in ordered mesoporous SBA-15 particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchmanan, Kumaran; Shen, Shou-Cang; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H

    2015-01-01

    Dissolution of poorly water-soluble drug, Artemisinin (ART), was enhanced by encapsulating the drug particles inside pore channels of ordered mesoporous silica, SBA-15, via co-spray drying. The drug release profiles of ART were investigated by using flow-through cell (USP IV) and in vitro dissolution tester (USP II). The co-spray-dried ART/SBA-15 samples demonstrated significantly improved dissolution rates and supersaturation compared to the untreated ART. The low cytotoxicity effect of ART and SBA-15 on Caco-2 cells after 24 h incubation demonstrated the biocompatibility of ART/SBA-15. Finally, the storage stability of the samples was investigated for 6 months under five different storage conditions. Overall, the solid dispersions exhibited excellent physical stability; however, their chemical stability was affected by humidity regardless of storage temperatures. The formulation of solid dispersions of ART/SBA-15 is potentially safe and an effective approach to enhance the solubility of poorly water-soluble ART.

  17. Luminescence functionalization of SBA-15 by YVO4:Eu3+ as a novel drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Piaoping; Huang, Shanshan; Kong, Deyan; Lin, Jun; Fu, Honggang

    2007-04-16

    Luminescence functionalization of the ordered mesoporous SBA-15 silica was realized by depositing a YVO4:Eu3+ phosphor layer on its surface via the Pechini sol-gel process, resulting in the formation of the YVO4:Eu3+@SBA-15 composite material. This material, which combines the mesoporous structure of SBA-15 and the strong red luminescence property of YVO4:Eu3+, can be used as a novel functional drug delivery system. The structure, morphology, porosity, and optical properties of the materials were well characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption, and photoluminescence spectra. As expected, the pore volume, surface area, and pore size of SBA-15 decrease in sequence after deposition of the YVO4:Eu3+ layer and the adsorption of ibuprofen (IBU, drug). The IBU-loaded YVO4:Eu3+@SBA-15 system still shows the red emission of Eu3+ (617 nm, 5D0-7F2) under UV irradiation and the controlled drug release property. Additionally, the emission intensity of Eu3+ increases with an increase in the cumulative released amount of IBU in the system, making the extent of drug release easily identifiable, trackable, and monitorable by the change of luminescence. The system has great potential in the drug delivery and disease therapy fields.

  18. The synthesis of novel hybrid thiol-functionalized nano-structured SBA-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van Duc; Phuong Dang, Tuyet; Khieu Dinh, Quang; Phu Nguyen, Huu; Vu, Anh Tuan

    2010-09-01

    Mesoporous thiol-functionalized SBA-15 has been directly synthesized by co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) with triblock copolymer P123 as-structure-directing agent under hydrothermal conditions. Surfactant removal was performed by Soxhlet ethanol extraction. These materials have been characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption/desorption (BET model), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The main parameters, such as the initial molar ratio of MPTMS to TEOS, the time of adding MPTMS to synthesized gel and the Soxhlet ethanol extraction on the thiol functionalized SBA-15 with high thiol content and highly ordered hexagonal mesostructure, were investigated and evaluated. The adsorption capacity of the thiol-functionalized and non-functionalized SBA-15 materials for Pb2+ ion from aqueous solution was tested. It was found that the Pb2+ adsorption capacity of the thiol functionalized SBA-15 is three times higher than that of non-functionalized SBA-15.

  19. Chaperonin-Inspired pH Protection by Mesoporous Silica SBA-15 on Myoglobin and Lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michele M; Liu, Jichuan; Nigra, Michael; Coppens, Marc-Olivier

    2016-09-20

    While enzymes are valuable tools in many fields of biotechnology, they are fragile and must be protected against denaturing conditions such as unfavorable solution pH. Within living organisms, chaperonins help enzymes fold into their native shape and protect them from damage. Inspired by this natural solution, mesoporous silica SBA-15 with different pore diameters is synthesized as a support material for immobilizing and protecting enzymes. In separate experiments, the model enzymes myoglobin and lysozyme are physically adsorbed to SBA-15 and exposed to a range of buffered pH conditions. The immobilized enzymes' biocatalytic activities are quantified and compared to the activities of nonimmobilized enzymes in the same solution conditions. It has been observed that myoglobin immobilized on SBA-15 is protected from acidic denaturation from pH 3.6 to 5.1, exhibiting relative activity of up to 350%. Immobilized lysozyme is protected from unfavorable conditions from pH 6.6 to 7.6, with relative activity of up to 200%. These results indicate that the protective effects conferred to enzymes immobilized by physical adsorption to SBA-15 are driven by the enzymes' electrostatic attraction to the material's surface. The pore diameter of SBA-15 affects the quality of protection given to immobilized enzymes, but the contribution of this effect at different pH values remains unclear.

  20. Highly Efficient Near-IR Photoluminescence of Er3+ Immobilized in Mesoporous SBA-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract SiO2 mesoporous molecular sieve SBA-15 with the incorporation of erbium ions is studied as a novel type of nanoscopic composite photoluminescent material in this paper. To enhance the photoluminescence efficiency, two schemes have been used for the incorporation of Er3+ where (1 Er3+ is ligated with bis-(perfluoromethylsulfonyl-aminate (PMS forming Er(PMSx-SBA-15 and (2 Yb3+ is codoped with Er3+ forming Yb-Er-SBA-15. As high as 11.17 × 10−21cm2 of fluorescent cross section at 1534 nm and 88 nm of “effective bandwidth” have been gained. It is a 29.3% boost in fluorescent cross section compared to what has been obtained in conventional silica. The upconversion coefficient in Yb-Er-SBA-15 is relatively small compared to that in other ordinary glass hosts. The increased fluorescent cross section and lowered upconversion coefficient could benefit for the high-gain optical amplifier. Finally, the Judd–Ofelt theory has also been used for the analyses of the optical spectra of Er(PMSx-SBA-15.

  1. Functionalized iron oxide/SBA-15 sorbent: investigation of adsorption performance towards glyphosate herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoira, Luca; Appendini, Marta; Fiorilli, Sonia; Onida, Barbara; Del Bubba, Massimo; Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta

    2016-11-01

    Glyphosate is a worldwide-used herbicide occurring in many monitoring campaigns. Efficient technologies are currently unavailable for glyphosate removal from waters. In this work, a SBA-15 mesoporous silica-based material (Fe-NH2-SBA-15) was synthesized and studied for the adsorption of glyphosate from waters. In order to promote specific interactions between the sorbent and glyphosate via phosphoric group, iron oxide nanoparticles were encapsulated and a surface functionalization with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane was accomplished. The adsorption of glyphosate on Fe-NH2-SBA-15 was investigated as a function of (i) pH, (ii) ionic strength (I), and (iii) adsorbate to adsorbent ratio (C), using a two-level, three-factor experimental design. The experimental design allowed for understanding the effect of the abovementioned variables and for proposing experimental conditions for quantitative removal (pH = 2.1, I = 1⋅10(-2) M and C = 0.35) under both batch and dynamic conditions. Interaction mechanism between glyphosate and Fe-NH2-SBA-15 sorbent was elucidated by studying the adsorption behavior of sorbents derived from the intermediate stages of synthesis and by desorption tests. Fe-NH2-SBA-15 sorbent can be quantitatively regenerated by 12.5 mM NaOH, and can be reused at least for five adsorption/desorption cycles. Quantitative removal of glyphosate from inlet and effluent wastewaters from a wastewater treatment plant is shown.

  2. WebPlotDigitizer, a polyvalent and free software to extract spectra from old astronomical publications: application to ultraviolet spectropolarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, F.; Rohatgi, A.; Charlot, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this contribution, we present WebPlotDigitizer, a polyvalent and free software developed to facilitate easy and accurate data extraction from a variety of plot types. We describe the numerous features of this numerical tool and present its relevance when applied to astrophysical archival research. We exploit WebPlotDigitizer to extract ultraviolet spectropolarimetric spectra from old publications that used the Hubble Space Telescope, Lick Observatory 3 m Shane telescope and Astro-2 mission to observe the Seyfert-2 AGN NGC 1068. By doing so, we compile all the existing ultraviolet polarimetric data on NGC 1068 to prepare the ground for further investigations with the future high-resolution spectropolarimeter POLLUX on-board of the proposed Large UV/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR) NASA mission.

  3. Breadth of T Cell Responses After Immunization with Adenovirus Vectors Encoding Ancestral Antigens or Polyvalent Papillomavirus Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragonnaud, E; Pedersen, A G; Holst, P J

    2017-03-01

    Oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are in most cases eliminated by intervention of T cells. As many other pathogens, these oncogenic HPVs belong to an ancient and diverse virus family. Therefore, we found it relevant to investigate the potential and limitations of inducing a broad response-either by inducing cross-reactive T cells or by administering a polyvalent vaccine. To test these strategies, we designed three ancestral and two circulating sequences based on the two domains of the E1 and E2 proteins of papillomaviruses (PVs) that exhibit the highest degree of conservation in comparison with the other PV proteins. The PV sequences were fused to a T cell adjuvant, the murine invariant chain and encoded in a recombinant adenoviral vector which was administered to naïve outbred mice. By measuring T cell responses induced by these different vaccines and towards peptide pools representing three circulating strains and a putative ancestor of oncogenic HPVs, we showed that the ancestral vaccine antigen has to be approximately 90% identical to the circulating PVs before a marked drop of ~90% mean CD8+ T cell responses ensues. Interestingly, the combination of two or three type-specific PV vaccines did not induce a significant decrease in the CD8+ T cell response to the individual-targeted PV types. Polyvalent HPV vaccine based on the E1 and E2 proteins seem to be capable of triggering responses towards more than one type of PV while the cross-reactivity of ancestral vaccine seems insufficient in consideration of the sequence diversity between HPV types. © 2017 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  4. 13 CFR 108.1810 - Events of default and SBA's remedies for NMVC Company's noncompliance with terms of Debentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Voluntary assignment. You make a voluntary assignment for the benefit of creditors without SBA's prior... section. (1) Excessive Management Expenses. Without the prior written consent of SBA, you incur Management..., directors, or general partners and/or appointment of receiver. The Articles of each NMVC Company must...

  5. 2 CFR 2700.995 - Principal (SBA supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Principal (SBA supplement to government-wide... § 2700.995 Principal (SBA supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.995). Principal means— (a... investigators. (2) Securities brokers and dealers under the section 7(a) Loan, Certified Development Company...

  6. 13 CFR 120.1830 - What are the terms and conditions of an SBA loan to an SISMBD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Market Broker-Dealers (SISMBD Loan Program) § 120.1830 What are the terms and conditions of an SBA loan... disburse funds under the SISMBD Loan. Substitution of collateral during the term of the loan generally will... term of the SISMBD Loan. (g) Default. If for any reason an SISMBD is unable to make payment to SBA when...

  7. 13 CFR 108.1700 - Transfer by SBA of its interest in a NMVC Company's Leverage security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer by SBA of its interest in a NMVC Company's Leverage security. 108.1700 Section 108.1700 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... Companies (Leverage) Miscellaneous § 108.1700 Transfer by SBA of its interest in a NMVC Company's Leverage...

  8. 13 CFR 107.1630 - SBA regulation of Brokers and Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust Certificates. 107.1630 Section 107.1630 Business... Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1630 SBA regulation of Brokers and Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust...

  9. 13 CFR 108.1630 - SBA regulation of Brokers and Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust Certificates. 108.1630 Section 108.1630 Business... Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 108.1630 SBA regulation of Brokers and Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage...

  10. 13 CFR 140.2 - What is a debt and how can the SBA collect it through offset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is a debt and how can the SBA collect it through offset? 140.2 Section 140.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DEBT COLLECTION Offset § 140.2 What is a debt and how can the SBA collect it through offset? (a) A...

  11. 13 CFR 124.504 - What circumstances limit SBA's ability to accept a procurement for award as an 8(a) contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... relevant factors. (i) In connection with a specific small business, SBA presumes adverse impact to exist... used to determine whether a small business would be adversely affected by SBA's acceptance. (ii) Except... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What circumstances limit SBA's...

  12. Hydrothermal Synthesis of SBA-15 Using Sodium Silicate Derived from Coal Gangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-ordered SBA-15 was prepared with a hydrothermal route by sodium silicate derived from coal gangue. The as-prepared sample was analyzed by SAXRD, BET, TEM, and SEM, respectively. The results indicate that at a low hydrothermal temperature of 100∘C the well-ordered mesoporous SBA-15 could be synthesized. The surface area, pore volume, and pore size of the sample are 552 m2/g, 0.54 cm3/g, and 7.0 nm, respectively. It is suggested that coal gangue could be used in obtaining an Si source to prepare mesoporous materials, such as SBA-15.

  13. Short-time synthesis of SBA-15 using various silica sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulvio, Pasquale F; Pikus, Stanisław; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2005-07-15

    A short-time synthesis of SBA-15 is reported by using two different silica sources, sodium metasilicate (Na2SiO3(9)H2O) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The SBA-15 samples obtained from both silica sources were highly ordered as evidenced by SAXS spectra showing five reflection peaks characteristic for p6mm symmetry group. While the surface areas of these samples were similar, the pore volume of the sample prepared from TEOS was slightly larger than that from sodium metasilicate. However, the latter exhibited higher microporosity and thicker pore walls. It was shown that a significant reduction of time of the self-assembly step from 24 to 2 h had no detrimental influence on the quality of SBA-15 materials.

  14. Removal of patulin from aqueous solutions by propylthiol functionalized SBA-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appell, Michael, E-mail: michael.appell@ars.usda.gov [Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens and Mycology Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N. University St., Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Jackson, Michael A.; Dombrink-Kurtzman, Mary Ann [Renewable Product Technology Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N. University St., Peoria, IL 61604 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 silica was investigated to detoxify aqueous solutions contaminated with the regulated mycotoxin patulin. Micelle templated silicas with a specific pore size were synthetically modified to possess propylthiol groups, a functional group known to form Michael reaction products with the conjugated double bond system of patulin. BET surface area analysis indicated the propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 possesses channels with the pore size of 5.4 nm and a surface area of 345 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. Elemental analysis indicates the silicon/sulfur ratio to be 10:1, inferring one propylthiol substituent for every ten silica residues. The propylthiol modified SBA-15 was effective at significantly reducing high levels of patulin from aqueous solutions (pH 7.0) in batch sorption assays at room temperature. The material was less effective at lower pH; however heating low pH solutions and apple juice to 60 deg, C in the presence of propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 significantly reduced the levels of patulin in contaminated samples. Composite molecular models developed by semi-empirical PM3 and empirical force field methods support patulin permeation through the mesoporous channels of propylthiol functionalized SBA-15. Density functional study at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level predicts the proposed patulin adducts formed by reaction with the thiol residues exhibit less electrophilic properties than patulin. It is demonstrated the use of propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 is a viable approach to reduce patulin levels in aqueous solutions, including contaminated apple juice.

  15. Removal of patulin from aqueous solutions by propylthiol functionalized SBA-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appell, Michael; Jackson, Michael A; Dombrink-Kurtzman, Mary Ann

    2011-03-15

    Propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 silica was investigated to detoxify aqueous solutions contaminated with the regulated mycotoxin patulin. Micelle templated silicas with a specific pore size were synthetically modified to possess propylthiol groups, a functional group known to form Michael reaction products with the conjugated double bond system of patulin. BET surface area analysis indicated the propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 possesses channels with the pore size of 5.4 nm and a surface area of 345 m(2)g(-1). Elemental analysis indicates the silicon/sulfur ratio to be 10:1, inferring one propylthiol substituent for every ten silica residues. The propylthiol modified SBA-15 was effective at significantly reducing high levels of patulin from aqueous solutions (pH 7.0) in batch sorption assays at room temperature. The material was less effective at lower pH; however heating low pH solutions and apple juice to 60 °C in the presence of propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 significantly reduced the levels of patulin in contaminated samples. Composite molecular models developed by semi-empirical PM3 and empirical force field methods support patulin permeation through the mesoporous channels of propylthiol functionalized SBA-15. Density functional study at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level predicts the proposed patulin adducts formed by reaction with the thiol residues exhibit less electrophilic properties than patulin. It is demonstrated the use of propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 is a viable approach to reduce patulin levels in aqueous solutions, including contaminated apple juice. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. SBA-15 Mesoporous Silica as Catalytic Support for Hydrodesulfurization Catalysts—Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Rivera-Muñoz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SBA-15 is an interesting mesoporous silica material having highly ordered nanopores and a large surface area, which is widely employed as catalyst supports, absorbents, drug delivery materials, etc. Since it has a lack of functionality, heteroatoms and organic functional groups have been incorporated by direct or post-synthesis methods in order to modify their functionality. The aim of this article is to review the state-of-the-art related to the use of SBA-15-based mesoporous systems as supports for hydrodesulfurization (HDS catalysts.

  17. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Highly Ordered SBA-15 Nanocomposites Modified with Fe2O3 and Co3O4 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the unique order mesopores, mesoporous SBA-15 could be used as the carrier of the magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles in the frame and the mesopores lead to the exchange-coupling interaction or other interactions, which could improve the magnetic properties of SBA-15 nanocomposites. Mesoporous Fe/SBA-15 had been prepared via in situ anchoring Fe2O3 into the frame and the micropores of SBA-15 using the sol-gel and hydrothermal processes. Co3O4 nanoparticles had been impregnated into the mesopores of Fe/SBA-15 to form mesoporous Fe/SBA-15-Co3O4 nanocomposites. XRD, HRTEM, VSM, and N2 physisorption isotherms were used to characterize the mesostructure and magnetic properties of the SBA-15 nanocomposites, and all results indicated that the Fe2O3 nanoparticles presented into the frame and micropores, while the Co3O4 nanoparticles existed inside the mesopores of Fe/SBA-15. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of SBA-15 could be conveniently adjusted by the Fe2O3 and Co3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. Fe/SBA-15 exhibited ferromagnetic properties, while the impregnation of Co3O4 nanoparticles greatly improved the coercivity with a value of 1424.6 Oe, which was much higher than that of Fe/SBA-15.

  18. Alkali metal cation doped Al-SBA-15 for carbon dioxide adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukal, Arnošt; Mayerová, Jana; Čejka, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Mesoporous aluminosilicate adsorbents for carbon dioxide were prepared by the grafting of aluminium into SBA-15 silica using an aqueous solution of aluminium chlorohydrate. As the ion exchange sites are primarily associated with the presence of tetrahedrally coordinated aluminium, extra-framework aluminium on the SBA-15 surface was inserted into the silica matrix by a treatment with an aqueous solution of NH(4)OH. Synthesized mesoporous aluminosilicate preserving all the characteristic features of a mesoporous molecular sieve was finally modified by the alkali metal cation exchange. To examine carbon dioxide adsorption on prepared materials, adsorption isotherms in the temperature range from 0 °C to 60 °C were measured. Based on the known temperature dependence of adsorption isotherms, isosteric adsorption heats giving information on the surface energetics of CO(2) adsorption were calculated and discussed. The comparison of carbon dioxide isotherms obtained on aluminosilicate SBA-15, aluminosilicate SBA-15 containing cations Na(+) and K(+) and activated alumina F-200 reveals that the doping with sodium or potassium cations dramatically enhances adsorption in the region of equilibrium pressures lower than 10 kPa. Therefore, synthesized aluminosilicate adsorbents doped with Na(+) or K(+) cations are suitable for carbon dioxide separation from dilute gas mixtures. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2010

  19. The Promotion of Critical Thinking Skills in School-Based Assessment (SBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Wirawani; Kamarulzaman, Wirawahida

    2016-01-01

    The new curriculum introduced in the Malaysian primary students; the Primary School Standard Curriculum (Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah-KSSR) together with the school-based assessment (SBA) is a step taken by the Malaysian government to encourage thinking skills to students, specifically critical thinking skills. The study explores teachers'…

  20. 13 CFR 126.202 - Who does SBA consider to control a HUBZone SBC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who does SBA consider to control a HUBZone SBC? 126.202 Section 126.202 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION HUBZONE... positions: officer, director, general partner, managing partner, managing member and manager. In addition...

  1. 13 CFR 101.104 - What are the functions of SBA's field offices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the functions of SBA's field offices? 101.104 Section 101.104 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... offices are managed by a Branch Manager and are located in cities within a district. Branch offices are...

  2. 13 CFR 126.307 - Where will SBA maintain the List of qualified HUBZone SBCs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) and are listed on the HUBZone Web page at https://eweb1.sba.gov/hubzone/internet/general/approved-firms.cfm. In addition, requesters may obtain a copy of the List by writing to the D/HUB at U.S. Small...

  3. 13 CFR 120.210 - What percentage of a loan may SBA guarantee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What percentage of a loan may SBA guarantee? 120.210 Section 120.210 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS... percent, except as otherwise authorized by law. ...

  4. 13 CFR 108.640 - Requirement to file portfolio financing reports (SBA Form 1031).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements for NMVC Companies Reporting Requirements for Nmvc Companies § 108.640 Requirement to file... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement to file portfolio financing reports (SBA Form 1031). 108.640 Section 108.640 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

  5. Properties of SBA-15 modified by iron nanoparticles as potential hydrogen adsorbents and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazizi, N.; Ouargli, R.; Nousir, S.; Slama, R. Ben; Azzouz, A.

    2015-02-01

    SBA-15-Fe was synthesized via the incorporation of Fe0 nanoparticles (Fe(0)-Nps) in the mesoporous channels. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that dispersion of fine iron NPs occurs mainly inside the channels of SBA-15, producing a slight structure compaction. This was accompanied by a significant improvement of both the affinity towards hydrogen and electrical conductivity, as supported by hydrogen adsorption tests and impedance measurements. CO2 thermal programmed desorption measurements revealed an attenuation of the acid character of the solid surface. This was explained in terms of strong iron interaction with the lattice oxygen atoms that reduces the SiO-H bond polarity. The close vicinity of fine Fe(0)-Nps combined with the large pore size of SBA-15 appear to contribute to a synergistic improvement of the electrical conductivity. The results reported herein open new prospects for SBA-15 as potential adsorbents for hydrogen storage and carriers for hydrogen sensors. The use of iron in lieu of noble metals for designing such materials is a novelty, because such applications of iron-loaded silica have not been envisaged so far due to the high reactivity of iron towards air and water. The development of such technologies, if any, should address this issue.

  6. 7 CFR 4290.509 - Employment of USDA or SBA officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a RBIC General Requirements § 4290.509 Employment of USDA... professional services, any person who: (1) Served as an officer, attorney, agent, or employee of SBA or USDA...

  7. 13 CFR 108.510 - SBA approval of NMVC Company's Investment Adviser/Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a NMVC Company Management..., managing members, or general partner. If you have Leverage or plan to seek Leverage, you must obtain SBA's... Expenses. (b) Material change to approved management contract. If there is a material change, both you and...

  8. 13 CFR 107.510 - SBA approval of Licensee's Investment Adviser/Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Management and... Portfolio; and (2) Indicate the basis for computing Management Expenses. (b) Material change to approved management contract. If there is a material change, both you and SBA must approve such change in advance. If...

  9. 13 CFR 107.680 - Reporting changes in Licensee not subject to prior SBA approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... your Articles, ownership, capitalization, management, operating area, or investment policies that do... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting changes in Licensee not subject to prior SBA approval. 107.680 Section 107.680 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

  10. 13 CFR 108.680 - Reporting changes in NMVC Company not subject to prior SBA approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... This section applies to any changes in your Articles, ownership, capitalization, management, operating... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting changes in NMVC Company not subject to prior SBA approval. 108.680 Section 108.680 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...

  11. Cross neutralization of dangerous snake venoms from Africa and the Middle East using the VACSERA polyvalent antivenom. Egyptian Organization for Biological Products & Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddik, Salwa S; Wanas, Soheir; Helmy, Madiha H; Hashem, Mohamed

    2002-12-01

    This study was performed to assess the ability of polyvalent snake venom anti-serum, produced by the Egyptian Organization for Biological Products & Vaccines (VACSERA), to neutralize several toxic activities of snake venoms, not only of those included in the antivenom mixture, but also some additional venoms of snakes from Egyptian, African, and Middle Eastern habitats. In general, the results revealed that polyvalent snake venom anti-serum from VACSERA is highly effective in neutralizing Egyptian snake venoms, especially Naja haje, Naja nigricolles, Naja pallida, Cerastes cerastes, Cerastes cerastes cerastes, Cerastes vipera, Pseudocerastes persicus fieldi, and Walterinnisia egyptia. The antivenom was also effective against Naja haje, Walterinnisia egyptia, and Bites aritans from Saudi Arabia. High activity was obtained against venoms from Naja haje, Naja nigricolles, and Naja pallida of Sudan, as well as the African Naja melanoleuca, Naja mossambica, Naja naja oxiana, Bites gabonica, and Vipera lebetina. Only moderate effectiveness was obtained with Echis coloratus and Echis carinatus, and the polyvalent antiserum was ineffective against the venom of Naja nivea.

  12. Bacterial Meningitis after Cochlear Implantation among Children without Polyvalent Conjugate Vaccine: A Brief Report of an Iranian Cohort Study on 371 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Afsharpaiman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding risk of bacterial meningitis (BM after Cochlear implantation (CI, it was suggested to receive polyvalent conjugate vaccine. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of BM post CI in child recipients who do not receive polyvalent vaccine. Methods: We enrolled 371 children who had received cochlear implants from 2007 to 2010. None of them received pre or post implantation polyvalent conjugate vaccine for BM. We followed all of them for BM for 2 years after implantation. Results: We detected only one female case of BM (0.3% of patients with the age of 24 months. The mean age of noninfected children was 36.7 ± 23.2 months. The education level of parents was "college level or higher" in less than half of them, and about 65% of patients were products of consanguineous marriage. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that the incidence of BM was not higher in our cochlear implanted children who did not receive immunization than patients from countries in which routine vaccination is done. We suggest that although proper immunization is recommended before surgery, this procedure could be performed without vaccination, especially in developing countries that face financial problems for preparing vaccines.

  13. Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of aniline in wastewater using copper modified SBA-15 as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Liming; Zhou, Xiang; Yao, Yuan; Jian, Panming; Diao, Guowang

    2016-01-01

    SBA-15 mesoporous molecular sieves modified with copper (Cu-SBA-15) were prepared by pH-adjusting hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, BET, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis and (29)Si MAS NMR. The pH of the synthesis gel has a significant effect on the amount and the dispersion of copper on SBA-15. The Cu-SBA-15(4.5) (where 4.5 denotes the pH value of the synthesis gel) modified with highly dispersed copper was used as catalyst for the oxidation of aniline by H2O2. The Cu-SBA-15(4.5) shows a higher catalytic activity compared to CuO on the surface of SBA-15. The influences of reaction conditions, such as initial pH of the aqueous solutions, temperature, as well as the dosages of H2O2 and catalyst were investigated. Under weakly alkaline aqueous solution conditions, the aniline conversion, the H2O2 decomposition and the total organic carbon (TOC) removal could be increased significantly compared to the acid conditions. The percentage of leaching Cu(2+) could be decreased from 45.0% to 3.66% when the initial pH of solution was increased from 5 to 10. The TOC removal could be enhanced with the increases of temperature, H2O2 and catalyst dosage, but the aniline conversion and H2O2 decomposition change slightly with further increasing dosage of catalyst and H2O2. At 343 K and pH 8.0, 100% aniline conversion and 66.9% TOC removal can be achieved under the conditions of 1.0 g/L catalyst and 0.05 mol/L H2O2 after 180 min. Although copper might be slightly leached from catalyst, the homogeneous Cu(2+) contribution to the whole catalytic activity is unimportant, and the highly dispersed copper on SBA-15 plays a dominant role.

  14. Anchoring Tri(8-QuinolinolatoIron Onto Sba-15 for Partial Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol Using Water as the Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaoyuan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tri(8-quinolinolatoiron complex immobilized onto SBA-15 catalyst has been synthesized through a stepwise procedure. The characterization results indicated that the BET surface area, total pore volume and average pore width decrease after stepwise modification of SBA-15, while the structure keeps intact. Catalytic tests showed that FeQ3-SBA-15 catalyzes the oxidation reaction well with 34.8% conversion of benzyl alcohol and 74.7% selectivity to benzaldehyde when water is used as the solvent after 1 h reaction. In addition, homogeneous catalyst tri(8-quinolinolatoiron exhibits very bad catalytic behavior using water as the solvent.

  15. Biochemical and biological characterization of Naja kaouthia venom from North-East India and its neutralization by polyvalent antivenom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Diganta; Urs, Nanjaraj; Hiremath, Vilas; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe Sannanaik; Doley, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This study describes biochemical and biological properties of Naja kaouthia (Indian monocled cobra) venom of North-East India. The LD50 of the crude venom was found to be 0.148mg/kg and neurotoxicitic symptoms like paralysis of lower limbs and heavy difficulty in breathing at sub-lethal dose in mice was observed. The venom exhibited PLA2, indirect hemolytic and myotoxic activities but showed weak proteolytic and low direct hemolytic activities. It did not exhibit any hemorrhage when injected intradermally to mice. Anticoagulant activity was prominent when recalcification, prothrombin and activated partial thrombinplastin time were tested on platelet poor plasma. Rotem analysis of whole citrated blood in presence of venom showed delay in coagulation time and clot formation time. Fibrinogen of whole citrated blood was depleted by venom when analyzed in Sonoclot. Crude venom at 10µg and after 16hr of incubation was found to degrade α chain of fibrinogen. Neutralization study showed that Indian polyvalent antivenom could neutralize some of the biochemical and biological activities as well as its fibrinogenolytic activity. PMID:24349704

  16. [The implementation of NEMS and NAS systems to assess the nursing staffing levels in a polyvalent intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Alberto; Chinello, Valeria; Lollo, Veronica; De Filippis, Cristian; Schena, Michela; Elli, Stefano; Sasso, Maurizio; Pelucchi, Giulia; Poloniato, Laura; Martino, Maria; Costanzo, Angelo; Vimercati, Simona

    2008-01-01

    NEMS and NAS scoring systems allow to calculate the number of nurses needed in an intensive care unit. Aim of the study is the assessment of nursing workload in a polyvalent intensive care unit, the evaluation of easiness of routine use of the systems and the assessment of the number of nurses needed. The NEMS and NAS scores of 752 patients admitted respectively from may 2004 and July 2006 and of 250 patients admitted from August 2006 to July 2007 were analysed and adjusted to the number of inpatients. Mean NEMS score were 32.05 (+/- 2.11) and mean NAS scores 76.17 (+/- 14.66) and minutes of care needed per day 1009 according to NEMS and 1096 according to NAS. Medical patients have an higher workload compared to surgical (NAS Score 84.2 +/- 16.4 vs 79.0 +/- 12.4, p = 0.0047). The workload is influenced by the main illness (extracorporeal circulation: 102.26 +/- 5.70, shock. 88.00 +/- 1 7.48, cardio-circulatory arrest out of the ward: 81.95 +/- 15.46, ARDS 86.62 +/- 14.10) and by the day of admission, being higher at admission. The routine assessment of patients' workload allows to measure the gap between nurses needed and available, to monitor patients with higher workload and to quantify the need of nursing care according to patients case-mix.

  17. North and South American Loxosceles spiders: development of a polyvalent antivenom with recombinant sphingomyelinases D as antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Alejandro; Ramos-Cerrillo, Blanca; Estévez, Judith; Clement, Herlinda; de Roodt, Adolfo; Paniagua-Solís, Jorge; Vázquez, Hilda; Zavaleta, Alfonso; Arruz, María Salas; Stock, Roberto P; Alagón, Alejandro

    2006-07-01

    We report the cloning of sphingomyelinase D (SMD) cDNA from Loxosceles reclusa, Loxosceles boneti and Loxosceles laeta into bacterial expression systems, as well as optimization of expression conditions so as to obtain soluble and active recombinant enzymes. The recombinant mature SMDs, tagged with a histidine tail at the N- or C-termini, were compared in terms of toxicity and enzymatic activity, and were used as immunogens for the production of monovalent antisera in rabbits and F(ab')(2) preparations in animals used for commercial antivenom production (horses). We performed studies on in vitro inhibition of enzymatic activity of natural venom preparations by antibodies generated against the tagged proteins. We also present and discuss the results of studies on the specific and para-specific in vivo protective potential of the rabbit and equine antibody preparations against the recombinant proteins themselves and natural venom preparations. Our conclusions support the feasibility of using recombinant SMDs for production and evaluation of polyvalent anti-Loxosceles antivenoms, and we offer data on the potential of paraspecific neutralization in the context of the antigenic groupings and the molecular phylogeny of those active SMDs for which amino acid sequence information is available.

  18. Nanoporous composites prepared by a combination of SBA-15 with Mg–Al mixed oxides. Water vapor sorption properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury Pérez-Verdejo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents two easy ways for preparing nanostructured mesoporous composites by interconnecting and combining SBA-15 with mixed oxides derived from a calcined Mg–Al hydrotalcite. Two different Mg–Al hydrotalcite addition procedures were implemented, either after or during the SBA-15 synthesis (in situ method. The first procedure, i.e., the post-synthesis method, produces a composite material with Mg–Al mixed oxides homogeneously dispersed on the SBA-15 nanoporous surface. The resulting composites present textural properties similar to the SBA-15. On the other hand, with the second procedure (in situ method, Mg and Al mixed oxides occur on the porous composite, which displays a cauliflower morphology. This is an important microporosity contribution and micro and mesoporous surfaces coexist in almost the same proportion. Furthermore, the nanostructured mesoporous composites present an extraordinary water vapor sorption capacity. Such composites might be utilized as as acid-base catalysts, adsorbents, sensors or storage nanomaterials.

  19. 13 CFR 124.503 - How does SBA accept a procurement for award through the 8(a) BD program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) If the procurement is a construction requirement, SBA will examine the portfolio of Participants that... to be competed among eligible Participants. (3) Once a concern's program term expires, the concern...

  20. Anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals anchored at inside of SBA-15 mesopores and their optical behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araújo, M.M. [PPGQ-GERATEC-CCN-DQ, Universidade Estadual do Piauí, João Cabral, N. 2231, P.O. Box 381, 64002-150 Teresina, PI (Brazil); Departamento de Química (DQ), Universidade Federal do Piauí-UFPI, 64049-550 Teresina, PI (Brazil); Silva, L.K.R. [PPGQ-GERATEC-CCN-DQ, Universidade Estadual do Piauí, João Cabral, N. 2231, P.O. Box 381, 64002-150 Teresina, PI (Brazil); Sczancoski, J.C.; Orlandi, M.O.; Longo, E. [CDMF-Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Santos, A.G.D. [Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Norte, Mossoró, RN (Brazil); Sá, J.L.S.; Santos, R.S.; Luz, G.E. [PPGQ-GERATEC-CCN-DQ, Universidade Estadual do Piauí, João Cabral, N. 2231, P.O. Box 381, 64002-150 Teresina, PI (Brazil); Cavalcante, L.S., E-mail: laeciosc@gmail.com [PPGQ-GERATEC-CCN-DQ, Universidade Estadual do Piauí, João Cabral, N. 2231, P.O. Box 381, 64002-150 Teresina, PI (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • New synthesis method to obtention of TiO{sub 2}/SBA-15 mesoporous. • Textural properties of TiO{sub 2}/SBA-15 mesoporous. • Optical band gap model to TiO{sub 2}/SBA-15 mesoporous. - Abstract: In this paper, a new synthesis method was proposed to obtain anatase titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanocrystals anchored into SBA-15 molecular sieve, as a matrix assigned by the in-situ anchoring (ISA) method. Pure SBA-15 and modified with TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals at different Si/Ti molar ratios (R = 75, 50, and 25) were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Micro-Raman and Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. Specific surface area, pore volume and average pore diameter were estimated using both Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) methods, respectively. Morphological aspects of these samples were observed by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical properties were investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. XRD patterns, Micro-Raman and FT-IR spectra indicate the TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals crystallized in a tetragonal structure anchored into the SBA-15 mesopores. BET and BJH methods prove a large amount of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals were anchored inside of SBA-15 mesopores due to increase in surface area and average pore size of SBA-15 matrix. FE-SEM and TEM images showed the pure SBA-15 has an elongated hexagon-shaped microstructure, and an average size of 7.34 nm for 2D hexagonal mesopores. Moreover, ISA method was able to avoid blocking of mesopores, in addition promotes a significant increasing the impregnation rate of anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals in SBA-15 matrix. A growth mechanism was proposed in order to explain the stages involved in the formation of TiO{sub 2}-SBA mesoporous. UV–vis spectra revealed a dependence of the optical band gap energy (E{sub gap}) with the decreasing of Si/Ti molar

  1. A neutron spin echo study of low-temperature water confined in the spherical silica pores of SBA-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittaka, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Koji; Yamaguchi, Toshio; Bellissent Funel, M-C; Fouquet, Peter

    2017-04-19

    The dynamic properties of heavy water (D2O) and light water (H2O) confined in porous silica SBA-16 were studied over a temperature range of 210-290 K by neutron spin echo measurements. SBA-16 has predominant spherical pores (7.1 nm in pore size), channels interconnecting the spherical pores, and micropores (corona). The coherent intermediate scattering function on D2O filled SBA-16 showed the rotational dynamics of confined water without significant translational motion over the temperature range measured. This finding is due probably to collective entities of water due to cooperativity of hydrogen-bonds among water molecules in SBA-16 pores. The relaxation time of the collective entities followed the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation at temperatures down to the freezing temperature of 235 K, suggesting a behavior of fragile water in the spherical pore. A comparison with previous NSE measurements of D2O in MCM-41 showed that the collective entities of water in the SBA-16 spherical pores have higher rotational mobility than those in the MCM-41 cylindrical pores. On the other hand, the incoherent intermediate scattering function on H2O filled SBA-16 revealed the translational motion of individual water molecules in the collective entities. It has been found that water in micropores is not frozen and is mobile down to 210 K from data of both D2O and H2O in SBA-16. Phase changes of various water confined in SBA-16 with decreasing and increasing temperatures are discussed based on the obtained dynamic properties.

  2. An in situ synthesis of mesoporous SBA-16/hydroxyapatite for ciprofloxacin release: in vitro stability and cytocompatibility studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Gracielle Ferreira; Gomide, Viviane Silva; da Silva Júnior, Armando Cunha; Goes, Alfredo Miranda; de Sousa, Edésia Martins Barros

    2014-11-01

    The present work developed a biomaterial (HA/SBA-16) based on the growth of calcium phosphate (HA) particles within an organized silica structure (SBA-16) to evaluate its application as a drug delivery system. The samples were charged with ciprofloxacin as a model drug and in vitro release assays were carried out. The samples were characterized by elemental analysis (CHN), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and X-ray diffraction. The results obtained by TEM, SEM and SAXS reveal a well-defined cubic arrangement of a uniform spherical mesoporous structure, an intrinsic characteristic of these materials, which indicated that SBA-16 and HA/SBA-16 could potentially encapsulate bioactive molecules by means of ordered mesopores. It was found that both surface interaction and pore volume affect the rate and amount of ciprofloxacin released from the mesoporous materials. In vitro assays were performed to evaluate the adhesion, viability, and growth behavior of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hADSC) on SBA-16 and HA/SBA-16 nanocomposites to verify their potential as a scaffold for application in bone-tissue engineering using MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase activity tests. The results showed that the materials are promising systems for bone repair, providing a good environment for the adhesion and proliferation of rat mesenchymal stem cells and hADSC in vitro.

  3. SBA-15 mesoporous material modified with APTES as the carrier for 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)propionic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Michał; Łaniecki, Marek

    2012-07-01

    SBA-15 ordered mesoporous silica functionalized with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) was used as the carrier for anti-inflammatory drug: 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)propionic acid - ketoprofen. The surface of SBA-15 containing free silanol groups was modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane via post-synthetic reaction. Functionalization of the carrier with basic aminopropyl groups resulted in an ionic interaction with acidic ketoprofen. The samples of carriers and carrier-drug complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, TG, N2 adsorption, FTIR, DRUV spectroscopies and an in vitro drug release test. The adsorption of ketoprofen on modified mesoporous matrix was proportional to the amount of introduced aminopropyl groups. The maximum content of deposited drug in modified SBA-15 was close to 20 wt.%. After drug adsorption the reduction of BET surface area, pore volume and pore diameter of non-modified SBA-15 and aminopropyl-modified SBA-15 after drug adsorption were observed while the hexagonal array of siliceous matrix was well preserved. The release profiles of the aminopropyl-modified drug-containing SBA-15 exhibited prolonged release of ketoprofen in applied media. Tests performed in acidic solution (pH 1.2) showed the best pharmaceutical availability.

  4. Structure and Photoluminescent Properties of ZnO Encapsulated in Mesoporous Silica SBA-15 Fabricated by Two-Solvent Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Qingshan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The two-solvent method was employed to prepare ZnO encapsulated in mesoporous silica (ZnO/SBA-15. The prepared ZnO/SBA-15 samples have been studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The ZnO/SBA-15 nanocomposite has the ordered hexagonal mesostructure of SBA-15. ZnO clusters of a high loading are distributed in the channels of SBA-15. Photoluminescence spectra show the UV emission band around 368 nm, the violet emission around 420 nm, and the blue emission around 457 nm. The UV emission is attributed to band-edge emission of ZnO. The violet emission results from the oxygen vacancies on the ZnO–SiO2interface traps. The blue emission is from the oxygen vacancies or interstitial zinc ions of ZnO. The UV emission and blue emission show a blue-shift phenomenon due to quantum-confinement-induced energy gap enhancement of ZnO clusters. The ZnO clusters encapsulated in SBA-15 can be used as light-emitting diodes and ultraviolet nanolasers.

  5. Mesoporous Silica SBA-16 Functionalized with Alkoxysilane Groups: Preparation, Characterization, and Release Profile Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracielle Ferreira Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A mesoporous material sphere based on silica, SBA-16, was chemically modified with alkoxysilane using two different solvents: methanol and toluene. The influence of the chemical modification of the matrix on the release rate of a model drug was also studied. The structural characteristics of the materials were evaluated by small-angle X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption, and transmission electron microscopy. The functionalization of the matrix was evaluated using thermal analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, 13C and 29Si solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and elemental analysis, CHN. The results show that alkoxysilane groups have been chemically bonded to silicon atoms on the surface of cubic Im3m mesoporous silica. The influence of the release rate of atenolol molecules from chemically modified mesoporous SBA-16 could be identified, since significant differences could be observed among the release patterns of the different materials.

  6. Esterification of fatty acid catalyzed by hydrothermally stable propylsulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous silica SBA-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Win Win; Somsook, Ekasith

    2013-01-01

    Propylsulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous silica SBA-15 has been synthesized via one-step strategy at 130°C based on the co-condensation of TEOS and MPTMS in the presence of Pluronic 123 polymer and H₂O₂ in HCl aqueous solution. The synthesized solid exhibited hydrothermal stability in boiling water without significant change in textural properties. The catalytic performance of the synthesized solid was studied in the esterification of oleic acid with methanol. The experimental results revealed that the large mesopore structures of SBA-15-PrSO₃H solid synthesized at 130°C could favor a facile access of oleic acid to the acid sites, making the comparable activity to that of phenyl ethyl sulfonic acid functionalized silica and higher than that of dry amberlyst-15.

  7. Selective Preparation of trans-Carveol over Ceria Supported Mesoporous Materials MCM-41 and SBA-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariman F. Salakhutdinov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ce-modified mesoporous silica materials MCM-41 and SBA-15, namely 32 wt % Ce–Si–MCM-41, 16 wt % Ce–H–MCM-41 and 20 wt % Ce–Si–SBA-15, were prepared, characterized and studied in the selective preparation of trans-carveol by α-pinene oxide isomerization. The characterizations of these catalysts were performed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption and FTIR pyridine adsorption. Selective preparation of trans-carveol was carried out in the liquid phase in a batch reactor. The activity and the selectivity of catalyst were observed to be influenced by their acidity, basicity and morphology of the mesoporous materials. The formation of trans-carveol is moreover strongly influenced by the basicity of the used solvent and in order to achieve high yields of this desired alcohol it is necessary to use polar basic solvent.

  8. Functionalized SBA-15 organosilicas as sorbents of zinc(II) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barczak, M., E-mail: mbarczak@umcs.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Maria Curie-Sklodowska Sq. 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Skwarek, E.; Janusz, W.; Dabrowski, A.; Pikus, S. [Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Maria Curie-Sklodowska Sq. 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2010-06-15

    SBA-15 nanoporous silicas functionalized with amine-, thiol-, vinyl-, phenyl- and cyano surface groups were synthesized by using the amphiphilic block copolymer P123 as the structure-directing agent. The obtained materials have a well-developed porous structure - the values of specific surface area are in the range 800-950 m{sup 2}/g and the sizes of cylindrical mesopores are in the range 7.4-8.6 nm. It was established that the size of the mesopores strongly depends even on small amounts of co-monomers co-condensing with TEOS. Adsorption of Zn(II) ions at the SBA-15/NaCl interface was investigated by means of the radioactive isotope tracer technique over the pH range of 3-11. Surface charge density, adsorption density, pH{sub 50%} and {Delta}pH{sub 10-90%} parameters for different concentrations of the carrying electrolyte were evaluated and discussed.

  9. Isolation and characterization of polyvalent bacteriophages infecting multi drug resistant Salmonella serovars isolated from broilers in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mayada; Askora, Ahmed; Barakat, Ahmed Barakat; Rabie, Omar El-Farouk; Hassan, Sayed Emam

    2018-02-02

    In this study, we isolated and characterized three phages named as Salmacey1, Salmacey2 and Salmacey3, infecting multi drug resistant Salmonella serovars isolated from broilers in Egypt. The most prevalent Salmonella serovars were S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, and S. kentucky. All these Salmonella serovars were found to be resistant to more than two of the ten antimicrobial agents tested. Only S. kentucky was found to be resistant to seven antimicrobial agents. Examination of these phage particles by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), demonstrated that two phages (Salmacey1, Salmacey2) were found to belong to family Siphoviridae, and Salmacey3 was assigned to the family Myoviridae. The results of host range assay revealed that these bacteriophages were polyvalent and thus capable of infecting four strains of Salmonella serovars and Citrobacter freundii. Moreover, the two phages (Salmacey1, Salmacey2) had a lytic effect on Enterobacter cloacae and Salmacey3 was able to infect E. coli. All phages could not infect S. para Typhi, Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus cereus. One-step growth curves of bacteriophages revealed that siphovirus phages (Salmacey1, Salmacey2) have burst size (80 and 90pfu per infected cell with latent period 35min and 40min respectively), and for the myovirus Salmacey3 had a burst size 110pfu per infected cell with latent period 60min. Molecular analyses indicated that these phages contained double-stranded DNA genomes. The lytic activity of the phages against the most multidrug resistant serovars S. kentucky as host strain was evaluated. The result showed that these bacteriophages were able to completely stop the growth of S. kentucky in vitro. These results suggest that phages have a high potential for phage application to control Salmonella serovars isolated from broilers in Egypt. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Mechanistic study of hydrocarbon formation in photocatalytic CO2 reduction over Ti-SBA-15

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Chieh-Chao; Vernimmen, Jarian; Meynen, Vera; Cool, Pegie; Mul, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Ti-SBA-15 was exposed to illumination in the presence of different gas mixtures containing CO or CO2, and H2O or H2, in order to clarify the route to hydrocarbon formation in photocatalytic CO2 reduction over this photocatalyst. A mixture of CO and H2O led to the highest quantities of CH4, C2H4, and

  11. Synthesis of Pt-Sn core-shell nanoparticles deposited on SBA-15 modified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Contreras, L.; Alonso-Lemus, I. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C., Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia (Mexico); Botte, G. G. [Ohio University, Center for Electrochemical Engineering Research, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States); Verde-Gomez, Y., E-mail: ysmaelverde@yahoo.com [Instituto Tecnologico de Cancun (Mexico)

    2013-07-15

    A novel one-step synthesis method to prepare Pt-Sn bimetallic nanoparticles supported on mesoporous silica with high surface area (SBA-15, 700 m{sup 2}/g) and narrow pore size distribution (around 9.5 nm) was developed. Tin incorporation plays an important dual role, to create active sites into the silica walls that serve as particles anchors center, and to grow Pt-Sn core-shell nanoparticles. High-resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction pattern confirm the formation of the Pt-Sn core-shell type nanoparticles ( Almost-Equal-To 1-10 nm). The metal loading was 2.2 and 2.3 wt% for Pt and Sn, respectively. Electron microscopy results show that the metal nanoparticles were deposited not only on the matrix, but also inside of it. Structural, textural, and morphological features of the SBA-15 were slightly affected after the nanoparticles deposition, maintaining its high surface area. The results obtained suggest that Pt-Sn on SBA-15 could be attractive material for several catalytic applications, due to the narrow particle size distribution achieved (from 1 to 10 nm) the high dispersion on the support, as well as the Pt-Sn alloy developed.Graphical Abstract.

  12. Effects of surface residual species in SBA-16 on encapsulated chiral (1S,2S)-DPEN-RuCl2(TPP)2 in asymmetric hydrogenation of acetophenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiufeng; Xing, Bin; Fan, Binbin; Xue, Zhaoteng; Li, Ruifeng

    2016-03-01

    The SBA-16 obtained by different routes of elimination of organic templates were used as the hosts for encapsulation of chiral Ru complex (1S,2S)-DPEN-RuCl2(TPP)2 ( 1) (DPEN = 1,2-diphenylethylene-diamine, TPP = triphenyl phosphine). The methods for removing templates had distinct effects on the amount of residual template in SBA-16, which made the SBA-16 with different surface and structure properties. 1 encapsulated in SBA-16 extracted with the mixture of pyridine and ethanol showed higher activity and enantioselectivity for acetophenone asymmetric hydrogenation.

  13. Synthesis of photoactive AgCl/SBA-15 by conversion of silver nanoparticles into stable AgCl nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zienkiewicz-Strzalka, M., E-mail: gosiazienkiewicz@wp.pl [Department of Crystallography, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, sq. Maria Curie-Sklodowska 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Pikus, S. [Department of Crystallography, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, sq. Maria Curie-Sklodowska 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new material AgCl/SBA-15 was synthesized and characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New simple and effective approach of preparation was proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AgCl/SBA-15 material was tested as an active agent during photodegradation of phenol and its photoactivity was confirmed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photoactive properties depend on AgCl nanoparticles present in the composite. - Abstract: In this work the results of synthesis the ordered mesoporous silica (SBA-15) in the presence of stable silver nanoparticles were presented. It has been proven that the proposed method leads to the synthesis of SBA-15 nanocomposite containing silver chloride nanoparticles, formed by the transformation of silver nanoparticles in the acidic conditions. Proposed one-pot procedure is simple and the one requirement is to prepare a stable solution of silver nanoparticles. In this work, silver nanoparticles were obtained during chemical reduction of [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} ions by formaldehyde. Silver nanoparticles solution can be used as a silver chloride source due to the application of the same polymer as a stabilizer of nanocrystals and structure directing agent of SBA-15. The final AgCl/SBA-15 materials show excellent structural ordering characteristic for this type of materials confirmed by diffraction measurements in range of small angles 2{theta}, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. AgCl nanoparticles were identified by diffraction measurements as chlorargyrite phase. The presence of silver nanoparticles in initial solution and their absence after synthesis were confirmed by UV-vis measurements. The photoactivity of obtained AgCl/SBA-15 composite was tested in reaction of organic impurities photodegradation.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Truncated and Polyvalent Peptides Derived from the FKCRRQWQWRMKKGLA Sequence against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly de Jesús Huertas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptides derived from LfcinB were designed and synthesized, and their antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Specifically, a peptide library was constructed by systemically removing the flanking residues (N or C-terminal of Lfcin 17–31 (17FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA31, maintaining in all peptides the 20RRWQWR25 sequence that corresponds to the minimal antimicrobial motif. For this research, also included were (i a peptide containing an Ala instead of Cys ([Ala19]-LfcinB 17–31 and (ii polyvalent peptides containing the RRWQWR sequence and a non-natural amino acid (aminocaproic acid. We established that the lineal peptides LfcinB 17–25 and LfcinB 17–26 exhibited the greatest activity against E. coli ATCC 25922 and S. aureus ATCC 25923, respectively. On the other hand, polyvalent peptides, a dimer and a tetramer, exhibited the greatest antibacterial activity, indicating that multiple copies of the sequence increase the activity. Our results suggest that the dimeric and tetrameric sequence forms potentiate the antibacterial activity of lineal sequences that have exhibited moderate antibacterial activity.

  15. Synthesis of photoactive AgCl/SBA-15 by conversion of silver nanoparticles into stable AgCl nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zienkiewicz-Strzałka, M.; Pikus, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the results of synthesis the ordered mesoporous silica (SBA-15) in the presence of stable silver nanoparticles were presented. It has been proven that the proposed method leads to the synthesis of SBA-15 nanocomposite containing silver chloride nanoparticles, formed by the transformation of silver nanoparticles in the acidic conditions. Proposed one-pot procedure is simple and the one requirement is to prepare a stable solution of silver nanoparticles. In this work, silver nanoparticles were obtained during chemical reduction of [Ag(NH3)2]+ ions by formaldehyde. Silver nanoparticles solution can be used as a silver chloride source due to the application of the same polymer as a stabilizer of nanocrystals and structure directing agent of SBA-15. The final AgCl/SBA-15 materials show excellent structural ordering characteristic for this type of materials confirmed by diffraction measurements in range of small angles 2θ, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. AgCl nanoparticles were identified by diffraction measurements as chlorargyrite phase. The presence of silver nanoparticles in initial solution and their absence after synthesis were confirmed by UV-vis measurements. The photoactivity of obtained AgCl/SBA-15 composite was tested in reaction of organic impurities photodegradation.

  16. Microwave radiation hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of micro- and mesoporous composite molecular sieve Y/SBA-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyuan Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A microwave radiation hydrothermal method to control synthesis of micro- and mesoporous Y/SBA-15 composite molecular sieves was reported. The synthesized SBA-15 and Y/SBA-15 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and N2 adsorption–desorption. The three kinds of different concentrations of hydrochloric acid (0.75 M, 2 M and 3.25 M were used to investigate the effect on Y/SBA-15. The analysis results of the composite products indicated that the optimization synthesis condition employed zeolite type Y and TEOS as silicon sources under 0.75 M hydrochloric acid by the microwave radiation hydrothermal synthesis method. The N2 adsorption–desorption test results of micro–mesoporous composite molecular sieve type Y/SBA-15 in mesoporous extent indicated that SBET is 355.529 m2/g, D‾BET is 4.050 nm, and mesoporous aperture focuses on the distribution region of 5.3 nm. It was found that the received composite product has an appropriate proportion of smaller size, larger size pore structure and the thicker pore wall. In addition, its internal channels have a high degree of order and smooth flow in long-range channels.

  17. Ruthenium nanoparticles confined in SBA-15 as highly efficient catalyst for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane and hydrazine borane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qilu; Lu, Zhang-Hui; Yang, Kangkang; Chen, Xiangshu; Zhu, Meihua

    2015-10-01

    Ultrafine ruthenium nanoparticles (NPs) within the mesopores of the SBA-15 have been successfully prepared by using a “double solvents” method, in which n-hexane is used as a hydrophobic solvent and RuCl3 aqueous solution is used as a hydrophilic solvent. After the impregnation and reduction processes, the samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, EDX, XPS, N2 adsorption-desorption, and ICP techniques. The TEM images show that small sized Ru NPs with an average size of 3.0 ± 0.8 nm are uniformly dispersed in the mesopores of SBA-15. The as-synthesized Ru@SBA-15 nanocomposites (NCs) display exceptional catalytic activity for hydrogen generation by the hydrolysis of ammonia borane (NH3BH3, AB) and hydrazine borane (N2H4BH3, HB) at room temperature with the turnover frequency (TOF) value of 316 and 706 mol H2 (mol Ru min)-1, respectively, relatively high values reported so far for the same reaction. The activation energies (Ea) for the hydrolysis of AB and HB catalyzed by Ru@SBA-15 NCs are measured to be 34.8 ± 2 and 41.3 ± 2 kJ mol-1, respectively. Moreover, Ru@SBA-15 NCs also show satisfied durable stability for the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of AB and HB, respectively.

  18. Preparation of mesoporous silica films SBA-15 over different substrates; Preparacao de filmes de silica mesoporosa SBA-15 sobre diferentes substratos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, V.O.; Sousa, E.M.B. de; Macedo, W.A.A., E-mail: vitorcampos@ufmg.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Nanotecnologia

    2010-07-01

    Mesoporous materials have been target of frequent interest due to its wide application possibilities, for example development of gas sensors, catalysis, molecules transportation, pharmaceuticals release, synthesis of auto-organized nanostructures, among others. The possibilities of application are enhanced when such materials are disposed in the form of thin and ultrathin films. In this work the preparation of mesoporous SBA-15 silica films is explored by means of the dipcoating technique of a sol-gel on different substrates (glass slides, stainless steel, copper), using the surfactant poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)- block-poly(ethylene glycol), known as P123, a block copolymer. Synthesis parameters surfactant concentration, aging time and temperature were investigated. In this work we present the morphological and structural characterization of the prepared films, which were obtained using atomic force microscopy and x-ray fluorescence and diffraction. (author)

  19. 13 CFR 121.603 - How does SBA determine whether a Participant is small for a particular 8(a) BD subcontract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., subsequent changes in size up to the date of award, except those due to merger with or acquisition by another... the date of award, the concern must recertify its size status, and SBA must verify the new... Standards Size Eligibility Requirements for the 8(a) Business Development Program § 121.603 How does SBA...

  20. 13 CFR 140.3 - What rights do you have when SBA tries to collect a debt from you through offset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What rights do you have when SBA tries to collect a debt from you through offset? 140.3 Section 140.3 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DEBT COLLECTION Offset § 140.3 What rights do you have when SBA tries to...

  1. Molecular organization of hydrophobic molecules and co-adsorbed water in SBA-15 ordered mesoporous silica material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellaerts, Randy; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; Houthoofd, Kristof; Van Speybroeck, Michiel; De Cremer, Gert; Jammaer, Jasper A G; Van den Mooter, Guy; Augustijns, Patrick; Hofkens, Johan; Martens, Johan A

    2011-02-21

    The purpose of this study was to improve our understanding of the molecular organization of hydrophobic guest molecules in the presence of co-adsorbed water inside SBA-15 ordered mesoporous silica material. Understanding this adsorption competition is essential in the development of applications of controlled adsorption and desorption. The poorly water soluble drug compound itraconazole and the fluorescent probe Nile red were selected for the study. The interaction between itraconazole and SBA-15 was investigated using FT-IR, (1)H MAS NMR and (29)Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, by determination of adsorption isotherms and release kinetics in simulated gastric fluid. The distribution and migration of the hydrophobic fluorescent probe Nile red was visualized in situ using confocal fluorescence microscopy. For both molecules, there was a pronounced influence of the co-adsorbed water on adsorption, hydrophobic aggregation and migration in SBA-15 pores. These insights contribute to the development of practical methods for loading ordered mesoporous silica materials with hydrophobic molecules.

  2. HCI as a key parameter in size-tunable synthesis of SBA-15 silica with rodlike morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Segoo; Chae, Young Bae; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2009-01-01

    Highly ordered mesoporous SBA-15 silica particles with rodlike morphologies were synthetically controlled for the first time by adjusting hydrochloric acid concentration in the range of 0.1-5.0 M in the presence of block copolymer template under static condition but with no addition of inorganic salts. This work illustrates that it is possible to achieve a facile, convenient, reproducible high yield synthesis of SBA-15 silica particles with rodlike morphology in a wide range of length scale (0.4-4.5 microm in length), and it is HCl that plays a key role in regulating the morphological architecture of the mesoporous particles. The acid revealed strong effects not only on mesostuctural properties, but also on macrostructural morphologies of the resulting SBA-15 particles in a wide range of acid concentration (1.0-3.0 M).

  3. Functionalized SBA-15 supported nickel (II)-oxime-imine catalysts for liquid phase oxidation of olefins under solvent-free conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Luna; Banerjee, Biplab; Bhaumik, Asim; Ali, Mahammad

    2016-05-01

    A new oxime-imine functionalized highly ordered mesoporous SBA-15 (SBA-15-NH2-DAMO) has been synthesized via post-synthesis functionalization of SBA-15 with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane followed by the Schiff base condensation with diacetylmonooxime, which was further reacted with Ni(ClO4)2 to yield the functionalized nickel catalyst SBA-15-NH2-DAMO-Ni. All the synthesized materials were thoroughly characterized using different characterization techniques. It was found that SBA-15-NH2-DAMO-Ni catalyzes the one-pot oxidation of olefins like styrene, cyclohexene, cyclooctene, 1-hexene and 1-octene to the corresponding benzaldehyde, cyclohexene-1-ol and cyclooctene-oxide, respectively under solvent-free conditions by using tert-butylhydroperoxide as oxidant.

  4. Preparation of Mesoporous SBA-16 Silica-Supported Biscinchona Alkaloid Ligand for the Asymmetric Dihydroxylation of Olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen M. Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optically active cinchona alkaloid was anchored onto mesoporous SBA-16 silica and the as-prepared complex was used as a heterogeneous chiral ligand of osmium tetraoxide for the asymmetric dihydroxylation of olefins. The prepared catalytic system provided 90–93% yield of vicinal diol with 92–99% enantioselectivity. The ordered mesoporous SBA-16 silica was found to be a valuable support for the cinchona alkaloid liganded osmium catalyst system which is frequently used in chemical industries and research laboratories for olefin functionalization.

  5. Application of SBA-15 in Adsorption-Fenton Oxidation Process for Simultaneous Remediation of Dehp and As(iii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, I.; Hwang, S.

    2013-12-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) has been widely used as plasticizer in the manufacturing of polymeric materials to enhance flexibility, transparency and softness, particularly, in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production. Several studies elucidated that DEHP could be linked to hepatocellular tumors and pre-term birth and may be a developmental and reproductive toxicant. Arsenic (As) contamination has been widespread in the environment and because of its toxicity and prevalence in nature; it also has become a significant environmental health concern. Most solid waste materials containing DEHP and As(III) are disposed of in landfills and may migrate to groundwater and soil environments representing a threat to human receptors. Therefore, the application of adsorption-Fenton oxidation process with Fe adsorbed to SBA-15 matrix was assessed for simultaneous remediation of DEHP and As(III). Three sequences were run to assess the regeneration efficiency of the SBA-15. A response surface methodology was employed to optimize adsorption and Fenton regeneration. Adsorption optimization was evaluated with regard to SBA-15 doses and the extent of As(III) and Fe concentrations. Optimization of Fenton regeneration, in addition, assessed initial H2O2 concentration. Global optimization for maximum reduction of DEHP and As(III) was performed by D-Optimal. Highest adsorption of DEHP (90-95%) and As (40-95%) into the SBA-15 was predicted at 1.16 mM Fe, 18.74 mg SBA-15 and 3.71 mg/L As(III). Highest reduction of As (78-99%) and DEHP (90-97%) was predicted with 0.50 mM Fe, 22 mg SBA-15, 3.02 mg/L As(III) and 22.50 mM H2O2. Global optimal treatments were validated and SBA-15 regenerated material was characterized via SEM and XPS. The efficiency of DEHP and As(III) remediation by adsorption-Fenton oxidation process, applying optimal treatment combinations, was evaluated using leachate from a lab scale bioreactor monofill (i.e., filled with PVC materials). Capability of As(III) and DEHP

  6. Isocyanate-mediated covalent immobilization of Mucor miehei lipase onto SBA-15 for transesterification reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canilho, N; Jacoby, J; Pasc, A; Carteret, C; Dupire, F; Stébé, M J; Blin, J L

    2013-12-01

    Mucor miehei lipase (Mm-L) covalently bind on a hexagonally ordered silica SBA-15 (Santa Barbara Amorphous), previously functionalized with isocyanate moieties, was examined as biocatalyst for transesterification of colza oil with methanol. The isocyanate-mesoporous silica (NCO-SBA-15) was obtained by condensation of silanol with triethoxysilane propyl isocyanate (TPI). The efficiency of the functionalization has been evidenced by infrared, (29)Si and (13)C NMR spectroscopies. The substrate provided a moderate hydrophobic microenvironment together with reactive sites for chemical immobilization of the enzyme. The biocatalyst containing 0.28 g of Mm-L per gram of support afforded a high level of transesterification activity (yield up to 80%) while using 1:1 molar ratio of methanol/colza oil and small amount of water. The biocatalyst showed higher operational stability than the corresponding physisorbed enzyme since it can be reused 6 times against 2 consecutive runs for the physisorbed enzyme. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. SBA-15 ordered mesoporous silica inside a bioactive glass-ceramic scaffold for local drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauda, V; Fiorilli, S; Onida, B; Vernè, E; Vitale Brovarone, C; Viterbo, D; Croce, G; Milanesio, M; Garrone, E

    2008-10-01

    The paper reports the synthesis of an ordered silica mesostructure of the SBA-15 type inside a macroporous bioactive glass-ceramic scaffold of the type SiO(2)-CaO-K(2)O, to combine the bioactivity of the latter with the release properties of the former, in view of local drug delivery from implants designed for tissue engineering. The standard procedure for SBA-15 synthesis has been modified to minimize the damage to the scaffold caused by the acidic synthesis medium. The composite system has been characterized by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (coupled with EDS analysis), Small Angle X-Ray Diffraction, Thermogravimetry analysis and Infrared Spectroscopy: the formation of a well ordered hexagonal mesostructure was confirmed. Ibuprofen has been chosen as model drug. The uploading properties have been investigated of the scaffold-mesoporous silica composite as compared with the scaffold as such, and a five-fold increase in the adsorbing properties toward ibuprofen was found, due to the presence of the ordered mesoporous silica. The ibuprofen release to a SBF solution in vitro is complete in 1 day. Retention of bioactivity from the glass-ceramic scaffold after the silica mesostructure incorporation has been observed.

  8. Physicochemical stability of high indomethacin payload ordered mesoporous silica MCM-41 and SBA-15 microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limnell, Tarja; Heikkilä, Teemu; Santos, Hélder A; Sistonen, Sanna; Hellstén, Sanna; Laaksonen, Timo; Peltonen, Leena; Kumar, Narendra; Murzin, Dmitry Yu; Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka

    2011-09-15

    Stability of high indomethacin (IMC) content formulations based on ordered mesoporous silica MCM-41 and SBA-15 materials was studied before and after a 3 month storage in stressed conditions (30°C/56% RH). Overall, the physical stability of the samples was found satisfactory after the storage. However, some issues with the chemical stability were noted, especially with the MCM-41 based samples. The stability issues were evident from the decreased HPLC loading degrees of the drug after stressing as well as from the observed extra peaks in the HPLC chromatograms of the drug in the stressed samples. Drug release from the mesoporous formulations before stressing was rapid at pH 1.2 in comparison to bulk crystalline IMC. The release profiles also remained similar after stressing. Even faster and close to complete IMC release was achieved when the pH was raised from 1.2 to 6.8. To our knowledge, this is the first report of chemical stability issues of drugs in mesoporous silica drug formulations. The present results encourage further study of the factors affecting the chemical stability of drugs in mesoporous silica MCM-41 and SBA-15 formulations in order to realize their potential in oral drug delivery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Iron Doped SBA-15 Mesoporous Silica Studied by Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Laskowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica SBA-15 containing propyl-iron-phosphonate groups were considered to confirm their molecular structure. To detect the iron-containing group configuration the Mössbauer spectroscopy was used. Both mesoporous silica SBA-15 containing propyl-iron-phosphonate groups and pure doping agent (iron acetylacetate were investigated using Mössbauer spectroscopy. The parameters such as isomer shift, quadrupole splitting, and asymmetry in 57Fe Mössbauer spectra were analyzed. The differences in Mössbauer spectra were explained assuming different local surroundings of Fe nuclei. On this base we were able to conclude about activation of phosphonate units by iron ions and determinate the oxidation state of the metal ion. To examine bonding between iron atoms and phosphonic units the resonance Raman spectroscopy was applied. The density functional theory (DFT approach was used to make adequate calculations. The distribution of active units inside silica matrix was estimated by comparison of calculated vibrational spectra with the experimental ones. Analysis of both Mössbauer and resonance Raman spectra seems to confirm the correctness of the synthesis procedure. Also EDX elemental analysis confirms our conclusions.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of zero-valent iron nanoparticles supported on SBA-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Sombra dos Santos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to synthesize zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI supported on SBA-15 nanosilica. The nanosilica generate in the system by polymer reaction with hydrochloric acid under controlled temperature. After, the iron nanomaterial was obtained by sodium borohydride reduction as described in this work. Afterward the synthesis of the nanoparticles contained iron supported on silica SBA-15, the material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results indicated that nanomaterial obtained was in nanometric scale, by TEM results, and showing characteristic peaks at EDS results, with 11.9% iron and 14.0% silicon content, respectively, and containing 73.0% and 27.0% of their respective oxides through X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The isoelectric potential of the sample was around 2.0, close to the value reported for silica, due to the higher percentage of silica in the sample when compared to iron. The obtained material can be used, for some cases, as an possible alternative, to the Fenton reaction for the degradation of xenobiotic compounds or other applications in the groundwater and wastewater treatments.

  11. Modification of mesoporous silica SBA-15 with different organic molecules to gain chemical sensors: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Lashgari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of the biologically and environmentally important ions is of great interest in the field of chemical sensors in recent years. The fluorescent sensors as a powerful optical analytical technique for the detection of low level of various analytes such as anions and metal cations have been progressively developed due to the simplicity, cost effective, and selectivity for monitoring specific analytes in various systems. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials have important advantages as solid chemosensors and various innovative hybrid materials modified by fluorescence molecules were recently prepared. On the other hand, the homogeneous porosity and large surface area of mesoporous silica make it a promising inorganic support. SBA-15 as a two-dimensional hexagonal mesoporous silica material with stable structure, thick walls, tunable pore size, and high specific surface area is a valuable substrate for modification with different organic chelating groups. This review highlights the fluorescent chemosensors for ionic species based on modification of the mesoporous silica SBA-15 with different organic molecules, which have been recently developed from our laboratory.

  12. Rapid polyvalent screening for largescale environmental Spiroplasma surveys Triagem rápida para pesquisa ambiental de larga escala de Spiroplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank E. French

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface serology is an important determinant in Spiroplasma systematics. Reciprocal antigen/antibody reactions between spiroplasmas and individual antisera delineate the 38 described groups and species. However, reciprocal serology is impractical for largescale studies. This report describes a successful, streamlined polyvalent screening approach used to examine isolates from an environmental survey.A sorologia de superfície é um determinante importante na sistemática de Spiroplasma. Reações antígeno-anticorpo entre spiroplasmas e antisoro individuais delineiam os 38 grupos e espécies descritos. No entanto, reações sorológicas são impraticáveis em estudos em larga-escala. Esse relato descreve uma metodologia de triagem bem sucedida a ser empregada no exame de isolados em levantamentos ambientais.

  13. A polyvalent influenza A DNA vaccine induces heterologous immunity and protects pigs against pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, Karoline; Vinner, Lasse; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2013-01-01

    The composition of current influenza protein vaccines has to be reconsidered every season to match the circulating influenza viruses, continuously changing antigenicity. Thus, influenza vaccines inducing a broad cross-reactive immune response would be a great advantage for protection against both...... seasonal and emerging influenza viruses. We have developed an alternative influenza vaccine based on DNA expressing selected influenza proteins of pandemic and seasonal origin. In the current study, we investigated the protection of a polyvalent influenza DNA vaccine approach in pigs. We immunised pigs...... intradermally with a combination of influenza DNA vaccine components based on the pandemic 1918 H1N1 (M and NP genes), pandemic 2009 H1N1pdm09 (HA and NA genes) and seasonal 2005 H3N2 genes (HA and NA genes) and investigated the protection against infection with virus both homologous and heterologous to the DNA...

  14. A polyvalent influenza DNA vaccine applied by needle-free intradermal delivery induces cross-reactive humoral and cellular immune responses in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggren, Marie; Nielsen, Jens; Karlsson, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pigs are natural hosts for influenza A viruses, and the infection is widely prevalent in swine herds throughout the world. Current commercial influenza vaccines for pigs induce a narrow immune response and are not very effective against antigenically diverse viruses. To control...... influenza in pigs, the development of more effective swine influenza vaccines inducing broader cross-protective immune responses is needed. Previously, we have shown that a polyvalent influenza DNA vaccine using vectors containing antibiotic resistance genes induced a broadly protective immune response...... of the optimized DNA vaccine were evaluated in groups of five to six pigs. The DNA vaccine consisted of six selected influenza genes of pandemic origin, including internally expressed matrix and nucleoprotein and externally expressed hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. RESULTS: Needle-free vaccination of growing pigs...

  15. The Effect of a Polyvalent Antivenom on the Serum Venom Antigen Levels of Naja sputatrix (Javan Spitting Cobra) Venom in Experimentally Envenomed Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Michelle Khai Khun; Tan, Nget Hong; Sim, Si Mui; Fung, Shin Yee; Tan, Choo Hock

    2015-10-01

    The treatment protocol of antivenom in snake envenomation remains largely empirical, partly due to the insufficient knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of snake venoms and the effects of antivenoms on the blood venom levels in victims. In this study, we investigated the effect of a polyvalent antivenom on the serum venom antigen levels of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) venom in experimentally envenomed rabbits. Intravenous infusion of 4 ml of Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom [NPAV, F(ab')2 ] at 1 hr after envenomation caused a sharp decline of the serum venom antigen levels, followed by transient resurgence an hour later. The venom antigen resurgence was unlikely to be due to the mismatch of pharmacokinetics between the F(ab')2 and venom antigens, as the terminal half-life and volume of distribution of the F(ab')2 in serum were comparable to that of venom antigens (p > 0.05). Infusion of an additional 2 ml of NPAV was able to prevent resurgence of the serum venom antigen level, resulting in a substantial decrease (67.1%) of the total amount of circulating venom antigens over time course of envenomation. Our results showed that the neutralization potency of NPAV determined by neutralization assay in mice may not be an adequate indicator of its capability to modulate venom kinetics in relation to its in vivo efficacy to neutralize venom toxicity. The findings also support the recommendation of giving high initial dose of NPAV in cobra envenomation, with repeated doses as clinically indicated in the presence of rebound antigenemia and symptom recurrence. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  16. 13 CFR 108.420 - Prohibition on exercise of ownership or Control rights in NMVC Company before SBA approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on exercise of ownership or Control rights in NMVC Company before SBA approval. 108.420 Section 108.420 Business Credit and... disposition thereof; or serving as an officer, director, partner, manager, employee or agent); or (d) Allow...

  17. 13 CFR 121.410 - What are the size standards for SBA's Section 8(d) Subcontracting Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the size standards for SBA's Section 8(d) Subcontracting Program? 121.410 Section 121.410 Business Credit and Assistance...'s Section 8(d) Subcontracting Program? For subcontracting purposes pursuant to sections 8(d) of the...

  18. 13 CFR 121.411 - What are the size procedures for SBA's Section 8(d) Subcontracting Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SBA's Section 8(d) Subcontracting Program? 121.411 Section 121.411 Business Credit and Assistance...'s Section 8(d) Subcontracting Program? (a) Prime contractors may rely on the information contained... subcontracting or proposing to subcontract under section 8(d) of the Small Business Act may be protested by the...

  19. Catalytic Synthesis of n-Butyl Oleate by Cerium Complex Doped Y/SBA-15 Composite Molecular Sieve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chunwei; Bian, Xue; Wu, Yongfu; Cong, Yufeng; Pei, Mingyuan

    2018-01-01

    Cerium ion was successfully incorporated into Y/SBA-15 micro-mesoporous molecular sieves via the hydrothermal synthesis method to give a series of composite materials. The prepared materials were thoroughly characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and differential thermo gravimetric analysis (TG-DTG). The results showed that the prepared composite materials retained the highly ordered mesoporous two-dimensional hexagonal structure of SBA-15 and the octagonal structure of Y. The catalyst Ce-Y/SBA-15 was prepared and characterized, then the esterification of n-butanol and oleic acid was studied with bismuth phosphotungstate as a catalyst. Using this model reaction, the effects of Ce-HY/SBA-15, molar ratio of alcohol to oleic acid, amount of catalysts, reaction time and reaction temperature were investigated. The experimental results show that the optimal reaction conditions were: 1.8:1 molar ratio of alcohol to acid, 5 % catalyst amount (based on weight of oleic acid), 4 h reaction time and reflux conditions. Under these conditions, the yield of esterification was 90.6 %. The results suggest that the addition of Ce can effectively improve the catalytic properties of composite molecular sieves.

  20. 13 CFR 101.108 - Has SBA waived any of the public participation exemptions of the Administrative Procedure Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... public participation requirements of the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. 553, in rulemakings... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Has SBA waived any of the public participation exemptions of the Administrative Procedure Act? 101.108 Section 101.108 Business Credit and...

  1. 13 CFR 119.12 - What criteria will SBA use to evaluate applications for funding under the PRIME program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... program growth, outcomes of training, types of services provided, delivery systems used, the number and... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What criteria will SBA use to evaluate applications for funding under the PRIME program? 119.12 Section 119.12 Business Credit and...

  2. 13 CFR 107.1810 - Events of default and SBA's remedies for Licensee's noncompliance with terms of Debentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... avail itself of one or more of the remedies in paragraph (e) of this section. (1) Fraud. You commit a... the end of each fiscal year. In determining whether you have maintained the ratio, SBA will disregard... Capital, and any receipt of additional Leverage, within 120 days prior to the end of your fiscal year. (10...

  3. Metathesis of 2-pentene over Mo and W supported mesoporous molecular sieves MCM-41 and SBA-15

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ibrahim, M. A.; Akhtar, M. N.; Čejka, Jiří; Montanari, E.; Balcar, Hynek; Kubů, Martin; Al-Khattaf, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, SEP 2017 (2017), s. 119-126 ISSN 1226-086X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0189 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : metathesis * MCM-41 * SBA-15 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.421, year: 2016

  4. 13 CFR 114.111 - Does the attorney-client privilege apply when SBA employees are represented by the Government?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Does the attorney-client privilege... Does the attorney-client privilege apply when SBA employees are represented by the Government? When... representational assistance for such an employee, those attorneys undertake a full and traditional attorney-client...

  5. Extrusion of Fe2O3/SBA-15 mesoporous material for application as heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Pariente

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work has been the extrusion of powder Fe2O3/SBA-15 catalyst in order to be successfully used in continuous catalytic fixed bed reactors as Fenton-like catalyst. The extrusion method was optimised using an amorphous silica material of similar properties than the Fe2O3/SBA-15 catalyst. The main studied variable was the composition of the extrusion paste using bentonite and methylcellulose as inorganic and organic binders, respectively. The organic content displayed a significant influence on the mechanical strength and specific surface area of the final extrudates. In contrast, the inorganic binder content hardly affected the final properties (in the studied range. The extruded Fe2O3/SBA-15 material showed a remarkable mechanical strength as well as the typical mesoporous structure of Fe2O3/SBA-15 with a relevant specific surface area (264 m2/g. The extruded catalyst achieved a high catalytic performance in the catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of phenol with a 60 % of total organic carbon reduction in both batch and continuous processes.

  6. Photoactive europium(III) centered mesoporous hybrids with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone functionalized SBA-16 and organic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajuan; Yan, Bing

    2010-03-14

    A series of novel ternary organic-inorganic mesoporous polymeric hybrids TTFA-S16-Eu-PMMA, TTFA-S16-Eu-PMAA, and TTFA-S16-Eu-PVP (TTFA = 2-Thenoyltrifluoroacetone; PMMA = polymethyl methacrylate; PMAA = polymethacrylic acid; PVP = polyvinylpyrrolidone) have been assembled by the Eu(3+) complex covalently attaching to the TTFA directly functionalized ordered mesoporous SBA-16 and organic polymer. FTIR, UV, XRD, TEM, N(2) adsorption measurements, photoluminescent spectra, and TG plots were characterized, and the results reveal that they all have high surface area, uniformity in the mesostructure, and good crystallinity. In addition, the ternary rare earth mesoporous polymeric hybrids show an overall increase in luminescent lifetime and quantum efficiency compared to binary rare earth mesoporous hybrid TTFA-S16-Eu, especially the mesoporous hybrid with PVP exhibits the highest luminescence quantum efficiency and longest lifetime.

  7. Phenol and methylene blue photodegradation over Ti/SBA-15 materials under uv light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olejnik Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ordered SBA-15 mesoporous silica supports have been synthesized and used for incorporation of titanium with different Ti/Si weight ratio via incipient wetness impregnation. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP was used as a source of Ti. Obtained catalysts were characterized to investigate the chemical framework and morphology by nitrogen sorption measurements, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence elemental analysis (XRF, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS and Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FT-IR/PAS. The photocatalytic degradation of phenol and methylene blue water solutions were selected as a probe reactions to the photoactivity test of prepared samples and to verify the potential application of these materials for water purification. Experimental results indicate that the photocatalytic activity of Ti/Si mixed materials depends on the adsorption ability of composites and the photocatalytic activity of the titanium oxide.

  8. Hoveyda–Grubbs type metathesis catalyst immobilized on mesoporous molecular sieves MCM-41 and SBA-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Bastl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A commercially available Hoveyda–Grubbs type catalyst (RC303 Zhannan Pharma was immobilized on mesoporous molecular sieves MCM-41 and on SBA-15 by direct interaction with the sieve wall surface. The immobilized catalysts exhibited high activity and nearly 100% selectivity in several types of alkene metathesis reactions. Ru leaching was found to depend on the substrate and solvent used (the lowest leaching was found for ring-closing metathesis of 1,7-octadiene in cyclohexane – 0.04% of catalyst Ru content. Results of XPS, UV–vis and NMR spectroscopy showed that at least 76% of the Ru content was bound to the support surface non-covalently and could be removed from the catalyst by washing with THF.

  9. Insights into the Hydrothermal Stability of Triamine-Functionalized SBA-15 Silica for CO2Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandar Lashaki, Masoud; Ziaei-Azad, Hessam; Sayari, Abdelhamid

    2017-10-23

    The hydrothermal stability of triamine-grafted, large-pore SBA-15 CO 2 adsorbents was studied by using steam stripping. Following two 3 h cycles of steam regeneration, lower CO 2 uptakes, lower CO 2 /N ratios, and slower adsorption kinetics were observed relative to fresh samples, particularly at the lowest adsorption temperature (25 °C). CO 2 adsorption measurements for a selected sample exposed to 48 h of steam stripping depicted that after the initial loss during the first exposure to steam (3-6 h), the adsorptive properties stabilized. For higher adsorption temperatures (i.e., 50 and 75 °C), however, all adsorptive properties remained almost unchanged after steaming, indicating the significance of diffusional limitations. Thermogravimetric analysis and FTIR spectroscopy on grafted samples before and after steam stripping showed no amine leaching and no change in the chemical nature of the amine groups, respectively. Also, a six-cycle CO 2 adsorption/desorption experiment under dry conditions showed no thermal degradation. However, N 2 adsorption measurement at 77 K showed significant reductions in the BET surface area of the grafted samples following steaming. Based on the pore size distribution of calcined, grafted samples before and after steaming, it is proposed that exposure to steam restructured the grafted materials, causing mass transfer resistance. It is inferred that triamine-grafted, large-pore SBA-15 adsorbents are potential candidates for CO 2 capture at relatively high temperatures (50-75 °C; for example, flue gas) combined with steam regeneration. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Comparative Study of Molecular Basket Sorbents Consisting of Polyallylamine and Polyethylenimine Functionalized SBA-15 for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxiang; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

    2017-09-20

    Polyallylamine (PAA)-based molecular basket sorbents (MBS) have been studied for CO2 capture in comparison with polyethylenimine (PEI)-based MBS. The characterizations including N2 physisorption, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that PAA (Mn =15 000) is more rigid and has more steric hindrance inside SBA-15 pores than PEI owing mainly to its different polymer structure. The effects of temperature and PAA loading on the CO2 sorption capacity of PAA-based MBS have been examined by TGA by using 100 % CO2 gas stream and compared with PEI/SBA-15. It was found that the capacity of the PAA/SBA-15 sorbent increased with increasing temperature. The optimum capacity of 88 mgCO2  gsorb(-1) was obtained at 140 °C for PAA(50)/SBA-15 whereas the optimum sorption temperature was 75 and 90 °C for PEI-I(50)/SBA-15 (PEI-I, Mn =423) and PEI-II(50)/SBA-15 (PEI-II, Mn =25 000), respectively. The capacity initially increased with the increase of PAA loading and then dropped at high amine contents, owing to the increased diffusion barrier. The highest CO2 capacity of 109 mgCO2  gsorb(-1) was obtained at a PAA loading of 65 wt %, whereas the PAA(50)/SBA-15 sorbent gave the best amine efficiency of 0.23 molCO2  molN(-1) . The effect of moisture was examined in a fixed-bed flow system with simulated flue gas containing 15 % CO2 and 4.5 % O2 in N2 . It was found that the presence of moisture significantly enhanced CO2 sorption over PAA(50)/SBA-15 and greatly improved its cyclic stability and regenerability. Compared with PEI/SBA-15, PAA/SBA-15 possesses a better thermal stability and higher resistance to oxidative degradation. However, the CO2 sorption rate over the PAA(50)/SBA-15 sorbent was much slower. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Application of sulfonic acid functionalized nanoporous silica (SBA-Pr-SO3H in the green one-pot synthesis of triazoloquinazolinones and benzimidazoquinazolinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodsi Mohammadi Ziarani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid functionalized SBA-15 (SBA-Pr-SO3H with a pore size of 6 nm was proven to be an efficient heterogeneous nanoporous solid acid catalyst in the green one-pot synthesis of triazoloquinazolinones and benzimidazoquinazolinones from the reaction of aromatic aldehydes with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (or 2-aminobenzimidazole and dimedone under solvent free conditions.

  12. Concurrent injection of a rhabdovirus-specific DNA vaccine with a polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine delays the specific anti-viral immune response in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Lisa A; LaPatra, S E; Adams, A; Thompson, K D; Balfry, S K; McKinley, R S; Schulte, P M

    2010-04-01

    Vaccines are commonly used in salmonid aquaculture as a method of disease prevention. Although there is a substantial amount of published research regarding the immunological and physiological effects following the injection of different polyvalent vaccines and DNA vaccines, there are no published reports examining the physiological and immunological effects of concurrent vaccine injection, which is the situation encountered in aquaculture. Using key immunological parameters such as lysozyme activity and specific antibody titres we examined the short-term activation of the immune response of cultured Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) following concurrent injection with a traditional, polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine (AV) and an IHNV-specific DNA vaccine (DV). Our results indicate that different aspects of the innate and adaptive immune responses are influenced in either a positive or negative manner. While concurrent vaccine injection elicited an increase in lysozyme activity, changes in antibody titre (Ab) were antigen specific. The production of anti-Aeromonas salmonicida Abs was significantly greater in the combined vaccine group at 296 degree days post-vaccine injection (dd pvi), while the production of anti-Listonella anguillarum Abs was significantly greater at 106 dd pvi in the combined vaccine group. Of even greater interest was the apparent delay in production of IHNV-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAb) when the DV was injected concurrently with the polyvalent AV. The results indicated that concurrent injection of a polyvalent oil-AV and a DV can be beneficial to the production of antibodies; however, the specific anti-viral response may be delayed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Functionalized SBA-15 supported nickel (II)–oxime–imine catalysts for liquid phase oxidation of olefins under solvent-free conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Luna [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Banerjee, Biplab [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Bhaumik, Asim, E-mail: msab@iacs.res.in [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Ali, Mahammad, E-mail: m_ali2062@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2016-05-15

    A new oxime–imine functionalized highly ordered mesoporous SBA-15 (SBA-15-NH{sub 2}-DAMO) has been synthesized via post-synthesis functionalization of SBA-15 with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane followed by the Schiff base condensation with diacetylmonooxime, which was further reacted with Ni(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} to yield the functionalized nickel catalyst SBA-15-NH{sub 2}-DAMO-Ni. All the synthesized materials were thoroughly characterized using different characterization techniques. It was found that SBA-15-NH{sub 2}-DAMO-Ni catalyzes the one-pot oxidation of olefins like styrene, cyclohexene, cyclooctene, 1-hexene and 1-octene to the corresponding benzaldehyde, cyclohexene-1-ol and cyclooctene-oxide, respectively under solvent-free conditions by using tert-butylhydroperoxide as oxidant. - Graphical abstract: A new well characterized oxime–imine functionalized highly ordered mesoporous SBA-15-NH{sub 2}-DAMO-Ni complex catalyzes the one-pot oxidation of olefins under solvent free mild conditions.

  14. A kinetic study of the thermal degradation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide inside the mesoporous SBA-3 molecular sieve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJORDJE STOJAKOVIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal degradation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB inside the mesoporous SBA-3 was studied under non-isothermal conditions. There are two distinct and complex kinetic processes which partly overlap, each consisting of one dominant and three minor individual processes. The two dominant processes can be described by the Sestak–Berggren model. The main decomposition step (the first dominant process involves the overcoming of weak interactions between CTMAB and the silica network and proceeds with a lower Ea value (116±2 kJ mol‑1 than the second dominant process (153±5 kJ mol-1, which can be explained by the size reduction of the pore openings due to the contraction of the SBA-3 unit cell caused by the removal of CTMAB.

  15. Heterogeneous advanced photo-fenton oxidation of phenolic aqueous solutions over iron-containing SBA-15 catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailiche Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron-containing SBA15 catalysts have been prepared following different synthesisroutes, direct synthesis by adjusting pH at 3 and 6 and with post synthesis procedure. Activity and stability of these materials were assessed on the photo-Fenton degradation of phenolic aqueous solutions by H2O2 using near UV irradiation (254 nm at room temperature and initial neutral pH. Their catalytic performance was mentioned in terms of phenol and total organic carbon (TOC conversions. Several complementary techniques, including XRD, Nitrogen sorption isotherms, UV visible, were used to evaluate the final structural and textural properties of calcined Fe-SBA15 materials. These materials show a high activity and stability of iron species.

  16. Investigation of Y/SBA Composite Molecular Sieves Morphology Control and Catalytic Performance for n-Pentane Aromatization

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Wei Shi; Wen-Yuan Wu; Shuai Li; Xue Bian; Shan-lin Zhao; Ming-Yuan Pei

    2016-01-01

    Using Y molecular sieve as the core, Y/SBA-15 composite molecular sieves were prepared by different crystallization methods in the paper. The growth process and morphologies of the composite molecular sieves were controlled by adjusting the synthesis factors. The structures and acidity of two kinds of composite molecular sieves were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption/desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and NH3-TPD. The catalysis performances of the composi...

  17. A well-defined mesoporous amine silica surface via a selective treatment of SBA-15 with ammonia

    KAUST Repository

    Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa

    2012-01-01

    2D double-quantum 1H- 1H NMR unambiguously shows that the "isolated" Si-OH surface silanols of dehydroxylated SBA-15 are converted upon treatment with ammonia into single silylamine surface site Si-NH 2. The "gem" di-silanols (Si(OH) 2) remain intact. Treatment using HMDS produces (Si(OSiMe 3) 2) but leaves Si-NH 2 untouched. The resulting surface is hydrophobic and stable. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

  18. GxySBA ABC transporter of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and its role in sugar utilization and vir gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinlei; Binns, Andrew N

    2014-09-01

    Monosaccharides available in the extracellular milieu of Agrobacterium tumefaciens can be transported into the cytoplasm, or via the periplasmic sugar binding protein, ChvE, play a critical role in controlling virulence gene expression. The ChvE-MmsAB ABC transporter is involved in the utilization of a wide range of monosaccharide substrates but redundant transporters are likely given the ability of a chvE-mmsAB deletion strain to grow, albeit more slowly, in the presence of particular monosaccharides. In this study, a putative ABC transporter encoded by the gxySBA operon is identified and shown to be involved in the utilization of glucose, xylose, fucose, and arabinose, which are also substrates for the ChvE-MmsAB ABC transporter. Significantly, GxySBA is also shown to be the first characterized glucosamine ABC transporter. The divergently transcribed gene gxyR encodes a repressor of the gxySBA operon, the function of which can be relieved by a subset of the transported sugars, including glucose, xylose, and glucosamine, and this substrate-induced expression can be repressed by glycerol. Furthermore, deletion of the transporter can increase the sensitivity of the virulence gene expression system to certain sugars that regulate it. Collectively, the results reveal a remarkably diverse set of substrates for the GxySBA transporter and its contribution to the repression of sugar sensitivity by the virulence-controlling system, thereby facilitating the capacity of the bacterium to distinguish between the soil and plant environments. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Functionalized SBA-15 mesoporous silica in ion chromatography of alkali, alkaline earths, ammonium and transition metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; De Carlo, Rosa Maria; Fiorilli, Sonia; Onida, Barbara; Sarzanini, Corrado

    2009-07-17

    The retention properties of a SBA-15 mesoporous silica functionalized with -(CH(2))(3)COOH groups, synthesized by a co-condensation route, were investigated for the ion chromatography of different cationic species. A systematic study on the effect of different eluent compositions containing non-complexing (methanesulfonic acid) or complexing (oxalic or pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acids) eluents, in the presence of organic modifiers (CH(3)CN, CH(3)OH, CH(3)NH(2)) on the retention of cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+), NH(4)(+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Co(2+), Pb(2+), Fe(3+)) chosen as model analytes and for their environmental importance, allowed us to elucidate the mechanisms (cation-exchange or complexation) involved in the retention on the SBA-15 phase. For the first time separations of cations on SBA-15 based stationary phases are investigated, providing the basis for further development of mesoporous silica chemistry for in-flow ion-exchange applications.

  20. Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate Inclusion into Υ-Cyclodextrin and Mesoporous SBA-15: Preparation, Characterization and In Vitro Release Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bastianini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid or vitamin C is a strong antioxidant widely used in cosmetic and food fields. This vitamin is very unstable and rapidly undergoes degradation. In order to solve this problem and to obtain a stable ascorbic acid, Nikkol Group has developed ascorbyltetraisopalmitate (VC-IP. This raw material is an oil phase, already well-known and employed in the cosmetic market. The objective of this study is to obtain VC-IP in micro-powder form, in order to produce a new raw material that is easily dispersible in oil and water phases and useful for make-up and color cosmetic applications. Various types of drug carriers were studied and considered in order to support VC-IP and obtain the conversion in powder. Υ-cyclodextrin and mesoporous silica SBA-15 were chosen as the best candidates. A white powder of supported VC-IP was obtained with each carrier (VC-IP@cyclodextrin, VC-IP@SBA-15. The systems underwent physicochemical characterization and in vitro release tests were carried out. Based on the conducted study, it can be concluded that by supporting VC-IP on Υ-cyclodextrin and SBA-15, it is feasible to obtain a new raw material in powder form. The two carriers possess different release profiles, adding the possibility to finely tune the release of the active component in smart formulations.

  1. Study of DDT and its derivatives DDD, DDE adsorption and degradation over Fe-SBA-15 at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailin; Tian, Hua; Hao, Zhengping

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous SBA-15 with different Fe2O3 loading were synthesized by an in-situ coating progress for removals of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its derivatives, i.e., 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chloro -phenyl) ethane (DDE). The results from XRD (X-ray diffractometer), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) indicated that the iron could be well dispersed on SBA-15 within 6 wt.% Fe2O3 loading. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption tests indicated that the synthesized materials were characterized by ordered meso-structure, high surface area and large pore volume. DDTs were removed from aqueous media in 12-hr treatment and high removal efficiency of DDTs was achieved at over 94%. DDTs could be completely degraded at 350 degrees C under the existence of SBA-15 with 4 wt.% Fe2O3 loading. The final degradation products of DDT were dichlorobenzophenone (DCB) and bis-(4-chloro-phenyl) methane (DDM), suggesting a complete dechlorination from trichloromethyl.

  2. Characterization and catalytic activity of NiO/mesoporous aluminosilicate AlSBA-15 in conversion of some hydrocarbons

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    Heba M. Gobara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous aluminosilicate AlSBA-15 was synthesized and adopted as a support for NiO with 3, 6 and 9 wt.% loadings. Characterization of various samples was performed through XRD, FTIR, DSC-TGA, TPR, SEM and TEM techniques. Textural and morphological characteristics were examined using N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms. Catalytic activities were measured in cumene cracking for parent AlSBA-15 and in n-hexane and toluene cracking and cyclohexane dehydrogenation for supported NiO samples. Uniformity of the ordered 2D-hexagonal structure of AlSBA-15 was evident even after loading with NiO. NiO and NiOOH phases could be detected particularly in the sample containing 9 wt.% NiO. TPR profile of solid loaded with 3 wt.% NiO sample showed negative peaks at 400 and 600 °C, related to hydrogen spillover on reduced sample. Selectivity towards n-hexane and toluene cracking increased with both temperature and metal oxide loading, achieving 100% at 350 °C. In cyclohexane dehydrogenation, the sample loaded with 3 wt.% NiO was the most active and selective one towards benzene formation.

  3. Antibacterial effect of antibiotic-loaded SBA-15 on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Colomer, Anna; Doadrio, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Jorge, Concepción; Manzano, Miguel; Vallet-Regí, Maria; Esteban, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are human pathogens involved in implant-related infections. During those diseases, they are able to form biofilms showing resistance to the effect of many different antibiotics. Drug delivery systems allow a local and effective delivery of antibiotics at high concentrations in the infected tissue without causing the cytotoxic effects commonly linked to systemic administration. We report the use of a porous ceramic biomaterial, such as SBA-15 loaded with antibiotics, to deliver them directly to the infected tissue. SBA-15 discs were loaded with Vancomycin, Rifampin and a combination of both, introduced in a suspension of S. aureus 15981 and S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 and incubated during 6 and 24 h. A statistically significant decrease in the biofilm density and the number of viable bacteria was detected for all antibiotics at 6 h in both bacteria. Rifampin showed an increase in the biofilm density and the number of viable bacteria at 24 h. No differences were detected between Vancomycin and the combination of antibiotics. S. epidermidis was more sensitive to the effect of the antibiotics than S. aureus. Here we have demonstrated that SBA-15 is able to act as an effective drug delivery system not only from a pharmaceutical point of view, but also from a biological one.

  4. SBA-15-incorporated nanoscale zero-valent iron particles for chromium(VI) removal from groundwater: Mechanism, effect of pH, humic acid and sustained reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xia, E-mail: lygsunxia@163.com [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lianyungang 222005 (China); Yan, Yubo [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Li, Jiansheng, E-mail: lijsh@mail.njust.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Han, Weiqing [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Wang, Lianjun, E-mail: wanglj@mail.njust.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were incorporated in the pores of SBA-15 rods. • Mechanism of the Cr(VI) removal by NZVIs/SBA-15 was proposed. • A low pH value was in favor of the Cr(VI) removal. • Humic acid (HA) had a negligible effect on the reactivity of NZVIs/SBA-15. • The stable reduction of NZVIs/SBA-15 was observed within six cycles. -- Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (NZVIs) were incorporated inside the channels of SBA-15 rods by a “two solvents” reduction technique and used to remove Cr(VI) from groundwater. The resulting NZVIs/SBA-15 composites before and after reaction were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results helped to propose the mechanism of Cr(VI) removal by NZVIs/SBA-15, where Cr(VI) in aqueous was firstly impregnated into the channels of the silica, then adsorbed on the surfaces of the incorporated NZVIs and reduced to Cr(III) directly in the inner pores of the silica. Corrosion products included Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO(OH), Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Cr{sub 2}FeO{sub 4}. Batch experiments revealed that Cr(VI) removal decreased from 99.7% to 92.8% when the initial solution pH increased from 5.5 to 9.0, accompanied by the decrease of the k{sub obs} from 0.600 to 0.024 min{sup −1}. Humic acid (HA) had a little effect on the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) by NZVIs/SBA-15 but could decrease the reduction rate. The stable reduction of NZVIs/SBA-15 was observed within six cycles. NZVIs/SBA-15 composites offer a promising alternative material to remove heavy metals from groundwater.

  5. COLLAPSE KINETIC OF COMPOSITES BASED ON COPOLYMERS OF ACRYLIC ACID AND ACRYLAMIDE FILLED WITH BENTONITE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF POLYVALENT METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Sitnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer polyelectrolyte hydrogel composites of acrylic acid and acrylamide copolymer filled with different amounts of bentonite (from 1 to 5 wt.% were synthesized. Collapse kinetics of hydrogel composites was studied in solutions of different concentrations of polyvalent metal salts at a constant temperature of 25 °C. The mass of water given away from hydrogels into the solution was determined by gravimetric method. It has been found that the presence of bentonite in the polyelectrolyte hydrogel composites prevents to some extent collapse in electrolyte solutions, due to steric and electrostatic interactions between the filler particles. These interactions preclude further collapse of hydrogels. The Peleg's kinetic model, most precisely describing experimental data, was applied to calculation of kinetic constants of polymer hydrogels collapse. It is shown that the initial collapse rate and the kinetic constant of collapse and swelling depend non-monotonically on the concentration (ionic strength in the electrolyte solution. At the identical concentration of salts in the solution the kinetic constant of hydrogel collapse is independent of the radius of ions of metals of the studied salts.

  6. Characterization of the Lytic Capability of a LysK-Like Endolysin, Lys-phiSA012, Derived from a Polyvalent Staphylococcus aureus Bacteriophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Jumpei; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Furusawa, Takaaki; Ohno, Hazuki; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Kitana, Junya; Usui, Masaru; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Tanji, Yasunori; Tamura, Yutaka; Iwano, Hidetomo

    2018-02-24

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) have spread widely and rapidly, with their increased occurrence corresponding with the increased use of antibiotics. Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus have a considerable negative impact on human and livestock health. Bacteriophages and their peptidoglycan hydrolytic enzymes (endolysins) have received significant attention as novel approaches against ARB, including S. aureus . In the present study, we purified an endolysin, Lys-phiSA012, which harbors a cysteine/histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) domain, an amidase domain, and a SH3b cell wall binding domain, derived from a polyvalent S. aureus bacteriophage which we reported previously. We demonstrate that Lys-phiSA012 exhibits high lytic activity towards staphylococcal strains, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Analysis of deletion mutants showed that only mutants possessing the CHAP and SH3b domains could lyse S. aureus , indicating that lytic activity of the CHAP domain depended on the SH3b domain. The presence of at least 1 mM Ca 2+ and 100 µM Zn 2+ enhanced the lytic activity of Lys-phiSA012 in a turbidity reduction assay. Furthermore, a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay showed that the addition of Lys-phiSA012 decreased the MIC of oxacillin. Our results suggest that endolysins are a promising approach for replacing current antimicrobial agents and may contribute to the proper use of antibiotics, leading to the reduction of ARB.

  7. Characterization of the Lytic Capability of a LysK-Like Endolysin, Lys-phiSA012, Derived from a Polyvalent Staphylococcus aureus Bacteriophage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumpei Fujiki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB have spread widely and rapidly, with their increased occurrence corresponding with the increased use of antibiotics. Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus have a considerable negative impact on human and livestock health. Bacteriophages and their peptidoglycan hydrolytic enzymes (endolysins have received significant attention as novel approaches against ARB, including S. aureus. In the present study, we purified an endolysin, Lys-phiSA012, which harbors a cysteine/histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP domain, an amidase domain, and a SH3b cell wall binding domain, derived from a polyvalent S. aureus bacteriophage which we reported previously. We demonstrate that Lys-phiSA012 exhibits high lytic activity towards staphylococcal strains, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Analysis of deletion mutants showed that only mutants possessing the CHAP and SH3b domains could lyse S. aureus, indicating that lytic activity of the CHAP domain depended on the SH3b domain. The presence of at least 1 mM Ca2+ and 100 µM Zn2+ enhanced the lytic activity of Lys-phiSA012 in a turbidity reduction assay. Furthermore, a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay showed that the addition of Lys-phiSA012 decreased the MIC of oxacillin. Our results suggest that endolysins are a promising approach for replacing current antimicrobial agents and may contribute to the proper use of antibiotics, leading to the reduction of ARB.

  8. Transition Metal Phosphide Nanoparticles Supported on SBA-15 as Highly Selective Hydrodeoxygenation Catalysts for the Production of Advanced Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxing; Ochoa-Hernández, Cristina; de la Peña O'Shea, Víctor A; Pizarro, Patricia; Coronado, Juan M; Serrano, David P

    2015-09-01

    A series of catalysts constituted by nanoparticles of transition metal (M = Fe, Co, Ni and Mo) phosphides (TMP) dispersed on SBA-15 were synthesized by reduction of the corresponding metal phosphate precursors previously impregnated on the mesostructured support. All the samples contained a metal-loading of 20 wt% and with an initial M/P mole ratio of 1, and they were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 sorption, H2-TPR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Metal phosphide nanocatalysts were tested in a high pressure continuous flow reactor for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of a methyl ester blend containing methyl oleate (C17H33-COO-CH3) as main component (70%). This mixture constitutes a convenient surrogate of triglycerides present in vegetable oils, and following catalytic hydrotreating yields mainly n-alkanes. The results of the catalytic assays indicate that Ni2P/SBA-15 catalyst presents the highest ester conversion, whereas the transformation rate is about 20% lower for MoP/SBA-15. In contrast, catalysts based on Fe and Co phosphides show a rather limited activity. Hydrocarbon distribution in the liquid product suggests that both hydrodeoxygenation and decarboxylation/decarbonylation reactions occur simultaneously over the different catalysts, although MoP/SBA-15 possess a selectivity towards hydrodeoxygenation exceeding 90%. Accordingly, the catalyst based on MoP affords the highest yield of n-octadecane, which is the preferred product in terms of carbon atom economy. Subsequently, in order to conjugate the advantages of both Ni and Mo phosphides, a series of catalysts containing variable proportions of both metals were prepared. The obtained results reveal that the mixed phosphides catalysts present a catalytic behavior intermediate between those of the monometallic phosphides. Accordingly, only marginal enhancement of the yield of n-octadecane is obtained for the catalysts with a Mo/Ni ratio of 3. Nevertheless, owing to this high selectivity

  9. Physical state of poorly water soluble therapeutic molecules loaded into SBA-15 ordered mesoporous silica carriers: a case study with itraconazole and ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellaerts, Randy; Jammaer, Jasper A G; Van Speybroeck, Michiel; Chen, Hong; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Augustijns, Patrick; Van den Mooter, Guy; Martens, Johan A

    2008-08-19

    The ordered mesoporous silica material SBA-15 was loaded with the model drugs itraconazole and ibuprofen using three different procedures: (i) adsorption from solution, (ii) incipient wetness impregnation, and (iii) heating of a mixture of drug and SBA-15 powder. The location of the drug molecules in the SBA-15 particles and molecular interactions were investigated using nitrogen adsorption, TGA, DSC, DRS UV-vis, and XPS. The in vitro release of hydrophobic model drugs was evaluated in an aqueous environment simulating gastric fluid. The effectiveness of the loading method was found to be strongly compound dependent. Incipient wetness impregnation using a concentrated itraconazole solution in dichloromethane followed by solvent evaporation was most efficient for dispersing itraconazole in SBA-15. The itraconazole molecules were located on the mesopore walls and inside micropores of the mesopore walls. When SBA-15 was loaded by slurrying it in a diluted itraconazole solution from which the solvent was evaporated, the itraconazole molecules ended up in the mesopores that they plugged locally. At a loading of 30 wt %, itraconazole exhibited intermolecular interactions inside the mesopores revealed by UV spectroscopy and endothermic events traced with DSC. The physical mixing of itraconazole and SBA-15 powder followed by heating above the itraconazole melting temperature resulted in formulations in which glassy itraconazole particles were deposited externally on the SBA-15 particles. Loading with ibuprofen was successful with each of the three loading procedures. Ibuprofen preferably is positioned inside the micropores. In vitro release experiments showed fast release kinetics provided the drug molecules were evenly deposited over the mesoporous surface.

  10. A novel visible light-driven Ag3PO4/SBA-15 nanocomposite: Preparation and application in the photo-degradation of pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yuanyuan; Wang, Li; Ren, Jia; Dai, Wei-Lin

    2015-01-01

    A novel visible light-driven environmental-benign Ag3PO4/SBA-15 nanocomposite photo-catalyst was synthesized for the photo-degradation of pollutants. The exploration on adsorption and photo-catalysis of dye or organic pollution for the nanocomposite was carried out. The adsorption capability for Ag3PO4/SBA-15 nanocomposite increases by 3 times compared with that of the Ag3PO4 particles. The photo-catalytic activity of nanocomposite is higher than pristine Ag3PO4 nanoparticle for the degradation of RhB or MO under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The effect of Ag3PO4 loading on the catalytic performance was also studied. The results show that the optimum degradation is achieved over 20% Ag3PO4/SBA-15. Compared to pure Ag3PO4 nanoparticle, the most efficient catalyst showed 8 times higher photo-catalytic activity for the degradation of RhB. The Ag3PO4/SBA-15 catalysts were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and N2-adsorption-desorption isotherms (BET). A possible mechanism scheme regarding photo-degradation enhancement induced by dye enrichments has been proposed on the Ag3PO4/SBA-15 nanocomposite. Additionally, the SBA-15 support can enhance the efficiency of separation of catalyst from the reaction mixture, implying that the Ag3PO4 loading on the SBA-15 catalyst will not result in the extra environment and health problems and reduce the cost of wastewater treatment.

  11. Production of Renewable Hydrogen from Glycerol Steam Reforming over Bimetallic Ni-(Cu,Co,Cr Catalysts Supported on SBA-15 Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Carrero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol steam reforming (GSR is a promising alternative to obtain renewable hydrogen and help the economics of the biodiesel industry. Nickel-based catalysts are typically used in reforming reactions. However, the choice of the catalyst greatly influences the process, so the development of bimetallic catalysts is a research topic of relevant interest. In this work, the effect of adding Cu, Co, and Cr to the formulation of Ni/SBA-15 catalysts for hydrogen production by GSR has been studied, looking for an enhancement of its catalytic performance. Bimetallic Ni-M/SBA-15 (M: Co, Cu, Cr samples were prepared by incipient wetness co-impregnation to reach 15 wt % of Ni and 4 wt % of the second metal. Catalysts were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES, N2-physisorption, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA, and tested in GSR at 600 °C and atmospheric pressure. The addition of Cu, Co, and Cr to the Ni/SBA-15 catalyst helped to form smaller crystallites of the Ni phase, this effect being more pronounced in the case of the Ni-Cr/SBA-15 sample. This catalyst also showed a reduction profile shifted towards higher temperatures, indicating stronger metal-support interaction. As a consequence, the Ni-Cr/SBA-15 catalyst exhibited the best performance in GSR in terms of glycerol conversion and hydrogen production. Additionally, Ni-Cr/SBA-15 achieved a drastic reduction in coke formation compared to the Ni/SBA-15 material.

  12. Covalent Anchoring of Chloroperoxidase and Glucose Oxidase on the Mesoporous Molecular Sieve SBA-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hartmann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Functionalization of porous solids plays an important role in many areas, including heterogeneous catalysis and enzyme immobilization. In this study, large-pore ordered mesoporous SBA-15 molecular sieves were synthesized with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS in the presence of the non-ionic triblock co-polymer Pluronic P123 under acidic conditions. These materials were grafted with 3 aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (ATS, 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GTS and with 3 aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde (GA-ATS in order to provide covalent anchoring points for enzymes. The samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, diffuse reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance UV/Vis spectroscopy. The obtained grafted materials were then used for the immobilization of chloroperoxidase (CPO and glucose oxidase (GOx and the resulting biocatalysts were tested in the oxidation of indole. It is found that enzymes anchored to the mesoporous host by the organic moieties can be stored for weeks without losing their activity. Furthermore, the covalently linked enzymes are shown to be less prone to leaching than the physically adsorbed enzymes, as tested in a fixed-bed reactor under continuous operation conditions.

  13. Physical properties of ordered mesoporous SBA-15 silica as immunological adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano-Neto, F.; Matos, J. R.; Cides da Silva, L. C.; Carvalho, L. V.; Scaramuzzi, K.; Sant'Anna, O. A.; Oliveira, C. P.; Fantini, M. C. A.

    2014-10-01

    This work reports a detailed analysis of the ordered mesoporous SBA-15 silica synthesis procedure that provides a matrix with mean pore diameter around 10 nm. The encapsulation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by four different methods allowed the determination of the best imbibition condition, which is keeping the mixture under rest and solvent evaporation. Simulation of the in situ SAXS scattered intensity of the BSA release in potassium buffer solution, gastrointestinal fluids revealed a slow evolution of BSA content, independent of the media. Proton induced x-ray emission results obtained in calcined mouse organs revealed that silica is only present in the spleen after 35 days and is completely eliminated from all mouse organs after 10 weeks. Biological studies showed that Santa Barbara Amorphous-15 is an effective adjuvant when compared to the traditional Al(OH)3, and is non-toxic to mice, rats, dogs and even cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. Recent studies showed that the immunological response is improved by enhancing the inflammatory response and the recruitment of immune competent cells to the site of injection as by the oral route and, most importantly, by increasing the number of phagocytes of a particulate antigen by antigen presenting cells. This research is under the scope of the International Patent WO 07030901, IN248654,ZA2008/02277, KR 1089400, MX297263, JP5091863, CN101287491B.

  14. Preparation of ionic liquid-modified SBA-15 doped with molybdovanadophosphoric acid for oxidative desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Jiang Zhou; Jin, Xiao Yin; Shen, Xian Lin; Tan, Jun Jun; Nie, Long Hui; Xiang, Jian; Hu, Bing [Dept. of chool of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2015-07-15

    A series of catalysts, ionic liquid-modified SBA-15 (denoted ILSBA) doped with H{sub 5}PMo{sub 10}V{sub 2}O{sub 40} (HPMoV{sub 2}) have been synthesized and characterized by XRD, FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR, TG-DTA, and TEM. The catalyst was used for the removal of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in model oil combined with hydrogen peroxide (the oxidant) and acetonitrile (the phase-transfer agent). It was observed that the sulfur content of DBT can be reduced from 500 to 2 ppm by adjusting the amount of catalyst, the reaction temperatures and the reaction time. Besides, the catalyst activity for different sulfur compounds showed a huge difference which may be mainly affected by the electron densities of sulfur atom. Moreover, the catalyst can be recycled seven times without a significant loss in activity, which could be ascribed to the strong electrostatic interaction between ILSBA and HPMoV{sub 2}. In addition, a postulated mechanism was proposed to reveal the oxidative desulfurization process.

  15. Covalent Anchoring of Chloroperoxidase and Glucose Oxidase on the Mesoporous Molecular Sieve SBA-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dirk; Streb, Carsten; Hartmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Functionalization of porous solids plays an important role in many areas, including heterogeneous catalysis and enzyme immobilization. In this study, large-pore ordered mesoporous SBA-15 molecular sieves were synthesized with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in the presence of the non-ionic triblock co-polymer Pluronic P123 under acidic conditions. These materials were grafted with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (ATS), 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GTS) and with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde (GA-ATS) in order to provide covalent anchoring points for enzymes. The samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, diffuse reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance UV/Vis spectroscopy. The obtained grafted materials were then used for the immobilization of chloroperoxidase (CPO) and glucose oxidase (GOx) and the resulting biocatalysts were tested in the oxidation of indole. It is found that enzymes anchored to the mesoporous host by the organic moieties can be stored for weeks without losing their activity. Furthermore, the covalently linked enzymes are shown to be less prone to leaching than the physically adsorbed enzymes, as tested in a fixed-bed reactor under continuous operation conditions. PMID:20386667

  16. Photoluminescent SBA-16 Rhombic Dodecahedral Particles: Assembly, Characterization, and ab Initio Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruso, Juan M; Pardo, Victor; Sartuqui, Javier; Gravina, Noel; D'Elía, Noelia L; Pieroni, Olga I; Messina, Paula V

    2015-06-17

    Nowadays, the use of polyhedral instead of spherical particles as building blocks of engineering new materials has become an area of particular effort in the scientific community. Therefore, fabricating in a reproducible manner large amounts of uniform crystal-like particles is a huge challenge. In this work we report a low reagent-consuming binary surfactant templated method mediated by a hydrothermal treatment as a facile and controllable route for the synthesis of crystal-like rombdodecahedral particles exhibiting SBA-16 mesoporosity. It was determined that the hydrothermal treatment conditions were a key point upon the final material morphology, surface area, microporosity, wall thickness, and mesopore width. As a consequence of their internal mesoporosity order, rhombic dodecahedral synthesized particles exhibited highly efficient ultraviolet absorptions and photoluminescence emissions at room temperature. Conducting experimental and theoretical comparative studies allowed us to infer that the presence of intrinsic defects confined into an ordered mesoporous structure plays a very important role in semiconductor materials. The information presented here is expected to be useful, giving new, accurate information, for the construction of novel technological devices.

  17. The Epoxidation of Limonene over the TS-1 and Ti-SBA-15 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wróblewska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Limonene belongs to a group of very important intermediates used in the production of fine chemicals. This monoterpene compound can be obtained from peels of oranges or lemon which are a (biomass waste from the orange juice industry. Thus, limonene is a renewable, easy available and a relatively cheap compound. This work presents preliminary studies on the process of limonene epoxidation over zeolite type catalysts such as: TS-1 and Ti-SBA-15. In these studies methanol was used as a solvent and as an oxidizing agent a 60 wt % hydrogen peroxide solution was applied. The activity of each catalyst was investigated for four chosen temperatures (0 °C, 40 °C, 80 °C and 120 °C. The reaction time was changed from 0.5 to 24 h. For each catalyst the most beneficial conditions (the appropriate temperature and the reaction time have been established. The obtained results were compared and the most active catalyst was chosen. These studies have also shown different possible ways of limonene transformation, not only in the direction of 1,2-epoxylimonene and its corresponding diol, but also in direction of carveol, carvone and perillyl alcohol—compounds with a lot of applications. The possible mechanisms of formation of the allylic oxidation products were proposed.

  18. Catalytic Steam Reforming of Toluene as a Model Compound of Biomass Gasification Tar Using Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Dahlquist

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nickel supported on SBA-15 doped with CeO2 catalysts (Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 was prepared, and used for steam reforming of toluene which was selected as a model compound of biomass gasification tar. A fixed-bed lab-scale set was designed and employed to evaluate the catalytic performances of the Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 catalysts. Experiments were performed to reveal the effects of several factors on the toluene conversion and product gas composition, including the reaction temperature, steam/carbon (S/C ratio, and CeO2 loading content. Moreover, the catalysts were subjected to analysis of their carbon contents after the steam reforming experiments, as well as to test the catalytic stability over a long experimental period. The results indicated that the Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 catalysts exhibited promising capabilities on the toluene conversion, anti-coke deposition and catalytic stability. The toluene conversion reached as high as 98.9% at steam reforming temperature of 850 °C and S/C ratio of 3 using the Ni-CeO2(3wt%/SBA-15 catalyst. Negligible coke formation was detected on the used catalyst. The gaseous products mainly consisted of H2 and CO, together with a little CO2 and CH4.

  19. Clinical safety of a polyvalent F(ab')2 equine antivenom in 223 African snake envenomations: a field trial in Cameroon. VAO (Venin Afrique de l'Ouest) Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P; Lang, J; Eddine, S A; Fagot, P; Rage, V; Peyrieux, J C; Le Mener, V

    1998-01-01

    A large-scale clinical trials was conducted, according to World Health Organization Good Clinical Practice guidelines, in 7 centres in north Cameroon to determine the safety and efficacy of a polyvalent antivenom composed of purified F(ab')2. This study included 223 patients presenting clinically with obvious snake bite, predominantly due to Echis ocellatus (viper), the most abundant species in this savannah region. Clinical surveillance was maintained for 5 d in all patients and until the twenty-sixth day in 74% of cases. Two 10 mL ampoules of polyvalent F(ab')2 equine antivenom (Ipser Africa) were administered to each patient by intravenous infusion. If necessary, treatment was repeated 1 h after the end of the first infusion, and then with a frequency determined by the patient's clinical condition. Before initiation of antivenom treatment, the main clinical disorders observed on admission were oedema (93.7%) and haemorrhage (48.9%), with a clotting time longer than 30 min in 65.4% of patients. Clinical cure was obtained in 213 patients (96.8%). No amputation was necessary, and the case fatality rate was only 1.3%. On average, 4.6 (+/- 3.7) ampoules were administered per patient; 43% of subjects recovered after only a single infusion of 2 ampoules. Early adverse reactions, of varying degrees of severity, were observed in 6.3% of patients. A severe early reaction, anaphylactic shock, was observed in only one patient (0.4%). Serum sickness was observed in another patient. Polyvalent F(ab')2 equine antivenom given by repeated 20 mL intravenous infusions is a safe and effective treatment for envenomation caused by African vipers.

  20. Synthesis of bifunctional catalysts Al-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} with high aluminum content and the catalytic application for different one-pot reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Chunhua; Shang Fanpeng; Yu Xiaofang [Jilin University, Changchun (China); Guan Jingqi, E-mail: guanjq@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin University, Changchun (China); Kan Qiubin, E-mail: qkan@mail.jlu.edu.cn [Jilin University, Changchun (China)

    2012-07-01

    Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous catalysts Al-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} containing high content of Al and organic amine functional groups have been synthesized through the 'pH-adjusting' method. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron micrographs (SEM), transmission electron micrographs (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), IR spectra of pyridine adsorption, NH{sub 3}-TPD and elemental analysis. Catalytic results showed that 6-Al-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} (Si/Al = 6 mol%) was more active than 10-Al-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} (Si/Al = 10 mol%) in one-pot deacetalization-Knoevenagel and deacetalization-nitroaldol (Henry) reactions.

  1. Space-confined preparation of high surface area tungsten oxide and tungsten nitride inside the pores of mesoporous silica SBA-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Simon; Beyer, Hans; Köhler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    N inside the pores of ordered mesoporous silica SBA-15 offers a possibility to reduce sintering phenomena and thus to obtain smaller particles, porous structures and a higher surface area material. The preparation was pursued in a two-step approach. First, WO3 was introduced into the channels of SBA......For the direct preparation of high surface area nitride materials, a lack of suitable precursors exists. Indirect preparation by gas phase nitridation (e.g. by ammonia) requires high temperatures and often results in sintering. The present work demonstrates that the space-confined preparation of W2......-15 and second, ammonolysis was conducted for its conversion to W2N. When performed in the presence of the exo-template, SBA-15 acts as a stabilizer and small W2N particles (6-7 nm) with a high specific surface area (40 m(2) g(-1)) are obtained after template removal. When the template is, however...

  2. Comparison of the Acidity of Heteropolyacids Encapsulated in or Impregnated on SBA-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Teresa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Heteropolyacids (HPA immobilized onto SBA-15 silica were prepared by two different ways using either impregnation or encapsulation methodologies. Two Keggin-type HPA, H3PW12O40 and H4SiW12O40 were considered in this study. The resulting hybrid materials were fully characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, XRD, FT-IR, Raman, diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopies and 31P MAS NMR. All characterization methods showed that at room temperature the catalysts contained well-dispersed and intact Keggin units throughout the solid. The catalytic activity of these solids was investigated in the isomerization of n-hexane. The impregnated and encapsulated phosphotungstic catalysts performed similarly in catalysis showing that the amount of active sites was nearly the same in both catalysts. On the contrary, the tungstosilicic encapsulated material was completely inactive while its impregnated counterpart was even more active than the phosphotungstic derived catalysts. The acidity of the solids was measured by various methods: microcalorimetry of ammonia adsorption, ammonia desorption followed by Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD and DRIFT/GC-MS and pyridine adsorption followed by infrared spectroscopy. Only pyridine adsorption and ammonia desorption followed by DRIFT/GC-MS agreed with the catalytic data. Ammonia adsorption followed by microcalorimetry was not able to differentiate between the four catalysts while the TPD experiments led to unreliable results, as not only the evolved ammonia but also other molecules such as water were taken into account in the measurements. The behavior difference between the encapsulated silico- and phosphotungstic acids was explained by a more pronounced encapsulation in the case of silicon.

  3. Syngas Production from CO2 Reforming and CO2-steam Reforming of Methane over Ni/Ce-SBA-15 Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J. S.; Danh, H. T.; Singh, S.; Truong, Q. D.; Setiabudi, H. D.; Vo, D.-V. N.

    2017-06-01

    This study compares the catalytic performance of mesoporous 10 Ni/Ce-SBA-15 catalyst for CO2 reforming and CO2-steam reforming of methane reactions in syngas production. The catalytic performance of 10 Ni/Ce-SBA-15 catalyst for CO2 reforming and CO2-steam reforming of methane was evaluated in a temperature-controlled tubular fixed-bed reactor at stoichiometric feed composition, 1023 K and atmospheric pressure for 12 h on-stream with gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 36 L gcat -1 h-1. The 10 Ni/Ce-SBA-15 catalyst possessed a high specific BET surface area and average pore volume of 595.04 m2 g-1. The XRD measurement revealed the presence of NiO phase with crystallite dimension of about 13.60 nm whilst H2-TPR result indicates that NiO phase was completely reduced to metallic Ni0 phase at temperature beyond 800 K and the reduction temperature relied on different degrees of metal-support interaction associated with the location and size of NiO particles. The catalytic reactivity was significantly enhanced with increasing H2O/CO2 feed ratio. Interestingly, the H2/CO ratio for CO2-steam reforming of methane varied between 1 and 3 indicated the occurrence of parallel reactions, i.e., CH4 steam reforming giving a H2/CO of 3 whilst reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction consuming H2 to produce CO gaseous product.

  4. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro-d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro-d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis. PMID:25136282

  5. Usefulness of SBA-15 mesoporous ceramics as a delivery system for vancomycin, rifampicin and linezolid: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Manso, Diana; Manzano, Miguel; Doadrio, Juan Carlos; Del Prado, Gema; Ortiz-Pérez, Alberto; Vallet-Regí, María; Gómez-Barrena, Enrique; Esteban, Jaime

    2012-09-01

    Bone infections are a challenge for modern medicine. The most common pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus, which usually develops a biofilm inside the infected bone. Local release of antibiotics within the infected tissue may diminish this problem because high concentrations of the antibiotic would be delivered to the required place. This study was carried out to evaluate silica-based mesoporous material SBA-15 as a delivery system for three antibiotics with activity against S. aureus, namely vancomycin, rifampicin and linezolid, alone or in combination. SBA-15 disks were loaded with antibiotics by adsorption using a 1000 mg/L solution. Measurements of biological activity were carried out by bioassay tests, and antibiotic release was monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In all cases, the ceramic disks released most of the antibiotics at the initial stage of the experiments, with concentrations above the susceptibility breakpoints. The most active antibiotic was rifampicin, with an active concentration of 96.14 mg/L at 24 h, followed by linezolid (7.2 mg/L) and vancomycin (5.5 mg/L). In the HPLC measurements, the antibiotic that showed the best release was linezolid, followed by vancomycin; rifampicin alone could not be measured by HPLC with precision. Taking into account all these results, the antibiotic that remains most active after loading and release is vancomycin (77.46%), followed by linezolid (24%). The results presented here demonstrate the efficacy of SBA-15 bioceramics for local release of antibiotics, which could be of interest in the context of bone infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. SBA-15-incorporated nanoscale zero-valent iron particles for chromium(VI) removal from groundwater: mechanism, effect of pH, humic acid and sustained reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xia; Yan, Yubo; Li, Jiansheng; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Lianjun

    2014-02-15

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (NZVIs) were incorporated inside the channels of SBA-15 rods by a "two solvents" reduction technique and used to remove Cr(VI) from groundwater. The resulting NZVIs/SBA-15 composites before and after reaction were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results helped to propose the mechanism of Cr(VI) removal by NZVIs/SBA-15, where Cr(VI) in aqueous was firstly impregnated into the channels of the silica, then adsorbed on the surfaces of the incorporated NZVIs and reduced to Cr(III) directly in the inner pores of the silica. Corrosion products included Fe2O3, FeO(OH), Fe3O4 and Cr2FeO4. Batch experiments revealed that Cr(VI) removal decreased from 99.7% to 92.8% when the initial solution pH increased from 5.5 to 9.0, accompanied by the decrease of the kobs from 0.600 to 0.024 min(-1). Humic acid (HA) had a little effect on the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) by NZVIs/SBA-15 but could decrease the reduction rate. The stable reduction of NZVIs/SBA-15 was observed within six cycles. NZVIs/SBA-15 composites offer a promising alternative material to remove heavy metals from groundwater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. CO2 activation through silylimido and silylamido zirconium hydrides supported on N-donor chelating SBA15 surface ligand

    KAUST Repository

    Pasha, Fahran Ahmad

    2016-01-04

    Density functional theory calculations and 2D 1H-13C HETCOR solid state NMR spectroscopy prove that CO2 can probe, by its own reactivity, different types of N-donor surface ligands on SBA15-supported ZrIV hydrides: [(≡Si-O-)(≡Si-N=)[Zr]H] and [(≡Si-NH-)(≡Si-X-)[Zr]H2] (X = O or NH). Moreover, [(≡Si-O-)(≡Si-N=)[Zr]H] activates CO2 more efficiently than the other complexes and leads to a carbimato Zr formate.

  8. One-pot synthesis of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives using sulfonic acid functionalized SBA-15 and the study on their antimicrobial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodsi Mohammadi Ziarani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple and clean one-pot method for the preparation of 7-amino-2,4-dioxo-5-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carbonitrile derivatives using 6-amino uracil, various aromatic aldehydes and malononitrile in the presence of sulfonic acid functionalized SBA-15 (SBA-Pr-SO3H is described. Some of synthesized pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines showed antimicrobial activities against some fungi and gram positive and negative bacteria.

  9. Molecular recognition and organizational and polyvalent effects in vesicles induce the formation of artificial multicompartment cells as model systems of eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleos, Constantinos M; Pantos, A

    2014-05-20

    Researchers have become increasingly interested in the preparation and characterization of artificial cells based on amphiphilic molecules. In particular, artificial cells with multiple compartments are primitive mimics of the structure of eukaryotic cells. Endosymbiotic theory, widely accepted among biologists, states that eukaryotic cells arose from the assembly of prokaryotic cells inside other cells. Therefore, replicating this process in a synthetic system could allow researchers to model molecular and supramolecular processes that occur in living cells, shed light on mass and energy transport through cell membranes, and provide a unique, isolated space for conducting chemical reactions. In addition, such structures can serve as drug delivery systems that encapsulate both bioactive and nonbiocompatible compounds. In this Account, we present various coating, incubation, and electrofusion strategies for forming multicompartment vesicle systems, and we are focusing on strategies that rely on involving molecular recognition of complementary vesicles. All these methods afforded multicompartment systems with similar structures, and these nanoparticles have potential applications as drug delivery systems or nanoreactors for conducting diverse reactions. The complementarity of interacting vesicles allows these artificial cells to form, and the organization and polyvalency of these interacting vesicles further promote their formation. The incorporation of cholesterol in the bilayer membrane and the introduction of PEG chains at the surface of the interacting vesicles also support the structure of these multicompartment systems. PEG chains appear to destabilize the bilayers, which facilitates the fusion and transport of the small vesicles to the larger ones. Potential applications of these well-structured and reproducibly produced multicompartment systems include drug delivery, where researchers could load a cocktail of drugs within the encapsulated vesicles, a process

  10. Evaluation of head-of-bed elevation compliance in critically ill patients under mechanical ventilation in a polyvalent intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaurado-Serra, M; Ulldemolins, M; Güell-Baró, R; Coloma-Gómez, B; Alabart-Lorenzo, X; López-Gil, A; Bodí, M; Rodriguez, A; Jiménez-Herrera, M F

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate head-of-bed elevation (HOBE) compliance in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients during different time periods, in order to identify factors that may influence compliance and to compare direct-observation compliance with checklist-reported compliance. A prospective observational study was carried out in a polyvalent Intensive Care Unit. All consecutive patients with MV and no contraindication for semi-recumbency were studied. HOBE was observed during four periods of one month each for one year, the first period being blinded. HOBE was measured with an electronic device three times daily. Main variables were HOBE, type of airway device, type of bed, nursing shift, day of the week and checklist-reported compliance. No patient characteristics were collected. During the four periods, 2639 observations were collected. Global HOBE compliance was 24.0%, and the median angle head-of-bed elevation (M-HOBE) was 24.0° (IQR 18.8-30.0). HOBE compliance and M-HOBE by periods were as follows: blinded period: 13.8% and 21.1° (IQR 16.3-24.4); period 1: 25.5% and 24.3° (IQR 18.8-30.2); period 2: 22.7% and 24.4° (IQR 18.9-29.6); and period 3: 31.4% and 26.7° (IQR 21.3-32.6) (p<0.001). An overestimation of 50-60% was found when comparing self-reported compliance using a checklist versus direct-observation compliance (p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found the presence of an endotracheal tube (ET) and bed without HOBE measuring device to be independently associated to greater compliance (p<0.05). Although compliance increased significantly during the study period, it was still not optimal. Checklist-reported compliance significantly overestimated HOBE compliance. The presence of an ET and a bed without HOBE measuring device was associated to greater compliance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy of a polyvalent mastitis vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus on a dairy Mediterranean buffalo farm: results of two clinical field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guccione, Jacopo; Pesce, Antonella; Pascale, Massimo; Salzano, Caterina; Tedeschi, Gianni; D'Andrea, Luigi; De Rosa, Angela; Ciaramella, Paolo

    2017-01-19

    In the last years the knowledges on Mediterranean Buffalo (MB) mastitis is remarkably improving, nevertheless the attention has been never focused on vaccination as preventive strategy for the control of mastitis in these ruminates. The aim of the current study was to assess clinical efficacy over time of two different preventive vaccination protocols against S. aureus mastitis, in primiparous MB.Vaccinated (VG) and not-vaccinated (N-VG) groups, of 30 MB each one, were selected from two different herds (herd A: VG1 and N-VG1; herd B: VG2 and N-VG2) of the same farm. Herd A received a double vaccination (Startvac®, 45 and 10 days before calving, protocol A), while in herd B an additional administration was performed (52 days after calving, protocol B). Bacteriological milk culture and assessment of somatic cell count (SCC) were performed at 10, 30, 60 and 90 days in milk (DIM) from composite milk samples. After 90 DIM, daily milk yields and SCC values were monthly detected until dry-off. The overall incidence of positive MB for S. aureus was 40.8% (49/120) in VG1 and 43.3% (52/120) in N-VG1 (Protocol A), while 45.8% (55/120) and 50.8% (61/120) in VG2 and N-VG2 (Protocol B). The latter was associated with a significant decreased in prevalence (at 90 DIM) and incidence of mastitis (animals positive for S. aureus, SCC > 200^10 3 , with or without clinical signs) in the vaccinated MB, while no difference occurred in protocol A. Moreover, herd B showed a significant reduction in prevalence of intramammary infection (animals positive for S. aureus, SCC mastitis and somatic cell count; the polyvalent mastitis vaccine may be considered an additional tool for in-herd S aureus infection and should be associated to other control procedures to maximize its properties.

  12. Hydrogen Production from Cyclic Chemical Looping Steam Methane Reforming over Yttrium Promoted Ni/SBA-16 Oxygen Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Daneshmand-Jahromi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the modification of Ni/SBA-16 oxygen carrier (OC with yttrium promoter is investigated. The yttrium promoted Ni-based oxygen carrier was synthesized via co-impregnation method and applied in chemical looping steam methane reforming (CL-SMR process, which is used for the production of clean energy carrier. The reaction temperature (500–750 °C, Y loading (2.5–7.4 wt. %, steam/carbon molar ratio (1–5, Ni loading (10–30 wt. % and life time of OCs over 16 cycles at 650 °C were studied to investigate and optimize the structure of OC and process temperature with maximizing average methane conversion and hydrogen production yield. The synthesized OCs were characterized by multiples techniques. The results of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX of reacted OCs showed that the presence of Y particles on the surface of OCs reduces the coke formation. The smaller NiO species were found for the yttrium promoted OC and therefore the distribution of Ni particles was improved. The reduction-oxidation (redox results revealed that 25Ni-2.5Y/SBA-16 OC has the highest catalytic activity of about 99.83% average CH4 conversion and 85.34% H2 production yield at reduction temperature of 650 °C with the steam to carbon molar ratio of 2.

  13. SBA-15 mesoporous silica free-standing thin films containing copper ions bounded via propyl phosphonate units - preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskowski, Lukasz, E-mail: lukasz.laskowski@kik.pcz.pl [Czestochowa University of Technology, Institute of Computational Intelligence, Unit of Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, Al. Armii Krajowej 36, 42–201 Czestochowa (Poland); Laskowska, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.laskowska@onet.pl [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Krakow, ul. Radzikowskiego 152 (Poland); Jelonkiewicz, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzy.jelonkiewicz@kik.pcz.pl [Czestochowa University of Technology, Institute of Computational Intelligence, Unit of Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, Al. Armii Krajowej 36, 42–201 Czestochowa (Poland); Dulski, Mateusz, E-mail: mateusz.dulski@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Faculty of Computer Science and Materials Science, Institute of Materials Science, Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, ul. 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A, 41–500 Chorzów (Poland); Wojtyniak, Marcin, E-mail: marcin.wojtyniak@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, ul. 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A, 41–500 Chorzów (Poland); Fitta, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.fitta@ifj.edu.pl [H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31–342 Krakow, ul. Radzikowskiego 152 (Poland); Balanda, Maria, E-mail: Maria.Balanda@ifj.edu.pl [H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31–342 Krakow, ul. Radzikowskiego 152 (Poland)

    2016-09-15

    The SBA-15 silica thin films containing copper ions anchored inside channels via propyl phosphonate groups are investigated. Such materials were prepared in the form of thin films, with hexagonally arranged pores, laying rectilinear to the substrate surface. However, in the case of our thin films, their free standing form allowed for additional research possibilities, that are not obtainable for typical thin films on a substrate. The structural properties of the samples were investigated by X-ray reflectometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The molecular structure was examined by Raman spectroscopy supported by numerical simulations. Magnetic measurements (SQUID magnetometry and EPR spectroscopy) showed weak antiferromagnetic interactions between active units inside silica channels. Consequently, the pores arrangement was determined and the process of copper ions anchoring by propyl phosphonate groups was verified in unambiguous way. Moreover, the type of interactions between magnetic atoms was determined. - Highlights: • Functionalized free-standing SBA-15 thin films were synthesized for a first time. • Thin films synthesis procedure was described in details. • Structural properties of the films were thoroughly investigated and presented. • Magnetic properties of the novel material was investigated and presented.

  14. Polyvalent immunoglobulins with vitamin D3 and vitamin B12 in the treatment of Sjogren's syndrome in a vegetarian with stomatitis, glossodynia, xerostomia, and elevated antinuclear antibodies: Case report
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Clemens; Vaerst, Barbara; Gabrielpillai, Jennis; Tahtali, Aykut; Balster, Sven; Lissner, Reinhard; Woodcock, Barry G

    2018-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome, involving sicca symptoms with xerostomia, stomatitis, and considerable pain is a difficult-to-treat autoimmune disease where the treatment options are limited and, as in the case of methotrexate, have a low therapeutic index. This case report concerns a male patient, aged 75 years and vegetarian, with Sjogren's syndrome subsequently confirmed by salivary gland biopsy. Serum antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were elevated (1 : 320). Low serum vitamin B12 and iron levels could be improved after 20 days using vitamin B12 and iron oral supplements. Despite symptomatic treatment, xerostomia, glossitis, and glossodynia were still present, at times marked, after 12 months when the ANA titer was unchanged. Following treatment with an anti-inflammatory polyvalent immunoglobulin formulation (Lactobin®N, 7 g daily), a bovine colostrum concentrate given orally in combination with oral vitamin D3 (2,000 IU daily), sicca symptoms and xerostomia progressively decreased and at day 750 were confined to occasional and minor glossitis of the upper lip. This case report demonstrates the satisfactory control of Sjogren's syndrome using oral polyvalent immunoglobulins with vitamin D3. In contrast to treatment options involving antimalarial drugs and methotrexate, there are no safety issues in patients tolerant to milk products.
.

  15. Controlled and localized delivery of c-myc AS-ODN to cells by 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxylsilane modified SBA-15 mesoporous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Chen, Minmin; Zhao, Xiqiu; Zhang, Min; Mao, Jinxiang; Cao, Xichuan; Zhang, Zhuoqi

    2018-01-01

    SBA-15 mesoporous silicate was synthesized and functionalized with 3-aminopropyl organic groups through a post-synthesis method. The materials were characterized consecutively by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption/desorption analysis and solid-state magic-angle spinning 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). Human c-myc anti-sense oligodeoxyneucleotide (AS-ODN) was selected as a model molecule to be loaded onto the surface of bare and functionalized SBA-15 via different loading conditions. It has been found that the amount of AS-ODN incorporated into the porous matrix is strongly dependent on the surface properties, pH of the loading solvent and AS-ODN concentration. The release behaviour of AS-ODN from modified SBA-15 materials was also investigated and depended on conditions chosen. Cellular uptake of the eluted AS-ODN into Hela cells was observed by fluorescent microscopy. The materials showed excellent cytocompatibility. The AS-ODN keeps full transfection and expression activities indicating its structural integrity. The functionalized SBA-15 is an excellent prospect as a biomedical material candidate for the future.

  16. Small Businesses Save Big: A Guide to Help SBA Lenders Understand and Communicate the Value of Energy Efficiency Investments (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides guidelines for SBA lenders to understand the value of financing energy efficiency investments.

  17. Increasing the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble carbamazepine using immediate-release pellets supported on SBA-15 mesoporous silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhouhua; Chen, Bao; Quan, Guilan; Li, Feng; Wu, Qiaoli; Dian, Linghui; Dong, Yixuan; Li, Ge; Wu, Chuanbin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an immediate-release pellet formulation with improved drug dissolution and adsorption. Carbamazepine, a poorly water-soluble drug, was adsorbed into mesoporous silica (SBA-15-CBZ) via a wetness impregnation method and then processed by extrusion/spheronization into pellets. Physicochemical characterization of the preparation was carried out by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, small-angle and wide-angle x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Flowability and wettability of the drug-loaded silica powder were evaluated by bulk and tapped density and by the angle of repose and contact angle, respectively. The drug-loaded silica powder was formulated into pellets to improve flowability. With maximum drug loading in SBA-15 matrices determined to be 20% wt, in vitro release studies demonstrated that the carbamazepine dissolution rate was notably improved from both the SBA-15 powder and the corresponding pellets as compared with the bulk drug. Correspondingly, the oral bioavailability of SBA-15-CBZ pellets was increased considerably by 1.57-fold in dogs (P release commercial carbamazepine tablets. Immediate-release carbamazepine pellets prepared from drug-loaded silica provide a feasible approach for development of a rapidly acting oral formulation for this poorly water-soluble drug and with better absorption.

  18. Direct synthesis of mesoporous molecular sieves of Ni-SBA-16 by internal pH adjustment method and its performance for adsorption of toxic Brilliant Green dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Tufail Shah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An ordered mesoporous novel material Ni-SBA-16 has been synthesized by internal pH-adjustment method. The synthesized material has been characterized by small angle XRD (SXRD, wide angle XRD (WXRD, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM, Fourier-transform Infra-red (FTIR spectroscope and Nitrogen Adsorption desorption techniques. The characterization results have shown that material possesses highly ordered mesostructure with high surface area (736 m2/g and large pore diameter (3.8 nm. FTIR and WXRD spectra revealed that nickel was uniformly dispersed on SBA-16 surface. The synthesized material has been used as adsorbent for removal of toxic Brilliant Green dye due to its large surface area and pore size. At optimized conditions, almost 100% of Brilliant Green dye was removed from aqueous solution by Ni-SBA-16. The isotherms analysis indicates that the Langmuir and Hill models provide the best correlation of the experimental data. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax of Ni-SBA-16 for Brilliant Green dye was 322.58 mg/g.

  19. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayati, Talib M.; Doyle, Aidan M.

    2015-02-01

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption-desorption porosimetry (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96-99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction.

  20. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albayati, Talib M., E-mail: talib-albyati@yahoo.com [University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (Iraq); Doyle, Aidan M., E-mail: a.m.doyle@mmu.ac.uk [Manchester Metropolitan University, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption–desorption porosimetry (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96–99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction.

  1. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} coated SBA-15 nanocomposites fabricated through a novel approach: supercritical deposition aided by liquid-crystal template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chen; Lin, Xiao; Li, Youji, E-mail: bcclyj@163.com; Xu, Peng; Li, Ming; Chen, Feitai

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Highly uniform mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanopartices were coated SBA-15. • MT showed smaller crystallite size, higher hydroxyl content and surface area. • MT/SBA-15 show enhanced photocatalytic activity and high reused activity. • The optimum MT loading rate and calcination temperature were obtained to be 15% and 400 °C, respectively. • Photocatalytic behaviors are discussed in terms of the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. - Abstract: Mesoporous TiO2 coated SBA-15 (MT@S) nanocomposites were fabricated through supercritical CO{sub 2} deposition aided by liquid-crystal template. The as-prepared samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and so on. The results reveal that MT uniformly deposited onto silica with titania incorporated in SBA-15 channels, showed smaller crystallite size, higher hydroxyl content and surface area than nonporous TiO{sub 2} coated SBA-15 (NT@S) obtained by a similar route without template. With TiO{sub 2} loading ratio of 15 wt% and calcination temperature of 400 °C, 15%MT@S-400 showed the enhanced degradation efficiency for azo dyes (methylene blue, methyl orange, and rhodamine B) and phenol in comparsion with 15%NT@S-400, due to those improved textural and physicochemical properties. Meanwhile, the reused MT@S also showed high photoactivity. Additionally, the effects of MT content and calcination temperature have been examined as operational parameters. Photocatalytic reactions followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and are discussed in terms of the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model.

  2. The Multi-Template Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Based on SBA-15 for Selective Separation and Determination of Panax notoginseng Saponins Simultaneously in Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghong Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The feasible, reliable and selective multi-template molecularly imprinted polymers (MT-MIPs based on SBA-15 (SBA-15@MT-MIPs for the selective separation and determination of the trace level of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1, ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1 and notoginsenoside R1 (R1 simultaneously from biological samples were developed. The polymers were constructed by SBA-15 as support, Rb1, Rg1, R1 as multi-template, acrylamide (AM as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA as cross-linker. The new synthetic SBA-15@MT-MIPs were satisfactorily applied to solid-phase extraction (SPE coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for the separation and determination of trace Rb1, Rg1 and R1 in plasma samples. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs and quantitation (LOQs of the proposed method for Rb1, Rg1 and R1 were in the range of 0.63–0.75 ng·mL−1 and 2.1–2.5 ng·mL−1, respectively. The recoveries of R1, Rb1 and Rg1 were obtained between 93.4% and 104.3% with relative standard deviations (RSDs in the range of 3.3–4.2%. All results show that the obtained SBA-15@MT-MIPs could be a promising prospect for the practical application in the selective separation and enrichment of trace Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS in the biological samples.

  3. Synthesis and Application of Cerium-Incorporated SBA-16 Supported Ni-Based Oxygen Carrier in Cyclic Chemical Looping Steam Methane Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Meshksar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen, as a clean energy carrier, could be produced aided by cyclic oxidation-reduction of oxygen carriers (OCs in contact with carbonaceous fuel in chemical looping steam methane reforming (CL-SMR process. In this study, the cerium was incorporated into the SBA-16 support structure to synthesize the Ni/Ce-SBA-16 OC. The supports were synthesized using hydrothermal method followed by impregnation of Ni and characterized via low and wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, and transmission electron micrograph (TEM techniques. In addition, the effect of various Si/Ce molar ratios (20–60 in the support structure, Ni loading (10–30 wt %, reaction temperature (500–750 °C, and life time of optimal oxygen carrier over 16 cycles were investigated. The results of wide angle XRD and SEM revealed that the incorporation of CeO2 in the channels of SBA-16 caused the formation of nickel metallic particles with smaller size and prevents the coke formation. The results showed that OC with 15 wt % Ni and Si/Ce molar ratio of 40 (15Ni/Ce-SBA-16(40 has the best performance when compared with other OCs in terms of catalytic activity and structural properties. The methane conversion of about 99.7% was achieved at 700 °C using 15Ni/Ce-SBA-16(40 OC. We anticipate that the strategy can be extended to investigate a variety of novel modified mesoporous silica as the supporting material for the Ni based OCs.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of nano structures of Silica SBA-16 containing Gadolinium-159 as potential nanoparticulated system for cancer therapy; Sintese e caracterizacao de nanoestruturas de Silica SBA-16 contendo Gadolinio-159 como potencial sistema nanoparticulado para o tratamento do cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Andre Felipe de

    2013-07-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and malignant neoplasms of the lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast in greater numbers. And recently observed in the literature a large number of reviews where new materials, especially nanoparticle, has been studied as drug carriers and radioisotopes applied to cancer treatment. How mesoporous materials based on silica, thanks to its huge surface area and biocompatibility, have been studied intensively providing broad applications in various areas, the use of nanostructured silica SBA-16 might be a carrier specific radioisotope accumulate in the cells malignant. Thus the aim of this study is to develop in vitro studies using SBA-16 can selectively concentrate in malignant cells therapeutic amounts of the radioisotope Gadolinium-159 escorting them to death. This work was performed orderly synthesis of mesoporous silica, SBA-16 and incorporating the complex Gd-DTPA-BMA, as well as chemical and structural characterization. The techniques used to analyze the occurrence of the incorporation of the gadolinium complex in the silica matrix were elemental analysis (CHN), atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nitrogen adsorption (BET), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). To analyze the morphology of pure silica used the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) it was possible to obtain a measure of mean particle size, the polydispersity index (PDI) of the silica SBA-16, and the zeta potential by laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). The results of incorporation analyzed by ICP-AES indicated that the material SBA-16 had a higher rate of incorporation of gadolinium (93%). The release kinetics in simulated body fluid, showed considerable stability and low release (1%). The mesoporous silica SBA-16 showed cell viability in direct contact with cell culture. Samples with gadolinium

  5. Kinetics of Enantiomerically Enriched Synthesis of Solketal Esters Using Native and SBA-15 supported P. Fluorescens Lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zniszczoł Aurelia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The studies showed that alkaline lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens enables an irreversible transesterification of vinyl esters to give enantiomeric excess (eeR of about 80% using vinyl butyrate as acyl donor and diisopropyl ether as a solvent, at partially optimized conditions. For the native lipase the process was adequately described by a five-parameter Ping-Pong Bi Bi model for both enantiomers plus expression accounting for the formation of enzyme-acyl donor complex, but for the same lipase supported on mesoporous materials of SBA-15-Oc type, R-product inhibition also had to be taken into account. The use of hydrophobic support increased by more than two-fold the rate of the S-solketal conversion but even more that of R-solketal. Thus the immobilization of lipase had very positive effect on the process kinetics but decreased its enantioselectivity.

  6. The synthesis of novel thiol/amino bifunctionalized SBA-15 and application on the Cr(VI) absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, D.; Yang, J. X.

    2017-08-01

    Novel amino/thiol organic groups modified SBA-15 materials were successfully prepared by a simple co-condensation approach. The synthesize mesoporous materials were characterized by FT-IR, SAXRD, N2 adsorption and elemental analysis (EA). The absorption behavior of Cr (VI) in the samples has been investigated. The experiments revealed that the adsorption amount of Cr (VI) was decided by thiol groups, but the adsorption equilibrium time was mainly effected by amino groups. The 15% NH2+20%SH sample had the best adsorption performance. Its maximum adsorption capacity can be up to 49.29 mg/g at the optimum conditions. The research of adsorption mechanism including adsorption kinetics and adsorption thermodynamics was also presented.

  7. Iron oxide inside SBA-15 modified with amino groups as reusable adsorbent for highly efficient removal of glyphosate from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorilli, Sonia; Rivoira, Luca; Calì, Giada; Appendini, Marta; Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Coïsson, Marco; Onida, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    Iron oxide clusters were incorporated into amino-functionalized SBA-15 in order to obtain a magnetically recoverable adsorbent. The physical-chemical properties of the material were characterized by FE-SEM, STEM, XRD, TGA, XPS, FT-IR and acid-base titration analysis. Iron oxide nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed into the pore of mesoporous silica and that the adsorbent is characterized high specific surface area (177 m2/g) and accessible porosity. The sorbent was successfully tested for the removal of glyphosate in real water matrices. Despite the significant content of inorganic ions, a quantitative removal of the contaminant was found. The complete regeneration of the sorbent after the adsorption process through diluted NaOH solution was also proved.

  8. Silicon oxynitrides of KCC-1, SBA-15 and MCM-41 for CO 2 capture with excellent stability and regenerability

    KAUST Repository

    Patil, Umesh

    2012-01-01

    We report the use of silicon oxynitrides as novel adsorbents for CO 2 capture. Three series of functionalized materials based on KCC-1, SBA-15 and MCM-41 with Si-NH 2 groups were prepared using a simple one-step process via thermal ammonolysis using ammonia gas, and they demonstrated excellent CO 2 capture capabilities. These materials overcome several limitations of conventional amine-grafted mesoporous silica. They offer good CO 2 capture capacity, faster adsorption-desorption kinetics, efficient regeneration and reuse, more crucially excellent thermal and mechanical stability even in oxidative environments, and a clean and green synthesis route, which allows the overall CO 2 capture process to be practical and sustainable. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

  9. Investigation of Y/SBA Composite Molecular Sieves Morphology Control and Catalytic Performance for n-Pentane Aromatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chun-Wei; Wu, Wen-Yuan; Li, Shuai; Bian, Xue; Zhao, Shan-Lin; Pei, Ming-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Using Y molecular sieve as the core, Y/SBA-15 composite molecular sieves were prepared by different crystallization methods in the paper. The growth process and morphologies of the composite molecular sieves were controlled by adjusting the synthesis factors. The structures and acidity of two kinds of composite molecular sieves were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption/desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and NH3-TPD. The catalysis performances of the composite molecular sieves were investigated in the aromatization reaction of n-pentane. The results indicated that the desired core-shell composite molecular sieves were obtained when the crystallization conditions were 36 hours, 100 °C and secondary crystallization. The aromatization results showed that core-shell composite molecular sieves had better selectivity for producing high application value xylenes compared to mixed-crystal composite molecular sieves.

  10. Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen; Arciniega, Juan

    2004-09-01

    Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The mouse antibody response for the detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) antigen, filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM) antigens for the appropriate vaccine type indicated that the antibody response was not significantly changed in the 25 kGy X-ray irradiated vaccines frozen in liquid nitrogen compared to the control vaccine.

  11. Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J.C. E-mail: may@cber.fda.gov; Rey, L. E-mail: louis.rey@bluewin.ch; Lee, C.-J.; Arciniega, Juan

    2004-10-01

    Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The mouse antibody response for the detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) antigen, filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM) antigens for the appropriate vaccine type indicated that the antibody response was not significantly changed in the 25 kGy X-ray irradiated vaccines frozen in liquid nitrogen compared to the control vaccine.

  12. FabAV antivenin use after copperhead snakebite: clinically indicated or knee-jerk reaction?

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Stephen C.; Peters, Jo Ann; Allen, LaDonna; Creath, Robert; Dombrovskiy, Viktor Y

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) (FabAV) antivenin is commonly recommended after pit viper snakebites. Because copperhead envenomations are usually self-limited, some physicians are reluctant to use this costly treatment routinely, while others follow a more liberal approach. We hypothesized that, in practice, only patients with evidence of significant (moderate or severe) copperhead envenomation [those with snakebite severity score (SSS) > 3] receive FabAV and e...

  13. The Effect of Nitrogen Surface Ligands on Propane Metathesis: Design and Characterizations of N-modified SBA15-Supported Schrock-type Tungsten Alkylidyne

    KAUST Repository

    Eid, Ahmed A.

    2014-04-01

    Catalysis, which is primarily a molecular phenomenon, is an important field of chemistry because it requires the chemical conversion of molecules into other molecules. It also has an effect on many fields, including, but not limited to, industry, environment and life Science[1]. Surface Organometallic Chemistry is an effective methodology for Catalysis as it imports the concept and mechanism of organometallic chemistry, to surface science and heterogeneous catalysis. So, it bridges the gap between homogenous and heterogeneous catalysis[1]. The aim of the present research work is to study the effect of Nitrogen surface ligands on the activity of Alkane, Propane in particular, metathesis. Our approach is based on the preparation of selectively well-defined group (VI) transition metal complexes supported onto mesoporous materials, SBA15 and bearing amido and/or imido ligands. We choose nitrogen ligands because, according to the literature, they showed in some cases better catalytic properties in homogenous catalysis in comparison with their oxygen counterparts[2]. The first section covers the modification of a highly dehydroxylated SBA15 surface using a controlled ammonia treatment. These will result in the preparation of two kind of Nitrogen surface ligands: -\\tOne with vicinal silylamine/silanol, (≡SiNH2)(≡SiOH), noted [N,O]SBA15 and, -\\tAnother\\tone\\twith\\tvicinal\\tbis-silylamine moieties (≡SiNH2)2, noted [N,N]SBA15[3]. The second section covers the reaction of Schrock type Tungsten Carbyne [W(≡C- tBu)(CH2-tBu)3] with those N-surface ligands and their characterizations by FT-IR, multiple quantum solid state NMR (1H, 13C), elemental analysis and gas phase analysis. The third section covers the generation of the active site, tungsten hydride species. Their performance toward propane metathesis reaction using the dynamic reactor technique PID compared toward previous well-known catalysts supported on silica oxide or mesoporous materials[4]. A fairly good

  14. The association between metabolic rate, immune parameters, and growth performance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), following the injection of a DNA vaccine alone and concurrently with a polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Lisa A; Schulte, P M; Balfry, S K; McKinley, R S; LaPatra, S E

    2010-02-01

    This research demonstrates a significant increase in routine metabolic rate (RMR) following injection of a DNA vaccine concurrently with a polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine. The increase in RMR was transient and associated with increased activity of both the non-specific and specific immune responses. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected with a DNA vaccine (DV), a commercially available polyvalent, oil-adjuvanted vaccine (AV), or the two vaccines in combination and sampled at 203, 305, and 406 days (dd) post-vaccine injection (pvi) for RMR and key immune parameters (serum lysozyme activity, serum neutralization antibody titres). The RMR of fish that received both the DV and the AV was significantly higher at 203 dd pvi, compared to fish from all other treatment groups which included the control, the AV, and the DV groups. The increased RMR corresponded to elevated levels of serum lysozyme activity and an earlier seroconversion of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies. To determine if growth performance was affected by the transient increase in RMR, specific growth rate (SGR), percent daily weight gain (WG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined at 798, 1204, and 1610 dd pvi. Although fish in all three vaccine groups showed significant increases in SGR and WG at 798 and 1610 dd pvi compared to the control group, the overall weight of the fish was not different at the end of the experiment. In summary, this study shows that concurrent injection of a DV and an AV transiently increases the RMR of rainbow trout and changes the manner in which the immune response occurs, but does not affect the overall growth performance of the fish. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation And Characterization Of Glycidyl Methacrylate Organo Bridges Grafted Mesoporous Silica Sba-15 As Ibuprofen And Mesalamine Carrier For Controlled Release

    OpenAIRE

    Rehman; Fozia; Rahim; Abdur; Airoldi; Claudio; Volpe; Pedro L. O.

    2016-01-01

    Mesoporous silica SBA-15 was synthesized and functionalized with bridged polysilsesquioxane monomers obtained by the reaction of 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane with glycidyl methacrylate in 2:1 ratio. The synthesized mesoporous silica materials were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The nuclear magnetic resonance in the solid state is in ...

  16. Mercaptosilane-assisted synthesis of sub-nanosized Pt particles within hierarchically porous ZSM-5/SBA-15 materials and their enhanced hydrogenation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Daowei; Zheng, Anmin; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Hui; Dai, Xiaoping; Yang, Ying; Wang, Hai; Qin, Yuchen; Xu, Shutao; Duan, Aijun

    2015-07-07

    A novel catalyst that consists of sub-nanosized Pt particles within hierarchically porous ZSM-5/SBA-15 materials was synthesized. This catalyst exhibited high stability and a hierarchically porous structure of a micro-mesoporous composite and possessed a high density of active sites by confinement of sub-nanosized Pt particles within small-pore zeolites, showing high catalytic properties for the hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene and cyclooctadiene at room temperature.

  17. Dissolution enhancement of a model poorly water-soluble drug, atorvastatin, with ordered mesoporous silica: comparison of MSF with SBA-15 as drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Aziz; Hamidi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop mesoporous silica materials incorporated with poorly water-soluble drug atorvastatin calcium (AC) in order to improve drug dissolution, and intended to be orally administrated. A comparison between 2D-hexagonal silica nanostructured SBA-15 and mesocellular siliceous foam (MSF) with continuous 3D pore system on drug release rate was investigated. AC-loaded mesoporous silicas were characterized thorough N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Results demonstrated a successful incorporation of AC into the silica-based hosts. The results taken from the drug release tests were also analyzed using different parameters, namely similarity factor (f2), difference factor (f1), dissolution efficiency (DE%), mean dissolution rate (MDR) and dissolution time (tm%). It confirmed a significant enhancement in the release profile of atorvastatin calcium with SBA-15, and MSF as drug carrier. Moreover, in comparison with SBA-15, MSF showed faster release rate of AC in enzyme-free simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2). We believed that our findings can help the use of mesoporous silica materials in improving bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  18. The applicability of ordered mesoporous SBA-15 and its hydrophobic glutaraldehyde-bridge derivative to improve ibuprofen-loading in releasing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Fozia; Volpe, Pedro L O; Airoldi, Claudio

    2014-07-01

    The mesoporous SBA-15 silica with uniform hexagonal pore, narrow pore size distribution and tuneable pore diameter was organofunctionalized with glutaraldehyde-bridged silylating agent. The precursor and its derivative silicas were ibuprofen-loaded for controlled delivery in simulated biological fluids. The synthesized silicas were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, (13)C and (29)Si solid state NMR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Surface functionalization with amine containing bridged hydrophobic structure resulted in significantly decreased surface area from 802.4 to 63.0 m(2) g(-1) and pore diameter 8.0-6.0 nm, which ultimately increased the drug-loading capacity from 18.0% up to 28.3% and a very slow release rate of ibuprofen over the period of 72.5h. The in vitro drug release demonstrated that SBA-15 presented the fastest release from 25% to 27% and SBA-15GA gave near 10% of drug release in all fluids during 72.5 h. The Korsmeyer-Peppas model better fits the release data with the Fickian diffusion mechanism and zero order kinetics for synthesized mesoporous silicas. Both pore sizes and hydrophobicity influenced the rate of the release process, indicating that the chemically modified silica can be suggested to design formulation of slow and constant release over a defined period, to avoid repeated administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancing in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability of fenofibrate by solid self-emulsifying matrix combined with SBA-15 mesoporous silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Guilan; Wu, Qiaoli; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Zhan, Zhengwen; Zhou, Chan; Chen, Bao; Zhang, Zhengzan; Li, Ge; Pan, Xin; Wu, Chuanbin

    2016-05-01

    Mesoporous silica Santa Barbara amorphous-15 (SBA-15), derived from supermolecular assemblies of surfactant Pluronic(®) P123 with well-ordered 2-D hexagonal pores, was investigated as a reservoir to construct a novel solid self-emulsifying matrix for enhancing the oral bioavailability of fenofibrate (FNB). The emulsification rate and droplet size of a liquid self-emulsifying delivery system (SEDDS) were analyzed for optimization. SBA-15 was then added to the ethanol solution containing liquid SEDDS, and the obtained suspension changed into solid SEDDS matrix via solvent evaporation. The characterizations by SEM and XRD revealed that the solid matrix consisted of particles with smooth surface and FNB was completely transformed into molecular or amorphous state in the formulation. When introduced to aqueous media under gentle agitation, the solid matrix exhibited excellent self-emulsification properties and formed a uniform microemulsion with mean diameter of 117.35 ± 2.33 nm. The solid SEDDS matrix showed faster in vitro release rate than the raw powder and commercial capsule. The absorption of FNB delivered by solid SEDDS matrix was significantly improved in beagle dogs, and its Cmax and AUC values were about 8- and 4-fold greater than those of commercial products, respectively. In conclusion, SBA-15 emerged as a promising reservoir for SEDDS to enhance the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs, which may provide a new strategy for advanced therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Amine-modified SBA-15 and MCF mesoporous molecular sieves as promising sorbents for natural antioxidant. Modeling of caffeic acid adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Michał; Geszke-Moritz, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a detailed study of caffeic acid adsorption on mesoporous SBA-15 and MCF silicas functionalized with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 3-[2-(aminoethylamino)propyl]trimethoxysilane (AEAPTMS). Synthesized mesoporous adsorbents were characterized using different analytical techniques such as N2 sorption, XRD, TEM, SEM and FT-IR. The adsorption studies of caffeic acid were conducted in various organic solvents. Moreover, the effect of water content in 2-propanol-water mixture on adsorption efficiency was investigated. The experimental data were best fitted to the Langmuir equation, followed by the Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capacity values calculated from the Langmuir model demonstrated that SBA-15 and MCF silicas modified with AEAPTMS revealed better adsorption properties toward caffeic acid (192.3 and 161.3mg/g, respectively) as compared to the materials modified with APTES (125.0 and 113.6 mg/g, respectively). The obtained results indicate that both SBA-15 and MCF silicas functionalized with AEAPTMS and APTES are promising materials for the entrapment of caffeic acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Amine-functionalized SBA-15 with uniform morphology and well-defined mesostructure for highly sensitive chemosensors to detect formaldehyde vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongheng; Li, Hui; Zheng, Qi; Xu, Jiaqiang; Li, Xinxin

    2012-05-22

    Amine-functionalized SBA-15 with uniform morphology and well-defined mesostructure was prepared using a postgrafting route. The morphology, mesostructure, and functionality of the materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques. The results show that hexagonal lamelliform SBA-15 with a uniform particle size and short vertical channels plays two significant roles in uniformly dispersing amine-functionalizing groups and effectively adjusting the loadings of the functional groups within the mesopore channels. To confirm the potential application of the hybrids in gas sensors, using amine-functionalized SBA-15 as a sensing material and a quartz crystal microbalance as a transducer, a parts per billion level formaldehyde sensor with high sensitivity (response time about 11 s, recovery time about 15 s) and good chemoselectivity was achieved. This material holds great potential in the area of rapid, sensitive, and highly convenient formaldehyde detection.

  2. Atomic-Level Organization of Vicinal Acid-Base Pairs through the Chemisorption of Aniline and Derivatives onto Mesoporous SBA15

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-06-09

    The design of novel heterogeneous catalysts with multiple adjacent functionalities is of high interest for heterogeneous catalysis. Herein, we report a method to obtain a majority bifunctional acid-base pairs on SBA15. Aniline reacts with SBA15 by opening siloxane bridges leading to N-phenylsilanamine-silanol pairs. In contrast with ammonia treated surfaces, the material is stable under air/moisture. Advanced solid state MAS NMR: 2D ¹H-¹H double-quantum, ¹H-¹³C HETCOR experiments and dynamic nuclear polarization enhanced ²⁹Si and ¹⁵N spectra demonstrate both the close proximity between the two moieties and the formation of a covalent Si-N surface bond and confirm the design of vicinal acid-base pairs. This approach was successfully applied to the design of a series of aniline derivatives bifunctional SBA15. A correlation of the substituents effects on the aromatic ring (Hammet parameters) on the kinetics of the model reaction of Knoevenagel is observed.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Kynurenic Acid Occluded in Sol-Gel Silica and SBA-15 Silica as Release Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessy López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kynurenic acid (KYNA may have important therapeutic effects in neurological disorders; however, its use as a neuroprotective agent is restricted due to its very limited ability to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB. For this reason, we are looking for new alternatives for KYNA to reach the brain; one of them is using drug delivery systems. To obtain KYNA release reservoirs, KYNA molecules were hosted in two different silica materials. The different KYNA-silica materials were characterized by means of several physical techniques. The spectroscopic studies showed that KYNA molecules remained unchanged once hosted in silica materials. The surface area values of KYNA-silica samples were substantially lower than those for pure silica materials due to the addition of the drug. The electronic micrographs showed that the sol-gel KYNA-silica material consisted of aggregates of nanoparticles around 50 nm in size. On the other hand, the typical SBA-15 hexagonal arrangement was observed, even when hosting KYNA molecules. KYNA release profiles, carried out during approximately 300 hours, showed a first stage of fast drug release followed by a slow release phase. The experimental values fitted to the Peppas equation indicate that the release mechanism was controlled by Fickian diffusion.

  4. Pineapple peel carboxymethyl cellulose/polyvinyl alcohol/mesoporous silica SBA-15 hydrogel composites for papain immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongjie; Ou, Shiyi; Liu, Zhijun; Huang, Huihua

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogel composites based on pineapple peel carboxymethyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol and mesoporous silica SBA-15 were synthesized by an eco-friendly method of repeated freeze-thaw cycles for the application of papain immobilization. The experiment was optimized to obtain an efficient papain immobilization carrier. Simultaneously the immobilization conditions, including enzyme concentration, pH, crosslinker concentration and cross-linking time were optimized. The immobilized papain had maximum activity at low reaction temperature of 40°C and showed pH-sensitivity by exhibiting a rapid decrease of activity within a narrow range from pH 7.0 to pH 7.5. Compared with the free papain, the immobilized papain revealed enhanced pH, thermal and storage stability. After 2h incubation at 80°C, the immobilized papain retained 56% of its initial activity while the free papain only retained 16%. After 10days of storage, 79% of the initial activity was retained for the immobilized papain while only 27% for the free papain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SBA-15-functionalized 3-oxo-ABNO as recyclable catalyst for aerobic oxidation of alcohols under metal-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Babak; Farhangi, Elham; Vali, Hojatollah; Vahdati, Saleh

    2014-09-01

    The nitroxyl radical 3-oxo-9-azabicyclo [3.3.1]nonane-N-oxyl (3-oxo-ABNO) has been prepared using a simple protocol. This organocatalyst is found to be an efficient catalyst for the aerobic oxidation of a wide variety of alcohols under metal-free conditions. In addition, the preparation and characterization of a supported version of 3-oxo-ABNO on ordered mesoporous silica SBA-15 (SABNO) is described for the first time. The catalyst has been characterized using several techniques including simultaneous thermal analysis (STA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nitrogen sorption analysis. This catalyst exhibits catalytic performance comparable to its homogeneous analogue and much superior catalytic activity in comparison with (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxy (TEMPO) for the aerobic oxidation of almost the same range of alcohols under identical reaction conditions. It is also found that SABNO can be conveniently recovered and reused at least 12 times without significant effect on its catalytic efficiency. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Mesostructured Au/C materials obtained by replication of functionalized SBA-15 silica containing highly dispersed gold nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Kerdi, Fatmé

    2011-04-01

    The preparation and characterization of highly dispersed gold nanoparticles in ordered mesoporous carbons CMK-3 are reported. These carbons were obtained using gold-containing functionalized SBA-15 silicas as hard templates. Two series of Au/SiO2 templates were prepared, depending on the nature of the functionalization molecule. While ammonium-functionalized silicas gave gold particles with a size determined by the pores of the silica support, the use of mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane as grafting molecule afforded the possibility to control the particle size inside the mesopores. Both series gave highly ordered mesoporous carbons with gold particles incorporated in the carbon nanorods. However, the gold particle size in mesoporous carbons was the same for both series and apparently did not depend on the nature of the silica template. Both Au/SiO2 templates and their corresponding Au/CMK-3 materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, chemical analysis, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and transmission electron microscopy. They were also used as catalysts in the aerobic oxidation of cyclohexene and trans-stilbene in the liquid phase. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Catalytic Cracking of Triglyceride-Rich Biomass toward Lower Olefins over a Nano-ZSM-5/SBA-15 Analog Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Hoan Vu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic cracking of triglyceride-rich biomass toward C2–C4 olefins was evaluated over a hierarchically textured nano-ZSM-5/SBA-15 analog composite (ZSC-24 under fluid catalytic cracking (FCC conditions. The experiments were performed on a fully automated Single-Receiver Short-Contact-Time Microactivity Test unit (SR-SCT-MAT, Grace Davison at 550 °C and different catalyst-to-oil mass ratios (0–1.2 g∙g−1. The ZSC-24 catalyst is very effective for transformation of triglycerides to valuable hydrocarbons, particularly lower olefins. The selectivity to C2–C4 olefins is remarkably high (>90% throughout the investigated catalyst-to-oil ratio range. The superior catalytic performance of the ZSC-24 catalyst can be attributed to the combination of its medium acid site amount and improved molecular transport provided by the bimodal pore system, which effectively suppresses the secondary reactions of primarily formed lower olefins.

  8. Elucidation of Surface Species through in Situ FTIR Spectroscopy of Carbon Dioxide Adsorption on Amine-Grafted SBA-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Guo Shiou; Lee, Jason J; Chen, Chia-Hsin; Hayes, Sophia E; Sievers, Carsten; Jones, Christopher W

    2017-01-10

    The nature of the surface species formed through the adsorption of CO2 on amine-grafted mesoporous silica is investigated through in situ FTIR spectroscopy with the aid of (15) N dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and (13) C NMR spectroscopy. Primary, secondary, and tertiary amines are functionalized onto a mesoporous SBA-15 silica. Both isotopically labeled (13) CO2 and natural-abundance CO2 are used for accurate FTIR peak assignments, which are compared with assignments reported previously. The results support the formation of monomeric and dimeric carbamic acid species on secondary amines that are stabilized differently to the monocarbamic acid species on primary amines. Furthermore, the results from isotopically labelled (13) CO2 experiments suggest the existence of two carbamate species on primary amines, whereas only one species is observed predominantly on secondary amines. The analysis of the IR peak intensities and frequencies indicate that the second carbamate species on primary amines is probably more asymmetric in nature and forms in a relatively smaller amount. Only the formation of bicarbonate ions at a low concentration is observed on tertiary amines; therefore, physisorbed water on the surface plays a role in the hydrolysis of CO2 even if water is not added intentionally and dry gases are used. This suggests that a small amount of bicarbonate ions could be expected to form on primary and secondary amines, which are more hydrophilic than tertiary amines, and these low concentration species are difficult to observe on such samples. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Facile functionalized of SBA-15 via a biomimetic coating and its application in efficient removal of uranium ions from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jun-Kai [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Hou, Li-An; Zhang, Guang-Hui [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Gu, Ping, E-mail: guping@tju.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • Dopamine-functionalized SBA-15 (DMS) was developed via a biomimetic coating. • The modification approach was simple, facile and cost-effective. • The DMS was firstly used to remove U(VI) from aqueous solution. • Large adsorption capacity and rapid separation were obtained. - Abstract: A novel dopamine-functionalized mesoporous silica (DMS), synthesized by grafting dopamine onto a mesoporous molecular sieve (SBA-15), was developed as a sorbent to extract U(VI) from aqueous solution. The method used to modify SBA-15 was simple, facile and cost-effective. The DMS was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and BET, showing that the material had an ordered mesoporous structure and a large surface area. The effect of contact time, pH, ionic strength, temperature, and solid–liquid ratio on the sorption process was investigated. It was demonstrated that the adsorption of U(VI) by DMS was fast and that it can be described by the pseudo-second order-equation where the equilibrium time was 20 min. Additionally, the adsorption isotherm data were fitted well by the Langmuir model with the maximum adsorption capacity of DMS of 196 mg/g at pH 6.0. Furthermore, the influence of the K{sup +} and Na{sup +} concentrations and solid-to-liquid ratio on the sorption was very weak, and the values of the thermodynamic parameters revealed that the sorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. All the results suggested that the DMS could be used as an excellent adsorbent to remove U(VI) from aqueous solution.

  10. One-step synthesis of a highly homogeneous SBA-NHC hybrid material: en route to single-site NHC-metal heterogeneous catalysts with high loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocquin, Mansuy; Henrion, Mickaël; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Bertani, Philippe; Chetcuti, Michael J; Louis, Benoît; Ritleng, Vincent

    2014-03-07

    The one-step synthesis of a mesoporous silica of SBA type, functionalized with a 1-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-3-propyl-imidazolium (iPr2Ar-NHC-propyl) cation located in the pore channels, is described. This material was obtained by the direct hydrolysis and co-condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and 1-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-3-[3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl]-imidazolium iodide in the presence of Pluronic P123 as a non-ionic structure-directing agent and aqueous HCl (37%) as an acid catalyst. Small-angle X-ray diffraction measurements, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, as well as dinitrogen sorption analyses revealed that the synthesized material is highly mesoporous with a 2D hexagonal arrangement of the porous network. (13)C and (29)Si CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy confirmed that the material contains intact iPr2Ar-NHC-propyl cations, which are covalently anchored via silicon atoms fused into the silica matrix. Moreover, comparison of the latter data with those of an analogous post-synthetic grafted SBA-NHC material allowed us to establish that, as expected, (i) it is most probably more homogeneous and (ii) it shows a more robust anchoring of the organic units. Finally, elemental mapping by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in the scanning electron microscope demonstrated a very homogeneous distribution of the imidazolium units within the one-pot material, moreover with a high content. This study thus demonstrates that a relatively bulky and hydrophilic imidazolium unit can be directly co-condensed with TEOS in the presence of a structure-directing agent to provide in a single step a highly ordered and homogeneous mesoporous hybrid SBA-NHC material, possessing a significant number of cationic NHC sites.

  11. Generation of Well-Defined Pairs of Silylamine on Highly Dehydroxylated SBA-15: Application to the Surface Organometallic Chemistry of Zirconium

    KAUST Repository

    Azzi, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    Design of a new well-defined surface organometallic species [O-(=Si–NH)2Zr(IV)Np2] has been obtained by reaction of tetraneopentyl zirconium (ZrNp4) on SBA-15 surface displaying mainly silylamine pairs [O-(=Si–NH2)2]. These surface species have been achieved by an ammonia treatment of a highly dehydroxylated SBA-15 at 1000°C (SBA-151000). This support is known to contain mainly strained reactive siloxane bridges (≡Si-O-Si≡)[1] along with a small amount of isolated plus germinal silanols =Si(OH)2. Chemisorption of ammonia occurs primarily by opening these siloxane bridges[2] to generate silanol/silylamine pairs [O-(=Si–NH2)(=SiOH)] followed by substitution of the remaining silanol. Further treatment using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) results in the protection of the isolated remaining silanol groups by formation of ≡Si-O-SiMe3 and =Si(OSiMe3)2 but leaves ≡SiNH2 untouched. After reaction of this functionalized surface with ZrNp4, this latter displays mainly a bi-podal zirconium neopentyl organometallic complex [O-(=Si–NH)2Zr(IV)Np2] which has been fully characterized by diverse methods such as infrared transmission spectroscopy, magic angle spinning solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, surface elemental analysis, small angle X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM). These different characterization tools unambiguously prove that the zirconium organometallic complex reacts mostly with silylamine pairs to give a bi-podal zirconium bis-neopentyl complex, uniformly distributed into the channels of SBA-151000. Therefore this new material opens a new promising research area in Surface Organometallic Chemistry which, so far, was dealing mainly with O containing surface. It is expected that vicinal amine functions may play a very different role as compared with classical inorganic supports. Given the importance in the last decades of N containing ligands in catalysis, one may expect

  12. In situ FT-IR investigation of etravirine speciation in pores of SBA-15 ordered mesoporous silica material upon contact with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellaerts, Randy; Fayad, Elie J; Van den Mooter, Guy; Augustijns, Patrick; Rivallan, Mickaël; Thibault-Starzyk, Frédéric; Martens, Johan A

    2013-02-04

    Ordered mesoporous silica (OMS) has been recognized as promising adsorbent material for drug molecules with low aqueous solubility. The release of drug molecules from OMS upon contact with aqueous environment enhances their oral bioavailability. The release is governed by a complex interplay of adsorption, diffusion, and intermolecular interaction inside OMS pores. The presence of water hampers in situ FT-IR investigation of the behavior of the drug molecules upon release. The poorly water-soluble etravirine molecule having two nitrile functions was selected for an in situ FT-IR spectroscopic investigation of the release process. The stretching vibration of the nitrile organic function (υ(CN)) is a spectral feature that is accessible to FT-IR even in the presence of water. Etravirine depending on the loading was found to be present in SBA-15 pores as isolated adsorbed molecules, solvated molecules, and aggregates with intermolecular interaction similar to the crystalline state, each with a different spectroscopic fingerprint. Etravirine evacuation from the SBA-15 pores was shown to proceed in the solvated state. Surprisingly, the etravirine clusters inside pores were converted more readily into solvated molecules compared to individually adsorbed molecules.

  13. Tungsten(VI) Carbyne/Bis(carbene) Tautomerization Enabled by N-Donor SBA15 Surface Ligands: A Solid-State NMR and DFT Study

    KAUST Repository

    Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa

    2016-08-11

    Designing supported well-defined bis(carbene) complexes remains a key challenge in heterogeneous catalysis. The reaction of W(CtBu)(CH(2)tBu)(3) with amine-modified mesoporous SBA15 silica, which has vicinal silanol/silylamine pairs [(SiOH)(SiNH2)], leads to [(SiNH2-)(SiO-)W(CHtBu)(CH(2)tBu)(2)] and [(SiNH2-)(SiO-)W(=CHtBu)(2)(CH(2)tBu). Variable temperature, H-1-H-1 2D double-quantum, H-1-C-13 HETCOR, and HETCOR with spin diffusion solid-state NMR spectroscopy demonstrate tautomerization between the alkyl alkylidyne and the bis(alkylidene) on the SBA15 surface. Such equilibrium is possible through the coordination of W to the surface [(Si-OH)(Si-NH2)] groups, which act as a [N,O] pincer ligand. DFT calculations provide a rationalization for the surface-complex tautomerization and support the experimental results. This direct observation of such a process shows the strong similarity between molecular mechanisms in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. In propane metathesis (at 150 degrees C), the tungsten bis(carbene) tautomer is favorable, with a turnover number (TON) of 262. It is the highest TON among all the tungsten alkyl-supported catalysts.

  14. Estudio de las características fisicoquímicas de los carbones mesoporosos obtenidos utilizando sílica mesoporosa tipo SBA-16 como molde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Hoyos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se determinan las características porosas y químicas de carbones mesoporosos sintetizados utilizando sílica mesoporosa tipo SBA- 16 como molde y se correlacionan estas características con la capacidad de adsorció de colorantes, lo cual a su vez se constituye en una técnica mas de caracterización fisicoquímica de estos materiales. Se utilizan dos moldes silíceos tipo SBA-16 con diferencias en su porosidad y sacarosa y etileno como fuente de carbón. Se encuentra que el tamaño, volumen de poro y área superficial de estos materiales se pueden modular mediante la selección del molde pero no sus características químicas. Los carbones mesoporosos se sintetizan por el método húmedo, en el cual se utiliza sacarosa como fuente de carbono o por deposición de vapores de etileno utilizando dos sílicas mesporosas con diferentes características de porosidad.

  15. Application of Response Surface Methodology as an Efficient Approach for Optimization of Operational Variables in Benzene Hydroxylation to Phenol by V/SBA-16 Nanoporous Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Jourshabani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we prepared a V/SBA-16 catalyst using vanadyl acetylacetonate as a precursor and SBA-16 nanoporous silica as a support via an immobilization technique. The ordered mesoporous structure of catalyst was determined by X-ray diffraction  and transmission electron microscopy techniques , and the catalyst was evaluated in the benzene hydroxylation to phenol with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as a green oxidant. The effects of three key factors, namely reaction temperature (°C, H2O2 content (mL and catalyst amount (g at five levels (“1.68, “1, 0, +1, +1.68, and also their interaction on the phenol yield were investigated using response surface methodology combined with central composite design. The high correlation coefficient (R2, i.e., 0.983, showed that the data predicted using RSM were in good agreement with the experimental results. The optimization results also exhibited that high phenol yield (17.09% was achieved at the optimized values of the operating variables: the reaction temperature of 61 °C, H2O2 content of 1.69 mL and a catalyst amount of 0.1 g. In addition, response surface methodology provides a reliable method for optimizing process variables for benzene hydroxylation to phenol, with the minimum number of experiments.

  16. Facile functionalized of SBA-15 via a biomimetic coating and its application in efficient removal of uranium ions from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun-Kai; Hou, Li-An; Zhang, Guang-Hui; Gu, Ping

    2015-04-09

    A novel dopamine-functionalized mesoporous silica (DMS), synthesized by grafting dopamine onto a mesoporous molecular sieve (SBA-15), was developed as a sorbent to extract U(VI) from aqueous solution. The method used to modify SBA-15 was simple, facile and cost-effective. The DMS was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and BET, showing that the material had an ordered mesoporous structure and a large surface area. The effect of contact time, pH, ionic strength, temperature, and solid-liquid ratio on the sorption process was investigated. It was demonstrated that the adsorption of U(VI) by DMS was fast and that it can be described by the pseudo-second order-equation where the equilibrium time was 20 min. Additionally, the adsorption isotherm data were fitted well by the Langmuir model with the maximum adsorption capacity of DMS of 196 mg/g at pH 6.0. Furthermore, the influence of the K(+) and Na(+) concentrations and solid-to-liquid ratio on the sorption was very weak, and the values of the thermodynamic parameters revealed that the sorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. All the results suggested that the DMS could be used as an excellent adsorbent to remove U(VI) from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference system analysis on adsorption studies of Reactive Red 198 from aqueous solution by SBA-15/CTAB composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajani, Khadijeh; Tayebi, Habib-Allah

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the Mesoporous material SBA-15 were synthesized and then, the surface was modified by the surfactant Cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB). Finally, the obtained adsorbent was used in order to remove Reactive Red 198 (RR 198) from aqueous solution. Transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and BET were utilized for the purpose of examining the structural characteristics of obtained adsorbent. Parameters affecting the removal of RR 198 such as pH, the amount of adsorbent, and contact time were investigated at various temperatures and were also optimized. The obtained optimized condition is as follows: pH = 2, time = 60 min and adsorbent dose = 1 g/l. Moreover, a predictive model based on ANFIS for predicting the adsorption amount according to the input variables is presented. The presented model can be used for predicting the adsorption rate based on the input variables include temperature, pH, time, dosage, concentration. The error between actual and approximated output confirm the high accuracy of the proposed model in the prediction process. This fact results in cost reduction because prediction can be done without resorting to costly experimental efforts. SBA-15, CTAB, Reactive Red 198, adsorption study, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference systems (ANFIS).

  18. Effect of Porous Structure and Acidity of ZSM-5/SBA-15 Catalyst on 1,3,5-Triisopropylbenzene Cracking Catalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Tran Quang; Nam, Le Thi Hoai; Nhiem, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Pham Minh; Trang, Nguyen Thi Thu; Hieu, Do Trung

    2018-02-01

    ZSM-5/SBA-15 composite materials with different acidities and mesoporous system formations were successfully synthesized by three-step method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, HR-TEM, BET, EDX and TPD-NH3 methods. It showed that the Si/Al molar ratio had effect on the formation and property of materials. Among synthesized catalysts with the different Si/Al molar ratios of 30 (HZSC-30), 50 (HZSC-50), 70 (HZSC-70), HZSC-50 catalyst had better mesoporous system formation and acidity. These properties helped this catalyst to have higher catalytic activity in 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene cracking reaction than other studied catalysts in term of higher benzene product yield. In comparison to HZSM-5 microporous material that had the similar Si/Al molar ratio of 50, it showed that the formation of mesopore system of HZSC-50 catalyst had a major improvement on the cracking catalytic activity.

  19. Enhancing preferential oxidation of CO in H{sub 2} on Au/{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst via combination with APTES/SBA-15 CO{sub 2}-sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmond Ng, Jia Wei; Zhong, Ziyi; Luo, Jizhong; Borgna, Armando [Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences, A-Star, 1 Pesek Road, Jurong Island (Singapore)

    2010-12-15

    Au/{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was combined with a CO{sub 2}-sorbent (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) grafted on SBA-15 and hereafter denoted as APTES/SBA-15) to enhance preferential oxidation (PROX) of CO in H{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2} molecules could be rapidly adsorbed on APTES/SBA-15 at low temperatures below 50 C with a capacity of 0.68 mmol CO{sub 2}/g-sample, and desorbed at a temperature range of 50 C-80 C. Three different configurations of the Au/{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst and the CO{sub 2}-sorbent were tested in the PROX reaction, namely (i) the sorbent-free (catalyst//SBA-15//catalyst) configuration, (ii) the packed three-layer configuration (catalyst//CO{sub 2}-sorbent//catalyst), and (iii) the mechanically mixed catalyst and CO{sub 2}-sorbent configuration. Compared to configuration (i), configuration (ii) achieved an average 10% higher CO conversion at 50 C and a GHSV of 65000 h{sup -1}. However, the CO concentration could not be lowered to below 70 ppm from 2000 ppm using configuration (ii) at a GHSV of 10000 h{sup -1}. Thus, a 5-layer configuration (catalyst//CO{sub 2}-sorbent//catalyst//CO{sub 2}-sorbent//catalyst) was used, and the CO concentration was lowered to ca. 25 ppm. The mechanism for enhancement of the PROX reaction by the continuous removal of CO{sub 2} by the CO{sub 2}-sorbent is discussed and attributed to reduction of the surface carbonate on the Au/{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst formed during the PROX process. (author)

  20. Preparation and characterization of glycidyl methacrylate organo bridges grafted mesoporous silica SBA-15 as ibuprofen and mesalamine carrier for controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Fozia, E-mail: fozia@iqm.unicamp.br [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Rahim, Abdur [Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Airoldi, Claudio; Volpe, Pedro L.O. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-01

    Mesoporous silica SBA-15 was synthesized and functionalized with bridged polysilsesquioxane monomers obtained by the reaction of 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane with glycidyl methacrylate in 2:1 ratio. The synthesized mesoporous silica materials were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The nuclear magnetic resonance in the solid state is in agreement with the sequence of carbon distributed in the attached organic chains, as expected for organically functionalized mesoporous silica. After functionalization with organic bridges the BET surface area was reduced from 1311.80 to 494.2 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and pore volume was reduced from 1.98 to 0.89 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}, when compared to original precursor silica. Modification of the silica surface with organic bridges resulted in high loading capacity and controlled release of ibuprofen and mesalamine in biological fluids. The Korsmeyer–Peppas model better fits the release data indicating Fickian diffusion and zero order kinetics for synthesized mesoporous silica. The drug release rate from the modified silica was slow in simulated gastric fluid, (pH 1.2) where less than 10% of mesalamine and ibuprofen were released in initial 8 h, while comparatively high release rates were observed in simulated intestinal (pH 6.8) and simulated body fluids (pH 7.2). The preferential release of mesalamine at intestinal pH suggests that the modified silica could be a simple, efficient, inexpensive and convenient carrier for colon targeted drugs, such a mesalamine and also as a controlled drug release system. - Highlights: • Modified SBA-15 silica with long hydrophobic chains was evaluated as drug carrier. • This silica showed improved loading capacity and controlled release of ibuprofen. • Compared to gastric pH high release rate of mesalamine was observed at colonic pH.

  1. Biodiesel from Hydrolyzed Waste Cooking Oil Using a S-ZrO2/SBA-15 Super Acid Catalyst under Sub-Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nobi Hossain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid changes in food habits, a substantial amount of waste fat and used oils are generated each year. Due to strong policies, the disposal of this material into nearby sewers causes ecological and environmental problems in many parts of the world. For efficient management, waste cooking oil, a less expensive, alternative and promising feedstock, can be used as a raw material for producing biofuel. In the present study, we produced a biodiesel from hydrolyzed waste cooking oil with a subcritical methanol process using a synthesized solid super acid catalyst, a sulfated zirconium oxide supported on Santa Barbara Amorphous silica (S-ZrO2/SBA-15. The characterization of the synthesized catalyst was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET method. The catalytic effect on biodiesel production was examined by varying the parameters: temperatures of 120 to 200 °C, 5–20 min times, oil-to-methanol mole ratios between 1:5 to 1:20, and catalyst loadings of 1–2.5%. The maximum biodiesel yield was 96.383%, obtained under optimum reaction conditions of 140 °C, 10 min, and a 1:10 oil-to-methanol molar ratio with a 2.0% catalyst loading. We successfully reused the catalyst five times without regeneration with a 90% efficiency. The fuel properties were found to be within the limits set by the biodiesel standard.

  2. Facile fabrication of mesoporous Fe-Ti-SBA15 silica with enhanced visible-light-driven simultaneous photocatalytic degradation and reduction reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fei; Jiao, Mingzhi; Xu, Quan; Deng, Baoqing; Hu, Xuefeng

    2018-03-01

    A series of mesoporous iron-titanium-containing silica Fe-TiO2-SBA15 (FTS) were constructed via a facile one-pot hydrothermal route and subsequently characterized by X-ray diffraction patterns, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy. By analyses, these samples possessed ordered two-dimensional hexagonal mesoporous structures, mainly involving mixed dual-phases of anatase and rutile TiO2, like commercial titania P25. The UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra demonstrated the presence of Fe species that was further confirmed by the X-ray photoelectron spectra and X-ray energy dispersion spectrum. The existence of Fe species in form of Fe3+ cations played an important role on the phase composition and electronic structure of these samples. With structural and morphological merits, these samples exhibited relatively high photocatalytic efficiency toward the degradation of dye methylene blue (MB) and reduction of Cr(VI) under visible-light irradiation, comparing with P25. In addition, among all candidates, the sample with a Fe/Si molar ratio of 0.03 showed the highest catalytic performance under optimal conditions, especially in the coexistence of both MB and Cr(VI), revealing an obviously synergistic effect when the consumption of both contaminants occurred. Finally, a primary catalytic mechanism was speculated on basis of active species capture experiments.

  3. A Dual-Functional [SBA-15/Fe3O4/P(N-iPAAm] Hybrid System as a Potential Nanoplatform for Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis strategy of a multifunctional system of [SBA-15/Fe3O4/P(N-iPAAm] hybrids of interest for bioapplications was explored. Magnetite nanoparticles coated by mesoporous silica were prepared by an alternative chemical route using neutral surfactant and without the application of any functionalization method. Monomer adsorption followed by in situ polymerization initiated by a radical was the adopted procedure to incorporate the hydrogel into the pore channels of silica nanocomposite. Characterization of the materials was carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, N2 adsorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Temperature programmed reduction studies (TPR. Their application as drug delivery system using atenolol as a model drug to assess the influence of the application of low frequency alternating magnetic fields on drug release was evaluated. The structural characteristics of the magnetic hybrid nanocomposite, including the effect of the swelling behavior on heating by the application of an alternating magnetic field, are presented and discussed.

  4. Binary and Ternary Heterometallic (La3+, Gd3+, Y3+)–Eu3+ Functionalized SBA-15 Mesoporous Hybrids: Chemically Bonded Assembly and Photoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A novel kind of organic–inorganic monomer SUASi has been achieved by modifying 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SUA) with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS), subsequently binary and ternary Eu3+ mesoporous hybrid materials with 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SUA)-functionalized SBA-15 and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) are synthesized by co-condensation of SUASi and TEOS in the presence of Eu3+ complex and Pluronic P123 as a template. Finally, luminescent hybrid mesoporous materials consisting of active rare earth ions (Eu3+)—inert rare earth ions (Y3+, La3+, Gd3+) complex covalently bonded to the mesoporous materials network have been obtained via this sol–gel approach. The physical characterization and photoluminescence of all these resulting materials are studied in detail. Especially the luminescent behavior has been studied with the different ratios of Eu3+–(Y3+, La3+, Gd3+), which suggests that the existence of inert rare earth ions can enhance the luminescence intensity of Eu3+. This may be due to the intramolecular energy transfer between Y3+, La3+, Gd3+, and Eu3+ through the covalently bonded mesoporous framework. PMID:20596515

  5. Preparation, characterization and catalytic activity of mesoporous Ag{sub 2}HPW{sub 12}O{sub 40}/SBA-15 and Ag{sub 2}HPW{sub 12}O{sub 40}/TiO{sub 2} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka; Bajuk-Bogdanović, Danica [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Popa, Alexandru; Sasca, Viorel [Institute of Chemistry Timişoara, Bl. Mihail Viteazul 24, 300223 Timişoara (Romania); Nedić Vasiljević, Bojana; Rakić, Aleksandra [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Uskoković-Marković, Snežana, E-mail: snezaum@pharmacy.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 450, 11221 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-06-15

    The current study reports the synthesis and characterization of tungstophosphoric acid and its acid silver salt supported on mesoporous molecular sieve SBA-15 and TiO{sub 2}. Because silver salts are partially insoluble, the SBA-15 and TiO{sub 2} supported silver acid salts were prepared by two step sequential impregnations. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by various physicochemical methods such as Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen physisorption at −196 °C. It is observed that both active phases keep their Keggin-type structure after being supported on the supports while their specific surface area is considerably increased by deposition on mesoporous substrates. The results also indicated that the synthesized catalysts retained the morphology specific for each of the supports, while their thermal stability is increased in comparison with their active phases. The catalytic activity of the prepared catalysts was probed for the vapor phase dehydration of ethanol at 300 °C. Results revealed that all the catalysts show considerably improved catalytic activity in comparison to the bulk active phases. - Highlights: • SBA-15 and TiO{sub 2} supported Ag{sub 2}HPW{sub 12}O{sub 40} and H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} were prepared. • Active phases are uniformly dispersed without changing morphology of the substrates. • Composites are more thermally stable than active phases. • Composites exhibit high catalytic activity for gas phase ethanol dehydration.

  6. [Consensus on Perioperative Transesophageal Echocardiography of the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology (ETTI/SBA) and the Department of Cardiovascular Image of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology (DIC/SBC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Filho, Marcello Fonseca; Morhy, Samira Saady; Vasconcelos, Henrique Doria de; Lineburger, Eric Benedet; Papa, Fabio de Vasconcelos; Botelho, Eduardo Souza Leal; Fernandes, Marcelo Ramalho; Daher, Maurício; Bihan, David Le; Gatto, Chiara Scaglioni Tessmer; Fischer, Cláudio Henrique; Silva, Alexander Alves da; Galhardo Júnior, Carlos; Neves, Carolina Baeta; Fernandes, Alexandre; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos

    2017-09-01

    Through the Life Cycle of Intraoperative Transesophageal Echocardiography (ETTI/SBA) the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology, together with the Department of Cardiovascular Image of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology (DIC/SBC), createded a task force to standardize the use of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography by Brazilian anesthesiologists and echocardiographers based on scientific evidence from the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists/American Society of Echocardiography (SCA/ASE) and the Brazilian Society of Cardiology. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Actividad catalítica comparada de materiales zeolíticos y mesoestructurados del tipo MCM-41 y SBA-15 en reacciones de acilación y alquilación Friedel-Crafts

    OpenAIRE

    Losada Gago, Elia

    2016-01-01

    En la memoria presentada, se pretende realizar un estudio comparativo de la idoneidad como catalizadores de materiales zeolíticos y mesoestructurados del tipo MCM‑41 y SBA-15 en reacciones de catálisis heterogénea ácida tales como procesos de alquilación y acilación Friedel-Crafts. Los materiales microporosos (zeolitas) son aluminosilicatos cristalinos hidratados, que presentan un enorme interés debido a su amplia variedad de aplicaciones, especialmente relacionadas con el refino del petr...

  8. Resistance of the Opossum (Didelphis Virginiana) to Envenomation by Snakes of the Crotalidae Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    Paris, France. 1948. 10 . Vellard, J. Investigaciones sobre inmunidad natural contra los venenos de serpientes . Part I. Mus. Hist. Nat. ‘Javier Prado...Ser A , Zool. 1, 1-16 (1949). II. Vellard, J. Investigaciones sobre inmunidad natural contra los venenos de serpientes . Part II. Mus. Hist. Nat

  9. Notizen zur Fortpflanzungsbiologie und Jugendentwicklung zweier Grubenottern (Serpentes: Crotalidae: Crotalus atrox und Agkistrodon p. piscivorus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petzold, Hans Günter

    1963-01-01

    Über die postembryonale Entwicklung — besonders die Gewichtszunahme — junger Giftschlangen (Viperiden, Crotaliden, Elapiden) gibt es aus naheliegenden Gründen nur wenige eingehendere Untersuchungen. KLAUBER (1956) bringt an Hand eines großen Materials eine Zusammenfassung einschlägiger

  10. Cl-Assisted Large Scale Synthesis of Cm-Scale Buckypapers of Fe3C-Filled Carbon Nanotubes with Pseudo-Capacitor Properties: The Key Role of SBA-16 Catalyst Support as Synthesis Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo S. Boi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We show a novel chemical vapour deposition (CVD approach, in which the large-scale fabrication of ferromagnetically-filled cm-scale buckypapers is achieved through the deposition of a mesoporous supported catalyst (SBA-16 on a silicon substrate. We demonstrate that SBA-16 has the crucial role of promoting the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs on a horizontal plane with random orientation rather than in a vertical direction, therefore allowing a facile fabrication of cm-scale CNTs buckypapers free from the onion-crust by-product observed on the buckypaper-surface in previous reports. The morphology and composition of the obtained CNTs-buckypapers are analyzed in detail by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, high resolution TEM (HRTEM, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, while structural analysis is performed by Rietveld Refinement of XRD data. The room temperature magnetic properties of the produced buckypapers are also investigated and reveal the presence of a high coercivity of 650 Oe. Additionally, the electrochemical performances of these buckypapers are demonstrated and reveal a behavior that is compatible with that of a pseudo-capacitor (resistive-capacitor with better performances than those presented in other previously studied layered-buckypapers of Fe-filled CNTs, obtained by pyrolysis of dichlorobenzene-ferrocene mixtures. These measurements indicate that these materials show promise for applications in energy storage systems as flexible electrodes.

  11. SBA-15/hydrotalcite nanocomposite as an efficient support for the immobilization of heteropolyacid: A triply-hybrid catalyst for the synthesis of 2-amino-4H-pyrans in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Samahe; Heravi, Majid M.; Zadsirjan, Vahideh; Farzaneh, Vahid

    2017-12-01

    To circumvent the high solubility and low surface area of heteropolyacid and in attempt to develop a bi-functional heterogeneous catalyst for promoting organic transformations, heteropolyacid was embedded in functionalized SBA-15 and subsequently hybridized with layered double hydroxide. The catalyst could be considered as a bi-functional catalyst with both acidic and basic properties. The acidic properties emerged from the SBA-15 and heteropolyacid component while layered double hydroxide render the catalyst basic. The catalyst was characterized by using SEM/EDX, FT-IR, XRD, ICP-AES, BET and elemental mapping analysis. The catalytic activity of the catalyst was studied for promoting one-pot three-component condensation of aromatic aldehydes, malononitrile or ethyl cyanoacetate and C-H activated acidic molecules in aqueous media for the synthesis of 2-amino-4H-pyran derivatives. The catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity, which was superior to the previously reported ones. Moreover, the reusability of the catalyst was excellent and the leaching of heteropolyacid was dramatically suppressed. High yields, short reaction times, eco-friendly conditions, simplicity of the procedure, reusability of the catalyst and broad substrate scope are the merits of this protocol.

  12. Aminopropyl-modified mesoporous silica SBA-15 as recovery agents of Cu(II)-sulfate solutions: Adsorption efficiency, functional stability and reusability aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, M.V. [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. General Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Videla, M. [Rhein Chemie Argentina, Luis Maria Drago 1555 - (B1852LGS) Burzaco, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Calvo, A.; Requejo, F.G. [INIFTA-CONICET, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 16 Sucursal 4 (1900), La Plata (Argentina); Soler-Illia, G.J.A.A., E-mail: gsoler@cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. General Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); DQIAyQF, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II (C1428EHA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We produce mesoporous amino-silica as Cu(II) adsorbent (1.15-1.75 mmol Cu(II) g{sup -1}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elemental analysis and XPS demonstrate that amino groups concentrate at the material surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The integrity of the adsorbent through the adsorption, desorption and recycling processes is assessed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These materials can be regenerated by exposure to acidic media. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A careful thermal processing of the material is central to better durability during reprocessing. - Abstract: Hybrid mesoporous materials are potentially useful for metal ion scavenging and retrieval because of their high surface areas, controlled accessibility and tailored functionalization. Some aspects that are linked to the performance of HMM include pore accessibility, stability of the organic functions and reusability. Knowledge of these aspects is critical in the design of adsorption-desorption protocols. In this work we produce and characterize propylamino-substituted large pore silica (SBA-15-N), which is submitted to Cu(II) adsorption from copper sulfate solutions, followed by desorption in acid media and material regeneration. We find that the hybrid material is an efficient adsorbent (1.15-1.75 mmol Cu(II) g{sup -1}), although a fraction of the organic groups is lost during the adsorption process. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study demonstrates that the contents of amino groups are higher in the material surface, leading to different behaviors in Cu(II) complexation along the material. These materials can be regenerated by exposure to acidic media. Thermal processing of the hybrid materials leads to better durability in aqueous solutions during reprocessing, due to enhanced polycondensation of the inorganic framework. Thermally treated samples, once regenerated, are efficient adsorbents in a second step of Cu(II) adsorption. We discuss the

  13. SBA Network Components & Software Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA’s Network Components & Software Inventory contains a complete inventory of all devices connected to SBA’s network including workstations, servers, routers,...

  14. Sub-lingual administration of a polyvalent mechanical bacterial lysate (PMBL) in patients with moderate, severe, or very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) according to the GOLD spirometric classification: A multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase IV study (AIACE study: Advanced Immunological Approach in COPD Exacerbation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braido, Fulvio; Melioli, Giovanni; Cazzola, Mario; Fabbri, Leonardo; Blasi, Francesco; Moretta, Lorenzo; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2015-08-01

    Polyvalent mechanical bacterial lysates (PMBLs) have been shown to reduce the number of infectious episodes in patients with recurrent infections of the respiratory tract. Some previous investigations have also shown the effectiveness of PMBLs in reducing exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The AIACE study, which was developed according to criteria of evidence-based medicine, evaluated whether the administration of PMBLs to COPD patients, in addition to the recommended treatment, was able to reduce the number of exacerbations by 25%. Two hundred eighty-eight patients with moderate to very severe COPD were recruited and randomly assigned to either placebo or PMBLs. The placebo or PMBLs were administered according to the standard scheme. The primary outcome of the study was not achieved. However, the number of days with fever (21 days per year versus 40.15; p < 0.001), the days of hospitalisation (65 days vs 162 days; p < 0.001), the interval between the first and second exacerbations (123.89 days vs 70.36; p = 0.03) and the number of days in poor health (109 days/year vs 171 days/year; p < 0.001) were significantly better in the PMBL group than in the placebo group. In conclusion, the results of this trials showed that Ismigen, in addition to guideline-suggested treatment, could not significantly reduce the number of exacerbations in the considered population; nevertheless, the secondary outcome results demonstrated potential benefits of this compound for relevant clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. SÍNTESIS Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE CATALIZADORES HPW/AlSBA-15, Y SU EVALUACIÓN EN LA REACCIÓN DE ESTERIFICACIÓN DEL ÁCIDO BENZOICO CON METANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Sazo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo la síntesis y caracterización de catalizadores basados en heteropoliácidos de tungsteno (HPW soportado sobre AlSBA-15 y su posterior evaluación como catalizadores en la reacción de esterificación del ácido benzoico con metanol. Los soportes fueron sintetizados con bajo contenido de ácido mineral (HCl, obteniéndose materiales mesoporosos ordenados y con buenas características texturales. La impregnación con heteropoliácido, condujo a una disminución del área específica y volumen de microporos del soporte de sílica, asociado a la ocupación parcial de este volumen por el HPW. La actividad catalítica en la reacción de esterificación , fue mayor cuando el HPW se impregnó sobre el soporte que contiene una menor cantidad de aluminio (Si/Al 60 y bajo contenido de HPW (10%, poniendo de manifiesto que la dispersión del heteropoliacido y no solo la cantidad del mismo, es un factor importante a considerar en el diseño de estos catalizadores.

  16. Fast Analysis of Water Samples for Trace Amount of Crystal Violet Dye Based on Solid Phase Extraction Using Nanoporous SBA-3 prior to Determination by Fiber Optic-Linear Array Detection Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Azarkohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A solid phase preconcentration procedure using SBA-3 nanosorbent for the fast separation and preconcentration of crystal violet (CV in water samples by fiber optic-linear array detection spectrophotometry (FO-LADS is presented. Experimental parameters including pH, sample volume, amount of sorbent, type, volume, and concentration of eluent that affect the recovery of crystal violet have been optimized. Under optimized experimental conditions, analytical parameters including limit of detection, linear working range, and relative standard deviation have also been determined. A preconcentration factor of 200 was achieved in this method. In the initial solution, the detection limit for CV was found as 1.3 μg L−1. Under optimal conditions maximum adsorption capacity was obtained as 344.83 mg g−1. Also, the relative standard deviation was less than ±1.3% (n=5. The presented procedure was applied to the determination of crystal violet in water samples (fish, fish farming water, and river water with good results.

  17. Comparison between a Water-Based and a Solvent-Based Impregnation Method towards Dispersed CuO/SBA-15 Catalysts: Texture, Structure and Catalytic Performance in Automotive Exhaust Gas Abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Supported copper oxide nanoparticles are a potential candidate for replacing the rare and expensive precious metals within the automotive three-way catalyst. However, a well-designed dispersion method is necessary to allow a stable high loading of active material, compensating its lower intrinsic activity and stability. In this work, a CuO-loaded SBA-15 catalyst has been manufactured by two methods. The ammonia-driven deposition precipitation (ADP and the molecular designed dispersion (MDD methods are both considered as efficient deposition methods to provide well-dispersed copper oxide-based catalysts. Their morphology, copper dispersion and the chemical state of copper were characterized and compared. Due to the differences in the synthesis approach, a difference in the obtained copper oxide phases has been observed, leading to a distinct behavior in the catalytic performance. The structure-activity correlation of both catalysts has also been revealed for automotive exhaust gas abatement. Results demonstrate that various copper species can be formed depending on the precursor–support interaction, affecting selectivity and conversion during the catalytic reaction.

  18. Porous-membrane-protected polyaniline-coated SBA-15 nanocomposite micro-solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of parabens in cosmetic products and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Katayoun Mahdavi; Pandidan, Sara; Aliakbari, Azam; Raofie, Farhad; Amini, Mostafa M

    2015-04-01

    A SBA-15/polyaniline para-toluenesulfonic acid nanocomposite supported micro-solid-phase extraction procedure has been developed for the extraction of parabens (methylparaben, ethylparaben, and propylparaben) from wastewater and cosmetic products. The variables of interest in the extraction process were pH of sample, sample and eluent volumes, sorbent amount, salting-out effect, extraction and desorption time, and stirring rate. A Plackett-Burman design was performed for the screening of variables in order to determine the significant variables affecting the extraction efficiency. Then, the significant factors were optimized by using a central composite design. The optimum experimental conditions found at 50 mL sample solution, extraction and desorption times of 40 and 20 min, respectively, 500 μL of 3% v/v acetic acid in methanol as eluent, 0.01 M salt addition, and 10 mg of the sorbent. Under the optimum conditions, the developed method provided detection limits in the range of 0.08-0.4 ng/mL with good repeatability (RSD% parabens. Finally, this fast and efficient method was employed for the determination of target analytes in cosmetic products and wastewater, and satisfactory results were obtained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Alterity: Learning Polyvalent Selves, Resisting Disabling Notions of the Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Wayland

    2011-01-01

    This article queries how one type of human difference--alterity, the experience of multiple distinct consciousnesses, or "alters," by one person--is pathologized in American culture. This experience is inscribed as a mental illness, labeled now as dissociative identity disorder (DID) and formerly known as multiple personality disorder (MPD). In…

  20. [Polyvalent meningococcal vaccines: within or outside our agenda?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, R; Vázquez, J A

    2014-11-01

    The development of tetravalent vaccines against Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) has been driven mainly due to the increase of the prevalence and geographic expansion of several serogroups considered unusual, but also because of the need for vaccines that offer broad spectrum protection in a devastating disease such as IMD. These changes in serogroups considered usual (B and C) have been detected for both serogroup Y and W, which has led to the multivalent vaccines being used by a number of countries with different strategies that will be discussed in the article. Epidemiological data in Spain, currently do not justify its use in immunization schedules, but there is a potential risk for the introduction of virulent clones of those uncommon serogroups (Y and W), and this would lead us to open a discussion of their potential use, particularly in the adolescent/pre-teen population as a target group for intervention. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Redox ratio and optical absorption of polyvalent ions in industrial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The changes in glass structure and redox ratio, (reduced ion to oxidized ion) of Mn2+–Mn3+, Cu+–Cu2+, Cr3+–Cr6+, Ni2+–Ni3+ and Co2+–Co3+ couples and optical absorption due to Mn3+, Cu2+, Cr3+, Ni2+ and Co2+ ions in industrial soda–lime–silica glass were investigated as a function of Na2O concentration in the ...

  2. Accidente bothrópico en Colombia: estudio multicéntrico de la eficacia y seguridad de Antivipmyn-Tri®, un antiveneno polivalente producido en México Bothrops bites in Colombia: a multicenter study on the efficacy and safety of Antivipmyn-Tri®, a polyvalent antivenom produced in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fernando Jaramillo Delgado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Colombia es un país con dos productores de antivenenos de IgG, pero hay un mercado insatisfecho por diferentes razones técnicas. Objetivos: evaluar la eficacia y la seguridad de un antiveneno F(ab´2 polivalente (Antivipmyn-Tri® producido en México, y un nuevo esquema de dosis en accidente bothrópico en Colombia. Métodos: se realizaron durante 9 meses un ensayo clínico-terapéutico y cuantificaciones de veneno y antiveneno sérico (ELISA en 53 pacientes. Resultados: cuarenta y cuatro pacientes fueron mordidos por Bothrops asper en Antioquia y Chocó y 9 por B. atrox en Amazonas; todos tenían sangre incoagulable al ingreso, 30 (56,6% con sangrado local y 24 (45,3% con sangrado sistémico. El grado final de envenenamiento fue leve en 13 (24,5%, moderado en 30 (56,6% y grave en 10 pacientes (18,9%. A las dosis recomendadas de 5 frascos para los casos leves o moderados y 10 para los graves, Antivipmyn-Tri® fue 100% eficaz para disminuir significativamente las concentraciones séricas de veneno en la primera hora de tratamiento y para detener el sangrado en las primeras 6-12 horas, 96,2% eficaz para normalizar la coagulación en 24 horas y 100% en 48 horas. Hubo 2 casos (3,8% de recurrencia de coagulopatía sin sangrado y 12 recurrencias de antigenemia sin implicaciones clínicas. Diez pacientes (18,9% presentaron reacciones tempranas adversas (leves a la faboterapia. No hubo muertes, y cuatro pacientes (7,5% tuvieron secuelas. Conclusión: a las dosis utilizadas en este estudio, Antivipmyn-Tri® fue eficaz y seguro para el tratamiento del envenenamiento bothrópico en Colombia. Introduction: Colombia is a country with two whole IgG antivenom producers, but the expectancy of all the market are not fulfilled by different technical reasons. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a F(ab´2 polyvalent antivenom produced in Mexico and of a new dosage regimen for Bothrops bites in Colombia. Methods: A clinical trial

  3. Atitudes de anestesiologistas e médicos em especialização em anestesiologia dos CET/SBA em relação aos bloqueios nervosos dos membros superior e inferior Actitudes de anestesiólogos y médicos en especialización en anestesiología de los CET/SBA con relación a los bloqueos nerviosos de los miembros superior e inferior The attitude of anesthesiologists and anesthesiology residents of the CET/SBA regarding upper and lower limb nerve blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Escovedo Helayel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O emprego da anestesia regional, em especial dos bloqueios nervosos periféricos (BNP tem aumentado na prática anestesiológica devido à menor necessidade de instrumentação de vias aéreas, menor custo e excelente analgesia pós-operatória. Entretanto, sua utilização sofre restrições causadas pela falta de treinamento, maior tempo de realização, temor de complicações neurológicas e toxicidade sistêmica. O objetivo desse estudo foi medir as atitudes de anestesiologistas e médicos em especialização nos Centros de Ensino e Treinamento (CET/SBA em relação aos BNP. MÉTODO: Foi construído um questionário com 25 itens sendo disponibilizado eletronicamente e por correio aos responsáveis de 80 CET, seus instrutores e médicos em especialização. RESULTADOS: Quarenta e dois CET (52,5% devolveram 188 questionários, sendo 62 (32% médicos em especialização (ME e 126 (68% anestesiologistas. O coeficiente de confiabilidade de Cronbach do questionário foi 0,79. A análise fatorial revelou seis fatores, que explicaram 53% da variância dos escores: fator 1 - atitudes positivas, responsável por 18,34 % da variância; fator 2 - treinamento/aplicação, responsável por 11,73 % da variância; fator 3 - aspectos negativos, responsável por 7,11 % da variância; fator 4 - fatores limitantes, responsável por 6,39 % da variância; fator 5 - anestesia regional como diferencial de competência, responsável por 5,79% da variância; e fator 6 - respeito pelo paciente, responsável por 5,4 % da variância. CONCLUSÕES: O questionário mostrou-se uma ferramenta fidedigna para medida de atitudes com relação à anestesia regional. Os anestesiologistas demonstraram maior interesse nos aspectos relacionados aos pacientes enquanto os ME tiveram como foco principal a aquisição de habilidades técnicas.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El uso de la anestesia regional, en especial de los bloqueos nerviosos periféricos (BNP ha

  4. Hybrid materials based on novel 2D lanthanide coordination polymers covalently bonded to amine-modified SBA-15 and MCM-41: assembly, characterization, structural features, thermal and luminescence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Dou, Wei; Kirillov, Alexander M; Liu, Weisheng; Xu, Cailing; Fang, Ran; Yang, Lizi

    2016-11-22

    Three novel 2D coordination polymers [Tb2(μ4-L)2(μ-HL)(μ-HCOO)(DEF)]n (Tb-L), [Eu(μ4-L)(L)(H2O)2]n (Eu-L), and [Nd(μ4-L)(L)(H2O)2]n (Nd-L) were assembled from the corresponding lanthanide(iii) nitrates and 5 methoxy-(4-benzaldehyde)-1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H2L) as a main multifunctional building block bearing carboxylate and aldehyde functional groups, using H2O/DEF {DEF = N,N-diethylformamide} as a reaction medium. The obtained coordination polymers were isolated as stable microcrystalline solids and fully characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, TGA, BET, PXRD, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. Their structures feature intricate 2D metal-organic networks, which were topologically classified as underlying layers with the 4,6L26 (for Tb-L) or sql (for Eu-L and Nd-L) topologies. Besides, a novel series of mesoporous hybrid materials wherein the Tb-L, Eu-L, or Nd-L coordination polymers are covalently grafted into the amine-functionalized SBA-15-NH2 or MCM-41-NH2 matrices (via the formation of Schiff-base groups) was also synthesized and fully characterized. These hybrid materials show high thermal and photoluminescence stability, as well as remarkable chemical resistance to boiling water, and acidic or alkaline medium. Luminescent properties of the parent coordination polymers and derived hybrid materials are investigated in detail, showing that the latter combine the luminescent characteristics (intense green or red emissions and excellent stability) of lanthanide coordination polymers and structural features of ordered mesoporous silica molecular sieves. Moreover, light emitting devices were assembled, by coating the hybrid materials onto the surface of UV-LED bulbs, and showed excellent light emitting properties.

  5. Marked Hypofibrinogenemia and Gastrointestinal Bleeding After Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) Envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Kathryn T; Yen, May; Bitner, Matthew; Evans, C Scott; Gerardo, Charles J

    2015-12-01

    Compared with other crotaline envenomations, copperhead envenomations have historically been reported as having less severe hematologic venom effects and rarely hemorrhage. We report a case of clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding after a copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) envenomation. A 52-year-old woman with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus was bitten on her right medial ankle after which hypofibrinogenemia and hematochezia developed. The symptoms resolved after repeated administration of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom. She was discharged without further complications 2 days later. Although copperhead envenomations are classically considered less severe than other crotaline envenomations, this case demonstrates the potential of the venom to produce clinically significant hematologic effects. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Retrospective evaluation of the effect of antivenom administration on hospitalization duration and treatment cost for dogs envenomated by Crotalus viridis: 113 dogs (2004-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenbach, Julia E; Foy, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effect of antivenom administration on mortality, hospitalization duration, and cost of hospitalization for dogs envenomated by Crotalus viridis. Retrospective study (January 2004-December 2012). Private veterinary emergency and referral center. One hundred thirteen dogs with confirmed C. viridis envenomation. None. Dogs were divided into groups treated with either supportive care only (group 1) or supportive care plus antivenin crotalidae polyvalent (group 2). A modified snakebite severity score was used to compare patients from group 1 and group 2. Patients in group 2 received one 10 mL vial of antivenin crotalidae polyvalent over 4-6 hours. The mortality rate was 1.8% (2/113).  Group 1 had a median duration of hospitalization of 20 hours (range, 8-50 hours), while group 2 had a median duration of hospitalization of 24 hours (range, 1.5-74 hours). Group 1 had a median cost of hospitalization of 1050.00 USD (range, 423.52-2266.09 USD) while group 2 had a median cost of hospitalization of 2002.19 USD (range, 1139.91-6908.01 USD). Both the duration of hospitalization (P < 0.01) and the cost of hospitalization (P < 0.01) were significantly greater in the group of dogs receiving antivenom. Both the cost and the duration of hospitalization were significantly greater in the group of dogs that received antivenom. The difference in cost between the groups was approximately the cost of the antivenom vial and administration. Amongst the parameters evaluated, no significant benefit was associated with antivenom administered to dogs envenomated by C. viridis. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  7. Venomous snakebites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adukauskienė, Dalia; Varanauskienė, Eglė; Adukauskaitė, Agnė

    2011-01-01

    heat should be applied. A doctor must monitor respiratory rate, blood pressure, heart rate, renal function, fluid balance, and coagulation status. The only specific treatment method is antivenin--serum with antibodies against antigens of snake venom. Antivenins against pit vipers used in the United States are Antivenin Crotalidae Polyvalent (ACP) and a more purified and hence causing less adverse reactions--Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (CroFab). In Europe, a polyvalent antiserum against Viperidae family snakes (including the common adder) can be used. Antivenins often may cause severe hypersensitivity reactions because of their protein nature. The bite of the common adder (the only poisonous snake in such countries as Lithuania and Great Britain) relatively rarely results in death; thus, considering the risk of dangerous reactions the antivenin causes itself, the usage of it is recommended to be limited only to life-threatening conditions.

  8. C-H and C-C activation of n -butane with zirconium hydrides supported on SBA15 containing N-donor ligands: [(≡SiNH-)(≡SiX-)ZrH2], [(≡SiNH-)(≡SiX-)2ZrH], and[(≡SiN=)(≡SiX-)ZrH] (X = -NH-, -O-). A DFT study

    KAUST Repository

    Pasha, Farhan Ahmad

    2014-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) was used to elucidate the mechanism of n-butane hydrogenolysis (into propane, ethane, and methane) on well-defined zirconium hydrides supported on SBA15 coordinated to the surface via N-donor surface pincer ligands: [(≡SiNH-)(≡SiO-)ZrH2] (A), [(≡SiNH-)2ZrH2] (B), [(≡SiNH-)(≡SiO-) 2ZrH] (C), [(≡SiNH-)2(≡SiO-)ZrH] (D), [(≡SiN=)(≡Si-O-)ZrH] (E), and [(≡SiN=)(≡SiNH-)ZrH] (F). The roles of these hydrides have been investigated in C-H/C-C bond activation and cleavage. The dihydride A linked via a chelating [N,O] surface ligand was found to be more active than B, linked to the chelating [N,N] surface ligand. Moreover, the dihydride zirconium complexes are also more active than their corresponding monohydrides C-F. The C-C cleavage step occurs preferentially via β-alkyl transfer, which is the rate-limiting step in the alkane hydrogenolysis. The energetics of the comparative pathways over the potential energy surface diagram (PES) reveals the hydrogenolysis of n-butane into propane and ethane. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  9. Les télécentres, centres de communications polyvalents | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    instruction et ses compétences en informatique, mais dans son cas pour occuper un poste de bénévole. Le télécentre lui a demandé de coordonner la production locale d'un CD-ROM sur la malaria. L'UNESCO finance le projet, ...

  10. A polyvalent vaccine for high-risk prostate patients: "are more antigens better?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slovin, Susan F; Ragupathi, Govind; Fernandez, Celina

    2007-01-01

    We have shown the immunogenicity and safety of synthetic carbohydrate vaccines when conjugated to the carrier keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and given with the adjuvant, QS-21, in patients with biochemically relapsed prostate cancer. To determine whether immune response could be further enhanced...... and mixed with QS-21. Eight vaccinations were administered over 13 months. All 30 patients had significant elevations in antibody titers to at least two of the six antigens; 22 patients had increased reactivity with FACS. These serologic responses were lower than that seen previously in patients treated...... vaccine of synthetic "self" antigens broke immunologic tolerance against two or more antigens in all 30 vaccinated patients, was safe, but antibody titers against several of the antigens were lower than those seen in individual monovalent trials. No impact on PSA slope was detected. We address...

  11. Polyvalent immunoglobulin for intravenous use interferes with cell proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, I N; Lundkvist, I; Vermeulen, M; Brand, A

    1992-09-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin is used to an increasing extent in various immune-mediated diseases, but its mechanism(s) of action in vivo is incompletely understood. Previous studies have shown that intravenous immunoglobulin may interfere with autoantibodies and their production by B cells and also inhibit Fc-mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. Here we describe a novel effect of intravenous immunoglobulin on proliferation of in vitro activated peripheral blood lymphocytes and autonomously growing cell lines of various origin. Independently of whether proliferation was autonomous or induced by antigen-specific or antigen-nonspecific reagents, proliferation was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion, as measured by reduced 3H-thymidine and BrdU uptake and cell counting. The effect was not due to cytotoxic effects of intravenous immunoglobulin and was reversible after removing the intravenous immunoglobulin by washing. The IgG levels required for this inhibition of proliferation are supraphysiological but are reached in vivo during treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin.

  12. Dissecting Multivalent Lectin-Carbohydrate Recognition Using Polyvalent Multifunctional Glycan-Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuan; Nehlmeier, Inga; Poole, Emma; Sakonsinsiri, Chadamas; Hondow, Nicole; Brown, Andy; Li, Qing; Li, Shuang; Whitworth, Jessie; Li, Zhongjun; Yu, Anchi; Brydson, Rik; Turnbull, W Bruce; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Zhou, Dejian

    2017-08-30

    Multivalent protein-carbohydrate interactions initiate the first contacts between virus/bacteria and target cells, which ultimately lead to infection. Understanding the structures and binding modes involved is vital to the design of specific, potent multivalent inhibitors. However, the lack of structural information on such flexible, complex, and multimeric cell surface membrane proteins has often hampered such endeavors. Herein, we report that quantum dots (QDs) displayed with a dense array of mono-/disaccharides are powerful probes for multivalent protein-glycan interactions. Using a pair of closely related tetrameric lectins, DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR, which bind to the HIV and Ebola virus glycoproteins (EBOV-GP) to augment viral entry and infect target cells, we show that such QDs efficiently dissect the different DC-SIGN/R-glycan binding modes (tetra-/di-/monovalent) through a combination of multimodal readouts: Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), hydrodynamic size measurement, and transmission electron microscopy imaging. We also report a new QD-FRET method for quantifying QD-DC-SIGN/R binding affinity, revealing that DC-SIGN binds to the QD >100-fold tighter than does DC-SIGNR. This result is consistent with DC-SIGN's higher trans-infection efficiency of some HIV strains over DC-SIGNR. Finally, we show that the QDs potently inhibit DC-SIGN-mediated enhancement of EBOV-GP-driven transduction of target cells with IC 50 values down to 0.7 nM, matching well to their DC-SIGN binding constant (apparent K d = 0.6 nM) measured by FRET. These results suggest that the glycan-QDs are powerful multifunctional probes for dissecting multivalent protein-ligand recognition and predicting glyconanoparticle inhibition of virus infection at the cellular level.

  13. Polyvalent cation effects on myo-inositol hexakis dihydrogenphosphate enzymatic dephosphorylation in dairy wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thanh H

    2003-01-01

    Information is needed on organic polyphosphates such as myo-inositol 1,2,3,5/4,6-hexakis dihydrogenphosphate or phytate (IP6) contribution to the sources and sinks of dissolved phosphorus (PO4-P) in the soil-manure-water system. Effects of Na+, Ca2+, Al3+, and Fe3+ and cation to IP6-P mole ratios on the enzymatic dephosphorylation of IP6 were studied to determine controlling mechanisms of dephosphorylation and persistence in manure. Phytate- and PO4-P were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Phytate dephosphorylation by Aspergillus ficuum (Reichardt) Henn. phytase EC 3.1.3.8 decreases by 50 +/- 3.6 and 40 +/- 4% at pH 4.5 and 6, respectively, as Ca2+ concentrations increase and cation to IP6-P mole ratios reach 6:6. Polyanionic IP6 has a high affinity for Al3+ and Fe3+ and reductions in dephosphorylation average 27 and 32% at a cation to IP6-P mole ratio of 1:6 for Al3+ and Fe3+, respectively, while reaching more than 99% at a mole ratio of 6:6. A phytase-hydrolyzable phosphorus (PHP) fraction is native to ruminant animal manure and is proportional to total solids (TS) concentration in 1 to 100 g L(-1) suspensions. Added phytase, in effect, increases water-extractable P content of manure and the risk of environmental P dispersion. As the bioavailability and ecological effect of IP6-P appear to be regulated not only by pH-controlled enzyme activity but also by the associated counterions, the differential protective effects of cations influence the accuracy of manure PHP fraction estimates and increase phytate resistance to enzymatic dephosphorylation that may lead to its persistence in manure.

  14. The Nanoscience of Polyvalent Binding by Proteins in the Immune Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup-Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that the successful use of nanometer-scaled material, such as nanoparticles, as medicines is often challenged by the host immune system. Mechanisms of the innate immunity seem to provide a swift response to administration of particulate nanomedicines, which may...

  15. Creation of Polyvalent Decoys of Protein Cytotoxins as Therapeutics and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    individual differences, workload 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...corresponding toxins, if PVRs could be used display the Fabs of ricin antibodies (Mourez et al., 2001). In this regard, we have created the protein...isolated from the VLPs with murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase and a capsid protein primer did not produce a PCR product, suggesting that the RNA

  16. Elevated compartment pressures from copperhead envenomation successfully treated with antivenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Boutsikaris, Amy; Clancy, Cathleen

    2014-01-01

    Copperhead envenomation causes local soft tissue effects; however, associated compartment syndrome is rare. We report a case of a 17-month-old with significantly elevated compartment pressures successfully treated with antivenin and supportive care. A 17-month-old girl sustained a copperhead bite to the foot and presented with circumferential edema, erythema, and ecchymosis of the foot and distal ankle. The patient had palpable pulses and was neurologically intact. Four vials of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab was initiated and additional doses were administered in an attempt to achieve local control. Within 10 h of presentation, the patient's edema extended to the groin, although sensation was maintained and pulses were documented by Doppler. Lower-extremity compartment pressures were measured and were most notable for an anterior pressure of 85 mm Hg, despite having received 12 vials of antivenin. Fasciotomy was deferred and the patient received two additional six-vial doses of antivenin to achieve local control. Compartment pressures improved with a 2.2-cm mean decrease in limb diameter within 48 h. Maintenance dosing was initiated and the patient ultimately received a total of 26 vials of antivenin. The patient did not develop significant coagulopathy or thrombocytopenia. Swelling continued to improve with return of limb function. In this case, early and aggressive treatment with antivenin may have avoided invasive fasciotomy, and its use should be considered in patients with copperhead envenomation and significantly elevated compartment pressures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of the canine rattlesnake vaccine in moderate to severe cases of canine crotalid envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard MJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available McGee J Leonard,1 Catherine Bresee,2 Andrew Cruikshank1 1Animal Specialty and Emergency Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2The Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Research Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: This is a retrospective multicenter study (2006–2012 examining a population of dogs with moderate to severe crotalid envenomation for protective effects of the canine rattlesnake vaccine. Five nonacademic emergency and referral veterinary hospitals in Southern California were involved in the study and contributed records regarding a total of 82 client-owned dogs that were treated for naturally occurring rattlesnake envenomation. All dogs received antivenin (Crotalidae polyvalent, with dosages ranging from one to three vials (mean: 1.3±0.6. Fourteen dogs (17% had a history of prior vaccination against crotalid venom. In univariate logistic regression modeling, cases with lower body weight (P=0.0001 or higher snakebite severity scores (P<0.0001 were associated with greater morbidity. No statistically significant difference in morbidity or mortality between vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs was found. The findings of this study did not identify a significantly protective effect of previous vaccination in the cases of moderate to severe rattlesnake envenomation that require treatment with antivenin. Keywords: rattlesnake envenomation, vaccine, antivenin, canine

  18. Web based view of SBA beamline status (summer student report)

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2156364

    2016-01-01

    Summer student project report by Branislav Jenco. The document starts with some general opinions on the summer student program as well as the lectures, continues with a detailed work log and finally finishes with several appendices of technical documentation which make up the bulk of the material.

  19. 13 CFR 121.103 - How does SBA determine affiliation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... directors or shareholders. (4) Affiliation may be found where an individual, concern, or entity exercises... of the transaction (or exercise of the rights) occurring is shown to be extremely remote, are not... demonstrating a clear line of fracture between the two concerns. A “key employee” is an employee who, because of...

  20. Textural and morphological studies of transition metal doped SBA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    condensation synthesis method. Very low concentrations of metals were introduced into silica framework by maintaining the metal to silica ratio in the synthesis gel at 0.01. The difference in hydrolysis rates of metal and silica precursors have led to textural ...

  1. Polysemy, polyvalence, and linking mismatches: the concept of RAIN and its codings in English, German, Italian, and Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaefferer Dietmar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an ontological frame for comparative onomasiological lexicology which embeds the RAIN eventity type as an exponent-shaped activity into a general linguistic ontology as well as an ontology of motion, the words for RAIN in two Germanic and two Romance languages are compared with respect to their semantic and syntactic variability. It turns out that the Germanic forms are more flexible than the Romance forms. English rain has the highest variability: It can be used with eight valencies, a nominal and seven verbal ones, and with five different meanings, and it is the only one to display a valence that combines an expletive subject with a cognate object as well as a causativized eventity meaning. On the other hand only German regnen has a resultativized meaning. The Romance languages too show some internal variance: In allowing both an impersonal construction with a generalized meaning and a source construction, Spanish llover is slightly more flexible than Italian piovere. Finally, an Optimality Theoretic account of the data is adumbrated in terms of three principles: Avoid linking mismatches, Avoid heterogeneity of sentence patterns, and Avoid redundancy.

  2. An economic and rapid diagnostic procedure for the detection of salmonella/shigella using the polyvalent salmonella phage O-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, H; Bürgi, E; Margadant, A; Boller, E

    1978-01-01

    An easy, rapid and economic two-step procedure is described for the detection of Salmonella/Shigella. In the first step the susceptibility of suspected colonies for the phage O-1 of FELIX and CALLOW is tested. Positive cultures are serologically confirmed. The test is performed on Triple Sugar Iron Agar and lasts 4-6 hrs. Phage negative cultures which are lactose- and sucrose negative are tested for lysine decarboxylase and, if Shigella is possible (i.e. in human material on primary plates), for indol production and motility in a semisolid tryptophane agar. Of 22880 Salmonella straine 21977, i.e. 96.1% were phage-sensitive. Strains belonging to certain O-groups (OE) or species are lysed at a lower percentage. However, since they are lysine decarboxylase positive they are not lost and can be submitted to a serological examination.

  3. Pre-clinical assessment of the effectiveness of modified polyvalent antivenom in the neutralization of Naja naja venom toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadali, Renu; Kadiyala, Gopi; Gurunathan, Jayaraman

    2016-11-01

    The potency of conventional antivenom (AV) conjugated to soy protein nanoparticles (NPs) (C-AV) was compared with the free AV in neutralizing the systemic toxicity of Naja naja venom. The effective dose (ED50 ) of AV and C-AV to neutralize the venom-induced toxicity in mice was found to be 19.89 and 9.50 mg, respectively. The histopathological examination of heart, liver, and kidney indicated that the systemic toxicity induced by the venom was effectively neutralized by lower concentrations of C-AV than compared with AV. In addition, C-AV was found to be more effective in neutralizing the edema forming activity of N. naja venom compared with the AV. Thus, the results of this study indicate that the potency of commercially available AV could be improved by conjugating it to soy protein NPs. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Efficacy of Indian polyvalent snake antivenoms against Sri Lankan snake venoms: lethality studies or clinically focussed in vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduwage, Kalana; Silva, Anjana; O’Leary, Margaret A.; Hodgson, Wayne C.; Isbister, Geoffrey K.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro antivenom efficacy studies were compared to rodent lethality studies to test two Indian snake antivenoms (VINS and BHARAT) against four Sri Lankan snakes. In vitro efficacy was tested at venom concentrations consistent with human envenoming. Efficacy was compared statistically for one batch from each manufacturer where multiple vials were available. In binding studies EC50 for all VINS antivenoms were less than BHARAT for D. russelii [553 μg/mL vs. 1371 μg/mL;p = 0.016), but were greater for VINS antivenoms compared to BHARAT for N. naja [336 μg/mL vs. 70 μg/mL;p < 0.0001]. EC50 of both antivenoms was only slighty different for E. carinatus and B. caeruleus. For procoagulant activity neutralisation, the EC50 was lower for VINS compared to BHARAT - 60 μg/mL vs. 176 μg/mL (p < 0.0001) for Russell’s viper and 357 μg/mL vs. 6906μg/mL (p < 0.0001) for Saw-scaled viper. Only VINS antivenom neutralized in vitro neurotoxicity of krait venom. Both antivenoms partially neutralized cobra and didn’t neutralize Russell’s viper neurotoxicity. Lethality studies found no statistically significant difference in ED50 values between VINS and BHARAT antivenoms. VINS antivenoms appeared superior to BHARAT at concentrations equivalent to administering 10 vials antivenom, based on binding and neutralisation studies. Lethality studies were inconsistent suggesting rodent death may not measure relevant efficacy outcomes in humans. PMID:27231196

  5. Polyvalent C-glycomimetics based on L-fucose or D-mannose as potent DC-SIGN antagonists

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bertolotti, B.; Sutkeviciute, I.; Ambrosini, M.; Ribeiro-Viana, R.; Rojo, J.; Fieschi, F.; Dvořáková, H.; Kašáková, M.; Parkan, K.; Hlaváčková, M.; Nováková, Kateřina; Moravcová, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 18 (2017), s. 3995-4004 ISSN 1477-0520 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : glycomimetics * DC_SIGN * antagonist Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.564, year: 2016

  6. A new methodology for polyvalent intravenous immunoglobulin solution production with a two-stage process of viral inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Edson de Souza Lucena

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly purified intravenous immunoglobulin G concentrate (IV IgG was produced with the use of polyethylene glycol associated to a single-stage precipitation by ethanol, instead of the classic Cohn-Oncley process, which employs cold alcohol as the precipitating agent, in a three-stage process. Precipitation of crude fraction containing more than 95% of immunoglobulin G was performed by liquid chromatography with a cation exchanger, CM-Sepharose, as a stationary phase. During the process, the product was subjected to two-stage viral inactivation. The first stage was performed by the action of sodium caprylate, 30 mM at pH 5.1+/- 0.1, and the second stage was performed by the action of a solvent-detergent mixture. The finished product was formulated at 5% with 10% sucralose as the stabilizing agent. The process yields 3.3g of IgG/liter of plasma. The finished product analysis showed an anti-complementary activity lower than 1CH50. Polymer and aggregate percent levels were lower than 3% in the five batches studied. The analysis of neutralizing capacity showed the presence of antibacterial and antiviral antibodies in at least three times higher concentrations than the levels found in source plasma. The finished product fulfilled all purity requirements stated in the 4th edition of the European pharmacopeia.Obteve-se concentrado de imunoglobulina G intravenosa IgGIV, altamente purificado, utilizando-se polietilenoglicol associado a uma única etapa de precipitação por etanol, em substituição ao tradicional método descrito por Cohn-Oncley, que emprega, em três etapas, o mesmo álcool resfriado, como agente precipitante. A purificação da fração bruta contendo mais de 95% de imunoglobulina G foi realizada utilizando-se cromatografia líquida com um trocador de cátion, a CM-Sepharose, como fase estacionária. Durante o processamento o produto foi submetido a dupla inativação viral sendo a primeira pela ação do caprilato de sódio, 30 mM a pH 5,1+/- 0,1 e a segunda por ação de mistura de solvente/detergente. O produto acabado foi formulado a 5% utilizando-se sucralose 10% como estabilizante. O rendimento da metodologia foi de 3,3g de IgG/litro de plasma. A análise do produto acabado demonstrou atividade anti-complementar inferior a 1CH50. O valor percentual de polímeros e agregados em cinco lotes realizados foi inferior a 3%. O estudo da capacidade de neutralização demonstrou a presença de anticorpos anti-bacterianos e anti-virais em concentração pelo menos três vezes maior que o plasma de origem. O produto acabado apresentou conformidade com todos os requisitos de pureza dispostos na farmacopéia européia IV edição.

  7. Quality Control Testing for Tracking Endotoxin-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteria during the Preparation of Polyvalent Snake Antivenom Immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheraba, Norhan S; Diab, Mohamed R; Yassin, Aymen S; Amin, Magdy A; Zedan, Hamdallah H

    2015-01-01

    Snake bites represent a serious public health problem, particularly in rural areas worldwide. Antitoxic sera preparations are antibodies from immunized animals and are considered to be the only treatment option. The purification of antivenom antibodies should aim at obtaining products of consistent quality, safety, efficacy, and adherence to good manufacturing practice principles. Endotoxins are an integral component of the outer cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria. They are common contaminates of the raw materials and processing equipment used in the manufacturing of antivenoms. In this work, and as a part of quality control testing, we establish and examine an environmental monitoring program for identification of potential sources of endotoxin-producing Gram-negative bacteria throughout the whole steps of antivenom preparation. In addition, we follow all the steps of preparation starting from crude plasma till finished product using a validated sterility and endotoxin testing.Samples from air, surface, and personnel were collected and examined through various stages of manufacturing for the potential presence of Gram-negative bacteria. A validated sterility and endotoxin test was carried out in parallel at the different production steps. The results showed that air contributed to the majority of bacterial isolates detected (48.43%), followed by surfaces (37.5%) and then personnel (14%). The most common bacterial isolates detected were Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which together with Burkholderia cepacia were both also detected in cleaning water and certain equipment parts. A heavy bacterial growth with no fungal contamination was observed in all stages of antivenom manufacturing excluding the formulation stage. All samples were positive for endotoxin including the finished product.Implementation and continued evaluation of quality assurance and quality improvement programs in aseptic preparation is essential in ensuring the safety and quality of these products. Antitoxic sera preparations are the only treatment option for snake bites worldwide. They are prepared by immunizing animals, usually horses, with snake venom and collecting horse plasma, which is then subjected to several purification steps in order to finally prepare the purified immunoglobulins. Components of the bacterial cell wall known as endotoxins can constitute a potential hazardous contamination known as pyrogen in antisera, which can lead to fever and many other adverse reactions to the person subjected to it.In this work, we monitored the environment associated with the different steps of production and purification of snake antivenom prepared from immunized horses. We examined the air quality, surface, and personnel for possible sources of contamination, particularly the presence of Gram-negative bacteria, which is the major source of endotoxin presence. We also monitored all stages of preparation by sterility and endotoxin testing. Our results showed that air contributed to the majority of bacterial isolates. Sterility testing revealed the presence of bacterial contamination in all the intermediate steps, as only the final preparation after filtration was sterile. Endotoxin was present in all tested samples and the final product. Good manufacturing practice procedures are essential in any facility involved in antisera production. © PDA, Inc. 2015.

  8. Structure and dynamics of alginate gels cross-linked by polyvalent ions probed via solid state NMR spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brus, Jiří; Urbanová, Martina; Czernek, Jiří; Pavelková, M.; Kubová, K.; Vyslouzil, J.; Abbrent, Sabina; Konefal, Rafal; Horský, Jiří; Vetchy, D.; Vysloužil, J.; Kulich, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 8 (2017), s. 2478-2488 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-04109S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : alginate gels * microbead formulations * external gelation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 5.246, year: 2016

  9. Clinical profile & complications of neurotoxic snake bite & comparison of two regimens of polyvalent anti-snake venom in its treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Sarin

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: In this preliminary study, it was found that the national ASV protocol was as effective as the conventional regimen for neurotoxic snake bites. However, the findings need to be tested in a larger randomized controlled trial for definitive conclusions.

  10. Breadth of T cell responses after immunization with adenovirus vectors encoding ancestral antigens or polyvalent papillomavirus antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragonnaud, Emeline; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Holst, Peter Johannes

    2017-01-01

    circulating strains and a putative ancestor of oncogenic HPVs, we showed that the ancestral vaccine antigen has to be approximately 90% identical to the circulating PVs before a marked drop of ~90% mean CD8+ T cell responses ensues. Interestingly, the combination of two or three type-specific PV vaccines did...

  11. Ethical considerations in design of a study to evaluate a US Food and Drug Administration-approved indication: antivenom versus placebo for copperhead envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo, Charles J; Lavonas, Eric J; McKinney, Ross E

    2014-10-01

    In 2000, the US Food and Drug Administration approved CroFab(®) Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab, ovine (FabAV), which had received orphan drug designation, for use in patients with minimal to moderate North American crotaline envenomations including copperhead snakes. As existing evidence on the effectiveness of FabAV for this indication is limited, wide practice variation in its use exists. In order to provide more definitive clinical evidence as to the role of this treatment, a new randomized, placebo-controlled trial of FabAV specifically for copperhead bites was initiated. In light of the existing US Food and Drug Administration approval, ethical considerations of participation in this trial have been raised. We discuss the ethical principles pertinent to this randomized, placebo-controlled trial with placebo arm. We apply an accepted framework for ethical research to this trial. Due to the evidence gap in the literature, wide-ranging treatment recommendations by medical experts, and broad practice variation, clinical equipoise exists in the treatment of copperhead envenomation with FabAV. The impact of this clinical equipoise on the value and scientific validity of the trial is discussed. The trial's risk-benefit ratio is also considered. Potential risks to the patients are minimized as the protocol includes a plan for rescue therapy in the event that patients progress to severe envenomation symptoms. Overall, risks are further minimized by the inclusion of an interim analysis with stopping rules based on demonstrated efficacy should the therapy clearly prove to be beneficial. Although a post-marketing clinical study of this nature is unusual for an approved indication, this trial adheres to all ethical preconditions found in existing guidelines for clinical research involving human subjects. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Global Sensitivity Analysis for the determination of parameter importance in bio-manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Sunil; Francis, Richard; Newcombe, Anthony R; Zhou, Yuhong; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel; King, Josh; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli

    2008-10-01

    The present paper describes the application of GSA (Global Sensitivity Analysis) techniques to mathematical models of bioprocesses in order to rank inputs such as feed titres, flow rates and matrix capacities for the relative influence that each exerts upon outputs such as yield or throughput. GSA enables quantification of both the impact of individual variables on process outputs, as well as their interactions. These data highlight those attributes of a bioprocess which offer the greatest potential for achieving manufacturing improvements. Whereas previous GSA studies have been limited to individual unit operations, this paper extends the treatment to an entire downstream process and illustrates its utility by application to the production of a Fab-based rattlesnake antivenom called CroFab [(Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine); Protherics U.K. Limited]. Initially, hyperimmunized ovine serum containing rattlesnake antivenom IgG (product), other antibodies and albumin is applied to a synthetic affinity ligand adsorbent column to separate the antibodies from the albumin. The antibodies are papain-digested into Fab and Fc fragments, before concentration by ultrafiltration. Fc, residual IgG and albumin are eliminated by an ion-exchanger and then CroFab-specific affinity chromatography is used to produce purified antivenom. Application of GSA to the model of this process showed that product yield was controlled by IgG feed concentration and the synthetic-material affinity column's capacity and flow rate, whereas product throughput was predominantly influenced by the synthetic material's capacity, the ultrafiltration concentration factor and the CroFab affinity flow rate. Such information provides a rational basis for identifying the most promising strategies for delivering improvements to commercial-scale biomanufacturing processes.

  13. 13 CFR 114.104 - What evidence and information may SBA require relating to my claim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... employer showing actual time lost from employment, whether you are a full or part-time employee, and the wages or salary you actually lost. (6) Documentary evidence showing the amount of earnings you actually..., period of hospitalization, and any diminished earning capacity. (2) A written report following a physical...

  14. SBA-15-Pr–SO3H: An efficient, environment friendly and recyclable ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The demand for structure diversification to synthesize compound libraries for screening in drug discovery is the driving force behind the development of new ... important organic molecules like 1,3-amino alcohols4,5 units common in natural nucleoside peptide antibiotics,. e.g., nikkomycines or neopolyoxins6 ,7 (figure 2).

  15. Mesostructured SBA-15-Pr-SO3H: An efficient solid acid catalyst for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    channel blockers.3,4 These heterocyclic rings are also a common feature found in a variety of bioactive compounds such as vasodilator,5 anti-atherosclerotic,6 anti-diabetic,7 and bioprotector agents.8 Generally, the basic skeleton of DHP was first discovered by Hantzsch in 1882.9 In a typical Hantzsch procedure, an alde-.

  16. The potential risks from Russian nuclear ships. NKS-SBA-1 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-11-01

    A review is given of the information available on the Russian nuclear ships including submarines, cruisers and ice-breaking ships with special emphasis on the vessels of the Northern Fleet and the Russian icebreakers. A significant part of these ships has today been taken out of active service, and they are in various stages of decommissioning. Information on the decommissioned vessels, their storage sites and the procedures planned for the further decommissioning works is discussed. The handling of spent nuclear fuel is also considered. The various types of accidents, which might occur with these ships, operational as well as decommissioned, are considered, and examples of actual accidents with operational vessels are presented. The types of accidents considered include criticality accidents, loss-of-coolant accidents, fires/explosions and sinking. Some measures taken by the Russians to avoid such accidents are discussed. The special problems connected to the two decommissioned submarines of the Northern Fleet, which have damaged cores, are mentioned. In appendices data on the Russian nuclear vessels are presented. (au)

  17. 13 CFR 120.110 - What businesses are ineligible for SBA business loans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... distribution plans; (g) Businesses deriving more than one-third of gross annual revenue from legal gambling... setting; (l) Consumer and marketing cooperatives (producer cooperatives are eligible); (m) Loan packagers... directly or indirectly more than de minimis gross revenue through the sale of products or services, or the...

  18. Metathesis of cardanol over ammonium tagged Hoveyda-Grubbs type catalyst supported on SBA-15

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balcar, Hynek; Žilková, Naděžda; Kubů, Martin; Polášek, Miroslav; Zedník, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 304, APR 2018 (2017), s. 127-134 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-01440S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Cardanol * Flow chemistry * Hoveyda-Grubbs type catalyst * Immobilized catalyst Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.636, year: 2016

  19. SBA-15-Pr-SO 3 H: An efficient, environment friendly and recyclable ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Kiumars Bahrami1 2 Mohammad M Khodaei1 Peyman Fattahpour1. Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah, 67149-67346, Iran; Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center (NNRC), Razi University, Kermanshah, 67149-67346, Iran ...

  20. Small Business Administration (SBA) Loan Program Performance- Post-Charge Off Recovery Rates by Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Reflects total post-charge off recovery rates, as a percent of the amounts charged off by charge off year, for the major loan programs and aggregate totals by charge...

  1. 13 CFR 120.1400 - Grounds for enforcement actions-SBA Lenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... significant impairment of the integrity of the 7(a) or 504 loan program. (12) For immediate suspension of all..., exist and that immediate action is needed to prevent significant impairment of the integrity of the 7(a... capital, surplus, and undivided profits are absorbed in funding losses and the remaining assets are not...

  2. SBA-15-Ph-PrSO3H as an Efficient and Hydrophobic Nanoreactor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Schematic preparation of sulfonated mesoporous carbon (CMK-5-SO3H). TGA diagrams for CMK-5 and CMK-5-SO3H are shown in Figure S2. TGA analysis of CMK-5-SO3H shows a first weight loss (8.2%) due to desorption of water below 100ºC. This is followed by a second weight loss (13.2%) corresponding to the loss of ...

  3. Removal of patulin from aqueous solutions by propylthiol functionalized SBA-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study is to investigate the ability of functionalized silicas to detoxify aqueous solutions including apple juice contaminated with the regulated mycotoxin patulin. Micelle templated silicas with a specific pore size were synthetically modified to possess propanethiol groups, a func...

  4. Evaluation of functionalized SBA-15 to reduce patulin levels in apple juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patulin is a low molecular weight mycotoxin associated with the apple rotting fungus, Penicillium expansum. This toxin possesses an electrophilic conjugated double bond system susceptible to formation of harmful adducts with important biomolecules, such as glutathione, proteins, and DNA. In this stu...

  5. Photocatalytic activity of Ce-modified SBA-15 for the degradation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The better activity is attributed to the synergistic effect of mesoporosity and the presence of Ce3+ species along with oxygen vacancies. ... gas shift reaction20 elimination of CO and NOx contaminants from automotive exhaust ... reported elsewhere.23 Aluminum isopropoxide (70 wt% solu- tion in 1-propanol) was used as ...

  6. The Polyvalent Heat Supply System for Experimental Building of the Passive Type (area of 300 m2 Based on Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basok, B.I.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of the development and implementation of heat supply system for experimental building of the passive type are presented, optimal operating conditions are investigated, guidelines for the creation of heat supply systems for passive type buildings are provided.

  7. Vector optimization and needle-free intradermal application of a broadly protective polyvalent influenza A DNA vaccine for pigs and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggren, Marie; Nielsen, Jens; Bragstad, Karoline

    2015-01-01

    to public health by diminishing the risk of emerging highly pathogenic reassortants. Current inactivated protein vaccines against swine influenza produce only short-lived immunity and have no efficacy against heterologous strains. DNA vaccines are a potential alternative with advantages...... expressed by next-generation vectors. These new vectors can improve gene expression, but they are also efficiently produced on large scales and comply with regulatory guidelines by avoiding antibiotic resistance genes. In addition, a new needle-free delivery of the vaccine, convenient for mass vaccinations...

  8. The Professions in Modernity and the Society of the Future: A Theoretical Approach to Understanding the Polyvalent Logics of Professional Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Vogd

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I draw attention to the societal arrangements that permit or produce the autonomy of professions since professionals have the task of holding the tension among different perspectives. To do so, they must apply differing, irreconcilable logics of reflection and balance them in their decision-making. To gain a differentiated understanding of the complexities of these processes, I propose a metatheoretical conceptualization of the dynamics of professions based on Gotthard Günther’s theory of “polycontexturality,” which can be used both to analyse the interaction processes and to embed them in society. I illustrate this argument with an example from the field of medical treatment. The proposed approach also lays the basis for a differentiated understanding of phenomena, which psychoanalysis has traditionally described in terms of transference and countertransference.

  9. Neutralization of toxicological activities of medically-relevant Bothrops snake venoms and relevant toxins by two polyvalent bothropic antivenoms produced in Peru and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevao-Costa, Maria I; Gontijo, Silea S; Correia, Barbara L; Yarleque, Armando; Vivas-Ruiz, Dan; Rodrigues, Edith; Chávez-Olortegui, Carlos; Oliveira, Luciana S; Sanchez, Eladio F

    2016-11-01

    Snakebite envenoming is a neglected public pathology, affecting especially rural communities or isolated areas of tropical and subtropical Latin American countries. The parenteral administration of antivenom is the mainstay and the only validated treatment of snake bite envenoming. Here, we assess the efficacy of polyspecific anti-Bothrops serum (α-BS) produced in the Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS, Peru) and at the Fundação Ezequiel Dias (FUNED, Brazil), to neutralize the main toxic activities induced by five medically-relevant venoms of: Bothrops atrox, B. barnetti, and B. pictus from Peru, and the Brazilian B. jararaca and B. leucurus, all of them inhabiting different geographical locations. Protein electrophoretic patterns of these venoms showed significant differences in composition, number and intensity of bands. Another goal was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lyophilized α-BS developed at INS to neutralize the detrimental effects of these venoms using in vivo and in vitro assays. The availability of lyophilized α-BS has relevant significance in its distribution to distant rural communities where the access to antivenom in health facilities is more difficult. Despite the fact that different antigen mixtures were used for immunization during antivenom production, our data showed high toxin-neutralizing activity of α-BS raised against Bothrops venoms. Moreover, the antivenom cross-reacted even against venoms not included in the immunization mixture. Furthermore, we have evaluated the efficacy of both α-BS to neutralize key toxic compounds belonging to the predominant protein families of Bothrops snakes. Most significantly, both α-BS cross-specifically neutralized the main toxicological activities e.g. lethality and hemorrhage induced by these venoms. Thus, our data indicate that both α-BS are equally effective to treat snake bite victims inflicted by Bothrops snakes particularly B. atrox, responsible for the largest numbers of human envenomations in the Amazon regions of some South American countries including Peru and Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of neutralizing antibody responses elicited from highly diverse polyvalent heterotrimeric HIV-1 gp140 cocktail immunogens versus a monovalent counterpart in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Bowles

    Full Text Available Eliciting neutralizing antibodies capable of inactivating a broad spectrum of HIV-1 strains is a major goal of HIV-1 vaccine design. The challenge is that envelopes (Envs of circulating viruses are almost certainly different from any Env used in a vaccine. A novel immunogen composed of a highly diverse set of gp140 Envs including subtypes A, B, C, D and F was developed to stimulate a more cross-neutralizing antibody response. Env heterotrimers composed of up to 54 different gp140s were produced with the aim of focusing the response to the conserved regions of Env while reducing the dominance of any individual hypervariable region. Heterotrimeric gp140 Envs of inter- and intra-subtype combinations were shown to bind CD4 and a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies with similar affinity to monovalent UG37 gp140. Macaques immunized with six groups of heterotrimer mixtures showed slightly more potent neutralizing antibody responses in TZM-BL tier 1 and A3R5 tier 2 pseudovirus assays than macaques immunized with monovalent Env gp140, and exhibited a marginally greater focus on the CD4-binding site. Carbopol enhanced neutralization when used as an adjuvant instead of RIBI in combination with UG37 gp140. These data indicate that cross-subtype heterotrimeric gp140 Envs may elicit some improvement of the neutralizing antibody response in macaques compared to monovalent gp140 Env.

  11. Studies on the interaction of olive cake and its hydrophylic extracts with polyvalent metal ions (Cu(II), Eu(III)) in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Maria; Kolokassidou, Konstantina; Pashalidis, Ioannis

    2009-07-30

    The paper presents and discusses the chemical affinity of two different forms of natural organic matter (e.g. in solid (SOM) and soluble form (DOM)) for Cu(2+) and Eu(3+) ions. In the this study SOM is represented by olive cake and DOM by its hydrophilic extracts. The investigations were performed in aqueous 0.1M NaClO(4) solutions at pH 6, 23 degrees C and under atmospheric conditions by means of potentiometry using a copper ion selective electrode and competitions reactions between the two metal ions. The experimental data were evaluated according to an "operational" approach, which is based on the charge neutralization model and the Scatchard approach. Evaluation of the data resulted in the determination of conditional formation constants (beta(*)), which are a measure for the chemical affinity of natural organic matter for a metal ion. For the olive cake metal ion binding the values of log beta(*) for Cu(II) and Eu(III) were evaluated to be 5.1+/-0.3 and 5.4+/-0.5, respectively, whereas for the hydrophilic extracts the corresponding values for the Cu(II) and Eu(III) complexes were evaluated to be 5.3+/-0.3 and 6.3+/-0.5, respectively. The beta(*) values show that natural organic matter in the two different forms presents almost similar affinity for the Cu(2+) ion, whereas the affinity of DOM for the Eu(3+) ion is significantly higher than the corresponding affinity of SOM. This is ascribed to the higher flexibility of DOM, which allows better coordination of its active sites around the Eu(3+) ion.

  12. Immunization of horses with a polyvalent live-attenuated African horse sickness vaccine: Serological response and disease occurrence under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Molini

    2015-01-01

    Our data confirm that vaccination with LAV is a useful tool to reduce the severity of the disease in endemic areas. However, clinical and sometimes fatal AHS can still affect young vaccinated horses, thus highlighting the necessity to better understand the immune response to AHSV and to dispose of more effective vaccines.

  13. 78 FR 74216 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... feature of SBA.gov that helps customized, relevant SBA.gov information directly to the user which will... content on SBA.gov . SBA Community is also an optional feature of SBA.gov which allows users to contribute.... Frequency: On Occasion. SBA Form Number: N/A. Description of Respondents: Entrepreneurs, lenders, small...

  14. FabAV antivenin use after copperhead snakebite: clinically indicated or knee-jerk reaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Stephen C; Peters, Jo Ann; Allen, LaDonna; Creath, Robert; Dombrovskiy, Viktor Y

    2016-01-01

    Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) (FabAV) antivenin is commonly recommended after pit viper snakebites. Because copperhead envenomations are usually self-limited, some physicians are reluctant to use this costly treatment routinely, while others follow a more liberal approach. We hypothesized that, in practice, only patients with evidence of significant (moderate or severe) copperhead envenomation [those with snakebite severity score (SSS) > 3] receive FabAV and examined a large cohort to determine the relationship between clinical findings and FabAV administration. All data from patients evaluated for copperhead snakebite at a rural tertiary referral center from 5/2002 to 10/2013 were compiled. Demographics, transfer status, antivenin use, and clinical findings were collected; SSS was calculated. The relationships among FabAV use, clinical findings, and SSS were analyzed using t-test, chi-square, and Pearson's coefficient (p copperhead snakebite; 44 (13.8 %) received antivenin. Median dose was four vials (range: 1-10; IQR: 4,6). There were no deaths. Most patients receiving FabAV (63.6 %) were admitted. With regard to demographics and symptoms, only the degree of swelling (moderate vs. none/mild; p  3, indicating moderate or severe envenomation, was only very weakly correlated with antivenin use (r = 0.217; p  3 (65.8 %) did not receive antivenin while most patients who did receive antivenin (70.5 %) had SSS ≤ 3 (indicating mild envenomation). Considerable variation occurs in antivenin administration after copperhead snakebite. Use of FabAV appears poorly correlated with patients' symptoms. This practice may expose patients to the risks of antivenin and increasing costs of medical care without improving outcomes. Guidelines used for treating other pit viper strikes, such as rattlesnake or cottonmouth snakebite may be too liberal for copperhead envenomations. Our data suggests that most patients with mild or moderate envenomation

  15. Crotaline Fab antivenom appears to be effective in cases of severe North American pit viper envenomation: An integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlynarchek Sara L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine (hereafter, FabAV, "for the management of patients with minimal to moderate North American Crotalid envenomation." Because whole-IgG pit viper antivenom is no longer available in the United States, FabAV is currently the only specific treatment option available to United States clinicians treating snakebite victims of any severity. No clinical trial data are available concerning the effectiveness of FabAV for treatment of severe snakebite, but several published articles describe its use in this setting. Methods We performed a comprehensive review of the English-language medical literature to identify all publications (1996 to July, 2008 containing data about the administration of FabAV. Two trained reviewers separately extracted case-level data concerning the administration of FabAV to patients with severe envenomation by North American crotaline snakes to a standardized form. Descriptive statistics were used. In addition, we hand-searched the US National Poison Data System reports for the years 2000–2006 to identify and describe any reports of death that occurred after FabAV administration. Results The literature review found 147 unique publications regarding FabAV. Twenty-four evaluable cases of severe human envenomation treated with FabAV were identified in 19 publications. Seven cases were described in five cohort studies, and 17 cases were described in 14 single patient case reports or non-cohort case series. Sixty-five specific severe venom effects were reported in these 24 patients, of which 50 effects (77% improved or resolved after FabAV therapy. Initial control of all severe venom effects was achieved in 12 patients (50%. The rate at which initial control was achieved was significantly higher among patients reported in the cohort series than in the case series and non-cohort reports (100% vs. 29%, P = 0

  16. Crotaline Fab antivenom appears to be effective in cases of severe North American pit viper envenomation: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavonas, Eric J; Schaeffer, Tammi H; Kokko, Jamie; Mlynarchek, Sara L; Bogdan, Gregory M

    2009-06-22

    In 2000, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) (hereafter, FabAV), "for the management of patients with minimal to moderate North American Crotalid envenomation." Because whole-IgG pit viper antivenom is no longer available in the United States, FabAV is currently the only specific treatment option available to United States clinicians treating snakebite victims of any severity. No clinical trial data are available concerning the effectiveness of FabAV for treatment of severe snakebite, but several published articles describe its use in this setting. We performed a comprehensive review of the English-language medical literature to identify all publications (1996 to July, 2008) containing data about the administration of FabAV. Two trained reviewers separately extracted case-level data concerning the administration of FabAV to patients with severe envenomation by North American crotaline snakes to a standardized form. Descriptive statistics were used. In addition, we hand-searched the US National Poison Data System reports for the years 2000-2006 to identify and describe any reports of death that occurred after FabAV administration. The literature review found 147 unique publications regarding FabAV. Twenty-four evaluable cases of severe human envenomation treated with FabAV were identified in 19 publications. Seven cases were described in five cohort studies, and 17 cases were described in 14 single patient case reports or non-cohort case series. Sixty-five specific severe venom effects were reported in these 24 patients, of which 50 effects (77%) improved or resolved after FabAV therapy. Initial control of all severe venom effects was achieved in 12 patients (50%). The rate at which initial control was achieved was significantly higher among patients reported in the cohort series than in the case series and non-cohort reports (100% vs. 29%, P = 0.005). The median dose of FabAV used to obtain initial

  17. 13 CFR 121.201 - What size standards has SBA identified by North American Industry Classification System codes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Manufacturing 500 336322 Other Motor Vehicle Electrical and Electronic Equipment Manufacturing 750 336330 Motor... System Manufacturing 750 336350 Motor Vehicle Transmission and Power Train Parts Manufacturing 750 336360... Vehicle Manufacturing 1,000 336415 Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Propulsion Unit and Propulsion Unit...

  18. Thiols make for better catalysts: Au nanoparticles supported on functional SBA-15 for catalysis of Ullmann-type homocouplings

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tianyou

    2017-09-21

    A strategy for arraying small gold nanoparticles on a mesoporous support modified with single-component or mixed self-assembled monolayers is described. The use of mixed surface modifiers allows easy access to a range of surface chemistries and modalities of interaction between nanoparticles and supports. A combination of thiol groups and linear semifluorinated chains effectively stabilized the nanoparticles against aggregation, while preserving their catalytic activity. The thiol-fluorous-supported catalyst was found active in Ullmann-type homocoupling of aryl halides and showed exceptional selectivity in this reaction.

  19. Bathymetric modelin from satellite imagery via Single Band Algorithm (SBA) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) in southern Caspian Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gholamalifard, M.; Esmaili Sara, A.; Abkar, Ali-Akbar; Naimi, N.

    2013-01-01

    Remotely sensed imagery is proving to be a useful tool to estimate water depths in coastal zones. Bathymetric algorithms attempt to isolate water attenuation and hence depth from other factors by using different combinations of spectral bands. In this research, images of absolute bathymetry using

  20. 7 CFR 4290.507 - Violations based on false filings and nonperformance of agreements with the Secretary or SBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a...

  1. 13 CFR 120.706 - What are the terms and conditions of an SBA loan to an Intermediary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Microloan Program § 120.706 What are the terms and conditions of an... available per state. (b) Repayment terms. During the first year of the loan, an Intermediary is not required... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the terms and conditions...

  2. Synthesis, characterization, and biodistribution studies of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled SBA-16 mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco de Barros, André Luís [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Silva de Oliveira Ferraz, Karina; Soares Dantas, Thais Cristina; Ferreira Andrade, Gracielle [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Nascimento Cardoso, Valbert [Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Barros de Sousa, Edésia Martins, E-mail: sousaem@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-11-01

    Along with anti-cancer drug delivery researches, many efforts have been done to develop new tracers for diagnostic applications. Based on advances in molecular imaging, nanoparticles can be used to visualize, characterize and measure biological process at molecular and cellular level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to synthesize, characterize and radiolabeled mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for in vivo applications. The nanoparticles were synthesized, functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and then, anchored with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Particles were physicochemical characterized by elemental analysis (CHN), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and zeta potential, and were morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Results indicate that functionalization process was successfully achieved. Next, functionalized silica nanoparticles were radiolabeled with technetium-99m showing high radiochemical yields and high radiolabeled stability. These findings allow the use of the particles for in vivo applications. Biodistribution and scintigraphic images were carried out in healthy mice in order to determine the fate of the particles. Results from in vivo experiments showed high uptake by liver, as expected due to phagocytosis. However, particles also showed a significant uptake in the lungs, indicated by high lung-to-non-target tissue ratio. In summary, taking into account the great potential of these silica mesoporous structures to carry molecules this platform could be a good strategy for theranostic purposes. - Highlights: • Silica mesoporous nanoparticles were successfully prepared. • Functionalization with DTPA was achieved. • High radiolabeled yields and in vitro stability were reached. • Biodistribution and scintigraphic images were performed.

  3. 13 CFR 124.601 - What reports does SBA require concerning parties who assist Participants in obtaining federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... employees) receiving fees, commissions, or compensation of any kind to assist such participant in obtaining a Federal contract. The listing must indicate the amount of compensation paid and a description of the activities performed for such compensation. (b) Failure to submit the report is good cause for the...

  4. 78 FR 21180 - Announcement of the 2013 SBA-Visa Export Video Contest Under the America COMPETES Reauthorization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... video contest for eligible small businesses to showcase the advantages of exporting and increase... inform small businesses about the advantages of exporting and increase awareness of government assistance..., children, grandparents, and grandchildren, whether as ``in-laws'', or by current or past marriage...

  5. LiBH4/SBA-15 Nanocomposites Prepared by Melt Infiltration under Hydrogen Pressure: Synthesis and Hydrogen Sorption Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, P.; Adelhelm, P.A.; Beale, A.M.; de Jong, K.P.; de Jongh, P.E.

    2013-01-01

    Lithium borohydride (LiBH4) is a promising material for hydrogen storage, with a gravimetric hydrogen content of 18.5%. However, the thermodynamics and kinetics of its hydrogen release and uptake need to be improved before it can meet the requirements for mobile applications. In this study, we

  6. Nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research project SBA-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikelmann, I.M.H. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)

    2002-11-01

    The acute phase of a nuclear accident and the possibility of high exposure of the populations are always the most important threats in the emergency preparedness work. Radioactive contamination from an accident can however also cause long term effects for land use and enhanced doses to special population groups and economic problems for agriculture, reindeer industry, hunting, tourism and recreation. For planning purposes it is always valuable to be aware of surrounding radiation hazards and other potential threats. Thus, mapping such threats in a Nordic context is an important factor in emergency preparedness in the area. This report presents a cross-disciplinary study from the NKS research program 1998-2001.The scope of the project was to prepare a 'base of knowledge' regarding possible nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. This base of knowledge will, by modere information technology as different websites, be made available to authorities, media and the population. The users of the websites can easily get information on different types of nuclear installations and threats. The users can get an overview of the situation and, if they so wish, make their own judgements. The project dealt with a geographical area including North-west Russia and the Baltic states. The results from the different activities in the project were generated in a web based database called the 'the base of knowledge'. Key words Nuclear threats, Nordic countries, nuclear power plants, nuclear ship, nuclear waste, literature database, base of knowledge, webaccessed information, atmospheric transport, decommissioning of submarines, nuclear installations, waste management, radioactive contamination in marine environment, radioactive sources, criticality analysis. (au)

  7. 13 CFR 140.11 - What type of debt is subject to administrative wage garnishment, and how can SBA administratively...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Wage... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What type of debt is subject to... than the full amount of a debt. See, for example, the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS), 31...

  8. 13 CFR 120.465 - Civil penalty for late submission of required reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SBA Supervised Lender in writing of the amount of civil penalties imposed either upon receiving the.... (1) An SBA Supervised Lender may request in writing to SBA that SBA extend its report due date. The... Supervised Lender in writing as to whether it approved or denied the extension request. If SBA determines...

  9. 13 CFR 120.1070 - Lender oversight fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... guarantees in SBA's portfolio. SBA may waive the assessment of this fee for all Lenders owing less than a... each Lender's portion of the total dollar amount of SBA guarantees in SBA's portfolio. (b) Billing process. For the on-site examinations or reviews conducted under (a)(1) and (a)(2) above, SBA will bill...

  10. Immunogenic peptides comprising a T-helper epitope and a B-cell neutralizing antibody epitope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Barton F.; Korber, Bette T.; De Lorimier, Robert M.

    2006-12-26

    The present invention relates, generally, to a polyvalent immunogen and, more particularly, to a method of inducing neutralizing antibodies against HIV and to a polyvalent immunogen suitable for use in such a method.

  11. Nucleic acids encoding mosaic HIV-1 gag proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette T.; Perkins, Simon; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Fischer, William M.; Theiler, James; Letvin, Norman; Haynes, Barton F.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Yusim, Karina; Kuiken, Carla

    2016-11-15

    The disclosure generally relates to an immunogenic composition (e.g., a vaccine) and, in particular, to a polyvalent immunogenic composition, such as a polyvalent HIV vaccine, and to methods of using same.

  12. 13 CFR 121.1001 - Who may initiate a size protest or request a formal size determination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) For SBA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, the following entities may protest: (i) A... delegated SBA's 8(a) contract execution functions; or (C) The SBA District Director in the district office...

  13. supp8.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spirooxindole; water-tolerant catalyst; mesoporous silica; antioxidant agent. Table of Contents. Figure S1. FT-IR spectra of (a) SBA-15, (b) SBA-15-Cl and (c) SBA-15-PhSO3H (KBr). Figure S2. Thermal gravimetric analysis of (a) SBA-15 and (b) SBA-15-PhSO3H. Figure S3. XRD pattern of the SBA-15-PhSO3H. Figure S4.

  14. High-throughput epitope identification for snakebite antivenom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engmark, Mikael; De Masi, Federico; Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard

    Insight into the epitopic recognition pattern for polyclonal antivenoms is a strong tool for accurate prediction of antivenom cross-reactivity and provides a basis for design of novel antivenoms. In this work, a high-throughput approach was applied to characterize linear epitopes in 966 individual...... toxins from pit vipers (Crotalidae) using the ICP Crotalidae antivenom. Due to an abundance of snake venom metalloproteinases and phospholipase A2s in the venoms used for production of the investigated antivenom, this study focuses on these toxin families....

  15. El mapa conceptual. Un instrumento educativo polivalente para las ciencias de la salud: Su aplicación en histología Concept maps as a polyvalent educational tool for health sciences: Their application to histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Sánchez-Quevedo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analiza el mapa conceptual como instrumento de estrategia educativa aplicada a las ciencias de la salud y, especialmente, al ámbito de la histología. Tras considerar los elementos constitutivos y los tipos de mapas conceptuales y el fundamento epistemológico de los mismos para estimular el aprendizaje significativo, se examina la aplicación de los mapas al desarrollo curricular, la evaluación, el diseño pedagógico por parte del profesor y el autoaprendizaje por parte del alumno en el contexto del proceso de Bolonia. En el ámbito de la histología se analiza la utilización de los distintos tipos de mapas para la definición y jerarquización de sus contenidos, su relación con el resto de las disciplinas y su nuevo paradigma vinculado a la Ingeniería tisular.This article analyzes the concept map as a tool for educational strategy applied to health sciences, particularly in the area of histology. After considering the elements that make up these maps, the different types of concept maps and the epistemological basis of maps as instruments to enhance significant learning, the article examines how maps can be used for curriculum development, evaluation, pedagogic design by teachers, and self-learning by students within the context of the Bologna process. UIT reference to histology, we analyze how different types of maps are used to define and rank concepts, examine the relationship between disciplines and to understand the new paradigm of histology related to tissue engineering.

  16. Evaluation of a polyvalent foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine containing A Saudi-95 against field challenge on large-scale dairy farms in Saudi Arabia with the emerging A/ASIA/G-VII viral lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Nicholas A; Ludi, Anna B; Wilsden, Ginette; Hamblin, Pip; Qasim, Ibrahim Ahmed; Gubbins, Simon; King, Donald P

    2017-12-14

    In 2015, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses of the A/ASIA/G-VII lineage emerged from the Indian sub-continent to cause outbreaks in the Middle and Near East. A factor which has been proposed to have contributed to the rapid spread of this lineage is the poor in vitro vaccine-match of field isolates to vaccine strains that are commonly used in the region. This study used data from outbreaks on four large-scale dairy farms using routine vaccination in Saudi Arabia, to evaluate the impact of vaccination and learn how to manage outbreaks more effectively in this setting. This evaluation also included an assessment of vaccine-induced neutralisation titres to the vaccine and field strains on a related farm with no history of FMD that employed an identical vaccination schedule. The incidence risk among exposed groups ranged from 2.6 to 20.1% and was significantly higher among youngstock (18.7%) compared to adults (7.4%). Evidence was found that local isolation of individual sick animals was more effective than whole group isolation and that subclinical infection and undetected circulation may occur on large-scale farms in Saudi Arabia, although both of these points require further evaluation. On the unaffected farm, the mean reciprocal titres for the vaccine and field strains were all above the cut-off supposed to correlate with clinical protection based on evidence from challenge studies. An estimate of vaccination effectiveness was not possible on the affected farms, but the incidence of FMD provides a more realistic estimation of the expected vaccine performance than in vivo studies or r1 value as it is based on field conditions and natural exposure. This study shows that analysis of field data from FMD outbreaks are a useful addition to more conventional challenge and in vitro based evaluations of vaccines and suggests further work is necessary to validate correlates of protection in field conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of health status of horses immunized with snake venom and montanide adjuvants, IMS 3012 (nanoparticle), ISA 206 and ISA 35 (emulsion based) during polyvalent snake antivenom production: hematological and biochemical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmare, A B; Salvi, N C; Deopurkar, R L; Shenoy, P A; Sonpetkar, J M

    2014-05-01

    Several biochemical and hematological changes in horses are observed during production of snake antivenom. Although conventional adjuvants like Freund's (Complete and Incomplete) are good immunopotentiators, they produce considerable local reactions in animals. Variety of commercial adjuvants, like montanide adjuvants, having high immunopotentiation and showing lesser side effects are available. The prime objective during antivenom production is to strike a balance between safety of immunized horses and efficacy of the product. In our earlier work, efficacy of montanide group of adjuvants in antivenom production has already been established. The aim of the present work was to assess the safety parameters in horses, viz.: biochemical and hematological, during production of snake antivenom. In the present study, 33 new horses were randomly divided into four groups and hyperimmunized using mixture of snake venoms, viz.: Cobra venom, Russell's viper venom, Krait venom and Echis venom along with montanide adjuvants, IMS 3012, ISA 206, ISA 35 and Incomplete Freund's adjuvant as a control adjuvant; through subcutaneous route at intervals of two weeks. During the immunization period, biochemical and hematological parameters were monitored at 0th, 14th, 21st, 30th and 42nd weeks. The mean hemoglobin values dropped slightly during initial immunization but subsequently regained to normal levels. The mean serum total protein values and globulin levels showed an increment in all the four groups, compared to day zero, vice-versa a slight drop was observed in albumin levels. No significant changes were observed in serum creatinine, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and blood urea nitrogen values. Finally, we conclude that montanide adjuvants could be a safer alternative to the conventional adjuvants for primary phase of immunization in antivenom production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of FMD virus type specific IgG1, IgG2 and IgA antibodies in milk and serum of buffaloes vaccinated with oil adjuvanted polyvalent FMD vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sharma

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out on 15 randomly selected milch buffaloes divided into three groups on the basis of lactation at an organized farm, to study the foot and mouth disease virus type specific antibodies in milk and serum following FMD vaccination. Milk and serum samples collected before vaccination i.e. 0 day and on 7, 14, 28, 42 and 56 days post vaccination, were analyzed for the detection of FMD virus specific IgG1, IgG2 and IgA antibody response by indirect double antibody sandwich ELISA. Significant FMD virus type specific antibody titres (IgG1, IgG2 and IgA were detected in milk and serum of buffaloes on different days post vaccination, though the levels of antibodies were lower in milk as compared to serum. FMD virus type specific IgG1 was found to be the predominant subclass as compared to IgG2 and IgA both in milk and serum of vaccinated buffaloes. Milk and serum IgG1, IgG2 and IgA antibody titres were positively correlated with values of regression coefficient (R as 0.506, 0.434 and 0.396, respectively.

  19. (Bitis arietans)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    628. RAMSEY, H.W. & GENNARO, J.F. 1959. An analysis of the toxicity and hemolytic properties of stored dessicated venoms of two. Crotalidae. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 8: 552. ROBERTSON, S.S.D. & DELPIERRE, G.R. 1969. Studies on African.

  20. 75 FR 15756 - Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Director, Office of Technology, SBA, at (202) 205-7343. You may also email questions to technology@sba.gov... Bureau of Economic Analysis, including the GDP Implicit Price Deflator and the Satellite R&D Account, as... the SBA Administrator or designee. The SBA's Office of Technology is the appropriate office for...

  1. Small Business Administration (SBA) Loan Program Performance- Charge Off Rates as a Percent of Unpaid Principal Balance (UPB) Amount by Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Reflects charge off rates, as a percent of the UPB amounts, at the end of the fiscal year for the major loan programs and aggregate totals for the small direct and...

  2. Avaliação de complexos de sílica mesoporosa (SBA-15) com fármacos (Naproxeno e Estavudina)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Rafael Nicolay

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências da Saúde. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmácia. Materiais mesoporosos têm recebido muita atenção devido as suas características atrativas como estrutura de mesoporos estáveis, grande área superficial (acima de 1500 m2/g), grande volume de poro, tamanho de poro regulável (2-10 mn) e superfície com caráter hidrofílico. Recentemente uma nova aplicação para a sílica mesoporosa como liberação de fármacos tem s...

  3. Dynamic study of carbon nanotube growth and catalyst morphology evolution during acetylene decomposition on Co/SBA-15 in an environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    s Aires, F. J. Cadete Santo; Epicier, T.; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2012-01-01

    post mortem TEM measurements and real-time in situ ETEM observations. In situ observation of the formation of the carbon nanotubes was performed in an FEI Titan 80-300 ETEM equipped with an objective lens spherical aberration corrector [3]. Prior to acetylene decomposition, the catalyst nanoparticles...... were reduced in situ in a flow of hydrogen (1 mbar, ~500°C). Electron energy-loss spectra taken before and during reduction showed that the Co oxide nanoparticles were reduced to metallic Co. In situ high resolution TEM images are consistent with cubic Co. A first attempt to study carbon nanotube......-3/10-2 mbar range was used to decrease the growth rate to allow real-time observation of the formation of CNTs over several minutes. These conditions also reduced the coking of the nanoparticles and favoured the formation of tubular structures. Two types of CNTs following the tip-growth mechanism...

  4. Synthesis and structural characterization of ZnO-and CuO-NPs supported mesoporous silica materials (hexagonal SBA-15 and lamellar-SiO2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahhal, Issa M.; Salem, Jamil K.; Tabasi, Nihal S.; Hempelmann, Rolf; Kodeh, Fawzi S.

    2018-01-01

    Two different mesoporous silica structures (hexagonal and lamellar) were synthesized via sol-gel method using a series of triblock copolymer (Pluronic) surfactants. L81, L61 & L31 surfactants form lamellar structure whereas P123 surfactant forms a hexagonal structure. CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) supported mesoporous silica were synthesized using impregnation method. The structural properties of these materials were investigated using several characterization techniques such as FTIR, XRD, SAXS, TEM and TGA. SAXS and TEM confirmed that the obtained mesoporous silica is based on the EO/PO ratio of Pluronic surfactants. They proved that the mesoporosity of silica is well maintained even after they loaded with metal oxide nanoparticles.

  5. Preparación de nuevos catalizadores de Mo soportados sobre materiales híbridos (SBA-15+PGMA) para la epoxidación de 1-Octeno

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Lamaro, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Proyecto Fin de Carrera leído en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos en el curso académico 2009/2010. Directores del Proyecto: José Iglesias Morán y Jovita Moreno Vozmediano Tecnología Química y Energética

  6. Nanopartículas soportadas sobre materiales SBA-15 para su aplicación a procesos de valorización de biomasa

    OpenAIRE

    Yépez, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    La Tesis Doctoral aborda el estudio de la actividad y selectividad, sobre los diferentes catalizadores sintetizados en procesos de conversión de “platform molecules” obtenidos a partir de la biomasa, a productos de alto valor añadido. Además, se plantea un reto fundamental en el campo de la catálisis heterogénea como es la preparación de forma rápida, barata y eficiente de nuevos materiales que sustituyan en el futuro a los catalizadores tradicionales. Así, se han sintetizado diferentes m...

  7. Medical risk factors for small-bowel adenocarcinoma with focus on Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærlev, Linda; Teglbjaerg, P.S.; Sabroe, Svend

    2001-01-01

    case and no controls had had long-standing Crohn disease. Coeliac disease was associated with SBA (2 cases, 0 controls), but one of the cases was diagnosed at the same time as the SBA. Overall, people with a history of gallstones had no increased risk of SBA. The OR was exclusively increased during...... with SBA had an increased prevalence of anaemia; OR 15.3 (2.5-92.1). An association between low educational level and SBA was found; OR 1.75 (1.0-3.0). CONCLUSION: This study supports Crohn disease and coeliac disease being strong but rare risk factors for SBA. Previous gallstones were unrelated to SBA......BACKGROUND: Crohn disease and biliary diseases have been associated with small-bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA). We examined how medical conditions affect the risk of SBA. METHODS: A population-based European multicentre case-control study during the period 1995-97 including 95 histologically verified...

  8. 13 CFR 120.1704 - Pool Loans eligible for Pooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Loans eligible for Pooling. (a) General Pool Loan eligibility requirements. For a First Lien Position... zoos—712130 (“Zoos and Botanical Gardens”). (b) SBA review of a Pool Loan prior to pool formation. SBA...

  9. 13 CFR 103.4 - What is “good cause” for suspension or revocation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business relationship between the two parties. (c) Violating ethical guidelines which govern the profession..., advertising using the words Small Business Administration or SBA in a manner that implies SBA's endorsement or...

  10. 13 CFR 108.690 - Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies by Sba for Regulatory Compliance § 108.690 Examinations. All NMVC companies must submit to annual examinations by or at the direction of SBA for the purpose of evaluating regulatory compliance. ...

  11. 76 FR 18007 - Intermediary Lending Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... advertising. Section 109.310 provides the terms of SBA's ILP Loan to an ILP Intermediary. An ILP Loan must be..., religion, sex, marital status, disability or age. As required by the Act, section 109.450 provides that SBA...

  12. 78 FR 42817 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... the previous 24 months. Additionally, SBA's independent research resulted in discovery of other small..., Women- Owned Small Businesses, or Participants in SBA's 8(a) Business Development Program provide the...

  13. 77 FR 12901 - Data Collection Available for Public Comments and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... impact of counseling provided by the SBDCs. The SBDCs State Director and the SBA Project Officer review the forms to help determine if the client received satisfactory counseling services. Title: ``SBA... completed by the small business owner or prospective owners who have received counseling from SBA's resource...

  14. Mind your elders: wild soybean’s contribution to soybean aphid resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, biotype 4 soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsamura, SBA) is the most virulent SBA biotype. Overcoming the most aphid resistant genes, SBA biotype 4 has become the greatest challenge in utilizing plant resistance in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Soybean’s wild ancestor Glycine soja (Sie...

  15. 13 CFR 120.194 - Use of computer forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of computer forms. 120.194... Applying to All Business Loans Computerized Sba Forms § 120.194 Use of computer forms. Any Applicant or Participant may use computer generated SBA application forms, closing forms, and other forms designated by SBA...

  16. 13 CFR 102.2 - Public reading rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public reading rooms. 102.2... Disclosure of Information § 102.2 Public reading rooms. (a) SBA maintains a public reading room in the... described in paragraph (a) of this section are available in the SBA Online Reading Room at http://www.sba...

  17. Preparation and thermal properties of mesoporous silica/phenolic resin nanocomposites via in situ polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lv

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the adhesion between inorganic particles and polymer matrix, in this paper, the mesoporous silica SBA-15 material was synthesized by the sol-gel method. The surface of SBA-15 was modified using γ-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOTMS as a coupling agent, and then mesoporous silica/phenolic resin (SBA-15/PF nanocomposites were prepared via in situ polymerization. The structural parameters and physical properties of SBA-15, SBA-15-GOTMS (SBA-15 surface treated using GOTMS as coupling agents and E-SBA-15/PF (SBA-15/PF nanocomposites extracted using ethanol as solvent were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results demonstrated that the GOTMS were successfully grafted onto the surface of SBA-15, and chemical bonds between PF and SBA-15-GOTMS were formed after in situ polymerization. In addition, it is found that the in situ polymerization method has great effects on the textural parameters of SBA-15. The results also showed that the glass transition temperatures and thermal stability of the PF nanocomposites were obviously enhanced as compared with the pure PF at silica contents between 1–3 wt%, due to the uniform dispersion of the modified SBA-15 in the matrix.

  18. 77 FR 42211 - Small Business Size Standards: Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... in Retail Trade (NAICS Sector 44-45) under the SBA's nonmanufacturer rule (13 CFR 121.406(b)). These... standards in NAICS Sector 71 is consistent with SBA's prior actions for NAICS Sector 44-45 (Retail Trade... for Wholesale Trade), and 100 employees for industries in the Wholesale Trade Sector. SBA established...

  19. 13 CFR 120.972 - Third Party Lender participation fee and CDC fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fee and CDC fee. 120.972 Section 120.972 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... and CDC fee. (a) Participation fee. For loans approved by SBA after September 30, 1996, SBA must... when the Third Party Lender occupies a senior credit position to SBA in the Project. (b) CDC fee. For...

  20. Environmental Risk of Metal Mining Contaminated River Bank Sediment at Redox-Transitional Zones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarah F L Lynch; Lesley C Batty; Patrick Byrne

    2014-01-01

    ... Framework Directive objectives. Redox-transitional zones that form along metal contaminated river banks as a result of flood and drought cycles could cause biogeochemical changes that alter the behaviour of polyvalent metals iron...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allam, AM. Vol 55, No 1 (2007) - Articles Field Evaluation Of The Polyvalent Inactivated Bvd, Ibr, Pi-3 And Brsv Vaccine Adjuvanted With Nigella Sativa Oil In Pregnant Dams And Their Calves Abstract. ISSN: 0378-9721.

  2. Dendritic polymers: Universal glue for cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Holger

    2012-05-01

    A dendritic polymer consisting of inversely oriented lipid head groups on a polyvalent polyglycerol scaffold makes an effective reversible biomembrane adhesive that may find use as a tissue sealant and a drug-delivery vehicle.

  3. A Synthetic Host-Guest System Achieves Avidin-Biotin Affinity by Overcoming Enthalpy-Entropy Compensation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mikhail V. Rekharsky; Tadashi Mori; Cheng Yang; Young Ho Ko; N. Selvapalam; Hyunuk Kim; David Sobransingh; Angel E. Kaifer; Simin Liu; Lyle Isaacs; Wei Chen; Sarvin Moghaddam; Michael K. Gilson; Kimoon Kim; Yoshihisa Inoue

    2007-01-01

    ... , equivalent to that exhibited by the avidin-biotin pair. Although purely synthetic systems with larger association constants have been reported, the present one is unique because it does not rely on polyvalency...

  4. Improvement of Combat Performance for Existing and Future Aircraft: Conference Proceedings of the Flight Mechanics Panel Symposium Held in Treviso, Italy on 14-17 April 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    industrial and operational terms. Norms, construction standards, manufacturing processes, training syllabuses of crews and technicians have been made...durant losquelies sea capacitdo air-sir et air-aol seront alter- nativement voire simultandment mises h 1𔄀preuve. Cette nouvelle notion de polyvalence...toutefois & rdviser Ia notion traditionneile de polyvalence. En effet, mvsc l’dlmrgissement des capacitds opdrationnelles de cheque vecteur at du

  5. Superomniphobic Surfaces for Military Applications: Nano- and Micro-Fabrication Methods. Chapter 2: Investigation of Wear for Superhydrophobic Surfaces and Development of New Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    revêtement superhydrophobe polyvalent pouvant être appliqué sur des matériaux lisses et rugueux, dans une gamme allant du verre et de l’aluminium au carton...superhydrophobe polyvalent pouvant être appliqué sur des matériaux lisses et rugueux, dans une gamme allant du verre et de l’aluminium au carton et au bois, en

  6. Application of mesoporous silica materials for the immobilization of polyphenol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corell Escuin, Paula; García-Bennett, Alfonso; Ros-Lis, Jose Vicente; Argüelles Foix, Angel; Andrés, Ana

    2017-02-15

    The ability of a number of mesoporous silica materials (SBA-15, SBA-3, and MCM-48) to immobilize polyphenol oxidase (PPO) at different pH has been tested. Pore size and volume are the structural characteristics with higher influence on the PPO immobilization. Mesoropous material SBA-15 adsorbs a larger quantity of PPO at pH 4.00 and offers an inhibition of enzymatic activity close the 50% in apple extracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Seabird bycatch in Portuguese mainland coastal fisheries: An assessment through on-board observations and fishermen interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition with fisheries and incidental capture in fishing gear are the major current threats for seabirds at sea. Fishing is a traditional activity in Portugal and is mainly composed of a great number of small vessels. Given the lack of knowledge on effects of the Portuguese fishing fleet on seabird populations, bycatch was assessed in mainland coastal waters for 2010–2012. Interviews and on-board data were divided into 5 strata, according to fishing gear: Bottom trawling, Bottom longline, Purse seine, Beach seine, Polyvalent (≥12  m and Polyvalent (<12 m. Polyvalent included Setnets, Traps and Demersal longlines. Overall, 68 birds were recorded to be bycaught. The average catch per unit effort (CPUE was 0.05 birds per fishing event. Polyvalent (<12 m, Polyvalent (≥12  m and Purse seiners had the biggest seabird bycatch rates, with 0.5 (CPUE=0.1, 0.11 (CPUE=0.05 and 0.2 (CPUE=0.11 birds per trip, respectively. Within Polyvalent gear, Setnets captured the largest diversity of seabird species (CPUE=0.06, while Demersal longline had the highest CPUE (0.86. Northern gannet was the most common bycaught species. Although more observation effort is required, our results suggest that substantial numbers of Balearic shearwater might be bycaught annually, mainly in Purse seine and Setnets.

  8. 76 FR 42613 - Reporting Requirements for U.S. Providers of International Telecommunications Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... require the collection of personally identifiable information (PII) from individuals. Privacy Act Impact... browsing, video conferencing, instant messaging, and other, similar IP-enabled services. The SBA has...

  9. Small Business Size Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Certain government programs, such as SBA loan programs and contracting opportunities, are reserved for small business concerns. In order to qualify, businesses must...

  10. Solid acid catalysed formation of ethyl levulinate and ethyl glucopyranoside from mono- and disaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Sulfonic acid functionalised SBA-15 (SO3H-SBA-15), sulfated zirconia and beta, Y, ZSM-5 and mordenite zeolite catalysts have been applied for the dehydration of sugars to ethyl levulinate and ethyl-D-glucopyranoside (EDGP) using ethanol as solvent and reactant. The SO3H-SBA-15 catalyst showed...... a high catalytic activity for the selective conversion of fructose to ethyl levulinate (57%) and glucose to EDGP (80%) at 140 °C, whereas the disaccharide sucrose yielded a significant amount of both products. The SO3H-SBA-15 catalysts were found to be highly active compared to the zeolites under...

  11. Development of a high-throughput method to evaluate serum bactericidal activity using bacterial ATP measurement as survival readout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Necchi

    Full Text Available Serum Bactericidal Activity (SBA assay is the method of choice to evaluate the complement-mediated functional activity of both infection- and vaccine-induced antibodies. To perform a typical SBA assay, serial dilutions of sera are incubated with target bacterial strains and complement. The conventional SBA assay is based on plating on agar the SBA reaction mix and counting the surviving bacterial colony forming units (CFU at each serum dilution. Even with automated colony counting, it is labor-intensive, time-consuming and not amenable for large-scale studies. Here, we have developed a luminescence-based SBA (L-SBA method able to detect surviving bacteria by measuring their ATP. At the end of the SBA reaction, a single commercially available reagent is added to each well of the SBA plate, and the resulting luminescence signal is measured in a microplate reader. The signal obtained is proportional to the ATP present, which is directly proportional to the number of viable bacteria. Bactericidal activity is subsequently calculated. We demonstrated the applicability of L-SBA with multiple bacterial serovars, from 5 species: Citrobacter freundii, Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, Shigella flexneri serovars 2a and 3a, Shigella sonnei and Neisseria meningitidis. Serum bactericidal titers obtained by the luminescence readout method strongly correlate with the data obtained by the conventional agar plate-based assay, and the new assay is highly reproducible. L-SBA considerably shortens assay time, facilitates data acquisition and analysis and reduces the operator dependency, avoiding the plating and counting of CFUs. Our results demonstrate that L-SBA is a useful high-throughput bactericidal assay.

  12. Venomous snakebite in Thailand. II: Clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochanugool, C; Wildde, H; Bhanganada, K; Chanhome, L; Cox, M J; Chaiyabutr, N; Sitprija, V

    1998-05-01

    We reviewed a total of 2,525 snakebite patients in Bangkok. Of these, 1,415 were bitten by venomous snakes, 91 by neurotoxic snakes of genus Naja or Bungarus and 1,324 by snakes of family Viperidae or Crotalidae. Seventy-one percent of bites were on the lower extremity. There were two fatal cobra bites; both patients were dead on arrival at the hospital. Bites from vipers caused morbidity but no deaths. Species-specific antivenins are effective in reversing respiratory failure from cobra bites and coagulopathies from bites by Viperidae and Crotalidae snakes. However, early respiratory and wound care will save lives even in the absence of specific cobra and krait antivenin. Care of a snakebite victim should consist of immobilization and bandaging of the bitten limb with elastic bandages during transport to the hospital, early surgical debridement of necrotic tissue, appropriate infusion of antivenin, aggressive respiratory support, management of shock and infection, and peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis. Incision of bite wounds, suctioning, application of ice, and tourniquets are of no proven value and may be dangerous. All snakebite victims in southeast Asia should survive if they receive early competent care.

  13. 13 CFR 108.110 - Qualified management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified management. 108.110... management. An Applicant must show, to the satisfaction of SBA, that its current or proposed management team... or proposed management team has sufficient qualifications, SBA will consider information provided by...

  14. 13 CFR 113.105 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF POLICIES OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND SBA ADMINISTRATOR... unit means a school, department, or college of an educational institution (other than a local educational agency) admission to which is independent of admission to any other component of such institution...

  15. Performance and access to government guarantees: the case of small business investment companies

    OpenAIRE

    Elijah Brewer; Hesna Genay; William E. Jackson; Paula R. Worthington

    1996-01-01

    This article analyzes the performance of small business investment companies (SBICs) that are chartered and regulated by the Small Business Administration (SBA). Our principal finding is that poor performance over the 1986-91 period is associated with high usage of funds from the SBA.

  16. 77 FR 25775 - Small Business Investment Companies-Early Stage SBICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Regulatory Capital, up to a maximum of $50 million. Early Stage SBICs must invest at least 50% of their.... Should SBA issue you a ``Green Light letter'' (described in paragraph III.B.6), you must submit the SBIC... the end of the Initial Review phase, SBA will issue Green Light letters to those applicants that meet...

  17. 78 FR 4100 - Connect America Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... Competition Bureau and Wireless Telecommunications Bureau the task of adopting capacity or ``minimum usage... businesses, according to the SBA. 34. Wired Telecommunications Carriers. The SBA has developed a small business size standard for Wired Telecommunications Carriers, which consists of all such companies having 1...

  18. 13 CFR 120.1860 - How will the SISMBD Loan be disbursed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will the SISMBD Loan be...-Dealers (SISMBD Loan Program) § 120.1860 How will the SISMBD Loan be disbursed? (a) Loan proceeds will be... other Collateral required by SBA and verification of the required first lien position. SBA will advance...

  19. OCOD-CTTP Integrated Science: School Based Assessment Marker/Tutor Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Winston, Ed.; And Others

    This manual informs tutors/evaluators and students about the Caribbean Examinations Council's (CXC) school based assessment (SBA) of integrated science skills. It includes directions for the teacher/evaluator and a student activity package. The SBA is done in agricultural science, biology, chemistry, integrated science, and social studies and is…

  20. 78 FR 59798 - Small Business Subcontracting: Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 125 RIN 3245-AG22 Small Business Subcontracting: Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small..., 2013 (78 FR 42391). The document amended SBA's regulations governing small business subcontracting to...-16967.pdf ). SBA published a final rule on subcontracting to implement provisions of the Small Business...

  1. 3D design and electric simulation of a silicon drift detector using a spiral biasing adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-yun; Xiong, Bo; Li, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    The detector system of combining a spiral biasing adapter (SBA) with a silicon drift detector (SBA-SDD) is largely different from the traditional silicon drift detector (SDD), including the spiral SDD. It has a spiral biasing adapter of the same design as a traditional spiral SDD and an SDD with concentric rings having the same radius. Compared with the traditional spiral SDD, the SBA-SDD separates the spiral's functions of biasing adapter and the p-n junction definition. In this paper, the SBA-SDD is simulated using a Sentaurus TCAD tool, which is a full 3D device simulation tool. The simulated electric characteristics include electric potential, electric field, electron concentration, and single event effect. Because of the special design of the SBA-SDD, the SBA can generate an optimum drift electric field in the SDD, comparable with the conventional spiral SDD, while the SDD can be designed with concentric rings to reduce surface area. Also the current and heat generated in the SBA are separated from the SDD. To study the single event response, we simulated the induced current caused by incident heavy ions (20 and 50 μm penetration length) with different linear energy transfer (LET). The SBA-SDD can be used just like a conventional SDD, such as X-ray detector for energy spectroscopy and imaging, etc.

  2. 76 FR 76384 - U.S. Education Mission to Poland and Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland and Prague, Czech Republic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... due to the global fiscal crisis. For the 2009/2010 academic year, there were 2,264 Polish students... exposure and introduce participants to two growing student markets in the region, taking advantage of the... otherwise qualifies as a small business under SBA regulations (see http://www.sba.gov/services/contracting...

  3. 76 FR 9626 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... acceptance by SBA lenders or good geographical dispersion. Throughout its history, Community Express has had... technical assistance is not normally part of their lending model. Eventually, less than 5% of SBA's active... Program Overview The Community Advantage Pilot Program (CA Pilot Program) will allow mission oriented...

  4. 77 FR 11001 - Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... (Nursing and Residential Care Facilities) were part of SIC Major Industry Group 80, Health Services, while... changes, growth trends, SBA financial assistance, other program factors, etc.). SBA also considers the....0 $1,708.4 $35.5 $34.5 Substance Abuse) Hospitals $35.5 $30.0 $35.5 ] 623110--Nursing Care...

  5. 75 FR 40856 - Federal Register Meeting Notice; Webinar About Regional Innovation Clusters RFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Register Meeting Notice; Webinar About Regional Innovation Clusters RFP AGENCY: U.S. Small... Clusters (RIC) Request for Proposals (RFP) No. SBAHQ-10-R-0021. SUMMARY: The SBA is issuing this notice to... Innovation Clusters RFP. For more information please go to http://www.sba.gov/clusters/index.html . The RFP...

  6. 77 FR 72766 - Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... an industry from the Risk Management Association's Annual Statement Studies. SBA then applies these... assets, SBA used sales to total assets ratios from the Risk Management Association's Annual Statement... requirements, the amount of subcontracting, other direct and indirect costs associated with the contracts, the...

  7. Nanoreactors in Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, R. de Lima

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis metal particles and metal complexes were confined in ordered mesoporous silica such as SBA-16, P.-SBA-15, m-MCF. We used different methodologies to by eDeals" href="#77277833"> deposit these species inside silica structures. The first part of this thesis (chapter 2), silver

  8. A Reliability and Validity of an Instrument to Evaluate the School-Based Assessment System: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Nor Hasnida Md

    2016-01-01

    A valid, reliable and practical instrument is needed to evaluate the implementation of the school-based assessment (SBA) system. The aim of this study is to develop and assess the validity and reliability of an instrument to measure the perception of teachers towards the SBA implementation in schools. The instrument is developed based on a…

  9. 13 CFR 120.420 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... calculated quarterly by SBA, excluding loans approved in SBA's current fiscal year. (e) Currency Rate... convicted of, or had a judgment entered against it for felony or fraud, or charges relating to a breach of... indictment for, or has been convicted of or had a judgment entered against him for, a felony or fraud, or...

  10. 13 CFR 142.4 - What is a statement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is a statement? 142.4 Section 142.4 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT..., presented, or submitted to SBA when it is received by SBA or an agent, fiscal intermediary, or other entity...

  11. 13 CFR 142.3 - What is a claim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is a claim? 142.3 Section 142.3 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT... received by SBA, an agent, fiscal intermediary, or other entity acting for SBA, or when it is received by...

  12. 13 CFR 121.1202 - When will a waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule be granted for a class of products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... segmentation of a Federal market, SBA will not necessarily use market definitions dependent on airline radius... the Federal market for that class of products. (b) Federal market means acquisitions by the Federal... market area for a product, SBA presumes that the entire United States is the relevant Federal market...

  13. 77 FR 67433 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Program are being met. For these reasons and due to the significant investment in time and resources that..., SBA believes that the Microloan Program is not an appropriate comparison for the CA Pilot Program... policy to permit CA loans to be used to refinance loans made by SBA Microlenders subject to the policies...

  14. 7 CFR 1980.413 - Transactions which will not be guaranteed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Guaranteeing of loans involved in tax-exempt obligations under § 1980.23 of Subpart A of this Part. Administrative The State Director will consider the overall State allocations of funding authority in...) authority should continue to be referred to SBA. If the State Director decides to process SBA size loans...

  15. 13 CFR 120.960 - Responsibility for closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for closing. 120.960 Section 120.960 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS... places SBA at risk; (4) The CDC has failed to use required SBA forms or electronic versions of those...

  16. 75 FR 14331 - Disaster Assistance Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... until 5 years after repayment of the loan commences. SBA is also correcting a grammatical error in the... Energy Act of 2008 (the Farm Act). Except for several grammatical corrections, this direct final rule... correcting a spelling error in section 123.300(b), changing ``principle'' to ``principal''. SBA is amending...

  17. No choice but to find resistance to soybean aphid biotype 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] utilizes its natural defenses to limit soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsamura, SBA) injury, reducing insecticide reliance. Specific genes called Rag or Resistance to Aphis glycines are unfavorable to SBA and may suppress their development and...

  18. 75 FR 17793 - Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; Region III Regulatory Fairness Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; Region III Regulatory Fairness Board.... Small Business Administration (SBA) Region III Regulatory Fairness Board and the SBA Office of the National Ombudsman will hold a National Regulatory Fairness Hearing on Tuesday, May 18, 2010, at 10 a.m...

  19. 75 FR 18245 - Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board.... Small Business Administration (SBA) Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board and the SBA Office of the National Ombudsman will hold a National Regulatory Fairness Hearing on Monday, April 26, 2010, at 1:30 p.m...

  20. 76 FR 9630 - Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; National Ombudsman and Region VI Regional Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; National Ombudsman and Region VI Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness Board AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of open hearing of the Regional (Region VI) Small Business Regulatory Fairness Board. SUMMARY: The SBA, Office of...

  1. 77 FR 23369 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8(a) Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... conflict with the law. Execution of the J&A prior to the SBA's initiation of contract negotiations adheres... (SBA) may not accept a sole- source 8(a) contract in excess of $20 million for negotiation, unless the... the J&A is executed prior to contract negotiation, a critical juncture in the contract award continuum...

  2. 13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... appoint a Fiscal Agent to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the... Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ... Debenture, SBA may cause each NMVC Company to appoint a Selling Agent to perform functions that include, but...

  3. 78 FR 42583 - Data Collection Available for Public Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... information collection is necessary for the proper performance of the function of the agency, whether the... Administration (SBA) examiners as part of their examination of licensed small business investment companies... representations concerning its owners, and helps SBA to evaluate the SBIC's compliance with applicable laws and...

  4. 13 CFR 113.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and self-evaluation. 113.110 Section 113.110 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF POLICIES OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND SBA ADMINISTRATOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities...

  5. Predicting Teachers' Intentions to Implement School-Based Assessment Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi

    2014-01-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to explore the Hong Kong teachers' intentions to implement school-based assessment (SBA) and the predictors of those intentions. A total of 280 teachers from Hong Kong secondary schools who had been involved in SBA were surveyed. Rasch-calibrated teacher measures were calculated for each of the 6…

  6. 78 FR 14746 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Business Protests and Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... in the best interests of the Government. However, the contracting officer shall not exercise any... amount of time the SBA has, after receiving a protest, to make a size determination of a protested... contracting officer has the authority to extend the amount of time needed by SBA to make a size determination...

  7. Neonatal loss of motor function in human spina bifida aperta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, Deborah A; van Weerden, Tiemen W; Vles, Johan S H; Timmer, Albertus; den Dunnen, Wilfred F A; Staal-Schreinemachers, A L; Hoving, Eelco W.; Sollie, Krystyne M; Kranen-Mastenbroek, Vivianne J M; Sauer, Pieter J J; Brouwer, Oebele F

    OBJECTIVE: In neonates with spina bifida aperta (SBA), leg movements innervated by spinal segments located caudal to the meningomyelocele are transiently present. This study in neonates with SBA aimed to determine whether the presence of leg movements indicates functional integrity of neuronal

  8. 76 FR 70667 - Small Business Size Standards: Educational Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... for all industries in Wholesale Trade and for all industries in Retail Trade (NAICS Sector 44-45) is... Wholesale Trade), and 100 employees for industries in the Wholesale Trade Sector. SBA established 500... Trade Sector has been 100 employees for SBA financial assistance and for most other Federal programs...

  9. 76 FR 63216 - Small Business Size Standards: Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...), and for all industries in Retail Trade (NAICS Sector 44-45) under the SBA's nonmanufacturer rule (13... SBA's prior actions for NAICS Sector 44-45 (Retail Trade), NAICS Sector 72 (Accommodation and Food... standards (except for Wholesale Trade), and 100 employees for industries in the Wholesale Trade Sector. The...

  10. 75 FR 63419 - Surety Bond Guarantee Program; Timber Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... forest management, such as the protection of natural resources, soil, water, erosion control, and road... Executive Order 13132, Federalism, SBA has determined that this Proposed Rule has no federalism implications warranting preparation of a federalism assessment; however, SBA invites comments from the public on this...

  11. 13 CFR 115.12 - General program policies and provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., unless the Surety notifies SBA in writing before the 120th day that a later expiration date is required... must include a statement that the small business is experiencing difficulty obtaining a bond and that... the Principal has occurred, without the prior written approval of SBA. A violation of this provision...

  12. 13 CFR 134.102 - Jurisdiction of OHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... chapter; (d) The eligibility of any bank or non-bank lender to continue to participate in SBA loan... determination; (l) The imposition of civil penalties and assessments against persons who make false claims or... status under part 125 of this chapter; (r) The decision of the Appropriate Management Official in SBA...

  13. 13 CFR 120.10 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... published in the Federal Register through notice and comment. Rural Area is a political subdivision or... determined by SBA, and which may be revised by SBA from time to time as published in the Federal Register... responsibilities as outlined in Delegations of Authority, as published in the Federal Register. Less Than...

  14. 13 CFR 120.600 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 120.600 Section 120.600 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market... listed in FTA's records. (k) SBA's Secondary Market Program Guide is an issuance from SBA which describes...

  15. 13 CFR 107.1210 - Payment of leverage fee upon receipt of commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of leverage fee upon... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1210 Payment of leverage fee upon receipt of...

  16. Improved antimicrobial property and controlled drug release kinetics of silver sulfadiazine loaded ordered mesoporous silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Jangra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the loading of silver sulfadiazine into ordered mesoporous silica material by post-impregnation method and its effect on the in vitro release kinetics and antimicrobial property of the drug. The formulated SBA-15 silica material with rope-like morphology and SBA-15-silver sulfadiazine (SBA-AgSD were characterized by UV–visible spectrophotometer, small and wide-angle powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of SBA-AgSD revealed a high loading amount of 52.87%. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis confirmed the drug entrapment into host material by revealing a reduced surface area (214 m2/g and pore diameter (6.7 nm of the SBA-AgSD. The controlled release of silver sulfadiazine drug from the mesoporous silica to simulated gastric, intestinal and body fluids was evaluated. The Korsmeyer–Peppas model fits the drug release data with the non-Fickian diffusion model and zero order kinetics of SBA-AgSD. The antibacterial performance of the SBA-AgSD was evaluated with respect to Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The controlled drug delivery of the SBA-AgSD revealed improved antibacterial activity, thus endorsing its applicability in effective wound dressing.

  17. AcEST: DK951569 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YGMTEAGPVLA 334 >tr|B7SBA9|B7SBA9_PHYPA 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase 3 OS=Physcomitrella patens subsp. magda... 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase 2 OS=Physcomitrella patens subsp. magdalenae GN=4CL2 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 583 S

  18. 76 FR 74749 - Small Business Subcontracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... whenever the prime contractor does not utilize a subcontractor used in preparing its bid or proposal during... performance. SBA also proposed to clarify which subcontracts must be included in subcontracting data reporting, which subcontracts should be excluded, and the way subcontracting data is reported. SBA also proposed to...

  19. 76 FR 61626 - Small Business Subcontracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... used in preparing its bid or proposal during contract performance. SBA is also proposing to amend its... which subcontracts must be included in subcontracting data reporting, which subcontracts should be excluded, and the way subcontracting data is reported. SBA is also proposing to make other changes to...

  20. Immunoprecipitation of bisphenol A by antibody–mesoporous silica composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Orita

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is of global concern because of its disruption of endocrine systems and ubiquity in aquatic environment. In this study, BPA antibody was successfully immobilised on novel mesoporous silica (MPS carriers that display unique properties such as high surface area, highly uniform pore distribution and high adsorption capacity. Mobil Crystalline Material MCM-41 (2.7 nm, Santa Barbara Amorphous SBA-15-1 (12.3 nm and SBA-15-2 (24.0 nm materials were used as supports for these antibodies. On these carriers, the BPA antibody immobilisation reached 40 μg mg−1. For each MPS, 15 ng of BPA antigen was adsorbed on 1 mg of MPS–antibody composite, which resulted in an antibody activity of 30%. The highest recovery rate of BPA antigen was observed for 80% acetonitrile in 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7. After six repeated runs, BPA antibodies immobilised on SBA-15-1 and SBA-15-2 retained about 30% of their initial activity. In contrast, these antibodies showed 13% lower residual activity on MCM-41 than on SBA-15-1 and SBA-15-2. This result indicated that entire antibody molecules were adsorbed inside SBA-15-1 and SBA-15-2 pores, stabilising their structural conformation.

  1. 78 FR 37409 - Small Business Size Standards: Finance and Insurance and Management of Companies and Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ..., namely, NAICS 522293, International Trade Financing. Finally, SBA is deleting NAICS 525930, Real Estate... characteristics (such as average firm size, startup costs, industry competition, and distribution of firms by size..., International Trade Financing. Specifically, SBA requested comments on whether the size standards should be...

  2. 75 FR 61597 - Small Business Size Standards: Retail Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... characteristics (such as average firm size, startup costs, industry competition and distribution of firms by size... for industries in NAICS Sector 44-45 primarily apply to SBA's loan and other financing programs. SBA has recently broadened and enhanced its 7(a) Business Loan Guarantee Program making its financing...

  3. Adsorption and release of ampicillin antibiotic from ordered mesoporous silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairi, Valentina; Medda, Luca; Monduzzi, Maura; Salis, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    In this work the adsorption and the release of ampicillin - a β-lactam penicillin-like antibiotic - from MCM-41, SBA-15, and (amino functionalized) SBA-15-NH2 ordered mesoporous silica (OMS) materials were investigated. The silica matrices differ for their pore size (SBA-15 vs. MCM-41) mainly, and also for surface charge (SBA-15 and MCM-41, vs. SBA-15-NH2). OMS samples were characterized through small-angle X-rays scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and potentiometric titrations. The quantification of immobilized and released ampicillin was monitored by mean of UV-Vis spectroscopy. Experimental adsorption isotherms evidenced that ampicillin's loading is not related to the pore size (dBJH) of the adsorbent. Indeed the maximal loadings were 237mg/g for SBA-15 (dBJH=6.5nm), 278mg/g for MCM-41 (dBJH=2.2nm), and 333mg/g for SBA-15-NH2 (dBJH=5.6nm). Loading seems, instead, to be related to the surface charge density (σ) of the sorbent surface. Indeed, at pH 7.4 ampicillin drug is negatively charged and likely prefers to interact with SBA-15-NH2 (σSBA-15-NH2=+0.223Cm-2) rather than the slightly negatively charged silicas (σSBA-15=-0.044Cm-2 and σMCM-41=-0.033Cm-2). Similarly, ampicillin release is affected by interfacial interactions. Indeed, we found a burst release from pure silica samples (SBA-15 and MCM-41), whereas a sustained one from SBA-15-NH2 sample. We explain this behavior as a result of an attractive interaction between the protonated amino group of SBA-15-NH2 and the negatively charged carboxylate group of ampicillin. In summary, in order to obtain a sustained drug release, the chemical nature of the matrix's surface plays a role which is more important than its textural features. SBA-15-NH2 matrix is hence a suitable candidate for local sustained release of antibiotic drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  4. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles inhibit cellular respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhimin; Morrow, Matthew P; Asefa, Tewodros; Sharma, Krishna K; Duncan, Cole; Anan, Abhishek; Penefsky, Harvey S; Goodisman, Jerry; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2008-05-01

    We studied the effect of two types of mesoporous silica nanoparticles, MCM-41 and SBA-15, on mitochondrial O 2 consumption (respiration) in HL-60 (myeloid) cells, Jurkat (lymphoid) cells, and isolated mitochondria. SBA-15 inhibited cellular respiration at 25-500 microg/mL; the inhibition was concentration-dependent and time-dependent. The cellular ATP profile paralleled that of respiration. MCM-41 had no noticeable effect on respiration rate. In cells depleted of metabolic fuels, 50 microg/mL SBA-15 delayed the onset of glucose-supported respiration by 12 min and 200 microg/mL SBA-15 by 34 min; MCM-41 also delayed the onset of glucose-supported respiration. Neither SBA-15 nor MCM-41 affected cellular glutathione. Both nanoparticles inhibited respiration of isolated mitochondria and submitochondrial particles.

  5. Biodegradation of naphthalene and anthracene by chemo-tactically active rhizobacteria of populus deltoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Sandeep; Pandey, Piyush; Sood, Anchal; Sharma, Shivesh; Bisht, N. S.

    2010-01-01

    Several naphthalene and anthracene degrading bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of Populus deltoides, which were growing in non-contaminated soil. Among these, four isolates, i.e. Kurthia sp., Micrococcus varians, Deinococcus radiodurans and Bacillus circulans utilized chrysene, benzene, toluene and xylene, in addition to anthracene and naphthalene. Kurthia sp and B. circulans showed positive chemotactic response for naphthalene and anthracene. The mean growth rate constant (K) of isolates were found to increase with successive increase in substrate concentration (0.5 to 1.0 mg/50ml). B. circulans SBA12 and Kurthia SBA4 degraded 87.5% and 86.6% of anthracene while, Kurthia sp. SBA4, B. circulans SBA12, and M. varians SBA8 degraded 85.3 %, 95.8 % and 86.8 % of naphthalene respectively after 6 days of incubation as determined by HPLC analysis. PMID:24031572

  6. Biodegradation of naphthalene and anthracene by chemo-tactically active rhizobacteria of populus deltoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Sandeep; Pandey, Piyush; Sood, Anchal; Sharma, Shivesh; Bisht, N S

    2010-10-01

    Several naphthalene and anthracene degrading bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of Populus deltoides, which were growing in non-contaminated soil. Among these, four isolates, i.e. Kurthia sp., Micrococcus varians, Deinococcus radiodurans and Bacillus circulans utilized chrysene, benzene, toluene and xylene, in addition to anthracene and naphthalene. Kurthia sp and B. circulans showed positive chemotactic response for naphthalene and anthracene. The mean growth rate constant (K) of isolates were found to increase with successive increase in substrate concentration (0.5 to 1.0 mg/50ml). B. circulans SBA12 and Kurthia SBA4 degraded 87.5% and 86.6% of anthracene while, Kurthia sp. SBA4, B. circulans SBA12, and M. varians SBA8 degraded 85.3 %, 95.8 % and 86.8 % of naphthalene respectively after 6 days of incubation as determined by HPLC analysis.

  7. Sugarcane bagasse ash: new filler to natural rubber composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renivaldo José dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste recycling has been the subject of numerous scientific researches regarding the environmental care. This paper reports the redirecting of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA as new filler to natural rubber (NR/SBA. The NR/SBA composites were prepared using an opened cylinder mixer to incorporate the vulcanization agents and different proportions of residue (SBA. The ash contains about 70-90% of inorganic compounds, with silica (SiO2 being the main compound. The SBA incorporation improved the mechanical properties of the vulcanized rubber. Based on these results, a new use is proposed for the agro-industry organic waste to be implemented in the rubber vulcanization process, aimed at improving the rubber physical properties as well as decreasing the prices of natural rubber composites.

  8. Biodegradation of naphthalene and anthracene by chemo-tactically active rhizobacteria of populus deltoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Bisht

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several naphthalene and anthracene degrading bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of Populus deltoides, which were growing in non-contaminated soil. Among these, four isolates, i.e. Kurthia sp., Micrococcus varians, Deinococcus radiodurans and Bacillus circulans utilized chrysene, benzene, toluene and xylene, in addition to anthracene and naphthalene. Kurthia sp and B. circulans showed positive chemotactic response for naphthalene and anthracene. The mean growth rate constant (K of isolates were found to increase with successive increase in substrate concentration (0.5 to 1.0 mg/50ml. B. circulans SBA12 and Kurthia SBA4 degraded 87.5% and 86.6% of anthracene while, Kurthia sp. SBA4, B. circulans SBA12, and M. varians SBA8 degraded 85.3 %, 95.8 % and 86.8 % of naphthalene respectively after 6 days of incubation as determined by HPLC analysis.

  9. Coumarin-based fluorescence hybrid silica material used for selective detection and absorption of Hg2+ in aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingtao; Jia, Hongmin; Wang, Cuiping; Zhao, Hongbin; Lu, Gonghao; Hu, Zhizhi; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Duan, Chunying

    2014-11-01

    An inorganic-organic hybrid fluorescence material (C-SBA-15) was prepared by covalent immobilization of a coumarin derivative within the channels of SBA-15. The characterization results of XRD, TEM micrographs, FT-IR and UV-vis demonstrate that coumarin is successfully grafted onto the inner surface of SBA-15 and its organized structure is preserved. C-SBA-15 can detect Hg2+ with high selectivity to Pb2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Ag+, Fe3+, Ni2+, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Li+ in water. Furthermore, the fluorogenical response is reversible by treating with EDTA and do not vary over a broad pH range (5.0-10.5). C-SBA-15 features more outstanding absorbing capacity for Hg2+ among other HTM ions in water.

  10. Serum Bactericidal Assay: New Role in Salmonella Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Da; Sun, Min; Deng, Mingjun; Cui, Shuhua; Liang, Chengzhu; Geng, Juan; Sun, Tao; Long, Ling; Xiao, Xizhi

    2016-01-01

    While inspecting animal feed for Salmonella contamination, we routinely observed bacterial colonies on selective agars that were similar in appearance to those formed by Salmonella. These were identified as Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia fonticola using biochemical and serological techniques. Because the presence of these bacterial species confounds identification of Salmonella, we refer to them as "interference bacteria." Polyvalent antisera against these interference bacteria were prepared by immunizing rabbits with a mixture of all three organisms. To minimize or eliminate interference by these bacteria, the polyvalent antisera were introduced between the steps of selective enrichment and Salmonella-selective plating. The antisera raised against the interference bacteria, when combined with neonatal rabbit complement, exhibited specific bactericidal activity against C. freundii, P. mirabilis, and S. fonticola. The respective serum bactericidal assay titers were 2(9), 2(8), and 2(10). In selective broth, polyvalent antisera could also kill the target bacterial cells effectively. We tested 526 samples (186 white fishmeal, 97 red fishmeal, and 243 cattle bone powder) using the polyvalent antisera and found that the rates of contamination of each species of the three respective foods decreased by 58.8, 100, and 83%. Our data indicates that polyvalent sera against C. freundii, P. mirabilis, and S. fonticola can be used as inhibitors to increase the accuracy of Salmonella detection.

  11. [Toxicity and neutralization of venoms from Peruvian snakes of the genera Bothrops and Lachesis (Serpentes: Viperidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incio Ruiz, R; Incio Ruiz, L; Martínez-Vargas, A Z; Salas Arruz, M; Gutiérrez, J M

    1993-12-01

    The lethal potencies (Median Lethal Dose) of the venoms of Peruvian snakes (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops barnetti, Bothrops pictus and Lachesis muta muta) were determined in mice by using intravenous and intraperitoneal routes of injection. In addition, the neutralizing ability of three antivenoms (bothropic polyvalent, bothropic bivalent and lachetic) was studied by preincubation-type experiments. B. pictus venom had the highest lethality by the intraperitoneal route whereas B. atrox venom had the highest lethality when tested by the intravenous route. The three antivenoms were effective in neutralizing lethality of the homologous venoms. Bivalent antivenom was more effective than polyvalent antivenom in the neutralization of B. pictus venom. On the basis of these findings, the use of bivalent bothropic antivenom is recommended in the Pacific coastal regions of Perú, whereas polyvalent bothropic antivenom is recommended in the oriental jungle regions of the country.

  12. Mosaic vaccines elicit CD8+ T cell responses in monkeys that confer immune coverage of diverse HIV strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Will [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Creation of a successful HIV vaccine will require the development of a strategy to generate cellular immunity with sufficient cross-clade breadth to deal with the extreme genetic diversity of the virus. Polyvalent mosaic immunogens derived from in silica recombination of natural strains of HIV are designed to induce cellular immune responses that maximally cover the sequence diversity of circulating virus isolates. Immunization of rhesus monkeys with plasmid DNA and recombinant vaccinia virus vaccine constructs expressing either consensus immunogens or polyvalent mosaic immunogens elicited a CD4+ T lymphocyte-biased response with comparably broad epitope-specific total T lymphocyte specificities. However, immunization with the mosaic immunogens induced HIV-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte responses with markedly greater depth and breadth. Therefore, the use of polyvalent mosaic immunogens is a promising strategy for a global vaccine for HIV.

  13. Combined use of ordered mesoporous silica and precipitation inhibitors for improved oral absorption of the poorly soluble weak base itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Speybroeck, Michiel; Mols, Raf; Mellaerts, Randy; Thi, Thao Do; Martens, Johan A; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Van den Mooter, Guy; Augustijns, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    The release of poorly soluble drugs from mesoporous silicates is often associated with the generation of supersaturation, which implies the risk of drug precipitation and reduced availability for absorption. The aim of this study was to enhance the in vivo performance of an ordered mesoporous silicate (SBA-15) by combining it with the precipitation inhibitors hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS). The poorly soluble weak base itraconazole was used as a model compound. Formulations were prepared by physically blending itraconazole-loaded SBA-15 with the precipitation inhibitors. In vitro release experiments implementing a transfer from simulated gastric fluid to simulated intestinal fluid were used to evaluate the pharmaceutical performance. Subsequently, the formulations were evaluated in vivo in rats. When high enough amounts of HPMC were co-administered with itraconazole-loaded SBA-15 (itraconazole:SBA-15:HPMC 1:4:6), the extent of absorption was increased by more than 60% when compared to SBA-15 without precipitation inhibitors (AUC 14,937+/-1617 versus 8987+/-2726nMh). HPMCAS was found ineffective in enhancing the in vivo performance of SBA-15 due to its insolubility in the stomach. The results of this study demonstrate that the pharmaceutical performance of SBA-15 is enhanced through addition of an appropriate precipitation inhibitor.

  14. An optimally evolved connective ratio of neural networks that maximizes the occurrence of synchronized bursting behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Synchronized bursting activity (SBA) is a remarkable dynamical behavior in both ex vivo and in vivo neural networks. Investigations of the underlying structural characteristics associated with SBA are crucial to understanding the system-level regulatory mechanism of neural network behaviors. Results In this study, artificial pulsed neural networks were established using spike response models to capture fundamental dynamics of large scale ex vivo cortical networks. Network simulations with synaptic parameter perturbations showed the following two findings. (i) In a network with an excitatory ratio (ER) of 80-90%, its connective ratio (CR) was within a range of 10-30% when the occurrence of SBA reached the highest expectation. This result was consistent with the experimental observation in ex vivo neuronal networks, which were reported to possess a matured inhibitory synaptic ratio of 10-20% and a CR of 10-30%. (ii) No SBA occurred when a network does not contain any all-positive-interaction feedback loop (APFL) motif. In a neural network containing APFLs, the number of APFLs presented an optimal range corresponding to the maximal occurrence of SBA, which was very similar to the optimal CR. Conclusions In a neural network, the evolutionarily selected CR (10-30%) optimizes the occurrence of SBA, and APFL serves a pivotal network motif required to maximize the occurrence of SBA. PMID:22462685

  15. Empowerment, intimate partner violence and skilled birth attendance among women in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwagala, Betty; Nankinga, Olivia; Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Ndugga, Patricia; Kabagenyi, Allen

    2016-05-04

    There is limited research on how the empowerment of women and intimate partner violence (IPV) are associated with skilled birth attendance (SBA) among rural women in Uganda. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate the association between women's empowerment, their experience of IPV and SBA in rural Uganda. Using data from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS), we selected 857 rural women who were in union, had given birth in the last 5 years preceding the survey and were selected for the domestic violence (DV) module. Frequency distributions were used to describe the background characteristics of the women and their partners. Pearson's chi-squared (χ (2)) tests were used to investigate the associations between SBA and women's empowerment; and partners' and women's socio-demographic factors including sexual violence. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between SBA and explanatory variables. More than half (55 %) of the women delivered under the supervision of skilled birth attendant. Women's empowerment with respect to participation in household decision-making, property (land and house) (co)ownership, IPV, and sexual empowerment did not positively predict SBA among rural women in Uganda. Key predictors of SBA were household wealth status, partners' education, ANC attendance and parity. For enhancement of SBA in rural areas, there is a need to encourage a more comprehensive ANC attendance irrespective of number of children a woman has; and design interventions to enhance household wealth and promote men's education.

  16. Improving the controlled release of water-insoluble emodin from amino-functionalized mesoporous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yunqiang; Wang Chunfeng [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Shandong Polytechnic University, Jinan 250353, Shandong (China); Zhou Guowei, E-mail: guoweizhou@hotmail.com [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Shandong Polytechnic University, Jinan 250353, Shandong (China); Wu Yue; Chen Jing [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Shandong Polytechnic University, Jinan 250353, Shandong (China)

    2012-06-15

    Several types of amino-functionalized mesoporous silica, including F5-SBA-15, F10-SBA-15, and F15-SBA-15 were prepared through co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) in varying molar ratios (5 mol%, 10 mol%, and 15 mol%) via a hydrothermal process. The materials obtained were characterized by means of small-angle X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, Fourier transformed infrared spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Increasing APTES molar ratios decreased the degree of orderliness of the functionalized mesoporous silica. Pure and amino-functionalized SBA-15 samples were employed as supports for the controlled release of water-insoluble drug emodin. Loading experiments showed that drug loading capacities mainly depended on the surface areas and pore diameters of the carriers. Controlled release profiles of emodin-loaded samples were studied in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4), and results indicated that the emodin release rate could be controlled by surface amino-functionalized carriers. Emodin loaded on functionalized mesoporous supports exhibited a lower release rate than that of loaded on pure SBA-15, emodin loaded on F10-SBA-15 showed the smallest release amount (71.74 wt%) after stirring in PBS for 60 h. Findings suggest that functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 is a promising carrier for achieving prolonged release time periods.

  17. Mesoporous silica materials with different structures as the carriers for antimicrobial agent. Modeling of chlorhexidine adsorption and release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Michał; Geszke-Moritz, Małgorzata

    2015-11-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of five different mesoporous materials (SBA-15, compressed SBA-15, PHTS, SBA-16, MCF) as the carrier for chlorhexidine adsorption and release. All the materials were characterized by large specific surface area ∼700 m2, however their pore volume and pore geometry were substantially different. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models were applied to experimental equilibrium data of chlorhexidine adsorption onto examined mesoporous materials. In all experiments, the commercial silica was used as a reference material. The highest maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir model of 416.7 and 357.1 mg/g was observed for SBA-15 and MCF silicas, respectively. Meanwhile, SBA-16 material was characterized by the lowest maximum adsorption capacity of 85.5 mg/g. To compare the chlorhexidine dissolution profiles, four release models were tested such as Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Baker-Lonsdale and Weibull. Mesoporous matrices with increased micropore fraction (PHTS, SBA-16) exhibited markedly prolonged release of chlorhexidine as compared to other silicas. The time interval necessary to dissolve 63.2% of chlorhexidine present in the formulation calculated from the Weibull model (t63.2%) reached the highest values of 203.5 and 308.5 h for PHTS and SBA-16 silicas, respectively.

  18. IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR HEAVY OIL UPGRADING BASED ON ZEOLITE Y NANOPARTICLES ENCAPSULATED STABLE NANOPOROUS HOST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad Ingram; Mark Mitchell

    2006-06-20

    Al-SBA-15 mesoporous catalysts with strong Broensted acid sites and Al stabilized in a totally tetrahedral coordination was synthesized from the addition of hydrothermally aged zeolite Y precursor to SBA-15 synthesis mixture under mildly acidic condition of pH 5.5. The materials possessed surface areas between 690 and 850 m{sup 2}/g, pore sizes ranging from 5.6 to 7.5 nm and pore volumes up 1.03 cm{sup 3}, which were comparable to parent SBA-15 synthesized under similar conditions. Up to 2 wt. % Al was present in the most aluminated sample that was investigated, and the Al remained stable in totally tetrahedral coordination, even after calcination at 550 C. The Al-SBA-15 mesoporous catalyst showed significant catalytic activity for cumene dealkylation, and activity increased as the amount of zeolite precursor added to the SBA-15 mixture was increased. The catalyst's activity was not affected by the aging time of the precursor for up to the 24 hr aging time investigated. This method of introducing Al and maintaining it in a total tetrahedral coordination is very effective, in comparison to other direct and post synthesis alumination methods reported. The catalytic performance of the zeolite Y/SBA-15 composite materials will be compared with that of pure SBA-15. The catalysts will then be evaluated for the conversion of heavy petroleum feedstocks.

  19. Percutaneous minimally invasive fetoscopic surgery for spina bifida aperta. Part III: neurosurgical intervention in the first postnatal year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, K; Kohl, T; Neubauer, B A; Dey, F; Faas, D; Wanis, F A; Reinges, M H T; Uhl, E; Kolodziej, M A

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the need for postnatal neurosurgical intervention after fetoscopic patch coverage of spina bifida aperta (SBA). This was a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 71 fetuses which underwent minimally invasive fetoscopic patch coverage of SBA between 21 + 0 and 29 + 1 weeks of gestation. Postnatal neurosurgical procedures were classified into two types: re-coverage of the SBA within the first 3 months following birth, and shunt placement as treatment of associated hydrocephalus within the first year. Location of the SBA was lumbosacral in 59 cases, lumbar in seven, thoracic in three and sacral in two. In total, 20/71 (28%) patients underwent early postnatal neurosurgical intervention by means of re-coverage of the SBA. This was performed because of cerebrospinal fluid leakage in seven (35%), adhesions with functional deterioration in three (15%), incomplete coverage in five (25%) and skin defect in five (25%) cases. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement within 1 year was required in 32 (45%) cases and was preceded by ventriculostomy in two. Three (4%) infants needed Chiari decompression surgery in the first 12 months following birth, because of syringomyelia or gait disturbance. Fetoscopic patch coverage of SBA may require postnatal re-coverage in some cases. In most cases, conservative wound treatment shows good results, without requiring neurosurgical intervention. The low 1-year-shunt rate is comparable to data of the Management of Myelomeningocele Study and lower compared with published data of patients with postnatal only coverage of SBA. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. 78 FR 61443 - Small Business Size Standards: Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ...The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) received a request from a small business manufacturer of Aerospace Ball and Roller Bearings to rescind the Class Waiver of the Nonmanufacturer Rule (NMR) for Aerospace Ball and Roller Bearings, under North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 332991, Product Service Codes (PSC) 3110. Based on public comments and analysis of data submitted, SBA has determined that several small business manufacturers of aerospace ball and roller bearings exist for many, but not all, of the aerospace ball and roller bearings the Federal government requires. As a result, SBA is partially rescinding the Class Waiver for aerospace ball and roller bearings and replacing it with a class waiver for 305 aerospace ball and roller bearings. A list of the specific 305 aerospace ball and roller bearings can be accessed by accessing the following URL: http:// www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/files/NMR_WAIVED_3110_BEARING_ LIST.pdf. The partial rescission of this class waiver will require recipients of Federal contracts set aside for small businesses, Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned small businesses, Participants in SBA's 8(a) Business Development Program, or Women-Owned Small Businesses to provide aerospace ball and roller bearings manufactured by small businesses, unless an Individual Waiver of the NMR is granted by SBA or the required bearing is found on the list of aerospace ball and roller bearings for which a class waiver has been granted, maintained by SBA at the aforementioned URL.