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Sample records for sb prospective comparison

  1. Activity measurements of the radionuclide {sup 124}Sb by the LNE-LNHB, France for the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sb-124

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres Cedex, (France); Moune, M.; Bobin, C. [Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais-Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, (France)

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais-Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France submitted a sample of known activity of {sup 124}Sb to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The activity was about 5.3 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include this new value and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity for the three participants measured in the SIR and the KCRV are presented in a table and graphically. (authors)

  2. InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice infrared detectors: Future prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, A.; Martyniuk, P.; Kopytko, M.

    2017-09-01

    Investigations of antimonide-based materials began at about the same time as HgCdTe ternary alloys—in the 1950s, and the apparent rapid success of their technology, especially low-dimensional solids, depends on the previous five decades of III-V materials and device research. However, the sophisticated physics associated with the antimonide-based bandgap engineering concept started at the beginning of 1990s gave a new impact and interest in development of infrared detector structures within academic and national laboratories. The development of InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices (T2SLs) results from two primary motivations: the perceived challenges of reproducibly fabricating high-operability HgCdTe focal plane arrays (FPAs) at reasonable cost and the theoretical predictions of lower Auger recombination for type T2SL detectors compared with HgCdTe. Second motivation—lower Auger recombination should be translated into a fundamental advantage for T2SL over HgCdTe in terms of lower dark current and/or higher operating temperature, provided other parameters such as Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) lifetime are equal. InAs/GaSb T2SL photodetectors offer similar performance to HgCdTe at an equivalent cut-off wavelength, but with a sizeable penalty in operating temperature, due to the inherent difference in SRH lifetimes. It is predicted that since the future infrared (IR) systems will be based on the room temperature operation of depletion-current limited arrays with pixel densities that are fully consistent with background- and diffraction-limited performance due to the system optics, the material system with long SRH lifetime will be required. Since T2SLs are very much resisted in attempts to improve its SRH lifetime, currently the only material that meets this requirement is HgCdTe. Due to less ionic chemical bonding, III-V semiconductors are more robust than their II-VI counterparts. As a result, III-V-based FPAs excel in operability, spatial uniformity, temporal stability

  3. First-principles comparison of the cubic and tetragonal phases of Mo3Sb7

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar

    2011-03-01

    Using ab initio density functional based methods, we study the normal metal state properties of the ∼3 K Mo3Sb7 superconductor, in its high temperature cubic and low temperature tetragonal structures. Although the density of states at the Fermi energy is reasonably high in both structures, our calculations unequivocally show that there exists no long range magnetic ordering in this system. We also address the optical properties of the compound. The magnetism in Mo3Sb7 is studied by fixed spin moment calculations, which yield a shallow non-magnetic minimum, thus inferring propensity to a magnetic instability. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Comparison of the SB5 and the CAS in Educational Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Jeanette; Price, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Two tests of intellectual ability were compared in terms of quantitative measures and professional utility in the context of 41 students who were referred for psychoeducational investigation of their learning. Full-scale, Composite, and Factor scores from The Stanford Binet Intelligence Scales--Fifth Edition (SB5) and the Das Naglieri Cognitive…

  5. Comparison of optical transients during the picosecond laser pulse-induced crystallization of GeSbTe and AgInSbTe phase-change thin films: Nucleation-driven versus growth-driven processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Guangfei [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li, Simian [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, Department of Physics, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Huang, Huan [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wang, Yang, E-mail: ywang@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Lai, Tianshu, E-mail: stslts@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, Department of Physics, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wu, Yiqun [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Direct comparison of the real-time in-situ crystallization behavior of as-deposited amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GeSbTe) and Ag{sub 8}In{sub 14}Sb{sub 55}Te{sub 23} (AgInSbTe) phase-change thin films driven by picosecond laser pulses was performed by a time-resolved optical pump-probe technique with nanosecond resolution. Different optical transients showed various crystallization processes because of the dissimilar nucleation- and growth-dominated mechanisms of the two materials. The effects of laser pulse fluence, thermal conductive structure, and successive pulse irradiation on their crystallization dynamics were also discussed. A schematic was then established to describe the different crystallization processes beginning from the as-deposited amorphous state. The results may provide further insight into the phase-change mechanism under extra-non-equilibrium conditions and aid the development of ultrafast phase-change memory materials.

  6. Prospective Randomized Controlled Comparison of Caudal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    controlled trial (RCT) and to compare the motor blockade and hemodynamic effects caused by them. ... Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective randomized controlled study including 50 consecutive patients in the ... decrease of SBP or HR by >30% was defined as hypotension or bradycardia, respectively and was ...

  7. On the possibility of thermoelectricity in half Heusler XRuSb (X = V, Nb, Ta) materials: A first principles prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kulwinder; Kumar, Ranjan

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we explored the electronic and thermoelectric properties of three semiconducting half Heusler compounds XRuSb (X = V, Nb, Ta) using density functional theory and semi-classical Boltzmann transport theory. We calculated the Seebeck coefficient and the electrical, electronic, and lattice thermal conductivity with changes in the temperature. These materials were identified as good thermoelectric materials with narrow band gaps and flat electronic bands in the valence band. The Seebeck coefficient and electronic thermal conductivity increased with temperature. The electrical conductivity and lattice thermal conductivity decreased as the temperature increased. The calculations indicated that p-type doping had a higher power factor than n-type doping. The spin orbit coupling (SOC) effect on the thermoelectric properties was also considered. The relaxation time (τ) decreased as the temperature increased. The maximum value for the figure of merit was equal to 0.13, which was achieved by VRuSb.

  8. Prospects of performing multiple-country comparison of dairy sires ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anne Torsell

    Peer-reviewed paper: 10th World Conference on Animal Production. 86. Prospects of performing multiple-country comparison of dairy sires for countries not participating in Interbull international genetic evaluations. A. Loberg. 1,2#. , H. Jorjani. 1,2. , W.F. Fikse. 2. 1 Interbull Centre. 2 Department of Animal Breeding and ...

  9. Experimental and theoretical comparison of Sb, As, and P diffusion mechanisms and doping in CdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colegrove, Eric; Yang, Ji-Hui; Harvey, Steven P.; Young, Matthew; Burst, James M.; Duenow, Joel N.; Albin, David S.; Wei, Su-Huai; Metzger, Wyatt

    2018-01-10

    Fundamental material doping challenges have limited CdTe electro-optical applications. In this work, the As atomistic diffusion mechanisms in CdTe are examined by spatially resolving dopant incorporation in both single-crystalline and polycrystalline CdTe over a range of experimental conditions. Density-functional theory calculations predict experimental activation energies and indicate As diffuses slowly through the Te sublattice and quickly along GBs similar to Sb. Because of its atomic size and associated defect chemistry, As does not have a fast interstitial diffusion component similar to P. Experiments to incorporate and activate P, As, and Sb in polycrystalline CdTe are conducted to examine if ex-situ Group V doping can overcome historic polycrystalline doping limits. The distinct P, As, and Sb diffusion characteristics create different strategies for increasing hole density. Because fast interstitial diffusion is prominent for P, less aggressive diffusion conditions followed by Cd overpressure to relocate the Group V element to the Te lattice site is effective. For larger atoms, slower diffusion through the Te sublattice requires more aggressive diffusion, however further activation is not always necessary. Based on the new physical understanding, we have obtained greater than 10^16 cm^-3 hole density in polycrystalline CdTe films by As and P diffusion.

  10. Experimental and theoretical comparison of Sb, As, and P diffusion mechanisms and doping in CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, E.; Yang, J.-H.; Harvey, S. P.; Young, M. R.; Burst, J. M.; Duenow, J. N.; Albin, D. S.; Wei, S.-H.; Metzger, W. K.

    2018-02-01

    Fundamental material doping challenges have limited CdTe electro-optical applications. In this work, the As atomistic diffusion mechanisms in CdTe are examined by spatially resolving dopant incorporation in both single-crystalline and polycrystalline CdTe over a range of experimental conditions. Density-functional theory calculations predict experimental activation energies and indicate that As diffuses slowly through the Te sublattice and quickly along GBs similar to Sb. Because of its atomic size and associated defect chemistry, As does not have a fast interstitial diffusion component similar to P. Experiments to incorporate and activate P, As, and Sb in polycrystalline CdTe are conducted to examine if ex situ Group V doping can overcome historic polycrystalline doping limits. The distinct P, As, and Sb diffusion characteristics create different strategies for increasing hole density. Because fast interstitial diffusion is prominent for P, less aggressive diffusion conditions followed by Cd overpressure to relocate the Group V element to the Te lattice site is effective. For larger atoms, slower diffusion through the Te sublattice requires more aggressive diffusion, however further activation is not always necessary. Based on the new physical understanding, we have obtained greater than 1016 cm‑3 hole density in polycrystalline CdTe films by As and P diffusion.

  11. Electrical properties of GaSb/InAsSb core/shell nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjipour, Bahram; Sepehri, Sobhan; Dey, Anil W; Tizno, Ofogh; Borg, B Mattias; Dick, Kimberly A; Samuelson, Lars; Wernersson, Lars-Erik; Thelander, Claes

    2014-10-24

    Temperature dependent electronic properties of GaSb/InAsSb core/shell and GaSb nanowires have been studied. Results from two-probe and four-probe measurements are compared to distinguish between extrinsic (contact-related) and intrinsic (nanowire) properties. It is found that a thin (2-3 nm) InAsSb shell allows low barrier charge carrier injection to the GaSb core, and that the presence of the shell also improves intrinsic nanowire mobility and conductance in comparison to bare GaSb nanowires. Maximum intrinsic field effect mobilities of 200 and 42 cm(2) Vs(-1) were extracted for the GaSb/InAsSb core/shell and bare-GaSb NWs at room temperature, respectively. The temperature-dependence of the mobility suggests that ionized impurity scattering is the dominant scattering mechanism in bare GaSb while phonon scattering dominates in core/shell nanowires. Top-gated field effect transistors were fabricated based on radial GaSb/InAsSb heterostructure nanowires with shell thicknesses in the range 5-7 nm. The fabricated devices exhibited ambipolar conduction, where the output current was studied as a function of AC gate voltage and frequency. Frequency doubling was experimentally demonstrated up to 20 kHz. The maximum operating frequency was limited by parasitic capacitance associated with the measurement chip geometry.

  12. {mu}SR studies on LaOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} in comparison with the time-reversal-symmetry-broken superconductor PrOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Y. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Ohsawa 1-1, Hachioji-Shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)]. E-mail: aoki@phys.metro-u.ac.jp; Higemoto, W. [Advanced Science Research Center, JAERI, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sanada, S. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Ohsawa 1-1, Hachioji-Shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Ohishi, K. [Institute for Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Saha, S.R. [Institute for Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Koda, A. [Institute for Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nishiyama, K. [Institute for Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kadono, R. [Institute for Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Sugawara, H. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Ohsawa 1-1, Hachioji-Shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Sato, H. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Ohsawa 1-1, Hachioji-Shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2005-04-30

    We have studied the zero-field muon spin relaxation (Z F-{mu}SR) on a filled-skutterudite superconductor LaOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (T{sub c}=0.74K) to compare with the time-reversal-symmetry (TRS)-broken superconductor PrOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}. The relaxation rate is independent of temperature down to 20mK, suggesting that the absence of TRS breaking in LaOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}. This finding provides convincing evidence for the Pr 4f-electrons playing an essential role for the realization of the TRS broken superconductivity in PrOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}.

  13. Electron guns at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS: prospects for the use of photocathodes with nanosecond and subpicosecond laser drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokurov, N. A.; Barnyakov, A. M.; Volkov, V. N.; Kolobanov, E. I.; Kuznetsov, G. I.; Kurkin, G. Ya; Levichev, A. E.; Logachev, P. V.; Nikiforov, D. A.; Petrov, V. M.; Starostenko, D. A.; Tribendis, A. G.

    2017-10-01

    The problem of producing high-current electron beams with relatively small lateral sizes and small velocity spread is more than a hundred years old. The continuous improvement of near-ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation sources (lasers with harmonics generators) allows significantly improving the parameters of existing electron guns. This paper discusses some problems in the development of electron guns with photocathodes and considers possible ways of using laser photocathodes in the electron guns designed at the Budker INP SB RAS.

  14. Prospective teachers' conceptions of assessment: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gavin T L; Remesal, Ana

    2012-03-01

    This paper examines the responses of two sample of prospective teachers (New Zealand, n = 324; and Spain, n = 672) to the Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment inventory (English and Spanish respectively). The inventory captures four major intentions for assessment (i.e., improvement, irrelevance, school and student accountability). The conceptions of prospective teachers about the nature and purpose of assessment are relevant, given that (a) much educational assessment is carried out in classrooms; and (b) prospective teachers enter the teacher education programs with significant prior school experience of assessment as pupils. Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the original model was inadmissible and that the best-fitting revised model was only configurally invariant between the two samples. It would appear that lack of teaching experience results in different responses for prospective teachers to those of practicing teachers. Moreover, differences in societal and cultural priorities for assessment use most likely explain the lack of invariance between samples.

  15. Sulfur passivation of InSb(1 0 0) surfaces: Comparison of aqueous and alcoholic ammonium sulfide solutions using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvova, Tatiana V. [A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shakhmin, Aleksandr L. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Politekhnicheskaya 29, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Sedova, Irina V. [A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lebedev, Mikhail V., E-mail: mleb@triat.ioffe.ru [A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Interaction between InSb(1 0 0) surface and sulfide solution is determined by solvent. • Aqueous ammonium sulfide solution withdraws Sb atoms from InSb(1 0 0) surface very fast. • Fermi level at InSb(1 0 0)/passivation layer interface is usually in conduction band. • Fermi level moves to valence band after long treatment with aqueous (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S solution. • Residual oxygen content is lower after treatment with solution of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S in 2-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}OH. - Abstract: The chemical composition and the electronic properties of the n-InSb(1 0 0) surface treated with ammonium sulfide dissolved in water or in 2-propanol has been studied by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The solvent determines the mechanism of chemical reaction between InSb(1 0 0) surface and sulfide solution. The variation of the solvent leads to variations in chemical composition and electronic structure of the final sulfide layers. Aqueous sulfide solution withdraws antimony atoms from the InSb(1 0 0) surface very fast due to solubility of antimony sulfides, whereas after treatment with alcoholic sulfide solution the antimony sulfides remain on the surface. The Fermi level at the InSb(1 0 0)/passivation layer interface occurs usually deeply in the conduction band of semiconductor and its position depends on the time of sulfur treatment. However, after prolonged treatment with aqueous sulfide solution and surface depletion with antimony the Fermi level is found in the valence band. Although both solutions remove the native oxide layer, the residual oxygen content is lower after treatment with the solution of ammonium sulfide in 2-propanol.

  16. After-pulsing and cross-talk comparison for PM1125NS-SB0 (KETEK), S10362-11-100C (HAMAMATSU) and S13360-3050CS (HAMAMATSU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleynikov, V.; Porosev, V.

    2017-06-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are extensively used in different fields now. They exceed photomultiplier tubes in the quantum efficiency, size and resistance to magnetic field. However, because of structure features, their dark noise rate is higher and they have additional sources of noise: cross-talk and after-pulsing. In addition, these parameters may be temperature dependent. In this article we present results of an evaluation of the dark noise rate, probabilities of cross-talk and after-pulses at different voltages and temperatures for two modern SiPMs: S13360-3050CS (HAMAMATSU) and PM1125NS-SB0 (KETEK). For comparison, the data for a previous-generation SiPM, S10362-11-100C (HAMAMATSU), are presented. To find these parameters, we performed a waveform analysis to determine the amplitude and time distributions of the pulses generated by a SiPM without an external light source. We evaluated the temperature and voltage dependences of these parameters. The measured cross-talk probability for PM1125NS-SB0 and S13360-3050CS at their optimal operating voltage is about 6%. It is two times smaller than that for S10362-11-100C. The fast component of the after-pulsing probability for PM1125NS-SB0 and S13360-3050CS is about 10%, which is also almost 2 times smaller than the sum of the fast and slow components of the after-pulsing probability for S10362-11-100C. The dark noise rate for S13360-3050CS at 20°C is just 45 kHz/mm2 in comparison with 60 kHz/mm2 for PM1125NS-SB0.

  17. Growth of In x Ga1-x Sb alloy semiconductor at the International Space Station (ISS) and comparison with terrestrial experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatomi, Y; Sakata, K; Arivanandhan, M; Rajesh, G; Nirmal Kumar, V; Koyama, T; Momose, Y; Ozawa, T; Okano, Y; Hayakawa, Y

    2015-01-01

    In x Ga1-x Sb is an important material that has tunable properties in the infrared (IR) region and is suitable for IR-device applications. Since the quality of crystals relies on growth conditions, the growth process of alloy semiconductors can be examined better under microgravity (μG) conditions where convection is suppressed. To investigate the dissolution and growth process of In x Ga1-x Sb alloy semiconductors via a sandwiched structure of GaSb(seed)/InSb/GaSb(feed) under normal and μG conditions. In x Ga1-x Sb crystals were grown at the International Space Station (ISS) under μG conditions, and a similar experiment was conducted under terrestrial conditions (1G) using the vertical gradient freezing (VGF) method. The grown crystals were cut along the growth direction and its growth properties were studied. The indium composition and growth rate of grown crystals were calculated. The shape of the growth interface was nearly flat under μG, whereas under 1G, it was highly concave with the initial seed interface being nearly flat and having facets at the peripheries. The quality of the μG crystals was better than that of the 1G samples, as the etch pit density was low in the μG sample. The growth rate was higher under μG compared with 1G. Moreover, the growth started at the peripheries under 1G, whereas it started throughout the seed interface under μG. Kinetics played a dominant role under 1G. The suppressed convection under μG affected the dissolution and growth process of the In x Ga1-x Sb alloy semiconductor.

  18. Comparisons of Patient Demographics in Prospective Sports, Shoulder, and National Database Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Bryan M; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Bohl, Daniel D; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-09-01

    There has been increased emphasis in orthopaedics on high-quality prospective research to provide evidence-based treatment guidelines, particularly in sports medicine/shoulder surgery. The external validity of these studies has not been established, and the generalizability of the results to clinical practice in the United States is unknown. Comparison of patient demographics in major prospective studies of arthroscopic sports and shoulder surgeries to patients undergoing the same procedures in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database will show substantial differences to question the generalizability and external validity of those studies. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. This study utilized patients undergoing arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), meniscectomy (MX), rotator cuff repair (RCR), and shoulder stabilization (SS) from the NSQIP database (2005-2013). Two prospective studies (either randomized controlled trials or, in 1 case, a major cohort study) were identified for each of the 4 procedures for comparison. Demographic variables available for comparison in both the identified prospective studies and the NSQIP included age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). From the NSQIP database, 5576 ACLR patients, 18,882 MX patients, 7282 RCR patients, and 993 SS patients were identified. The comparison clinical studies included cohort sizes as follows: ACLR, n = 121 and 2683; MX, n = 146 and 330; RCR, n = 90 and 103; SS, n = 88 and 196. Age differed significantly between the NSQIP and the patients in 6 of the 8 prospective clinical studies. Sex differed significantly between the NSQIP and the patients in 7 of the 8 prospective clinical studies. BMI differed significantly between the NSQIP and the patients of all 4 of the prospective clinical studies that reported this demographic variable. Significant differences exist for patient age, sex, and BMI between patients included in major sports medicine

  19. Urbanization prospects in Asia: a six-country comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, Ubaidur; Talukder, Noorunnabi

    Yet rural in nature, Asia is proceeding with a wide-ranging scale and fast pace of urbanization, resulting in accelerated economic growth. This article attempts a comparison on urbanization of six largest Asian countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, and the Philippines. Among these countries, urban transition is underway in China, Indonesia, and the Philippines, which are also on track to mature as middle-income countries. India and Pakistan will soon graduate from low-income to lower-middle income countries, reaching the platform for faster urbanization with consequent economic growth. Regardless of the level of urbanization across countries, cities generate four-fifths of national income and the prominence of cities in generating country's national income is escalating. Still, urbanization primarily takes place through the development of large cities with surrounding industrial zones. Large cities will continue to play a significant role in absorbing future anticipated growth, but a decrease of growth rates in large cities is expected. Most of future city growth will occur in medium- and small-sized cities where existing coverage of basic public services is grossly inadequate, that entails greater concentration of power, investment, and services. To maximize the benefits of urbanization, countries need to judiciously plan the course of future urbanization-whether it should be a concentrated growth, a balanced growth, or a distributed growth.

  20. Age-related changes in event-related prospective memory performance : A comparison of four prospective memory tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, WWA; Dekker, MR; Brouwer, WH; de Jong, R

    The primary purpose of the study was to identify event-based prospective-memory tasks that provide sensitive and reliable tools for assessing effects of normal aging in prospective-memory performance. Four prospective-memory tasks were selected from the literature or were newly developed, with the

  1. Comparison of MOVPE grown GaAs, InGaAs and GaAsSb covering layers for different InAs/GaAs quantum dot applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zíková, Markéta; Hospodková, Alice; Pangrác, Jiří; Oswald, Jiří; Hulicius, Eduard

    2017-04-01

    InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) heterostructures with different covering layers (CLs) prepared by MOVPE are compared in this work. The recombination energy of a structure covered only by GaAs depends nonlinearly on CL thickness. Experimental data of photoluminescence (PL) were supported by theoretical simulations. These simulations prove that the strain plays a major role in the structures. InGaAs strain reducing layer (SRL) was studied as well. Due to the strain reduction, the recombination energy is decreased, so the structure has longer PL wavelength. By theoretical simulations it was shown that for high content of In in InGaAs covering layer (approximately 45% and more), the heterostructure is type II, which would normally be unreachable for flat layers. For the structure with GaAsSb SRL, the band alignment is highly dependent on the SRL composition. The type I/type II transition occurs for approximately 15% of Sb; this value also slightly depends on the QD size. All structures were also studied by HRTEM to show different behavior of the CLs on the interface with InAs which highly influences the structure quality.

  2. A comparison of the results of prospective and retrospective cohort studies in the field of digestive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukai, Tomohiko; Shikata, Satoru; Nakayama, Takeo; Takemura, Yousuke C

    2017-07-01

    We compared the results of prospective and retrospective cohort studies in the field of digestive surgery to clarify whether the results of prospective cohort studies were more similar to those of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We conducted a secondary analysis of the results to compare the results of RCTs with those of cohort studies in meta-analyses of 18 digestive surgical topics. The data from the prospective and retrospective cohort studies were combined. The summary estimates of each design were compared with those of RCTs. We used the Z score to investigate discrepancies. Twenty-nine outcomes of 11 topics were investigated in 289 cohort studies (prospective, n = 69; retrospective, n = 220). These were compared with the outcomes of 123 RCTs. In comparison to retrospective studies, the summary estimates of the prospective cohort studies were more similar to those of the RCTs [19/29 (prospective) vs. 10/29 (retrospective), P = 0.035). Five of the 29 outcomes of prospective studies and 6 of 29 outcomes of retrospective studies (P = 0.99) showed significant discrepancies in comparison to RCTs. In the digestive surgical field, the results of prospective cohort studies tended to be more similar to those of RCTs than retrospective studies; however, there were no significant discrepancies between the two types of cohort study.

  3. Comparison of Invasive and Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation for Patients with COPD:Randomised Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Matic

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presents an increasing problem for both health and economics in the modern world. The goal of this study was to compare invasive and noninvasive mechani-cal ventilation for patients with COPD. A prospective, randomized trial was performed in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit. Of 614 patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV longer than 24h, after excluding those who didn′t meet the inclusion criteria, 72 patients with COPD remained the research sample. The MV procedure was per-formed using standard methods, applying two MV methods: invasive MV and noninvasive MV. Patients were ran-domized into two groups for MV application using closed, non transparent envelopes. Comparison was made based on patient characteristics, objective parameters 1h, 4h, 24h, and 48h after admission and finally treatment outcome. In patients with COPD NIMV had statistically better outcome compared to IMV with MV duration NIMV:IMV 102:187h, p < 0.001, time spent in ICU 127:233h, p < 0.001. Need for intubation/reintubation 16 (42.1%:34 (100%/4 (11.8%, p < 0.001, hospital pneumonia 2 (5.3%:18 (52.9%, p =0.001. Applying strict application protocols, and based on com-parison of objective parameters of pulmonary mechanics, biochemistry and finally treatment outcome, high advantage of NIMV method was confirmed.

  4. A large-scale comparison of prospective and retrospective memory development from childhood to middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylor, Elizabeth A; Logie, Robert H

    2010-03-01

    We present the first large-scale comparison of prospective memory (PM) and retrospective memory (RM) from 8 to 50 years of age (N = 318,614). Participants in an Internet study were asked to remember to click on a smiley face (single-trial event-based PM test) and to indicate whether/where a picture had changed from study to test (single-trial RM test), in both cases after retention intervals filled with working-memory tests and questionnaires. Both PM and RM improved during childhood; however, whereas maximal PM was reached by teenagers, with approximately linear decline through the 20s-40s, RM continued to improve through the 20s and 30s. On both tests, females outperformed males and achieved maximal success at earlier ages. Strikingly, 10-11-year-old girls performed significantly better than females in their late 20s on the PM test. The presence of the smiley face at encoding and temporal uncertainty (expecting it "later" rather than at the "end" of the test) both benefited PM; these effects decreased and increased, respectively, from childhood to middle age. The findings demonstrate that in a cross-sectional study (a) developmental trajectories are qualitatively different between PM and RM, and (b) the relative influence of PM cues differs between younger and older ages.

  5. Synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of novel 2D kagome materials RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}O{sub 14} (RE = La, Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho): Comparison to RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}O{sub 14} family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, M.B.; Baroudi, K.M.; Krizan, J.W.; Mukadam, O.A.; Cava, R.J. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-10-15

    The crystal structures and magnetic properties of RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}O{sub 14} (RE = La, Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho) with a perfect kagome lattice are presented and compared to RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}O{sub 14}. Rietveld structure refinements were performed using X-ray diffraction data, indicating that the layered compounds are fully structurally ordered. The compounds crystallize in a rhombohedral supercell of the cubic pyrochlore structure, in the space group R-3m. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show no signs of magnetic ordering above 2 K. The RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}O{sub 14} family is similar to that of RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}O{sub 14}; however, the series reported here features a fully ordered distribution of cations in both the nonmagnetic antimony and magnetic rare earth kagome lattices. Unlike the offsite disorder that Zn{sup 2+} experiences in RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}O{sub 14}, the magnesium sites in RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}O{sub 14} are completely ordered. Here we compare the magnetic properties in both series of kagome compounds to determine how significant Zn{sup 2+}'s positional ordering is within this structure type. The compounds reported here appear to be relatively defect-free and are therefore model systems for investigating magnetic frustration on an ideal 2D rare earth kagome lattice. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Comparison of Unplanned Intensive Care Unit Readmission Scores: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Goulart Rosa

    Full Text Available Early discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU may constitute a strategy of resource consumption optimization; however, unplanned readmission of hospitalized patients to an ICU is associated with a worse outcome. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of the Stability and Workload Index for Transfer score (SWIFT, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (SOFA and simplified Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS-28 in predicting unplanned ICU readmission or unexpected death in the first 48 hours after discharge from the ICU.We conducted a prospective cohort study in a single tertiary hospital in southern Brazil. All adult patients admitted to the ICU for more than 24 hours from January 2008 to December 2009 were evaluated. SWIFT, SOFA and TISS-28 scores were calculated on the day of discharge from the ICU. A stepwise logistic regression was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these scores in predicting unplanned ICU readmission or unexpected death in the first 48 hours after discharge from the ICU. Moreover, we conducted a direct accuracy comparison among SWIFT, SOFA and TISS-28 scores.A total of 1,277 patients were discharged from the ICU during the study period. The rate of unplanned ICU readmission or unexpected death in the first 48 hours after discharge from the ICU was 15% (192 patients. In the multivariate analysis, age (P = 0.001, length of ICU stay (P = 0.01, cirrhosis (P = 0.03, SWIFT (P = 0.001, SOFA (P = 0.01 and TISS-28 (P<0.001 constituted predictors of unplanned ICU readmission or unexpected death. The SWIFT, SOFA and TISS-28 scores showed similar predictive accuracy (AUC valueswere 0.66, 0.65 and 0.67, respectively; P = 0.58 [corrected].SWIFT, SOFA and TISS-28 on the day of discharge from the ICU have only moderate accuracy in predicting ICU readmission or death. The present study did not find any differences in accuracy among the three scores.

  7. Comparison of commercial fibrin sealants in facelift surgery: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botti G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Botti,1 Michele Pascali,2 Chiara Botti,1 Florian Bodog,3 Pietro Gentile,2 Valerio Cervelli2 1Villa Bella Clinic, Salò, 2Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy; 3University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two types of fibrin glue in patients undergoing facelift surgery. Methods: A prospective, controlled "right-left side" study was carried out in 20 patients. The two fibrin sealants used were Quixil® and Tissucol®. The two sealants were used at the same time, ie, one on one side of the face and the other on the contralateral side. Comparisons were made with regard to rates of hematoma and seroma, degree of induration, edema, ecchymosis, pain levels, and patient satisfaction. Results: The results were almost equivalent. The only exception was a significant (40 mL hematoma in a patient treated with Quixil. Bleeding was most likely due to a sudden rise in blood pressure during the immediate postoperative period. However, it must be emphasized that, while Tissucol actually seals the undermined area, thus virtually eliminating the dead space, Quixil acts differently, in that its effectiveness in preventing hematoma is linked mainly to its hemostatic effect. Conclusion: The two fibrin sealants used were nearly identical with regard to patient safety and quality of the result. Nevertheless, it is noted that, while Tissucol has both hemostatic and "gluing" effects, Quixil is mainly effective in securing hemostasis. Keywords: facelift surgery, rhytidectomy, fibrin sealants, hematoma

  8. Allogeneic donor peripheral blood "stem cell" apheresis: prospective comparison of two apheresis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauninger, Susanne; Bialleck, Heike; Thorausch, Kristin; Felt, Tom; Seifried, Erhard; Bonig, Halvard

    2012-05-01

    Granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells, collected by white blood cell apheresis, are used for more than 80% of allogeneic and most autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantations. Optimal donor and recipient outcomes require maximized stem cell collection efficiency and minimized non-target cell contamination. Therefore, improved apheresis technology is desirable. The safety and feasibility of apheresis collections with the novel, electronics-assisted apheresis system Spectra Optia v.5.0 (CaridianBCT) were recently demonstrated. An unpublished optimization trial had furthermore determined that different settings than manufacturer-installed default might result in improved apheresis yields. The first prospective comparison of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell apheresis with the Spectra Optia versus the COBE Spectra (CaridianBCT) mononuclear cell (MNC) in a routine clinical setting is reported here; "optimized" machine settings were used. Assessed variables included collection efficiency, product characteristics, donor outcomes, and frequency of operator interventions. Outcomes were additionally compared with historical data from the Spectra Optia in default mode. The mean CD34+ cell collection efficiency CE1 was 7.9% greater with the Spectra Optia than with the COBE Spectra MNC. Variability of outcomes was equally great. Reduced platelet (PLT) attrition necessitated 90% fewer autologous PLT reinfusions. Spectra Optia products contained 50% fewer red blood cells, but 50% more granulocytic lineage cells. Less operator input was required, although 26% of Spectra Optia apheresis procedures required triggering of the first chamber flush. Apheresis yield and collection efficiency were also markedly greater than in default-mode Spectra Optia collections. Using optimized machine settings, peripheral blood stem cell apheresis outcomes with the automated apheresis system Spectra Optia exceed results with the COBE Spectra MNC or the

  9. Prospective Comparison of a Metal-Free Ceramic Total Knee Arthroplasty with an Identical Metal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieb, Klemens; Ullmann, David; Metzinger, Katharina; Kramar, Reinhard; Mauerer, Andreas; Hofstätter, Stefan; Fiala, Rainer

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this open-label, prospective, short-term study was to carry out an initial comparison of a completely metal-free ceramic with a geometrically identical metallic arthroplasty over a 1-year follow-up period. This study investigates a completely metal-free system using a composite matrix material containing aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 , BPK-S Integration, Peter Brehm GmbH, Weisendorf, Germany) or zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 , BPK-S Integration Ceramic, Biolox Delta-CeramTec GmbH, Plochingen, Germany). Eighty patients (40 in each group) received either a completely metal-free ceramic system (matrix of aluminum and zirconium oxide) or an anatomically identical metallic knee system made of a cobalt-chromium alloy. Clinical assessment was performed preoperatively, and during follow-up at 3 and 12 months, using the Knee Society Score, Oxford Knee Score, and EQ-5D-VAS. For radiological evaluation, standard preoperative and postoperative standardized radiographs were taken at the given follow-up visits. The postoperative clinical scores improved significantly at the 3- and 12-month follow-ups, but did not differ statistically between the two groups. The radiologically evaluated mean postoperative mechanical and anatomical axes showed proper alignment within both groups at all times. No revision surgery had to be performed, and no complications or loosening were recorded whatsoever. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing a total ceramic metal-free knee system with a geometrically identical metallic TKA (total knee arthroplasty). Longer follow-ups will be required to demonstrate the overall efficiency of this TKR and perhaps to expand its medical indication. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Comparison of Unplanned Intensive Care Unit Readmission Scores: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Regis Goulart; Roehrig, Cintia; de Oliveira, Roselaine Pinheiro; Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Antônio, Ana Carolina Peçanha; Castro, Priscylla de Souza; Neto, Felippe Leopoldo Dexheimer; Balzano, Patrícia de Campos; Teixeira, Cassiano

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Early discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU) may constitute a strategy of resource consumption optimization; however, unplanned readmission of hospitalized patients to an ICU is associated with a worse outcome. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of the Stability and Workload Index for Transfer score (SWIFT), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (SOFA) and simplified Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS-28) in predicting unplanned ICU readmission or unexpected death in the first 48 hours after discharge from the ICU. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study in a single tertiary hospital in southern Brazil. All adult patients admitted to the ICU for more than 24 hours from January 2008 to December 2009 were evaluated. SWIFT, SOFA and TISS-28 scores were calculated on the day of discharge from the ICU. A stepwise logistic regression was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these scores in predicting unplanned ICU readmission or unexpected death in the first 48 hours after discharge from the ICU. Moreover, we conducted a direct accuracy comparison among SWIFT, SOFA and TISS-28 scores. Results A total of 1,277 patients were discharged from the ICU during the study period. The rate of unplanned ICU readmission or unexpected death in the first 48 hours after discharge from the ICU was 15% (192 patients). In the multivariate analysis, age (P = 0.001), length of ICU stay (P = 0.01), cirrhosis (P = 0.03), SWIFT (P = 0.001), SOFA (P = 0.01) and TISS-28 (P<0.001) constituted predictors of unplanned ICU readmission or unexpected death. The SWIFT, SOFA and TISS-28 scores showed similar predictive accuracy (AUC values were 0.66, 0.65 and 0.74, respectively; P = 0.58). Conclusions SWIFT, SOFA and TISS-28 on the day of discharge from the ICU have only moderate accuracy in predicting ICU readmission or death. The present study did not find any differences in accuracy among the three scores. PMID:26600463

  11. Realization of single and double axial InSb-GaSb heterostructure nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghalamestani, Sepideh Gorji [Solid State Physics, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Ek, Martin [Center for Analysis and Synthesis, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Dick, Kimberly A. [Solid State Physics, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Center for Analysis and Synthesis, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2014-03-15

    Heteroepitaxial growth of III-Sb nanowires allows for the formation of various interesting complex structures and enables the combination of their remarkable properties. In this Letter, we investigate the heteroepitaxial growth of Au-seeded InSb and GaSb nanowires using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. We demonstrate successful single and double axial InSb-GaSb heterostructures in both directions. The formation properties of the grown nanowires including the compositional change of the particle and the interface sharpness are further discussed. In addition, the decomposition of InSb and GaSb segments and their side facet evolution are explained. XEDS compositional line scans overlaid on STEM HAADF image along the InSb-GaSb-InSb nanowire indicating sharp interface from GaSb to InSb segment and graded interface in the opposite direction. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Comparison Across Two Generations of Prospective Models of How the Low Level of Response to Alcohol Affects Alcohol Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, Marc A.; Smith, Tom L.; Kalmijn, Jelger; Trim, Ryan S.; Cesario, Erin; Saunders, Gretchen; Sanchez, Courtney; Campbell, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article presents the first direct comparison of level of response (LR)—based prospective models in two generations of the same families. To accomplish this, we describe results from the first prospective evaluation of potential mediators of how an earlier low LR to alcohol relates to adverse alcohol outcomes in offspring from the San Diego Prospective Study (SDPS). Method: To compare with data from probands in the SDPS, new data were gathered from 86 drinking offspring (age ∼20 years) during the 25-year follow-up of these families. Consistent with the usual effect of a low LR, outcomes 5 years later for both generations focused on drinking quantities as well as alcohol problems during the follow-up. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to analyze the relationships among variables, and the models in proband and offspring generations were compared using direct observations of the model results and through invariance procedures. Results: In these drinking offspring, LR correlated with 5-year outcomes (r = .48, p drinking, positive alcohol expectancies, and using alcohol to cope with stress. These results were similar to a previously published prospective model in SDPS probands, although path coefficients were generally higher in the younger group. Conclusions: The LR-based model of heavier drinking operated similarly across generations, with some modest differences. These results indicate that the model may be meaningful in both younger and middle-age groups. PMID:22333327

  13. Prospective comparison of noninvasive, bedside ultrasound methods for assessing central venous pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthoff, H; Siegemund, M; Aschwanden, M; Hunziker, L; Fabbro, T; Baumann, U; Jaeger, K A; Imfeld, S; Staub, D

    2012-12-01

    To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of noninvasive central venous pressure (CVP) assessment by compression ultrasound of a forearm vein (CUS), inferior vena cava (IVC-C) and internal jugular vein collapsibility (IJV-C) compared to invasive CVP measurement (invCVP) as the gold standard. CUS, IVC-C and IJV-C were performed in a random sequence in 81 consecutive intensive care patients with simultaneous invCVP monitoring. Examiners were blinded to invCVP and previous examinations. Median invCVP was 12.0 mmHg (range 1 - 23). CUS, IVC-C and IJV-C could be obtained in 89 %, 95 % and 100 % of cases, respectively, within a median time of 188 sec [IQR 125; 270], 133 sec [IQR 100; 211] and 60 sec [IQR 50; 109], respectively. The Spearman correlation coefficient between invCVP and CUS, IVC-C, and IJV-C was 0.485 95 %-CI [0.25; 0.65], -0.186 [-0.42; 0.07], and -0.408 [-0.59; -0.18], respectively. The median absolute difference between CUS and invCVP was 3 mmHg [IQR 2; 6.75]. CVP was categorized as low ( 0.6), normal (7 - 12 mmHg; collapsibility 0.6 - 0.2) and high (> 12 mmHg; collapsibility  0.10 for all pair-wise comparisons). The overall ability of CUS, IVC-C and IJV-C to assess invCVP was only moderate. CUS seems to be the preferable method if absolute CVP values are needed. IJV-C seems to be the fastest and most easily acquirable method, and thus may be especially valuable in emergency rooms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Effect of Sb in thick InGaAsSbN layers grown by liquid phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, V.; Milanova, M.; Asenova, I.; Shtinkov, N.; Alonso-Álvarez, D.; Mellor, A.; Karmakov, Y.; Georgiev, S.; Ekins-Daukes, N.

    2018-02-01

    Dilute nitride InGaAsSbN layers grown by low-temperature liquid phase epitaxy are studied in comparison with quaternary InGaAsN layers grown at the same growth conditions to understand the effect of Sb in the alloy. The lattice mismatch to the GaAs substrate is found to be slightly larger for the InGaAsSbN layers, which is explained by the large atomic radius of Sb. A reduction of the band gap energy with respect to InGaAsN is demonstrated by means of photoluminescence (PL), surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy and tight-binding calculations. The band-gap energies determined from PL and ellipsometry measurements are in good agreement, while the SPV spectroscopy and the tight-binding calculations provide lower values. Possible reasons for these discrepancies are discussed. The PL spectra reveal localized electronic states in the band gap near the conduction band edge, which is confirmed by SPV spectroscopy. The analysis of the power dependence of the integrated PL has allowed determining the dominant radiative recombination mechanisms in the layers. The values of the refraction index in a wide spectral region are found to be higher for the Sb containing layers.

  15. Bonding in ZnSb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lasse; Madsen, Georg K. H.; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    Thermoelectric materials are capable of converting waste heat into usable electric energy. The conversion efficiency depends critically on the electronic band structure. Theoretical calculations predict the semiconducting ZnSb to have a promising efficiency if it is n-doped. The details of the lo......Thermoelectric materials are capable of converting waste heat into usable electric energy. The conversion efficiency depends critically on the electronic band structure. Theoretical calculations predict the semiconducting ZnSb to have a promising efficiency if it is n-doped. The details...

  16. Alternative anode materials for lithium-ion batteries: a study of Ag 3Sb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughey, J. T.; Fransson, L.; Swinger, H. A.; Edström, K.; Thackeray, M. M.

    Silver antimonide, Ag 3Sb, in which silver and antimony are both electrochemically active toward lithium, has been studied as an anode for lithium-ion batteries. The rate of capacity fade on cycling was monitored as a function of the voltage window, which has provided further information about the causes of capacity fade in intermetallic electrode systems. From the voltage profiles, and by comparison with the behavior of SnSb, InSb and Cu 2Sb electrodes, the electrochemical reaction of Li/Ag 3Sb cells was determined to take place in several discrete stages: first, by a displacement reaction in which lithium replaces Ag in the Ag 3Sb structure in a two-step process between 0.9 and 0.7 V to form Li 3Sb via Li 2AgSb; and second, by reaction of lithium with the extruded silver between 0.2 and 0.0 V to form Li xAg compounds (1≤ x≤4). The rate of capacity fade that occurs when cells are cycled between 1.2 and 0.0 V was significantly reduced by limiting the reaction to either: (1) the low voltage region (0.7-0.0 V), which provided a stable capacity of ˜300 mAh/g; or (2) to a wider operating window (1.2-0.1 V, 250 mAh/g), in which the formation of Li xAg phases was suppressed.

  17. Structural and magnetic properties of GaSb:MnSb granular layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dynowska, E., E-mail: dynow@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668 Warsaw (Poland); Bak-Misiuk, J.; Romanowski, P.; Domagala, J.Z. [Institute of Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668 Warsaw (Poland); Sadowski, J. [Institute of Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668 Warsaw (Poland); MAX-Lab, Lund University P.O. Box. 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Wojciechowski, T.; Kret, S.; Kurowska, B. [Institute of Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668 Warsaw (Poland); Kwiatkowski, A. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, PL-00681 Warsaw (Poland); Caliebe, W. [Hasylab at DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The results of structural and magnetic characterization of GaMnSb layers grown on GaSb(0 0 1) and GaAs(1 1 1) substrates are presented. The presence of hexagonal, highly oriented MnSb inclusions embedded in GaSb matrix has been demonstrated. The lattice parameters of these inclusions were the same as those for bulk MnSb for the layers grown on GaSb(1 0 0) substrate while for the layers grown on GaAs(1 1 1) the MnSb inclusions were strained. The influence of a presence of MnSb clusters on the lattice parameter of GaSb matrix has been demonstrated. It was confirmed that in all cases the MnSb clusters exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature.

  18. Antioxidants, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular diseases : cross-cultural comparisons and prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants in plant foods have been proposed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by reducing oxidative stress. The objective was to confirm prospective studies on CVD and traditional antioxidants (beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol), and to investigate emerging

  19. Incorporation of Sb and As in MBE grown GaAsxSb1-x layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; MacFarland, Don; Detz, Hermann; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2017-03-01

    With the increasing interest in low effective mass materials for intersubband devices, mixed As-Sb compounds, like GaAsxSb1-x or AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y, gain more and more attention. The growth of these materials, however, still provides significant challenges due to the complex interaction between As and Sb. In this work, we provide an in-depth study on the incorporation of Sb into the GaAsxSb1-x layers and compare our findings to the present literature on this topic. It is found that both the composition and the crystal quality of GaAsxSb1-x layers are strongly influenced by the growth rate due to the As-for-Sb exchange reaction which takes place at the growing surface, and that high crystal quality can be achieved when the growth is performed under Sb limited conditions.

  20. MOVPE deposition of Sb2Te3 and other phases of Sb-Te system on sapphire substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, P. I.; Shchamkhalova, B. S.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Shcherbakov, V. D.; Luzanov, V. A.; Yakushcheva, G. G.; Jitov, V. A.; Sizov, V. E.

    2017-08-01

    The films of Sb-Te system have been deposited by MOVPE on (0 0 0 1) Al2O3 substrates with thin ZnTe buffer layers at different temperatures and Te/Sb ratios in the vapor phase. X-ray diffractometry, SEM microscopy, Raman and EDX spectroscopy were used to study as-grown films. The surface morphology and stoichiometry of Sb-Te films strongly depend on Te/Sb ratio in vapor phase. We have deposited the phases of homologous series nSb2·mSb2Te3 with following stoichiometries: Sb2Te3, Sb4Te5, Sb8Te9, Sb10Te9, Sb4Te3, Sb2Te, Sb8Te3, Sb10Te3, Sb16Te3, Sb18Te3 and Sb. Transport properties of Sb2Te3, Sb4Te5, Sb8Te9, Sb4Te3, Sb2Te were evaluated using Van der Pauw technique at 300 K.

  1. A prospective comparison of the efficacy and safety of fully closed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted a within-group comparison of three modes of ventilation, ASV, Intellivent-ASV and SIMV, using a Hamilton S1 ventilator (Hamilton Medical, Switzerland). Subjects were ventilated for 2 hours on each mode, and at the end of each 2-hour period, parameters of ventilation and haemodynamics were measured.

  2. [The image of psychotherapies - a comparison between prospective therapists and laypersons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler-Stastka, Henriette; Blüml, Victor; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Jandl-Jager, Elisabeth; Ruhs, August; Springer-Kremser, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Considering the specific situation of psychotherapy in Austria with its wide range of different therapeutic methods which are accredited by law, we investigated their respective level of familiarity and the connotative associations of future therapists and of a sample group of the lay public regarding the different schools. 175 persons (students of economics, students at the university clinic for psychoanalysis, and prospective psychotherapists) were interviewed concerning terms of familiarity and popularity of the therapeutic methods. Using the semantic differential we tried to operationalize the resonant connotative associations. There is insufficient information with regards to the existence of the various different schools on the side of the lay public. The connotations of the different groups are similar: independent of the level of familiarity, 4 different types of therapy can cluster-analytically be identified in relation to the 3 factors of the polarity profile (activity-potency-valence). More extensive information of the public concerning the different therapeutic possibilities is needed. Further the importance of considering subjective connotations in situations of referral and indication is discussed. Specific attention has been given to the situation of prospective psychotherapists.

  3. Eight Year Prospective Study of Adenoviruses Infections in Hospitalized Children. Comparison with Other Respiratory Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Calvo

    Full Text Available Human adenovirus (HAdV cause upper and lower respiratory tract infections. However, there are few large prospective studies focused on HAdVs acute infections requiring hospitalization. From 2005 to 2013 a prospective study was conducted on children admitted with acute respiratory infections. Specimens of nasopharyngeal aspirate were taken for virological study by PCR and clinical data was recorded. HAdV specimens were genotyped. Frequency and clinical course of HAdV infections were compared with RSV, rhinovirus (RV, human bocavirus (HBoV and influenza in the same population. HAdV was detected in 403 cases of 2371 confirmed viral infections (17.2% , of which 154 were single virus infections (38%. We genotyped 154 HAdVs. The most frequent genotypes were HAdV-3 (24%, HAdV-6 (21%, and HAdV-5 (20%. A total of 262 children had fever (64.9%; 194 suffered hypoxia (48%, and 147 presented infiltrate in chest x-rays (36.4%. The most frequent diagnoses were recurrent wheezing or asthma (51.7%, bronchiolitis (18.3 %, and pneumonia (11.9%, and 46 (11.4% episodes required prolonged hospitalization (>7 days due to the severity. Adenovirus single infections were compared with single infections of 598 RSV, 494 RV, 83 influenza and 78 HBoV. Significant clinical differences were found between HAdV, RSV and RV infections.

  4. The fire ant social chromosome supergene variant Sb shows low diversity but high divergence from SB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracana, Rodrigo; Priyam, Anurag; Levantis, Ilya; Nichols, Richard A; Wurm, Yannick

    2017-06-01

    Variation in social behaviour is common, yet little is known about the genetic architectures underpinning its evolution. A rare exception is in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta: Alternative variants of a supergene region determine whether a colony will have exactly one or up to dozens of queens. The two variants of this region are carried by a pair of 'social chromosomes', SB and Sb, which resemble a pair of sex chromosomes. Recombination is suppressed between the two chromosomes in the supergene region. While the X-like SB can recombine with itself in SB/SB queens, recombination is effectively absent in the Y-like Sb because Sb/Sb queens die before reproducing. Here, we analyse whole-genome sequences of eight haploid SB males and eight haploid Sb males. We find extensive SB-Sb differentiation throughout the >19-Mb-long supergene region. We find no evidence of 'evolutionary strata' with different levels of divergence comparable to those reported in several sex chromosomes. A high proportion of substitutions between the SB and Sb haplotypes are nonsynonymous, suggesting inefficacy of purifying selection in Sb sequences, similar to that for Y-linked sequences in XY systems. Finally, we show that the Sb haplotype of the supergene region has 635-fold less nucleotide diversity than the rest of the genome. We discuss how this reduction could be due to a recent selective sweep affecting Sb specifically or associated with a population bottleneck during the invasion of North America by the sampled population. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The atomistic mechanism for Sb segregation and As displacement of Sb in InSb(001) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Evan M.; Millunchick, Joanna M.

    2018-01-01

    Interfacial broadening occurs in mixed-anion alloy heterostructures such as InAs/InAsSb due to both Sb-segregation and As-for-Sb exchange. In order to determine the atomistic mechanisms for these processes, we conduct ab initio calculations coupled with a cluster expansion formalism to determine the surface reconstructions of the pure and As-exposed InSb(001) surfaces. This approach provides a predicted phase diagram for pure InSb that is in better agreement with experiments. Namely, the α2(2 × 4) and α3c(4 × 4) structures are ultimately stable at 0K, but the α(4 × 3) and α2c(2 × 6) are within 1 meV/Å2. Exposure of the InSb(001) surface to As results in the As atoms infiltrating into the crystal and displacing subsurface Sb, thus providing the atomistic mechanisms for experimental observations of the As-for-Sb exchange reaction and Sb segregation. Experiments show that the widely reported A-(1 × 3) reconstruction is actually comprised of multiple reconstructions, which is consistent with the prediction of several nearly stable possible reconstructions.

  6. Prospective, randomized comparison of cobalt-chrome and titanium trilock femoral stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, William L; Tilzey, John F; Iorio, Richard; Specht, Lawrence M; Sharma, Sanjeev

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to demonstrate the efficacy of a cementless, flat, tapered wedge femoral stem and compare cobalt-chrome and titanium femoral stems with this design. Three hundred ninety femoral stems observed for a mean of 4.7 years (2.0-8.9 years) were prospectively evaluated with clinical and radiographic follow-up. Hips were stratified by Dorr classification, bone stock (femoral index), size of implant used, and material of femoral implant. Survivorship of the femoral stem at 8.9 years was 99.8% with no significant difference between cohorts. Thigh pain (4.9%) was more common with cobalt-chrome femoral stems (6.5%) than titanium femoral stems (3.1%). The flat, tapered wedge femoral stem design provides excellent femoral reconstruction in total hip arthroplasty. On the basis of this study, we use titanium femoral stems.

  7. A comparison of two prospective risk analysis methods: Traditional FMEA and a modified healthcare FMEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jeong-Eun; Manger, Ryan P; Yock, Adam D; Kim, Gwe-Ya

    2016-12-01

    To examine the abilities of a traditional failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) and modified healthcare FMEA (m-HFMEA) scoring methods by comparing the degree of congruence in identifying high risk failures. The authors applied two prospective methods of the quality management to surface image guided, linac-based radiosurgery (SIG-RS). For the traditional FMEA, decisions on how to improve an operation were based on the risk priority number (RPN). The RPN is a product of three indices: occurrence, severity, and detectability. The m-HFMEA approach utilized two indices, severity and frequency. A risk inventory matrix was divided into four categories: very low, low, high, and very high. For high risk events, an additional evaluation was performed. Based upon the criticality of the process, it was decided if additional safety measures were needed and what they comprise. The two methods were independently compared to determine if the results and rated risks matched. The authors' results showed an agreement of 85% between FMEA and m-HFMEA approaches for top 20 risks of SIG-RS-specific failure modes. The main differences between the two approaches were the distribution of the values and the observation that failure modes (52, 54, 154) with high m-HFMEA scores do not necessarily have high FMEA-RPN scores. In the m-HFMEA analysis, when the risk score is determined, the basis of the established HFMEA Decision Tree™ or the failure mode should be more thoroughly investigated. m-HFMEA is inductive because it requires the identification of the consequences from causes, and semi-quantitative since it allows the prioritization of high risks and mitigation measures. It is therefore a useful tool for the prospective risk analysis method to radiotherapy.

  8. The hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposase SB100X improves the genetic modification of T cells to express a chimeric antigen receptor1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zeming; Maiti, Sourindra; Huls, Helen; Singh, Harjeet; Olivares, Simon; Mátés, Lajos; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Lee, Dean A.; Champlin, Richard E.; Cooper, Laurence J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Sleeping Beauty (SB3) transposon and transposase constitute a DNA plasmid system used for therapeutic human cell genetic engineering. Here we report a comparison of SB100X, a newly developed hyperactive SB transposase, to a previous generation SB11 transposase to achieve stable expression of a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR3) in primary human T cells. The electro-transfer of SB100X expressed from a DNA plasmid or as an introduced mRNA species had superior transposase activity in T cells based on measurement of excision circles released after transposition and emergence of CAR expression on T cells selectively propagated upon CD19+ artificial antigen presenting cells. Given that T cells modified with SB100X and SB11 integrate on average one copy of the CAR transposon in each T-cell genome, the improved transposition mediated by SB100X apparently leads to an augmented founder effect of electroporated T cells with durable integration of CAR. In aggregate, SB100X improves SB transposition in primary human T cells and can be titrated with a SB transposon plasmid to improve the generation of CD19-specific CAR+ T cells. PMID:21451576

  9. The hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposase SB100X improves the genetic modification of T cells to express a chimeric antigen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Z; Maiti, S; Huls, H; Singh, H; Olivares, S; Mátés, L; Izsvák, Z; Ivics, Z; Lee, D A; Champlin, R E; Cooper, L J N

    2011-09-01

    Sleeping Beauty (SB3) transposon and transposase constitute a DNA plasmid system used for therapeutic human cell genetic engineering. Here we report a comparison of SB100X, a newly developed hyperactive SB transposase, to a previous generation SB11 transposase to achieve stable expression of a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR3) in primary human T cells. The electro-transfer of SB100X expressed from a DNA plasmid or as an introduced mRNA species had superior transposase activity in T cells based on the measurement of excision circles released after transposition and emergence of CAR expression on T cells selectively propagated upon CD19+ artificial antigen-presenting cells. Given that T cells modified with SB100X and SB11 integrate on average one copy of the CAR transposon in each T-cell genome, the improved transposition mediated by SB100X apparently leads to an augmented founder effect of electroporated T cells with durable integration of CAR. In aggregate, SB100X improves SB transposition in primary human T cells and can be titrated with an SB transposon plasmid to improve the generation of CD19-specific CAR+ T cells.

  10. Cognitive Experiences Reported by Borderline Patients and Axis II Comparison Subjects: A 16-year Prospective Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C.; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Wedig, Michelle M.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study assesses three main types of cognition: nonpsychotic thought (odd thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, and non-delusional paranoia), quasi-psychotic thought, and true-psychotic thought in borderline patients followed prospectively for 16 years. It also compares the rates of these disturbed cognitions to those reported by axis II comparison subjects. Method The cognitive experiences of 362 inpatients—290 borderline patients and 72 axis II comparison subjects—were assessed at study entry using the cognitive section of the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines. Their cognitive experiences were reassessed every two years using the same interview. Results Each of the five main types of thought studied was reported by a significantly higher percentage of borderline patients than axis II comparison subjects over time. Each of these types of thought, except true-psychotic thought, declined significantly over time for those in both groups. Eleven of the 17 more specific forms of thought studied were also reported by a significantly higher percentage of borderline patients over the years of follow-up: magical thinking, overvalued ideas, recurrent illusions, depersonalization, derealization, undue suspiciousness, ideas of reference, other paranoid ideation, quasi-psychotic delusions, quasi-psychotic hallucinations, and true-psychotic hallucinations. Fourteen specific forms of thought were found to decline significantly over time for those in both groups: all forms of thought mentioned above except true-psychotic hallucinations plus marked superstitiousness, sixth sense, telepathy, and clairvoyance. Conclusions Disturbed cognitions are common among borderline patients and distinguishing for the disorder. They also decline substantially over time but remain a problem, particularly those of a nonpsychotic nature. PMID:23558452

  11. New Prospecting Standarts and Its Comparison with International Regulations in Sinkhole and Cave Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, S.; Cengiz Cinku, M.; Tezel, O.

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prospecting standarts in sinkhole and cave characterization comparing it with the present standarts given by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the British Standart (BSI). Cave and sinkholes which are important geological occurences could cause hazard and collapse of the ground where residental areas could be under risk. The depth of sinkholes could reach up to hundreds of meters and their width to tens of meters. Most caves which are under conserve and characterized as a natural protected area, a non-destructive investigation is required which is only undertaken by geophysical applications. Two different type of standarts are given in the literature to investigate this kind of geological occurences. The first is the ASTM (1999) standart which offers to use Gravity/Microgravity, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electromagnetic, while the BSI standart (1999) depends on the initial application of GPR, Electromagnetic, Electrical Resistivity and Crosshole Seismic. In Turkey however, there are limited studies in cave/sinkhole detection and no standartization in prospecting is presented. For this purpose, we applied a geophysical study in the Yarımburgaz cave, Istanbul/Turkey. In the scope of this study, Microgravity, Electric Tomography, Tomography of Seismic Refraction and Surface Wave Analysis, GPR and Microtremor methods are applied on four different profiles. It has been shown that the outputs of the methods differ as a result of the climatic conditions, properties of the geological environment and the depth/size/shape of the sinkhole/cave. Besides this, the area of application which is either inside the city center, steep valley or on the sea/streamside show also discrepancy in the order of preference of the geophysical application methods when considering the anomalies on different mediums. The results obtained from GPR are deep in relation with the thickness of the clayey unit, the water

  12. The Sandbridge SB3011 Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Iancu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Sandbridge Sandblaster real-time software-defined radio platform. Specifically, we describe the SB3011 system-on-a-chip multiprocessor. We describe the software development system that enables real-time execution of communications and multimedia applications. We provide results for a number of interesting communications and multimedia systems including UMTS, DVB-H, WiMAX, WiFi, and NTSC video decoding. Each processor core achieves 600 MHz at 0.9 V operation while typically dissipating 75 mW in 90 nm technology. The entire chip typically dissipates less than 500 mW at 0.9 V.

  13. Prospective comparison of single port versus conventional laparoscopic surgery for ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyung; Kim, Jeong Jin; Choi, Joong Sub; Eom, Jeong Min; Lee, Jung Hun

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the feasibility and safety of single port laparoscopic surgery (SP-LS) for ectopic pregnancy, irrespective of type of ectopic pregnancy and hemodynamic stability. A prospective case-control study of 106 women who underwent SP-LS or conventional LS for a suspected ectopic pregnancy was performed at a university teaching hospital from January 2009 to March 2012. Twenty-six women underwent SP-LS (SP-LS group) and 80 women underwent conventional LS (conventional LS group). There were no statistical differences between the groups in terms of demographic characteristics, operating time, hemoglobin change, return of bowel activity, hospital stay or complication rate. There were no cases of additional trocar use or conversion to laparotomy. Of five women with heterotopic pregnancy, one underwent SP-LS, and three underwent conventional LS for tubal pregnancy, which all resulted in vaginal delivery without obstetric complication; one woman received SP-LS for cornual pregnancy and had an ongoing pregnancy. SP-LS for ectopic pregnancy is feasible and safe regardless of the type of ectopic pregnancy and hemodynamic stability. However, further work is needed to confirm this conclusion and to demonstrate any advantage of SP-LS for ectopic pregnancy. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Randomized, Prospective Comparison of Ursodeoxycholic Acid for the Prevention of Gallstones after Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Lindsay B; Chang, Craig; Pope, Janet; Kim, Yeonsoo; Liu, Pei; Yates, Amy

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have examined the role of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) for the prevention of cholelithiasis (gallstones) following rapid weight loss from restrictive diets, vertical band gastroplasty, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. However, to date, there have been no prospective, controlled studies examining the role of UDCA for the prevention of gallstones following sleeve gastrectomy (SG). This study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of UDCA for prevention of gallstones after SG. Following SG, eligible patients were randomized to a control group who did not receive UDCA treatment or to a group who were prescribed 300 mg UDCA twice daily for 6 months. Gallbladder ultrasounds were performed preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Patients with positive findings preoperatively were excluded from the study. Compliance with UDCA was assessed. Between December 2011 and April 2013, 37 patients were randomized to the UDCA treatment arm and 38 patients were randomized to no treatment. At baseline, the two groups were similar. At 6 months, the UDCA group had a statistically significant lower incidence of gallstones (p = 0.032). Analysis revealed no significant difference in gallstones between the two groups at 1 year (p = 0.553 and p = 0.962, respectively). The overall gallstone formation rate was 29.8%. The incidence of gallstones is higher than previously estimated in SG patients. UDCA significantly lowers the gallstone formation rate at 6 months postoperatively.

  15. A prospective comparison of intestinal sonography and abdominal radiographs in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cicero T. [The University of Toronto, The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Daneman, Alan; Navarro, Oscar M. [The University of Toronto, The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Moineddin, Rahim [The University of Toronto, The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Toronto (Canada); Levine, Daniel [The University of Toronto, The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Moore, Aideen M. [The University of Toronto, The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Pediatrics, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-11-15

    No study reported in the literature comprehensively compares findings on neonatal abdominal radiographs with sonography. To compare the findings on abdominal radiographs and sonograms in infants in intensive care, to better understand how the various intestinal gas patterns on radiographs relate to the spectrum of appearances on sonography and, second, to evaluate the ability of sonography to differentiate necrotizing enterocolitis from other intestinal pathology. We prospectively evaluated sonograms and radiographs, blinded to the other modality and to clinical information. Patients' charts were reviewed by a third blinded reader and used as a reference standard for diagnosis. We made associations between sonographic findings, radiographic intestinal gas patterns and clinical diagnoses. We included 75 infants with gestational ages between 23 weeks and 41 weeks. Sonographic abnormalities were present in infants with all radiographic intestinal gas patterns, including normal patterns. We only saw absent intestinal perfusion and fluid collections on sonography (suggesting intestinal necrosis and sealed perforation) in infants with intestinal dilatation with elongation on radiographs. Separation of intestinal loops on radiographs was most commonly caused by reasons other than intestinal wall thickening. Increased intestinal echogenicity or free fluid with echoes on sonography correlated with a diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis, whereas anechoic free fluid correlated with absence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Sonography is complementary to radiographs in infants with suspected intestinal pathology, with a spectrum of appearances seen on each modality. Some sonographic findings either strongly suggest necrotizing enterocolitis or supply evidence against this diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. Prospective comparison of computerized tomography and excretory urography in the initial evaluation of asymptomatic microhematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray Sears, Christine L; Ward, John F; Sears, Stephen T; Puckett, Michael F; Kane, Christopher J; Amling, Christopher L

    2002-12-01

    The ideal imaging study for evaluation of the upper urinary tract in patients with microhematuria has been debated. We prospectively compared the diagnostic yield of computerized tomography (CT) to excretory urography (IVP) in the initial evaluation of asymptomatic microhematuria. Between December 1998 and June 2001, 115 patients presenting with asymptomatic microhematuria underwent CT and IVP before cystoscopy. Helical CT images with 5 mm. adrenal and kidney slices with and without contrast material were followed by delayed 5 mm. ureteral contrast images through the bladder base. Each CT and IVP was examined by a radiologist who was blinded to the result of the other imaging study. Diagnostic yields of the imaging techniques were compared using the test of 2 proportions and chi-square analysis. Radiographic abnormalities were noted on CT or IVP in 38 patients. Sensitivity was 100% for CT and 60.5% for IVP, and specificity 97.4% for CT and 90.9% for IVP. CT accuracy was 98.3% compared to IVP accuracy which was 80.9% (p <0.001). A total of 40 nonurological diagnoses were made by CT, including 3 abdominal aortic aneurysms and 1 iliac artery aneurysm. No additional diagnoses were made by IVP. Fewer additional radiographic studies were recommended after CT than after IVP. The use of CT in the initial evaluation of asymptomatic microhematuria results in better diagnostic yield. In addition, more nonurological diagnoses can be made and less additional radiography is needed to confirm a diagnosis.

  17. Prospective Comparison of Nonnarcotic versus Narcotic Outpatient Oral Analgesic Use after Laparoscopic Appendectomy and Early Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Alkhoury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare narcotic versus nonnarcotic outpatient oral pain management after pediatric laparoscopic appendectomy. Methods. In a prospective study from July 1, 2010, to March 30, 2011, children undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy on a rapid discharge protocol were treated with either nonnarcotic or narcotic postoperative oral analgesia. Two surgeons in a four-person faculty group employed the nonnarcotic regimen, while the other two used narcotics. Days of medication use, time needed for return to normal activity, and satisfaction rate with the pain control method were collected. Student’s t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results. A total of 207 consecutive children underwent appendectomy for acute, nonperforated appendicitis or planned interval appendectomy. The age and time to discharge were equivalent between the nonnarcotic (n=104 and narcotic (n=103 groups. Both had an equivalent number of medication days and similar times of return to normal activity. Ninety-seven percent of the parents of children in the nonnarcotic group stated that the pain was controlled by the prescribed medication, compared to 90 percent in the narcotic group (P=0.049. Conclusion. This study indicates that after non-complicated pediatric laparoscopic appendectomy, nonnarcotic is equivalent to narcoticbased therapy for outpatient oral analgesia, with higher parental satisfaction.

  18. Prospective memory while driving: comparison of time- and event-based intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawley, Steven L; Stephens, Amanda N; Rendell, Peter G; Groeger, John A

    2017-06-01

    Prospective memories can divert attentional resources from ongoing activities. However, it is unclear whether these effects and the theoretical accounts that seek to explain them will generalise to a complex real-world task such as driving. Twenty-four participants drove two simulated routes while maintaining a fixed headway with a lead vehicle. Drivers were given either event-based (e.g. arriving at a filling station) or time-based errands (e.g. on-board clock shows 3:30). In contrast to the predominant view in the literature which suggests time-based tasks are more demanding, drivers given event-based errands showed greater difficulty in mirroring lead vehicle speed changes compared to the time-based group. Results suggest that common everyday secondary tasks, such as scouting the roadside for a bank, may have a detrimental impact on driving performance. The additional finding that this cost was only evident with the event-based task highlights a potential area of both theoretical and practical interest. Practitioner Summary: Drivers were given either time- or event-based errands whilst engaged in a simulated drive. We examined the effect of errands on an ongoing vehicle follow task. In contrast to previous non-driving studies, event-based errands are more disruptive. Common everyday errands may have a detrimental impact on driving performance.

  19. Ablative Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Prospective Phase I Case-Control Comparison with Conventional Chemoembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Simon Chun Ho; Chan, Stephen Lam; Lee, Kit Fai; Hui, Joyce Wai Yi; Hui, Edwin Pun; Chu, Cheuk Man; Chan, Anthony Wing-Hung; Cheung, Sunny; Li, Leung; Wong, John; Yeo, Winnie Ming Ming

    2017-12-22

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and treatment effectiveness of ablative chemoembolization (ACE) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and compare with a similar patient cohort who underwent conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE). Materials and Methods This was a prospective phase I nonrandomized study conducted between March 2013 and October 2016 in accordance to the Declaration of Helsinki and Declaration Good Clinical Practice with written informed consent. There were 36 men and eight women (median age, 64 years [interquartile range, 58-74] and 74.5 years [interquartile range, 70-80], respectively). The primary end points were treatment safety and tumor response. The secondary end points were time to progression, progression-free survival, conversion to partial hepatectomy, and viable HCC within the tumor specimen. The end points of the study group (n = 22) were compared with those of a case-matched control group (n = 22) of patients who underwent conventional cTACE during the same period by using a Pearson χ2 test. Results Treatment with ACE was successfully completed in all patients without adverse effects. The complete response (CR) rates by patient or by tumor were both 100%. The median time to progression and median progression-free survival were significantly longer in the study group than in the control group (both were 28 months vs 10 months, respectively; P material is available for this article.

  20. Quality of small bowel preparation for video-capsule endoscopy. Prospective comparison of two different preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Kalantzis, Chryssostomos; Papadopoulos, Aggelos A; Apostolopoulos, Pericles; Ladas, Dimitris; Kalli, Theodora; Kakavetsi, Vassiliki; Kalantzis, Nikolaos; Ladas, Spiros D

    2010-01-01

    The best preparation for successful small bowel video-capsule endoscopy (VCE) is still unknown. The primary aim of our study was to compare sodium phosphate (PS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) purge on the quality of small bowel preparation. In this prospective, non-randomized, two centers study, we evaluated 47 and 48 consecutive outpatients who received PS and PEG preparations, respectively. Two independent investigators measured the proportion of small bowel transit time (SBTT) without clean mucosa. Two other investigators assessed bowel preparation independently, using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The proportion of SBTT without clean mucosa was similar for both preparations, in the proximal [3.8 (2.1-8.7) % vs. 4.85 (2.7-9.7) %, p = 0.24)] and in the distal half [31.9 (10.7-52.5) % vs. 22.9 (6.9-57.7) %, p = 0.48] of VCE recording. There was moderate - good correlation of VAS assessment of bowel preparation with the proportion of SBTT without clean mucosa in the proximal (r = 0.69, p preparations. PS and PEG preparations result in similar quality of small bowel preparation and similar outcome measures of VCE studies. VAS assessment could be an alternative measure of bowel preparation in clinical practice.

  1. Comparison of Three Techniques for Arthrocentesis of the Carpal Joint in Dromedary Camels: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. Badawy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to determine the appropriate approaches for arthrocentesis of the carpal joint in dromedary camels and to compare between these approaches with regard to their success rate, feasibility, accuracy and ease of performance. Twenty-two cadaveric camel forelimbs obtained from 11 camel cadavers, and 4 living camels (6 joints underwent arthrocentesis for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes, were used in this study. For studying gross anatomy of the suggested approaches, 4 forelimbs were used. For CT anatomy 3 forelimbs (one/each technique were scanned before and after injection of iodinated contrast medium. For in-vitro evaluation of the techniques 15 forelimbs were used (5/each technique. To test the ease of performance in the living camels, arthrocentesis of 6 joints in 4 camels was performed by a single operator while the animal sited in kneeling position (3 camels and standing position (one camel. Based on the results, there were three feasible approaches for arthrocentesis of carpal joint in camel, the dorso-medial, dorso-lateral, and the lateral approaches. The dorso-medial approach was easily performed and more accurate than the other approaches. The dorso-medial approach was successful with accuracy index of 100% after the first attempts, whilst the dorso-lateral and the lateral approaches have lower rates of success. The procedure was well tolerated in all camels.

  2. Hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients: prospective comparison of US, CT and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Martino, Michele; De Filippis, Gianmaria; Geiger, Daniel; Del Monte, Maurizio; Lombardo, Concetta Valentina; Catalano, Carlo [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Anatomical Pathology, Rome (Italy); De Santis, Adriano; Corradini, Stefano Ginanni [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Clinical Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Rome (Italy); Rossi, Massimo; Mennini, Gianluca [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of General Surgery, Division of Organ Transplantation, Rome (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    To prospectively compare the diagnostic performance of ultrasound (US), multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cirrhotic patients who were candidates for liver transplantation. One hundred and forty consecutive patients with 163 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) nodules underwent US, MRI and MDCT. Diagnosis of HCC was based on pathological findings or substantial growth at 12-month follow-up. Four different image datasets were evaluated: US, MDCT, MRI unenhanced and dynamic phases, MRI unenhanced dynamic and hepatobiliary phase. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV, with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals, were determined. Statistical analysis was performed for all lesions and for three lesion subgroups (<1 cm, 1-2 cm, >2 cm). Significantly higher diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and NPV was achieved on dynamic + hepatobiliary phase MRI compared with US, MDCT and dynamic phase MRI alone. The specificity and PPV of US was significantly lower than that of MDCT, dynamic phase MRI and dynamic + hepatobiliary phase MRI. Similar results were obtained for all sub-group analyses, with particular benefit for the diagnosis of smaller lesions between 1 and 2 cm. Dynamic + hepatobiliary phase MRI improved detection and characterisation of HCC in cirrhotic patients. The greatest benefit is for diagnosing lesions between 1 and 2 cm. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of Tibial Intramedullary Nailing Guided by Digital Technology Versus Conventional Method: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Xu, Xian; Li, Xu; Wu, Wei; Cai, Junfeng; Lu, Qingyou

    2017-06-12

    BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to compare clinical effects of intramedullary nailing guided by digital and conventional technologies in treatment of tibial fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty-two patients (mean age 43 years, 18 males and 14 females) who were treated for tibial fractures from October 2010 to October 2012 were enrolled. They were sequentially randomized to receive intramedullary nailing guided by either digital technology (digital group, n=16) or conventional technology (conventional group, n=16). The operation time, fluoroscopy times, fracture healing time, distance between the actual and planned insertion point, postoperative lower limb alignment, and functional recovery were recorded for all patients. RESULTS The mean operation time in the digital group was 43.1±6.2 min compared with 48.7±8.3 min for the conventional technology (P=0.039). The fluoroscopy times and distance between the actual and planned insertion point were significantly lower in the digital group than in the conventional group (both Pdigital technology. No difference was found in fracture healing time and good postoperative lower limb alignment between the digital and conventional groups (P=0.083 and P=0.310), as well as the effective rate (100% vs. 87.50%, P=0.144). CONCLUSIONS Intramedullary nailing guided by digital technology has many advantages in treatment of tibial fractures compared to conventional technology, including shorter operation time, reduced fluoroscopy times, and decreased distance between the actual and planned insertion point of the intramedullary nail.

  4. Prospective comparison among transient elastography, supersonic shear imaging, and ARFI imaging for predicting fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Seok Lee

    Full Text Available The diagnostic performance of supersonic shear imaging (SSI in comparison with those of transient elastography (TE and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI for staging fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD patients has not been fully assessed, especially in Asian populations with relatively lean NAFLD compared to white populations. Thus, we focused on comparing the diagnostic performances of TE, ARFI, and SSI for staging fibrosis in a head-to-head manner, and identifying the clinical, anthropometric, biochemical, and histological features which might affect liver stiffness measurement (LSM in our prospective biopsy-proven NAFLD cohort. In this study, ninety-four patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD were included prospectively. Liver stiffness was measured using TE, SSI, and ARFI within 1 month of liver biopsy. The diagnostic performance for staging fibrosis was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Anthropometric data were evaluated as covariates influencing LSM by regression analyses. Liver stiffness correlated with fibrosis stage (p < 0.05; the area under the ROC curve of TE (kPa, SSI (kPa, and ARFI (m/s were as follows: 0.757, 0.759, and 0.657 for significant fibrosis and 0.870, 0.809, and 0.873 for advanced fibrosis. Anthropometric traits were significant confounders affecting SSI, while serum liver injury markers significantly confounded TE and ARFI. In conclusion, the LSM methods had similar diagnostic performance for staging fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Pre-LSM anthropometric evaluation may help predict the reliability of SSI.

  5. Comparison of inflammatory responses following robotic and open colorectal surgery: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Marek; Krzystek-Korpacka, Malgorzata; Gamian, Andrzej; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2017-03-01

    Robotic colorectal surgery continues to rise in popularity, but there remains little evidence on the stress response following the procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory response to robotic colorectal surgery and compare it with the response generated by open colorectal surgery. This was a prospective nonrandomized comparative study involving 61 patients with colorectal cancer. The evaluation of inflammatory response to either robotic or open colorectal surgery was expressed as changes in interleukin-1β, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin during the first three postoperative days. Of the 61 patients, 33 underwent robotic colorectal surgery while 28 had open colorectal surgery. Groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, BMI, cancer stage, and type of resection. The relative increase of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist at 8 h postoperative, compared to baseline, was higher in the open group (P = 0.006). The decrease of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist on postoperative days 1 and 3, compared to the maximum at 8 h, was more pronounced in the open group than in the robotic group (P = 0.008, P = 0.006, respectively), and the relative increase of interleukin-6 at 8 h after incision was higher in the open group (P = 0.007). The relative increase of procalcitonin on postoperative days 1 and 3 was higher in the open group than the robotic group (P robotic colorectal surgery results in a less pronounced inflammatory response and more pronounced anti-inflammatory action.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of computed tomographic colonography: a prospective comparison with colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnesen, R B; Ginnerup-Pedersen, B; Poulsen, P B; von Benzon, E; Adamsen, S; Laurberg, S; Hart-Hansen, O

    2007-04-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of detecting colorectal polyps with computed tomographic colonography (CTC) and subsequent polypectomy with primary colonoscopy (CC), using CC as the alternative strategy. A marginal analysis was performed regarding 103 patients who had had CTC prior to same-day CC at two hospitals, H-I (n = 53) and H-II (n = 50). The patients were randomly chosen from surveillance and symptomatic study populations (148 at H-I and 231 at H-II). Populations, organizations, and procedures were compared. Cost data on time consumption, medication, and minor equipment were collected prospectively, while data on salaries and major equipment were collected retrospectively. The effect was the (previously published) sensitivities of CTC and CC for detection of colorectal polyps > or = 6 mm (H-I, n = 148) or > or = 5 mm (H-II, n = 231). Thirteen patients at each center had at least one colorectal polyp > or = 6 mm or > or = 5 mm. CTC was the cost-effective alternative at H-I (euro187 vs. euro211), while CC was the cost-effective alternative at H-II (euro239 vs. euro192). The cost-effectiveness (costs per finding) mainly depended on the sensitivity of CTC and CC, but the depreciation of equipment and the staff's use of time were highly influential as well. Detection of colorectal polyps > or = 6 mm or > or = 5 mm with CTC, followed by polypectomy by CC, can be performed cost-effectively at some institutions with the appropriate hardware and organization.

  7. Injury pattern in youth team handball: a comparison of two prospective registration methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, O-E; Myklebust, G; Engebretsen, L; Bahr, R

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the injury incidence and pattern of injuries in youth female and male team handball players using two different prospective registration methods; match reports (90 teams, 1080 players) and coach reports (34 teams, 428 players). A total of 118 injuries were recorded by the coach report, of which 93 (79%) were acute injuries (incidence training: 0.9+/-0.16 injuries/1000 player hours; matches: 9.9+/-1.26; rate ratio vs training: 10.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.0-16.6]; Pinjuries. Knee (26%) and ankle (24%) injuries accounted for half of the acute injuries (training: 0.5+/-0.12 injuries/1000/h; matches: 4.4+/-0.84; rate ratio vs training: 8.0 (95% CI 4.5-14.5); Pinjury rate (rate ratio female vs male: 1.3 (95% CI 0.8-2.1); P=0.40). Most of the injuries occurred in the attacking phase by back or wing players doing a plant-and-cut, landing or turning movement, and more than half in contact situations with the opponent. Similar results were observed for acute match injuries in the match report. These results indicate that the rate of injuries in youth team handball is as high as at the senior level, and prevention should focus on knee and ankle injuries. The coach report seems to be the best method to register injuries in youth team handball to provide a full spectrum of injuries according to their type, incidence and severity.

  8. A comparison of functional outcome in patients sustaining major trauma: a multicentre, prospective, international study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy H Rainer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare 6 month and 12 month health status and functional outcomes between regional major trauma registries in Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Multicentres from trauma registries in Hong Kong and the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR. METHODS: Multicentre, prospective cohort study. Major trauma patients and aged ≥18 years were included. The main outcome measures were Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE functional outcome and risk-adjusted Short-Form 12 (SF-12 health status at 6 and 12 months after injury. RESULTS: 261 cases from Hong Kong and 1955 cases from VSTR were included. Adjusting for age, sex, ISS, comorbid status, injury mechanism and GCS group, the odds of a better functional outcome for Hong Kong patients relative to Victorian patients at six months was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.17, and at 12 months was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.12. Adjusting for age, gender, ISS, GCS, injury mechanism and comorbid status, Hong Kong patients demonstrated comparable mean PCS-12 scores at 6-months (adjusted mean difference: 1.2, 95% CI: -1.2, 3.6 and 12-months (adjusted mean difference: -0.4, 95% CI: -3.2, 2.4 compared to Victorian patients. Keeping age, gender, ISS, GCS, injury mechanism and comorbid status, there was no difference in the MCS-12 scores of Hong Kong patients compared to Victorian patients at 6-months (adjusted mean difference: 0.4, 95% CI: -2.1, 2.8 or 12-months (adjusted mean difference: 1.8, 95% CI: -0.8, 4.5. CONCLUSION: The unadjusted analyses showed better outcomes for Victorian cases compared to Hong Kong but after adjusting for key confounders, there was no difference in 6-month or 12-month functional outcomes between the jurisdictions.

  9. Comparison of pelvic floor muscle strength evaluations in nulliparous and primiparous women: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Mônica Orsi; Sousa, Vanessa Oliveira; Gameiro, Luiz Felipe; Muchailh, Rosana Carneiro; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Amaro, João Luiz

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the pelvic floor muscle strength of nulliparous and primiparous women. METHODS: A total of 100 women were prospectively distributed into two groups: Group 1 (G1) (n = 50) included healthy nulliparous women, and Group 2 (G2) (n = 50) included healthy primiparous women. Pelvic floor muscle strength was subjectively evaluated using transvaginal digital palpation. Pelvic floor muscle strength was objectively assessed using a portable perineometer. All of the parameters were evaluated simultaneously in G1 and were evaluated in G2 during the 20th and 36th weeks of pregnancy and 45 days after delivery. RESULTS: In G2, 14 women were excluded because they left the study before the follow-up evaluation. The median age was 23 years in G1 and 22 years in G2; there was no significant difference between the groups. The average body mass index was 21.7 kg/m2 in G1 and 25.0 kg/m2 in G2; there was a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.0004). In G2, transvaginal digital palpation evaluation showed significant impairments of pelvic floor muscle strength at the 36th week of pregnancy (p = 0.0006) and 45 days after vaginal delivery (p = 0.0001) compared to G1. Objective evaluations of pelvic floor muscle strength in G2 revealed a significant decrease 45 days after vaginal delivery compared to nulliparous patients. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy and vaginal delivery may cause weakness of the pelvic floor muscles. PMID:21915489

  10. Comparison of pelvic floor muscle strength evaluations in nulliparous and primiparous women: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Orsi Gameiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the pelvic floor muscle strength of nulliparous and primiparous women. METHODS: A total of 100 women were prospectively distributed into two groups: Group 1 (G1 (n = 50 included healthy nulliparous women, and Group 2 (G2 (n = 50 included healthy primiparous women. Pelvic floor muscle strength was subjectively evaluated using transvaginal digital palpation. Pelvic floor muscle strength was objectively assessed using a portable perineometer. All of the parameters were evaluated simultaneously in G1 and were evaluated in G2 during the 20th and 36th weeks of pregnancy and 45 days after delivery. RESULTS: In G2, 14 women were excluded because they left the study before the follow-up evaluation. The median age was 23 years in G1 and 22 years in G2; there was no significant difference between the groups. The average body mass index was 21.7 kg/m² in G1 and 25.0 kg/m² in G2; there was a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.0004. In G2, transvaginal digital palpation evaluation showed significant impairments of pelvic floor muscle strength at the 36th week of pregnancy (p = 0.0006 and 45 days after vaginal delivery (p = 0.0001 compared to G1. Objective evaluations of pelvic floor muscle strength in G2 revealed a significant decrease 45 days after vaginal delivery compared to nulliparous patients. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy and vaginal delivery may cause weakness of the pelvic floor muscles.

  11. Comparison of speech performance in labial and lingual orthodontic patients: A prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Ambesh Kumar; Rozario, Joe E.; Ganeshkar, Sanjay V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The intensity and duration of speech difficulty inherently associated with lingual therapy is a significant issue of concern in orthodontics. This study was designed to evaluate and to compare the duration of changes in speech between labial and lingual orthodontics. Materials and Methods: A prospective longitudinal clinical study was designed to assess speech of 24 patients undergoing labial or lingual orthodontic treatment. An objective spectrographic evaluation of/s/sound was done using software PRAAT version 5.0.47, a semiobjective auditive evaluation of articulation was done by four speech pathologists and a subjective assessment of speech was done by four laypersons. The tests were performed before (T1), within 24 h (T2), after 1 week (T3) and after 1 month (T4) of the start of therapy. The Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples was used to assess the significance difference between the labial and lingual appliances. A speech alteration with P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: The objective method showed a significant difference to be present between the two groups for the/s/sound in the middle position (P < 0.001) at T3. The semiobjective assessment showed worst speech performance in the lingual group to be present at T3 for vowels and blends (P < 0.01) and at T3 and T4 for alveolar and palatal consonants (P < 0.01). The subjective assessment also showed a significant difference between the two groups at T3 (P < 0.01) and T4 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Both appliance systems caused a comparable speech difficulty immediately after bonding (T2). Although the speech recovered within a week in the labial group (T3), the lingual group continued to experience discomfort even after a month (T4). PMID:25540661

  12. Tunnel switch diode based on AlSb/GaSb heterojunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, X.-C.; Cartoixà, X.; Barton, M. A.; Hill, C. J.; McGill, T. C.

    2000-01-01

    We report on tunnel switch diodes based on AlSb barriers and GaSb p–n junctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy. These were the devices with thyristor like switching in the GaSb/AlSb system. The characteristic "S" shaped current–voltage curve was found to occur for structures with AlSb barriers less than 300 Å thick. The switching voltage and current density exhibited less sensitivity to barrier and epilayer thickness than was predicted by the punch-through model. The results were correlated ...

  13. PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE: COMPARISON OF EFFICACY OF TWO METHODS OF ENDOSCOPIC HEMOSTASIS – A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skok

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Interventional endoscopy has largely reduced mortality in patients with peptic ulcer hemorrhage.Study aims. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic hemostasis with argon plasma coagulation and injection sclerotherapy in bleeding peptic ulcer and determine the mortality of patients in a prospective, controlled study.Patients and methods. The study includes 100 patients with peptic ulcer hemorrhage (male 63, female 37, av. age 57.1 years, SD ± 16, span 26–80; gastric ulcer 50 patients, duodenal ulcer 50 patients in the period between 1 Jan. 1999 and 15 May 2000 treated in our institution. The bleeding activity was determined according to Forrest classification. Fifty patients were randomized to receive argon plasma coagulation (ARCO 2000 Electro Surgery unit, group A and in fifty patients injection sclerotherapy (sclerosing with diluted adrenalin 1:10,000 plus polidocanol 1%, group B was performed. The groups did not differ with respect to age, sex, site, severity of bleeding, use of NSAID and additional diseases.Results. Clinically and endoscopically diagnosed reebleding occured in 7/50 patients (14% in group A and in 9/50 patients (18% in group B; p = 0.78. The majority of reebleding occured within 48 hours after endoscopic hemostasis, group A 4/7 (57.1%, group B 7/9 (77.7%, p = 0.74. Repeated endoscopic hemostasis did not prove successful in 8 patients (group A 3/50, 6%, group B 5/50, 10%, p = 0.71. Seven patients were treated operatively. The total mortality rate was 9% (9/100 patients, group A 4/50, 8%, group B 5/50, 10%, p > 0.05. Only one patient died due to peptic ulcer hemorrhage, other 8 patients died due to concomitant diseases.Conclusions. Argon plasma coagulation seems to be an effective and safe alternative to injection sclerotherapy and other hemostatic modalities in peptic ulcer hemorrhage.

  14. The role of ultrasonography in the imaging of body packers comparison with CT: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengel, Ferhat; Bulakci, Mesut; Selcuk, Tuba; Savas, Yildiray; Ceyhan, Muhammet; Kocak, Ayhan; Bilgili, Cigdem Ozkara

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the sonographic properties of drug packets containing narcotic drugs and the diagnostic role of ultrasonography in detecting body packing in comparison with CT. Forty-five suspects admitted to our hospital for diagnosis and management were routinely evaluated by non-contrast CT for the presence of drug packets. A single radiologist blind to CT data independently performed the abdominal ultrasonographic scans. Thirty-five of 45 suspects were carrying packets. In positive cases, two types of packets with different properties were noted. Twenty-eight cases had type 1 packets (solid form drug) and 7 had type 2 packets (liquid form cocaine). The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of ultrasonography for detecting drug packets were 91%, 70%, 91%, and 70%, respectively. Ultrasonography accurately determined the presence or absence of packs in 39 of 45 suspects. Ultrasonography was found to have a high sensitivity but a low specificity in suspected cases. A negative ultrasonography cannot rule out the diagnosis of body packing. However, it may be preferred as the initial imaging method or for follow-up of suspected cases as a radiation-free, easy-to-use, and inexpensive technique.

  15. Temperament and character traits in patients with tinnitus: a prospective case series with comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J H; Byun, H; Lee, S H; Park, C W; Jang, E Y

    2017-04-01

    To describe the personality traits of temperament and character in patients with tinnitus and to identify differences in these traits associated with the severity of tinnitus. Case series with comparisons. Tertiary referral centre. From January to December 2014, one hundred and thirty-four adult patients with chronic subjective tinnitus completed psychoacoustic measurements of tinnitus and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Personality traits were assessed by the TCI. The TCI assesses seven dimensions of personality traits and four temperaments 'novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence', as well as three characters 'self-directedness, cooperativeness, self-transcendence'. The values of the TCI parameters in the tinnitus patients were compared with reference data from a non-institutional adult population, and associations between TCI parameter values and tinnitus severity were evaluated. In terms of temperament, tinnitus patients had higher scores for 'harm avoidance', whereas scores for 'novelty seeking', 'reward dependence' and 'persistence' were significantly lower than the reference. In terms of character, lower 'cooperativeness' and 'self-transcendence' were identified in the subjects with tinnitus. The 'novelty seeking' score was inversely related to tinnitus severity (r = -0.285, P = 0.001), while other temperament and character traits did not show significant correlations. There may be a connection between tinnitus and personality traits, especially in the case of 'novelty seeking', which is relatively constant over a lifetime. The TCI questionnaire may be useful in facilitating the application of personality traits to tailored counselling for tinnitus. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Structural, elastic and magnetic properties of Mn and Sb doped chromium nitride – An ab initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikram Un Nabi Lone; Sheik Sirajuddeen M Mohamed, E-mail: msheiksiraj@bsauniv.ac.in; Shameem Banu, I.B.; Sathik Basha, S.

    2017-05-01

    Structural, magnetic and elastic properties of Mn and Sb doped CrN were investigated by the electronic band structure calculations using Full Potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave (FP-LAPW) method. The host compound CrN was doped with Mn and Sb separately, in the doping concentration of 12.5% to replace Cr atoms. The introduction of Mn and Sb atoms replacing the Cr atoms does not change the structural stability of the compound. The changes in magnetic and elastic properties were investigated and compared in GGA and GGA+U methods. The doped CrN undergoes a relative increase in the magnetic order with the substitution of Mn and Sb atoms. In GGA method, the magnetic moments are found to be greater in Mn doped CrN than that found in Sb doped Cr{sub 0.875}NSb{sub 0.125}. When doped with Sb, the elastic moduli such as Young’s modulus, bulk modulus and rigidity modulus show a relative increase in comparison with that in Mn doped CrN. Using Hubbard model in GGA+U method, both the magnetic and elastic properties increase in Mn and Sb doped compounds. - Highlights: • Mn and Sb doped Chromium Nitride. • Structural properties. • Magnetic properties. • Elastic properties.

  17. Relation Between Subacromial Bursitis on Ultrasonography and Efficacy of Subacromial Corticosteroid Injection in Rotator Cuff Disease: A Prospective Comparison Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doo-Hyung; Hong, Ji Yeon; Lee, Michael Young; Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Yoon, Seung-Hyun

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the correlations between subacromial bursitis (bursal thickening and effusion) on ultrasonography and its response to subacromial corticosteroid injection in patients with rotator cuff disease. Prospective, longitudinal comparison study. University-affiliated tertiary care hospital. Patients with rotator cuff disease (N=69) were classified into 3 groups based on ultrasonographic findings; (1) normative bursa group (group 1, n=23): bursa and effusion thickness 2mm and effusion thickness 2mm. A single subacromial injection with 20mg of triamcinolone acetonide. Visual analog scale (VAS) of shoulder pain, Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ), angles of active shoulder range of motion (flexion, abduction, external rotation, and internal rotation), and bursa and effusion thickness at pre- and posttreatment at week 8. There were no significant differences between the 3 groups in demographic characteristics pretreatment. Groups 2 and 3 showed a significant difference compared with group 1 in changes on the VAS and abduction; group 3 showed a significant difference compared with group 1 in changes of the SDQ, internal rotation, and external rotation; and all groups showed significant differences when compared with each other (groups 1 and 3, 2 and 3, and 1 and 2) in changes of thickness. A patient with ultrasonographic observation of subacromial bursitis, instead of normative bursa, can expect better outcome with subacromial corticosteroid injection. Therefore, we recommend a careful selection of patients using ultrasonography prior to injection. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of Surface Treatments on InAs/GaSb Superlattice LWIR Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, M. N.; Plis, E.; Khoshakhlagh, A.; Myers, S.; Gautam, N.; Smolev, S.; Sharma, Y. D.; Dawson, R.; Krishna, S.; Lee, S. J.; Noh, S. K.

    2010-10-01

    We report on the comparison of mesa sidewall profiles of InAs/GaSb strained-layer superlattice (SLS) detector structures ( λ 50% cutoff ≈ 14 μm at V bias = 0 V and T = 30 K) obtained after (a) a conventional BCl3-based inductively coupled plasma etch, (b) a chemical etch (H2O2:HCl:H2O, 1:1:4), and (c) a combination of both etches. We found that the smoothest sidewall profile with reasonable undercut (~5 μm) was obtained after chemical etch only. The chemical etch was optimized primarily using an n-type GaSb substrate. During this process, numerous chemical etchants were examined. GaSb n-type substrates were chosen for this study in preference over InAs substrates due to their high chemical reactivity and the complicated composition of the native oxide. In addition, SLS detectors are usually grown on GaSb substrates and, after hybridization of the focal-plane array to the readout integrated circuit, the GaSb substrate is etched away using a combination of wet and dry etching techniques. We found that H2O2:HCl:H2O (1:1:4) etching solution provided the smoothest etched surface of GaSb, with a root-mean-square roughness of 1.59 nm.

  19. Comparison of Injuries in American Collegiate Football and Club Rugby: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willigenburg, Nienke W; Borchers, James R; Quincy, Richard; Kaeding, Christopher C; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-03-01

    American football and rugby players are at substantial risk of injury because of the full-contact nature of these sports. Methodological differences between previous epidemiological studies hamper an accurate comparison of injury rates between American football and rugby. To directly compare injury rates in American collegiate football and rugby, specified by location, type, mechanism, and severity of injury, as reported by licensed medical professionals. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Licensed medical professionals (athletic trainer or physician) associated with the football and rugby teams of a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university reported attendance and injury details over 3 autumn seasons. Injuries were categorized by the location, type, mechanism, and severity of injury, and the injury rate was calculated per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Injury rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated to compare overall, game, and practice injury rates within and between sports. The overall injury rate was 4.9/1000 AEs in football versus 15.2/1000 AEs in rugby: IRR = 3.1 (95% CI, 2.3-4.2). Game injury rates were higher than practice injury rates: IRR = 6.5 (95% CI, 4.5-9.3) in football and IRR = 5.1 (95% CI, 3.0-8.6) in rugby. Injury rates for the shoulder, wrist/hand, and lower leg and for sprains, fractures, and contusions in rugby were >4 times as high as those in football (all P ≤ 0.006). Concussion rates were 1.0/1000 AEs in football versus 2.5/1000 AEs in rugby. Most injuries occurred via direct player contact, especially during games. The rate of season-ending injuries (>3 months of time loss) was 0.8/1000 AEs in football versus 1.0/1000 AEs in rugby: IRR = 1.3 (95% CI, 0.4-3.4). Overall injury rates were substantially higher in collegiate rugby compared with football. Similarities between sports were observed in the most common injury types (sprains and concussions), locations (lower extremity and head), and mechanisms (direct player contact

  20. A double-blind prospective comparison of rofecoxib vs ketorolac in reducing postoperative pain after arthroscopic knee surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung T; Sherman, Orrin; Cuff, Germaine; Leibovits, Allen; Wajda, Michael; Bekker, Alex Y

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of premedication with rofecoxib vs intravenous (IV) ketorolac in reducing postoperative pain after arthroscopic knee surgery. This is a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. This study was set at a university hospital. The subjects include 54 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical statuses I, II, and III undergoing knee arthroscopy. Group 1 received 50 mg oral rofecoxib preoperatively with IV placebo injection, which was administered 20 minutes before the end of the operation. Group 2 received a preoperative placebo and 30 mg IV ketorolac 20 minutes before the end of surgery. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients reporting pain in the postoperative anesthesia care unit, 6 hours and 24 hours after discharge. Additional end points included the use of 5:325 mg oxycodone-acetaminophen (O/A) tablets, pain scores, patient's satisfaction survey, and comparison of side effects. Data were analyzed using independent samples t tests for continuous variables or chi2 tests for categorical variables. P < .05 was considered significant. The 2 groups were comparable with regard to patient characteristics, intraoperative medication use, and duration of surgery. There was no difference either in pain scores or O/A use in the postoperative anesthesia care unit. At 24 hours after discharge, significantly more patients in the ketorolac group (91%) reported pain than the rofecoxib group (63%) (P = .02). Sixty-one percent of patients in the ketorolac group used O/A during the first 24 hours vs 38% in the rofecoxib group. The difference, however, was not statistically significant. Preoperative rofecoxib is as effective as ketorolac for the treatment of pain after knee arthroscopy. Higher frequency of pain reporting at 24 hours by patients in ketorolac group is explained by the longer analgesic effect of rofecoxib. Future studies should directly compare gastrointestinal injury of

  1. Evaluation of Deep Vein Thrombosis with Multidetector Row CT after Orthopedic Arthroplasty: a Prospective Study for Comparison with Doppler Sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Sung Su; Kim, Youn Jeong; Chun, Yong Sun; Kim, Won Hong [Inha University, College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Ho; Park, Chul Hi [Gachon University, Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    This prospective study evaluated the ability of indirect 16-row multidetector CT venography, in comparison with Doppler sonography, to detect deep vein thrombosis after total hip or knee replacement. Sixty-two patients had undergone orthopedic replacement surgery on a total of 30 hip joints and 54 knee joints. The CT venography (scan delay time: 180 seconds; slice thickness/increment: 2/1.5 mm) and Doppler sonography were performed 8 to 40 days after surgery. We measured the z-axis length of the beam hardening artifact that degraded the image quality so that the presence of deep vein thrombosis couldn't be evaluated on the axial CT images. The incidence and location of deep vein thrombosis was analyzed. The diagnostic performance of the CT venograms was evaluated and compared with that of Doppler sonography as a standard of reference. The z-axis length (mean{+-}standard deviation) of the beam hardening artifact was 4.5{+-}0.8 cm in the arthroplastic knees and 3.9{+-}2.9 cm in the arthroplastic hips. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was found in the popliteal or calf veins on Doppler sonography in 30 (48%) of the 62 patients. The CT venography has a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 90%, 97%, 96%, 91% and 94%, respectively. The ability of CT venography to detect DVT was comparable to that of Doppler sonography despite of beam hardening artifact. Therefore, CT venography is feasible to use as an alternative modality for evaluating postarthroplasty patients.

  2. Comparison of digital and traditional thoracic drainage systems for postoperative chest tube management after pulmonary resection: A prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamochi, Kazuya; Nojiri, Shuko; Oh, Shiaki; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Imashimizu, Kota; Fukui, Mariko; Suzuki, Kenji

    2017-11-13

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a digital thoracic drainage system (group D) is clinically useful compared with a traditional thoracic drainage system (group T) in chest tube management following anatomic lung resection. Patients scheduled to undergo segmentectomy or lobectomy were prospectively randomized before surgery to group D or T. A stratification randomization was performed according to the following air leak risk factors: age, sex, smoking status, and presence of emphysema and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The primary end point was the duration of chest tube placement. No statistically significant differences were found between groups D (n = 135) and T (n = 164) with regard to the duration of chest tube placement (median, 2.0 vs 3.0 days; P = .149), duration of hospitalization (median, 6.0 vs 7.0 days; P = .548), or frequency of postoperative adverse events (25.1% vs 20.7%; P = .361). In subgroup analyses of the 64 patients with postoperative air leak (20 in group D and 44 in group T), the duration of chest tube placement (median, 4.5 vs 4.0 days; P = .225) and duration of postoperative air leak (median, 3.0 vs 3.0 days; P = .226) were not significantly different between subgroups. The use of a digital thoracic drainage system did not shorten the duration of chest tube placement in comparison to a traditional thoracic drainage system after anatomic lung resection. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High-Current GaSb/InAs(Sb) Nanowire Tunnel Field-Effect Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Anil; Borg, Mattias; Ganjipour, Bahram; Ek, Martin; Dick Thelander, Kimberly; Lind, Erik; Thelander, Claes; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2013-01-01

    We present electrical characterization of GaSb/InAs(Sb) nanowire tunnel field-effect transistors. The broken band alignment of the GaSb/InAs(Sb) heterostructure is exploited to allow for interband tunneling without a barrier, leading to high ON-current levels. We report a maximum drive current of 310 μA/μm at Vds = 0.5 V. Devices with scaled gate oxides display transconductances up to gm = 250 mS/mm at Vds = 300 mV, which are normalized to the nanowire circumference at the axial heterojunction...

  4. IR cut filters for optoelectronic devices, based on CdSb, ZnSb single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashcheulov A. A.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Interference-adsorptive filters on the base of the CdSb and ZnSb semiconductor single crystals are proposed as a new type of cooling cut optical filters used in modern optoelectronics. Computer simulation of the structure of interference multilayer coatings has shown the availability of design and application of cut filters on CdSb with optimized parameters. Experimental results demonstrate high optical characteristics and mechanical strength of two-channel cut CdSb filters used in various devices.

  5. Comparison of crystal growth and thermoelectric properties of n-type Bi-Se-Te and p-type Bi-Sb-Te nanocrystalline thin films: Effects of homogeneous irradiation with an electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashiri, Masayuki, E-mail: takashiri@tokai-u.jp; Imai, Kazuo; Uyama, Masato; Nishi, Yoshitake [Department of Materials Science, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Hagino, Harutoshi; Miyazaki, Koji [Department of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1 Sensui, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Tanaka, Saburo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Nihon University, Nakagawara, Tokusada, Tamuramachi, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8642 (Japan)

    2014-06-07

    The effects of homogenous electron beam (EB) irradiation on the crystal growth and thermoelectric properties of n-type Bi-Se-Te and p-type Bi-Sb-Te thin films were investigated. Both types of thin films were prepared by flash evaporation, after which homogeneous EB irradiation was performed at an acceleration voltage of 0.17 MeV. For the n-type thin films, nanodots with a diameter of less than 10 nm were observed on the surface of rice-like nanostructures, and crystallization and crystal orientation were improved by EB irradiation. The resulting enhancement of mobility led to increased electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power factor for the n-type thin films. In contrast, the crystallization and crystal orientation of the p-type thin films were not influenced by EB irradiation. The carrier concentration increased and mobility decreased with increased EB irradiation dose, possibly because of the generation of defects. As a result, the thermoelectric power factor of p-type thin films was not improved by EB irradiation. The different crystallization behavior of the n-type and p-type thin films is attributed to atomic rearrangement during EB irradiation. Selenium in the n-type thin films is more likely to undergo atomic rearrangement than the other atoms present, so only the crystallinity of the n-type Bi-Se-Te thin films was enhanced.

  6. InSb semiconductors and (In,Mn)Sb diluted magnetic semiconductors. Growth and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Lien

    2011-04-13

    This dissertation describes investigations of the growth by molecular beam epitaxy and the characterization of the semiconductor InSb as well as the diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) In{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Sb. The InSb films were grown on GaAs (001) substrate and Si (001) offcut by 4 toward (110) substrate up to a thickness of about 2 {mu}m, in spite of a large lattice mismatch between the epi-layer and substrate (14.6% between InSb and GaAs, and 19.3% between InSb and Si). After optimizing the growth conditions, the best InSb films grown directly on GaAs without any special technique results in a high crystal quality, low noise, and an electron mobility of 41100 cm{sup 2}/V s Vs with associated electron concentration of 2.9.10{sup 6} cm{sup -3} at 300 K. Such structures could be used, for example, for infrared detector structures. The growth of InSb on Si, however, is a challenge. In order to successfully grow InSb on Si, tilted substrates and the insertion of buffer layers were used, which helps to reduce the lattice mismatch as well as the formation of defects, and hence to improve the crystal quality. An electron mobility of 24000 cm{sup 2}/V s measured at 300 K, with an associated carrier concentration of 2.6.10{sup 1}6 cm{sup -3} is found for the best sample that was grown at 340 C with a 0.06 {mu}m-thick GaSb/AlSb superlattice buffer layer. The smaller value of electron mobility (compared to the best GaAsbased sample) is related to a higher density of microtwins and stacking faults as well as threading dislocations in the near-interface region as shown by transmission electron microscopy. Deep level noise spectra indicate the existence of deep levels in both GaAs and Si-based samples. The samples grown on Si exhibit the lowest Hooge factor at 300 K, lower than the samples grown on GaAs. Taking the optimized growth conditions of InSb/GaAs, the diluted magnetic semiconductor In{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Sb/GaAs (001) is prepared by adding a few percent of Mn into the

  7. Sn-Sb-Se based binary and ternary alloys for phase change memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyung-Min

    2008-10-28

    In this work, the effect of replacing Ge by Sn and Te by Se was studied for a systematic understanding and prediction of new potential candidates for phase change random access memories applications. The temperature dependence of the electrical/structural properties and crystallization kinetics of the Sn-Se based binary and Sn-Sb-Se based ternary alloys were determined and compared with those of the GeTe and Ge-Sb-Te system. The temperature dependence of electrical and structural properties were investigated by van der Pauw measurements, X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectometry. By varying the heating rate, the Kissinger analysis has been used to determine the combined activation barrier for crystallization. To screen the kinetics of crystallization, a static laser tester was employed. In case of binary alloys of the type Sn{sub x}Se{sub 1-x}, the most interesting candidate is SnSe{sub 2} since it crystallizes into a single crystalline phase and has high electrical contrast and reasonably high activation energy for crystallization. In addition, the SnSe{sub 2}-Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} pseudobinary alloy system also might be sufficient for data retention due to their higher transition temperature and activation energy for crystallization in comparison to GeTe-Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} system. Furthermore, SnSe{sub 2}-Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} pseudobinary alloys have a higher crystalline resistivity. The desired rapid crystallization speed can be obtained for Sn{sub 1}Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 5} and Sn{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 7} alloys. (orig.)

  8. Polarity-dependent resistance switching in GeSbTe phase-change thin films : The importance of excess Sb in filament formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Kooi, Bart J.; Oosthoek, Jasper L. M.; van den Dool, Pim; Palasantzas, George; Pauza, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We show that polarity-dependent resistance switching in GeSbTe thin films depends strongly on Sb composition by comparing current-voltage characteristics in Sb-excess Ge(2)Sb(2+x)Te(5) and stoichiometric Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) samples. This type of switching in Ge(2)Sb(2+x)Te(5) films is reversible with

  9. Ion-induced phase formation in the Sb/Cu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, K.A. [Amman, Jordan Univ. (Jordan). Dept. of Physics

    1998-11-01

    A thin bilayer film of Sb/Cu was irradiated with an Ar{sup +} ion beam of 400 keV at room temperature, and studied using resistance measurement and RBS techniques. The RBS results indicated the formation of an equilibrium stable phase of fixed stoichiometry, Cu{sub 2}Sb, at the interface. The growth rate of phase thickness was initially rapid, up to a critical fluence of about 3.9 x 10 {sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} at which the Sb layer was consumed in the reaction, leading to a complete mixing. Comparison between the measured values of mixing rate determined from experimental measurements and those predicted from theoretical models suggests that both radiation-enhanced diffusion and thermal-spike mechanisms contribute to the mixing process. Electrical-resistance measurements suggested a diffusional mixing mechanism, in agreement with the EBS results.

  10. (3)He-particle-induced reactions on (nat)Sb for production of (124)I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, K F; Qaim, S M; Saleh, Z A; Coenen, H H

    2006-04-01

    Excitation functions of the reactions (nat)Sb((3)He,xn)(124,123,121)I were measured from their respective thresholds up to 35 MeV, with particular emphasis on data for the production of the medically important radionuclide (124)I. The conventional stacked-foil technique was used. From the experimental data the theoretical yields of the three investigated radionuclides were calculated. The yield of (124)I over the energy range E9(30He) = 35 --> 13 MeV amounts to 0.95 MBq/microA h. The radionuclidic impurities are discussed. A comparison of (3)He- and alpha-particle-induced reactions on antimony for production of (124)I is given. The alpha-particle-induced reaction on enriched (121)Sb and the (3)He-particle-induced reaction on enriched (123)Sb would lead to comparable (124)I yields, but the level of impurities in the latter case would be somewhat higher.

  11. Electrostatic performance of InSb, GaSb, Si and Ge p-channel nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Blanque, C.; Marin, E. G.; Toral, A.; Gonzalez-Medina, J. M.; Ruiz, F. G.; Godoy, A.; Gámiz, F.

    2017-12-01

    The electrostatic performance of p-type nanowires (NWs) made of InSb and GaSb, with special focus on their gate capacitance behaviour, is analysed and compared to that achieved by traditional semiconductors usually employed for p-MOS such as Si and Ge. To do so, a self-consistent \

  12. Comparison of six disease severity scores for allergic rhinitis against pollen counts a prospective analysis at population and individual level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florack, Jakob; Brighetti, Maria Antonia; Perna, Serena; Pizzulli, Antonio; Pizzulli, Antje; Tripodi, Salvatore; Costa, Corrado; Travaglini, Alessandro; Pelosi, Simone; Bianchi, Annamaria; Tsilochristou, Olympia; Gabrielli, Francesca; Matricardi, Paolo Maria

    2016-06-01

    Many different symptom (medication) scores are nowadays used as measures of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis severity in individual patients and in clinical trials. Their differences contribute to the heterogeneity of the primary end-point in meta-analyses, so that calls for symptom (medication) score harmonization have been launched. To prospectively compare six different severity scores for allergic rhinitis (AR) against pollen counts at both population and individual levels. Two groups of children with seasonal AR and grass pollen sensitization were recruited in Ascoli, Italy (n = 76) and Berlin, Germany (n = 29). Symptoms and drug intake were monitored daily for 40 and 30 days of the grass pollen season in 2011 (Ascoli) and 2013 (Berlin), respectively, through an Internet-based platform (AllergyMonitor(™) , TPS Production srl, Rome, Italy). From the gathered data, the informatics platform automatically generated one symptom score (RTSS) and five symptom-medication scores (RC-ACS(©) , ACS, RTSS[LOCF], RTSS[WC] and AdSS). Values were then statistically normalized for reciprocal comparison and matched against the daily variations of local grass pollen counts (Spearman's rank correlation). The grass pollen counts were higher in Ascoli than in Berlin (peak values 194 vs. 59 grains/m(3) ). At population level, the trajectories of the normalized average values of the six scores differed only slightly in both studies and correlated well with the pollen counts (ranges r(2) : 0.38-0.50 in Ascoli, 0.41-0.56 in Berlin). By contrast, in individual patients, trajectories of different scores were often quite heterogeneous. The RTSS[WC] had a very low discriminatory power and generated in many patients long, flat horizontal segments. Disease severity scores for seasonal AR, as evaluated via an Internet-based platform, tend to provide similar results at population level but can often produce heterogeneous slopes in individual patients. The choice of the disease severity

  13. Low-dose, prospective triggered high-pitch spiral coronary computed tomography angiography: comparison with retrospective spiral technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srichai, M.B.; Lim, R.P.; Donnino, R.; Mannelli, L.; Hiralal, R.; Avery, R.; Ho, C.; Babb, J.S.; Jacobs, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Cardiac computed tomographic angiography algorithms emphasize radiation reduction while maintaining diagnostic image quality (IQ). The aim of this study was to evaluate IQ and interreader variability using prospective electrocardiographically triggered high-pitch spiral

  14. Prospective cohort comparison of bioactive glass implants and conchal cartilage in reconstruction of the posterior canal wall during tympanomastoidectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramovich, S.; Hannan, S. A.; Huins, C. T.; Georgalas, C.; McGuinness, J.; Vats, A.; Thompson, I.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of bioactive glass implants and conchal cartilage in reconstructing the posterior canal wall during tympanomastoidectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort clinical study. SETTING: Teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Patients with clinically diagnosed chronic

  15. DWPF simulant CPC studies for SB8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.; Zamecnik, J. R.

    2013-06-25

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) accepted a technical task request (TTR) from Waste Solidification Engineering to perform simulant tests to support the qualification of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) and to develop the flowsheet for SB8 in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These efforts pertained to the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Separate studies were conducted for frit development and glass properties (including REDOX). The SRNL CPC effort had two primary phases divided by the decision to drop Tank 12 from the SB8 constituents. This report focuses on the second phase with SB8 compositions that do not contain the Tank 12 piece. A separate report will document the initial phase of SB8 testing that included Tank 12. The second phase of SB8 studies consisted of two sets of CPC studies. The first study involved CPC testing of an SB8 simulant for Tank 51 to support the CPC demonstration of the washed Tank 51 qualification sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells facility. SB8-Tank 51 was a high iron-low aluminum waste with fairly high mercury and moderate noble metal concentrations. Tank 51 was ultimately washed to about 1.5 M sodium which is the highest wash endpoint since SB3-Tank 51. This study included three simulations of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle with the sludge-only flowsheet at nominal DWPF processing conditions and three different acid stoichiometries. These runs produced a set of recommendations that were used to guide the successful SRNL qualification SRAT/SME demonstration with actual Tank 51 washed waste. The second study involved five SRAT/SME runs with SB8-Tank 40 simulant. Four of the runs were designed to define the acid requirements for sludge-only processing in DWPF with respect to nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. The fifth run was an intermediate acid stoichiometry demonstration of the coupled flowsheet for SB8. These runs produced a set of processing

  16. Perceptions of efl instructors and turkish efl students as prospective teachers about learner autonomy and the comparison of their perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Sofracı, Gülsün

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of EFL instructors and Turkish EFL students as prospective teachers about learner autonomy. The study also aimed to find answers to the question whether the instructors’ perceptions differed from the ones of prospective English teachers’ by comparing and contrasting the results of the questionnaires. In order to reach those aims, first of all a questionnaire study was designed and administered to a total of 123 participating instru...

  17. Low dose prospective ECG-gated delayed enhanced dual-source computed tomography in reperfused acute myocardial infarction comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Rui, E-mail: rui_wang1979@yahoo.cn [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Zhang Zhaoqi, E-mail: zhaoqi5000@vip.sohu.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Xu Lei, E-mail: leixu2001@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Ma Qin, E-mail: tel1367@gmail.com [Department of Emergency, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); He Yi, E-mail: heyi139@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Lu Dongxu, E-mail: larry.hi@163.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Yu Wei, E-mail: yuwei02@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Fan Zhanming, E-mail: fanzm120@tom.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated delayed contrast-enhanced dual-source computed tomography (DCE-DSCT) can accurately delineate the extension of myocardial infarction (MI) compared with delayed enhanced cardiac MR (DE-MR). Material and methods: Eleven patients were examined using dual-source CT and cardiac MR in 2 weeks after a first reperfused MI. DCE-DSCT scan protocol was performed with prospective ECG-gating sequential scan model 7 min after contrast administration. In a 17-model, infarcted myocardium detected by DE-MR was categorized as transmural and subendocardial extension. Segment of infarcted location and graded transmurality were compared between DCE-MDCT and DE-MR. Results: In all eleven patients, diagnostic quality was obtained for depicting delayed enhanced myocardium. Agreement between DCE-DSCT and MR was good on myocardial segment based comparison (kappa = 0.85, p < 0.001), and on transmural and subendocardial infarction type comparison (kappa = 0.82, p < 0.001, kappa = 0.52, p < 0.001, respectively). CT value was higher on infarcted region than that of normal region (100.02 {+-} 9.57 HU vs. 72.63 {+-} 7.32 HU, p < 0.001). Radiation dose of prospectively ECG-gating protocol were 0.99 {+-} 0.08 mSv (0.82-1.19 mSv). Conclusions: Prospective ECG-gated DCE-DSCT can accurately assess the extension and the patterns of myocardial infarction with low radiation dose.

  18. Sonochemical preparation of SbSI gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, M; Szperlich, P; Bober, L; Szala, J; Moskal, G; Stróz, D

    2008-07-01

    A novel sonochemical method for direct preparation of nanocrystalline antimony sulfoiodide (SbSI) has been established. The SbSI gel was synthesized using elemental Sb, S and I in the presence of ethanol under ultrasonic irradiation (35 kHz, 2 W/cm2) at 50 degrees C for 2 h. The products were characterized by using techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and optical diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). The SEM and HRTEM investigations exhibit that the as-prepared samples are made up of large quantity nanowires with diameters of about 10-50 nm and lengths reaching up to several micrometers and single-crystalline in nature.

  19. Reduction in thermal conductivity of BiSbTe lump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Kaleem [King Saud University, Sustainable Energy Technologies Center, College of Engineering, PO Box 800, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Wan, C. [Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing (China); Al-Eshaikh, M.A.; Kadachi, A.N. [King Saud University, Research Center, College of Engineering, PO Box 800, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-03-15

    In this work, systematic investigations on the thermal conductivities of BiSbTe lump, microstructured pristine BiSbTe bulk and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)/BiSbTe bulk nanocomposites were performed. BiSbTe lumps were crushed to form a coarse powder (200 μm) and effect of particle size reduction on the effective thermal conductivity of BiSbTe (200 μm) bulk were analyzed. For further reduction in the conductivity, a two pronged strategy has been employed. First, additional refinement of BiSbTe (200 μm) were performed through ball milling in an inert environment. Second, SWCNTs in 0.75, and 1.0 vol% were distributed uniformly in the fine BiSbTe ball milled powder. The results showed that the effective thermal conductivities decrease with the reduction in the particle size from lump to BiSbTe (200 μm) bulk as well as with the addition of SWCNTs accompanied by further refinement of BiSbTe particles. The significant reduction in thermal conductivities of the lump was achieved for pure BiSbTe (200 μm) bulk and 0.75 vol% of SWCNTs/BiSbTe composite. This can be ascribed to the enhanced phonon scattering by the grain boundaries between the nanostructured BiSbTe particles as well as the interfaces between BiSbTe and the low dimensional carbon nanotubes. (orig.)

  20. Peculiarities of thermoelectric half-Heusler phase formation in Gd-Ni-Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb ternary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, V.V., E-mail: romakav@lp.edu.ua [Department of Applied Material Science and Materials Engineering, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Romaka, L.; Horyn, A. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Rogl, P. [Institute of Materials Chemistry and Research, University of Vienna, Währingerstrasse 42, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Stadnyk, Yu; Melnychenko, N. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Orlovskyy, M.; Krayovskyy, V. [Department of Applied Material Science and Materials Engineering, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2016-07-15

    The phase equilibria in the Gd–Ni–Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb ternary systems were studied at 873 K by X-ray and metallographic analyses in the whole concentration range. The interaction of the elements in the Gd–Ni–Sb system results the formation of five ternary compounds at investigated temperature: Gd{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Sb (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), Gd{sub 5}NiSb{sub 2} (Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type), GdNiSb (MgAgAs-type), Gd{sub 3}Ni{sub 6}Sb{sub 5} (Y{sub 3}Ni{sub 6}Sb{sub 5}-type), and GdNi{sub 0.72}Sb{sub 2} (HfCuSi{sub 2}-type). At investigated temperature the Lu-Ni-Sb system is characterized by formation of the LuNiSb (MgAgAs-type), Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Sb (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), and Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 0.56}Sb{sub 2.44} (Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type) compounds. The disordering in the crystal structure of half-Heusler GdNiSb and LuNiSb was revealed by EPMA and studied by means of Rietveld refinement and DFT modeling. The performed electronic structure calculations are in good agreement with electrical transport property studies. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure model and electron localization function of Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Sb. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Gd-Ni-Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb phase diagrams were constructed at 873 K. • GdNiSb and LuNiSb are characterized by disordered crystal structure. • Crystal structure optimization with DFT calculations confirmed crystal structure disorder in GdNiSb and LuNiSb.

  1. Adsorption of Sb(III) and Sb(V) on Freshly Prepared Ferric Hydroxide (FeOxHy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zan; Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-02-01

    This study prepared fresh ferric hydroxide (in-situ FeOxHy) by the enhanced hydrolysis of Fe3+ ions, and investigates its adsorptive behaviors toward Sb(III) and Sb(V) through laboratory and pilot-scale studies. A contact time of 120-min was enough to achieve adsorption equilibrium for Sb(III) and Sb(V) on the in-situ FeOxHy, and the Elovich model was best to describe the adsorption kinetics of Sb(III) and Sb(V). The Freundlich model was better than Langmuir model to describe the adsorption of Sb(III) and Sb(V) on the in-situ FeOxHy, and the maximum adsorption capacity of Sb(III) and Sb(V) was determined to be 12.77 and 10.21 mmol/g the in-situ FeOxHy as Fe, respectively. Adsorption of Sb(V) decreased whereas that of Sb(III) increased with elevated pH over pH 3-10, owing to the different electrical properties of Sb(III) and Sb(V). Adsorption of Sb(III) and Sb(V) was slightly affected by ionic strength, and thus indicated the formation of inner sphere complexes between Sb and the adsorbent. Sulfate and carbonate showed little effect on the adsorption of Sb(III) and Sb(V). Phosphate significantly inhibited the adsorption of Sb(V), whereas slightly effected that of Sb(III) due to its similar chemical structure to Sb(V). Pilot-scale continuous experiment indicated the feasibility of using in-situ FeOxHy to remove Sb(V), and equilibrium adsorption capacity at the equilibrium Sb(V) concentration of 10 μg/L was determined to be 0.11, 0.07, 0.07, 0.11, and 0.12 mg/g the in-situ FeOxHy as Fe at equilibrium pH of 7.5-7.7, 6.9-7.0, 6.3-6.6, 5.9-6.4, and 5.2-5.9, respectively.

  2. GaAs/GaSb nanowire heterostructures grown by MOVPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppsson, Mattias; Dick, Kimberly A.; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    to most other III–V nanowire systems, the GaSb nanowire growth is Group V-limited under most conditions. We found that depending on the TMSb molar fraction, the seed particle is either supersaturated AuGa or AuGa2 during GaSb growth. The high Ga content in the particle gives a characteristic diameter...... increase between the GaAs and GaSb segment. From TEM and XEDS measurements we conclude that the GaSb nanowire growth occurs along either the AuGa–GaSb or AuGa2–GaSb pseudo-binaries of the Au–Ga–Sb ternary phase diagram. Finally, the GaSb nanowires exhibit untapered radial growth on the {1 1¯ 0} side facets....

  3. Measuring childhood maltreatment to predict early-adult psychopathology: Comparison of prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Joanne B; Arseneault, Louise; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Danese, Andrea; Baldwin, Jessie R; Fisher, Helen L

    2018-01-01

    Both prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports may be used to measure childhood maltreatment, though both methods entail potential limitations such as underestimation and memory biases. The validity and utility of standard measures of childhood maltreatment requires clarification in order to inform the design of future studies investigating the mental health consequences of maltreatment. The present study assessed agreement between prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports of childhood maltreatment, as well as the comparative utility of both reports for predicting a range of psychiatric problems at age 18. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative birth cohort of 2232 children followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). Childhood maltreatment was assessed in two ways: (i) prospective informant-reports from caregivers, researchers, and clinicians when children were aged 5, 7, 10 and 12; and (ii) retrospective self-reports of maltreatment experiences occurring up to age 12, obtained at age 18 using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants were privately interviewed at age 18 concerning several psychiatric problems including depression, anxiety, self-injury, alcohol/cannabis dependence, and conduct disorder. There was only slight to fair agreement between prospective and retrospective reports of childhood maltreatment (all Kappa's ≤ 0.31). Both prospective and retrospective reports of maltreatment were associated with age-18 psychiatric problems, though the strongest associations were found when maltreatment was retrospectively self-reported. These findings indicate that prospective and retrospective reports of childhood maltreatment capture largely non-overlapping groups of individuals. Young adults who recall being maltreated have a particularly elevated risk for psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  4. Electrochemistry and in-situ x-ray diffraction of InSb in lithium batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C. S.; Vaughey, J. T.; Thackeray, M. M.; Sarakonsri, T.; Hackney, S. A.; Fransson, L.; Edstrom, K.; Thomas, J. O.; Chemical Engineering

    2000-08-01

    The electrochemical reactions of lithium with the intermetallic compound, InSb, were studied in lithium coin cells using laminate electrodes fabricated from either single-crystal InSb wafers or ball-milled samples. In-situ X-ray diffraction data show that the InSb zinc-blende framework is unstable to extensive reaction with lithium; In is extruded from a fixed Sb lattice during 'discharge' and is partially incorporated back into the lattice during 'charge'. Despite the loss of some In from the structure, the indium antimonide electrode provides capacities in excess of 300 mAh/g with excellent reversibility. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemical processes in greater detail. Lithiated indium products are formed below {approx}600 mV versus Li. The electrode can be discharged at high rates, delivering 150 mAh/g at 3.6 mA/cm{sub 2} between 1.2 and 0.2 V versus Li. These data hold exciting prospects for the development of intermetallic insertion electrodes for practical room-temperature Li-ion cells.

  5. Co-sputtered amorphous Ge-Sb-Se thin films: optical properties and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halenkovič, Tomáš; Němec, Petr; Gutwirth, Jan; Baudet, Emeline; Specht, Marion; Gueguen, Yann; Sangleboeuf, J.-C.; Nazabal, Virginie

    2017-05-01

    The unique properties of amorphous chalcogenides such as wide transparency in the infrared region, low phonon energy, photosensitivity and high linear and nonlinear refractive index, make them prospective materials for photonics devices. The important question is whether the chalcogenides are stable enough or how the photosensitivity could be exacerbated for demanded applications. Of this view, the Ge-Sb-Se system is undoubtedly an interesting glassy system given the antinomic behavior of germanium and antimony with respect to photosensitivity. The amorphous Ge-Sb-Se thin films were fabricated by a rf-magnetron co-sputtering technique employing the following cathodes: GeSe2, Sb2Se3 and Ge28Sb12Se60. Radio-frequency sputtering is widely used for film fabrication due to its relative simplicity, easy control, and often stoichiometric material transfer from target to substrate. The advantage of this technique is the ability to explore a wide range of chalcogenide film composition by means of adjusting the contribution of each target. This makes the technique considerably effective for the exploration of properties mentioned above. In the present work, the influence of the composition determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy on the optical properties was studied. Optical bandgap energy Egopt was determined using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The morphology and topography of the selenide sputtered films was studied by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The films structure was determined using Raman scattering spectroscopy.

  6. Low dose prospective ECG-gated delayed enhanced dual-source computed tomography in reperfused acute myocardial infarction comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Zhaoqi; Xu, Lei; Ma, Qin; He, Yi; Lu, Dongxu; Yu, Wei; Fan, Zhanming

    2011-11-01

    To determine whether prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated delayed contrast-enhanced dual-source computed tomography (DCE-DSCT) can accurately delineate the extension of myocardial infarction (MI) compared with delayed enhanced cardiac MR (DE-MR). Eleven patients were examined using dual-source CT and cardiac MR in 2 weeks after a first reperfused MI. DCE-DSCT scan protocol was performed with prospective ECG-gating sequential scan model 7 min after contrast administration. In a 17-model, infarcted myocardium detected by DE-MR was categorized as transmural and subendocardial extension. Segment of infarcted location and graded transmurality were compared between DCE-MDCT and DE-MR. In all eleven patients, diagnostic quality was obtained for depicting delayed enhanced myocardium. Agreement between DCE-DSCT and MR was good on myocardial segment based comparison (kappa=0.85, ptransmural and subendocardial infarction type comparison (kappa=0.82, pextension and the patterns of myocardial infarction with low radiation dose. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the Level of Using Metacognitive Strategies during Study between High Achieving and Low Achieving Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Ahmet; Demir, Ozden

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to compare the level of using metacognitive strategies during study between high achieving and low achieving prospective classroom teachers. This study was designed as a mixed method study. Metacognitive Learning Strategies Scale developed by Namlu (2004) was used to measure the use of metacognitive strategies…

  8. Sulfuric Acid Corrosion of Low Sb - Pb Battery Alloys | Ntukogu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corrosion properties of low Sb - Pb alloys developed for maintenance free motive power industrial batteries was studied by a bare grid constant current method and compared to those of the conventional Pb- 6% Sb alloy. Low Sb-Pb alloys with Se and As grain refiners were found to have higher corrosion rates than the ...

  9. High current density Esaki tunnel diodes based on GaSb-InAsSb heterostructure nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjipour, Bahram; Dey, Anil W; Borg, B Mattias; Ek, Martin; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Dick, Kimberly A; Wernersson, Lars-Erik; Thelander, Claes

    2011-10-12

    We present electrical characterization of broken gap GaSb-InAsSb nanowire heterojunctions. Esaki diode characteristics with maximum reverse current of 1750 kA/cm(2) at 0.50 V, maximum peak current of 67 kA/cm(2) at 0.11 V, and peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) of 2.1 are obtained at room temperature. The reverse current density is comparable to that of state-of-the-art tunnel diodes based on heavily doped p-n junctions. However, the GaSb-InAsSb diodes investigated in this work do not rely on heavy doping, which permits studies of transport mechanisms in simple transistor structures processed with high-κ gate dielectrics and top-gates. Such processing results in devices with improved PVR (3.5) and stability of the electrical properties.

  10. Solubilities of CO sub 2 and redox equilibria of Sb and As in Na sub 2 O-Sb sub 2 O sub m and Na sub 2 O-As sub 2 O sub m melts. Na sub 2 O Sb sub 2 O sub m , Na sub 2 O-As sub 2 O sub m kei yoyu slag no CO sub 2 yokairyo to Sb to As no fuzon jotai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, H. (Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Graduate School); Katao, T. (Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Ikitsu, Y. (Daido Steel Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan)); Fujisawa, T.; Yamauchi, C. (Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-12-20

    Solubilities of CO{sub 2} in Na{sub 2}O-Sb{sub 2}O{sub m} and Na{sub 2}O-As{sub 2}O{sub m} melts and redox ratio of Sb and As melts are measured over the composition range of 1>N>0.7 under the partial pressures of CO{sub 2} and 0{sub 2} from 0.01 to 0.1MPa and from 0.005 to 1000Pa, respectively, at the temperature of 1423 and 1523K. Based on the result of the measurement, reaction equation is studied which governs the redox equilibria of Sb and As and the solubilities of CO{sub 2} in those melts. Sb in Na{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub m} melts exists in pentavalent and trivalent states. In Na{sub 2}O- CO{sub 2}-As{sub 2}O{sub m} melts, pentavalent As is very stable in comparison to Sb, and most of As exists in the state of complex ion. However, with the increase in the content of As{sub 2}O{sub 5} in the melts, the evaporation reaction of trivalent As becomes significant. 6 refs., 11 figs., tab.

  11. The fire ant social chromosome supergene variant Sb shows low diversity but high divergence from SB

    OpenAIRE

    Pracana, Rodrigo; Priyam, Anurag; Levantis, Ilya; Nichols, Richard A.; Wurm, Yannick

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Variation in social behaviour is common, yet little is known about the genetic architectures underpinning its evolution. A rare exception is in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta: Alternative variants of a supergene region determine whether a colony will have exactly one or up to dozens of queens. The two variants of this region are carried by a pair of ?social chromosomes?, SB and Sb, which resemble a pair of sex chromosomes. Recombination is suppressed between the two chromosomes in t...

  12. International exercise on {sup 124}Sb activity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvenet, B., E-mail: bruno.chauvenet@cea.f [Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), CEA, LIST, F 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Be, M.-M.; Amiot, M.-N.; Bobin, C.; Lepy, M.-C.; Branger, T.; Laniece, I. [Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), CEA, LIST, F 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Luca, A.; Sahagia, M.; Waetjen, A.C. [Horia Hulubei, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest (Romania); Kossert, K.; Ott, O.; Naehle, O. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, D 38 116 Braunschweig (Germany); Dryak, P.; Sochorova, J.; Kovar, P.; Auerbach, P. [Czech Metrological Institute (CMI), Radiova 1, CZ 10200 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Altzitzoglou, T.; Pomme, S.; Sibbens, G. [Institute for Reference Material and Measurements (IRMM), European Commission, Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel (Belgium)

    2010-07-15

    An international exercise, registered as EUROMET project no. 907, was launched to measure both the activity of a solution of {sup 124}Sb and the photon emission intensities of its decay. The same solution was sent by LNE-LNHB to eight participating laboratories. In order to identify possible biases, the participants were asked to use all possible activity measurement methods available in their laboratory and then to determine their reference value for comparison. Thus, measurement results from 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence/anti-coincidence counting, CIEMAT/NIST liquid-scintillation counting, 4{pi}{gamma} counting with well-type ionization chambers and well-type crystal detectors were given. The results are compared and show a maximum discrepancy of about 1.6%: possible explanations are proposed.

  13. Determination of traces of Sb(III) using ASV in Sb-rich water samples affected by mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cidu, Rosa, E-mail: cidur@unica.it; Biddau, Riccardo; Dore, Elisabetta

    2015-01-07

    Highlights: • Antimony speciation affects the toxicity of this element. • A simple method for Sb(III) analyses in Sb-rich waters was developed. • Sb(III) was determined by ASV in water stabilized with tartaric and nitric acids. • Pre-concentration and/or separation of Sb(III) prior to analysis are not required. - Abstract: Chemical speciation [Sb(V) and Sb(III)] affects the mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of antimony. In oxygenated environments Sb(V) dominates whereas thermodynamically unstable Sb(III) may occur. In this study, a simple method for the determination of Sb(III) in non acidic, oxygenated water contaminated with antimony is proposed. The determination of Sb(III) was performed by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV, 1–20 μg L{sup −1} working range), the total antimony, Sb(tot), was determined either by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, 1–100 μg L{sup −1} working range) or inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, 100–10,000 μg L{sup −1} working range) depending on concentration. Water samples were filtered on site through 0.45 μm pore size filters. The aliquot for determination of Sb(tot) was acidified with 1% (v/v) HNO{sub 3}. Different preservatives, namely HCl, L(+) ascorbic acid or L(+) tartaric acid plus HNO{sub 3}, were used to assess the stability of Sb(III) in synthetic solutions. The method was tested on groundwater and surface water draining the abandoned mine of Su Suergiu (Sardinia, Italy), an area heavily contaminated with Sb. The waters interacting with Sb-rich mining residues were non acidic, oxygenated, and showed extreme concentrations of Sb(tot) (up to 13,000 μg L{sup −1}), with Sb(III) <10% of total antimony. The stabilization with L(+) tartaric acid plus HNO{sub 3} appears useful for the determination of Sb(III) in oxygenated, Sb-rich waters. Due to the instability of Sb(III), analyses should be carried out within 7 days upon the water collection. The main

  14. Lower lattice thermal conductivity in SbAs than As or Sb monolayers: a first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, San-Dong; Liu, Jiang-Tao

    2017-12-06

    Phonon transport in group-VA element (As, Sb and Bi) monolayer semiconductors has been widely investigated in theory, and, of them, monolayer Sb (antimonene) has recently been synthesized. In this work, phonon transport in monolayer SbAs is investigated with a combination of first-principles calculations and the linearized phonon Boltzmann equation. It is found that the lattice thermal conductivity of monolayer SbAs is lower than those of both monolayer As and Sb, and the corresponding sheet thermal conductance is 28.8 W K-1 at room temperature. To understand the lower lattice thermal conductivity in monolayer SbAs than those in monolayer As and Sb, the group velocities and phonon lifetimes of monolayer As, SbAs and Sb are calculated. The calculated results show that the group velocities of monolayer SbAs are between those of monolayer As and Sb, but that the phonon lifetimes of SbAs are smaller than those of both monolayer As and Sb. Hence, the low lattice thermal conductivity in monolayer SbAs is attributed to very small phonon lifetimes. Unexpectedly, the ZA branch has very little contribution to the total thermal conductivity, only 2.4%, which is obviously different from those of monolayer As and Sb with very large contributions. This can be explained by very small phonon lifetimes for the ZA branch of monolayer SbAs. The lower lattice thermal conductivity of monolayer SbAs compared to that of monolayer As or Sb can be understood by the alloying of As (Sb) with Sb (As), which should introduce phonon point defect scattering. We also consider the isotope and size effects on the lattice thermal conductivity. It is found that isotope scattering produces a neglectful effect, and the lattice thermal conductivity with a characteristic length smaller than 30 nm can reach a decrease of about 47%. These results may offer perspectives on tuning the lattice thermal conductivity by the mixture of multiple elements for applications of thermal management and thermoelectricity

  15. Liquidus Projection and Isothermal Section of the Sb-Se-Sn System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jui-shen; Chen, Sinn-wen

    2017-12-01

    Sb-Se-Sn ternary alloys are promising chalcogenide materials. The liquidus projection and 673.2 K (400 °C) isothermal section of the Sb-Se-Sn ternary system are determined. Numerous Sb-Se-Sn alloys are prepared, and their primary solidification phases are examined. In addition to the three terminal phases, (Sb), (Se) and (Sn), there are Sb2Sn3, SbSn, SnSe, SnSe2, Sb2Se3, Sn2Sb9Se9, and SnSb2Se4 phases. In addition, there are two miscibility gaps along the Sb-Se and Se-Sn and sides. There are ten invariant reactions in the Sb-Se-Sn ternary system, and seven of them are experimentally determined in this study. The lowest reaction temperature of determined invariant reaction is L + SbSn = (Sn) + SnSe at 515.4 K ± 5 K (242.2 °C ± 5 °C). There are nine tie-triangles, which are Liquid + SbSn + SnSe, SbSn + SnSe + (Sb), SnSe + (Sb) + Sn2Sb9Se9, (Sb) + Sb2Se3 + Sn2Sb9Se9, SnSe + Sn2Sb9Se9 + SnSb2Se4, Sb2Se3 + Sn2Sb9Se9 + SnSb2Se4, SnSe + SnSe2 + SnSb2Se4, SnSe2 + SnSb2Se4 + Sb2Se3, and SnSe2 + Sb2Se3 + Liquid in the 673.2 K (400 °C) isothermal section of the Sb-Se-Sn ternary system.

  16. Forced convection by Inclined Rotary Bridgman method for growth of CoSb3 and FeSb2 single crystals from Sb-rich solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillaca, Mirtha; Harder, Oliver; Miller, Wolfram; Gille, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Sb-based compounds such as CoSb3 and FeSb2 are interesting materials for thermoelectric applications. Their single crystal growth can be achieved from high-temperature solutions that are strongly enriched in Sb. In Bridgman growth using closed ampoules, effective mixing of the solution is an important prerequisite in order to minimize the high risk of liquid inclusion formation. We have successfully grown inclusion-free single crystal of CoSb3 and FeSb2 by rotating the ampoule in a Bridgman-type crystal growth set-up being inclined by 75° with respect to the vector of gravity. Numerical modelling as well as experimental growth studies have demonstrated the strong influence of forced convection that is achieved by this modified directional solidification technique called Inclined Rotary Bridgman method.

  17. Comparison of community-onset Staphylococcus argenteus and Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in Thailand: a prospective multicentre observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Chantratita, N.; Wikraiphat, C.; Tandhavanant, S.; Wongsuvan, G.; Ariyaprasert, P.; Suntornsut, P.; Thaipadungpanit, J.; Teerawattanasook, N.; Jutrakul, Y.; Srisurat, N.; Chaimanee, P.; Anukunananchai, J.; Phiphitaporn, S.; Srisamang, P.; Chetchotisakd, P.

    2016-01-01

    : Staphylococcus argenteus is a globally distributed cause of human infection, but diagnostic laboratories misidentify this as Staphylococcus aureus. We determined whether there is clinical utility in distinguishing between the two. A prospective cohort study of community-onset invasive staphylococcal sepsis was conducted in adults at four hospitals in northeast Thailand between 2010 and 2013. Of 311 patients analysed, 58 (19%) were infected with S. argenteus and 253 (81%) with S. aureus. Mos...

  18. Sorghum Phytochrome B Inhibits Flowering in Long Days by Activating Expression of SbPRR37 and SbGHD7, Repressors of SbEHD1, SbCN8 and SbCN12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shanshan; Murphy, Rebecca L.; Morishige, Daryl T.; Klein, Patricia E.; Rooney, William L.; Mullet, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Light signaling by phytochrome B in long days inhibits flowering in sorghum by increasing expression of the long day floral repressors PSEUDORESPONSE REGULATOR PROTEIN (SbPRR37, Ma1) and GRAIN NUMBER, PLANT HEIGHT AND HEADING DATE 7 (SbGHD7, Ma6). SbPRR37 and SbGHD7 RNA abundance peaks in the morning and in the evening of long days through coordinate regulation by light and output from the circadian clock. 58 M, a phytochrome B deficient (phyB-1, ma3R) genotype, flowered ∼60 days earlier than 100 M (PHYB, Ma3) in long days and ∼11 days earlier in short days. Populations derived from 58 M (Ma1, ma3R, Ma5, ma6) and R.07007 (Ma1, Ma3, ma5, Ma6) varied in flowering time due to QTL aligned to PHYB/phyB-1 (Ma3), Ma5, and GHD7/ghd7-1 (Ma6). PHYC was proposed as a candidate gene for Ma5 based on alignment and allelic variation. PHYB and Ma5 (PHYC) were epistatic to Ma1 and Ma6 and progeny recessive for either gene flowered early in long days. Light signaling mediated by PhyB was required for high expression of the floral repressors SbPRR37 and SbGHD7 during the evening of long days. In 100 M (PHYB) the floral activators SbEHD1, SbCN8 and SbCN12 were repressed in long days and de-repressed in short days. In 58 M (phyB-1) these genes were highly expressed in long and short days. Furthermore, SbCN15, the ortholog of rice Hd3a (FT), is expressed at low levels in 100 M but at high levels in 58 M (phyB-1) regardless of day length, indicating that PhyB regulation of SbCN15 expression may modify flowering time in a photoperiod-insensitive manner. PMID:25122453

  19. Sorghum phytochrome B inhibits flowering in long days by activating expression of SbPRR37 and SbGHD7, repressors of SbEHD1, SbCN8 and SbCN12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Yang

    Full Text Available Light signaling by phytochrome B in long days inhibits flowering in sorghum by increasing expression of the long day floral repressors PSEUDORESPONSE REGULATOR PROTEIN (SbPRR37, Ma1 and GRAIN NUMBER, PLANT HEIGHT AND HEADING DATE 7 (SbGHD7, Ma6. SbPRR37 and SbGHD7 RNA abundance peaks in the morning and in the evening of long days through coordinate regulation by light and output from the circadian clock. 58 M, a phytochrome B deficient (phyB-1, ma3R genotype, flowered ∼60 days earlier than 100 M (PHYB, Ma3 in long days and ∼11 days earlier in short days. Populations derived from 58 M (Ma1, ma3R, Ma5, ma6 and R.07007 (Ma1, Ma3, ma5, Ma6 varied in flowering time due to QTL aligned to PHYB/phyB-1 (Ma3, Ma5, and GHD7/ghd7-1 (Ma6. PHYC was proposed as a candidate gene for Ma5 based on alignment and allelic variation. PHYB and Ma5 (PHYC were epistatic to Ma1 and Ma6 and progeny recessive for either gene flowered early in long days. Light signaling mediated by PhyB was required for high expression of the floral repressors SbPRR37 and SbGHD7 during the evening of long days. In 100 M (PHYB the floral activators SbEHD1, SbCN8 and SbCN12 were repressed in long days and de-repressed in short days. In 58 M (phyB-1 these genes were highly expressed in long and short days. Furthermore, SbCN15, the ortholog of rice Hd3a (FT, is expressed at low levels in 100 M but at high levels in 58 M (phyB-1 regardless of day length, indicating that PhyB regulation of SbCN15 expression may modify flowering time in a photoperiod-insensitive manner.

  20. Enhancing electrocatalytic performance of Sb-doped SnO ₂ electrode by compositing nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Tigang; Wen, Qing; Chen, Ye; Zhou, Yiding; Duan, Ying

    2014-09-15

    An efficient Ti/Sb-SnO2 electrode modified with nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets (NGNS) was successfully fabricated by the sol-gel and dip coating method. Compared with Ti/Sb-SnO2 electrode, the NGNS-modified electrode possesses smaller unite crystalline volume (71.11Å(3) vs. 71.32Å(3)), smaller electrical resistivity (13Ωm vs. 34Ωm), and lower charge transfer resistance (10.91Ω vs. 21.01Ω). The accelerated lifetime of Ti/Sb-SnO2-NGNS electrode is prolonged significantly, which is 4.45 times as long as that of Ti/Sb-SnO2 electrode. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement and voltammetric charge analysis indicate that introducing NGNS into the active coating can increase more reaction active sites to enhance the electrocatalytic efficiency. The electrochemical dye decolorization analysis demonstrates that Ti/Sb-SnO2-NGNS presents efficient electrocatalytic performance for methylene blue and orange II decolorization. And its pseudo-first order kinetic rate constants for methylene blue and orange II decolorization are 36.6 and 44.0 min(-1), respectively, which are 6.0 and 7.1 times as efficient as those of Ti/Sb-SnO2, respectively. Considering the significant electrocatalytic activity and low resistivity of Ti/Sb-SnO2-NGNS electrode, the cost of wastewater treatment can be expected to be reduced obviously and the application prospect is broad. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of liquid Ag–In–Sb alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGANA ZIVKOVIC

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of calculations of the thermodynamic properties of liquid Ag–In–Sb alloys are presented in this paper. The Redlich–Kister–Muggianu model was used for the calculations. Based on known thermodynamic data for constitutive binary systems and available experimental data for the investigated ternary system, the ternary interaction parameter for the liquid phase in the temperature range 1000–1200 K was determined. Comparison between experimental and calculated results showed their good mutual agreement.

  2. In As{sub 1–x}Sb{sub x} heteroepitaxial structures on compositionally graded GaInSb and AlGaInSb buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseynov, R. R.; Tanriverdiyev, V. A. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan); Kipshidze, G., E-mail: gela.kishidze@stonybrook.ede [Stony Brook, Stony Brook University (United States); Aliyeva, Ye. N.; Aliguliyeva, Kh. V.; Abdullayev, N. A., E-mail: abnadir@mail.ru; Mamedov, N. T. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

    2017-04-15

    Unrelaxed InAs{sub 1–x}Sb{sub x} (x = 0.43 and 0.38) alloy layers are produced by molecular-beam epitaxy on compositionally graded GaInSb and AlGaInSb buffer layers. The high quality of the thin films produced is confirmed by the results of high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis and micro-Raman studies. The twomode type of transformation of the phonon spectra of InAs{sub 1–x}Sb{sub x} alloys is established.

  3. Effect of InSb/In0.9Al0.1Sb superlattice buffer layer on the structural and electronic properties of InSb films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Yang; Guan, Min; Cui, Lijie; Wang, Baoqiang; Zhu, Zhanping; Zeng, Yiping

    2017-07-01

    The effect of InSb/In0.9Al0.1Sb buffer layers on InSb thin films grown on GaAs (0 0 1) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is investigated. The crystal quality and the surface morphology of InSb are characterized by XRD and AFM. The carrier transport property is researched through variable temperature hall test. The sharp interface between InSb/In0.9Al0.1Sb is demonstrated important for the high quality InSb thin film. We try different superlattice buffer layers by changing ratios, 2-0.5, thickness, 300-450 nm, and periods, 20-50. According to the function of the dislocation density to the absolute temperature below 150 K with different periods of SL buffers, we can find that the number of periods of superlattice is a major factor to decrease the density of threading dislocations. With the 50 periods SL buffer layer, the electron mobility of InSb at the room temperature and liquid nitrogen cooling temperature is ∼63,000 and ∼4600 cm2/V s, respectively. We deduce that the interface in the SL structure works as a filter layer to prevent the dislocation propagating to the upper InSb thin films.

  4. Direct nucleation, morphology and compositional tuning of InAs1-x Sb x nanowires on InAs (111) B substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Luna; Gorji Ghalamestani, Sepideh; Lehmann, Sebastian; Zamani, Reza R.; Dick, Kimberly A.

    2017-04-01

    III-V ternary nanowires are interesting due to the possibility of modulating their physical and material properties by tuning their material composition. Amongst them InAs1-x Sb x nanowires are good candidates for applications such as Infrared detectors. However, this material has not been grown directly from substrates, in a large range of material compositions. Since the properties of ternaries are alterable by tuning their composition, it is beneficial to gain access to a wide range of composition tunability. Here we demonstrate direct nucleation and growth of InAs1-x Sb x nanowires from Au seed particles over a broad range of compositions (x = 0.08-0.75) for different diameters and surface densities by means of metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. We investigate how the nucleation, morphology, solid phase Sb content, and growth rate of these nanowires depend on the particle dimensions, and on growth conditions such as the vapor phase composition, V/III ratio, and temperature. We show that the solid phase Sb content of the nanowires remains invariant towards changes of the In precursor flow. We also discuss that at relatively high In flows the growth mechanism alters from Au-seeded to what is referred to as semi In-seeded growth. This change enables growth of nanowires with a high solid phase Sb content of 0.75 that are not feasible via Au-seeded growth. Independent of the growth conditions and morphology, we report that the nanowire Sb content changes over their length, from lower Sb contents at the base, increasing to higher amounts towards the tip. We correlate the axial Sb content variations to the axial growth rate measured in situ. We also report spontaneous core-shell formation for Au-seeded nanowires, where the core is Sb-rich in comparison to the Sb-poor shell.

  5. Magnetic proximity coupling to Cr-doped Sb2Te3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, L. B.; Figueroa, A. I.; Gładczuk, Ł.; Steinke, N.-J.; Kummer, K.; van der Laan, G.; Hesjedal, T.

    2017-06-01

    Using soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy we determined the chemical and magnetic properties of the magnetic topological insulator (MTI) Cr:Sb2Te3 . X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Cr L2 ,3, Te M4 ,5, and Sb M4 ,5 edges shows that the Te 5 p moment is aligned antiparallel to both the Cr 3 d and Sb 5 p moments, which is characteristic for carrier-mediated ferromagnetic coupling. Comparison of the Cr L2 ,3 spectra with multiplet calculations indicates a hybridized Cr state, consistent with the carrier-mediated coupling scenario. We studied the enhancement of the Curie temperature, TC, of the MTI thin film through the magnetic proximity effect. Arrott plots, measured using the Cr L3 XMCD, show a TC≈87 K for the as-cleaved film. After deposition of a thin layer of ferromagnetic Co onto the surface, the TC increases to ˜93 K, while the Co and Cr moments are parallel. This increase in TC is unexpectedly small compared to similar systems reported earlier. The XMCD spectra demonstrate that the Co/MTI interface remains intact, i.e., no reaction between Co and the MTI takes place. Our results are a useful starting point for refining the physical models of Cr-doped Sb2Te3 , which is required for making use of them in device applications.

  6. Spin ½ Delafossite honeycomb compound Cu5SbO6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent-Pascual, E; Norby, P; Andersen, N H; Stephens, P W; Zandbergen, H W; Larsen, J; Cava, R J

    2012-01-02

    Cu(5)SbO(6) is found to have a monoclinic, Delafossite-derived structure consisting of alternating layers of O-Cu(I)-O sticks and magnetic layers of Jahn-Teller distorted Cu(II)O(6) octahedra in an edge sharing honeycomb arrangement with Sb(V)O(6) octahedra. This yields the structural formula Cu(I)(3)Cu(II)(2)Sb(V)O(6). Variants with ordered and disordered layer stacking are observed, depending on the synthesis conditions. The spin ½ Cu(2+) ions form dimers in the honeycomb layer. The magnetic susceptibility measured between 5 and 300 K is characteristic of the presence of a singlet-triplet spin gap of 189 K. High resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies indicate that changes in the intra- or interdimer distances between 300 and 20 K, such as might indicate an increase in strength of the Peierls-like distortion through the spin gap temperature, if present, are very small. A comparison to the NaFeO(2)-type Cu(2+) honeycomb compounds Na(3)Cu(2)SbO(6) and Na(2)Cu(2)TeO(6) is presented.

  7. Physico-chemical properties of Sb-rich (Sb, In)–Te thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hromádko, L., E-mail: Ludek.Hromadko@upce.cz [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic); Přikryl, J.; Střižík, L. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic); Košt’ál, P. [Department of Inorganic Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Doubravice 41, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic); Beneš, L. [Joint Laboratory of Solid State Chemistry of Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and University of Pardubice, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Studentská 95, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic); Frumar, M. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • The difference of electrical sheet resistance between amorphous and crystalline state is more than 3 orders. • The crystallization temperature T{sub c} of the prepared films increases with increasing content of indium. • The activation energy of crystallization E{sub a} increased with increasing content of indium. • The prepared thin films could be applied for electrical non-volatile phase change memories. - Abstract: The phase change materials of the system Sb{sub 70−x}In{sub x}Te{sub 30} (x = 0, 7 and 14) were studied. The thin films prepared by thermal flash evaporation were amorphous with high electrical sheet resistance (R{sub s}) (≈10{sup 6} Ω/sqr., T = 300 K). When heated, the resistance dropped to 10–10{sup 2} Ω/sqr. due to crystallization of the films. The crystallization temperatures were 113, 158 and 183 °C for Sb{sub 70}Te{sub 30}, Sb{sub 63}In{sub 7}Te{sub 30} and Sb{sub 56}In{sub 14}Te{sub 30}, respectively. The activation energies of crystallization as evaluated by Kissinger’s plot were 2.42, 2.72 and 3.15 eV for Sb{sub 70}Te{sub 30}, Sb{sub 63}In{sub 7}Te{sub 30} and Sb{sub 56}In{sub 14}Te{sub 30}, respectively. The optical band gap of amorphous films increases with increasing content of indium from 0.38 to 0.47 eV. Values of refractive index were found in range of 5.43–4.77 (λ = 1500 nm) for amorphous state and 7.06–5.89 for crystalline state in dependence on composition. They decreased with increasing content of indium.

  8. Nearly massless Dirac fermions hosted by Sb square net in BaMnSb2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyu; Hu, Jin; Cao, Huibo; Zhu, Yanglin; Chuang, Alyssa; Graf, D; Adams, D J; Radmanesh, S M A; Spinu, L; Chiorescu, I; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2016-07-28

    Layered compounds AMnBi2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba, or rare earth element) have been established as Dirac materials. Dirac electrons generated by the two-dimensional (2D) Bi square net in these materials are normally massive due to the presence of a spin-orbital coupling (SOC) induced gap at Dirac nodes. Here we report that the Sb square net in an isostructural compound BaMnSb2 can host nearly massless Dirac fermions. We observed strong Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations in this material. From the analyses of the SdH oscillations, we find key signatures of Dirac fermions, including light effective mass (~0.052m0; m0, mass of free electron), high quantum mobility (1280 cm(2)V(-1)S(-1)) and a π Berry phase accumulated along cyclotron orbit. Compared with AMnBi2, BaMnSb2 also exhibits much more significant quasi two-dimensional (2D) electronic structure, with the out-of-plane transport showing nonmetallic conduction below 120 K and the ratio of the out-of-plane and in-plane resistivity reaching ~670. Additionally, BaMnSb2 also exhibits a G-type antiferromagnetic order below 283 K. The combination of nearly massless Dirac fermions on quasi-2D planes with a magnetic order makes BaMnSb2 an intriguing platform for seeking novel exotic phenomena of massless Dirac electrons.

  9. Prospective comparison of high- and low-spatial-resolution dynamic MR imaging with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) for hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Semelka, Richard C; Uotani, Kensuke; Sugimoto, Koji; Fujii, Masahiko; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the efficacy of high-spatial-resolution dynamic MRI using sensitivity encoding (SENSE) in detection of hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thirty-five patients were included in this prospectively planned study, and 25 patients with 31 HCCs were assigned into three groups and underwent the following sequences: group A (n=11): three-dimensional fast-gradient-echo (3D-FGE) high-spatial-resolution dynamic MRI (HR-MRI) with SENSE; group B (n=10): 3D-FGE low-spatial-resolution dynamic MRI (LR-MRI) with SENSE; and group C (n=14): 3D-FGE/LR-MRI without SENSE. For the quantitative analysis, the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between the liver and HCCs was measured. For the qualitative analysis, overall image quality for each group was evaluated with a five-point scale analysis. The sensitivities for detection of HCCs were evaluated. The overall image quality in group A was significantly greater than both groups B and C (P0.05). In our pilot study on a small number of patients, image quality in HR-MRI with SENSE was superior to LR-MRI. A high detection rate was seen with HR-MRI with SENSE in the patients with hypervascular HCCs.

  10. Comparison of Tension-Band Wiring With the Cable Pin System in Patella Fractures: A Randomized Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qing-xian; Hai, Yong; Du, Xin-ru; Xu, Zi-yu; Lu, Tie; Shan, Lei; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Jun-lin

    2015-12-01

    To compare the outcome of tension-band wiring (TBW) with the cable pin system (CPS) for transverse fractures of the patella. Randomized prospective study. Academic Level I trauma center. From February 2008 to December 2011, 73 consecutive patients with transverse fractures of the patella were prospectively enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: one group was treated using the CPS, and the other group was treated using the modified TBW. The clinical outcome assessment included analyses of the radiographic images, the modified Hospital for Special Surgery scoring system, and complications. The follow-up time ranged from 12 to 29 months. All fractures healed, with a union rate of 100%. The fracture healing time was significantly shorter in the CPS group (8.51 ± 2.59 weeks, n = 34) compared with the TBW group (11.79 ± 3.04 weeks, n = 39). Postoperative complications in the CPS and TBW groups were observed in 1 and 9 patients, respectively, a difference that was statistically significant. The mean Hospital for Special Surgery score for the CPS group (90.53 ± 5.19 points) was significantly higher than that for the TBW group (81.36 ± 12.71 points). The CPS is a viable option for transverse fractures of the patella and is associated with a shorter healing time, fewer complications, and better function than TBW. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  11. Prospective comparison of preference and efficacy of adalimumab and infliximab for treating ulcerative colitis naive to antitumor necrosis factor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Katano, Takahito; Tanida, Satoshi; Hirano, Atsuyuki; Miyaki, Tomokatsu; Ozeki, Keiji; Suzuki, Yuka; Sugimura, Naomi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Joh, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    There have been few reports on 2 tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors, infliximab and adalimumab, with respect to patient preference and efficacy in ulcerative colitis (UC).We used questionnaires to evaluate the preference and reasons for drug choice between infliximab and adalimumab in UC patients naive to antitumor necrosis factor alpha therapy. We also analyzed the efficacy of infliximab and adalimumab prospectively and endoscopically before treatment and at 14 and 54 weeks.Of the 25 UC patients, infliximab and adalimumab were chosen by 10 (40%) and 15 (60%), respectively. Patients who favored infliximab considered "fear of syringes" (7/10, 70%) as the most important influencing factor, whereas patients who favored adalimumab considered "ease of administration" (10/15, 66.7%) and "time required for therapy" (10/15, 66.7%) as the most important factors. There were no statistical differences in remission induction and maintenance between the infliximab and adalimumab groups with regard to response, remission, mucosal healing, steroid-free, and steroid-free remission rates at weeks 14 and 54.The efficacy of adalimumab in remission induction and maintenance was equivalent to that of infliximab in UC patients naive to antitumor necrosis factor alpha therapy in this prospective study, but more patients preferred adalimumab.

  12. The effect of alcohol administration on human timing: a comparison of prospective timing, retrospective timing and passage of time judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Ruth S; Wearden, John H; Gallagher, Denis T; Montgomery, Catharine

    2011-09-01

    Previous research suggests that human timing may be affected by alcohol administration. The current study aimed to expand on previous research by examining the effect of alcohol on prospective timing, retrospective timing and passage of time judgements. A blind between-subjects design was employed in which participants were either administered 0 g of alcohol per kilogramme of body weight (placebo), 0.4 g/kg (low dose) or 0.6g/kg (high dose). Participants completed four types of temporal task; verbal estimation and temporal generalisation, a retrospective timing task and a passage of time judgement task. A high dose of alcohol resulted in overestimations of duration relative to the low dose and placebo group in the verbal estimation task. A high dose of alcohol was also associated with time passing more quickly than normal. Alcohol had no effect on retrospective judgements. The results suggest that a high dose of alcohol increases internal clock speed leading to over-estimations of duration on prospective timing tasks, and the sensation of time passing more quickly than normal. The absence of an effect of alcohol on retrospective timing supports the suggestion that retrospective judgements are not based on the output of an internal clock. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Posterior shoulder instability: Prospective non-randomised comparison of operative and non-operative treatment in 51 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ferreira, E; Abadie, P; Godenèche, A; Mansat, P; Clavert, P; Flurin, P

    2017-12-01

    The management of posterior shoulder instability remains controversial. Consequently, for a symposium on this topic, the French Arthroscopy Society (SFA) conducted a prospective multicentre study comparing outcomes of operative and non-operative treatment. To compare outcomes after operative versus non-operative treatment of posterior shoulder instability. The surgical treatment of posterior shoulder instability may achieve better clinical outcomes than non-operative treatment in selected patients. Fifty-one patients were included prospectively then followed-up for 12months. Three groups were defined based on the clinical presentation: recurrent dislocation or subluxation, involuntary instability or voluntary instability that had become involuntary, and shoulder pain with instability. Of the 51 patients, 19 received non-operative therapy involving a three-step rehabilitation programme and 32 underwent surgery with a posterior bone block, labral repair and/orcapsule tightening, or bone defect filling. At inclusion and at last follow-up, the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV), Rowe score, Walch-Duplay score, and Constant score were determined. The preliminary results after the first 12 months are reported here. In the non-operative and operative groups, the Constant score was 78 versus 87, the Rowe score 64 versus 88, and the Walch-Duplay score 69 versus 82, respectively. These differences were statistically significant (Pshoulder instability. Outcomes were better with operative treatment. However, this finding remains preliminary given the short follow-up of only 1 year. III, case-control study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. A Randomized Prospective Comparison of Patient-Assessed Satisfaction and Clinical Outcomes with Radioactive Seed Localization versus Wire Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Erica V; Ajkay, Nicolas; Patil, Sujata; Collett, Abigail E; Frazier, Thomas G; Barrio, Andrea V

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive seed localization (RSL) has emerged as an alternative to wire localization (WL) in patients with nonpalpable breast cancer. Few studies have prospectively evaluated patient satisfaction and outcomes with RSL. We report the results of a randomized trial comparing RSL to WL in our community hospital. We prospectively enrolled 135 patients with nonpalpable breast cancer between 2011 and 2014. Patients were randomized to RSL or WL. Patients rated the pain and the convenience of the localization on a 5-point Likert scale. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. Of 135 patients enrolled, 10 were excluded (benign pathology, palpable cancer, mastectomy, and previous ipsilateral cancer) resulting in 125 patients. Seventy patients (56%) were randomized to RSL and 55 (44%) to WL. Fewer patients in the RSL group reported moderate to severe pain during the localization procedure compared to the WL group (12% versus 26%, respectively, p = 0.058). The overall convenience of the procedure was rated as very good to excellent in 85% of RSL patients compared to 44% of WL patients (p patient satisfaction with RSL provides another incentive for surgeons to strongly consider RSL as an alternative to WL. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Microbiological reduction of Sb(V) in anoxic freshwater sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Kulp, Thomas R.; Miller, Laurence G.; Braiotta, Franco; Webb, Samuel M.; Kocar, Benjamin D; Blum, Jodi S.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological reduction of millimolar concentrations of Sb(V) to Sb(III) was observed in anoxic sediments from two freshwater settings: (1) a Sb- and As-contaminated mine site (Stibnite Mine) in central Idaho and 2) an uncontaminated suburban lake (Searsville Lake) in the San Francisco Bay Area. Rates of Sb(V) reduction in anoxic sediment microcosms and enrichment cultures were enhanced by amendment with lactate or acetate as electron donors but not by H2, and no reduction occurred in sterilized controls. Addition of 2-14C-acetate to Stibnite Mine microcosms resulted in the production of 14CO2 coupled to Sb(V) reduction, suggesting that this process proceeds by a dissimilatory respiratory pathway in those sediments. Antimony(V) reduction in Searsville Lake sediments was not coupled to acetate mineralization and may be associated with Sb-resistance. The microcosms and enrichment cultures also reduced sulfate, and the precipitation of insoluble Sb(III)-sulfide complexes was a major sink for reduced Sb. The reduction of Sb(V) by Stibnite Mine sediments was inhibited by As(V), suggesting that As(V) is a preferred electron acceptor for the indigenous community. These findings indicate a novel pathway for anaerobic microbiological respiration and suggest that communities capable of reducing high concentrations of Sb(V) commonly occur naturally in the environment.

  16. First-principles study lone-pair effects of Sb (III)-S chromophore influence on SHG response in quaternary potassium containing silver antimony sulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Junben [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments of CAS,, Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry of CAS, 40-1 South Beijing Road, Urumqi 830011 (China); School of Physics Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Su, Xin; Hou, Dianwei; Lei, Binghua [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments of CAS,, Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry of CAS, 40-1 South Beijing Road, Urumqi 830011 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Zhihua, E-mail: zhyang@ms.xjb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments of CAS,, Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry of CAS, 40-1 South Beijing Road, Urumqi 830011 (China); Pan, Shilie, E-mail: slpan@ms.xjb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments of CAS,, Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry of CAS, 40-1 South Beijing Road, Urumqi 830011 (China)

    2017-05-15

    First-principles studies of the geometric structures, electronic structures and optical properties of non-centrosymmetrical (NCS) KAg{sub 2}SbS{sub 4}, K{sub 2}AgSbS{sub 4} and K{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}S{sub 7} and centrosymmetrical (CS) KAg{sub 2}SbS{sub 3} and K{sub 3}Ag{sub 9}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 12} have been performed by means of density functional theory. It is indicated that although they have similarity in their anionic groups and, the electronic structures, prominent features of the optical anisotropy or second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) susceptibilities are apparently different. The calculated birefringences are 0.0537, 0.0343, 0.1324, 0.2217 and 0.0604 which are attributed to the different anionic groups [SbS{sub 3}] and triangles [AgS{sub 3}]. Also, the calculated NLO responses are about 0.5×, 1.0× and 2.0× times than that commercial AgGaS{sub 2} (AGS, d{sub 36}=11 pm/V) for K{sub 2}AgSbS{sub 4}, KAg{sub 2}SbS{sub 4} and K{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}S{sub 7}, respectively. In comparison with the absolute magnitude of second harmonic generation (SHG) coefficients, the order K{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}S{sub 7}>KAg{sub 2}SbS{sub 4}>K{sub 2}AgSbS{sub 4} is clearly established in the SHG response. Further analysis based on the real-space atom-cutting method reveals that the main sources of the SHG properties of these compounds are from the Sb-S group, especially K{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}S{sub 7} is mainly attributed to the lone pair stereochemical activity of Sb (III)-S group. - Graphical abstract: Compounds K{sub 2}AgSbS{sub 4}, KAg{sub 2}SbS{sub 4} and K{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}S{sub 7} exhibit second-order NLO response: 15×, 30× and 62× times than that KDP (KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, d{sub 36}=0.39 pm/V), respectively. First-principles methods reveal that the large SHG response of K{sub 2}Ag{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}S{sub 7} is dominated by the Sb-S chromophore with lone pairs.

  17. Optical and structural properties of MOVPE-grown GaInSb/GaSb quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagener, Viera, E-mail: viera.wagener@nmmu.ac.z [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Olivier, E.J.; Botha, J.R. [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    This paper reports on the optical and structural properties of strained type-I Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Sb quantum wells embedded in GaSb from a metal-organic vapour phase epitaxial growth perspective. Photoluminescence measurements and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the effect of the growth temperature on the quality of Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Sb strained layers with varied alloy compositions and thicknesses. Although the various factors contributing to the overall quality of the strained layers are difficult to separate, the quantum well characteristics are significantly altered by the growth temperature. Despite the high growth rates (approx2 nm/s), quantum wells grown at 607 deg. C display photoluminescence emissions with full-width at half-maximum of 3.5-5.0 meV for an indium solid content (x) up to 0.15.

  18. Optical Characterization of AlAsSb Digital Alloy and Random Alloy on GaSb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Chau Juang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available III-(As, Sb alloys are building blocks for various advanced optoelectronic devices, but the growth of their ternary or quaternary materials are commonly limited by spontaneous formation of clusters and phase separations during alloying. Recently, digital alloy growth by molecular beam epitaxy has been widely adopted in preference to conventional random alloy growth because of the extra degree of control offered by the ordered alloying. In this article, we provide a comparative study of the optical characteristics of AlAsSb alloys grown lattice-matched to GaSb using both techniques. The sample grown by digital alloy technique showed stronger photoluminescence intensity, narrower peak linewidth, and larger carrier activation energy than the random alloy technique, indicating an improved optical quality with lower density of non-radiative recombination centers. In addition, a relatively long carrier lifetime was observed from the digital alloy sample, consistent with the results obtained from the photoluminescence study.

  19. Realism in paediatric emergency simulations: A prospective comparison of in situ, low fidelity and centre-based, high fidelity scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Fenton; Pegiazoglou, Ioannis; McGarvey, Kathryn; Novakov, Ruza; Wolfsberger, Ingrid; Peat, Jennifer

    2017-11-16

    To measure scenario participant and faculty self-reported realism, engagement and learning for the low fidelity, in situ simulations and compare this to high fidelity, centre-based simulations. A prospective survey of scenario participants and faculty completing in situ and centre-based paediatric simulations. There were 382 responses, 276 from scenario participants and 106 from faculty with 241 responses from in situ and 141 from centre-based simulations. Scenario participant responses showed significantly higher ratings for the centre-based simulations for respiratory rate (P = 0.007), pulse (P = 0.036), breath sounds (P = 0.002), heart sounds (P realism for engagement and learning. © 2017 The Authors Emergency Medicine Australasia published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  20. THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE SECOND STAGE OF LABOR TO PELVIC FLOOR DYSFUNCTION: A PROSPECTIVE COHORT COMPARISON OF NULLIPAROUS WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, RG; Leeman, LM; Borders, Noelle; Qualls, Clifford; Fullilove, Anne M; Teaf, Dusty; Hall, Rebecca J; Bedrick, Edward; Albers, Leah L

    2015-01-01

    Objective Maternal expulsive efforts are thought to damage the pelvic floor. We aimed to compare pelvic floor function and anatomy between women who delivered vaginally (VB) versus cesarean (CD) without entering the second stage of labor. Design Prospective cohort Setting University Hospital Midwifery practice Population Nulliparas Methods Pregnant nulliparas were recruited during pregnancy and women who underwent CD prior to the 2nd stage of labor at birth were recruited immediately postpartum. Both groups were prospectively followed to 6 months postpartum. Main Outcome Measures POPQ, perineal ultrasound(U/S) and Paper Towel Test(PTT), an objective measure of stress incontinence; Incontinence Severity Index(ISI), Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire(PFIQ-7), Wexner Fecal Incontinence Scale(W) and Female Sexual Function Index(FSFI) Results 336/448(75%)VB and 138/224(62%)CD followed up. The VB group was younger (23.9+/−4.9 vs 26.6+/−6.1 years, P.05). At followup, urinary incontinence (UI)(55 vs 46% ISI>0, P=.10), fecal incontinence(FI) (8 vs 13% FI on W, P = .12), sexual activity rates(88 vs 92%, P=.18) and PFIQ-7 scores were similar. Positive PTT tests(17 vs 6%, P=.002) and ≥Stage 2 prolapse (22 vs 15%, P=.03) were higher with VB; differences were limited to points Aa and Ba. U/S findings were not different between groups. Stepwise multivariate analyses controlling for age, BMI, and non-Hispanic White race for prolapse of points Aa and Ba did not alter conclusions (all P pelvic floor dysfunction at 6 months postpartum compared to women who delivered by CD without the second stage of labor. The second stage of labor has a modest effect on postpartum pelvic floor function. PMID:24548705

  1. Comparison of abdominal adiposity and overall obesity in relation to risk of small intestinal cancer in a European Prospective Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunxia; Cross, Amanda J; Murphy, Neil; Freisling, Heinz; Travis, Ruth C; Ferrari, Pietro; Katzke, Verena A; Kaaks, Rudolf; Olsson, Åsa; Johansson, Ingegerd; Renström, Frida; Panico, Salvatore; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Siersema, Peter D; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Tsironis, Christos; Agudo, Antonio; Navarro, Carmen; Sánchez, María-José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio

    2016-07-01

    The etiology of small intestinal cancer (SIC) is largely unknown, and there are very few epidemiological studies published to date. No studies have investigated abdominal adiposity in relation to SIC. We investigated overall obesity and abdominal adiposity in relation to SIC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a large prospective cohort of approximately half a million men and women from ten European countries. Overall obesity and abdominal obesity were assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Stratified analyses were conducted by sex, BMI, and smoking status. During an average of 13.9 years of follow-up, 131 incident cases of SIC (including 41 adenocarcinomas, 44 malignant carcinoid tumors, 15 sarcomas and 10 lymphomas, and 21 unknown histology) were identified. WC was positively associated with SIC in a crude model that also included BMI (HR per 5-cm increase = 1.20, 95 % CI 1.04, 1.39), but this association attenuated in the multivariable model (HR 1.18, 95 % CI 0.98, 1.42). However, the association between WC and SIC was strengthened when the analysis was restricted to adenocarcinoma of the small intestine (multivariable HR adjusted for BMI = 1.56, 95 % CI 1.11, 2.17). There were no other significant associations. WC, rather than BMI, may be positively associated with adenocarcinomas but not carcinoid tumors of the small intestine. Abdominal obesity is a potential risk factor for adenocarcinoma in the small intestine.

  2. Prospective, randomized, contralateral eye comparison of tetracaine and proparacaine for pain control in laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirfar M

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar,1 Mark D Mifflin,1 Michael V McCaughey,2 Adam J Gess1 1John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM, USA Background: Tetracaine and proparacaine are two of the most commonly used medications for providing topical anesthesia in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK. These agents have not been previously compared in a prospective manner to determine their efficacy in these settings. Methods: This prospective, single-masked, randomized study comprised 256 eyes from 128 consecutive patients being treated with LASIK or PRK who were randomized to receive tetracaine in one eye and proparacaine in the other. The patients were blinded as to which anesthetic agent was used in each eye. Pain levels were graded on a 0–10 scale, and were assessed upon instillation, during surgery, immediately postoperatively, 30 minutes postoperatively, overnight, and on postoperative day 1. Patients were asked 30 minutes after surgery which anesthetic agent they would choose. Results: Both anesthetic agents resulted in diminished amounts of subjective pain in patients undergoing LASIK and PRK. Tetracaine caused significantly more pain upon instillation than proparacaine for both LASIK and PRK patients. LASIK patients noted significantly less pain 30 minutes after surgery when treated with tetracaine. Significantly more LASIK patients preferred the eye treated with tetracaine. These differences were not present in the PRK group. Conclusion: Both tetracaine and proparacaine are effective methods of topical anesthesia in LASIK and PRK. Tetracaine caused significantly more pain upon instillation in all patients, but resulted in greater analgesia 30 minutes after surgery in the LASIK group. Patients in the LASIK group expressed a preference for tetracaine over proparacaine. There was no significant drop preference among PRK patients

  3. Comparison of 2 lumbar total disc replacements: results of a prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter Food and Drug Administration trial with 24-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Richard D; Pettine, Kenneth; Roh, Jeffrey S; Dimmig, Thomas A; Coric, Domagoj; McAfee, Paul C; Ohnmeiss, Donna D

    2014-05-20

    This was a prospective, randomized, controlled multicenter study with 24-month follow-up. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy in a Food and Drug Administration Investigation Device Exemption of a new lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) by comparing it to an earlier TDR approved for sale. Randomized trials have reported TDR to produce results similar or superior to lumbar fusion. Results for various TDRs seem to be similar, but differences in study design and outcome measures pose challenges in definitively comparing devices. The purpose of this study was to perform a direct comparison of 2 lumbar TDRs in a prospective, randomized trial. TDR was performed in 457 patients from 21 sites (261 patients in the investigational group (Kineflex-L Disc; metal-on-metal design anchored with keels, 204 randomized and 57 nonrandomized training cases), and 196 in the control group (CHARITE artificial disc; metal with polyethylene core with teeth for anchoring; 190 randomized and 6 nonrandomized training cases). All patients were treated nonoperatively for single-level symptomatic disc degeneration for at least 6 months prior to surgery. Perioperative data were collected. Clinical outcome data were collected prospectively, as approved by the Food and Drug Administration, through 24-month follow-up. Primary outcome measures used were the Oswestry Disability Index, visual analogue scales assessing pain, patient satisfaction, and reoperations. Success was defined to be at least 15-point improvements in Oswestry Disability Index scores, no reoperation, and no major adverse events. Radiographical measures included range of motion, disc space height, and assessment for device migration, subsidence, and fusion at the TDR level. There were no significant differences between the groups when comparing operative time, blood loss, or length of hospital stay. Both groups improved significantly on Oswestry Disability Index and visual analogue scale scores (P < 0

  4. Study of the influence of semiconductor material parameters on acoustic wave propagation modes in GaSb/AlSb bi-layered structures by Legendre polynomial method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othmani, Cherif, E-mail: othmanicheriffss@gmail.com; Takali, Farid; Njeh, Anouar; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi

    2016-09-01

    The propagation of Rayleigh–Lamb waves in bi-layered structures is studied. For this purpose, an extension of the Legendre polynomial (LP) method is proposed to formulate the acoustic wave equation in the bi-layered structures induced by thin film Gallium Antimonide (GaSb) and with Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb) substrate in moderate thickness. Acoustic modes propagating along a bi-layer plate are shown to be quite different than classical Lamb modes, contrary to most of the multilayered structures. The validation of the LP method is illustrated by a comparison between the associated numerical results and those obtained using the ordinary differential equation (ODE) method. The convergency of the LP method is discussed through a numerical example. Moreover, the influences of thin film GaSb parameters on the characteristics Rayleigh–Lamb waves propagation has been studied in detail. Finally, the advantages of the Legendre polynomial (LP) method to analyze the multilayered structures are described. All the developments performed in this work were implemented in Matlab software.

  5. Study of dual color infrared photodetection from n-GaSb/n-InAsSb heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinchao Tong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report detailed investigation of n-GaSb/n-InAsSb heterostructure photodetectors for infrared photodetection at different temperatures and biases. Our results show that the heterostructure photodetectors are capable of dual color photodetections at a fixed forward bias with its highest responsivity occurred at room temperature; With the decrease of the forward bias, a turning point, at which the photocurrent changes its direction, exist and the corresponding voltage values increases with the decrease of temperature; At all reverse biases, the photocurrents flow in the same direction but the maximum current occurs at about 205 K. A new model is proposed, which can well explain all the observations.

  6. MBE growth of HgCdTe on GaSb substrates for application in next generation infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, R.; Antoszewski, J.; Lei, W.; Madni, I.; Umana-Membrenao, G.; Faraone, L.

    2017-06-01

    HgCdTe has dominated the high performance end of the IR detector market for decades. At present, the cost to fabricate HgCdTe based advanced infrared devices is relatively high. One approach to address this problem is to use cost effective alternative substrate, mainly Si and GaAs. Recently, GaSb has emerged as a new alternative with better lattice matching. In this paper, recent progress in molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of HgCdTe infrared material at UWA is reported. HgCdTe has been grown on GaSb substrates by MBE, and has shown a lower Etch Pit Density (EPD) and higher minority carrier lifetime in comparison to other alternative substrates. This result makes GaSb an interesting and promising alternative substrate material for HgCdTe epitaxy.

  7. Time course of arthralgia among women initiating aromatase inhibitor therapy and a postmenopausal comparison group in a prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Liana D; Hartmann, Katherine E; Mayer, Ingrid A; Saville, Benjamin R; Alvarez, JoAnn; Boomershine, Chad S; Abramson, Vandana G; Chakravarthy, A Bapsi; Friedman, Debra L; Cella, David F

    2013-07-01

    More than 80,000 postmenopausal breast cancer patients in the United States each year are estimated to begin a 5-year course of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) to prevent recurrence. AI-related arthralgia (joint pain and/or stiffness) may contribute to nonadherence, but longitudinal data are needed on arthralgia risk factors, trajectories, and background in postmenopause. This study sought to describe 1-year arthralgia trajectories and baseline covariates among patients with AI and a postmenopausal comparison group. Patients initiating AIs (n = 91) were surveyed at the time of AI initiation and at 6 repeated assessments over 1 year. A comparison group of postmenopausal women without breast cancer (n = 177) completed concomitantly timed surveys. Numeric rating scales (0-10) were used to measure pain in 8 joint pair groups (bilateral fingers, wrists, elbows, shoulders, hips, knees, ankles, and toes). Poisson regression models were used to analyze arthralgia trajectories and risk factors. By week 6, the AI-initiating group had more severe arthralgia than did the comparison group (ratio of means = 1.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.7, P = .002), adjusting for baseline characteristics. Arthralgia then worsened further over 1 year in the AI group. Menopausal symptom severity and existing joint-related comorbidity at baseline among women initiating AI were associated with more severe arthralgia over time. Patients initiating AI should be told about the timing of arthralgia over the first year of therapy, and advised that it does not appear to resolve over the course of a year. Menopausal symptoms and joint-related comorbidity at AI initiation can help identify patients at risk for developing AI-related arthralgia. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  8. Structural transformations in intermetallic electrodes for lithium batteries : an in situ XRD study of lithiated MnSb and Mn{sub 2}Sb.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, L. M. L.; Vaughey, J. T.; Edstrom, K.; Thackeray, M. M.; Chemical Engineering; Uppsala Univ.

    2003-01-01

    The electrochemical reactions of lithium with MnSb (NiAs-type structure) and Mn{sub 2}Sb (Cu{sub 2}Sb-type structure) have been investigated by in situ X-ray diffraction. Lithiation of MnSb proceeds via an intermediate LiMnSb structure before transforming, with Mn extrusion, to Li{sub 3}Sb. The reaction is reversible. On delithiation, the X-ray data show solid-solution behavior between Li{sub 3}Sb and LiMnSb, which is facilitated by the strong structural relationship between these two compounds. MnSb electrodes deliver a rechargeable capacity of 330 mAh/g when cycled between 1.5 and 0 V vs. metallic lithium. By contrast, the initial reaction of Mn{sub 2}Sb with lithium proceeds almost directly to Li{sub 3}Sb with little LiMnSb formation. Thereafter, Mn{sub 2}Sb electrodes behave in an almost identical manner to MnSb electrodes, but deliver a rechargeable capacity of less than 300 mAh/g because of the surplus Mn in the electrode. The electrochemical and structural properties of MnSb and Mn{sub 2}Sb are compared with the structurally related compounds Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} (NiAs-type structure) and Cu{sub 2}Sb, respectively.

  9. Contribution of the second stage of labour to pelvic floor dysfunction: a prospective cohort comparison of nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R G; Leeman, L M; Borders, N; Qualls, C; Fullilove, A M; Teaf, D; Hall, R J; Bedrick, E; Albers, L L

    2014-08-01

    Maternal expulsive efforts are thought to damage the pelvic floor. We aimed to compare pelvic floor function and anatomy between women who delivered vaginally (VB) versus those with caesarean delivery (CD) prior to the second stage of labour. Prospective cohort. University Hospital Midwifery practice. Nulliparas. Pregnant nulliparas were recruited during pregnancy and women who underwent CD prior to the 2nd stage of labour at birth were recruited immediately postpartum. Both groups were followed prospectively to 6 months postpartum. POPQ, perineal ultrasound (U/S) and Paper Towel Test (PTT), an objective measure of stress incontinence; Incontinence Severity Index (ISI), Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ-7), Wexner Fecal Incontinence Scale (W) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). 336/448 (75%) VB and 138/224 (62%) CD followed up. The VB group was younger (23.9 ± 4.9 versus 26.6 ± 6.1 years, P  0.05). At follow-up, urinary incontinence (UI) (55 versus 46% ISI > 0, P = 0.10), fecal incontinence (FI) (8 versus 13% FI on W, P = 0.12), sexual activity rates (88 versus 92%, P = 0.18) and PFIQ-seven scores were similar. Positive PTT tests (17 versus 6%, P = 0.002) and ≥ Stage 2 prolapse (22 versus 15%, P = 0.03) were higher with VB; differences were limited to points Aa and Ba. U/S findings were not different between groups. Stepwise multivariate analyses controlling for age, body mass index, and non-Hispanic White race for prolapse of points Aa and Ba did not alter conclusions (all P pelvic floor dysfunction at 6 months postpartum compared with women who delivered by CD prior to the second stage of labour. The second stage of labour had a modest effect on postpartum pelvic floor function. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Comparison of two picosecond lasers to a nanosecond laser for treating tattoos: a prospective randomized study on 49 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorgeou, A; Perrillat, Y; Gral, N; Lagrange, S; Lacour, J-P; Passeron, T

    2017-07-31

    Q-switched nanosecond lasers demonstrated their efficacy in treating most types of tattoos, but complete disappearance is not always achieved even after performing numerous laser sessions. Picosecond lasers are supposed to be more efficient in clearing tattoos than nanosecond lasers, but prospective comparative data remain limited. To compare on different types of tattoos the efficacy of a nanosecond laser with two types of picosecond lasers. We conducted a prospective randomized study performed from December 2014 to June 2016 on adult patients with all types of tattoos. The tattoos were divided into two halves of equal size. After randomization, half of the tattoo was treated with a picosecond laser and the other half with a nanosecond laser. The evaluation was performed on standardized pictures performed before treatment and 2 months after the last session, by two physicians, not involved in the treatment, blinded on the type of treatments received. The main end point was a clearance above 75% of the tattoos. A total of 49 patients were included. Professional tattoos represented 85.7%, permanent make-up 8.2% and non-professional tattoo 6.1%. The majority were black or blue and 10.2% were polychromatic. No patient was lost during follow-up. A reduction of 75% or more of the colour intensity was obtained for 33% of the tattoos treated with the picosecond lasers compared to 14% with the nanosecond laser (P = 0.008). An improvement superior to 75% was obtained in 34% monochromic black or blue tattoos with the picosecond lasers compared to 9% for the nanosecond laser. Only one of the five polychromic tattoos achieved more than 75% of improvement with the two types of laser. Our results show a statistically significant superiority of the picosecond lasers compared to the nanosecond laser for tattoo clearance. However, they do not show better efficacy for polychromic tattoos and the difference in terms of side-effects was also minimal with a tendency of picosecond

  11. Efficacy and safety of fosfomycin-trometamol in the prophylaxis for transrectal prostate biopsy. Prospective randomized comparison with ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, F; Redondo, C; Meilán, E; García-Tello, A; Ramón de Fata, F; Angulo, J C

    2014-01-01

    Prostate biopsy is the standardized diagnostic method for prostate cancer. However, although there is not a standardized protocol, there are recommendations in order to reduce the incidence of complications. The objective of the present work is to assess the efficacy and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis in the prostate biopsy by comparing two antibiotic regimes: two doses of fosfomycin-trometamol 3g (FMT) every 48 hours with 10 doses of oral ciprofloxacin 500 mg every 12 hours during 5 days. Randomized prospective study was performed with 671 patients who had undergone to walking transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. Patients of group A (n=312) were treated with ciprofloxacin, and patients of group B (n=359) with FMT. Efficacy and tolerability of two prophylactic regimes were compared. Urine culture was carried out at 2 weeks after biopsy. Initially, patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria were not treated with antibiotics; urine culture was repeated after 1 month, persistent bacteriuria was treated according to antibiogram. No differences between groups were found in age (P=.78), cancer presence (P=.9) or number of biopsy cylinders (P=.93). The mean number of cores obtained was 11.3 ± 3.25 (range 6-20). Digestive intolerance was observed for 9 patients (2.9%) of group A and 10 patients (2.8%) in group B. One patient (.3%) of group A showed severe allergic reaction. In total, 167 patients (24.6%) had complications: 16 (2.4%) fever, 47 (6.9%) hemospermia, 81 (11.9%) hematuria, 7 (1%) rectal bleeding and 16 (2.4%) urinary retention. No statistically differences between groups were observed (27.6% vs. 22.6%; P=.17). However, hemospermia was more frequent in group A (9.9% vs. 4.5%; P=.006). Bacteriuria after biopsy was detected in 44 patients (6.6%), being more frequent in group B patients (4.2% vs. 8.6%; P=.02) although a higher number of second treatment cycles were not needed (53.9% vs. 29%; P=.17). The likelihood of resistance to ciprofloxacin in patients

  12. Crystal structure of Ba5In4Sb6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yan Pan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, pentabarium tetraindium hexaantimony, was synthesized by an indium-flux reaction and its structure features layers composed of edge-sharing In2Sb6 units. The voids between the In4Sb6 layers are filled by Ba2+ cations, which are all surrounded by six Sb atoms and form bicapped octahedral or triangular prismatic coordination geometries. There are five barium ions in the asymmetric unit: one has no imposed crystallographic symmetry, two lie on mirror planes and two have mm2 point symmetry. The two In atoms and four Sb atoms in the asymmetric unit all lie on general crystallographic positions.

  13. Large-scale synthesis of double cauliflower-like Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} microcrystallines by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lei [Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Ministry of Education (China); Xu, Hanyue [School of Electronic and Optical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Han, Qiaofeng, E-mail: hanqiaofeng@njust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Ministry of Education (China); Wang, Xin [Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Ministry of Education (China)

    2013-09-25

    Highlights: •Highly uniform double cauliflower-like Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} particles were synthesized via hydrothermal method. •Influence of reaction conditions on the morphology of the products was discussed. •Double cauliflower-like Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} superstructures revealed broad spectrum response. -- Abstract: The double cauliflower-like Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} superstructures assembled by nanorods were prepared using SbCl{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}S⋅9H{sub 2}O as raw materials, dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB, C{sub 15}H{sub 31}BrN) as surfactant under acidic condition at 180 °C for 30 h. The structure, morphology and composition of the product were characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy diffraction spectroscopy (EDS). The effect of reaction conditions including temperature, reaction time and surfactants on the sample morphology was discussed and a possible mechanism for the formation of cauliflower-like Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} was proposed. The cauliflower-like Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} microcrystallines revealed broad spectrum response, which may have a good application prospect in solar energy utilization and photoelectric conversion fields.

  14. Prospective randomized comparison of two embryo culture systems: P1 medium by Irvine Scientific and the Cook IVF Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Amit, Ami; Azem, Foad; Schwartz, Tamar; Cohen, Tania; Mei-Raz, Nava; Carmon, Ariela; Lessing, Joseph B; Yaron, Yuval

    2004-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of two commercially available in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo culture media systems: the glucose-free P1 Medium supplemented with 20% synthetic serum substitute (SSS) (Irvine Scientific), and the Cook IVF Medium (Cook, Australia). A prospective randomized study. Medical center-based IVF Unit affiliated to the Faculty of Medicine of Tel Aviv University. IVF patients were randomly assigned to either P1 Medium supplemented with 20% SSS (182 patients, 196 cycles) or Cook Medium (167 patients, 179 cycles). Fertilization rates were similar with both media (52.3 +/- 26.1 and 53.8 +/- 27.6, respectively). Likewise, no difference was found in morphological characteristics and grading of cultured embryos. However, a significantly higher proportion of the embryos incubated in the P1 Medium reached the four-cell stage on day 2 or the 6-cell stage on day 3 postfertilization, compared to those incubated in Cook Medium (54.3% vs. 41.9%, p < 0.0001). Clinical pregnancy and delivery rates were improved when oocytes and embryos were cultured in P1 Medium. Finally, Implantation rate was significantly higher in the P1 Medium Group (9.9% vs. 6%, respectively). Our results suggest that the P1 Medium may be associated with a higher embryo cleavage rate and improved implantation rates compared to the Cook IVF Medium.

  15. The modified ultra-mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy technique and comparison with standard nephrolithotomy: a randomized prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakan, Tolga; Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Yildiz, Yildiray; Yuceturk, Cem Nedim; Bagcioglu, Murat; Karagöz, Mehmet Ali; Bas, Okan; Resorlu, Berkan

    2017-04-01

    To compare the success and complications of ultra-mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy (UPNL) and standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy (SPNL) techniques. We prospectively analyzed 50 patients who underwent SPNL, and 47 patients who underwent UPNL. The patients with a stone size equal to or smaller than 25 mm and we used flipping a coin as the randomization technique. The mean stone size was 20.9 ± 3.6 mm in SPNL, and 20.3 ± 3.0 mm in ultra-mini PNL groups. Stone free rates were 88 % (44/50 patients) and 89.3 % (42/47 patients) in SPNL and UPNL groups, respectively, without any significant difference in between (p = 0.33). No major complications were seen in the UPNL group. PNL has been modified into micro PNL and UPNL parallel to the technological advances to decrease the complications of PNL. When performed as we do UPNL may be an alternative method to SPNL without any additional smaller-calibred nephroscope and with a similar high success rate.

  16. Combination chemotherapy for metastatic breast carcinoma. Prospective comparison of multiple drug therapy with L-phenylalanine mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canellos, G P; Pocock, S J; Taylor, S G; Sears, M E; Klaasen, D J; Band, P R

    1976-11-01

    A prospective randomized clinical trial was undertaken in 184 patients with metastatic breast carcinoma to compare single drug chemotherapy with L-phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) and intermittent combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluourouracil (CMF). All patients had not been previously treated with cytotoxic drugs and all had objectively measurable visceral of soft tissue disease. Of the 93 patients who received CMF, 49 (53%) achieved a complete (14 patients) or partial (35 patients) regression of measurable tumor, for a median duration of 25 weeks. Eighteen of the 91 patients (20%) treated with L-PAM responded, for a median duration of 13 weeks. The toxicity was primarily hematologic, and greater in the CMF group, which also received more cycles of therapy because of the higher rate and duration of response. The overall survival of CMF-treated patients was superior to that of the single drug group. The differences were even greater when the patients were subclassified according to the presence of liver involvement or nonambulatory performance status. The superior antitumor effect of CMF over L-PAM suggests that it may be a more effective drug regimen to be used as an adjuvant to primary therapy.

  17. A prospective randomized comparison of continuous hemihepatic with intermittent total hepatic inflow occlusion in hepatectomy for liver tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guanlin; Wen, Tianfu; Yan, Lunan; Li, B O; Wu, Guochang; Yang, Jian; Lu, Bo; Chen, Zheyu; Liao, Zhixue; Ran, Shun; Yu, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether continuous hemihepatic inflow occlusion (HHO) during hepatectomy can be safer than and be as effective as intermittent total hepatic inflow occlusion (THO) in reducing blood loss. Eighty patients undergoing liver resections were included in a prospective randomized study comparing the intra- and postoperative course under THO (n=40) or HHO (n=40). THO was performed with periods of 20 minutes of occlusion and 5 minutes of releasing, while HHO was performed with continuous occlusion. The surface area of liver transection, amount of blood loss, measurements of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and postoperative evolution were recorded. The two groups were similar at entry in terms of preoperative liver function and in the proportion of patients experiencing major hepatectomy. The total ischemic time of the two groups was similar (p=0.37), but the operative time in the THO group was longer than in the HHO group (p=0.02). No significant difference was found between the HHO and THO group in blood loss during liver parenchyma transection (p=0.14), the elevations of ALT and AST on the first postoperative day (ALT: p=0.12; AST: p=0.66) and postoperative morbidity (p=0.35). On the basis of our findings, if it is feasible, continuous HHO is recommended for complex liver resection.

  18. A prospective randomized comparison of neoprene vs thermoplast hand-based thumb spica splinting for trapeziometacarpal arthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, S J E; Bot, A G J; Curley, S E; Jupiter, J B; Ring, D

    2013-05-01

    In patients with trapeziometacarpal arthrosis, we tested the hypothesis that there is no difference in arm-specific disability 5-15 weeks after prescription of a pre-fabricated neoprene or a custom-made thermoplast hand-based thumb spica splint with the metacarpophalangeal joint included and the first interphalangeal joint free. One hundred nineteen patients with a diagnosis of trapeziometacarpal arthrosis were prospectively randomized to wear either a neoprene or a thermoplast hand-based thumb spica splint. At enrollment, patients completed a set of validated questionnaires. An average of 9 weeks later, patients returned for a second visit. Bivariable analyses assessed factors associated with disability, pain and satisfaction. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Sixty-two patients (32 with a neoprene and 30 with a thermoplast splint) completed the study, 51 patients (43%) did not return for the second visit, and six did not complete the protocol for other reasons. Non-completers were significantly younger than completers (P types in our sample. When compared to custom-made thermoplast splints, pre-fabricated neoprene hand-based thumb spica splints are, on average, more comfortable, less expensive, and as effective in treating trapeziometacarpal arthrosis. This trial was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00438763). Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparison of injuries in elite male and female football players: A five-season prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larruskain, J; Lekue, J A; Diaz, N; Odriozola, A; Gil, S M

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to compare the epidemiology of injuries between elite male and female football players from the same club. Injuries and individual exposure time in a male team and a female team, both playing in the Spanish first division, were prospectively recorded by the club's medical staff for five seasons (2010-2015) following the FIFA consensus statement. Total, training, and match exposure hours per player-season were 20% higher for men compared to women (Ppubalgia cases were 1.93 (95% CI 1.16-3.20) and 11.10 (95% CI 1.48-83.44) times more frequent in men, respectively; whereas quadriceps strains, anterior cruciate ligament ruptures, and ankle syndesmosis injuries were 2.25 (95% CI 1.22-4.17), 4.59 (95% CI 0.93-22.76), and 5.36 (95% CI 1.11-25.79) times more common in women, respectively. In conclusion, prevention strategies should be tailored to the needs of male and female football players, with men more predisposed to hamstring strains and hip/groin injuries, and women to quadriceps strains and severe knee and ankle ligament injuries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A one year prospective comparison of kidney growth and function in children recipients of grafts from children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltran, Luciana de Santis; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar Koch; Silva, Frederico Adolfo Benevides; Ajzen, Sergio Aron; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro

    2010-10-15

    Renal grafts have demonstrated capacity to adapt to the recipient. The aim of this study was to assess the growth of renal grafts transplanted to children, during the first year posttransplant. We conducted a 1 year prospective study comparing the growth of renal grafts from children and adults donors transplanted in children, and correlated this growth with graft function. Two groups were studied: (a) group 1-32 children transplanted with pediatric deceased kidneys from donors younger than 16 years and (b) group 2-31 children transplanted with organs from adult living donors. Anthropometric assessment, sonographic measurement of the graft, and serum creatinine at 1 week, 1, 6, and 12 months posttransplantation were performed. Children from group 1 presented an 18% increase in graft volume after the sixth month of transplant, whereas in group 2 grafts presented a 14% reduction in volume, mainly during the first month; the variation in renal diameters was not uniform. Children from group 1 presented a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increase during the follow-up (46-102 mL/min/1.73 m). After 1 year, GFR and graft volume were similar. Growth of individuals from both groups was comparable. In the short term, pediatric kidneys raise volume and GFR, whereas adult kidneys slightly lower volume and GFR when transplanted in children. Taking our and other studies results into consideration, we can hypothesize that in addition to compensatory hypertrophy, pediatric grafts are likely capable of continued somatic growth.

  1. PONV in Ambulatory surgery: A comparison between Ramosetron and Ondansetron: a prospective, double-blinded, and randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Banerjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV frequently hampers implementation of ambulatory surgery in spite of so many antiemetic drugs and regimens. Aims: the study was carried out to compare the efficacy of Ramosetron and Ondansetron in preventing PONV after ambulatory surgery. Setting and Design: it was a prospective, double blinded, and randomized controlled study. Methods: 124 adult patients of either sex, aged 25-55, of ASA physical status I and II, scheduled for day care surgery, were randomly allocated into Group A [(n=62 receiving (IV Ondansetron (4 mg] and Group B [(n=62 receiving IV Ramosetron (0.3 mg] prior to the induction of general anesthesia in a double-blind manner. Episodes of PONV were noted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 h, 6 , 12, and 18 h postoperatively. Statistical Analysis and Results: statistically significant difference between Groups A and B (P <0.05 was found showing that Ramosetron was superior to Ondansetron as antiemetic both regarding frequency and severity. Conclusion: it was evident that preoperative prophylactic administration of single dose IV Ramosetron (0.3 mg has better efficacy than single dose IV Ondansetron (4 mg in reducing the episodes of PONV over 18 h postoperatively in patients undergoing day-care surgery under general anesthesia.

  2. A prospective comparison of pedal ergometry with conventional treadmill testing in the investigation of lower extremity pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manning, B J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Investigation of lower extremity pain is compromised by comorbid disorders that may interfere with conventional testing. AIMS: To compare pedal ergometry with conventional treadmill testing. METHODS: A prospective study was performed where patients presenting with a diagnosis of intermittent claudication were assessed by both methods of testing. RESULTS: Of 78 patients studied with both tests, no exercise-induced ankle pressure changes occurred in 26, two were unable to complete either test despite normal pressure measurements, while 24 had exercise-induced pressure drop detected by both tests. Of patients who completed pedal ergometry, 21 were unable to complete the treadmill test, 14 of whom had negative ergometry, while seven had a pressure drop detected by pedal ergometry. Three had pressure changes with pedal ergometry, but not with treadmill testing and two had pressure changes on the treadmill not reproduced by pedal ergometry. CONCLUSIONS: Pedal ergometer is more sensitive than treadmill testing in detecting arterial insufficiency, as indicated by a 20% or greater fall in ankle pressure, and more suitable in a subgroup of patients unable to tolerate conventional treadmill testing.

  3. Detectability of liver metastases in malignant melanoma: prospective comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, Nadir [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg 79106 (Germany)]. E-mail: gha@mrs1.ukl.uni-freiburg.de; Altehoefer, Carsten [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg 79106 (Germany); Hoegerle, Stefan [Departments of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany); Nitzsche, Egbert [Departments of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany); Lohrmann, Christian [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg 79106 (Germany); Schaefer, Oliver [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg 79106 (Germany); Kotter, Elmar [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg 79106 (Germany); Langer, Mathias [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg 79106 (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) for detection of liver metastases in malignant melanoma. Material and methods: Thirty-five patients with 39 combined unenhanced MRI and fluorine-18 deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) PET scans were prospectively studied. In discordant imaging findings final diagnosis was proven by clinical follow-up >6 months and demonstration of progressive liver metastases by at least one imaging method. Sensitivities and specificities were compared and the influence of lesion size and melanin content on diagnostic accuracy was determined. Results: MRI and PET were concordantly negative for presence and number of liver metastases in 28 patients and positive in four patients. PET and MRI were false positive in one patient each. In one patient MRI showed a single metastases not seen by PET and in one patient MRI demonstrated more metastases at the first examination. In follow-up investigations MRI revealed more metastases than PET in both patients. The sensitivities for lesion detection were 47% (16/34) for PET and 100% for MRI. Lesion detectability by PET was related to lesion size (P < 0.0001) but not to melanin content. Conclusion: MRI is more sensitive in the detection of liver metastases in patients with malignant melanoma. Small lesions are easily missed by PET, while melanin content does not influence detectability by PET.

  4. A comparison of a single or triple injection technique for ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block: a prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgagnés, Marie-Christine; Lévesque, Simon; Dion, Nicolas; Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Coté, Dany; Brassard, Jean; Nicole, Pierre C; Turgeon, Alexis F

    2009-08-01

    Good success rates have been reported with ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block using one or multiple injections of local anesthetic. We hypothesized that a separate injection of local anesthetics on each cord enhances the onset of complete sensory block. We designed this prospective randomized study to compare the rate of complete sensory block using one or three injections of local anesthetic. Patients scheduled for hand, wrist, or elbow surgery were included in this study. All blocks were performed under ultrasound guidance. In Group S (single injection), 30 mL of mepivacaine 1.5% was injected posterior to the axillary artery. In Group T (triple injections), 10 mL of mepivacaine 1.5% was injected on the posterior, medial, and lateral aspects of the axillary artery. Sensory block was evaluated every 3 min up to 30 min. The primary end point was the rate of complete sensory block at 15 min. Forty-nine and 51 patients were randomized in Groups S and T, respectively. The rate of complete sensory block was comparable at 15 min (Group S: 84%, Group T: 78%, P = 0.61) and at each time interval up to 30 min. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of complications between the two groups. The success rate and the onset of complete sensory block after ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block are not enhanced by a triple injection of local anesthetic compared with a single injection posterior to the axillary artery.

  5. Prospective and participatory integrated assessment of agricultural systems from farm to regional scales: Comparison of three modeling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmotte, Sylvestre; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Barbier, Jean-Marc; Wery, Jacques

    2013-11-15

    Evaluating the impacts of the development of alternative agricultural systems, such as organic or low-input cropping systems, in the context of an agricultural region requires the use of specific tools and methodologies. They should allow a prospective (using scenarios), multi-scale (taking into account the field, farm and regional level), integrated (notably multicriteria) and participatory assessment, abbreviated PIAAS (for Participatory Integrated Assessment of Agricultural System). In this paper, we compare the possible contribution to PIAAS of three modeling approaches i.e. Bio-Economic Modeling (BEM), Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) and statistical Land-Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) models. After a presentation of each approach, we analyze their advantages and drawbacks, and identify their possible complementarities for PIAAS. Statistical LUCC modeling is a suitable approach for multi-scale analysis of past changes and can be used to start discussion about the futures with stakeholders. BEM and ABM approaches have complementary features for scenarios assessment at different scales. While ABM has been widely used for participatory assessment, BEM has been rarely used satisfactorily in a participatory manner. On the basis of these results, we propose to combine these three approaches in a framework targeted to PIAAS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prospective Randomized Comparison of Locked Plates Versus Nonlocked Plates for the Treatment of High-Energy Pilon Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dʼHeurle, Albert; Kazemi, Namdar; Connelly, Camille; Wyrick, John D; Archdeacon, Michael T; Le, Theodore T

    2015-09-01

    To compare the radiographic and functional outcome of patients with high-energy pilon fractures treated with locked versus nonlocked plates. Randomized prospective trial. Academic level 1 trauma center. Between December 2006 and December 2008, 60 consecutive patients with 62 AO/OTA type A, B, and C tibial pilon fractures were enrolled in the study. Thirty-two of the fractures were treated using locked plates and 29 were treated with nonlocked plates. Follow-up data were available for 33 of the 60 patients. Treatment with locked versus nonlocked plates. Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale (AHS). Radiographic measurements on anteroposterior and lateral views for the quality of reduction and maintenance of alignment immediately postoperatively compared with the latest follow-up. There were no significant differences in the mechanism or injury pattern, average age of the patients, ratio of males to females, tourniquet time, operative time, interval to surgery, AHS, or SMFA scores. One of 15 fractures in the locked plate group lost reduction at the latest follow-up compared with 3 of 19 fractures in the nonlocked group. In this study, there seems to be no difference between the 2 constructs. Thus, one must question the routine use of locked plates in the treatment of high-energy pilon fractures. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  7. Synthesis of B–Sb by rapid thermal annealing of B/Sb multilayer films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    layer with predetermined thickness of boron and antimony and subsequently subjecting the multilayer to rapid thermal annealing. The films were characterized by measuring microstructural, optical and compositional properties. 2. Experimental. Multilayer films of B and Sb were deposited onto Si and fused silica substrates ...

  8. Strained InGaSb/AlGa(As)Sb Quantum Wells for p-Channel Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brian R.; Podpirka, Adrian A.; Boos, J. B.; Kumar, Satvika L.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum wells of InGaSb clad by AlGa(As)Sb were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Well and barrier compositions were chosen to yield biaxial compressive strain and enhanced hole mobility in the InGaSb. Wells with thickness of 7.5 nm exhibited room-temperature mobilities of 1000 cm2/V s to 1100 cm2/V s, with the surface-layer material influencing two-dimensional hole densities. The introduction of As into the barrier material allows a wider range of p-channel well/barrier combinations and lattice constants. These could be compatible with n-channel InGaAs wells for complementary field-effect transistor circuits which utilize a common buffer layer. InGaSb wells with thicknesses of 20 nm to 30 nm and compressive strains of 1.0% to 1.5% exhibited hole mobilities of 700 cm2/V s to 900 cm2/V s.

  9. A prospective comparison of telemedicine versus in-person delivery of an interprofessional education program for adults with inflammatory arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Carol A; Warmington, Kelly; Flewelling, Carol; Shupak, Rachel; Papachristos, Angelo; Jones, Caroline; Linton, Denise; Beaton, Dorcas E; Lineker, Sydney; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah

    2017-02-01

    Introduction We evaluated two modes of delivery of an inflammatory arthritis education program ("Prescription for Education" (RxEd)) in improving arthritis self-efficacy and other secondary outcomes. Methods We used a non-randomized, pre-post design to compare videoconferencing (R, remote using telemedicine) versus local (I, in-person) delivery of the program. Data were collected at baseline (T1), immediately following RxEd (T2), and at six months (T3). Self-report questionnaires served as the data collection tool. Measures included demographics, disorder-related, Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (SE), previous knowledge (Arthritis Community Research and Evaluation Unit (ACREU) rheumatoid arthritis knowledge questionnaire), coping efficacy, Illness Intrusiveness, and Effective Consumer Scale. Analysis included: baseline comparisons and longitudinal trends (R vs I groups); direct between-group comparisons; and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) analysis. Results A total of 123 persons attended the program (I: n = 36; R: n = 87) and 111 completed the baseline questionnaire (T1), with follow-up completed by 95% ( n = 117) at T2 and 62% ( n = 76) at T3. No significant baseline differences were found across patient characteristics and outcome measures. Both groups (R and I) showed immediate effect (improved arthritis SE, mean change (95% confidence interval (CI)): R 1.07 (0.67, 1.48); I 1.48 (0.74, 2.23)) after the program that diminished over six months (mean change (95% CI): R 0.45 (-0.1, 0.1); I 0.73 (-0.25, 1.7)). For each of the secondary outcomes, both groups showed similar trends for improvement (mean change scores (95% CI)) over time. GEE analysis did not show any meaningful differences between groups (R vs I) over time. Discussion Improvements in arthritis self-efficacy and secondary outcomes displayed similar trends for I and R participant groups.

  10. Comparison of mechanical and femtosecond laser tunnel creation for intrastromal corneal ring segment implantation in keratoconus: prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubaloglu, Anil; Sari, Esin Sogutlu; Cinar, Yasin; Cingu, Kürşat; Koytak, Arif; Coşkun, Erol; Ozertürk, Yusuf

    2010-09-01

    To compare the outcomes of mechanical and femtosecond laser-assisted tunnel creation for intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation in eyes with keratoconus. Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. In this prospective study, consecutive eyes with keratoconus were randomly assigned to have ICRS tunnel creation with a mechanical device or a femtosecond laser. Keraring ICRS with a 5.0 mm diameter and 160-degree arc length were implanted in all cases. The uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, refraction, and keratometry (K) readings were measured preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively, and the data in the mechanical group and the femtosecond group were compared statistically. One year postoperatively, there was significant improvement in UDVA, CDVA, K readings, spherical equivalent (SE), and manifest sphere and cylinder in both groups (Pmechanical group and 2.0 lines in the femtosecond group and the CDVA by 3.3 lines and 2.7 lines, respectively; the mean reduction in maximum keratometry was 4.50 diopters (D) and 4.70 D, respectively, and the mean reduction in SE, 3.18 D and 3.09 D, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in visual or refractive results (P>.05). Anterior corneal perforation, superficial segment placement, and segment extrusion occurred in 1 eye each in the mechanical group. Segment migration occurred in 1 eye in the femtosecond group. Despite intraoperative complications in the mechanical group, the visual and refractive outcomes were similar to those in the femtosecond group. Copyright (c) 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prospective comparison of three bowel preparation regimens: fleet phosphosoda, two-liter and four-liter electrolyte lavage solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Tim S

    2008-10-01

    In an attempt to improve patients' tolerance for colon cleaning, three bowel preparation regimens: 90-mL Fleet phosphosoda (FPS), 2-L electrolyte lavage solution plus 20 mg oral bisacodyl, and 4-L lavage, were compared for efficacy and safety. A total of 912 patients were prospectively nonrandomized into three study groups. In Group A, 304 patients were given 45-mL Fleet phosphosoda at 9 AM and 6 PM the day before colonoscopy. In Group B, 304 patients were given four tablets of 5 mg bisacodyl at 12 PM the day before colonoscopy followed by 2 L electrolyte lavage by mouth at 6:00 PM the evening before colonoscopy. In Group C, 304 patients were given 4 L electrolyte lavage at 6:00 PM the evening before colonoscopy. All patients were kept on a clear liquid diet the day before colonoscopy. The bowel cleanliness was accessed by one colonoscopist. One registered nurse accessed the ease of the patient. In Group A (FPS), every patient finished the 90-mL Fleet phosphosoda. Colon cleanliness was 95.1 per cent. In Group B (2 L), three patients (0.6%) could not finish the laxative. Colon cleanliness was 95.9 per cent. In Group C (4 L), 22 patients (7.3%) could not finish the laxative preparation. Colon cleanliness was 95.3 per cent. The study found these three regimens can achieve equally good results of bowel preparation; however, the small volume laxative (FPS) has been accepted favorably by patients.

  12. Prospective comparison of liver stiffness measurements between two point wave elastography methods: Virtual ouch quantification and elastography point quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Dong Ho; Chang, Won; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To prospectively compare technical success rate and reliable measurements of virtual touch quantification (VTQ) elastography and elastography point quantification (ElastPQ), and to correlate liver stiffness (LS) measurements obtained by the two elastography techniques. Our study included 85 patients, 80 of whom were previously diagnosed with chronic liver disease. The technical success rate and reliable measurements of the two kinds of point shear wave elastography (pSWE) techniques were compared by χ{sup 2} analysis. LS values measured using the two techniques were compared and correlated via Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Spearman correlation coefficient, and 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement. The intraobserver reproducibility of ElastPQ was determined by 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The two pSWE techniques showed similar technical success rate (98.8% for VTQ vs. 95.3% for ElastPQ, p = 0.823) and reliable LS measurements (95.3% for VTQ vs. 90.6% for ElastPQ, p = 0.509). The mean LS measurements obtained by VTQ (1.71 ± 0.47 m/s) and ElastPQ (1.66 ± 0.41 m/s) were not significantly different (p = 0.209). The LS measurements obtained by the two techniques showed strong correlation (r = 0.820); in addition, the 95% limit of agreement of the two methods was 27.5% of the mean. Finally, the ICC of repeat ElastPQ measurements was 0.991. Virtual touch quantification and ElastPQ showed similar technical success rate and reliable measurements, with strongly correlated LS measurements. However, the two methods are not interchangeable due to the large limit of agreement.

  13. Comparison of Analytic Hierarchy Process, Catastrophe and Entropy techniques for evaluating groundwater prospect of hard-rock aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenifer, M. Annie; Jha, Madan K.

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater is a treasured underground resource, which plays a central role in sustainable water management. However, it being hidden and dynamic in nature, its sustainable development and management calls for precise quantification of this precious resource at an appropriate scale. This study demonstrates the efficacy of three GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques, viz., Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Catastrophe and Entropy in evaluating groundwater potential through a case study in hard-rock aquifer systems. Using satellite imagery and relevant field data, eight thematic layers (rainfall, land slope, drainage density, soil, lineament density, geology, proximity to surface water bodies and elevation) of the factors having significant influence on groundwater occurrence were prepared. These thematic layers and their features were assigned suitable weights based on the conceptual frameworks of AHP, Catastrophe and Entropy techniques and then they were integrated in the GIS environment to generate an integrated raster layer depicting groundwater potential index of the study area. The three groundwater prospect maps thus yielded by these MCDA techniques were verified using a novel approach (concept of 'Dynamic Groundwater Potential'). The validation results revealed that the groundwater potential predicted by the AHP technique has a pronounced accuracy of 87% compared to the Catastrophe (46% accuracy) and Entropy techniques (51% accuracy). It is concluded that the AHP technique is the most reliable for the assessment of groundwater resources followed by the Entropy method. The developed groundwater potential maps can serve as a scientific guideline for the cost-effective siting of wells and the effective planning of groundwater development at a catchment or basin scale.

  14. Human metapnuemovirus infections in hospitalized children and comparison with other respiratory viruses. 2005-2014 prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luz García-García

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (HMPV has an important etiological role in acute lower respiratory infections in children under five years. Our objectives were to estimate the relative contribution of HMPV to hospitalization in children with acute respiratory infection, to define the clinical and epidemiological features of HMPV single and multiple infections, and to compare HMPV infections with respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, rhinovirus (HRV, adenovirus and human bocavirus infections in the same population.A prospective study performed on all children less than 14 years of age with a respiratory tract disease admitted to a secondary hospital between September 2005- June 2014. Clinical characteristics of patients were analyzed. Nasopharyngeal aspirate was taken at admission for viral study with polymerase chain reaction for 16 respiratory viruses. A total of 3,906 children were included. At least one respiratory virus was detected in 75.2% of them. The most common identified virus was HRSV, followed by HRV. HMPV was detected in 214 cases (5.5%; 133 (62% were single infections and the remaining were detected in coinfection with other viruses. 90.7% cases were detected between February and May. Children's mean age was 13.83 ± 18 months. Fever was frequent (69%, and bronchiolitis (27%, and recurrent wheezing (63% were the main clinical diagnosis. Hypoxia was present in 65% of the patients and 47% of them had an infiltrate in X-ray. Only 6 (2.8% children were admitted to the intensive care unit. Only the duration of the hospitalization was different, being longer in the coinfections group (p <0.05. There were many differences in seasonality and clinical characteristics between HMPV and other respiratory viruses being more similar to HRSV.HMPV infections accounted for 5.5% of total viral infections in hospitalized children. The clinical characteristics were similar to HRSV infections, but seasonality and clinical data were different from other viral

  15. Preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer: prospective comparison of PET/MR and PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Chang Min; Yoon, Soon Ho; Paeng, Jin Chul; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Young Tae; Park, Young Sik

    2016-11-01

    To prospectively compare the accuracies of PET/MR and PET/CT in the preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Institutional review board approval and patients' informed consents were obtained. 45 patients with proven or radiologically suspected lung cancer which appeared to be resectable on CT were enrolled. PET/MR was performed for the preoperative staging of NSCLC followed by PET/CT without contrast enhancement on the same day. Dedicated MR images including diffusion weighted images were obtained. Readers assessed PET/MR and PET/CT with contrast-enhanced CT. Accuracies of PET/MR and PET/CT for NSCLC staging were compared. Primary tumour stages (n = 40) were correctly diagnosed in 32 patients (80.0 %) on PET/MR and in 32 patients (80.0 %) on PET/CT (P = 1.0). Node stages (n = 42) were correctly determined in 24 patients (57.1 %) on PET/MR and in 22 patients (52.4 %) on PET/CT (P = 0.683). Metastatic lesions in the brain, bone, liver, and pleura were detected in 6 patients (13.3 %). PET/MR missed one patient with pleural metastasis while PET/CT missed one patient with solitary brain metastasis and two patients with pleural metastases (P = 0.480). This study demonstrated that PET/MR in combination with contrast-enhanced CT was comparable to PET/CT in the preoperative staging of NSCLC while reducing radiation exposure. • PET/MR can be comparable to PET/CT for preoperative NSCLC staging. • PET/MR and PET/CT show excellent correlation in measuring SUVmax of primary lesions. • Using PET/MR, estimated radiation dose can decrease by 31.1 % compared with PET/CT.

  16. Comparison of the Mallampati Classification in Sitting and Supine Position to Predict Difficult Tracheal Intubation: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Bonnet, Vincent; Buléon, Clément; Simonet, Thérèse; Radenac, Dorothée; Zamparini, Guillaume; Fischer, Marc Olivier; Gérard, Jean-Louis

    2018-01-01

    The Mallampati classification (MLPT) is normally evaluated in the sitting position. However, many patients cannot be evaluated in the sitting position for medical reasons. Thus, we compared the MLPT in sitting and supine positions in predicting difficult tracheal intubation (DTI). We hypothesized that the diagnostic accuracy of the MLPT performed in sitting and supine positions would differ. We performed a single-center prospective observational study in adult patients who received general anesthesia and orotracheal intubation for noncardiac surgery. During the preanesthesia consultation, the MLPT in the sitting position was recorded. The day of surgery, the MLPT in the supine position and the difficulty of intubation (DTI) were recorded by an independent observer. The diagnostic performance of the MLPT for the prediction of DTI was evaluated in the sitting and supine positions through the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The performance of the Naguib score in predicting DTI was calculated with the MLPT in sitting and supine positions. Among the 3036 patients, 157 (5.1%) had DTI. The area under the ROC curve for the MLPT in supine position (0.82 [0.78-0.84]) was greater than that for the MLPT in the sitting position (0.70 [0.66-0.75]; P < .001). The relationship between the sitting and supine MLPTs was moderate (Spearman rank correlation coefficient: 0.50; P < .001). The area under ROC curve for predicting DTI by the Naguib score calculated with the supine MLPT (0.78 [95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.82]) was greater than that for the Naguib score calculated with MLPT in the sitting position (0.69 [95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.74)]; P < .001). The MLPT performed in the supine position is possibly superior to that performed in the sitting position for predicting difficult intubation in adults.

  17. Comparison of Misoprostol and Dinoprostone for elective induction of labour in nulliparous women at full term: A randomized prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefos Theodoros

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this randomized prospective study was to compare the efficacy of 50 mcg vaginal misoprostol and 3 mg dinoprostone, administered every nine hours for a maximum of three doses, for elective induction of labor in a specific cohort of nulliparous women with an unfavorable cervix and more than 40 weeks of gestation. Material and Methods One hundred and sixty-three pregnant women with more than 285 days of gestation were recruited and analyzed. The main outcome measures were time from induction to delivery and incidence of vaginal delivery within 12 and 24 hours. Admission rate to the neonatal intensive care unit within 24 hours post delivery was a secondary outcome. Results The induction-delivery interval was significantly lower in the misoprostol group than in the dinoprostone group (11.9 h vs. 15.5 h, p 0.05 but with the disadvantage of higher abnormal fetal heart rate (FHR tracings (22.5% vs. 12%, p > 0.05. From the misoprostol group more neonates were admitted to the intensive neonatal unit, than from the dinoprostone group (13.5% vs. 4.8%, p > 0.05. One woman had an unexplained stillbirth following the administration of one dose of dinoprostone. Conclusions Vaginal misoprostol, compared with dinoprostone in the regimens used, is more effective in elective inductions of labor beyond 40 weeks of gestation. Nevertheless, this is at the expense of more abnormal FHR tracings and more admissions to the neonatal unit, indicating that the faster approach is not necessarily the better approach to childbirth.

  18. Prospective comparison of unenhanced spiral computed tomography and intravenous urography in the evaluation of acute renal colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Hwia; Shen, Shu-Huei; Huang, Shan-Su; Chang, Cheng-Yen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the feasibility of replacing intravenous urography (IVU) with unenhanced computed tomography (CT) as the first line diagnostic modality for acute renal colic in the emergency department. In the 1-year study period, 82 patients who presented themselves to the emergency room with acute renal colic and who were suspected to have ureteral stones were included. They received both IVU and unenhanced CT on the same day. Sixty-six patients were proven to have ureteral stone. Four had other urologic pathology (acute pyelonephritis, angiomyolipoma with hemorrhage, ureteropelvic junction stenosis). The remaining 12 had no definite urologic problem. Among the 66 patients with ureteral stone, the sensitivity for detecting ureteral stone was 98.5% for unenhanced CT and 59.1% for IVU. Correct diagnosis could be obtained in most of the patients receiving unenhanced CT, while IVU could provide only limited information about the intra-abdominal pathology other than urologic system, and as many as 31.7% of the patients needed further imaging examination (sonography, CT, magnetic resonance imaging). In 5 patients, the relationship of the calcified spot and ureter were unclear on axial images. With curved multiplanar reformatted reconstruction, the diagnosis of ureter stone could be confidently made. No side effect (renal toxicity, allergic reaction) from intravenous administration of iodine-containing contrast medium should be taken into consideration in CT. Besides, the average examination time was 108 minutes for IVU, which was significantly more than the 30 minutes for CT, including the time for curved multiplanar reformatted reconstruction. We consider that unenhanced CT is more effective and efficient than IVU and should replace IVU as the first-line diagnostic tool for ureteral stone in the emergency department.

  19. Prospective comparison of unenhanced spiral computed tomography and intravenous urogram in the evaluation of acute flank pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, O F; Rineer, S K; Reichard, S R; Buckley, R G; Donovan, M S; Graham, I R; Goff, W B; Kane, C J

    1998-12-01

    To prospectively compare the diagnostic ability of unenhanced spiral computed tomography (NCCT) and intravenous urogram (IVU) in the evaluation of adults with acute flank pain. After giving informed consent, 106 adult patients with acute flank pain suspected of having urolithiasis underwent NCCT followed by IVU. Subsequent follow-up was scheduled within 72 hours in the Urology Clinic. Each NCCT was read by a single radiologist who was unaware of clinical history and IVU results. Each IVU was read by a different radiologist who was unaware of clinical history and NCCT results. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were determined for NCCT and IVU. The diagnosis of ureterolithiasis was defined as unequivocal evidence of urolithiasis on either NCCT or IVP. Seventy-five of 106 patients evaluated were diagnosed with ureterolithiasis. Clinical follow-up was available in 74 (98%) stone patients and in 31 (100%) of 31 non-stone patients. In 72 of the 75 patients diagnosed with ureteral calculi, the NCCT made the diagnosis. IVU made the diagnosis in 65 of the 75 patients. Of the 31 patients without ureterolithiasis, the NCCT was negative in all cases. IVU was negative in 29 of the 31 cases. Unenhanced spiral CT was 96% sensitive and 100% specific (P IVU was 87% sensitive and 94% specific (P IVU, using the log odds ratio and Fisher's exact test, NCCT was significantly better able to predict the presence of urolithiasis (P=0.015). NCCT accurately diagnoses ureterolithiasis in patients presenting with acute flank pain. NCCT is significantly better than IVU in determining the presence of urolithiasis.

  20. Detection of urothelial tumors: comparison of urothelial phase with excretory phase CT urography--a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metser, Ur; Goldstein, Mark A; Chawla, Tanya P; Fleshner, Neil E; Jacks, Lindsay M; O'Malley, Martin E

    2012-07-01

    To compare contrast material-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) urography 60 seconds after injection of contrast material (urothelial phase [UP]) after intravenous administration of a diuretic with the standard 5-minute delayed excretory phase (EP) in a high-risk population for upper tract tumors. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Eighty CT urographic examinations in 77 patients known to have or at high risk for urothelial malignancy were included. After intravenous administration of a diuretic, dual-phase CT urography was performed at 60 seconds (UP) and 5 minutes (EP) after intravenous administration of contrast material. Two experienced abdominal radiologists independently interpreted each phase more than 1 month apart to minimize recall bias. Urinary tract distention and location and size of all lesions suspected of being urothelial tumors were recorded. Standard of reference was obtained from prospective study interpretation and surgical histopathologic findings. Generalized estimating equations for logistic regression were used to compare performance measures and adjust for the correlation of repeated measures within patients. There were 23 upper and 61 lower urinary tract tumors confirmed in 15 and 32 patients, respectively. For detection of bladder tumors, there was higher sensitivity for the UP than the EP (89.3% [109 of 122] vs 70.5% [86 of 122], respectively; Purography after injection of a diuretic has a higher lesion detection rate than the EP for both upper and lower urinary tract tumors, which suggests its possible use as a single-phase protocol for evaluation of the entire urinary tract in patients at high risk for urothelial tumors. © RSNA, 2012.

  1. A comparison of rectilinear and truncated exponential biphasic waveforms in elective cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Charles D; Connelly, Stephanie; Wharton, Rupert; Yuen, Ho Ming

    2013-03-01

    Several different biphasic waveforms are used clinically, but few studies have compared their efficacy. The two main waveforms are the biphasic rectilinear (BR) and biphasic truncated exponential (BTE) waveforms, both of which have important differences, particularly at the extremes of transthoracic impedance. To compare the efficacy of two commonly used defibrillation waveforms in the elective cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. In a prospective randomized controlled study, sequential adult patients undergoing elective cardioversion for AF were recruited. Patients were randomized to receive synchronized defibrillation using either a BR or BTE waveform, both using a 50J, 100J, 150J, 200J, 200J selected energy escalating protocol. Failure to cardiovert after the fifth shock was classed as failed defibrillation. The power of this study was 80% with 5% significance level to detect a difference of 20% or greater between groups. Survival analysis was used to compare the total energy delivered to achieve successful cardioversion between groups. A total of 202 patients were recruited, of which data are complete for 199 (100 BR; 99 BTE). Median number of shocks to achieve cardioversion was 2 for the BR waveform and 3 for the BTE waveform (P = 0.059). In the BR waveform group, 95/100 (95.0%) achieved sinus rhythm. In the BTE waveform group, 90/99 (90.9%) achieved sinus rhythm and this group required on average 117.1J more energy to achieve the outcome compared to the BR waveform group (P = 0.838). BR and BTE waveforms show similar high efficacy in the elective cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A prospective comparison of patient body image after robotic thyroidectomy and conventional open thyroidectomy in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sohee; Kim, Ha Yan; Lee, Cho Rok; Park, Seulkee; Son, Haiyoung; Kang, Sang-Wook; Jeong, Jong Ju; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Chung, Woong Youn; Park, Cheong Soo

    2014-07-01

    Body image is associated with self-esteem and identity and has a close relationship with quality of life (QoL). We compared the impact of surgical scars on the patient's perception of body image between conventional open thyroidectomy (OT) and robotic thyroidectomy (RT) in female papillary thyroid carcinoma patients. From October 2009 to December 2010, we enrolled prospectively 116 papillary thyroid carcinoma patients who underwent total thyroidectomy at the Yonsei University Health System (Seoul, Korea). Of these 116 patients, 56 had OT and 60 RT. Their scars were assessed using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), and psychometric properties were evaluated using the Body Image Scale (BIS) questionnaire postoperatively. Both groups were compared using cross-sectional and time-series methods. Mean age was significantly younger in the RT group. Regarding scar quality, the OT group showed superiority in scar pigmentation and the total VSS score during the early postoperative period, but the VSS score improved over time and was similar between both groups at 9 months. The RT group had better scores regarding most of the BIS items, a trend that remained relatively constant over time. In patients with noticeable scars (VSS ≥ 2) at 9 months, the RT group had better BIS scores regarding almost all items, including "self-conscious," "physical attractiveness," "feeling of less feminine," "sexual attractiveness," "dissatisfaction with body, scar and appearance when dressed," and "avoidance of people due to appearance." RT provides a better self-body image and improves QoL compared with conventional OT by avoiding a noticeable cervical scar. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of community-onset Staphylococcus argenteus and Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in Thailand: a prospective multicentre observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantratita, N; Wikraiphat, C; Tandhavanant, S; Wongsuvan, G; Ariyaprasert, P; Suntornsut, P; Thaipadungpanit, J; Teerawattanasook, N; Jutrakul, Y; Srisurat, N; Chaimanee, P; Anukunananchai, J; Phiphitaporn, S; Srisamang, P; Chetchotisakd, P; West, T E; Peacock, S J

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcus argenteus is a globally distributed cause of human infection, but diagnostic laboratories misidentify this as Staphylococcus aureus. We determined whether there is clinical utility in distinguishing between the two. A prospective cohort study of community-onset invasive staphylococcal sepsis was conducted in adults at four hospitals in northeast Thailand between 2010 and 2013. Of 311 patients analysed, 58 (19%) were infected with S. argenteus and 253 (81%) with S. aureus. Most S. argenteus (54/58) were multilocus sequence type 2250. Infection with S. argenteus was more common in males, but rates of bacteraemia and drainage procedures were similar in the two groups. S. argenteus precipitated significantly less respiratory failure than S. aureus (5.2% versus 20.2%, adjusted OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.74, p 0.015), with a similar but non-significant trend for shock (6.9% versus 12.3%, adjusted OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.15-1.44, p 0.18). This did not translate into a difference in death at 28 days (6.9% versus 8.7%, adjusted OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.24-2.65, p 0.72). S. argenteus was more susceptible to antimicrobial drugs compared with S. aureus, and contained fewer toxin genes although pvl was detected in 16% (9/58). We conclude that clinical differences exist in association with sepsis due to S. argenteus versus S. aureus. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer: prospective comparison of PET/MR and PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Chang Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Soon Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paeng, Jin Chul; Cheon, Gi Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Tae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Sik [Seoul National University Hospital, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    To prospectively compare the accuracies of PET/MR and PET/CT in the preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Institutional review board approval and patients' informed consents were obtained. 45 patients with proven or radiologically suspected lung cancer which appeared to be resectable on CT were enrolled. PET/MR was performed for the preoperative staging of NSCLC followed by PET/CT without contrast enhancement on the same day. Dedicated MR images including diffusion weighted images were obtained. Readers assessed PET/MR and PET/CT with contrast-enhanced CT. Accuracies of PET/MR and PET/CT for NSCLC staging were compared. Primary tumour stages (n = 40) were correctly diagnosed in 32 patients (80.0 %) on PET/MR and in 32 patients (80.0 %) on PET/CT (P = 1.0). Node stages (n = 42) were correctly determined in 24 patients (57.1 %) on PET/MR and in 22 patients (52.4 %) on PET/CT (P = 0.683). Metastatic lesions in the brain, bone, liver, and pleura were detected in 6 patients (13.3 %). PET/MR missed one patient with pleural metastasis while PET/CT missed one patient with solitary brain metastasis and two patients with pleural metastases (P = 0.480). This study demonstrated that PET/MR in combination with contrast-enhanced CT was comparable to PET/CT in the preoperative staging of NSCLC while reducing radiation exposure. (orig.)

  5. Outcome of radioiodine therapy without, on or 3 days off carbimazole: a prospective interventional three-group comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Martin A. [University Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); University Hospital Basel, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Clinical Nutrition, Basel (Switzerland); Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Mueller, Beat [University Hospital Basel, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Clinical Nutrition, Basel (Switzerland); Schindler, Christian [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Mueller-Brand, Jan [University Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland)

    2006-06-15

    Carbimazole ameliorates hyperthyroidism but reduces radioiodine uptake and adversely affects the outcome of simultaneous radioiodine therapy. We explored whether withdrawal of carbimazole for 3 days can restore the outcome of radioiodine treatment without concurrent exacerbation of hyperthyroidism. By generating three groups with comparable radioiodine uptake, we also investigated whether the effect of carbimazole depends on the radioiodine uptake. Stratified by a radioiodine uptake >30%, 227 consecutive adult patients were prospectively assigned to radioiodine therapy (target dose 200 Gy) without, on or 3 days off carbimazole. Patients were clinically (Crooks-Wayne score) and biochemically (T{sub 3}, fT{sub 4}, TSH) followed up after 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary endpoint was outcome 12 months after radioiodine therapy. A total of 207 patients completed follow-up (toxic nodular goitre, n=117; Graves' disease, n=90). The overall success rate was 71.5%. Patients without and 3 days off carbimazole had similar biochemical (81.4% and 83.3%, respectively; p=0.82) and clinical outcomes [median (range) Crooks-Wayne score 0 (0-16) and 1 (0-10), respectively; p=0.73], which were both higher than in patients on carbimazole [42.6%, p<0.001; Crooks-Wayne score 3 (0-30), p<0.03]. Time to achieve cure was delayed on carbimazole. No changes in thyroid hormone levels occurred after 3 days' discontinuation of carbimazole. Logistic regression revealed that all observed cure rates were independent of entity, sex, age, thyroid volume, radioiodine uptake, radioiodine half-life, fT{sub 4}, T{sub 3} and TSH. (orig.)

  6. [A prospective cohort study on comparison of risk of death of respiratory system diseases between occupational dust exposure and smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-sen; Jiang, Chao-qiang; Hing, Lam Tai; Yin, Ho Sai; Liu, Wei-wei; He, Jian-min; Cao, Min; Chen, Qing

    2006-06-01

    To compare the effects of dust exposure and smoking on mortality of respiratory system diseases (RSD). Based on the Guangzhou Occupational Health Surveillance Record System established between 1989 and 1992, 80,987 factory workers, aged 30 years old or older, occupationally exposed or not exposed to dusts, were included in a prospective cohort study. (1) The mean age of the cohort was 43.5. Most subjects were workers, had secondary education, and almost all were married. The dust exposure rate was 16.3%, the smoking rate 43.7% and the alcohol-drinking rate 33.5%. (2) The cohort was followed up for 8 years on average, but 35 people (0.04%) were lost for follow up. Among the 1593 deaths, 219 and 90 people died of lung cancer and non-cancer respiratory system diseases (NCRSD) respectively. (3) The adjusted relative risk (RR) of death of lung cancer for smokers, 3.32, was 2.2 times of that for dust exposed workers, 1.53, and the RR of death of NCRSD for dust exposed workers, 2.41, 1.28 times of that for smokers, 1.89, especially for silica dust-exposed workers, 5.72, 3.03 times of that for smokers. Dust exposure combined with smoking caused significantly higher RR of death of RSD. (4) In male, the death risks of RSD were increased with the amount of smoking per day and years of smoking. Occupational dust exposure and smoking may cause excessive lung cancer and NCRSD death with synergistic effects. Smoking has higher RR of Lung cancer death than dust exposure. However, the dust exposure contributes to higher RR of NCRSD death. There is a significant dose-effect relationship between smoking and the death risk of RSD.

  7. Curriculum development for basic gynaecological laparoscopy with comparison of expert trainee opinions; prospective cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Christy; Fox, Robert; Lenguerrand, Erik; Hinshaw, Kim; Draycott, Timothy J; James, Mark

    2014-09-01

    To develop content for a basic laparoscopic curriculum in gynaecology. Prospective cross-sectional observational study. Modified Delphi method with three iterations undertaken by an invited group of national experts across the United Kingdom (UK). Two anonymous online surveys and a final physical group meeting were undertaken. Junior trainees in gynaecology undertook a parallel iteration of the Delphi process for external validation. Population included: expert panel - certified specialists in minimal-access gynaecological surgery, RCOG national senior trainee representatives, and medical educationalists, junior trainees group - regional trainees in gynaecology in first and second year of speciality training. Experts (n=37) reached fair to almost complete significant agreement (κ=0.100-0.8159; pcurriculum. Findings indicated that 39 categories should be included in the curriculum. Port placement, laparoscopic equipment and patient selection were ranked the most important theoretical categories. Hand-eye co-ordination, camera navigation and entry techniques were deemed the most valuable skills. Diagnostic laparoscopy, laparoscopic sterilisation, and laparoscopic salpingectomy were the operations agreed to be most important for inclusion. Simulation training was agreed as the method of skill development. The expert panel favoured box trainers, whereas the junior trainee group preferred virtual reality simulators. A basic simulation laparoscopic hand-eye co-ordination test was proposed as a final assessment of competence in the curriculum. Consensus was achieved on the content of a basic laparoscopic curriculum in gynaecology, in a cost- and time-effective, scientific process. The Delphi method provided a simple, structured consumer approach to curriculum development that combined views of trainers and trainees that could be used to develop curricula in other areas of post-graduate education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improved structural and electrical properties in native Sb2Te3/GexSb2Te3+x van der Waals superlattices due to intermixing mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Stefano; Zallo, Eugenio; Momand, Jamo; Wang, Ruining; Kooi, Bart J.; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Calarco, Raffaella

    Superlattices made of Sb2Te3/GeTe phase change materials have demonstrated outstanding performance with respect to GeSbTe alloys in memory applications. Recently, epitaxial Sb2Te3/GeTe superlattices were found to feature GexSb2Te3+x blocks as a result of intermixing between constituting layers.

  9. Codoping of Sb2Te3 thin films with V and Cr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, L. B.; Figueroa, A. I.; van der Laan, G.; Hesjedal, T.

    2017-11-01

    Magnetically doped topological insulators (TIs) are key to realizing the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect, with the prospect of enabling dissipationless electronic devices in the future. Doping of the well-established three-dimensional TIs of the (Bi,Sb) 2(Se,Te) 3 family with the transition metals Cr and V is now an established approach for observing the QAH state at very low temperatures. While the magnetic transition temperatures of these materials are on the order of tens of degrees Kelvin, full quantization of the QAH state is achieved below ˜100 mK, governed by the size of the magnetic gap and thus the out-of-plane magnetic moment. In an attempt to raise the size of the magnetic moment and transition temperature, we carried out a structural and magnetic investigation of codoped (V,Cr):Sb2Te3 thin films. Starting from singly doped Cr:Sb2Te3 films, free of secondary phases and with a transition temperature of ˜72 K, we introduced increasing fractions of V and found a doubling of the transition temperature, while the magnetic moment decreases. In order to separate the properties and contributions of the two transition metals in the complex doping scenario independently, we employed spectroscopic x-ray techniques. Surprisingly, already small amounts of V lead to the formation of the secondary phase Cr2Te3 . No V was detectable in the Sb2Te3 matrix. Instead, it acts as a surfactant and can be found in the near-surface layers at the end of the growth. Our paper highlights the importance of x-ray-based studies for the doping of van der Waals systems, for which the optimization of magnetic moment or transition temperature alone is not necessarily a good strategy.

  10. Features of high-temperature electroluminescence in an LED n-GaSb/n-InGaAsSb/p-AlGaAsSb heterostructure with high potential barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, L. V., E-mail: danleon84@mail.ru; Petukhov, A. A.; Mikhailova, M. P.; Zegrya, G. G.; Ivanov, E. V.; Yakovlev, Yu. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    The electroluminescent properties of a light-emitting diode n-GaSb/n-InGaAsSb/p-AlGaAsSb heterostructure with high potential barriers are studied in the temperature range of 290–470 K. An atypical temperature increase in the power of the long-wavelength luminescence band with an energy of 0.3 eV is experimentally observed. As the temperature increases to 470 K, the optical radiation power increases by a factor of 1.5–2. To explain the extraordinary temperature dependence of the radiation power, the recombination and carrier transport processes are theoretically analyzed in the heterostructure under study.

  11. Crystallographic study of the intermediate compounds SbZn, Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 4} and Sb{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adjadj, Fouzia [Laboratoire des etudes Physico-chimiques des Materiaux, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Belbacha, El-djemai [Laboratoire des etudes Physico-chimiques des Materiaux, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria)]. E-mail: Beldjem@caramail.com; Bouharkat, Malek [Laboratoire des etudes Physico-chimiques des Materiaux, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Kerboub, Abdellah [Laboratoire des etudes Physico-chimiques des Materiaux, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria)

    2006-08-10

    The processes of development of semiconductor ceramics made up of bismuth, antimony and zinc often require during their preparation to know the nature of the involved phases. For that, it is always essential to refer to the diagrams of balance between phases of the binary systems or ternary. We presented in this work the study by X-rays diffraction relating to the intermediate compounds SbZn, Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 4} and Sb{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}. The analysis by X-rays is often useful to give supplement the results of the other experimental methods.

  12. Comparison of clinical and radiological outcomes after automated open lumbar discectomy and conventional microdiscectomy: a prospective randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Bae, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Microdiscectomy (MD) is the gold standard for surgical discectomy. As a minimally invasive discectomy, automated open lumbar discectomy (AOLD) is designed to preserve annular integrity and disc height as well as effectively remove herniated disc and degenerated disc material. However, there have been no prospective clinical studies comparing their effectiveness. The study was designed to compare clinical and radiological outcomes after AOLD with those of MD. Methods: Seventy-eight patients were evaluated for unilateral leg pain with the presence of disc herniation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at a single attributable level. Sixty-two patients were enrolled; 33 patients (53%) were randomly assigned to the AOLD group and the remaining 29 patients (47%) were assigned to the MD group. Follow-up assessment was performed for 19 of the AOLD patients and 17 of the MD patients. The average follow-up period was 20 months. Clinical and functional outcomes were assessed using VAS and ODI scores. Change of disc height (DH), instability, and disc degeneration were assessed from radiographs, while Modic change and reherniation were assessed using MRI scans. Results: Postoperative VAS scores for leg pain and ODI scores for function were significantly improved in both groups. Postoperative VAS for back pain tended to decrease in the MD group but the decrease was statistically insignificant (P = 0.081). The postoperative VAS for back pain was significantly reduced in the AOLD group (P = 0.012). Patients from the MD group showed greater DH reduction than the AOLD group (P = 0.049). The MD group experienced greater disc degeneration and Modic change than the AOLD group. Follow-up MRI revealed 2 cases of reherniation in the AOLD group; 1 case was symptomatic, the other was asymptomatic. Conclusions: AOLD showed comparable clinical and radiological outcomes to conventional MD. AOLD preserves the central disc and removes only the loose degenerative disc fragments

  13. Anthropometric, clinical, and metabolic comparisons of the four Rotterdam PCOS phenotypes: A prospective study of PCOS women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: 1. To study the distribution of various Rotterdam classified phenotypes of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS women, in our population. 2. To compare the four phenotypes with respect to anthropometric, clinical, and metabolic parameters. 3. To report the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR and metabolic syndrome in these women. Settings and Design: Private practice, Prospective cross-sectional comparative study. Materials and Methods: Women attending gynecology outpatient with the primary complains of irregular menses and/or infertility were evaluated. Each of them underwent detailed clinical examination, transvaginal sonography, and biochemical and hormonal assays. Four hundred and ten women with a clinical diagnosis of PCOS based on Rotterdam criteria were included in the study. The four phenotypes were 1 PCO complete, that is oligo/anovulation (O + polycystic ovaries (P + hyperandrogenism (H 2 P + O, 3 P + H, and 4 O + H. All women were also evaluated for metabolic syndrome (American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI, modified Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III 2005 guidelines and IR (homeostatic model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 18. Results: Largest group was PCOS complete (65.6% followed by P + O (22.2%; H + O (11.2%; and P + H (0.9%. Overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 35.07%. Hyperandrogenic phenotyptes; H + O (50% and P + H + O (37.04%, had significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than normoandrogenic P + O phenotype (10% (P ≤ 0.001. Body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 (P = 0.0004; odds ratio (OR = 3.07 (1.6574-5.7108, 95% CI, waist circumference (WC ≥ 80 cm (P = 0.001; OR = 3.68 (1.6807-8.0737, 95% CI and family history of diabetes (P = 0.019; OR 1.82 (1.1008-3.0194, 95% CI, were strongly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. The overall prevalence of IR in PCOS women was 30.44% (HOMA-IR cutoff

  14. A prospective, contralateral comparison of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK versus thin-flap LASIK: assessment of visual function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatch BB

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bryndon B Hatch1, Majid Moshirfar1, Andrew J Ollerton1, Shameema Sikder2, Mark D Mifflin11John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USAPurpose: To compare differences in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, complications, and higher-order ocular aberrations (HOAs in eyes with stable myopia undergoing either photorefractive keratectomy (PRK or thin-flap laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK (intended flap thickness of 90 µm using the VISX Star S4 CustomVue excimer laser and the IntraLase FS60 femtosecond laser at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively.Methods: In this prospective, masked, and randomized pilot study, refractive surgery was performed contralaterally on 52 eyes: 26 with PRK and 26 with thin-flap LASIK. Primary outcome measures were uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, contrast sensitivity, and complications.Results: At 6 months, mean values for UDVA (logMAR were -0.043 ± 0.668 and -0.061 ± 0.099 in the PRK and thin-flap LASIK groups, respectively (n = 25, P = 0.466. UDVA of 20/20 or better was achieved in 96% of eyes undergoing PRK and 92% of eyes undergoing thin-flap LASIK, whereas 20/15 vision or better was achieved in 73% of eyes undergoing PRK and 72% of eyes undergoing thin-flap LASIK (P > 0.600. Significant differences were not found between treatment groups in contrast sensitivity (P ≥ 0.156 or CDVA (P = 0.800 at postoperative 6 months. Types of complications differed between groups, notably 35% of eyes in the thin-flap LASIK group experiencing complications, including microstriae and 2 flap tears.Conclusion: Under well-controlled surgical conditions, PRK and thin-flap LASIK refractive surgeries achieve similar results in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and induction of HOAs, with differences in experienced complications.Keywords: photorefractive keratectomy, thin-flap LASIK, visual

  15. A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus blocks using 2 versus 4 injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imasogie, Ngozi; Ganapathy, Sugantha; Singh, Sudha; Armstrong, Kevin; Armstrong, Paidrig

    2010-04-01

    In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, we compared the effectiveness and time efficiency of perioperative axillary blocks performed via 2 different techniques, 1 involving 2 and the other 4 separate skin punctures. One hundred twenty patients undergoing upper limb surgery were randomized to receive either (1) an axillary brachial plexus block involving 2 injections, with 30 mL local anesthetic injected posterior to the axillary artery (with redirection, as needed, to achieve circumferential spread), plus 10 mL local anesthetic to the musculocutaneous nerve, guided by ultrasound (group 1, n = 56); or (2) 4 separate 10-mL injections to the median, ulnar, radial, and musculocutaneous nerves, using a combined ultrasound and neurostimulation technique (group 2, n = 58). All patients received 40 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine with 1:400,000 epinephrine. The primary outcome was the success rate of the block, defined as anesthesia adequate for surgery. Secondary outcomes were the time to administer the block, time to the onset of motor-sensory block, time to surgical readiness, and incidence of adverse events. The 2-injection technique was slightly faster to administer (8 vs 11 minutes, P = 0.003). The mean nerve block score was slightly higher for the 4-injection group at the 10-, 15-, 20-, and 30-minute time points, but the cumulative percentages of blocks having taken effect were not significantly different over these time points, at 0.0%, 5.4%, 12.5%, and 37.5% among those who had received a 2-injection block versus 6.9%, 10.4%, 19.0%, and 48.3%, respectively, with the 4-injection block (P = 0.20). There was no difference in the percentage of patients with complete block by 30 minutes (32.1% vs 37.5%, P = 0.55) or in final block success rates (89.3% vs 87.9%, P = 0.99). An ultrasound-guided 2-injection axillary block may be as effective as, and more time efficient than, a 4-injection technique.

  16. Secular trends in the appropriateness of empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with bacteremia: a comparison between three prospective cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daitch, Vered; Akayzen, Yulia; Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Eliakim-Raz, Noa; Paul, Mical; Leibovici, Leonard; Yahav, Dafna

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether the percentage of inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with bacteremia changed over time and to understand the factors that brought on the change. Three prospective cohorts of patients with bacteremia in three different periods (January 1st, 1988 to December 31st, 1989; May 1st, 2004 to November 30, 2004; May 1st, 2010 to April 30, 2011) were compared. Analysis was performed on a total of 811 patients. In 2010-2011, 55.9% (76/136) of patients with bacteremia received inappropriate empirical treatment, compared with 34.5% (170/493) and 33.5% (55/164) in the first and second periods, respectively, in a significant upward trend (p = 0.001). Resistance to antibiotics increased significantly during the study period. The following variables were included in the multivariate analysis assessing risk factors for inappropriate empirical treatment: study period (third period) [odds ratio, OR = 2.766 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.655-4.625)], gender (male) [OR = 1.511 (1.014-2.253)], pathogen carrying extended-spectrum beta-lactamases [OR = 10.426 (4.688-23.187)], multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii [OR = 5.428 (2.181-13.513)], and skin/soft infections [OR = 3.23 (1.148-9.084)]. A model excluding microbiological data included: gender (male) [OR = 1.648 (1.216-2.234)], study period (third period) [OR = 2.446 (1.653-3.620)], hospital-acquired infection [OR = 1.551 (1.060-2.270)], previous use of antibiotics [OR = 1.815 (1.247-2.642)], bedridden patient [OR = 2.019 (1.114-3.658)], and diabetes mellitus [OR = 1.620 (1.154-2.274)]. We have observed a worrisome increase in the rate of inappropriate empirical treatment of bacteremia. We need tools that will allow us better prediction of the pathogen and its susceptibilities during the first hours of managing a patient suspected of a severe bacterial infection.

  17. Comorbid subjective health complaints in patients with sciatica: a prospective study including comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne J; Ihlebaek, Camilla M; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens I; Grotle, Margreth

    2011-06-01

    Chronic nonspecific low back pain is accompanied by high rates of comorbid mental and physical conditions. The aims of this study were to investigate if patients with specific back pain, that is, sciatica caused by lumbar herniation, report higher rates of subjective health complaints (SHCs) than the general population and if there is an association between change in sciatica symptoms and change in SHCs over a 12-month period. A multicenter cohort study of 466 sciatica patients was conducted with follow-up at 3 months and 1 year. Comorbid SHCs were measured by 27 items of the SHC inventory. Odds ratios (ORs) for each SHC were calculated with comparison to a general population sample (n=928) by logistic regression. The SHC number was calculated by summing all complaints present. At baseline, the ORs for reporting SHCs for the sciatica patients were significantly elevated in 15 of the 27 items with a mean (S.D.) SHC number of 7.5 (4.4), compared to 5.2 (4.4) in the general population (Psciatica, the SHC number was reduced to normal levels. Among those with persisting or worsening sciatica, the number increased to a level almost double that of the general population. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of subjective health complaints in sciatica is increased. During follow-up, the number of health complaints increased in patients with persisting or worsening sciatica. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A prospective crossover comparison of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist and pressure-support ventilation in a pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breatnach, Cormac

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare neurally adjusted ventilatory assist ventilation with pressure-support ventilation. DESIGN: Prospective, crossover comparison study. SETTING: Tertiary care pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS: Sixteen ventilated infants and children: mean age = 9.7 months (range = 2 days-4 yrs) and mean weight = 6.2 kg (range = 2.4-13.7kg). INTERVENTIONS: A modified nasogastric tube was inserted and correct positioning was confirmed. Patients were ventilated in pressure-support mode with a pneumatic trigger for a 30-min period and then in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode for up to 4 hrs. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data collected for comparison included activating trigger (neural vs. pneumatic), peak and mean airway pressures, expired minute and tidal volumes, heart rate, respiratory rate, pulse oximetry, end-tidal CO2 and arterial blood gases. Synchrony was improved in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode with 65% (+\\/-21%) of breaths triggered neurally vs. 35% pneumatically (p < .001) and 85% (+\\/-8%) of breaths cycled-off neurally vs. 15% pneumatically (p = .0001). The peak airway pressure in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode was significantly lower than in pressure-support mode with a 28% decrease in pressure after 30 mins (p = .003) and 32% decrease after 3 hrs (p < .001). Mean airway pressure was reduced by 11% at 30 mins (p = .13) and 9% at 3 hrs (p = .31) in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode although this did not reach statistical significance. Patient hemodynamics and gas exchange remained stable for the study period. No adverse patient events or device effects were noted. CONCLUSIONS: In a neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit population, ventilation in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode was associated with improved patient-ventilator synchrony and lower peak airway pressure when compared with pressure-support ventilation with a pneumatic trigger. Ventilating patients in this new mode

  19. Antiferromagnetism in semiconducting SrMn2Sb2 and BaMn2Sb2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, N. S.; Smetana, V.; Mudring, A.-V.; Johnston, D. C.

    2018-01-01

    Crystals of SrMn2Sb2 and BaMn2Sb2 were grown using Sn flux and characterized by powder and single-crystal x-ray diffraction, respectively, and by single-crystal electrical resistivity ρ , heat capacity Cp, and magnetic susceptibility χ measurements versus temperature T , and magnetization versus field M (H ) isotherm measurements. SrMn2Sb2 adopts the trigonal CaAl2Si2 -type structure, whereas BaMn2Sb2 crystallizes in the tetragonal ThCr2Si2 -type structure. The ρ (T ) data indicate semiconducting behaviors for both compounds with activation energies of ≳0.35 eV for SrMn2Sb2 and 0.16 eV for BaMn2Sb2 . The χ (T ) and Cp(T ) data reveal antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering at TN = 110 K for SrMn2Sb2 and 450 K for BaMn2Sb2 . The anisotropic χ (T ≤TN) data also show that the ordered moments in SrMn2Sb2 are aligned in the hexagonal a b plane, whereas the ordered moments in BaMn2Sb2 are aligned collinearly along the tetragonal c axis. The a b -plane M (H ) data for SrMn2Sb2 exhibit a continuous metamagnetic transition at low fields 0 literature for Mn pnictides with the CaAl2Si2 and ThCr2Si2 crystal structures show that the TN values for the CaAl2Si2 -type compounds are much smaller than those for the ThCr2Si2 -type materials.

  20. Mid-IR InAsSb photovoltaic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovska, Anna; Berger, Vincent; Marcadet, Xavier; Glastre, Genevieve; Vinter, Borge; Bouzehouane, K.; Kaplan, Daniel; Oksehendler, T.

    2000-04-01

    We describe a mid-IR photovoltaic detector using InAsSb as active material, grown by MBE on a GaSb substrate. The purpose of this study is to show that quantum detectors can offer an alternative to thermal detectors for high temperature operation. With a 9 percent Sb content, InAsSb is lattice matched to GaSb and thus provides an excellent material quality, with Shokley-Read lifetimes of the order of 200 ns as measured by photoconductive gain measurements as well as time resolved photoconductivity experiments. The band gap of InAsSb corresponds to a wavelengths as well as time resolved photoconductivity experiments. The band gap of InAsSb corresponds to a wavelength of 5 microns at room temperature. This makes InAsSb an ideal candidate for rom temperature detection in the 3-5 microns atmospheric window. Photovoltaic structures are characterized by current voltage characteristics as a function of temperature. Using the absorption value obtained on the test samples, a detectivity of 7 by 109 Jones can be obtained at a temperature of 250 K, which can easily be reached with Peltier cooling. This leads to a NETD lower than 80 mK.

  1. Reduction of [Cp*Sb]4 with Subvalent Main-Group Metal Reductants: Syntheses and Structures of [(L1 Mg)4 (Sb4 )] and [(L2 Ga)2 (Sb4 )] Containing Edge-Missing Sb4 Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesamoorthy, Chelladurai; Krüger, Julia; Wölper, Christoph; Nizovtsev, Anton S; Schulz, Stephan

    2017-02-16

    [Cp*Sb]4 (Cp*=C5 Me5 ) reacts with [L1 Mg]2 and L2 Ga with formation of [(L1 Mg)4 (μ4 ,η1:2:2:2 -Sb4 )] (L1 =iPr2 NC[N(2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 )]2 , 1) and [(L2 Ga)2 (μ,η2:2 -Sb4 )] (L2 =HC[C(Me)N(2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 )]2 , 2). The cleavage of the Sb-Sb and Sb-C bonds in [Cp*Sb]4 are the crucial steps in both reactions. The formation of 1 occurred by elimination of the Cp* anion and formation of Cp*MgL1 , while 2 was formed by reductive elimination of Cp*2 and oxidative addition of L2 Ga to the Sb4 unit. 1 and 2 were characterized by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and their bonding situation was studied by quantum chemical calculations. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. SULFURIC ACID CORROSION OF LOW Sb - Pb BATTERY ALLOYS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1 SEPTEMBER 1983 NTUKOGU. 42. SULFURIC ACID CORROSION OF LOW Sb - Pb BATTERY ALLOYS by. T. O. Ntukogu. Mechanical Engineering Department. University of Nigeria, Nsukka. (Manuscript received February,1983). ABSTRACT. The corrosion properties of low Sb - Pb alloys developed for maintenance free ...

  3. Undoped InSb radiation detector for radiation measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Hishiki, S; Sugiura, O; Murase, Y; Nakamura, T; Katagiri, M

    2003-01-01

    A Schottky type detector was fabricated with undoped InSb wafer. We could measure the energy of sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am alpha particles with this InSb detector at the operating temperature from 2 K to 65 K.

  4. Comparison of three different tourniquet application strategies for minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty: a prospective non-randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ze Yu; Pei, Fu Xing; Ma, Jun; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Zong Ke; Kang, Peng De; Shen, Bin

    2014-04-01

    It is still controversial on the optimal timing of tourniquet used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Most previous studies focused on the comparison of different tourniquet application in controversial TKA, while the aim of our work was to compare three strategies of tourniquet application in minimally invasive TKA. 90 patients were enrolled in this study. Based on the different tourniquet application strategies, they were divided into three groups. Group A: using tourniquet during the whole surgery; Group B: tourniquet inflated before incision and deflated after the hardening of the cement; Group C: using tourniquet during the cementation. Blood loss and serum levels of C-reactive protein, IL-6, creatine kinase and myoglobin were checked preoperatively. The HSS knee score, VAS pain score, range of motion (ROM), limb swelling and hospital stays were also recorded. The mean levels of Hb and Hct were lower in Group C (104.2 ± 10.4 g/L, 31.8 ± 3.2 %) than those in Groups A (111.4 ± 14.4 g/L, p = 0.035; 34.1 ± 4.1 %, p = 0.032) and B (112.8 ± 14.3 g/L, p = 0.013; 34.5 ± 3.7 %, p = 0.011) immediately after the surgery. Compared with Groups A and B, both serum inflammation and muscle damage markers were lower in Group C. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of HSS knee score, ROM, estimated blood loss, swelling ratio, VAS pain score and hospital stays. Using a tourniquet full time in minimally invasive TKA causes less intraoperative blood loss and more excessive inflammation and muscle damage. However, the advantage of part-time using tourniquet did not show in early functional outcomes.

  5. Effects of Y, Nd and Sb on microstructure of Mg-6Al alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke-jie

    2017-09-01

    Effects of Y, Nd and Sb on the microstructure of Mg-6Al magnesium alloy were investigated by optical microscope, SEM, EDS, XRD and TEM. The results showed that, with the increase of Sb content from 0.5% to 2.0wt%, the formation of Sb3Y5 (at 1.0% Sb) or YSb (at 2.0% Sb) phase is observed. Sb3Y5 nano-phase and dispersed Al2Y, SbY phases are found in the alloy when the content of Sb reaches 2.0%.

  6. Efficacy and safety of rapid escalation of cabergoline in comparison to conventional regimen for macroprolactinoma: A prospective, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu Rastogi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cabergoline (CAB is conventionally started at a dose of 0.25-0.5 mg once a week with dose escalation at 1to 3months intervals. Previously, we and others have shown that rapid escalation and high doses of CAB can lead to normalization of serum PRL as early as 8.2 weeks in 93% of the patients. We hypothesize that rapid escalation of CAB doses, may help in both the earlier normalization of PRL and also significant shrinkage of tumor mass. Study Design: Randomized, prospective, interventional trial. Subjects and Methods: Forty two patients (male or female with macroprolactinoma were randomized to conventional (group A or rapid escalation (group B of CAB dosing. In group B, CAB was started at a dose of 0.5 mg twice a week followed by a weekly hike of 1 mg/week, based on serum PRL and then monthly. The end point of the present study was a composite of normoprolactinemia and tumor shrinkage ≥50% from baseline. PRL and visual field analysis (weekly, other hormonal work up periodically and magnetic resonance imaging (sella was performed monthly. Results: A total of 19 patients in each group completed a minimum follow-up of 6 months. There was a reduction of 72.7 ± 26.2% in group A and 84.1 ± 15.0 in group B (P = 0.24 within a week of CAB therapy. The duration of CAB treatment to normalize PRL was 10.2 ± 9.2 week(2-36 in group A and 7.2 ± 6.2 weeks(1-24 in group B (P = 0.28. There was no difference in the tumor shrinkage in either of the groups (92.3% [46.7-100%] in group A and 90.5% [66.6-100%] reduction in group B. The composite end point was achieved in 14 patients in group A (73.6% and 16 patients in group B (84.2% (P = 0.69. The composite end point was achieved in 13.1 ± 9.5 weeks (group A versus 16.5 ± 14.1 weeks (group B (P = 0.61. Discussion: This is first head to head comparative trial showing that a rapid hike of CAB dose is not associated with earlier normalization of PRL or reduction in tumor volume as compared to

  7. Prospective association of childhood receptive vocabulary and conduct problems with self-reported adolescent delinquency: tests of mediation and moderation in sibling-comparison analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Van Hulle, Carol A; Rathouz, Paul J

    2014-11-01

    Associations among receptive vocabulary measured at 4-9 years, mother-reported childhood conduct problems at 4-9 years, and self-reported adolescent delinquency at 14-17 years were assessed using data from a prospective study of the offspring of a large U.S. nationally representative sample of women. A novel quasi-experimental strategy was used to rule out family-level confounding by estimating path-analytic associations within families in a sibling comparison design. This allowed simultaneous tests of the direct and indirect effects of receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems, and of their joint moderation, on adolescent delinquency without family-level environmental confounding. The significant association of receptive vocabulary with later adolescent delinquency was indirect, mediated by childhood conduct problems. Furthermore, a significant interaction between receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems reflected a steeper slope for the predictive association between childhood conduct problems and adolescent delinquency when receptive vocabulary scores were higher. These findings of significant indirect association were qualitatively identical in both population-level and within-family analyses, suggesting that they are not the result of family-level confounds.

  8. Prospective Comparison and Quality of Life for Single-Incision and Conventional Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy in a Series of Morbidly Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Andrea; Aiolfi, Alberto; Musolino, Cinzia; Antonini, Ilaria; Zappa, Marco Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has gained a wide acceptance in the surgical community with an increasing popularity in the field of bariatric surgery. Simultaneously more surgeons have become acquainted with the single port techniques and sleeve gastrectomy has been regarded as an ideal field of application. Literature is scarce about operative and clinical outcomes of single port sleeve gastrectomy compared to conventional laparoscopy. The primary purpose of the study was to compare operative outcomes in the two study groups. Assessment and comparison of functional outcomes in terms of quality of life between groups was also performed. Prospective data on 130 consecutive patients who underwent randomized SI or CL sleeve gastrectomy were collected between January 2009 to December 2014. Preoperative parameters, outcomes, post-operative functional results and quality of life, according to the short-form SF-36 questionnaire, were evaluated and compared between groups. 65 patients underwent conventional laparoscopic (CL) and 65 single incision (SI) sleeve gastrectomy. Operative time, post-operative pain, in-hospital stay, and complications were similar in the two groups. No difference emerged with respect to passage of flatus and resumption of oral intake (p = NS). Cosmetic results were excellent in SI patients with higher satisfaction rates. Post-operative quality of life was significant higher compared to baseline (p sleeve gastrectomy is safe, effective and comparable to the conventional laparoscopic technique in terms of outcomes. Post-operative quality of life is comparable between the two procedures.

  9. Randomized prospective comparison of non-contrast enhanced helical computed tomography and intravenous urography in the diagnosis of acute ureteric colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, J A; Davies-Payne, D L; Peddinti, B S

    2001-08-01

    Non-contrast enhanced helical CT has become an accepted technique for evaluating acute ureteric colic. The results of a randomized prospective comparison of the accuracy, cost and radiation dose of CT and intravenous urography (IVU) are presented. All patients presenting to the Emergency Department with symptoms and signs suggestive of ureteric colic over a 16-month period (n = 242) were randomized to CT or IVU. Follow up was obtained for 228 patients (94%), with 14 patients (6%) lost to follow up. One hundred and twenty-three patients (54%) underwent CT and 105 (46%) had an IVU. At follow up the sensitivity and specificity of CT were each 100%, while those of IVU were 99% and 100%, respectively. Computed tomography demonstrated seven of 26 (27%) potential alternative diagnoses, whereas IVU suggested one of 23 (4%). Estimates of the average effective dose were calculated for CT (4.95 mSv) and IVU (1.48 mSv, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.27). Radiation dose and intravenous contrast material safety are discussed and the relative costs are considered. Computed tomography is as accurate as IVU in the diagnosis of acute ureteric colic. It confers certain major diagnostic benefits, and is a fast, well-tolerated technique. Its accompanying higher effective radiation dose is recognized.

  10. Coinfection of hepatitis B and hepatitis delta virus in Belgium: a multicenter BASL study. Prospective epidemiology and comparison with HBV mono-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, E; Deltenre, P; Nkuize, M; Delwaide, J; Colle, I; Michielsen, P

    2013-09-01

    Epidemiological data on hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection in Belgium are lacking. A multicenter questionnaire-based registry on HDV infection was collated between March 1, 2008 and February 28, 2009. It consisted of patients coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HDV. The data samples were compared to those of a concurrent registry on HBV infection. Prospective data of patients with HBV-HDV coinfection were collected. Active HBV replication is defined as HBeAg positivity or HBV DNA > 2,000 IU/ml. Forty-four patients from 15 centers were registered. A comparison of 29 patients infected with HDV (registered in the concurrent HBV registry) was made against 785 HBV mono-infected patients. The seroprevalence of patients coinfected with HBV and HDV in Belgium is reported to be 3.7% (29/785), consisting solely of the HBV-HDV coinfected patients in the HBV registry. This rises to 5.5% (44/800) if all patients infected with HDV from the two registries combined are included. The patients coinfected with HBV and HDV had higher (P Belgium. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effect of antimony (Sb) addition on the linear and non-linear optical properties of amorphous Ge-Te-Sb thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Kaur, J.; Tripathi, S. K.; Sharma, I.

    2017-06-01

    Non-crystalline thin films of Ge20Te80-xSbx (x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 10) systems were deposited on glass substrate using thermal evaporation technique. The optical coefficients were accurately determined by transmission spectra using Swanepoel envelope method in the spectral region of 400-1600 nm. The refractive index was found to increase from 2.38 to 2.62 with the corresponding increase in Sb content over the entire spectral range. The dispersion of refractive index was discussed in terms of the single oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico model. Tauc relation for the allowed indirect transition showed decrease in optical band gap. To explore non-linearity, the spectral dependence of third order susceptibility of a-Ge-Te-Sb thin films was evaluated from change of index of refraction using Miller's rule. Susceptibility values were found to enhance rapidly from 10-13 to 10-12 (esu), with the red shift in the absorption edge. Non-linear refractive index was calculated by Fourier and Snitzer formula. The values were of the order of 10-12 esu. At telecommunication wavelength, these non-linear refractive index values showed three orders higher than that of silica glass. Dielectric constant and optical conductivity were also reported. The prepared Sb doped thin films on glass substrate with observed improved functional properties have a noble prospect in the application of nonlinear optical devices and might be used for a high speed communication fiber. Non-linear parameters showed good agreement with the values given in the literature.

  12. Effect of antimony (Sb) addition on the linear and non-linear optical properties of amorphous Ge–Te–Sb thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Kaur, J.; Tripathi, S. K.; Sharma, I.

    2017-12-01

    Non-crystalline thin films of Ge20Te80-xSbx (x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 10) systems were deposited on glass substrate using thermal evaporation technique. The optical coefficients were accurately determined by transmission spectra using Swanepoel envelope method in the spectral region of 400-1600 nm. The refractive index was found to increase from 2.38 to 2.62 with the corresponding increase in Sb content over the entire spectral range. The dispersion of refractive index was discussed in terms of the single oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico model. Tauc relation for the allowed indirect transition showed decrease in optical band gap. To explore non-linearity, the spectral dependence of third order susceptibility of a-Ge-Te-Sb thin films was evaluated from change of index of refraction using Miller's rule. Susceptibility values were found to enhance rapidly from 10-13 to 10-12 (esu), with the red shift in the absorption edge. Non-linear refractive index was calculated by Fourier and Snitzer formula. The values were of the order of 10-12 esu. At telecommunication wavelength, these non-linear refractive index values showed three orders higher than that of silica glass. Dielectric constant and optical conductivity were also reported. The prepared Sb doped thin films on glass substrate with observed improved functional properties have a noble prospect in the application of nonlinear optical devices and might be used for a high speed communication fiber. Non-linear parameters showed good agreement with the values given in the literature.

  13. The crystal structure of ferdowsiite Ag8Sb4(As,Sb)4S16 and its relations to other ABX2 (A=Ag; B=As,Sb,Bi; X=S,Se) structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Topa, Dan

    2014-01-01

    site has three short Sb-S bonds 2.503–2.645 Å. As and Sb in the mixed site were refined separately, with isotropic displacement coefficients. As has typical bond length values of 2.248–2.354 Å whereas Sb has 2.443–2.392 Å, i.e., the observed ligand positions are visibly influenced by the predominant...... of ferdowsiite, approximately Ag8Sb4(As,Sb)4S16, contains four distinct cation and four different anion sites in the asymmetric unit, all in general positions. Besides two Ag sites and one Sb site, the crystal structure contains one mixed As-Sb coordination polyhedron (0.63 As and 0.37 Sb in the site). The Sb1...

  14. Antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) in Sb mining impacted paddy soil from Xikuangshan, China: differences in mechanisms controlling soil sequestration and uptake in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Zhu, Yong-Guan; He, Junwen; Li, Xi; Luo, Lei; Mulder, Jan

    2012-03-20

    Foods produced on soils impacted by antimony (Sb) mining activities are a potential health risk due to plant uptake of the contaminant metalloids (Sb) and arsenic (As). Here we report for the first time the chemical speciation of Sb in soil and porewater of flooded paddy soil, impacted by active Sb mining, and its effect on uptake and speciation in rice plants (Oryza sativa L. cv Jiahua). Results are compared with behavior and uptake of As. Pot experiments were conducted under controlled conditions in a climate chamber over a period of 50 days. In pots without rice plants, flooding increased both the concentration of dissolved Sb (up to ca. 2000 μg L(-1)) and As (up to ca. 1500 μg L(-1)). When rice was present, Fe plaque developing on rice roots acted as a scavenger for both As and Sb, whereby the concentration of As, but not Sb, in porewater decreased substantially. Dissolved Sb in porewater, which occurred mainly as Sb(V), correlated with Ca, indicating a solubility governed by Ca antimonate. No significant differences in bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor between Sb and As were observed. Greater relative concentration of Sb(V) was found in rice shoots compared to rice root and porewater, indicating either a preferred uptake of Sb(V) or possibly an oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) in shoots. Adding soil amendments (olivine, hematite) to the paddy soil had no effect on Sb and As concentrations in porewater.

  15. Un nouvel oxyde naturel de Au et Sb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johan, Zdenek; Šrein, Vladimir

    1998-04-01

    A gold-antimony X-ray amorphous oxide, resulting from a hydrothermal alteration of aurostibite, AuSb 2, occurs in the Krásná Hora gold deposit, Czech Republic. Its reflectivity is close to that of goethite. The average composition obtained by electron microprobe analyses (wt. %) is: Au - 68.32; Cu - 0.10; Sb - 21.26; As - 0.30; Si - 0.21; O - 8.44; total 98.63. This yields the empirical formula (Au 0.677Cu 0.003Sb 0.341As 0.008) 1.029O. The[(Au + Cu)/(Sb + As)] at ratio varies from 1.86 to 1.95. Among possible formulae satisfying the equilibrium of charges, that implying unique valence states for Au and/or Sb was retained. It can be written Au 1+2Sb 3+O 2(OH) with the theoretical composition (wt, %): Au - 69.76; Sb - 21.54; O - 8.50; H - 0.20. This Au- and Sb-bearing oxide is associated with native gold, electrum, aurostibite, arsenopyrite and pyrite in a quartz gangue. The powder pattern of AuSbO 3 was indexedon an orthorhombic unit-cell with a = 5.00(2); b = 12.46(4); c = 5.43(2) Å, Z = 4, Q calc = 7.20 g.cm 3, assuming a replacement of Sb 3+ by Au 3+ in the valentinite-type crystal structure.

  16. Electrodeposition and electrochemical characterisation of thick and thin coatings of Sb and Sb/Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles for Li-ion battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryngelsson, Hanna; Eskhult, Jonas; Edstroem, Kristina; Nyholm, Leif [Department of Materials Chemistry, The Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-12-20

    The possibilities to electrodeposit thick coatings composed of nanoparticles of Sb and Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} for use as high-capacity anode materials in Li-ion batteries have been investigated. It is demonstrated that the stability of the coatings depends on their Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations as well as microstructure. The electrodeposition reactions in electrolytes with different pH and buffer capacities were studied using chronopotentiometry and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance measurements. The obtained deposits, which were characterised with XRD and SEM, were also tested as anode materials in Li-ion batteries. The influence of the pH and buffer capacity of the deposition solution on the composition and particle size of the deposits were studied and it is concluded that depositions from a poorly buffered solution of antimony-tartrate give rise to good anode materials due to the inclusion of precipitated Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles in the Sb coatings. Depositions under conditions yielding pure Sb coatings give rise to deposits composed of large crystalline particles with poor anode stabilities. The presence of a plateau at about 0.8 V versus Li{sup +}/Li due to SEI forming reactions and the origin of another plateau at about 0.4 V versus Li{sup +}/Li seen during the lithiation of thin Sb coatings are also discussed. It is demonstrated that the 0.4 V plateau is present for Sb coatings for which the (0 1 2) peak is the main peak in the XRD diffractogram. (author)

  17. Photoemission study of the skutterudite compounds CoSb sub 3 and RhSb sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, H; Fujimori, A; Nagamoto, Y; Koyanagi, T; Sofo, J O

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of the skutterudite compounds CoSb sub 3 and Co(Sb sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 6 Te sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 4) sub 3 by photoemission spectroscopy. Valence-band spectra revealed that a significant amount Sb 5p states are present near the Fermi level and are hybridized with Co 3d states just below it. The spectra are well reproduced by the band-structure calculation, suggesting that the effect of electron correlations is not important. When Te is substituted for Sb and n-type carriers are doped into CoSb sub 3 , the spectra are shifted to higher binding energies as described by the rigid-band model. From this shift and the free-electron model for the conduction and valence bands, we have estimated the band gap of CoSb sub 3 to be 0.03-0.04 eV, consistent with transport measurements. Photoemission spectra of RhSb sub 3 have also been measured and revealed expected similarities to and differences from those of CoSb sub 3. Unusual temperature dependence has been observed for the s...

  18. Threading dislocation free GaSb nanotemplates grown by selective molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (001) for in-plane InAs nanowire integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahed, M.; Desplanque, L.; Troadec, D.; Patriarche, G.; Wallart, X.

    2017-11-01

    The growth of in plane highly mismatched GaSb nanotemplates free of threading dislocations on GaAs (001) substrate is demonstrated using selective area growth. We report a detailed comparison of the crystalline quality of GaSb elaborated either as 2D layers or selectively grown inside 100 nm wide stripes directed along [110] or [1-10]. By means of transmission electron microscopy, we show that the GaSb layer grown on a bare substrate contains an important density of threading dislocations, while the one grown inside nano-openings is free from threading dislocations. Moreover, we demonstrate that the GaSb layers in both growth modes are relaxed through a Lomer dislocation network at the interface, which is characterized using the full width at half maximum of the GaSb X-ray diffraction peak for different reflections. Finally, we demonstrate that these GaSb nanotemplates can be used for subsequent epitaxial growth of high structural quality strained InAs nanowires.

  19. Auger recombination in {GaSb}/{AlSb} multi quantum well heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, E.; Schweizer, H.; Griffiths, G.; Kroemer, H.; Subbanna, S.

    The experimental determination of Auger coefficients in {GaSb}/{AlSb} multi quantum well heterostructures is reported for the first time. The luminescence at E g and E g+ Δ0, recorded under the same experimental conditions, is used to monitor the carrier recombination channels. A quantitative determination of the recombination coefficients is achieved applying coupled carrier rate equations for the conduction and the valence subbands including the split-off valence band. Information on the actual carrier density is obtained by line shape analysis of the E g-emission. Two dimensional carrier densities up to 10 12cm -2 are determined. Auger coefficients exhibit a pronounced well width dependence: above 100Å C ˜- 4·10 -27s -1cm 6 whereas at 50Å values are 10 times smaller. No resonance of the Auger recombination is observed tuning the band gap energy over the spin-orbit splitting with temperature.

  20. A randomised trial evaluating the effects of the TRPV1 antagonist SB705498 on pruritus induced by histamine, and cowhage challenge in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A Gibson

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 is a non-selective cation channel widely expressed in skin tissues, and peripheral sensory nerve fibres. Activation of TRPV1 releases neuropeptides; the resulting neurogenic inflammation is believed to contribute to the development of pruritus. A TRPV1 antagonist has the potential to perform as an anti-pruritic agent. SB705498 is a TRPV1 antagonist that has demonstrated in vitro activity against cloned TRPV1 human receptors and when orally administered has demonstrated pharmacodynamic activity in animal models and clinical studies.To select a topical dose of SB705498 using the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin; to confirm engagement of the TRPV1 antagonistic action of SB705498 and assess whether the dose selected has an effect on itch induced by two challenge agents.A clinical study was conducted in 16 healthy volunteers to assess the effects of 3 doses of SB705498 on skin flare induced by capsaicin. Subjects with a robust capsaicin response were chosen to determine if the selected topical formulation of SB705498 had an effect on challenge agent induced itch.Following capsaicin challenge the greatest average reduction in area of flare was seen for the 3% formulation. This dose was selected for further investigation. Itch intensity induced by two challenge agents (cowhage and histamine was assessed on the Computerised Visual Analogue Scale. The difference in average itch intensity (Weighted Mean Over 15 Mins between the 3% dose of SB705498 and placebo for the cowhage challenge was -0.64, whilst the histamine challenge showed on average a -4.65 point change.The 3% topical formulation of SB705498 cream was clinically well tolerated and had target specific pharmacodynamic activity. However there were no clinically significant differences on pruritus induced by either challenge agent in comparison to placebo. SB705498 is unlikely to be of symptomatic benefit for histaminergic or non-histaminergic induced

  1. Comparison of outcomes between emergent-start and planned-start peritoneal dialysis in incident ESRD patients: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Yi; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Lin, Shih-Hua; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Chen, Yung-Ming

    2017-12-11

    The clinical consequences of starting chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) after emergent dialysis via a temporary hemodialysis (HD) catheter has rarely been evaluated within a full spectrum of treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We investigated the longer-term outcomes of patients undergoing emergent-start PD in comparison with that of other practices of PD or HD in a prospective cohort of new-onset ESRD. This was a 2-year prospective observational study. We enrolled 507 incident ESRD patients, among them 111 chose PD (43 planned-start, 68 emergent-start) and 396 chose HD (116 planned-start, 280 emergent-start) as the long-term dialysis modality. The logistic regression model was used to identify variables associated with emergent-start dialysis. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to determine patient survival and technique failure. The propensity score-adjusted Cox regression model was used to identify factors associated with patient outcomes. During the 2-year follow-up, we observed 5 (4.5%) deaths, 15 (13.5%) death-censored technique failures (transfer to HD) and 3 (2.7%) renal transplantations occurring in the PD population. Lack of predialysis education, lower predialysis estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum albumin were predictors of being assigned to emergent dialysis initiation. The emergent starters of PD displayed similar risks of patient survival, technique failure and overall hospitalization, compared with the planned-start counterparts. By contrast, the concurrent planned-start and emergent-start HD patients with an arteriovenous fistula or graft were protected from early overall death and access infection-related mortality, compared with the emergent HD starters using a central venous catheter. In late-referred chronic kidney disease patients who have initiated emergent dialysis via a temporary HD catheter, post-initiation PD can be a safe and effective long-term treatment option. Nevertheless, due to the potential complications

  2. Unusual crystallization behavior in Ga-Sb phase change alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Putero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined in situ X-ray scattering techniques using synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the crystallization behavior of Sb-rich Ga-Sb alloys. Measurements of the sheet resistance during heating indicated a reduced crystallization temperature with increased Sb content, which was confirmed by in situ X-ray diffraction. The electrical contrast increased with increasing Sb content and the resistivities in both the amorphous and crystalline phases decreased. It was found that by tuning the composition between Ga:Sb = 9:91 (in at.% and Ga:Sb = 45:55, the change in mass density upon crystallization changes from an increase in mass density which is typical for most phase change materials to a decrease in mass density. At the composition of Ga:Sb = 30:70, no mass density change is observed which should be very beneficial for phase change random access memory (PCRAM applications where a change in mass density during cycling is assumed to cause void formation and PCRAM device failure.

  3. SbSI Nanosensors: from Gel to Single Nanowire Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistewicz, Krystian; Nowak, Marian; Paszkiewicz, Regina; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    The gas-sensing properties of antimony sulfoiodide (SbSI) nanosensors have been tested for humidity and carbon dioxide in nitrogen. The presented low-power SbSI nanosensors have operated at relatively low temperature and have not required heating system for recovery. Functionality of sonochemically prepared SbSI nanosensors made of xerogel as well as single nanowires has been compared. In the latter case, small amount of SbSI nanowires has been aligned in electric field and bonded ultrasonically to Au microelectrodes. The current and photocurrent responses of SbSI nanosensors have been investigated as function of relative humidity. Mechanism of light-induced desorption of H2O from SbSI nanowires' surface has been discussed. SbSI nanosensors have been tested for concentrations from 51 to 10(6) ppm of CO2 in N2, exhibiting a low detection limit of 40(31) ppm. The current response sensitivity has shown a tendency to decrease with increasing CO2 concentration. The experimental results have been explained taking into account proton-transfer process and Grotthuss' chain reaction, as well as electronic theory of adsorption and catalysis on semiconductors.

  4. SbSI Nanosensors: from Gel to Single Nanowire Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistewicz, Krystian; Nowak, Marian; Paszkiewicz, Regina; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

    2017-02-01

    The gas-sensing properties of antimony sulfoiodide (SbSI) nanosensors have been tested for humidity and carbon dioxide in nitrogen. The presented low-power SbSI nanosensors have operated at relatively low temperature and have not required heating system for recovery. Functionality of sonochemically prepared SbSI nanosensors made of xerogel as well as single nanowires has been compared. In the latter case, small amount of SbSI nanowires has been aligned in electric field and bonded ultrasonically to Au microelectrodes. The current and photocurrent responses of SbSI nanosensors have been investigated as function of relative humidity. Mechanism of light-induced desorption of H2O from SbSI nanowires' surface has been discussed. SbSI nanosensors have been tested for concentrations from 51 to 106 ppm of CO2 in N2, exhibiting a low detection limit of 40(31) ppm. The current response sensitivity has shown a tendency to decrease with increasing CO2 concentration. The experimental results have been explained taking into account proton-transfer process and Grotthuss' chain reaction, as well as electronic theory of adsorption and catalysis on semiconductors.

  5. Single-step scanner-based digital image correlation (SB-DIC) method for large deformation mapping in rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, C. P.; Ismail, H.; Yen, K. S.; Ratnam, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    The incremental digital image correlation (DIC) method has been applied in the past to determine strain in large deformation materials like rubber. This method is, however, prone to cumulative errors since the total displacement is determined by combining the displacements in numerous stages of the deformation. In this work, a method of mapping large strains in rubber using DIC in a single-step without the need for a series of deformation images is proposed. The reference subsets were deformed using deformation factors obtained from the fitted mean stress-axial stretch ratio curve obtained experimentally and the theoretical Poisson function. The deformed reference subsets were then correlated with the deformed image after loading. The recently developed scanner-based digital image correlation (SB-DIC) method was applied on dumbbell rubber specimens to obtain the in-plane displacement fields up to 350% axial strain. Comparison of the mean axial strains determined from the single-step SB-DIC method with those from the incremental SB-DIC method showed an average difference of 4.7%. Two rectangular rubber specimens containing circular and square holes were deformed and analysed using the proposed method. The resultant strain maps from the single-step SB-DIC method were compared with the results of finite element modeling (FEM). The comparison shows that the proposed single-step SB-DIC method can be used to map the strain distribution accurately in large deformation materials like rubber at much shorter time compared to the incremental DIC method.

  6. Modelling And Manufacturing GaSb TPV Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algora, Carlos; Martín, Diego

    2003-01-01

    A complete model for GaSb TPV converters considering multiple real conditions (spectra, temperature, ARC, size, number and characteristics of grid fingers, size of busbar, etc.) is presented. The model has been applied to GaSb TPV converters fabricated in our laboratory by single zinc diffusion. The agreement between theory and experiments is very good. Future guides of performance improvement like the passivation of the surface together with the correspondent structure optimisation and the achievement of a better GaSb quality available more widespread are suggested.

  7. Point defect balance in epitaxial GaSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segercrantz, N., E-mail: natalie.segercrantz@aalto.fi; Slotte, J.; Makkonen, I.; Kujala, J.; Tuomisto, F. [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto Espoo (Finland); Song, Y.; Wang, S. [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2014-08-25

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy in both conventional and coincidence Doppler broadening mode is used for studying the effect of growth conditions on the point defect balance in GaSb:Bi epitaxial layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Positron annihilation characteristics in GaSb are also calculated using density functional theory and compared to experimental results. We conclude that while the main positron trapping defect in bulk samples is the Ga antisite, the Ga vacancy is the most prominent trap in the samples grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The results suggest that the p–type conductivity is caused by different defects in GaSb grown with different methods.

  8. Optical and structural properties of Sb2S3/MgF2 multilayers for laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, F.; Agulló-Rueda, F.; Lamela, J.; de las Heras, C.

    2008-02-01

    Multilayers of MgF2 and Sb2S3 have been obtained by physical vapour deposition on glass substrates. Changes in the optical and structural properties have been studied as a function of annealing temperature and the number of layers. A drastic variation in optical transmission, microstrain and grain size is observed at a temperature near 225 °C. A comparison of the material properties of multilayers and a monolayer is carried out.

  9. Patient Acceptability of the Yorkshire Dialysis Decision Aid (YoDDA) Booklet: A Prospective Non-Randomized Comparison Study Across 6 Predialysis Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbottom, Anna E; Gavaruzzi, Teresa; Mooney, Andrew; Wilkie, Martin; Davies, Simon J; Crane, Dennis; Tupling, Ken; Baxter, Paul D; Meads, David M; Mathers, Nigel; Bekker, Hilary L

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Patients are satisfied with their kidney care but want more support in making dialysis choices. Predialysis leaflets vary across services, with few being sufficient to enable patients' informed decision making. We describe the acceptability of a patient decision aid and feasibility of evaluating its effectiveness within usual predialysis practice. ♦ Prospective non-randomized comparison design, Usual Care or Usual Care Plus Yorkshire Dialysis Decision Aid Booklet (+YoDDA), in 6 referral centers (Yorkshire-Humber, UK) for patients with sustained deterioration of kidney function. Consenting (C) patients completed questionnaires after predialysis consultation (T1), and 6 weeks later (T2). Measures assessed YoDDA's utility to support patients' decisions and integration within usual care. ♦ Usual Care (n = 105) and +YoDDA (n = 84) participant characteristics were similar: male (62%), white (94%), age (mean = 62.6; standard deviation [SD] 14.4), kidney disease severity (glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] mean = 14.7; SD 3.7); decisional conflict was < 25; choice-preference for home versus hospital dialysis approximately 50:50. Patients valued receiving YoDDA, reading it on their own (96%), and sharing it with family (72%). The +YoDDA participants had higher scores for understanding kidney disease, reasoning about options, feeling in control, sharing their decision with family. Study engagement varied by center (estimated range 14 - 49%; mean 45%); participants varied in completion of decision quality measures. ♦ Receiving YoDDA as part of predialysis education was valued and useful to patients with worsening kidney disease. Integrating YoDDA actively within predialysis programs will meet clinical guidelines and patient need to support dialysis decision making in the context of patients' lifestyle. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  10. Comparison of gadoxetic acid and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI for HCC detection: prospective crossover study at 3 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besa, Cecilia; Kakite, Suguru; Cooper, Nancy; Facciuto, Marcelo; Taouli, Bachir

    2015-02-01

    Gadoxetic acid and gadopentetate dimeglumine are gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) with an established role in HCC detection and characterization. To compare gadopentetate dimeglumine and gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for image quality and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detection/conspicuity. In this IRB approved cross-over pilot prospective study, 12 patients (all men; mean age, 56 years) with chronic liver disease at risk of HCC underwent two repeat MRI examinations using gadopentetate dimeglumine and gadoxetic acid (mean interval between studies, 5 days). Two independent observers analyzed images for image quality and HCC detection/conspicuity. Per-lesion sensitivity, positive predictive value, quantitative enhancement, and lesion-to-liver contrast ratio were calculated for both contrast agents. There was no significant difference in image quality scores between both GBCAs (P = 0.3). A total of 20 HCCs were identified with reference standard in 12 patients (mean size 2.6 cm, range, 1.0-5.0 cm). Higher sensitivity was seen for observer 1 for gadoxetic acid-set in comparison with gadopentetate dimeglumine-set (sensitivity increased from 85.7% to 92.8%), while no difference was noted for observer 2 (sensitivity of 78.5%). Lesion conspicuity was significantly higher on hepatobiliary phase (HBP) images compared to arterial phase images with both GBCAs for both observers (P gadopentetate dimeglumine-set in terms of HCC detection for one observer, with improved lesion conspicuity and liver-to-lesion contrast on HBP images.

  11. Baseline characteristics and treatment of patients in Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure trial (PARADIGM-HF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, John J V; Packer, Milton; Desai, Akshay S; Gong, Jianjian; Lefkowitz, Martin; Rizkala, Adel R; Rouleau, Jean L; Shi, Victor C; Solomon, Scott D; Swedberg, Karl; Zile, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Aim To describe the baseline characteristics and treatment of the patients randomized in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective comparison of ARNi with ACEi to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure) trial, testing the hypothesis that the strategy of simultaneously blocking the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system and augmenting natriuretic peptides with LCZ696 200 mg b.i.d. is superior to enalapril 10 mg b.i.d. in reducing mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Methods Key demographic, clinical and laboratory findings, along with baseline treatment, are reported and compared with those of patients in the treatment arm of the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD-T) and more contemporary drug and device trials in heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Results The mean age of the 8442 patients in PARADIGM-HF is 64 (SD 11) years and 78% are male, which is similar to SOLVD-T and more recent trials. Despite extensive background therapy with beta-blockers (93% patients) and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (60%), patients in PARADIGM-HF have persisting symptoms and signs, reduced health related quality of life, a low LVEF (mean 29 ± SD 6%) and elevated N-terminal-proB type-natriuretic peptide levels (median 1608 inter-quartile range 886–3221 pg/mL). Conclusion PARADIGM-HF will determine whether LCZ696 is more beneficial than enalapril when added to other disease-modifying therapies and if further augmentation of endogenous natriuretic peptides will reduce morbidity and mortality in heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. PMID:24828035

  12. Comparison of different screening tools (FRAX®, OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE and age alone) to identify women with increased risk of fracture. A population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Abrahamsen, Bo; Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Bech, Mickael; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Barkmann, Reinhard; Glüer, Claus C; Brixen, Kim

    2013-09-01

    To compare the power of FRAX® without bone mineral density (BMD) and simpler screening tools (OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE and age alone) in predicting fractures. This study was a prospective, population-based study performed in Denmark comprising 3614 women aged 40-90 years, who returned a questionnaire concerning items on risk factors for osteoporosis. Fracture risk was calculated using the different screening tools (FRAX®, OST, ORAI, OSIRIS and SCORE) for each woman. The women were followed using the Danish National Register registering new major osteoporotic fractures during 3 years, counting only the first fracture per person. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and statistics and Harrell's index were calculated. Agreement between the tools was calculated by kappa statistics. A total of 4% of the women experienced a new major osteoporotic fracture during the follow-up period. There were no differences in the area under the curve (AUC) values between FRAX® and the simpler tools; AUC values between 0.703 and 0.722 (p = 0.86). Also, Harrell's C values were very similar between the tools. Agreement between the tools was modest. During 3 years follow-up FRAX® did not perform better in the fracture risk prediction compared with simpler tools such as OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE or age alone in a screening scenario where BMD was not measured. These findings suggest that simpler models based on fewer risk factors, which would be easier to use in clinical practice by the GP or the patient herself, could just as well as FRAX® be used to identify women with increased risk of fracture. Comparison of FRAX® and simpler screening tools (OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE) in predicting fractures indicate that FRAX® did not perform better in fracture risk prediction compared with the simpler tools or even age alone in a screening scenario without bone mineral density assessment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparison of mebeverine with high-fibre dietary advice and mebeverine plus ispaghula in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: an open, prospectively randomised, parallel group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, N D; Grillage, M G; Mazumder, R; Atkinson, S N

    1990-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy and acceptability of mebeverine and high-fibre dietary advice versus mebeverine and ispaghula in fixed combination in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in adults. DESIGN Open, prospectively randomised, parallel group comparison of mebeverine/dietary advice and mebeverine/ispaghula during an eight-week study period. SETTING General practices in the UK. PATIENTS One hundred and eleven patients with irritable bowel syndrome diagnosed by symptom profile or negative investigations between the ages of 18 and 75 years were entered. All patients had a history of abdominal pain occurring at least once a week for a period of three months or more. INTERVENTION Dosage was 135 mg of mebeverine hydrochloride, three times daily before meals, together with advice on high-fibre dietary intake, or 135 mg of mebeverine hydrochloride plus 3.5 g of ispaghula husk twice or three times daily before meals. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS Details of abdominal pain severity and frequency, bowel frequency and stool consistency were recorded by means of clinicians' assessments and patient diaries. Pre-treatment assessments revealed no significant differences between the two groups with respect to any of the parameters. Both treatment groups demonstrated highly significant improvements in the numbers of pain attacks and their severity; no statistically significant differences between the two groups were demonstrated. Five patients in the mebeverine/dietary advice group reported five concurrent effects and nine patients in the mebeverine/ispaghula group reported 13 concurrent effects. All of the mebeverine/dietary advice group found their treatment acceptable but up to 28% of the mebeverine/ispaghula group found their treatment unpalatable. CONCLUSION Both treatments are effective in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in adults. The fixed combination of mebeverine/ispaghula, however, was found to be unpalatable by up to 28% of the patients in that group

  14. Defense Mechanisms Reported by Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Axis II Comparison Subjects Over 16 Years of Prospective Follow-up: Description and Prediction of Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C.; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the defensive functioning of 290 borderline patients and compared it to that of 72 patients with other forms of axis II psychopathology over 16 years of prospective follow-up. It also assessed the relationship between time-varying defenses and recovery from borderline personality disorder. Method The Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure with demonstrated criterion validity and internal consistency, was initially administered at study entry. It was readministered at eight contiguous two-year long follow-up periods. Results Borderline patients had significantly lower scores than axis II comparison subjects on one mature defense mechanism (suppression) and significantly higher scores on seven of the other 18 defenses studied. More specifically, borderline patients had significantly higher scores on one neurotic-level defense (undoing), four immature defenses (acting out, emotional hypochondriasis, passive aggression, and projection), and two image-distorting/borderline defenses (projective identification and splitting). In terms of change, borderline patients were found to have had significant improvement on 13 of the 19 defenses studied. More specifically, they had significantly higher scores over time on one mature defense (anticipation) and significantly lower scores on two neurotic defenses (isolation and undoing), all immature defenses, and all image-distorting/borderline defenses except primitive idealization. In addition, four time-varying defense mechanisms were found to predict time-to-recovery: humor, acting out, emotional hypochondriasis, and projection. Conclusions Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the longitudinal defensive functioning of borderline patients is both distinct and improves substantially over time. They also suggest that immature defenses are the best predictors of time-to-recovery. PMID:23223866

  15. Baseline characteristics and treatment of patients in prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to determine impact on global mortality and morbidity in heart failure trial (PARADIGM-HF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, John J V; Packer, Milton; Desai, Akshay S; Gong, Jianjian; Lefkowitz, Martin; Rizkala, Adel R; Rouleau, Jean L; Shi, Victor C; Solomon, Scott D; Swedberg, Karl; Zile, Michael R

    2014-07-01

    To describe the baseline characteristics and treatment of the patients randomized in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective comparison of ARNi with ACEi to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure) trial, testing the hypothesis that the strategy of simultaneously blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and augmenting natriuretic peptides with LCZ696 200 mg b.i.d. is superior to enalapril 10 mg b.i.d. in reducing mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Key demographic, clinical and laboratory findings, along with baseline treatment, are reported and compared with those of patients in the treatment arm of the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD-T) and more contemporary drug and device trials in heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. The mean age of the 8442 patients in PARADIGM-HF is 64 (SD 11) years and 78% are male, which is similar to SOLVD-T and more recent trials. Despite extensive background therapy with beta-blockers (93% patients) and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (60%), patients in PARADIGM-HF have persisting symptoms and signs, reduced health related quality of life, a low LVEF (mean 29 ± SD 6%) and elevated N-terminal-proB type-natriuretic peptide levels (median 1608 inter-quartile range 886-3221 pg/mL). PARADIGM-HF will determine whether LCZ696 is more beneficial than enalapril when added to other disease-modifying therapies and if further augmentation of endogenous natriuretic peptides will reduce morbidity and mortality in heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society of Cardiology.

  16. Metal ion concentrations and semen quality in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty: A prospective comparison between metal-on-metal and metal-on-polyethylene implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Yuan; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Hu, Chih-Chien; Chen, Chun-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Pang-Hsin

    2016-03-01

    The widespread usage of metal-on-metal (MoM) articulations in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been tempered by concerns of increased metal ion production. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the influence of metal ion exposure on semen quality in young male patients undergoing THA. Male patients who were scheduled for unilateral THA and aged between 20 and 45 years were prospectively enrolled. Patients were sorted into MoM and metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) groups with equal case number. Semen and blood metal ion levels were measured and sperm analysis was performed before, 6 months after, and 1 year after surgery. Compared to preoperative baseline, patients (n = 50) in both groups had increased cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) concentrations in blood and seminal fluid after surgery. Between-group comparisons at 6 months and 1 year after surgery showed that patients in the MoM group both had a greater Co concentration in blood and semen and a greater Cr concentration in blood and semen. Patients receiving MoM prosthesis had a reduced percentage of morphologically normal sperm, and decreases from the preoperative level (44.7%) were significant at 6 months (36.8%, p = 0.03) and 1 year (33.8%, p = 0.004). Our data shows a significantly greater concentration of metal ion in blood and semen in patients with MoM prosthesis with a reduced percentage of morphologically normal sperm. Despite small effects on sperm quality, some concerns remain. Further studies are necessary to determine sources of metal ion and to investigate effects on male fertility. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Fast reversible laser-induced crystallization of Sb-rich Zn-Sb-Se phase change material with excellent stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a new reversible phase-change medium Sb-rich Zn-Sb-Se film, which possesses a large difference in both optical and electrical constant. The doped-ZnSb, sub-formed Zn-Se, and exhausted Sb-Se3/2 co-influence the physical properties. Typically, there is ∼105 resistance ratio and ∼14% relative reflectivity change in Zn19Sb45.7Se35.3 film when switched by electricity or laser pulses between amorphous and crystalline states. The higher Tc (∼250°C, larger Ea (∼8.57eV, better 10-yr data retention (∼200.2°C, higher crystallization resistance (∼3 × 103Ω/□ at 300°C-annealled and relative lower melting temperature (∼550.2°C are exhibited in Zn19Sb45.7Se35.3 film. Importantly, a short crystalline time (∼80ns at 70mW of the ideal Zn19Sb45.7Se35.3 film can be obtained without sacrificing room-temperature stability.

  18. Investigations on MnSb and related compounds with b8-type structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwma, Jakob

    1972-01-01

    This thesis describes investigations on phases with hexagonal B8-type structures in the systems Mn-Sb-Sn, Mn-Sb-Te, Mn-Cr-Sb and Mn-V-Sb. In -chapter 1 some general remarks are made on compounds with B8-type structures. The preparation of the samples, and the X-ray crystallographic investigations

  19. Sb{sub 7}Te{sub 3}/ZnSb multilayer thin films for high thermal stability and long data retention phase-change memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shiyu; Wu, Weihua [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Zhai, Jiwei, E-mail: apzhai@tongji.edu.cn [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Sb{sub 7}Te{sub 3} (ST) provides a fast crystallization speed, low melting temperature. • The Sb{sub 7}Te{sub 3}/ZnSb films exhibits faster crystallization speed, high thermal stability. • The calculated temperature for 10-year data retention is about 127 {sup o}C. • The Sb{sub 7}Te{sub 3}/ZnSb multilayer configuration with low power consumption. - Abstract: Phase-change memory is regard as one of the most promising candidates for the next-generation non-volatile memory. In this work, we proposed a Sb{sub 7}Te{sub 3}/ZnSb multilayer thin films to improve the thermal stability of Sb-rich Sb{sub 3}Te{sub 7}. The sheet resistance ratio between amorphous and crystalline states reached up to 4 orders of magnitude. With regard to the thermal stability, the calculated temperature for 10-year data retention is about 127 °C. The threshold current and threshold voltage of a cell based on Sb{sub 7}Te{sub 3}/ZnSb are 6.9 μA and 1.9 V, respectively. The lower RESET power is presented in the PCM cells of Sb{sub 7}Te{sub 3}/ZnSb films, benefiting from its high resistivity.

  20. Design, fabrication, and characterization of InSb avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abautret, J.; Evirgen, A.; Perez, J. P.; Christol, P.; Rouvié, A.; Cluzel, R.; Cordat, A.; Rothman, J.

    2013-12-01

    In this communication, the potentiality of InSb material as an avalanche photodiode (APD) device is investigated. Current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics at 77K of InSb pin photodiodes were simulated by using ATLAS software from SILVACO, in dark conditions and under illumination. In order to validate parameter values used for the modeling, theoretical J-V results were compared with experimental measurements performed on InSb diodes fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy. Next, assuming a multiplication process only induced by the electrons (e-APD), different designs of separate absorption and multiplication (SAM) APD structure were theoretically investigated and the first InSb SAM APD structure with 1μm thick multiplication layer was then fabricated and characterized.

  1. Modeling the AgInSbTe Memristor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The AgInSbTe memristor shows gradual resistance tuning characteristics, which makes it a potential candidate to emulate biological plastic synapses. The working mechanism of the device is complex, and both intrinsic charge-trapping mechanism and extrinsic electrochemical metallization effect are confirmed in the AgInSbTe memristor. Mathematical model of the AgInSbTe memristor has not been given before. We propose the flux-voltage controlled memristor model. With piecewise linear approximation technique, we deliver the flux-voltage controlled memristor model of the AgInSbTe memristor based on the experiment data. Our model fits the data well. The flux-voltage controlled memristor model and the piecewise linear approximation method are also suitable for modeling other kinds of memristor devices based on experiment data.

  2. Hall Mobility of Amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baily, S. A; Emin, David; Li, Heng

    2006-01-01

    The electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and Hall coefficient of 3 micron thick films of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 have been measured as functions of temperature from room temperature down to as low as 200 K...

  3. Monte Carlo calculation of electron transport in InSb

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, P S

    2002-01-01

    The velocity field characteristics of InSb have been obtained at 77 K by the Monte Carlo simulation technique. The results agree with the experimental data and also with those obtained by using the displaced Maxwellian distribution function. The effects of the various simulation parameters as well as that of the ionized impurity concentration on the mobility values for InSb have been discussed and results presented. (author)

  4. Etanercept (SB4): A Review in Autoimmune Inflammatory Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burness, Celeste B; Duggan, Sean T

    2016-08-01

    Etanercept (SB4) [Benepali(®)], a tumour necrosis factor inhibitor that is a biosimilar of reference etanercept (Enbrel(®)), is approved in the EU for use in all adult indications for which reference etanercept is approved, namely rheumatoid arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis (ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis), psoriatic arthritis, and plaque psoriasis. The approval of etanercept (SB4) was based on the results of stringent comparability exercises designed to demonstrate similarity to reference etanercept in terms of quality, biological activity, efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity. In two well-designed clinical trials, etanercept (SB4) was equivalent to reference etanercept with regard to pharmacokinetic properties in healthy volunteers and in terms of efficacy in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate therapy. Longer-term efficacy (up to 52 weeks) was also similar in both treatment groups. Etanercept (SB4) was generally well tolerated, with a similar safety profile to that of reference etanercept. Preliminary results of the open-label extension period (100 weeks) suggest that transitioning from reference etanercept to etanercept (SB4) was associated with sustained efficacy and no change in the adverse event profile or immunogenicity. In conclusion, etanercept (SB4) provides therapeutically equivalent alternative in adult patients with autoimmune inflammatory diseases requiring treatment with etanercept.

  5. High Current Density InAsSb/GaSb Tunnel Field Effect Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Anil; Borg, Mattias; Ganjipour, Bahram; Ek, Martin; Dick Thelander, Kimberly; Lind, Erik; Nilsson, Peter; Thelander, Claes; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Steep-slope devices, such as tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), have recently gained interest due to their potential for low power operation at room temperature. The devices are based on inter-band tunneling which could limit the on-current since the charge carriers must tunnel through a barrier to traverse the device. The InAs/GaSb heterostructure forms a broken type II band alignment which enables inter-band tunneling without a barrier, allowing high on-currents. We ha...

  6. Ferro electrical properties of GeSbTe thin films; Propiedades ferroelectricas de peliculas delgadas de GeSbTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervacio A, J. J.; Prokhorov, E.; Espinoza B, F. J., E-mail: jgervacio@qro.cinvestav.m [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Juriquilla, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate and compare ferro electrical properties of thin GeSbTe films with composition Ge{sub 4}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 5} (with well defined ferro electrical properties) and Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} using impedance, optical reflection, XRD, DSc and Piezo response Force Microscopy techniques. The temperature dependence of the capacitance in both materials shows an abrupt change at the temperature corresponding to ferroelectric-paraelectric transition and the Curie-Weiss dependence. In Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films this transition corresponds to the end from a NaCl-type to a hexagonal transformation. Piezo response Force Microscopy measurements found ferroelectric domains with dimension approximately equal to the dimension of grains. (Author)

  7. Role of interlayer coupling for the power factor of CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaleh, Najebah Mohammed Abdullah

    2017-01-08

    The electronic and transport properties of bulk and monolayer CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2 are determined by using density functional theory and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory, in order to investigate the role of interlayer coupling for the thermoelectric properties. The calculated band gaps of the bulk compounds are in agreement with experiments and significantly higher than those of the monolayers, which thus show lower Seebeck coefficients. Since also the electrical conductivity is lower, the monolayers are characterized by lower power factors. Therefore, interlayer coupling is found to be essential for the excellent thermoelectric response of CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2, even though it is weak.

  8. Role of interlayer coupling for the power factor of CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaleh, Najebah M.

    2016-09-26

    The electronic and transport properties of bulk and monolayer CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2 are determined by using density functional theory and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory, in order to investigate the role of interlayer coupling for the thermoelectric properties. The calculated band gaps of the bulk compounds are in agreement with experiments and significantly higher than those of the monolayers, which thus show lower Seebeck coefficients. Since also the electrical conductivity is lower, the monolayers are characterized by lower power factors. Therefore, interlayer coupling is found to be essential for the excellent thermoelectric response of CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2, even though it is weak.

  9. Magnetic properties of GdPdSb and GdNiSb studied by {sup 155}Gd-Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielemeier, B. [Department Physik, Universitaet Paderborn, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany); Wortmann, G. [Department Physik, Universitaet Paderborn, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany)], E-mail: Wortmann@physik.upb.de; Casper, F.; Ksenofontov, V.; Felser, C. [Institut fuer Anorg. und Analyt. Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    {sup 155}Gd-Moessbauer spectroscopy was applied to study the magnetic properties of GdPdSb with hexagonal LiGaGe structure and of GdNiSb in the cubic MgAgAs-type structure as well as in the hexagonal AlB{sub 2}-type structure. In GdPdSb magnetic ordering is observed at 13.0 K with indications of a tilted spin structure at lower temperatures. In the cubic phase of GdNiSb magnetic ordering is observed at 9.5 K and in the hexagonal phase around 3.5 K. These results are discussed in conjunction with previous investigations of these samples.

  10. Crystal structure, magnetism, {sup 89}Y solid state NMR, and {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectroscopic investigations of YIrSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benndorf, Christopher [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Heletta, Lukas; Block, Theresa; Poettgen, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Eckert, Hellmut [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Institute of Physics in Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    The ternary antimonide YIrSb was synthesized from the binary precursor YIr and elemental antimony by a diffusion controlled solid-state reaction. Single crystals were obtained by a flux technique with elemental bismuth as an inert solvent. The YIrSb structure (TiNiSi type, space group Pnma) was refined from single-crystal X-ray diffractometer data: a = 711.06(9), b = 447.74(5), c = 784.20(8) pm, wR{sub 2} = 0.0455, 535 F{sup 2} values, 20 variables. {sup 89}Y solid state MAS NMR and {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectra show single resonance lines in agreement with single-crystal X-ray data. YIrSb is a Pauli paramagnet. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. The antimony-group 11 chemical bond: dissociation energies of the diatomic molecules CuSb, AgSb, and AuSb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, V; Ciccioli, A; Gigli, G

    2014-02-14

    The intermetallic molecules CuSb, AgSb, and AuSb were identified in the effusive molecular beam produced at high temperature under equilibrium conditions in a double-cell-like Knudsen source. Several gaseous equilibria involving these species were studied by mass spectrometry as a function of temperature in the overall range 1349-1822 K, and the strength of the chemical bond formed between antimony and the group 11 metals was for the first time measured deriving the following thermochemical dissociation energies (D°(0), kJ/mol): 186.7 ± 5.1 (CuSb), 156.3 ± 4.9 (AgSb), 241.3 ± 5.8 (AuSb). The three species were also investigated computationally at the coupled cluster level with single, double, and noniterative quasiperturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)). The spectroscopic parameters were calculated from the potential energy curves and the dissociation energies were evaluated at the Complete Basis Set limit, resulting in an overall good agreement with experimental values. An approximate evaluation of the spin-orbit effect was also performed. CCSD(T) calculations were further extended to the corresponding group 11 arsenide species which are here studied for the first time and the following dissociation energies (D°(0), kJ/mol): 190 ± 10 (CuAs), 151 ± 10 (AgAs), 240 ± 15 (AuAs) are proposed. Taking advantage of the new experimental and computational information here presented, the bond energy trends along group 11 and 4th and 5th periods of the periodic table were analyzed and the bond energies of the diatomic species CuBi and AuBi, yet experimentally unobserved, were predicted on an empirical basis.

  12. AgSbSe{sub 2} and AgSb(S,Se){sub 2} thin films for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza, J.G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Shaji, S. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, CIIDIT - Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Rodriguez, A.C.; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Krishnan, B., E-mail: kbindu_k@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, CIIDIT - Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2011-10-01

    Silver antimony selenide (AgSbSe{sub 2}) thin films were prepared by heating sequentially deposited multilayers of antimony sulphide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}), silver selenide (Ag{sub 2}Se), selenium (Se) and silver (Ag). Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film was prepared from a chemical bath containing SbCl{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ag{sub 2}Se from a solution containing AgNO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SeSO{sub 3} and Se thin films from an acidified solution of Na{sub 2}SeSO{sub 3}, at room temperature on glass substrates. Ag thin film was deposited by thermal evaporation. The annealing temperature was 350 deg. C in vacuum (10{sup -3} Torr) for 1 h. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the thin films formed were polycrystalline AgSbSe{sub 2} or AgSb(S,Se){sub 2} depending on selenium content in the precursor films. Morphology and elemental analysis of these films were done using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Optical band gap was evaluated from the UV-visible absorption spectra of these films. Electrical characterizations were done using Hall effect and photocurrent measurements. A photovoltaic structure: glass/ITO/CdS/AgSbSe{sub 2}/Al was formed, in which CdS was deposited by chemical bath deposition. J-V characteristics of this structure showed V{sub oc} = 435 mV and J{sub sc} = 0.08 mA/cm{sup 2} under illumination using a tungsten halogen lamp. Preparation of a photovoltaic structure using AgSbSe{sub 2} as an absorber material by a non-toxic selenization process is achieved.

  13. Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of the Ga–Sb–Tl liquid alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN MANASIJEVIC

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of the calculation of the thermodynamic properties for liquid Ga–Sb–Tl alloys at the temperature 1073 K are presented in this paper. Initially, the most appropriate thermodynamic model for the investigated system was selected. Based on a comparison of the values calculated by different geometric models (Kohler, Muggianu, Toop, Hillert, Chou with the existing experimental based data, asymmetric models of calculation were determined to give the best results. The asymmetric nature of the investigated ternary system was additionally confirmed by the Chou similarity coefficient concept. For these reasons, further complete thermodynamic calculations were performed according to the Hillert model in five sections of the ternary Ga–Sb–Tl system from each corner with the mole ratio of other two components being 9:1; 7:3; 5:5; 3:7 and 1:9. The obtained results include integral excess Gibbs energy dependences on composition for all the investigated sections. The calculated activity values at 1073 K for all components are given in the form of isoactivity diagrams. Comparison between the calculated and experimentally obtained gallium activities shows good agreement.

  14. Observation of Sb sub 2 O sub 3 nanocrystals in SiO sub 2 after Sb ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatova, V A; Gijbels, R; Adams, F; Lebedev, O I; Landuyt, J V; Waetjen, U

    2002-01-01

    Antimony nanocrystals were formed in thin SiO sub 2 films using low-energy ion implantation of Sb followed by annealing. Using Fourier transform laser microprobe mass spectrometry (FT LMMS), we observed for the first time the presence of antimony oxide in the intermediate phase (as-implanted layer of Sb) by means of signals referring to the intact Sb sub 2 O sub 3 molecules. Only SbO sup + fragments, but no adduct ions of Sb sub 2 O sub 3 could be detected in annealed samples. The size and the distribution of the nanocrystals formed around the initial depth of implantation were studied in the as-implanted samples by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM). The crystalline structure of these nanocrystals was also studied and the presence of antimony trioxide Sb sub 2 O sub 3 in the form of valentinite was proven. After the annealing step, the implanted material had spread into a wider band. The method introduced here, based on combining TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and FT LMMS results, offers the ...

  15. Optoelectronic Structure and Related Transport Properties of Ag2Sb2O6 and Cd2Sb2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Hussain, Safdar; Khan, Saleem Ayaz; Goumri-Said, Souraya; Azam, Sikander

    2018-02-01

    Using the full-potential linearized augmented-plane wave method, the electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of Ag2Sb2O6 and Cd2Sb2O7 compounds have been explored. The modified Becke-Johnson potential was applied to treat the exchange-correlation energy term. The electronic band structures reveal that the valence-band maximum and conduction-band minimum occur at Γ point, indicating that Ag2Sb2O6 and Cd2Sb2O7 are direct energy bandgap semiconductors. Strong hybridization appeared between Ag (Cd)- s/ p and O- s/ p states. The optical properties, i.e., complex dielectric function, reflectivity, refractive index, and energy loss function, reveal high reflectivity in the ultraviolet energy range, indicating usefulness of these materials in shields from high-energy radiation. Combining transport theory and the outputs from the full-potential linearized augmented-plane wave calculations, the thermoelectric properties were analyzed as functions of temperature. Due to their high thermopower and narrow bandgap, Ag2Sb2O6 and Cd2Sb2O7 are suitable materials for application in optoelectronic and thermoelectric devices.

  16. Gel-combustion synthesis of CoSb2O6 and its reduction to powdery Sb2Co alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJA JOVIC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sb2Co alloy in powdery form was synthesized via reduction with gaseous hydrogen of the oxide CoSb2O6, obtained by the citrate gel-combustion technique. The precursor was an aqueous solution of antimony nitrate, cobalt nitrate and citric acid. The precursor solution with mole ratio Co(II/Sb(V of 1:2 was gelatinized by evaporation of water. The gel was heated in air up to the temperature of self-ignition. The product of gel combustion was a mixture of oxides and it had to be additionally thermally treated in order to be converted to pure CoSb2O6. The reduction of CoSb2O6 by gaseous hydrogen yielded powdery Sb2Co as the sole phase. The process of oxide reduction to alloy was controlled by thermogravimetry, while X-ray diffractometry was used to control the phase compositions of both the oxides and alloys.

  17. Capabilities of the Johnson SB distribution in estimating rain variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adderio, Leo Pio; Cugerone, Katia; Porcù, Federico; De Michele, Carlo; Tokay, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Numerous fields of atmospheric and hydrological sciences require the parametric form of the raindrop size distribution (DSD) to estimate the rainfall rate from radar observables as well as in cloud resolving and weather forecasting models. This study aims to investigate the capability of the Johnson SB distribution (JSB) in estimating rain integral parameters. Specifically, rainfall rate (R), reflectivity factor (Z) and mean mass diameter (Dmass) estimated by JSB are compared with those estimated by a three-parameter Gamma distribution, widely used by radar meteorologists and atmospheric physicists to model natural DSD. A large dataset consisting of more than 155,000 one-minute DSD, from six field campaigns of Ground Validation (GV) program of NASA/JAXA Global Precipitation Measurement mission (GPM), is used to test the performance of both JSB and Gamma distribution. The available datasets cover a wide range of rain regimes because of the field campaigns were carried out in different seasons and locations. Correlation coefficient, bias, root mean square error (RMSE) and fractional standard error (FSE) between estimated and measured integral parameters are calculated to compare the performances of the two distributions. The capability of JSB in estimating the integral parameters, especially R and Z, resulted very close to that of Gamma distribution. In particular, for light precipitation, JSB is superior to Gamma distribution in estimating R with FSE of 11% with respect to values ranging between 25% and 37% about for Gamma. Comparison of the estimated and measured DSDs shows that the JSB distribution reproduces the natural DSD quite accurately.

  18. A Randomized, Phase I Pharmacokinetic Study Comparing SB2 and Infliximab Reference Product (Remicade(®)) in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Donghoon; Kim, Youngdoe; Kim, Yoo Seok; Körnicke, Thomas; Fuhr, Rainard

    2015-12-01

    SB2, a biosimilar to infliximab reference product (INF), has an identical amino acid sequence and similar physicochemical functional properties to its reference product. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate pharmacokinetic (PK) bioequivalence between SB2 and EU-sourced INF (EU-INF), between SB2 and US-sourced INF (US-INF), and between EU-INF and US-INF. This study was a randomized, single-blind, three-arm, parallel group study in 159 healthy subjects. All subjects received a single 5 mg/kg intravenous infusion of study drug and then were observed for 10 weeks to study PK, safety and immunogenicity. The primary PK parameters were area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to infinity (AUCinf), AUC from time zero to the last quantifiable concentration (AUClast) and maximum concentration (C max). Bioequivalence for the primary PK parameters was to be concluded using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) if the 90 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the ratio of geometric least squares means (LSMeans) of the treatments compared were completely contained within the pre-defined equivalence margin, 0.8-1.25. All of the 90 % CIs for the geometric LSMean ratios of primary PK parameters for each comparison were within the pre-defined equivalence margin. The proportion of subjects who experienced treatment-emergent adverse events was comparable between treatments. The incidences of anti-drug antibodies between the three treatments were comparable. This study demonstrated biosimilarity of SB2 to its marketed reference products of infliximab in terms of PK equivalence in healthy subjects. SB2 was generally well tolerated and showed comparable safety and immunogenicity profiles to the reference products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01922336).

  19. Diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/MRI and WB-DW-MRI in the evaluation of lymphoma: a prospective comparison to standard FDG-PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Ken; Queiroz, Marcelo; Huellner, Martin W; de Galiza Barbosa, Felipe; Buck, Andreas; Schaefer, Niklaus; Stolzman, Paul; Veit-Haibach, Patrick

    2015-12-23

    Use of FDG-PET/CT for staging and restaging of lymphoma patients is widely incorporated into current practice guidelines. Our aim was to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/MRI and WB-DW-MRI compared with FDG-FDG-PET/CT using a tri-modality PET/CT-MRI system. From 04/12 to 01/14, a total of 82 FDG-PET/CT examinations including an additional scientific MRI on a tri-modality setup were performed in 61 patients. FDG-PET/CT, FDG-PET/MRI, and WB-DW-MRI were independently analyzed. A lesion with a mean ADC below a threshold of 1.2 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s was defined as positive for restricted diffusion. FDG-PET/CT and FDG-PET/MRI were evaluated for the detection of lesions corresponding to lymphoma manifestations according to the German Hodgkin Study Group. Imaging findings were validated by biopsy (n = 21), by follow-up imaging comprising CT, FDG-PET/CT, and/or FDG-PET/MRI (n = 32), or clinically (n = 25) (mean follow-up: 9.1 months). FDG-PET/MRI and FDG-PET/CT accurately detected 188 lesions in 27 patients. Another 54 examinations in 35 patients were negative. WB-DW-MRI detected 524 lesions, of which 125 (66.5% of the aforementioned 188 lesions) were true positive. Among the 188 lesions positive for lymphoma, FDG-PET/MRI detected all 170 instances of nodal disease and also all 18 extranodal lymphoma manifestations; by comparison, WB-DW-MRI characterized 115 (67.6%) and 10 (55.6%) lesions as positive for nodal and extranodal disease, respectively. FDG-PET/MRI was superior to WB-DW-MRI in detecting lymphoma manifestations in patients included for staging (113 vs. 73), for restaging (75 vs. 52), for evaluation of high- (127 vs. 81) and low-grade lymphomas (61 vs. 46), and for definition of Ann Arbor stage (WB-DW-MRI resulted in upstaging in 60 cases, including 45 patients free of disease, and downstaging in 4). Our results indicate that FDG-PET/CT and FDG-PET/MRI probably have a similar performance in the clinical work-up of lymphomas. The performance

  20. Prospective evaluation of reduced dose computed tomography for the detection of low-contrast liver lesions. Direct comparison with concurrent standard dose imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pooler, B.D.; Lubner, Meghan G.; Kim, David H.; Chen, Oliver T. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Pickhardt, Perry J. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, E3/311 Clinical Science Center, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-05-15

    To prospectively compare the diagnostic performance of reduced-dose (RD) contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) with standard-dose (SD) CECT for detection of low-contrast liver lesions. Seventy adults with non-liver primary malignancies underwent abdominal SD-CECT immediately followed by RD-CECT, aggressively targeted at 60-70 % dose reduction. SD series were reconstructed using FBP. RD series were reconstructed with FBP, ASIR, and MBIR (Veo). Three readers - blinded to clinical history and comparison studies - reviewed all series, identifying liver lesions ≥4 mm. Non-blinded review by two experienced abdominal radiologists - assessing SD against available clinical and radiologic information - established the reference standard. RD-CECT mean effective dose was 2.01 ± 1.36 mSv (median, 1.71), a 64.1 ± 8.8 % reduction. Pooled per-patient performance data were (sensitivity/specificity/PPV/NPV/accuracy) 0.91/0.78/0.60/0.96/0.81 for SD-FBP compared with RD-FBP 0.79/0.75/0.54/0.91/0.76; RD-ASIR 0.84/0.75/0.56/0.93/0.78; and RD-MBIR 0.84/0.68/0.49/0.92/0.72. ROC AUC values were 0.896/0.834/0.858/0.854 for SD-FBP/RD-FBP/RD-ASIR/RD-MBIR, respectively. RD-FBP (P = 0.002) and RD-MBIR (P = 0.032) AUCs were significantly lower than those of SD-FBP; RD-ASIR was not (P = 0.052). Reader confidence was lower for all RD series (P < 0.001) compared with SD-FBP, especially when calling patients entirely negative. Aggressive CT dose reduction resulted in inferior diagnostic performance and reader confidence for detection of low-contrast liver lesions compared to SD. Relative to RD-ASIR, RD-FBP showed decreased sensitivity and RD-MBIR showed decreased specificity. (orig.)

  1. Transscrotal Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Test for Testis Torsion in Pediatric Acute Scrotum: A Prospective Comparison to Gold Standard Diagnostic Test Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlomer, Bruce J; Keays, Melise A; Grimsby, Gwen M; Granberg, Candace F; DaJusta, Daniel G; Menon, Vani S; Ostrov, Lauren; Sheth, Kunj R; Hill, Martinez; Sanchez, Emma J; Harrison, Clanton B; Jacobs, Micah A; Huang, Rong; Burgu, Berk; Hennes, Halim; Baker, Linda A

    2017-09-01

    A rapid test for testicular torsion in children may obviate the delay for testicular ultrasound. In this study we assessed testicular tissue percent oxygen saturation (%StO2) measured by transscrotal near infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic test for pediatric testicular torsion. This was a prospective comparison to a gold standard diagnostic test study that evaluated near infrared spectroscopy %StO2 readings to diagnose testicular torsion. The gold standard for torsion diagnosis was standard clinical care. From 2013 to 2015 males with acute scrotum for more than 1 month and who were less than 18 years old were recruited. Near infrared spectroscopy %StO2 readings were obtained for affected and unaffected testes. Near infrared spectroscopy Δ%StO2 was calculated as unaffected minus affected reading. The utility of near infrared spectroscopy Δ%StO2 to diagnose testis torsion was described with ROC curves. Of 154 eligible patients 121 had near infrared spectroscopy readings. Median near infrared spectroscopy Δ%StO2 in the 36 patients with torsion was 2.0 (IQR -4.2 to 9.8) vs -1.7 (IQR -8.7 to 2.0) in the 85 without torsion (p=0.004). AUC for near infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic test was 0.66 (95% CI 0.55-0.78). Near infrared spectroscopy Δ%StO2 of 20 or greater had a positive predictive value of 100% and a sensitivity of 22.2%. Tanner stage 3-5 cases without scrotal edema or with pain for 12 hours or less had an AUC of 0.91 (95% CI 0.86-1.0) and 0.80 (95% CI 0.62-0.99), respectively. In all children near infrared spectroscopy readings had limited utility in diagnosing torsion. However, in Tanner 3-5 cases without scrotal edema or with pain 12 hours or less, near infrared spectroscopy discriminated well between torsion and nontorsion. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Overexpression of a Plasma Membrane-Localized SbSRP-Like Protein Enhances Salinity and Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Mishra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An obligate halophyte, Salicornia brachiata grows in salt marshes and is considered to be a potential resource of salt- and drought-responsive genes. It is important to develop an understanding of the mechanisms behind enhanced salt tolerance. To increase this understanding, a novel SbSRP gene was cloned, characterized, over-expressed, and functionally validated in the model plant Nicotiana tabacum. The genome of the halophyte S. brachiata contains two homologs of an intronless SbSRP gene of 1,262 bp in length that encodes for a stress-related protein. An in vivo localization study confirmed that SbSRP is localized on the plasma membrane. Transgenic tobacco plants (T1 that constitutively over-express the SbSRP gene showed improved salinity and osmotic stress tolerance. In comparison to Wild Type (WT and Vector Control (VC plants, transgenic lines showed elevated relative water and chlorophyll content, lower malondialdehyde content, lower electrolyte leakage and higher accumulation of proline, free amino acids, sugars, polyphenols, and starch under abiotic stress treatments. Furthermore, a lower build-up of H2O2 content and superoxide-radicals was found in transgenic lines compared to WT and VC plants under stress conditions. Transcript expression of Nt-APX (ascorbate peroxidase, Nt-CAT (catalase, Nt-SOD (superoxide dismutase, Nt-DREB (dehydration responsive element binding factor, and Nt-AP2 (apetala2 genes was higher in transgenic lines under stress compared to WT and VC plants. The results suggested that overexpression of membrane-localized SbSRP mitigates salt and osmotic stress in the transgenic tobacco plant. It was hypothesized that SbSRP can be a transporter protein to transmit the environmental stimuli downward through the plasma membrane. However, a detailed study is required to ascertain its exact role in the abiotic stress tolerance mechanism. Overall, SbSRP is a potential candidate to be used for engineering salt and osmotic

  3. A study of self-assembled InSb quantum dots grown on GaSb

    CERN Document Server

    Alphandery, E

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, we study the system of self-assembled InSb quantum dots grown on GaSb by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. The luminescence of the samples is first studied as a function of different growth parameters. In the series of high growth rate samples, a 'low energy peak' is observed at 0.72-0.74 eV for longer deposition times than 2 seconds and for growth temperatures of 460-500 degC. This peak is attributed to dots that are strongly confined in the growth direction. As the growth rate is halved, a new 'high energy peak' appears in the PL spectra at 0.755-0.79 eV that we assign to another family of big alloyed quantum dots. The luminescence of the high growth rate samples is then studied as a function of excitation power, temperature and magnetic field. When the excitation power is increased the quantum dot transition increases in energy by approx 7-11 meV and further transitions are observed from the wetting layer, bulk acceptor, bound (BE3) and free excitons. Magneto-PL is used to calculate the in-...

  4. Post-hospitalization course and predictive signs of suicidal behavior of suicidal patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital: a 2-year prospective follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Naoki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicidal patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital are considered to be at risk of suicidal behavior (SB and suicide. The present study aimed to seek predictors of SB recurrence of the high-risk patients by examining their post-hospitalization course. Method The design was 2-year prospective follow-up study of patients consecutively admitted with SB to a psychiatric center in Tokyo. The DSM-IV diagnoses and SB-related features of subjects were determined in structured interviews. Subsequently, the subjects underwent a series of follow-up assessments at 6-month intervals. The assessment included inquiries into SB recurrence, its accompanying suicidal intent (SI and SF-8 health survey. Analyses of serial change over time in the follow-up data and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses of SB recurrence were performed. Results 106 patients participated in this study. The dropout rate during the follow-up was 9%. Within 2 years, incidences of SB as a whole, SB with certain SI (suicide attempt and suicide were 67% (95% CI 58 - 75%, 38% (95% CI 29 - 47% and 6% (95% CI 3 - 12%, respectively. Younger age, number of lifetime SBs and maltreatment in the developmental period were predictive of SB as a whole, and younger age and hopelessness prior to index admission were predictive of suicide attempt. Regarding diagnostic variables, anxiety disorders and personality disorders appeared to have predictive value for SB. Additionally, poor physical health assessed during the follow-up was indicated as a possible short-term predictor of SB recurrence. Conclusions This study demonstrated a high incidence of SB and suicide and possible predictors of SB recurrence in the post-hospitalization period of psychiatric suicidal patients. Specialized interventions should be developed to reduce the suicide risk of this patient population.

  5. Diode-pumped mode-locked Tm:LuAG laser at 2  μm based on GaSb-SESAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, C; Yang, K; Zhao, J; Zhao, S; Li, T; Zhang, H; He, J; Song, L; Dekorsy, T; Guina, M; Zheng, L

    2017-02-15

    Mode-locking of a directly diode-pumped Tm:LuAG laser is demonstrated using GaSb-based semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs). Stable and self-starting mode-locked operation was realized, generating pulses as short as 13.6 ps at 2024 nm with a maximum output power of 98 mW. Two GaInAs-based SESAMs were used for comparison with the operation based upon the use of the GaSb SESAM; in this case, longer pulses with durations of 27 ps and 34 ps were obtained under the same experimental conditions. Our work sets a new record in pulse duration for mode-locked Tm:LuAG lasers and confirms that lattice-matched GaSb-based SESAMs are beneficial for mode-locked solid-state lasers in the 2 μm range.

  6. Comparison between pathogen directed antibiotic treatment and empirical broad spectrum antibiotic treatment in patients with community acquired pneumonia: a prospective randomised study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Eerden, M. M.; Vlaspolder, F.; de Graaff, C. S.; Groot, T.; Bronsveld, W.; Jansen, H. M.; Boersma, W. G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is much controversy about the ideal approach to the management of community acquired pneumonia ( CAP). Recommendations differ from a pathogen directed approach to an empirical strategy with broad spectrum antibiotics. Methods: In a prospective randomised open study performed

  7. [Basic principles of successful implantation of the SB Charité model LINK intervertebral disk endoprosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner-Janz, K; Hahn, S; Schikora, K; Link, H D

    2002-05-01

    The scope of the LINK SB Charité Artificial Disc is to replace degeneratively changed, symptomatic intervertebral discs and to restitute the fundamental functions of the lumbar mobile segment. Biomechanical static- and dynamic test results as well as postoperative controls of a patient-group with uniform indications are presented. The options of an intervertebral disc replacement with the SB Charité Artificial Disc are discussed. For the evaluation of segmental stability, comparative static examinations of the range of motion of cadaveric lumbar segments prior to and after the implantation of the artificial disc were carried out. The stress-dependent mechanical response to directional static load on implanted SB Charité Discs in neutral position, extension and flexion was examined under different testing-conditions in order to gain results on changes of surfaces, durability and sustain of functionality. Restitutable changes to the UHMWPE sliding core, prognosed definite deformations of the sliding core after 5 and 10 years, and the functionality of the UHMWPE sliding cores after stress were examined using dynamic compression tests. Our clinical results refer to 20 patients, who received a mono- (n = 14) or bisegmental (n = 6) implantation of a SB Charité Artificial Disc following a postnucleotomy-syndrome. Comparison of the ranges of motion in cadaveric segments with and without a SB Charité Artificial Disc reflected a significantly higher mobility in cases with an implanted prosthesis only in axial rotation. Other movements showed similar ranges of motion in native segments and in segments with prosthesis. The UHMWPE sliding cores showed tolerable changes during maximal static compression in neutral position and extension. The 7.5 mm sliding cores showed changes beyond normal deformations on compression in maximal flexion. None the less it may be concluded that in vivo these sliding cores also retain their mechanical integrity. Most of the 7.5 mm and 9.5 mm

  8. Prospective versus retrospective ECG gating for dual source CT of the coronary stent: Comparison of image quality, accuracy, and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Lei, E-mail: zhaolei219@sohu.com [Beijing Anzhen Hospital of the Capital University of Medical Sciences (China); Zhang Zhaoqi; Fan Zhanming; Yang Lin; Du Jing [Beijing Anzhen Hospital of the Capital University of Medical Sciences (China)

    2011-03-15

    Objective: To compare image quality, diagnostic accuracy and radiation dose of prospective and retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG) gated dual source computed tomography (DSCT) for the evaluation of the coronary stent, using conventional coronary angiography (CA) as a standard reference. Design, setting and patients: Sixty patients (heart rates {<=}70 bpm) with previous stent implantation who were scheduled for CA were divided in two groups, receiving either prospective or retrospective ECG gated DSCT separately. Two reviewers scored coronary stent image quality and evaluated stent lumen. Results: There was no significant difference in image quality between the two groups. In the prospective group, there were 86.4% (51/59) stents with interpretable images, in the retrospective group, there were 87.5% (49/56) stents with interpretable images. Image quality was not influenced by age, body mass index or heart rate in either group, but heart rate variability had a weak impact on the image quality of the prospective group. Image noise was higher in the prospective group, but this difference reached statistical significance only by using a smooth kernel reconstruction. Per-stent based sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value were 100%, 84.1%, 68.2%, and 100%, respectively, in the prospective CT angiography group and 94.4%, 86.8%, 77.3%, and 97.1%, respectively, in the retrospective CT angiography group. There was a significant difference in the effective radiation dose between the two groups, mean effective dose in the prospective and retrospective group was 2.2 {+-} 0.5 mSv (1.5-3.2 mSv) and 14.6 {+-} 3.3 mSv (10.0-20.4 mSv) (p < .001) respectively. Conclusions: Compared with retrospective CT angiography, prospective CT angiography has a similar performance in assessing coronary stent patency, but a lower effective dose in selected patients with regular heart rates {<=}70 bpm.

  9. A facile and fast route to prepare antimony (Sb) nanostructures without additives

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, M.A.

    2011-12-01

    Herein, we report a safe, low cost and reproducible approach for the synthesis of antimony (Sb) nanostructures with most of them having prism like morphology and having well defined faces in the range of ∼70210 nm. The organics free approach is based on a reaction of antimony powder and pure water at ∼210 °C without using any harmful additives and amines. The XRD pattern confirmed the composition and crystallinity of the grown nanostructures. The reported method besides being organics free is economical, fast and free of pollution, which will make it suitable for large scale production. Furthermore, it is well expected that such a technique could be extended to prepare many other important metal and metal oxide nanostructures. The prospects of the process are bright and promising. © 2012 Sharif University of Technology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Superconductivity of the filled skuterrudite PrOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}: Phase diagram and characterisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Measson, M.-A. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, SPSMS, CEA Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: mmeasson@cea.fr; Brison, J.P. [Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, CNRS, 25 avenue des Martyrs, BP166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: brison@grenoble.cnrs.fr; Seyfarth, G. [Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, CNRS, 25 avenue des Martyrs, BP166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Braithwaite, D. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, SPSMS, CEA Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble (France); Lapertot, G. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, SPSMS, CEA Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble (France); Salce, B. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, SPSMS, CEA Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble (France); Flouquet, J. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, SPSMS, CEA Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble (France); Lhotel, E. [Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, CNRS, 25 avenue des Martyrs, BP166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Paulsen, C. [Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, CNRS, 25 avenue des Martyrs, BP166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Sugawara, H. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Ohsawa 1-1, Hashioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Sato, H. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Ohsawa 1-1, Hashioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Canfield, P.C. [Ames Laboratory Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Izawa, K. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5 Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Matsuda, Y. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5 Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2005-04-30

    We present a precise (H-T) phase diagram of the double superconducting transition in the specific heat of the heavy fermion superconductor PrOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}, down to 350mK, on a sample which exhibits two sharp distinct anomalies at T{sub c1}=1.89K and T{sub c2}=1.72K. Comparison with an existing phase diagram based on transport measurements will be reviewed. The intrinsic or extrinsic nature of this double transition is discussed in light of some characterisations of the superconducting transition of different samples and with respect to the historical case of UPt{sub 3}. Finally, we give a detailed analysis of H{sub c2} which shows the importance of the multiband character of the electronic structure of PrOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} and gives strong support to an even parity order parameter.

  11. Nanostructuring of Undoped ZnSb by Cryo-Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X.; Valset, K.; Graff, J. S.; Thøgersen, A.; Gunnæs, A. E.; Luxsacumar, S.; Løvvik, O. M.; Snyder, G. J.; Finstad, T. G.

    2015-08-01

    We report the preparation of nanosized ZnSb powder by cryo-milling. The effect of cryo-milling then hot-pressing of undoped ZnSb was investigated and compared with that of room temperature ball-milling and hot-pressing under different temperature conditions. ZnSb is a semiconductor with favorable thermoelectric properties when doped. We used undoped ZnSb to study the effect of nanostructuring on lattice thermal conductivity, and with little contribution at room temperature from electronic thermal conductivity. Grain growth was observed to occur during hot-pressing, as observed by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The thermal conductivity was lower for cryo-milled samples than for room-temperature ball-milled samples. The thermal conductivity also depended on hot-pressing conditions. The thermal conductivity could be varied by a factor of two by adjusting the process conditions and could be less than a third that of single-crystal ZnSb.

  12. (Ga,Fe)Sb: A p-type ferromagnetic semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Nguyen Thanh; Anh, Le Duc; Tanaka, Masaaki [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Hai, Pham Nam [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-0033 (Japan)

    2014-09-29

    A p-type ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb (x = 3.9%–13.7%) has been grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs(001) substrates. Reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns during the MBE growth and X-ray diffraction spectra indicate that (Ga,Fe)Sb layers have the zinc-blende crystal structure without any other crystallographic phase of precipitates. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy characterizations indicate that (Ga,Fe)Sb has the zinc-blende band structure with spin-splitting induced by s,p-d exchange interactions. The magnetic field dependence of the MCD intensity and anomalous Hall resistance of (Ga,Fe)Sb show clear hysteresis, demonstrating the presence of ferromagnetic order. The Curie temperature (T{sub C}) increases with increasing x and reaches 140 K at x = 13.7%. The crystal structure analyses, magneto-transport, and magneto-optical properties indicate that (Ga,Fe)Sb is an intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductor.

  13. Surface passivation of backside-illuminated InSb FPAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng; Zheng, Kelin; Wang, Liwen; Geng, Dongfeng; Su, Xianjun

    2016-10-01

    A method of passivation of etch-thinned bulk InSb by anodic oxide grown by wet anodization and vacuum deposition of SiNx layers have been investigated Thinned bulk n-type InSb with (111) orientation forms distinctively two types of interfaces on the indium and antimony faces, respectively. The junctions are diffused on the indium face. The paper presents the process and characterization for surface passivation of the backside illuminated Sb face that absorbs the photons. The surface passivation and the interfaces are characterized with Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) devices. The effect of anodic oxide/SiNx passivation was compared to SiNx passivation. The electrical features observed in the C-V curves of MIS structures indicate that anodic oxide grown by wet anodization has the better effect on reducing the surface states and surface recombination velocity. The low-frequency-like response in the inversion region of the C-V curves was explained in view of the oxidation states of In and Sb. Finally, by growing the 30nm anodic oxide and depositing 400nm SiNx on diode structure of InSb, the performance of FPA in this case was compared with the SiNx only method. The results showed the performance of device is better than for the SiNx only method.

  14. Characterization of midwave infrared InSb avalanche photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abautret, J., E-mail: johan.abautret@ies.univ-montp2.fr; Evirgen, A. [Université Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); SOFRADIR, BP 21, 38113 Veurey-Voroize (France); Perez, J. P.; Christol, P. [Université Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Rothman, J. [CEA-LETI, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Cordat, A. [SOFRADIR, BP 21, 38113 Veurey-Voroize (France)

    2015-06-28

    This paper focuses on the InSb material potential for the elaboration of Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) for high performance infrared imaging applications, both in passive or active mode. The first InSb electron-APD structure was grown by molecular beam epitaxy, processed and electrically characterized. The device performances are at the state of the art for the InSb epi-diode technology, with a dark current density J(−50 mV) = 32 nA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K. Then, a pure electron injection was performed, and an avalanche gain, increasing exponentially, was observed with a gain value near 3 at −4 V at 77 K. The Okuto–Crowell model was used to determine the electron ionization coefficient α(E) in InSb, and the InSb gain behavior is compared with the one of InAs and MCT APDs.

  15. Antimony segregation in the oxidation of AlAsSb interlayers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, A M; van Horn, K L; Mates, T; Speck, J S

    2003-01-01

    The lateral wet oxidation of strained AlAsSb was studied. AlAs0.80Sb0.20 interlayers were grown on a GaAs substrate and capped with a lattice-matched In0.25Ga0.75As layer. The AlAsSb was oxidized between 350 and 450 degreesC. Oxidation temperatures >400 degreesC resulted in poor surface morphology and delamination. Oxidation of thicker AlAsSb interlayers (h approximate to 2000 Angstrom) resulted in metallic Sb layers forming between the AlOx and the semiconductor interfaces. The remaining Sb ...

  16. Prospective ECG triggering versus low-dose retrospective ECG-gated 128-channel CT coronary angiography: comparison of image quality and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Q.; Yin, Y.; Hua, X.; Zhu, R.; Hua, J. [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Xu, J., E-mail: xujianr@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2010-10-15

    Aim: To evaluate image quality and radiation dose for 128-detector prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) compared with a low-dose retrospective ECG-gated imaging protocol. Materials and methods: Thirty-one and 47 patients suspected of having coronary artery disease were enrolled into groups examined using prospective and low-dose retrospective ECG-gated CT protocols respectively. All examinations were performed on a 128-detector CT system (Definition AS, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany). Prospective CTCA was performed using following parameters: tube voltage 100 kV; tube current 205 mAs; centre of acquisition window 70% of the RR interval. The tube current for low-dose retrospective ECG-gated CTCA was full dose during 40-70% of the RR interval and partial dose for the rest of RR interval. The pitch varied between 0.2 and 0.5 depending on heart rate and patient size. Image quality of coronary arteries was evaluated using a four-point grading scale. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of enhanced arteries and myocardium were also measured, corresponding contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated, and the radiation doses received were recorded. Results: There was a significant difference in the image quality scores between the retrospective and prospective gating protocols (Chi-square = 15.331, p = 0.009). There was no significant difference between the SNRs of the contrasted artery and myocardium in these two groups, but the CNRs were increased in the prospective group. The mean radiation dose of prospective gating group was 2.71 {+-} 0.67 mSv (range, 1.67-3.59 mSv), which was significantly lower than that of the retrospective group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Prospective CT angiography can achieve lower radiation dose than that of low-dose retrospective CT angiography, with preserved image quality.

  17. Improved structural and electrical properties in native Sb2Te3/GexSb2Te3+x van der Waals superlattices due to intermixing mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cecchi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Superlattices made of Sb2Te3/GeTe phase change materials have demonstrated outstanding performance with respect to GeSbTe alloys in memory applications. Recently, epitaxial Sb2Te3/GeTe superlattices were found to feature GexSb2Te3+x blocks as a result of intermixing between constituting layers. Here we present the epitaxy and characterization of Sb2Te3/GexSb2Te3+x van der Waals superlattices, where GexSb2Te3+x was intentionally fabricated. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and lateral electrical transport data are reported. The intrinsic 2D nature of both sublayers is found to mitigate the intermixing in the structures, significantly improving the interface sharpness and ultimately the superlattice structural and electrical properties.

  18. Influence of GaAsSb structural properties on the optical properties of InAs/GaAsSb quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zewen; Huang, Yidan; Reece, Peter J.; Bremner, Stephen P.

    2017-10-01

    The optical properties of InAs quantum dots with GaAsSb buffer, capping and cladding layers of different alloy compositions are studied by photoluminescence techniques. Fully strained GaAsSb layers show that the inclusion of a buffer layer gives a blue-shift to quantum dot emission, while for quantum dots capped with GaAsSb a clear red-shift is seen. Power-dependent photoluminescence suggests a transition from type-I to type-II can be achieved by GaAsSb at Sb composition between 11-13%, while the transition for the GaAsSb cladding layer occurs at around 11%. At low Sb composition, good crystal quality and energy barrier are detected by temperature-dependent photoluminescence, while high-level dislocation and defects exist under high antimony content, as evidenced by X-Ray Diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy.

  19. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III and As(III/Sb(III-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Li

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III]/antimonite [Sb(III]-oxidizing strain. The As(III oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III, ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat.

  20. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III) and As(III)/Sb(III)-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxin; Yang, Birong; Shi, Manman; Yuan, Kai; Guo, Wei; Li, Mingshun; Wang, Gejiao

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III)]/antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing strain. The As(III) oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III) oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III) oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III) oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III) oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III) oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III), ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III) and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III) oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III) and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III) oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III) would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III) stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat.

  1. Structure of liquid GaSb under pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, T; Takasugi, Y; Mori, T; Tsuji, K

    2002-01-01

    The structure of liquid GaSb has been investigated up to 10.1 GPa by means of energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction using a synchrotron radiation source and a multi-anvil apparatus. With increasing pressure up to about 5 GPa, the second and third peaks in the pair distribution functions, g(r), shift remarkably toward smaller r-values, while the first peak shifts toward larger r-values. This shows that the structure of liquid GaSb does not contract uniformly. Corresponding to the shift of the first peak, the coordination number increases. These results show that the local structure in liquid GaSb changes into a more highly coordinated state under pressure.

  2. Sonochemical preparation of SbSeI gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, M; Kauch, B; Szperlich, P; Jesionek, M; Kepińska, M; Bober, Ł; Szala, J; Moskal, G; Rzychoń, T; Stróz, D

    2009-04-01

    A novel sonochemical method for direct preparation of nanocrystalline antimony selenoiodide (SbSeI) has been established. The SbSeI gel was synthesized using elemental Sb, Se, and I in the presence of ethanol under ultrasonic irradiation (35 kHz, 2W/cm(2)) at 50 degrees C for 2h. The product was characterized by using techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and optical diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). The SEM and HRTEM investigations exhibit that the as-prepared samples are made up of large quantity nanowires with lateral dimensions of about 20-50 nm and lengths reaching up to several micrometers and single crystalline in nature.

  3. Quaternary InGaAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Diode Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Dashiell; J Beausang; H Ehsani; G Nichols; D DePoy; L Danielson; P Talamo; K Rahner; E Brown; S Burger; P Fourspring; W Topper; P Baldasaro; C Wang; R Huang; M Connors; G Turner; Z Shellenbarger; G Taylor; Jizhong Li; R Martinelli; D Donetski; S Anikeev; G Belenky; S Luryl

    2005-01-26

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes fabricated from InGaAsSb alloys lattice-matched to GaSb substrates are grown by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE). 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV diodes utilizing front-surface spectral control filters have been tested in a vacuum cavity and a TPV thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency ({eta}{sub TPV}) and a power density (PD) of {eta}{sub TPV} = 19% and PD=0.58 W/cm{sup 2} were measured for T{sub radiator} = 950 C and T{sub diode} = 27 C. Recombination coefficients deduced from minority carrier measurements and the theory reviewed in this article predict a practical limit to the maximum achievable conversion efficiency and power density for 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV. The limits for the above operating temperatures are projected to be {eta}{sub TPV} = 26% and PD = 0.75 W/cm{sup 2}. These limits are extended to {eta}{sub TPV} = 30% and PD = 0.85W/cm{sup 2} if the diode active region is bounded by a reflective back surface to enable photon recycling and a two-pass optical path length. The internal quantum efficiency of the InGaAsSb TPV diode is close to the theoretically predicted limits, with the exception of short wavelength absorption in GaSb contact layers. Experiments show that the open circuit voltage of the 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV diodes is not strongly dependent on the device architectures studied in this work where both N/P and P/N double heterostructure diodes have been grown with various acceptor and donor doping levels, having GaSb and AlGaAsSb confinement, and also partial back surface reflectors. Lattice matched InGaAsSb TPV diodes were fabricated with bandgaps ranging from 0.6 to 0.5eV without significant degradation of the open circuit voltage factor, quantum efficiency, or fill factor as the composition approached the miscibility gap. The key diode performance parameter which is limiting efficiency and power density below the theoretical limits in InGaAsSb TPV devices is the open circuit voltage. The open circuit voltages of

  4. Growth and characterization of AlInAsSb layers lattice-matched to GaSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournet, J.; Rouillard, Y.; Tournié, E.

    2017-11-01

    We report on the growth by solid-source MBE of random-alloy AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y layers lattice-matched to (0 0 1)-GaSb substrates, with xAl ∈ [0.25; 0.75]. The samples quality and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Nomarski microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Layers grown at 400 °C demonstrated smooth surfaces and no sign of phase decomposition. Samples with xAl ≤ 0.60 demonstrated photoluminescence (PL) at 300 K whereas samples with higher Al content only demonstrated PL at low temperature. Samples grown at 430 °C, in contrast, exhibited PL at low temperature only, whatever their composition. Inferred bandgap energies corroborate the estimation of a non-null quaternary bowing parameter made by Donati, Kaspi and Malloy in Journal of Applied Physics 94 (2003) 5814. Upon annealing, the PL peak energies increased, getting even closer to the theoretical values. These results are in agreement with recently published results on digital AlInAsSb alloys. Our work, which reports the first evidence for PL emission from random-alloy AlInAsSb layers lattice-matched to GaSb, opens the way to their use in optoelectronic devices.

  5. Retention of As and Sb in ombrotrophic peat bogs: records of As, Sb, and Pb deposition at four Scottish sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joanna M. Cloy; John G. Farmer; Margaret C. Graham; Angus B. MacKenzie [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of GeoSciences

    2009-03-15

    Possible postdepositional As migration in ombrotrophic peat bogs was investigated by comparing depth profiles of As with those of Sb and Pb, two elements considered to be essentially immobile in peat, and those of redox-sensitive, potentially mobile nutrient elements such as Mn, Fe, P, and S in {sup 210}Pb-dated cores from four Scottish bogs. Concentration profiles of As were similar to those of Sb and Pb rather than these other elements, indicating that As is bound strongly to organic matter and is relatively immobile in ombrotrophic peat. Historical records of atmospheric anthropogenic As, Sb, and Pb deposition during the industrial and postindustrial periods were derived, site-specific maxima (up to 1.55, 1.33, and 45 mg m{sup -2} y{sup -1}, respectively) occurring between the late 1890s and 1960s, reflecting emissions from diverse sources such as mining and smelting, coal combustion, and also, in the case of Pb, exhaust emissions from the use of leaded gasoline. Since the mid-1980s, fluxes of Pb decreased (4-7 fold) more rapidly than those of As and Sb (2-3 fold), attributable to both the gradual elimination of leaded gasoline and recent new sources of the latter elements. Relative trends in derived anthropogenic As, Sb, and Pb deposition largely agreed with other Scottish peat and moss archive records, direct measurements of deposition, and UK emissions, i.e., four different types of data source. 36 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Retention of As and Sb in ombrotrophic peat bogs: records of As, Sb, and Pb deposition at four Scottish sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloy, Joanna M; Farmer, John G; Graham, Margaret C; MacKenzie, Angus B

    2009-03-15

    Possible postdepositional As migration in ombrotrophic peat bogs was investigated by comparing depth profiles of As with those of Sb and Pb, two elements considered to be essentially immobile in peat, and those of redox-sensitive, potentially mobile nutrient elements such as Mn, Fe, P, and S in 210Pb-dated cores from four Scottish bogs. Concentration profiles of As were similar to those of Sb and Pb rather than these other elements, indicating that As is bound strongly to organic matter and is relatively immobile in ombrotrophic peat. Historical records of atmospheric anthropogenic As, Sb, and Pb deposition during the industrial and postindustrial periods were derived, site-specific maxima (up to 1.55, 1.33, and 45 mg m(-2) y(-1), respectively) occurring between the late 1890s and 1960s, reflecting emissions from diverse sources such as mining and smelting, coal combustion, and also, in the case of Pb, exhaust emissions from the use of leaded gasoline. Since the mid-1980s, fluxes of Pb decreased (4-7 fold) more rapidly than those of As and Sb (2-3 fold), attributable to both the gradual elimination of leaded gasoline and recent new sources of the latter elements. Relative trends in derived anthropogenic As, Sb, and Pb deposition largely agreed with other Scottish peat and moss archive records, direct measurements of deposition, and UK emissions, i.e., four different types of data source.

  7. Enhanced Li- and Na-storage in Sb-Graphene nanocomposite anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Yeongjae; Shim, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Seung-Deok [School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Dar, Mushtaq Ahmad [Center of Excellence for Research in Engineering Materials, Advanced Manufacturing Institute, King Saud University,Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Kim, Dong-Wan, E-mail: dongwan1@empal.com [School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Antimony-graphene nanocomposite (Sb-GNP) was prepared by a wet-chemical approach. • Sb-GNP exhibits the well-dispersed Sb nanoparticles anchored on the graphenes. • Sb-GNP shows highly reversible capacities in both Li- and Na-storage. - Abstract: Antimony-graphene nanocomposite (Sb-GNP) was prepared from commercially available graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) by a simple wet-chemical route at room temperature, and systematically investigated as an anode material for both lithium- and sodium-ion batteries (LIBs and NIBs). The microstructural features of Sb-GNP, and of pure Sb nanoparticles prepared without addition of GNPs, were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The successful formation of a nanocomposite structure was observed for Sb-GNP; the Sb nanoparticles are well dispersed and anchored on graphene nanoplatelets without significant aggregation of Sb nanoparticles, in contrast to the pure Sb nanoparticles. Furthermore, galvanostatic studies revealed that Sb-GNP displays better Li- and Na-storage performance than the pure Sb nanoparticles when utilized as an anode material. The enhanced electrochemical performance can be attributed to the effects of nanocomposite formation with GNPs.

  8. A comparison of Kneipp hydrotherapy with conventional physiotherapy in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: protocol of a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schencking, Martin; Otto, Adriane; Deutsch, Tobias; Sandholzer, Hagen

    2009-08-19

    The increasing age of the population, especially in the western world, means that the prevalence of osteoarthritis is also increasing, with corresponding socioeconomic consequences. Although there is no curative intervention at present, in accordance with US and European guidelines, pharmacotherapeutic and non-pharmacological approaches aim at pain control and the reduction of functional restriction.It has been established that hydrotherapy for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee joint using serial cold and warm water stimulation not only improves the range of movement but also reduces pain significantly and increases quality of life over a period of up to three months. Weight reduction is important for patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. In addition, conventional physiotherapy and exercise therapy have both been shown, at a high level of evidence, to be cost-effective and to have long-term benefits for pain relief, movement in the affected joint, and patient quality of life. The study design consists of a prospective randomised controlled three-armed clinical trial, which will be carried out at a specialist clinic for integrative medicine, to investigate the clinical effects of hydrotherapy on osteoarthritis of the knee or hip joint, in comparison with conventional physiotherapy.One hundred and eighty patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of hip or knee will be randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: hydrotherapy, physiotherapy, and both physiotherapy and hydrotherapy of the affected joint. In the first group, patients will receive Kneipp hydrotherapy daily, with water applied in the form of alternate cold and warm thigh affusions (alternating cold and warm water stimulation is particularly relevant to the knee and hip regions).Patients in the second group will receive physiotherapy of the hip or knee joint three times a week. Patients in the physiotherapy-hydrotherapy combination group will receive both joint-specific physiotherapy

  9. A comparison of Kneipp hydrotherapy with conventional physiotherapy in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: protocol of a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutsch Tobias

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing age of the population, especially in the western world, means that the prevalence of osteoarthritis is also increasing, with corresponding socioeconomic consequences. Although there is no curative intervention at present, in accordance with US and European guidelines, pharmacotherapeutic and non-pharmacological approaches aim at pain control and the reduction of functional restriction. It has been established that hydrotherapy for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee joint using serial cold and warm water stimulation not only improves the range of movement but also reduces pain significantly and increases quality of life over a period of up to three months. Weight reduction is important for patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. In addition, conventional physiotherapy and exercise therapy have both been shown, at a high level of evidence, to be cost-effective and to have long-term benefits for pain relief, movement in the affected joint, and patient quality of life. Methods/design The study design consists of a prospective randomised controlled three-armed clinical trial, which will be carried out at a specialist clinic for integrative medicine, to investigate the clinical effects of hydrotherapy on osteoarthritis of the knee or hip joint, in comparison with conventional physiotherapy. One hundred and eighty patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of hip or knee will be randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: hydrotherapy, physiotherapy, and both physiotherapy and hydrotherapy of the affected joint. In the first group, patients will receive Kneipp hydrotherapy daily, with water applied in the form of alternate cold and warm thigh affusions (alternating cold and warm water stimulation is particularly relevant to the knee and hip regions. Patients in the second group will receive physiotherapy of the hip or knee joint three times a week. Patients in the physiotherapy-hydrotherapy combination

  10. Electrochemical characterization of the Au-In-Sb system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomidželović Lidija D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Au-In-Sb system belongs to the group of potential candidates for new lead-free solder materials. Therefore, a lot of investigations concerning its phase diagram and thermodynamic, mechanical, physical characteristics are going on at the moment. Having in mind the significance of such materials application in electronics, it is also very important to study their electrochemical characteristics. In order to give such a characterization, the results of cyclic voltammetry measurements for some alloys in the Au-In-Sb system are presented in this paper.

  11. Synthesis and Thermoelectric Properties of CuSbS2

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Tianyue; Fang, Haiyu; Wu, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Copper antimony sulfide, CuSbS2 nanoparticles have a large potential of being a good thermoelectric material because they are made up of earth abundant elements. Thermoelectric materials can convert thermal energy into electricity, so that the wasted energy can be saved. Also, by using this earth abundant material, we can make thermoelectric materials much cheaper. The hypothesis of this study is that CuSbS2 could have a large Seebeck coefficient, one of the most important factors of thermoel...

  12. Lead activity in Pb-Sb-Bi alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kholkina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work is devoted to the study of lead thermodynamic activity in the Pb-Sb-Bi alloys. The method for EMF measurements of the concentration cell: (–Pb|KCl-PbCl2¦¦KCl-PbCl2|Pb-(Sb-Bi(+ was used. The obtained concentration dependences of the galvanic cell EMF are described by linear equations. The lead activity in the ternary liquid-metal alloy demonstrates insignificant negative deviations from the behavior of ideal solutions.

  13. Shubnikov-de Haas Effect in InGaSb/InAs superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchel, W. C.; Elhamri, Said; Haugan, H. J.; Brown, Gail J.; Mou, Shin; Szmulowicz, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Magneto-transport measurements have been made on strain-free In0.25Ga0.75Sb/InAs superlattices grown on GaSb substrates. The superior structural quality of these superlattices compared to older materials in the literature resulted in a much higher resolution of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. Three separate conduction channels were observed. Measurements with the magnetic field in the plane of the sample indicated that the channel with the longer period was due to three dimensional-like conduction within the superlattice while the other two channels showed two dimensional behavior most likely associated with conduction at the surface or interfaces between the superlattice and bulk-like layers. Comparison with multi-carrier analysis indicated that the channel with intermediate period was due to hole conduction while the others were due to electron conduction. Oscillations were observed at temperatures up to 20 K. The concentration of the superlattice channel at low temperature was 5.93 × 1015 cm-3 while those of the two dimensional hole and electron channels were 1.64 × 1011 cm-2 and 5.20 × 1011 cm-2.

  14. Leaching of the antimony and accompanying of elements Sb2S3 in the alkaline medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Remeteiová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of the laboratory investigation of alkaline leaching of stibnite that is an important mineral occuring in the antimony-bearing raw materials. The following components were present in stibnite: Sb2S3, SiO2, ZnS, FeS2. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of composition of the aqueous alkaline leaching medium (1 % NaOH, 1 % NaOH + 1 % Na2S2O3, 1 % NaOH + 1 % Na2S on the recoveries of Sb, Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Hg. The antimony recoveries in the leaching solutions NaOH and NaOH + Na2S2O3 solutions were lower in comparison with the leaching in NaOH + Na2S. The Fe, Pb, Zn recoveries in alkaline solutions were found to decrease in the following order: Fe, Pb, Zn. The mercury recovery in the leaching test with the solution containing 1 % NaOH+1 % Na2S was 3,7 %.

  15. Indium local geometry in In-Sb-Te thin films using XANES and DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilovol, V.; Gil Rebaza, A. V.; Mudarra Navarro, A. M.; Errico, L.; Fontana, M.; Arcondo, B.

    2017-12-01

    In-Sb-Te when is a thin film presents a huge difference in its electrical resistivity when transform from the amorphous (insulating) to the crystalline (conducting) phase. This property made this system one of the main phase-change materials used in the data storage industry. The change in the electrical conductivity is probably associated to a change in the bonding geometry of some of its constituents. To explore this point, we present in this work an study of the bonding geometry of In atoms in In-Sb-Te films by means of In K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation in both as deposited (amorphous) and crystalline thin films obtained as a result of resistance (R) vs temperature (T) measurements. Comparison of the XANES spectra obtained for ternary amorphous films and binary crystalline reference films suggests that in amorphous films the bonding geometry of In atoms is tetrahedral-like. After the thermal annealing has been carried out the differences in the XANES spectra of the as deposited and the annealed films indicate that the bonding geometry of In atoms changes. Based on X-ray diffraction results and ab initio calculations in the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) we show that the new coordination geometry is associated with a tendency of In atoms towards octahedral-like.

  16. Uncooled High-Performance InAsSb Focal Plane Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SVT Associates proposes an innovative digital alloy technique to extend the cutoff wavelength of InAsSb beyond 5 um, a wider band gap InAlAsSb layer inserted into...

  17. Exposure Assessment of Sb2O3 in PET Food Contact Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Wang, Zhu Tian; Xu, Hai Bin; Sun, Ru Bao; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Jian Bo

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to do exposure assessment of the possible migration of antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) from Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) food contact materials (FCM). Consumption Factor (CF) and Food-type Distribution Factor (fT) were calculated from survey data with reference to the US FDA method. The most conservative migration conditions were obtained by testing Sb migration from PET FCM based on the Chinese national standard of GB/T 5009.101-2003[1]. Migration levels of Sb from PET FCM were tested and migration levels of Sb2O3 were obtained through molecular weight conversion between Sb and Sb2O3. Exposure assessment of Sb2O3 was undertaken. The Chinese Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of Sb2O3 resulted from PET FCM was 90.7 ng p-1d-1. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  18. InSb Nanowires with Built-In GaxIn1-xSb Tunnel Barriers for Majorana Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Car, Diana; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Zhang, Hao; Op Het Veld, Roy L M; de Moor, Michiel W A; Fadaly, Elham M T; Gül, Önder; Kölling, Sebastian; Plissard, Sebastien R; Toresen, Vigdis; Wimmer, Michael T; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P; Bakkers, Erik P A M

    2017-02-08

    Majorana zero modes (MZMs), prime candidates for topological quantum bits, are detected as zero bias conductance peaks (ZBPs) in tunneling spectroscopy measurements. Implementation of a narrow and high tunnel barrier in the next generation of Majorana devices can help to achieve the theoretically predicted quantized height of the ZBP. We propose a material-oriented approach to engineer a sharp and narrow tunnel barrier by synthesizing a thin axial segment of Ga x In 1-x Sb within an InSb nanowire. By varying the precursor molar fraction and the growth time, we accurately control the composition and the length of the barriers. The height and the width of the Ga x In 1-x Sb tunnel barrier are extracted from the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) fits to the experimental I-V traces.

  19. Optical and structural characterization of GaSb and Te-doped GaSb single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirado-Mejia, L. [Laboratorio de Optoelectronica, Universidad del Quindio, A.A. 460, Armenia, Quindio (Colombia); Villada, J.A. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro, Qro (Mexico); Rios, M. de los [Laboratorio de Optoelectronica, Universidad del Quindio, A.A. 460, Armenia, Quindio (Colombia); Penafiel, J.A. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro (Mexico); Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingenieria Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico (Mexico); Fonthal, G. [Laboratorio de Optoelectronica, Universidad del Quindio, A.A. 460, Armenia, Quindio (Colombia); Espinosa-Arbelaez, D.G. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro (Mexico); Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingenieria Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico (Mexico); Ariza-Calderon, H. [Laboratorio de Optoelectronica, Universidad del Quindio, A.A. 460, Armenia, Quindio (Colombia); Rodriguez-Garcia, M.E. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro (Mexico)], E-mail: marioga@fata.unam.mx

    2008-11-30

    Optical and structural properties of GaSb and Te-doped GaSb single crystals are reported herein. Utilizing the photoreflectance technique, the band gap energy for doped samples was obtained at 0.814 eV. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed a peak at 0.748 eV that according to this research, belongs to electronic states of pure GaSb and not to the longitudinal optical (LO) phonon replica as has been reported by other authors. Analysis of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of X-ray diffraction, as well as micro-Raman peaks showed that the inclusion of Te decreases the crystalline quality.

  20. Implementation of a anti-coincidence system of 4{pi}NaI(Tl)-Cl and primary standardization of {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 241}Am; Implementacao de um sistema de anti-coincidencia 4{pi}NaI(Tl)-Cl e padronizacao primaria do {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb e {sup 241}Am

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos Jose da; Iwahara, Akira; Poledna, Roberto; Oliveira, Estela Maria de; Prinzio, Maria Antonieta de, E-mail: carlos@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    The Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory of the IRD-Brazil, implemented a primary standardization system which utilizes the anti-coincidence technique with live time keeping. For testing the performance of these system it was made the standardization of the {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 241}Am. Encourages results were obtained not only the standardization of {sup 241}Am but also of the {sup 124}Sb whose reference value obtained by the LNMRI was utilized for the key comparison organized by the IAEA and EURAMET. The standard uncertainties were of 0.28%, 0.22% and 0.13% for the {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 241}Am, respectively

  1. CdTe Nanocrystal Hetero-Junction Solar Cells with High Open Circuit Voltage Based on Sb-doped TiO₂ Electron Acceptor Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaozi; Liu, Xinyan; Wen, Shiya; Liu, Songwei; Heng, Jingxuan; Qin, Donghuan; Hou, Lintao; Wu, Hongbin; Xu, Wei; Huang, Wenbo

    2017-05-03

    We propose Sb-doped TiO₂ as electron acceptor material for depleted CdTe nanocrystal (NC) hetero-junction solar cells. Novel devices with the architecture of FTO/ZnO/Sb:TiO₂/CdTe/Au based on CdTe NC and TiO₂ precursor are fabricated by rational ambient solution process. By introducing TiO₂ with dopant concentration, we are able to tailor the optoelectronic properties of NC solar cells. Our novel devices demonstrate a very high open circuit voltage of 0.74 V, which is the highest V oc reported for any CdTe NC based solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solar cells increases with the increase of Sb-doped content from 1% to 3%, then decreases almost linearly with further increase of Sb content due to the recombination effect. The champion device shows J sc , V oc , FF, and PCE of 14.65 mA/cm², 0.70 V, 34.44, and 3.53% respectively, which is prospective for solution processed NC solar cells with high V oc .

  2. Effects of insulin pump vs. injection treatment on quality of life and impact of disease scores in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus in a randomised, prospective comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuboer, R.; Borsboom, G.J.J.M.; Zoethout, J.A.; Koot, H.M.; Bruining, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Effects of pump treatment vs. four times daily injections were explored in children with diabetes with regard to quality of life and impact of disease as well as adverse effects and parameters of metabolic control. Methods: An open, parallel, randomized controlled prospective comparative

  3. An observational, prospective, two-cohort comparison of a fixed versus variable dosing strategy of prothrombin complex concentrate to counteract vitamin K antagonists in 240 bleeding emergencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khorsand, Nakisa; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; van Hest, Reinier M.; Ypma, Paula F.; Heidt, Jeroen; Meijer, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite years of experience with vitamin K antagonist-associated bleeding events, there is still no evidence to help identify the optimal treatment with prothrombin complex concentrates. Variable dosing and fixed dose strategies are being used. In this observational prospective two-cohort

  4. 64Cu-DOTATATE PET for Neuroendocrine Tumors: a Prospective Head-to-Head Comparison with 111In-DTPA-octreotide in 112 Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, Andreas Klaus; Knigge, Ulrich; Binderup, Tina

    2015-01-01

    -to-head basis the performance of (64)Cu-DOTATATE and (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-octreotide ((111)In-DTPA-OC) as a basis for implementing (64)Cu-DOTATATE as a routine. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 112 patients with pathologically confirmed NETs of gastroenteropancreatic or pulmonary...

  5. The Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study. II. A prospective comparison of frequency doubling perimetry, the GDx nerve fibre analyser and standard automated perimetry in glaucoma suspect patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Heeg, Govert P.

    We aimed to determine prospectively the incidence of abnormal test results on frequency doubling perimetry (FDT), the nerve fibre analyser (GDx) and standard automated perimetry (SAP) in a cohort of glaucoma suspect patients with normal findings for all these tests at baseline. Seventy glaucoma

  6. Speciation of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in meglumine antimoniate pharmaceutical formulations by PSA using carbon nanotube electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vivian Silva; Santos, Wilney de Jesus Rodrigues; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira

    2009-09-08

    A new and simple electroanalytical method for speciation of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in pharmaceutical formulation by potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) using a multiwall carbon nanotube paste electrode was developed. All instrumental and chemical parameters influencing the performance of the method were carefully assessed and optimized. Trivalent antimony was determined in acid medium (pH 3.6) under the optimized condition (deposition potential of -0.7 V, deposition time of 180 s, ionic strength of 0.3M and oxidant mercury concentration of 10 mg l(-1)). Total antimony was determined after quantitative reduction of Sb(V) with l-cysteine (1.5%, w/v) and its concentration was calculated from difference between the total antimony and Sb(III). The developed method provided two distinct linear calibration one ranging from 10 up to 50 microg l(-1) and other from 100 up to 800 microg l(-1) with respective correlation coefficient of 0.9978 and 0.9993, presenting a detection limit of 6.2 microg l(-1). Repeatability for the six independent samples expressed in terms of relative standard deviation was found to be 3.01 and 1.39% for 40.0 and 300.0 microg l(-1) antimony concentration, respectively. Results on the effect of foreign substances [Al(III), Mg(II), Fe(III), Cd(II), Zn(II) and meglumine] on analytical signal of antimony showed no interference even using high content of foreign ions in the analyte:interferent ratio up to 1:100. The proposed method was successfully applied for the speciation of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in pharmaceutical formulation and the accuracy was assessed from addition and recovery tests as well as comparing with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) technique used as reference analytical method.

  7. Competitive adsorption of As(III), As(V), Sb(III) and Sb(V) onto ferrihydrite in multi-component systems: Implications for mobility and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Pengfei; Pichler, Thomas

    2017-05-15

    The simultaneous adsorption behavior and competitive interactions between As(III), As(V), Sb(III) and Sb(V) by ferrihydrite were evaluated in multi-component (binary, ternary, quaternary) systems. In binary systems, Sb(III) had a stronger inhibitory influence on As(III) adsorption than Sb(V) did, and As(V) had a stronger inhibitory effect on Sb(V) adsorption than As(III) did. In ternary systems, NO3-, PO43- and SO42- did not compete with the adsorption of As(III) and Sb(III). NO3- and SO42- also had no distinct effect on the adsorption of As(V) and Sb(V), while PO43- competed with As(V) and Sb(V) for surface sites. In quaternary systems, the simultaneous adsorption behavior of the four redox species was pH dependent. Sb(III) always showed the strongest adsorption affinity regardless of pH. At pH 3.5 As(III) showed the lowest affinity could be due to the presence and negative effect of Sb(III) and As(V). The Freundlich model provided a good fit for the simultaneous adsorption data under quaternary conditions. The study of competitive/simultaneous adsorption of the four possible redox species onto ferrihydrite contributed to a better understanding of their distribution, mobility and fate in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. First-principles calculation of semiclassical thermoelectric properties of (AgSbSe{sub 2}){sub n}(AgSbTe{sub 2}){sub n} superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimi, Marzieh [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemifar, S. Javad, E-mail: hashemifar@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-25

    In this research, we perform density functional – pseudo potential calculation within generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to investigate semiclassical thermoelectric properties of (AgSbSe{sub 2}){sub n}(AgSbTe{sub 2}){sub n} (n = 1,2) thin film superlattices. It is seen that GGA, GGA + U, and the modified Becke Johnson (mBJ) functionals as well as full-relativistic corrections are not able to describe properly the electronic structure of bulk AgSbSe{sub 2} and AgSbTe{sub 2}, hence a scissor correction is used throughout this study. The Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and electronic part of the thermal conductivity of bulk compounds as well as superlattices are computed at different values of hole doping, in the fixed relaxation time approximation. It is argued that the (AgSbSe{sub 2}){sub 1}(AgSbTe{sub 2}){sub 1} superlattice may exhibits improved Seebeck coefficient compared with the bulk compounds and (AgSbSe{sub 2}){sub 2}(AgSbTe{sub 2}){sub 2} superlattice. - Highlights: • Ab initio study of (AgSbTe2)/(AgSbSe2) superlattice as a new thermoelectric system. • Computing Seebeck coefficient and power factor in relaxation time approximation. • Stable structure of the superlattices is determined. • Thermoelectric parameters of the superlattices are compared with the bulk materials.

  9. Sb2S3 thickness-dependent lateral photovoltaic effect and time response observed in glass/FTO/CdS/Sb2S3/Au structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Shuang; Liu, Jihong; Li, ZhiQiang; Wang, ShuFang; Fu, GuangSheng

    2017-08-07

    As an interesting one dimensional ribbon material, Sb2S3 has recently attracted much attention in recent years due to its exciting optical properties. However, Sb2S3-based photovoltaic or photoelectronic devices are still in research, and there are many things unknown to us and need to be well studied. In this work, the glass/FTO/CdS/Sb2S3/Au structures were successfully prepared with different Sb2S3 thicknesses, and the lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) was firstly observed in this structure, suggesting its great potential in position sensitivity detectors (PSD). It is demonstrated that the crystallinity of Sb2S3 film increases, and Sb2S3 film tends to be vertical ribbon orientation with increasing thickness. Owing to the strong light absorption of the thicker Sb2S3 film and its one dimensional ribbon like crystal structure, the LPE in the glass/FTO/CdS/Sb2S3/Au structure improves with increasing Sb2S3 thickness from 350 nm to 800 nm, and the glass/FTO/CdS/Sb2S3(800 nm) structure exhibits an unprecedented performance with position sensitivity as large as 2230.4 mV/mm. Moreover, the time response of photovoltage was also firstly measured in this structure, it is observed that both the rise time and the fall time decrease with increasing thickness from 350 nm to 800 nm, and then increase quickly for 1100 nm film, further verifing that the Sb2S3 thickness-dependent LPE is strongly dependent on the carriers' longitudinal transport time. The very large LPE and the relatively fast response speed observed in the glass/FTO/CdS/Sb2S3(800 nm)/Au structure unveils its great potential applications in the optoelectronic detectors and also bring an insight that the suitable thickness is very crucial in Sb2S3-based devices.

  10. Single step hydrothermal based synthesis of M(II)Sb2O6 (M = Cd ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    those reported in the literature (Mizoguchi and Woodward. 2004). In the case of NiSb2O6 and CuSb2O6, pyrochlore phase formation was also seen in addition to the desired pro- ducts, while the reaction was incomplete in the case of. PbSb2O6. The reaction of NaSbO3 with divalent metal salt solutions producing the oxides ...

  11. Antimony segregation in the oxidation of AlAsSb interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. M.; van Horn, K. L.; Mates, T.; Speck, J. S.

    2003-11-01

    The lateral wet oxidation of strained AlAsSb was studied. AlAs0.80Sb0.20 interlayers were grown on a GaAs substrate and capped with a lattice-matched In0.25Ga0.75As layer. The AlAsSb was oxidized between 350 and 450 °C. Oxidation temperatures >400 °C resulted in poor surface morphology and delamination. Oxidation of thicker AlAsSb interlayers (h~2000 Å) resulted in metallic Sb layers forming between the AlOx and the semiconductor interfaces. The remaining Sb metal at the oxide-semiconductor interface was ~15% oxidized. Lateral wet oxidation of thinner AlAsSb interlayers (hMethanol (CH3OH) was added to the water mixture with the intent to stabilize the otherwise unstable stibine (SbH3) such that Sb could be removed from the oxidizing structure. However, methanol addition resulted in a decreased oxidation rate and a change in the Sb precipitate morphology. The Sb inclusions observed in pure water oxidation changed to a Sb finger-like morphology with increasing methanol concentration. The Sb fingers were 1.0-2.0 μm wide and as long as the oxidation depth. Oxidation of AlAsSb interlayers h<=200 Å were limited by the incorporation of Ga from the substrate and capping layer into the oxidation layer. Doping the oxidation AlAsSb interlayer 1×1018 cm-3 n type (Si or Te) did not result in any improvement in Sb segregation.

  12. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrícia A.; Dias, João M. D.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Dias, Rosângela C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. Objectives: (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. Method: A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. Results: There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa=0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa=0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35±1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Conclusion: Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning. PMID:26083603

  13. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia A. Garcia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. Objectives: (i To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. Method: A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. Results: There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa=0.595 and recurrent fallers (Kappa=0.589. The limits of agreement were 0.35±1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Conclusion: Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning.

  14. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrícia A; Dias, João M D; Silva, Silvia L A; Dias, Rosângela C

    2015-01-01

    The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa = 0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa = 0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35 ± 1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning.

  15. Coronary Artery Stent Evaluation Using a Vascular Model at 64-Detector Row CT: Comparison between Prospective and Retrospective ECG-Gated Axial Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Furui, Shigeru; Kaminaga, Tatsuro; Miyazawa, Akiyoshi; Ueno, Yasunari; Konno, Kumiko [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kuwahara, Sadatoshi; Mehta, Dhruv [Philips Electronics Japan, Ltd. Medical Systems, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    We wanted to evaluate the performance of prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated axial scans for assessing coronary stents as compared with retrospective ECG-gated helical scans. As for a vascular model of the coronary artery, a tube of approximately 2.5-mm inner diameter was adopted and as for stents, three (Bx-Velocity, Express2, and Micro Driver) different kinds of stents were inserted into the tube. Both patent and stenotic models of coronary artery were made by instillating different attenuation (396 vs. 79 Hounsfield unit [HU]) of contrast medium within the tube in tube model. The models were scanned with two types of scan methods with a simulated ECG of 60 beats per minute and using display field of views (FOVs) of 9 and 18 cm. We evaluated the in-stent stenosis visually, and we measured the attenuation values and the diameter of the patent stent lumen. The visualization of the stent lumen of the vascular models was improved with using the prospective ECG-gated axial scans and a 9-cm FOV. The inner diameters of the vascular models were underestimated with mean measurement errors of -1.10 to -1.36 mm. The measurement errors were smaller with using the prospective ECG-gated axial scans (Bx-Velocity and Express2, p < 0.0001; Micro Driver, p = 0.0004) and a 9-cm FOV (all stents: p < 0.0001), as compared with the other conditions, respectively. The luminal attenuation value was overestimated in each condition. For the luminal attenuation measurement, the use of prospective ECG-gated axial scans provided less measurement error compared with the retrospective ECG-gated helical scans (all stents: p < 0.0001), and the use of a 9-cm FOV tended to decrease the measurement error. The visualization of coronary stents is improved by the use of prospective ECG-gated axial scans and using a small FOV with reduced blooming artifacts and increased spatial resolution.

  16. Effects of FeSb6 octahedral deformations on the electronic structure of LaFe4Sb12

    KAUST Repository

    Pulikkotil, Jiji Thomas Joseph

    2011-09-01

    First-principles density functional based electronic structure calculations are performed in order to clarify the influence of FeSb6 octahedral deformations on the structural and electronic structure properties of LaFe 4Sb12. Our results show that octahedral tiltings correlate with the band dispersions and, consequently, the band masses. While total energy variation points at an enhanced role of lattice anharmonicity, flat bands emerge from a redistribution of the electronic states. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of multilayer SnSb4/ZnSb thin films for phase change memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zifang; Chen, Shiyu; Wu, Weihua; Zhai, Jiwei; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang

    2017-05-01

    Multilayer SnSb4/ZnSb (SS/ZS) thin films have been investigated for phase change applications. The composition [SS (4 nm)/ZS (10 nm)]4 exhibits a high crystallization temperature (T c ˜ 230 °C), high data retention temperature for 10 years (T 10-yr ˜ 152 °C), small density change, and low thermal conductivity. A cell based on [SS (4 nm)/ZS (10 nm)]4 achieves fast SET/RESET switching speed (˜10 ns) and low reset power consumption (the energy for RESET operation = 9.6 × 10-13 J).

  18. Comparative evaluation of InAs/GaSb superlattices for mid infrared detection: p-i-n versus residual doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Melih; Kaldirim, Melih; Arikan, Bulent; Serincan, Uğur; Aslan, Bulent

    2015-08-01

    We report on the opto-electronic characterization of an InAs/GaSb superlattice (SL) midwave infrared p-i-n photodetector structure (pin-SL) in comparison with the same structure with no intentional doping (i-SL). Both structures were grown on an n-GaSb substrate using molecular beam epitaxy. The nominally undoped structure (i-SL) presented p-i-n like behavior and showed a photovoltaic mode photoresponse due to the residual doping and native defects in this material system. For ˜77 K operation, 0.76 and 0.11 A W-1 responsivity values were obtained at 4 μm from the pin-SL and i-SL structures, respectively. Activation energy analysis showed that the recombination current was dominant in both structures but different recombination centers were involved. The same i-SL structure was also grown on a semi-insulating (SI)-GaAs substrate to study the contribution of the substrate to the carrier density in the SL layers. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements showed that the nominally undoped structure presented both n-type and p-type conductivities; however, the temperature at which the carrier type switched polarity was observed to be at higher values when the i-SL structure was grown on the SI-GaAs substrate. In addition, a higher carrier density was observed for i-SL on the GaSb substrate than on the GaAs substrate.

  19. Growth of defect-free GaAsSbN axial nanowires via self-catalyzed molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manish; Deshmukh, Prithviraj; Kasanaboina, Pavan; Reynolds, C. Lewis, Jr.; Liu, Yang; Iyer, Shanthi

    2017-12-01

    Bandgap reduction of 10% by incorporation of a dilute amount of N is reported for the first time, in axial GaAsSb nanowires (NWs) grown on Si (111) via Ga-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Impact of N incorporation on the surface morphology, NW growth kinetics, and their structural and optical properties were examined. Dilute nitride NWs with Sb composition of 7 at% did not exhibit any noticeable planar defects, as revealed by the absence of satellite twin peaks in the selected-area diffraction pattern and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging. Point defects were also minimal in as-grown dilute nitride NWs, as ascertained from the comparison of low-temperature photoluminescence spectra as well as the shape and shift of Raman modes, with in situ annealed NWs in different ambients. Evidence of enhanced incorporation of N was found in the NWs in situ annealed in N ambient, but with deteriorated optical quality due to simultaneous creation of N-induced defects. The lack of any noticeable defects in the as-grown GaAsSbN NWs demonstrates the advantage of the vapor–liquid–solid mechanism responsible for growth of axial configuration over the vapor–solid growth mechanism for core–shell NWs as well as their thin film counterpart, which commonly exhibit N-induced point defects.

  20. Cross sections of deuteron-induced reactions on {sup nat}Sb up to 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, S., E-mail: stakacs@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Science, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Takacs, M.P. [Institute of Physics, University of Debrecen, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussel 1090 (Belgium); Tarkanyi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Science, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Adam Rebeles, R. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussel 1090 (Belgium)

    2012-05-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on natural antimony. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Production of Te, Sb and Sn isotopes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of experimental cross sections with results of TALYS calculations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thick target yields. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Production of {sup 117m}Sn for medical use. - Abstract: In the frame of a systematic study of the activation cross sections of deuteron-induced nuclear reactions, excitation functions for formation of {sup 118,119m,119g,121m,121g,123m}Te, {sup 118m,120m,122g,124g}Sb and {sup 117m}Sn on {sup nat}Sb targets were determined up to 50 MeV. Cross sections were measured with the activation method using a stacked foil irradiation technique. Excitation functions of the investigated reactions were compared with data reported in literature and results of theoretical calculations made by the TALYS code. From the measured cross section data integral thick target yields were calculated and compared with experimental integral yield data reported in the literature.

  1. Investigation of Cr{sub 0.06}(Sb{sub 4}Te){sub 0.94} alloy for high-speed and high-data-retention phase change random access memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Le [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Shanghai (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Song, Sannian; Zhang, Zhonghua; Song, Zhitang; Cheng, Yan; Lv, Shilong; Wu, Liangcai; Liu, Bo; Feng, Songlin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2015-08-15

    The effects of Cr doping on the structural and electrical properties of Cr{sub x} (Sb{sub 4}Te){sub 1-x} materials have been investigated in order to solve the contradiction between thermal stability and fast crystallization speed of Sb{sub 4}Te alloys. Cr{sub 0.06}(Sb{sub 4}Te){sub 0.94} alloy is considered to be a potential candidate for phase change random access memory (PCM), as evidenced by a higher crystallization temperature (204 C), a better data retention ability (137.6 C for 10 years), a lower melting point (558 C), a lower energy consumption, and a faster switching speed in comparison with those of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}. A reversible switching between set and reset states can be realized by an electric pulse as short as 5 ns for Cr{sub 0.06}(Sb{sub 4}Te){sub 0.94}-based PCM cell. In addition, Cr{sub 0.06}(Sb{sub 4}Te){sub 0.94} shows good endurance up to 1.1 x 10 {sup 4} cycles with a resistance ratio of about two orders of magnitude. (orig.)

  2. Effect of Sb content on the thermoelectric properties of annealed CoSb{sub 3} thin films deposited via RF co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Aziz, E-mail: aziz_ahmed@ust.ac.kr [Department of Nano-Mechatronics, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-Mechanics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), 156 Gajeongbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seungwoo, E-mail: swhan@kimm.re.kr [Department of Nano-Mechatronics, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-Mechanics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), 156 Gajeongbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-30

    Graphical abstract: The X-ray diffraction patterns and temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient of the annealed Co–Sb thin films. - Highlights: • CoSb{sub 3} phase thin films were prepared using RF co sputtering method. • Thin film thermoelectric properties were hugely dependent on Sb content. • All thin films shows n-type conduction behavior at high temperatures. • The thin films with excess Sb possess the largest Seebeck coefficient. • The thin films with CoSb{sub 2} phase possess the largest power factor. - Abstract: A series of CoSb{sub 3} thin films with Sb contents in the range 70–79 at.% were deposited at room temperature via RF co-sputtering. The thin films were amorphous in the as-deposited state and annealed at 300 °C for 3 h to obtain crystalline samples. The annealed thin films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and these data indicate that the films exhibited good crystallinity. The XRD patterns indicate single-phase CoSb{sub 3} thin films in the Sb-rich samples. For the Sb-deficient samples, however, mixed-phase thin films consisting of CoSb{sub 2} and CoSb{sub 3} components were obtained. The electrical and thermoelectric properties were measured at temperatures up to 760 K and found to be highly sensitive to the phases that were present. We observed a change in the thermoelectric properties of the films from p-type at low temperatures to n-type at high temperatures, which indicates potential applications as n-type thermoelectric thin films. A large Seebeck coefficient and power factor was obtained for the single-phase CoSb{sub 3} thin films. The CoSb{sub 2} phase thin films were also found to possess a significant Seebeck coefficient, which coupled with the much smaller electrical resistivity, provided a larger power factor than the single-phase CoSb{sub 3} thin films. We report maximum power factor of 7.92 mW/m K{sup 2} for the CoSb{sub 2}-containing mixed phase thin film and 1

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium kefirresidentii SB, Isolated from Kefir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasche, Sonja; Kim, Yongkyu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genus Corynebacterium includes Gram-positive species with a high G+C content. We report here a novel species, Corynebacterium kefirresidentii SB, isolated from kefir grains collected in Germany. Its draft genome sequence was remarkably dissimilar (average nucleotide identity, 76.54%) to those of other Corynebacterium spp., confirming that this is a unique novel species. PMID:28912312

  4. Experimental characterization of monocrystalline Si targets implanted with Sb + ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbani, R.; Serrar, H.; Baouni, L.

    2010-02-01

    Monocrystalline silicon targets were submitted to a beam of antimony ions. The Si(1 1 1) substrates were implanted at an energy of 120 keV, at room temperature, to a dose varying from 1×10 15 to 5×10 15 Sb + cm -2. To recover the radiation defects generated by Sb + ions, a thermal annealing was performed, at 900 °C for 30 min under very high vacuum. The study of antimony ion implantation in the monocrystalline silicon targets was performed by means of different experimental techniques: X-ray diffraction, optical and electrical measurements. The perturbations enhanced by Sb + ion implantation and the recovery of the damage were investigated with great interest. Although the selected techniques are not frequently applied to investigate such phenomena, they have provided important results. In as-implanted specimens, it was found that the radiation damage increased with the increase of antimony dose. After the annealing treatment, a good recovery of defects was obtained especially in the samples implanted with the low dose (i.e. 1×10 15 Sb + cm -2).

  5. Optical characteristics of crystalline antimony sulphide (Sb 2 S 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the important optical characteristics of crystalline Sb2S3 film deposited on glass substrate using solution growth technique at 300k. These characteristics were analyzed using PYEUNICAM SP8-100 spectrophotometer in the range of UV-VIS-NIR while the morphology and the structural composition were ...

  6. Temperature Variation of the Magnetic Structure of HoSb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Kjems, Jørgen; Vogt, O.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron diffraction has been used to show that the magnetic moment vector in the antiferromagnet HoSb changes direction as a function of temperature below TN=5.7K. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with a recent theoretical prediction by Jensen et al. (1980) which ascribe...

  7. Commensurate-commensurate magnetic phase transitions in CeSb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Broholm, C.; Clausen, K.

    1986-01-01

    The q=2/3 to q=4/7 commensurate-commensurate phase transition in CeSb has been studied by neutron diffraction. On cooling the commensurate wave vector q changes abruptly from 2/3 to a higher-order commensurate value (≈14/23) at T1

  8. Electrical Properties of Antimony (Sb) Metal Contacts to Silicon (Si ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigates the behaviour of the contacts formed by Antimony (Sb) metal to Silicon (Si) thin films for electric field values 10 – 100V/m. Measurements of I-v characteristics were obtained at temperatures 303, 313, 323, 333, 343 and 353K respectively. The results show linear I – V relationship over a specified range ...

  9. InAs/GaSb superlattice quality investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henig, Aleksandra; Grodecki, Kacper; Murawski, Krzysztof; Michalczewski, Krystian; Kubiszyn, Łukasz; Benyahia, Djalal; Jankiewicz, Bartłomiej; Budner, Bogusław; Martyniuk, Piotr

    2017-08-01

    In this work we compare two InAs/GaSb superlattice samples grown in MBE VIGO/MUT laboratory on 2 inch (001) GaAs substrate, using MBE technique. Both samples have the same architecture, however their growth processes were conducted at different temperatures. For sample A the growth temperature was equal 668 K (395°C), for sample B 588 K (315°C). Photoluminescence measurements were performed at 30 K. For sample A there is no photoluminescence signal, while spectrum for sample B consists of two peaks: bandgap peak at 0.5 eV and deep state peak at 0.25 eV. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicate that sample A has better crystallographic quality than sample B. Raman spectra consists of low energy peaks (20-100 cm-1) which confirm the existence of superlattice for both samples [4]. Additionally, for sample A there are peaks related to Sb precipitates. It suggests that except the InAs/GaSb superlattice there is an additional Sb layer which may disturb band structure of superlattice and cause the disappearance of photoluminescence for sample A.

  10. Magnetic Phase Transitions of CeSb. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Pernille Hertz; Lebech, Bente; Meier, G.

    1978-01-01

    The magnetic ordering of the anomalous antiferromagnet CeSb, which has a NaCl crystal structure, was determined in zero applied magnetic field by means of neutron diffraction investigations of single crystals and powder. Below the Neel temperature TN of (16.1+or-0.1)K, there exist six partially...

  11. Programming biological models in Python using PySB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Carlos F; Muhlich, Jeremy L; Bachman, John A; Sorger, Peter K

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical equations are fundamental to modeling biological networks, but as networks get large and revisions frequent, it becomes difficult to manage equations directly or to combine previously developed models. Multiple simultaneous efforts to create graphical standards, rule-based languages, and integrated software workbenches aim to simplify biological modeling but none fully meets the need for transparent, extensible, and reusable models. In this paper we describe PySB, an approach in which models are not only created using programs, they are programs. PySB draws on programmatic modeling concepts from little b and ProMot, the rule-based languages BioNetGen and Kappa and the growing library of Python numerical tools. Central to PySB is a library of macros encoding familiar biochemical actions such as binding, catalysis, and polymerization, making it possible to use a high-level, action-oriented vocabulary to construct detailed models. As Python programs, PySB models leverage tools and practices from the open-source software community, substantially advancing our ability to distribute and manage the work of testing biochemical hypotheses. We illustrate these ideas using new and previously published models of apoptosis.

  12. Spin-orbit interaction in InSb nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Weperen, I.; Tarasinski, B.; Eeltink, D.; Pribiag, V.S.; Plissard, S.R.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Wimmer, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    We use magnetoconductance measurements in dual-gated InSb nanowire devices, together with a theoretical analysis of weak antilocalization, to accurately extract spin-orbit strength. In particular, we show that magnetoconductance in our three-dimensional wires is very different compared to wires in

  13. Study on the dependence of electrical properties on dislocation levels in InSb films vacuum deposited on glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Shosan

    1989-01-01

    The absorption coefficient, as a function of photon energy, of vacuum-deposited indium antimonide (InSb) films on a glass substrate produced by varying the evaporation source material temperature and flash evaporation time interval was determined with Kramers-Kronig analysis developed by Roessler [D. M. Roessler, Br. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 1119 (1965)]. The absorption coefficients can be determined by the analysis without restriction due to a glass substrate which is opaque to below around 0.31 eV of infrared rays (InSb band gap around 0.2 eV is in this opaque region) because the analysis can determine the coefficients from only reflectance data without transmittance data of the film. Therefore, the analysis was conducted with measured reflectance of the films at room temperature. Results of the analysis showed that dislocation levels, which are in good agreement with both the Read and Broudy models for In and Sb dislocations, exist in the films. The Hall coefficient and Hall mobility of the films at room temperature decrease with an increase of the number of transitions between levels, such as transitions from the valence band to a dislocation level, from a dislocation level to any other dislocation level, and from a dislocation level to the conduction band. Deposition conditions for producing high-quality InSb film should be given so that the generation of dislocation levels is suppressed or eliminated from the results. From the above analytical results, the analysis may give more detailed information, such as peaks that correspond to the energy of carrier transitions in the absorption coefficient as a function of photon energy, in comparison with a method of straight determination of the transition energies from only reflectance or transmittance data. Other wide applications of this analytical method are expected.

  14. TiLoop® Bra mesh used for immediate breast reconstruction: comparison of retropectoral and subcutaneous implant placement in a prospective single-institution series

    OpenAIRE

    Casella, Donato; Bernini, Marco; Bencini, Lapo; Roselli, Jenny; Lacaria, Maria Teresa; Martellucci, Jacopo; Banfi, Roberto; Calabrese, Claudio; Orzalesi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Background Immediate implant reconstruction after a conservative mastectomy is an attractive option made easier by prosthetic devices. Titanized polypropylene meshes are used as a hammock to cover the lower lateral implant pole. We conducted a prospective nonrandomized single-institution study of reconstructions using titanium-coated meshes either in a standard muscular mesh pocket or in a complete subcutaneous approach. The complete subcutaneous approach means to wrap an implant with titaniz...

  15. Comparison between intranasal dexmedetomidine and intranasal midazolam as premedication for brain magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric patients: A prospective randomized double blind trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ayushi Gupta,; Naina Parag Dalvi; Bharati Anil Tendolkar

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Preprocedural preparation of children scheduled for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is challenging. This prospective, randomized trial compared intranasal midazolam with intranasal dexmedetomidine as premedication for children scheduled for brain MRI. Material and Methods: In total, 60 children, aged 1?8 years, scheduled for elective brain MRI, were randomly assigned to the intranasal dexmedetomidine (1 ?g/kg; Group D) or intranasal midazolam (0.2 mg/kg; Group M) group. ...

  16. Comparison of outcomes in neck pain patients with and without dizziness undergoing chiropractic treatment: a prospective cohort study with 6 month follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys B Kim; Peterson Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The symptom ‘dizziness’ is common in patients with chronic whiplash related disorders. However, little is known about dizziness in neck pain patients who have not suffered whiplash. Therefore, the purposes of this study are to compare baseline factors and clinical outcomes of neck pain patients with and without dizziness undergoing chiropractic treatment and to compare outcomes based on gender. Methods This prospective cohort study compares adult neck pain patients with di...

  17. Quaternary InGaAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MW Dashiell; JF Beausang; H Ehsani; GJ Nichols; DM Depoy; LR Danielson; P Talamo; KD Rahner; EJ Brown; SR Burger; PM Foruspring; WF Topper; PF Baldasaro; CA Wang; R Huang; M Connors; G Turner; Z Shellenbarger; G Taylor; J Li; R Martinelli; D Donetski; S Anikeev; G Belenky; S Luryi

    2006-03-09

    In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y} thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes were grown lattice-matched to GaSb substrates by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) in the bandgap range of E{sub G} = 0.5 to 0.6eV. InGaAsSb TPV diodes, utilizing front-surface spectral control filters, are measured with thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency and power density of {eta}{sub TPV} = 19.7% and PD =0.58 W/cm{sup 2} respectively for a radiator temperature of T{sub radiator} = 950 C, diode temperature of T{sub diode} = 27 C, and diode bandgap of E{sub G} = 0.53eV. Practical limits to TPV energy conversion efficiency are established using measured recombination coefficients and optical properties of front surface spectral control filters, which for 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV energy conversion is {eta}{sub TPV} = 28% and PD = 0.85W/cm{sup 2} at the above operating temperatures. The most severe performance limits are imposed by (1) diode open-circuit voltage (VOC) limits due to intrinsic Auger recombination and (2) parasitic photon absorption in the inactive regions of the module. Experimentally, the diode V{sub OC} is 15% below the practical limit imposed by intrinsic Auger recombination processes. Analysis of InGaAsSb diode electrical performance vs. diode architecture indicate that the V{sub OC} and thus efficiency is limited by extrinsic recombination processes such as through bulk defects.

  18. Premature Discontinuation of Prospective Clinical Studies Approved by a Research Ethics Committee - A Comparison of Randomised and Non-Randomised Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Blümle

    Full Text Available Premature discontinuation of clinical studies affects about 25% of randomised controlled trials (RCTs which raises concerns about waste of scarce resources for research. The risk of discontinuation of non-randomised prospective studies (NPSs is yet unclear.To compare the proportion of discontinued studies between NPSs and RCTs that received ethical approval.We systematically surveyed prospective longitudinal clinical studies that were approved by a single REC in Freiburg, Germany between 2000 and 2002. We collected study characteristics, identified subsequent publications, and surveyed investigators to elucidate whether a study was discontinued and, if so, why.Of 917 approved studies, 547 were prospective longitudinal studies (306 RCTs and 241 NPSs. NPSs were on average smaller than RCTs, more frequently single centre and pilot studies, and less frequently funded by industry. NPSs were less frequently discontinued than RCTs: 32/221 (14% versus 78/288 (27%, p<0.001, missing data excluded. Poor recruitment was the most frequent reason for discontinuation in both NPSs (36% and RCTs (37%.Compared to RCTs, NPSs were at lower risk for discontinuation. Measures to reliably predict, sustain, and stimulate recruitment could prevent discontinuation of many RCTs but also of some NPSs.

  19. Complexation of HSA with different forms of antimony (Sb): An application of fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Wenjuan [State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Zhang, Daoyong [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Pan, Xiangliang, E-mail: xlpan@ms.xjb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Lee, Duu-Jong [State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-15

    Antimony (Sb) pollution has been of a great environmental concern in some areas in China. Sb enters human body via drinking water, inhalation and food chain, unavoidably interacts with human serum albumin (HSA) in blood plasma, and consequently does harm to human health. The harmful effects of Sb on human health depend on the Sb species and their binding ability to HSA. In the present study, binding of three forms of Sb with HSA was investigated by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. All of antimony potassium tartrate, antimony trichloride and potassium pyroantimonate quenched fluorescence of HSA. Values of conditional stability constant K{sub a} (×10{sup 5}/M) for Sb and HSA systems were 8.13–9.12 for antimony potassium tartrate, 2.51–4.27 for antimony trichloride and 3.63–9.77 for potassium pyroantimonate. The binding constant K{sub b} (×10{sup 4}/M) values of HSA with antimony potassium tartrate, antimony trichloride and potassium pyroantimonate were 0.02–0.07, 3.55–5.01, and 0.07–1.08, respectively. There was one independent class of binding site for antimony trichloride towards HSA. There was more than one Sb binding site and negative cooperativity between multiple binding sites for potassium pyroantimonate and antimony potassium tartrate towards HSA. The binding ability of HSA to complex Sb followed the order: antimony trichloride>potassium pyroantimonate>antimony potassium tartrate. -- Highlights: ► The first study reporting interaction of Sb with HSA. ► Sb can effectively quench the fluorescence of HSA. ► The binding ability of HSA to Sb was dependent on the form of Sb. ► Binding differences indicate differences in toxicity of various forms Sb to human. ► HAS-Sb binding parameters are important for understanding toxicity of Sb.

  20. Complete Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas monteilii SB3078 and SB3101, Two Benzene-, Toluene-, and Ethylbenzene-Degrading Bacteria Used for Bioaugmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Mads; D’Imperio, Seth; Tale, Vaibhav P.; Lewis, Derrick; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas monteilii SB3078 and SB3101 are benzene-, toluene-, and ethylbenzene-degrading strains used for bioaugmentation in relation to treatment of wastewater contaminated with petrochemical hydrocarbons. Complete genome sequencing of the bioaugmentation strains confirms that they are very closely related (100.0% average nucleotide identity). Both strains contain extensive integration of phage elements, with the main difference being insertion of additional phage elements in the SB3078 genome. PMID:24874689

  1. Solution route synthesis of InSb, Cu 6Sn 5 and Cu 2Sb electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarakonsri, T.; Johnson, C. S.; Hackney, S. A.; Thackeray, M. M.

    A solution method was used to prepare InSb, Cu 6Sn 5 and Cu 2Sb intermetallic compounds that are of interest as negative electrode materials for lithium batteries. The compounds were synthesized by the reduction of dissolved transition metal- and metalloid salts with fine Zn powder. Heterogeneous redox reactions at the surface of the Zn particles resulted in fern-like dendritic structures with high surface areas. Powder X-ray diffraction and lattice imaging by transmission electron microscopy showed that the intermetallic products were highly crystalline with preferred crystallographic orientations. Mild heat-treatment of the products under argon improved their phase purity. Electrodes prepared by this method exhibited a large irreversible capacity loss on the first charge/discharge cycle. Cu 2Sb electrodes showed the greatest cycling stability; after the initial cycle, they delivered more than 230 mAh g -1 when cycled between 1.2 and 0.0 V versus metallic lithium, consistent with previously reported data for ball-milled Cu 2Sb electrodes.

  2. Diffusion-Controlled Solid-State Formation of CoSb Phase from Co/Sb-Multilayered Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Gi Jeon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical properties of materials on a nanometer scale are known to be different from those of bulk form due to dimensional confinement effects and high specific surface-to-volume ratio. In this study, the size effects on the diffusion and reaction at the interface of dissimilar nanowires (NWs were investigated. Co/Sb-multilayered NWs of 15±1 and 19±2 nm in radius have been grown within anodic aluminum oxide templates using a pulsed potentiodynamic electrodeposition method. XRD and TEM results demonstrated that the multilayered NWs were transformed to a CoSb phase through a solid-state reaction at the temperature in the range of 653 to 693 K. The kinetics of the solid-state reaction was analyzed and found to be diffusion controlled at the interface between Co and Sb phases. The reaction was controlled by the dominant diffusion of Sb atoms. The activation energies for the solid-state reaction were estimated to be 0.9 and 0.7 eV/atom for the multilayered NWs with radii of 15 and 19 nm, respectively.

  3. Sludge batch 9 (SB9) accepance evaluation: Radionuclide concentrations in tank 51 SB9 qualification sample prepared at SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB9 material is currently in Tank 51 and has been washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF processing and is currently being processed as Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB9 Washed Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from a three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-15-81) taken on July 23, 2015. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under the direction of Savannah River Remediation (SRR) it was then adjusted per the Tank Farm washing strategy as of October 20, 2015. This final slurry now has a compositioniv expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40.

  4. Sludge batch 9 (SB9) acceptance evaluation. Radionuclide concentrations in tank 51 SB9 qualification sample prepared at SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB9 material is currently in Tank 51 and has been washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF processing and is currently being processed as Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB9 Washed Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from a three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-15-81) taken on July 23, 2015. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under the direction of Savannah River Remediation (SRR) it was then adjusted per the Tank Farm washing strategy as of October 20, 2015. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40.

  5. Growth and thermoelectric properties of FeSb2 films produced by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Ye; Canulescu, Stela; Sun, Peijie

    2011-01-01

    Thermoelectric FeSb2 films were produced by pulsed laser deposition on silica substrates in a low-pressure Ar environment. The growth conditions for near phase-pure FeSb2 films were confirmed to be optimized at a substrate temperature of 425°C, an Ar pressure of 2 Pa, and deposition time of 3 h b...... by ablating specifically prepared compound targets made of Fe and Sb powders in atomic ratio of 1:4. The thermoelectric transport properties of FeSb2 films were investigated. Pulsed laser deposition was demonstrated as a method for production of good-quality FeSb2 films....

  6. Severity of anxiety symptoms reported by borderline patients and Axis II comparison subjects: description and prediction over 16 years of prospective follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Frankenburg, Frances R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

    2014-12-01

    The first purpose of this study was to determine the severity of anxiety symptoms reported by borderline patients and Axis II comparison subjects over 16 years of follow-up. The second purpose was to determine the most salient predictors of the severity of anxiety symptoms of borderline patients. Initially, 290 borderline inpatients and 72 comparison subjects were assessed using measures of anxiety, childhood adversity, and normal personality. The severity of anxiety symptoms was reassessed every 2 years. Borderline patients reported approximately twice as severe symptoms of anxiety as comparison subjects. However, these symptoms decreased significantly over time for those in both groups. Among borderline patients, two variables were found to be significant multivariate predictors of severity of overall anxiety: nonsexual childhood abuse and trait neuroticism. The results of this study suggest that anxiety symptoms form a distinct profile for borderline patients-a profile related to both childhood adversity and a vulnerable temperament.

  7. The recent and prospective developments of cooled IR FPAs for double application at Electron NRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutunov, V. A.; Vasilyev, I. S.; Ivanov, V. G.; Prokofyev, A. E.

    2003-09-01

    The recent and prospective developments of monolithic silicon IR-Schottky-barrier staring focal plane arrays (IR SB FPAs), photodetector assembly, and digital thermal imaging cameras (TICs) at Electron National Research Institute (Electron NRI) are considered. Basic parameters for IR SB FPAs with 256x256 and 512x512 pixels, and TICs based on these arrays are presented. The problems emerged while proceeding from the developments of IR SB FPAs for the wavelength range from 3 μm to 5 μm to the developments of those ones for xLWIR range are indicated (an abrupt increase in the level of background architecture). Possibility for further improvement in basic parameters of IR SB FPAs are discussed (a decrease in threshold signal power down to 0.5-1.0"1013 W/element with an increase in quantum efficiency, a decrease in output noise and proceeding to Schottky barriers of degenerated semiconductor/silicon heterojunction, and implementation of these array parameters in photodetector assembly with improved thermal background shielding taking into consideration an optical structure of TIC for concrete application). It is concluded that relative simplicity of the technology and expected low cost of monolithic silicon IR SB FPAs with basic parameters compared with hybrid IR FPAs for the wavelength ranges from 3 μm to 5 μm and from 8 μm to 12 μm maintain large monolithic IR SB FPAs as a basis for developments of double application digital TICs in the Russian Federation.

  8. Atomic intermixing and segregation at the interface of InAs/GaSb type II superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaochao; Zhang, Yong; Jiang, Dongwei; Guo, Fengyun; Wang, Dongbo; Zhao, Liancheng

    2017-04-01

    To determine the interfacial atomic intermixing of the InAs/GaSb T2SL, an innovative and straightforward method based on TEM techniques is proposed to analysize and investigate the interface stoichiometry of the InAs/GaSb T2SL. Using this method, the chemical components of the interfaces in InAs/GaSb T2SL can be quantitatively determined by fitting with the sigmoidal function and Muraki's segregation model. It is found that the intermixing at the cationic and anionic sublattice is different, and the interface GaSb-on-InAs is slightly sharper than the InAs-on-GaSb interface. Furthermore, we identified segregation of Sb and In atoms and quantitatively measured their incorporation in the lattice. It is also found that the In and Sb segregations mainly occur at the GaSb-on-InAs and InAs-on-GaSb interfaces, respectively and the Sb segregation is larger than the In segregation in the as-grown InAs/GaSb superlattice because of the different atomic exchanges energy.

  9. Electronic structures of Si- and Te-doped CoSb3 compounds under high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuaki; Ullah Khan, Atta; Mori, Takao

    2017-05-01

    The electronic and lattice properties of various Si- and Te-doped CoSb3 compounds under hydrostatic compression conditions were calculated by using the total energy pseudopotential method. The calculated compositions of Si- and Te-doped CoSb3 compounds are Co8Sb22Si2, Co8Sb22Te2, Co8Sb21Si2Te1, and Co8Sb21Si1Te2. The applied pressure P values are 0 (ambient), 10, and 100 GPa. The densities of states (DOSs) of Si- and Te-doped CoSb3 compounds under P = 0, 10, and 100 GPa are investigated to compare them with each other. Their DOS shapes and Fermi level positions vary under pressure. In particular, the variations in DOS shape between P = 10 and 100 GPa in Co8Sb21Si2Te1 and Co8Sb21Si1Te2 are markedly large, although they are relatively small between P = 0 and 10 GPa. The gap states of Co8Sb21Si2Te1 and Co8Sb21Si1Te2 around the Fermi level disappear under P = 100 GPa. Seebeck coefficients do not increase under high pressures.

  10. A fast synthesis for Zintl phase compounds of Na 3SbTe 3, NaSbTe 2 and K 3SbTe 3 by microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gen-Tao; Pol, V. G.; Palchik, Oleg; Kerner, Riki; Sominski, Elena; Koltypin, Yuri; Gedanken, Aharon

    2004-01-01

    The microwave irradiation technique was used to prepare three Zintl phase compounds Na 3SbTe 3, NaSbTe 2 and K 3SbTe 3. The as-prepared products were analyzed and characterized by XRD, EDX and SEM techniques. Higher microwave oven power and shorter irradiation time are required for the synthesis of Na 3SbTe 3, whereas lower oven power and longer irradiation time are needed for NaSbTe 2. Moderate microwave irradiation conditions facilitate the formation of pure K 3SbTe 3. Pure phase of Na 3SbTe 3 are directly obtained by this technique for the first time. Compared with the traditional high-temperature solid-state synthesis, the microwave reaction required a considerable shortened reaction time for the preparation of the three Zintl compounds. The initial driving force for these reactions originates from the interaction of microwave electric field with alkali metals (Na and K) and Sb powders.

  11. Optical and structural properties of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/MgF{sub 2} multilayers for laser applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, F; Agullo-Rueda, F [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Lamela, J; Heras, C de las [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales and Instituto Nicolas Cabrera, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-02-21

    Multilayers of MgF{sub 2} and Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} have been obtained by physical vapour deposition on glass substrates. Changes in the optical and structural properties have been studied as a function of annealing temperature and the number of layers. A drastic variation in optical transmission, microstrain and grain size is observed at a temperature near 225 deg. C. A comparison of the material properties of multilayers and a monolayer is carried out.

  12. Feasibility of epicardial adipose tissue quantification in non-ECG-gated low-radiation-dose CT: comparison with prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon-Yarza, Isabel; Viteri-Ramirez, Guillermo; Saiz-Mendiguren, Ramon; Slon-Roblero, Pedro J.; Paramo, Maria [Dept. of Radiology, Clinica Univ. de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Bastarrika, Gorka [Dept. of Radiology, Clinica Univ. de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Cardiac Imaging Unit, Clinica Univ. de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain)], e-mail: bastarrika@unav.es

    2012-06-15

    Background: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is an important indicator of cardiovascular risk. This parameter is generally assessed on ECG-gated computed tomography (CT) images. Purpose: To evaluate feasibility and reliability of EAT quantification on non-gated thoracic low-radiation-dose CT examinations with respect to prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT acquisition. Material and Methods: Sixty consecutive asymptomatic smokers (47 men; mean age 64 {+-} 9.8 years) underwent low-dose CT of the chest and prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT acquisitions (64-slice dual-source CT). The two examinations were reconstructed with the same range, field of view, slice thickness, and convolution algorithm. Two independent observers blindly quantified EAT volume using commercially available software. Data were compared with paired sample Student t-test, concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), and Bland-Altman plots. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed for EAT volume quantification with low-dose-CT (141.7 {+-} 58.3 mL) with respect to ECG-gated CT (142.7 {+-} 57.9 mL). Estimation of CCC showed almost perfect concordance between the two techniques for EAT-volume assessment (CCC, 0.99; mean difference, 0.98 {+-} 5.1 mL). Inter-observer agreement for EAT volume estimation was CCC: 0.96 for low-dose-CT examinations and 0.95 for ECG-gated CT. Conclusion: Non-gated low-dose CT allows quantifying EAT with almost the same concordance and reliability as using dedicated prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT acquisition protocols.

  13. Effects of dopants on the amorphous-to-fcc transition in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privitera, S. [R and D Department, Micro, Power, Analog (MPA) Group, STMicroelectronics, MP8, Stradale Primosole 50, 95121 Catania (Italy)]. E-mail: stefania.privitera@st.com; Rimini, E. [Istituto di Microelettronica e Microsistemi (IMM), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Stradale Primosole 50, 95121 Catania (Italy); Bongiorno, C. [Istituto di Microelettronica e Microsistemi (IMM), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Stradale Primosole 50, 95121 Catania (Italy); Pirovano, A. [FTM, Advanced R and D, NVMTD, STMicroelectronics, Via Olivetti 2, 20041, Agrate Brianza (Italy); Bez, R. [FTM, Advanced R and D, NVMTD, STMicroelectronics, Via Olivetti 2, 20041, Agrate Brianza (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    The amorphous-to-crystal transition has been studied through in situ resistance measurements in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin films doped by ion implantation with nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine at different concentrations. Enhancement of the thermal stability has been observed in O and N amorphous doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}. Larger effects have been found in the case of nitrogen doping. On the contrary, doping with Fluorine produced a decrease in the crystallization temperature. The electrical properties have been related to the structural phase change through in situ transmission electron microscopy analysis. The comparison between undoped and doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} shows that the introduction of oxygen or nitrogen modifies in a different way the kinetics of the amorphous-to-fcc transition and gives new insight on the effects of doping with light elements in GeSbTe alloys.

  14. Grading medial collateral ligament injury: comparison of MR imaging and instrumented valgus-varus laxity test-device. A prospective double-blind patient study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasenberg, E. I.; Lemmens, J. A.; van Kampen, A.; Schoots, F.; Bloo, H. J.; Wagemakers, H. P.; Blankevoort, L.

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: The role of MR imaging in grading medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury of the knee in comparison to other grading methods (clinical findings and instrumental measurement) is hardly documented in the literature. The purpose of this study is to compare the results of MR imaging in grading

  15. GaSb solar cells grown on GaAs via interfacial misfit arrays for use in the III-Sb multi-junction cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, George T.; Juang, Bor-Chau; Slocum, Michael A.; Bittner, Zachary S.; Laghumavarapu, Ramesh B.; Huffaker, Diana L.; Hubbard, Seth M.

    2017-12-01

    Growth of GaSb with low threading dislocation density directly on GaAs may be possible with the strategic strain relaxation of interfacial misfit arrays. This creates an opportunity for a multi-junction solar cell with access to a wide range of well-developed direct bandgap materials. Multi-junction cells with a single layer of GaSb/GaAs interfacial misfit arrays could achieve higher efficiency than state-of-the-art inverted metamorphic multi-junction cells while forgoing the need for costly compositionally graded buffer layers. To develop this technology, GaSb single junction cells were grown via molecular beam epitaxy on both GaSb and GaAs substrates to compare homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial GaSb device results. The GaSb-on-GaSb cell had an AM1.5g efficiency of 5.5% and a 44-sun AM1.5d efficiency of 8.9%. The GaSb-on-GaAs cell was 1.0% efficient under AM1.5g and 4.5% at 44 suns. The lower performance of the heteroepitaxial cell was due to low minority carrier Shockley-Read-Hall lifetimes and bulk shunting caused by defects related to the mismatched growth. A physics-based device simulator was used to create an inverted triple-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaSb model. The model predicted that, with current GaSb-on-GaAs material quality, the not-current-matched, proof-of-concept cell would provide 0.5% absolute efficiency gain over a tandem GaInP/GaAs cell at 1 sun and 2.5% gain at 44 suns, indicating that the effectiveness of the GaSb junction was a function of concentration.

  16. Growth of Sb2S3 nanowires synthesized by colloidal process and self-assembly of amorphous spherical Sb2S3 nanoparticles in wires formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Validžić, Ivana Lj.; Abazović, Nadica D.; Mitrić, Miodrag

    2012-12-01

    We report the organic synthesis and growth of antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) amorphous nanospheres to nanowires via a simple, colloidal synthetic method. Amorphous Sb2S3 nanospheres self-assembly in wires formation was dispersed in isopropyl alcohol. With increased heating time, Sb2S3 nanospheres grew into Sb2S3 nanowires, probably involving both mechanisms of Ostwald-ripening and spherical nanoparticle self-organization through oriented-attachment of individual nanoparticles. Also, the as-synthesized Sb2S3 nanowires with different heating times (0, 5 and 10 min.) from the moment of appearance of the Sb2S3 precipitate were analyzed. The observed nanowires become longer with increased heating time and are around 100 nm in diameter and 10-20 μm in length. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy reveals that the optical band-gap energy of the Sb2S3 nanowires is independent of the heating times and is found to be ˜1.5-1.6 eV. The optical band-gap energy found for amorphous Sb2S3 nanospheres was also ˜1.5 eV. The structure of Sb2S3 samples was refined down to R-factors of 10.82, 11.76 and 12.08%. The refinement showed that Sb2S3 powder belongs to the orthorhombic type with space group Pbnm (no. 62) and that Sb2S3 nanowires grow along the [010] direction.

  17. Sb(V) and Sb(III) distribution in human erythrocytes: speciation methodology and the influence of temperature, time and anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Waldo; Aguilar, Luis; Barría, Macarena; Veneciano, Jocelyn; Martínez, Daniel; Bravo, Manuel; Lobos, María Gabriela; Mercado, Luis

    2013-10-15

    In this research a new method was developed and optimized for the determination of Sb(V) and Sb(III) in human erythrocytes fractions (plasma and cytoplasm) by high performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The method considers the first step of samples cleaning by protein precipitation by salting out followed by C18 solid phase extraction, EDTA elution, and finally a chromatographic separation by using anion exchange PRPX-100 (100 mm × 4.1mm) and EDTA 20 mmol L(-1) as mobile phase. The method was optimized by experimental design with a recovery of 90% for Sb(V) and 55-75% for Sb(III) approximately. The analytical method was applied to study the distribution of Sb(V) and Sb(III) in human erythrocytes considering temperature and time of incubations and with special attention about the influence of the anticoagulant. Results showed that both Sb(V) and Sb(III) are capable to enter the red blood cell in a proportion of approximately 40-60%. On the other hand, both species are then excreted from the interior of the cell, where the percentage considerably decreased from approximately 60 to less than 30% within the cell. An increase in the culture temperature increases the capacity of Sb(V) and Sb(III) to penetrate the membrane barrier and reach the cytoplasm. In order to preserve the original distribution of Sb in blood, heparin seems to be the best anticoagulant for sample preservation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of complications between transjugular and axillosubclavian approach for placement of tunneled, central venous catheters in patients with hematological malignancy: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Hahn, Seong Tai [Catholic University of Korea, Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the incidence of mechanical, thrombotic and infective complications in transjugular (IJV) and axillosubclavian (SCV) central venous catheters (CVC) in patients with hematological malignancy. In a prospective observational trial, 131 consecutive patients were classified into two groups: Group A included those with IJV catheter insertions under sonography guidance (n=61) and group B included those with SCV insertions under venography guidance (n=70). After catheter placement, patients were prospectively acquired and recorded to obtain the following data: success rates, total catheter days, and complication episodes per 100 catheter days. All procedures were technically successful. Total catheter days were 7800 (group A) versus 8391(group B). Mechanical complications were observed in three cases from group A and 11 from group B, with an incidence rate of 0.04 per 100 catheter days versus 0.13 (P=0.043), respectively. Two symptomatic thrombotic complications were observed in group B. The number of infective complications was not significantly different between the two groups (P=0.312). There was no difference in infective complication incidence between the two groups. To minimize catheter-related mechanical and thrombotic complications, however, the IJV approach is superior to the SCV approach. (orig.)

  19. Prospective randomized comparison of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) and abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport) in the treatment of forehead, glabellar, and periorbital wrinkles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Basil M; Csank, George A; Ryb, Gabriel E; Eko, Frederick N; Rubin, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    There are several commercially available neurotoxins to improve facial aesthetics, but few prospective, randomized trials have been conducted without commercial support to compare these agents. The authors present the results of a study examining and comparing the effects of onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-ONA; Botox, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, California) and abobotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-ABO; Dysport, Ipsen Ltd, Slough, UK). The authors enrolled 53 patients in a prospective, randomized trial in which each patient received a dose of BoNT-ONA on one side of the upper face and BoNT-ABO on the other. The effects of each agent were monitored and recorded over 150 days according to each patient's ability to elevate the brow, wrinkle count (as measured by the Visia system; Canfield Imaging Systems, Fairfield, New Jersey), and assessment of Fitzpatrick wrinkle scale rankings by blinded graders. Results showed no statistically significant differences between the two agents. Both agents yielded measurable improvements on wrinkles of the upper face at 150 days. At the current pricing of the agents, BoNT-ABO offers a significant cost savings over BoNT-ONA, with a comparable efficacy. The effect of both drugs appears to be more prolonged than indicated in the current manufacturer guidelines.

  20. GeSbTe deposition for the PRAM application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Junghyun [Nano Fabrication Center, SAIT, Suwon, P.O. Box 111 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sangjoon [Nano Fabrication Center, SAIT, Suwon, P.O. Box 111 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Changsoo [Nano Fabrication Center, SAIT, Suwon, P.O. Box 111 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yoonho [Nano Fabrication Center, SAIT, Suwon, P.O. Box 111 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daeil [School of Materials Science and Engineering. University of Ulsan, San 29, Mugeo-Dong, Nam-Gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: dkim84@mail.ulsan.ac.kr

    2007-02-15

    GeSbTe (GST) chalcogenide thin films for the phase-change random access memory (PRAM) were deposited by an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. New precursors for GST thin films made with an ALD process were synthesized. Among the synthesized precursors, Ge(N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 4}, Sb(N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 4}, and Te(i-Pr){sub 2} (i-Pr = iso-propyl) were selected. Using the above precursors, GST thin films were deposited using an H{sub 2} plasma-assisted ALD process. Film resistivity abruptly changed after an N{sub 2} annealing process above a temperature of 350 deg. C. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs of the GST films on the patterned substrate with aspect ratio of 7 shows that the step coverage is about 90%.

  1. Development in Zn4Sb-based thermoelectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Hao

    Thermoelectric material, as a functional material which has the dual ability of electrical-thermal energy conversion, has attracted tremendous interests in the last decades, especially against the background of global energy shortage and surging of new materials. The present work focuses...... on the notable Zn4Sb3, with the effort to further the basic understanding of the compound, as well as improve the thermoelectric performance to meet the commercial use. The maximum efficiency of a thermoelectric material is determined by its figure of merit, zT=TS2/ where S is the Seebeck coefficient...... or thermopower,  the electrical conductivity, the thermal conductivity and T the absolute temperature. The best thermoelectrics are heavily doped semiconductors with high thermoelectric power factors and low thermal conductivities, known as “Phonon Glasses Electrical Crystals”. Zn4Sb3 is one such material...

  2. Properties of Doped GaSb Whiskers at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khytruk, Igor; Druzhinin, Anatoly; Ostrovskii, Igor; Khoverko, Yuriy; Liakh-Kaguy, Natalia; Rogacki, Krzysztof

    2017-02-01

    Temperature dependencies of GaSb whiskers' resistance doped with Te to concentration of 1.7 × 1018 cm-3 were measured in temperature range 1.5-300 K. At 4.2 K temperature, a sharp drop in the whisker resistance was found. The observed effect is likely connected with the contribution of two processes such as the electron localization in the whiskers and transition in superconducting state at temperature below 4.2 K. The whisker magnetoconductance is considered in the framework of weak antilocalization (WAL) model and connected with subsurface layers of the whiskers. The Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillatory effect is observed in high-quality n-type GaSb whiskers with tellurium doping concentration near the metal-insulator transition (MIT) for both longitudinal and transverse magnetoresistance.

  3. Crystal Field Parameters and Phase Transitions in ErSb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, S. M.; Bak, P.

    1975-01-01

    The crystal field levels of the Er ion in a single crystal of ErSb have been measured by inelastic neutron scattering. The crystal field parameters obtained by a least squares fit to the spectra at several temperatures are: B4 = (0·473 ± 0·005) × 10−2°K and B6 = (0·59 ± 0·06) × 10−5°K, which differ...

  4. Comparison of effectiveness of different surgical treatments for meralgia paresthetica: Results of a prospective observational study and protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Godard C W; Kloet, Alfred

    2015-07-01

    Various surgical procedures can be applied in the treatment of meralgia paresthetica. The two main ones are neurolysis and neurectomy of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. To date, no prospective or randomized controlled trial has compared the effectiveness of these procedures with standardized outcome measures. In this study we present our results for two prospectively followed cohorts and we present the protocol for a double blind randomized controlled trial (RCT). All patients that had an indication for surgical treatment of idiopathic meralgia paresthetica between August 2012 and April 2014 were included in the study. The patient decided on the type of treatment (neurolysis or neurectomy) after informed consent had been given. Primary outcome was measured using the Likert scale obtained 6 weeks after the surgery. Successful pain reduction was defined as Likert 1 or 2. Secondary outcome measures were the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and Bothersomeness Index (BSI). In case of neurectomy the BSI for numbness was also obtained. A total of 22 consecutive patients were included: neurolysis was performed in 8 patients and neurectomy in 14 patients (one bilateral case). Successful pain reduction was observed more frequently after neurectomy (93.3%) than after neurolysis (37.5%, P<0.05). Secondary outcome scores (NRS and BSI pain) were also better after neurectomy, although not significantly (respectively P=0.07 and 0.05). Paired analysis of the scores before and after the surgery showed an improvement in both the NRS and BSI after the neurectomy procedure (both P<0.001), while scores were not significantly different before and after the neurolysis procedure. Patient's scores for the BSI numbness after the neurectomy procedure were low (mean 1.4, SD±1.0, range 0-3). The results of our prospective study confirm results previous studies reported in the literature in that the percentage pain relief was better after neurectomy than after neurolysis. A RCT is needed to

  5. Grain boundary engineering with nano-scale InSb producing high performance InxCeyCo4Sb12+z skutterudite thermoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric semiconductors based on CoSb3 hold the best promise for recovering industrial or automotive waste heat because of their high efficiency and relatively abundant, lead-free constituent elements. However, higher efficiency is needed before thermoelectrics reach economic viability for widespread use. In this study, n-type InxCeyCo4Sb12+z skutterudites with high thermoelectric performance are produced by combining several phonon scattering mechanisms in a panoscopic synthesis. Using melt spinning followed by spark plasma sintering (MS-SPS, bulk InxCeyCo4Sb12+z alloys are formed with grain boundaries decorated with nano-phase of InSb. The skutterudite matrix has grains on a scale of 100–200 nm and the InSb nano-phase with a typical size of 5–15 nm is evenly dispersed at the grain boundaries of the skutterudite matrix. Coupled with the presence of defects on the Sb sublattice, this multi-scale nanometer structure is exceptionally effective in scattering phonons and, therefore, InxCeyCo4Sb12/InSb nano-composites have very low lattice thermal conductivity and high zT values reaching in excess of 1.5 at 800 K.

  6. Ion irradiation-induced polycrystalline InSb foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulian, R.; Salazar, J. B.; Just, W.; Manzo, D. J.; de Andrade, A. M. H.; Schoffen, J. R.; Bernardi, F.; Baptista, D. L.; Fichtner, P. F. P.

    2017-12-01

    InSb films with various thicknesses were deposited by magnetron sputtering on SiO2/Si substrates and subsequently irradiated with 17 MeV Au+7 ions. The structural and electronic changes induced by ion irradiation were investigated by synchrotron and laboratory based techniques. Ion irradiation of InSb transforms compact films (amorphous and polycrystalline) in open cell solid foams. The initial stages of porosity were investigated by transmission electron microscopy analysis and reveal the porous structure initiates as small spherical voids with approximately 3 nm in diameter. The evolution of porosity was investigated by scanning electron microscopy images, which show that film thickness increases up to 16 times with increasing irradiation fluence. Here we show that amorphous InSb films become polycrystalline foams upon irradiation with 17 MeV Au+7 ions at fluences above 1014 cm‑2. The films attain a zincblende phase, with crystallites randomly oriented, similarly to the polycrystalline structure attained by thermal annealing of unirradiated films.

  7. Sb-Doped SnO2 Nanoparticles Synthesized by Sonochemical-Assisted Precipitation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonuruk, Russameeruk; Vittayakorn, Naratip; Mekprasart, Wanichaya; Sritharathikhun, Jaran; Pecharapa, Wisanu

    2015-03-01

    Sb-doped SnO2 nanopowders were synthesized by sonochemical-assisted precipitation process using stannic chloride pentahydrate (SnCl4.5H2O) and antimony chloride (SbC3) as starting precursors. Effect of sonication and Sb doping concentrations on physical structures and electrical properties of Sb-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and two-point probe method. The results indicated that the good dispersion with less agglomeration of particles in SnO2 phase can be obtained by single step sonochemical-assisted process. Moreover, XRD results indicated that the crystallinity of Sb-doped SnO2 nanopowders deteriorated with increasing Sb content, suggesting that Sb dopant significantly prevent SnO2 crystallite growth. The XPS spectra of Sb-doped SnO2 obviously confirmed the existence of Sb ion incorporated into SnO2 matrix. These results revealed that incorporation of Sb ions into SnO2 lattice with specific concentration has significant influence on formation and crystallization and can dramatically enhance the conductivity of tin oxide.

  8. Structural, electrical and optical properties of annealed Al/Sb multiayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jianxiong; Wu, Lili; Feng, Lianghuan; Zheng, Jiagui; Zhang, Jingquan; Li, Wei; Li, Bing; Cai, Yaping [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The multilayer Al/Sb thin films were deposited on quartz glass substrates using magnetron sputtering method and annealed at high temperature to obtain AlSb films. The experimental conditions were optimized to obtain the AlSb single phase. XRD measurements indicate that high-temperature annealing is necessary to form AlSb and is helpful to the grain growth of AlSb polycrystalline. The average grain size of AlSb polycrystalline increases obviously with the increase in annealing temperature when higher than 500 C. The electrical measurements show that the prepared AlSb films are p-type semiconductors with the conductivity activation energy of 0.21 and 0.01 eV. The optical band gap for a typical AlSb film is 1.76 eV. The obvious photovoltaic effect has been observed in TCO/CdS/AlSb/ZnTe:Cu/Au devices, which demonstrated the potential of AlSb film as the absorber layer in thin film solar cells. (author)

  9. Fever of unknown origin: prospective comparison of diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET and 111In-granulocyte scintigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Eigtved, Annika

    2004-01-01

    emission tomography (PET) in these patients remains to be established. To study this, we compared prospectively, on a head-to-head basis, the diagnostic value of FDG-PET and indium-111 granulocyte scintigraphy in patients with FUO. Nineteen patients with FUO underwent both FDG-PET and (111)In......-granulocyte scintigraphy within 1 week. FDG-PET scans and granulocyte scintigrams were reviewed by different doctors who were blinded to the result of the other investigation. The diagnostic values of FDG-PET and granulocyte scintigraphy were evaluated with regard to identification of a focal infectious...... and negative predictive values for granulocyte scintigraphy were both 85%. Positive and negative predictive values for FDG-PET were 30% and 67%, respectively. (111)In-granulocyte scintigraphy has a superior diagnostic performance compared to FDG-PET for detection of a localised infectious...

  10. Phase change characteristics of Sb-rich Ga–Sb–Se materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yegang, E-mail: lvyegang@nbu.edu.cn [Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Song, Sannian [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shen, Xiang; Wang, Guoxiang [Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Wu, Liangcai; Song, Zhitang; Liu, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Dai, Shixun [Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Phase change behavior of Sb-rich Ga–Sb–Se was studied for phase change memory. • Sb-rich Ga–Sb–Se films possess crystallization temperature higher than 225 °C. • Sb-rich Ga–Sb–Se film has retention ability in excess of 135 °C for 10 years. • Compared with Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, Ga{sub 10}Sb{sub 60}Se{sub 30} has fast crystallization speed. -- Abstract: In this paper, phase change characteristics of Sb-rich Ga–SbSe materials were systematically investigated for ultralong-retention and high-speed phase change memory (PCM). Sb-rich Ga–Sb–Se materials possess crystallization temperature higher than 225 °C and activation energy of crystallization above 3.0 eV, which leads to outstanding data retention ability in excess of 135 °C for 10 years. The film thickness reductions of Ga{sub 9}Sb{sub 71}Se{sub 20} and Ga{sub 10}Sb{sub 60}Se{sub 30} are about 2.6% and 3.8%, respectively, which are smaller than that of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} during the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition. Ga{sub 10}Sb{sub 60}Se{sub 30} film exhibits a reversible phase change under irradiation of optical pulse. The fast crystallization is due to the precipitation of Sb crystallites acting as a template to accelerate the crystallization.

  11. Prospective comparison of collagen plug (angio-seal{sup TM}) and suture-mediated (the closer S{sup TM}) closure devices at femoral access sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yulri; Roh, Hong Gee; Choo, Sung Wook; Lee, Sung Hoon; Shin, Sung Wook; Do, Young Soo; Byun, Hong Sik; Park, Kwang Bo; Jeon, Pyoung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    Rapid and effective hemostasis at femoral puncture sites minimizes both the hospital stay and patient discomfort. Therefore, a variety of arterial closure devices have been developed to facilitate the closure of femoral arteriotomy. The objective of this prospective study was to compare the efficacy of two different closure devices; a collagen plug device (Angio-Seal) and a suture-mediated closure device (the Closer S). From March 28, 2003 to August 31, 2004, we conducted a prospective study in which 1,676 cases of 1,180 patients were treated with two different types of closure device. Angio-Seal was used in 961 cases and the Closer S in 715 cases. The efficacy of the closure devices was assessed, as well as complications occurring at the puncture sites. Successful immediate hemostasis was achieved in 95.2% of the cases treated with Angio-Seal, and in 89.5% of the cases treated with the Closer S ({rho} < 0.05). The rates of minor and major complications occurring between the two groups were not significantly different. In the Closer S group, we observed four major complications (0.6%), that consisted of one massive retroperitoneal hemorrhage (surgically explored) and three pseudoaneurysms. In the Angio-Seal group, we observed three major complications (0.3%) that consisted of one femoral artery occlusion, one case of infection treated with intravenous antibiotics and one pseudoaneurysm. The use of Angio-Seal was found to be more effective than that of the Closer S with regard to the immediate hemostasis of the femoral puncture sites. However, we detected no significant differences in the rate at which complications occurred.

  12. Prospective comparison of molecular signatures in urothelial cancer of the bladder and the upper urinary tract--is there evidence for discordant biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe, Laura-Maria; Lotan, Yair; Bagrodia, Aditya; Gayed, Bishoy A; Darwish, Oussama M; Youssef, Ramy F; Bolenz, Christian; Sagalowsky, Arthur I; Raj, Ganesh V; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Kapur, Payal; Margulis, Vitaly

    2014-04-01

    Upper tract urothelial carcinoma is rare and less well studied than bladder cancer. It remains questionable if findings in bladder cancer can safely be extrapolated to upper tract urothelial carcinoma. We prospectively evaluate molecular profiles of upper tract urothelial carcinoma and bladder cancer using a cell cycle biomarker panel. Immunohistochemical staining for p21, p27, p53, cyclin E and Ki-67 was prospectively performed for 96 patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma and 159 patients with bladder cancer with nonmetastatic high grade urothelial carcinoma treated with extirpative surgery. Data were compared between the groups according to pathological stage. Primary outcome was assessment of differences in marker expression. Secondary outcome was difference in survival according to marker status. During a median followup of 22.0 months 31.2% of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma and 28.3% of patients with bladder cancer had disease recurrence, and 20.8% and 27.7% died of upper tract urothelial carcinoma and bladder cancer, respectively. The number of altered markers was not significantly different between the study groups. Overall 34 patients (35.4%) with upper tract urothelial carcinoma and 62 (39.0%) with bladder cancer had an unfavorable marker score (more than 2 markers altered). There were no significant differences between upper tract urothelial carcinoma and bladder cancer in the alteration status of markers, the number of altered markers and biomarker score when substratified by pathological stage. There were no significant differences in survival outcomes between patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma and those with bladder cancer according to the number of altered markers and biomarker score. Our results demonstrate the molecular similarity of upper tract urothelial carcinoma and bladder cancer in terms of cell cycle and proliferative tissue markers. These findings have important implications and support the further

  13. Incidence of anogenital warts in Liuzhou, south China: a comparison of data from a prospective study and from the national surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feixue; Sheng, Wei; Wu, Xin; Yin, Kai; Lan, Jian; Huang, Yue; Ma, Xinjing; Zheng, Ya; Zhuang, Sijie; Huang, Shoujie; Su, Yingying; Li, Mingqiang; Wu, Ting; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao

    2017-01-01

    To determine the incidence of anogenital warts (AGWs) in the Chinese general population, we compared the data from a prospective study and from the National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS). A cohort study including 2378 women and 2309 men aged 18–55 years old enrolled from Liuzhou, China, was conducted with three scheduled visits at 6-month intervals from May 2014 to March 2016. And, a questionnaire survey was performed to collect the diagnosis history of AGWs at the enrollment visit. The data on reported AGW cases of Liuzhou in the NNDRS from 2006 to 2015 were also analyzed. Overall, the incidence rates of AGWs in the prospective study, in the self-reported diagnosis during past 12 months and in the NNDRS were 1.26 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16–2.37), 2.35 (95% CI: 1.17–4.20) and 0.183 (95% CI: 0.178–0.187), respectively. Human papillomavirus 6 or 11 were found in all the AGW biopsy samples (10/10). The onset time of AGWs in women was earlier, and the cumulative risk increased more quickly at a young age along with each subsequent younger birth cohort (P<0.0001), whereas slight differences were observed in the different male birth cohorts (P=0.0785). The sexual behavior of individuals and their sexual partners had a strong relationship with self-reported AGWs. Our study indicates that the incidence of AGWs in China is as high as that in developed countries, and the data based on the national surveillance system seriously underestimate the real disease burden of AGWs. PMID:29259326

  14. Characterisation of Ga1-xInxSb quantum wells (x~0.3 grown on GaAs using AlGaSb interface misfit buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Hayton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available GaInSb multiple quantum wells (MQW grown on GaAs using an AlGaSb interface misfit (IMF metamorphic buffer layer technique exhibit superior infrared photoluminescence (PL at room temperature compared with MQW grown directly on GaSb. PL emission was obtained in the range from 1.7 μm (4 K to 1.9 μm (300 K from Ga1-xInxSb samples containing five compressively strained QW with In content x~0.3. Structural and optical characterisation confirms that the AlGaSb IMF growth technique is promising for the development of photonic devices operating at extended wavelengths based on GaAs substrates.

  15. Short-wave infrared barriode detectors using InGaAsSb absorption material lattice matched to GaSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, A. P.; Percy, B.; Marshall, A. R. J. [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Jain, M. [Amethyst Research Ltd., Kelvin Campus, West of Scotland Science Park, Glasgow G20 0SP (United Kingdom); Wicks, G.; Hossain, K. [Amethyst Research, Inc., 123 Case Circle, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401 (United States); Golding, T. [Amethyst Research Ltd., Kelvin Campus, West of Scotland Science Park, Glasgow G20 0SP (United Kingdom); Amethyst Research, Inc., 123 Case Circle, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401 (United States); McEwan, K.; Howle, C. [Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    Short-wave infrared barriode detectors were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. An absorption layer composition of In{sub 0.28}Ga{sub 0.72}As{sub 0.25}Sb{sub 0.75} allowed for lattice matching to GaSb and cut-off wavelengths of 2.9 μm at 250 K and 3.0 μm at room temperature. Arrhenius plots of the dark current density showed diffusion limited dark currents approaching those expected for optimized HgCdTe-based detectors. Specific detectivity figures of around 7×10{sup 10} Jones and 1×10{sup 10} Jones were calculated, for 240 K and room temperature, respectively. Significantly, these devices could support focal plane arrays working at higher operating temperatures.

  16. New Insights into the Origins of Sb-Induced Effects on Self-Catalyzed GaAsSb Nanowire Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Dingding; Dheeraj, Dasa L.; Jin, Chengjun

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary semiconductor nanowire arrays enable scalable fabrication of nano-optoelectronic devices with tunable bandgap. However, the lack of insight into the effects of the incorporation of Vy element results in lack of control on the growth of ternary III-V1-yVy nanowires and hinders the develop......Tertiary semiconductor nanowire arrays enable scalable fabrication of nano-optoelectronic devices with tunable bandgap. However, the lack of insight into the effects of the incorporation of Vy element results in lack of control on the growth of ternary III-V1-yVy nanowires and hinders...... the development of high-performance nanowire devices based on such ternaries. Here, we report on the origins of Sb-induced effects affecting the morphology and crystal structure of self-catalyzed GaAsSb nanowire arrays. The, nanowire growth by molecular beam epitaxy is changed both kinetically...

  17. Optimization of metamorphic buffers for MBE growth of high quality AlInSb/InSb quantum structures: Suppression of hillock formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Gosselink, D.; Gharavi, K.; Baugh, J.; Wasilewski, Z. R.

    2017-11-01

    The optimization of metamorphic buffers for InSb/AlInSb QWs grown on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates is presented. With increasing surface offcut angle towards [ 1 1 bar 0 ] direction, the interaction of spiral growth around threading dislocations (TDs) with the offcut-induced atomic steps leads to a gradual change in the morphology of the AlSb buffer from one dominated by hillocks to that exhibiting near-parallel steps, and finally to a surface with increasing number of localized depressions. With the growth conditions used, the smoothest AlSb surface morphology was obtained for the offcut angles range of 0.8-1.3°. On substrates with 0° offcut, subsequent 3 repeats of Al0.24In0.76 Sb/Al0.12In0.88 Sb interlayers reduces the TD density of AlSb buffer by a factor of 10, while 70 times reduction in the surface density of TD-related hillocks is observed. The remaining hillocks have rectangular footprint and small facet angles with respect to GaAs (0 0 1) surface: 0.4° towards [ 1 1 bar 0 ] direction and 0.7° towards [1 1 0] direction. Their triangular-shaped sidewalls with regularly spaced atomic steps show occasional extra step insertion sites, characteristic of TD outcrops. Many of the observed sidewalls are dislocation free and offer atomically smooth areas of up to 1 μm2, already suitable for high-quality InSb growth and subsequent top-down fabrication of InSb nanowires. It is proposed that the sidewalls of the remaining hillocks offer local vicinal surfaces with atomic step density optimal for suppression of TD-induced spiral growth, thus providing the important information on the exact substrate offcut needed to achieve large hillock-free and atomically smooth areas on AlInSb metamorphic buffers.

  18. Evidence for Unconventional Strong-Coupling Superconductivity in PrOs4Sb12: An Sb Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, H.; Yogi, M.; Imamura, Y.; Kawasaki, Y.; Zheng, G.-Q.; Kitaoka, Y.; Ohsaki, S.; Sugawara, H.; Aoki, Y.; Sato, H.

    2003-01-01

    We report Sb-NQR results which evidence a heavy-fermion (HF) behavior and an unconventional superconducting (SC) property in Pr(Os4Sb12 with Tc=1.85 K. The temperature (T) dependence of nuclear-spin-lattice-relaxation rate, 1/T1, and NQR frequency unravel a low-lying crystal-electric-field splitting below T0˜10 K, associated with Pr3+(4f2)-derived ground state. In the SC state, 1/T1 shows neither a coherence peak just below Tc K nor a T3-like power-law behavior observed for anisotropic HF superconductors with the line-node gap. The isotropic energy gap with its size Δ/kB=4.8 K seems to open up across Tc below T*˜2.3 K. It is surprising that Pr(Os4Sb12 looks like an isotropic HF superconductor—it may indeed argue for Cooper pairing via quadrupolar fluctuations.

  19. Optical parameters of diode lasers based on an InAsSb/InAsSbP heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astakhova, A. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation); Bez' yazychnaya, T. V. [National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Stepanov Institute of Physics (Belarus); Burov, L. I.; Gorbatsevich, A. S.; Ryabtsev, A. G. [Belarussian State University (Belarus); Ryabtsev, G. I. [National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Stepanov Institute of Physics (Belarus); Shchemelev, M. A. [Belarussian State University (Belarus); Yakovlev, Yu. P., E-mail: Yak@iropt1.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2008-02-15

    The rates of radiative recombination (including transitions induced by enhanced luminescence) and nonradiative recombination, internal quantum yield of luminescence, and the matrix element for band-to-band optical transitions were determined for the first time for InAsSb/InAsSbP diode lasers oscillating at wavelengths of 3.1-3.2 {mu}m. It is established that the contribution of nonradiative recombination to the lasing threshold can be as large as 97%. The internal quantum yield of luminescence for the InAs{sub 0.97}Sb{sub 0.03} compound is no higher than 3%. Most likely, the nonradiative channel is formed with involvement of Auger recombination with the constant C = 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -38} m{sup 6}s{sup -1} (T = 77 K). The studied samples of lasers feature relatively low optical losses {rho} = 900 m{sup -1} and internal quantum efficiency of emission at the level of 0.6. The spontaneous lifetime of nonequilibrium charge carriers as determined from the radiative-recombination rate is equal to 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} s, which is consistent with known published data.

  20. Quasi-prospective, real-life monitoring of food craving post-bariatric surgery: comparison with overweight and normal weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, H; Tetley, D; Hill, A J

    2014-06-01

    Food cravings are common post-bariatric surgery, suggested as predictors of relapse and weight regain, but relatively unstudied, especially in the longer term. The present study investigated the frequency and nature of food craving experiences after gastric surgery in comparison with non-surgical control participants. Participants were 21 women, 4-38 months post-surgery (mean age = 44 years, 9 following gastric banding, 12 after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass), and two comparison samples of 39 overweight dieters and 33 normal weight non-dieters. They completed a food craving record after every food craving, a daily mood assessment and a food diary over a 7-day period. Over the 299 craving episodes, savoury foods were the most commonly craved (40% of craving events), followed by chocolate (31%). Post-bariatric patients reported more and stronger cravings than normal weight non-dieters but at a similar frequency and strength to overweight dieters. Neither hunger nor negative mood distinguished the food cravings of post-bariatric patients from those of comparison participants, nor did the proportion that led to eating (58%). Food cravings should be anticipated post-bariatric surgery but no more so at 12 months post-surgery than by other overweight or obese individuals. Food cravings are not the product of extreme hunger nor do they have the connection with negative mood seen in disordered eating. In addition, the ability to fulfil cravings by eating the craved food is reduced by the surgery itself, although the duration of surgical restraint is uncertain. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  1. Prospective comparison of the clinical impacts of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-susceptible MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, K C; Howden, B P; Grabsch, E A; Graham, M; Ward, P B; Xie, S; Mayall, B C; Johnson, P D R; Grayson, M L

    2009-08-01

    Although methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (RVS-MRSA; including vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus [VISA] and heterogeneous VISA [hVISA]) have been linked with vancomycin treatment failure, it is unclear whether they are more pathogenic than vancomycin-susceptible MRSA (VS-MRSA). We prospectively assessed patients with clinical MRSA isolates during a 10-month period to determine clinical status (infection versus colonization) and therapeutic outcome before correlating these findings with the results of detailed in vitro assessment of vancomycin susceptibility, including population analysis profile (PAP) testing. hVISA and VISA were defined by standard PAP criteria (area-under-the-curve ratio compared to that of the reference hVISA strain Mu3 [>or=0.9]) and routine CLSI criteria (vancomycin MIC, 4 to 8 microg/ml), respectively. Among the 117 patients assessed, 58 had RVS-MRSA isolates (56 hVISA and 2 VISA) and 59 had VS-MRSA isolates; the patient demographics and comorbidities were similar. RVS-MRSA was associated with a lower rate of infection than VS-MRSA (29/58 versus 46/59; P = 0.003), including a lower rate of bacteremia (3/58 versus 20/59, respectively; P rates in RVS-MRSA and VS-MRSA groups were not statistically different (16/26 versus 31/42; P = 0.43), but the post hoc assessment of treatment regimes and study size made detailed conclusions difficult. The results of the macro method Etest correlated well with the PAP results (sensitivity, 98.3%, and specificity, 91.5%), but broth microdilution and our preliminary RVS-MRSA detection method correlated poorly. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid and daptomycin. These data suggest that detailed prospective laboratory identification of RVS-MRSA isolates may be of limited value and that, instead, such in vitro investigation should be reserved for isolates from patients who are failing appropriate anti-MRSA therapy.

  2. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of PET/MRI to PET/CT-acquired FDG brain exams for seizure focus detection: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paldino, Michael J.; Jones, Jeremy Y.; Mahmood, Nadia; Sher, Andrew; Hayatghaibi, Shireen; Seghers, Victor [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Yang, Erica [SimonMed Imaging, Department of Radiology, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Zhang, Wei [Texas Children' s Hospital, Outcomes and Impact Service, Houston, TX (United States); Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-10-15

    There is great interest in positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) as a clinical tool due to its capacity to provide diverse diagnostic information in a single exam. The goal of this exam is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of PET/MR-acquired [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) brain exams to that of PET/CT with respect to identifying seizure foci in children with localization-related epilepsy. Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent were obtained for this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, prospective study. All patients referred for clinical FDG-PET/CT exams of the brain at our institution for a diagnosis of localization-related epilepsy were prospectively recruited to undergo an additional FDG-PET acquisition on a tandem PET/MR system. Attenuation-corrected FDG images acquired at PET/MR and PET/CT were interpreted independently by five expert readers. Readers were blinded to the scanner used for acquisition and attenuation correction as well as all other clinical and imaging data. A Likert scale scoring system (1-5) was used to assess image quality. The locale of seizure origin determined at multidisciplinary epilepsy surgery work rounds was considered the reference standard. Non-inferiority testing for paired data was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of PET/MR to that of PET/CT. The final study population comprised 35 patients referred for a diagnosis of localization-related epilepsy (age range: 2-19 years; median: 11 years; 21 males, 14 females). Image quality did not differ significantly between the two modalities. The accuracy of PET/MR was not inferior to that of PET/CT for localization of a seizure focus (P=0.017). The diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET images acquired on a PET/MR scanner and generated using MR-based attenuation correction was not inferior to that of PET images processed by traditional CT-based correction. (orig.)

  3. Propofol and non-propofol based sedation for outpatient colonoscopy-prospective comparison of depth of sedation using an EEG based SEDLine monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudra, Basavana; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Gouda, Gowri; Borle, Anuradha; Carlin, Augustus; Yadwad, Avantika

    2016-10-01

    Propofol is a popular anesthetic sedative employed in colonoscopy. It is known to increase the patient satisfaction and improve throughput. However, there are concerns among the clinicians with regard to the depth of sedation, as a deeper degree of sedation is known to increase the incidence of aspiration and other adverse events. So we planned to compare the depth of sedation between propofol and non-propofol based sedation in patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy, as measured by an electroencephalogram (EEG) based monitor SEDLine monitor (SedlineInc., San Diego, CA). The non-randomized prospective observational study was performed in the outpatient gastroenterology suite of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Patients included ASA class I-III aged more than 18 years scheduled for colonoscopy under Propofol or non-propofol based sedation. After an institutional review board approval, a written consent was obtained from prospective patients. Sedation (propofol or non-propofol based) was administered by either a certified nurse anesthetist under the supervision of an anesthesiologist (propofol) or a registered endoscopy nurse under the guidance of the endoscopist performing the procedure (non-propofol sedation). Depth of sedation was measured with an EEG based SEDLine monitor. The sedation providers were blinded to the patient state index-the indicator of depth of sedation. PSI (patient state index-SEDLine reading) was documented at colonoscope insertion, removal and at the return of verbal responsiveness after colonoscope withdrawal. Sedation spectrum was retrieved from the data stored on the SEDLine monitor. Patients sedated with propofol experience significantly deeper degrees of sedation at all times during the procedure. Additionally, during significant part of the procedure, they are at PSI levels associated with deep general anesthesia. The group that received propofol was more deeply sedated and had lower PSI values. Lighter

  4. Influence of electrode microstructure on the reactivity of Cu{sub 2}Sb with lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcrette, M.; Larcher, D.; Tarascon, J.M. [Laboratoire de Reactivite et Chimie des Solides, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, CNRS-UMR 6007, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex (France); Edstroem, K. [Department of Materials Chemistry, Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Vaughey, J.T.; Thackeray, M.M. [Electrochemical Technology Program, Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2007-05-05

    The reactivity of lithium with Cu{sub 2}Sb was recently described to be governed by displacement reactions of Cu similar to those occurring in Cu{sub 2.33}V{sub 4}O{sub 11}. In order to complement the earlier work of Fransson et al., we have revisited the electrochemical reactivity of Cu{sub 2}Sb with Li. Through a different arsenal of characterization techniques, we have emphasized the role of the particle size, electrode preparation and temperature on the reversibility of the electrochemical reaction. We have demonstrated that the structural reversibility of the Cu{sub 2}Sb electrode can be obtained in two special cases: (1) when the particle size of Cu{sub 2}Sb is small and when the powders are ball milled with carbon and (2) when Li{sub 2}CuSb is used as the starting material and some Sb is lost from the electrode during charge. (author)

  5. Comparative analysis of hole transport in compressively strained InSb and Ge quantum well heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Ashish; Barth, Michael; Madan, Himanshu; Datta, Suman [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Lee, Yi-Jing; Lin, You-Ru; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Ko, Chih-Hsin; Wann, Clement H. [Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China); Loubychev, Dmitri; Liu, Amy; Fastenau, Joel [IQE, Inc., Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Lindemuth, Jeff [Lake Shore Cryotronics, Westerville, Ohio 43082 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    Compressively strained InSb (s-InSb) and Ge (s-Ge) quantum well heterostructures are experimentally studied, with emphasis on understanding and comparing hole transport in these two-dimensional confined heterostructures. Magnetotransport measurements and bandstructure calculations indicate 2.5× lower effective mass for s-InSb compared to s-Ge quantum well at 1.9 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup –2}. Advantage of strain-induced m* reduction is negated by higher phonon scattering, degrading hole transport at room temperature in s-InSb quantum well compared to s-Ge heterostructure. Consequently, effective injection velocity is superior in s-Ge compared to s-InSb. These results suggest s-Ge quantum well heterostructure is more favorable and promising p-channel candidate compared to s-InSb for future technology node.

  6. Microstructure evolution of directionally solidifi ed Sn-16%Sb hyperperitectic alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shuangming

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The directionally solidifi ed microstructure of Sn-16%Sb hyperperitectic alloy has been investigated at various solidifi cation rates using a high-thermal gradient directional solidifi cation apparatus. The results indicate that the solidifi cation microstructure consists of hard primary intermetallic SnSb phase embedded in a matrix of soft peritectic β-Sn phase. The primary SnSb phase exhibits faceted growth with tetragonal or trigonal shapes. At the same time, the primary SnSb phase is refi ned with an increase in the solidifi cation rate and dispersed more uniformly in the matrix of β-Sn phase. The volume fraction of the SnSb phase fi rstly decreases and then increases when the solidifi cation rate increases in directional solidifi cation of Sn-16%Sb hyperperitectic alloy.

  7. Single-use instruments, cutting blocks, and trials increase efficiency in the operating room during total knee arthroplasty: a prospective comparison of navigated and non-navigated cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mont, Michael A; McElroy, Mark J; Johnson, Aaron J; Pivec, Robert

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this prospective controlled trial was to determine if efficiency increases could be achieved in non-navigated and navigated total knee arthroplasties by replacing traditional saws, cutting blocks, and trials with specialized saws and single-use cutting blocks and trials. Various timing metrics during total knee arthroplasty, including operating room preparation times and specific intra-operative times, were measured in 400 procedures performed by eight different surgeons at 6 institutions. Efficiency increases were the result of statistically significant reductions in combined instrument setup and cleanup times as well as in adjusted surgical episode times in navigated total knee arthroplasties. Single-use instruments show promising benefits, but adequate patient follow-up is needed to confirm safety and efficacy before they can be widely adopted. Nevertheless, the authors believe that the use of single-use instruments, cutting guides, and trial implants for total knee arthroplasty will play an increasing role in improving operating room efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparison of laser-welded titanium and conventional cast frameworks supported by implants in the partially edentulous jaw: a 3-year prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemt, T; Henry, P; Lindén, B; Naert, I; Weber, H; Bergström, C

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective multicenter study was to evaluate and compare the clinical performance of laser-welded titanium fixed partial implant-supported prostheses with conventional cast frameworks. Forty-two partially edentulous patients were provided with Brånemark system implants and arranged into 2 groups. Group A was provided with a conventional cast framework with porcelain veneers in one side of the jaw and a laser-welded titanium framework with low-fusing porcelain on the other side. The patients in group B had an old implant prosthesis replaced by a titanium framework prosthesis. The patients were followed for 3 years after prosthesis placement. Clinical and radiographic data were collected and analyzed. Only one implant was lost, and all prostheses were still in function after 3 years. The 2 framework designs showed similar clinical performance with few clinical complications. Only one abutment screw (1%) and 9 porcelain tooth units (5%) fractured. Four prostheses experienced loose gold screws (6%). In group A, marginal bone loss was similar for both designs of prostheses, with a mean of 1.0 mm and 0.3 mm in the maxilla and mandible, respectively. No bone loss was observed on average in group B. No significant relationship (P > 0.05) was observed between marginal bone loss and placement of prosthesis margin or prosthesis design. The use of laser-welded titanium frameworks seems to present similar clinical performance to conventional cast frameworks in partial implant situations after 3 years.

  9. Comparison of Nulliparas Undergoing Cesarean Section in First and Second Stages of Labour: A Prospective Study in a Tertiary Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Sucak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We performed a prospective observational audit study to compare neonatal and maternal outcomes of the primary cesarean sections performed in first stage versus second stage of labour. Methods. One thousand three hundred and eighty-nine nullipara women who had undergone cesarean section in a tertiary teaching hospital between February 1, 2009 and January 31, 2010 were included in the study. Primary maternal outcomes of interest were uterine atonia, transfusion requirement, urinary system injury, requirement for hysterectomy, and duration of hospital stay. Results. A total of 1389 women underwent cesarean section at this 12 month time period. Of these 1389 cesarean sections, 1271 were in the first stage of the labour and 171 were in the second stage of the labour. Urinary injuries, transfusion requirement, and uterine atonia hysterectomy were significantly more frequent in women who underwent cesarean section in the second stage of the labour compared to women undergoing cesarean section in the first stage of the labour. Conclusion. Cesarean section in the second stage of the labour is associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidities. Special attention is required to the patients undergoing cesarean section in the second stage of the labour.

  10. Prospective randomised comparison of diagnostic confidence and image quality with normal-dose and low-dose CT pulmonary angiography at various body weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Megyeri, Boglarka; Christe, Andreas; Vock, Peter; Heverhagen, Johannes T; Schindera, Sebastian T

    2014-08-01

    To find a threshold body weight (BW) below 100 kg above which computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) using reduced radiation and a reduced contrast material (CM) dose provides significantly impaired quality and diagnostic confidence compared with standard-dose CTPA. In this prospectively randomised study of 501 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism and BW image quality and diagnostic confidence. Data were compared between the normal-dose and low-dose groups in five BW subgroups. Vessel attenuation did not differ between the normal-dose and low-dose groups within each BW subgroup (P = 1.0). The CNR was higher with the normal-dose compared with the low-dose protocol (P image quality and diagnostic confidence did not differ between CT protocols in all subgroups (P between 0.960 and 1.0). Subjective image quality and diagnostic confidence with 80 kVp CTPA is not different from normal-dose protocol in any BW group up to 100 kg. • 80 kVp CTPA is safe in patients weighing Image quality and diagnostic confidence with low-dose CTPA is good • Diagnostic confidence does not deteriorate in obese patients weighing <100 kg.

  11. Transobturator vaginal tape in comparison to tension-free vaginal tape: A prospective trial with a minimum 12 months follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R B Nerli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tension-free vaginal tape (TVT procedure is based on the integral theory that the midurethra has an important role in the continence mechanism. Transobturator vaginal tape (TOT is the same in concept as TVT but it differs from TVT in that, rather than passing through the retropubic space, sling materials are drawn through the obturator foramina. We prospectively compared TVT with TOT with respect to operation-related morbidity and surgical outcomes at a minimum follow up of 12 months. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI were alternatively assigned to the TVT group (18 or the TOT group. Preoperative evaluation included urodynamic study and I-QOL questionnaire. One year after operation the surgical result, patient satisfaction, incontinence quality-of-life questionnaire, long-term complications, and uroflowmetry were evaluated in both groups. Results: The patient characteristics in both the TVT and TOT group were similar. Mean operating time was significantly shorter in the TOT group likened to the TVT group. Conclusions: Both the TVT and TOT procedures are minimally invasive and similar in operation-related morbidity. TOT appears to be as effective as TVT, and safer than TVT for the surgical treatment of SUI in women at 12 months follow-up.

  12. Comparison between intranasal dexmedetomidine and intranasal midazolam as premedication for brain magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric patients: A prospective randomized double blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ayushi; Dalvi, Naina Parag; Tendolkar, Bharati Anil

    2017-01-01

    Preprocedural preparation of children scheduled for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is challenging. This prospective, randomized trial compared intranasal midazolam with intranasal dexmedetomidine as premedication for children scheduled for brain MRI. In total, 60 children, aged 1-8 years, scheduled for elective brain MRI, were randomly assigned to the intranasal dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg; Group D) or intranasal midazolam (0.2 mg/kg; Group M) group. We compared hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, onset, level, sedation quality, and successful parental separation. All patients received intravenous propofol as an induction and maintenance agent for MRI. No significant differences were observed in demographic, hemodynamic, and respiratory parameters. Group D (14.3 ± 3.4 min [10-20 min]) had a longer time of sedation onset than Group M (8.7 ± 3.7 min [5-15 min]; P Intranasal dexmedetomidine results in more successful parental separation and yields a higher sedation level at the time of induction of anesthesia than intranasal midazolam as premedication, with negligible side effects. However, its onset of action is relatively prolonged.

  13. Prospective Comparison of F-18 Choline PET/CT Scan Versus Axial MRI for Detecting Bone Metastasis in Biochemically Relapsed Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Huysse

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared fluor-18 choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT and axial skeleton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI prospectively obtained for the detection of bone metastases in non-castrated patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer following primary treatment. PET/CT was performed 45 min post-injection of 3–4 MBq/kg F-18 methyl choline. MRI included T1- and fluid sensitive T2-weighted images of the spine and pelvis. Readers were initially blinded from other results and all scans underwent independent double reading. The best valuable comparator (BVC defined the metastatic status. On the basis of the BVC, 15 out of 64 patients presented with 24 bone metastases. On a patient level, the sensitivity and specificity of MRI and PET were not significantly different. On a lesion level, the sensitivity of MRI was significantly better compared to PET, and the specificity did not differ significantly. In conclusion, axial MRI is an interesting screening tool for the detection of bone metastases because of its low probability of false negative results. However, F-18 choline PET is a valuable addition as it can overrule false positive MRI results and detect non-axial metastases.

  14. Prospective Comparison of F-18 Choline PET/CT Scan Versus Axial MRI for Detecting Bone Metastasis in Biochemically Relapsed Prostate Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysse, Wouter; Lecouvet, Frédéric; Castellucci, Paolo; Ost, Piet; Lambrecht, Valerie; Artigas, Carlos; Denis, Marie-Laurence; Man, Kathia De; Delrue, Louke; Jans, Lennart; Bruycker, Aurélie De; Vos, Filip De; Meerleer, Gert De; Decaestecker, Karel; Fonteyne, Valerie; Lambert, Bieke

    2017-10-17

    We compared fluor-18 choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and axial skeleton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prospectively obtained for the detection of bone metastases in non-castrated patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer following primary treatment. PET/CT was performed 45 min post-injection of 3-4 MBq/kg F-18 methyl choline. MRI included T1- and fluid sensitive T2-weighted images of the spine and pelvis. Readers were initially blinded from other results and all scans underwent independent double reading. The best valuable comparator (BVC) defined the metastatic status. On the basis of the BVC, 15 out of 64 patients presented with 24 bone metastases. On a patient level, the sensitivity and specificity of MRI and PET were not significantly different. On a lesion level, the sensitivity of MRI was significantly better compared to PET, and the specificity did not differ significantly. In conclusion, axial MRI is an interesting screening tool for the detection of bone metastases because of its low probability of false negative results. However, F-18 choline PET is a valuable addition as it can overrule false positive MRI results and detect non-axial metastases.

  15. Gadobutrol-enhanced moving-table magnetic resonance angiography in patients with peripheral vascular disease: a prospective, multi-centre blinded comparison with digital subtraction angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentsch, Annette [Schering AG, Berlin (Germany); Aschauer, Manuela A.; Ebner, Franz [Department of Magnetic Resonance, University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Balzer, Joern O.; Davis, Kirsten [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Frankfurt/Main, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Brossmann, Joachim; Schaefer, Fritz K.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Busch, Hans P. [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Brueder, Trier (Germany); Douek, Philippe [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Lyon (France); Engelshoven, Jos M.A. van; Leiner, Tim [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Gregor, Michaela; Reimer, Peter [Department of Radiology, Staedtisches Klinikum, Karlsruhe (Germany); Kersting, Christian [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Knuesel, Patrick R. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, MRI Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Leen, Edward [Department of X-ray, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Loewe, Christian; Thurnher, Siegfried A. [Section of Angiography and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology' ' University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); McPherson, Simon [Department of Radiology, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Taupitz, Matthias [Department of Radiology, Humboldt University of Berlin (Charite), Berlin (Germany); Tombach, Bernd; Wegener, Robin; Weishaupt, Dominik; Meaney, James F.M.

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare moving-table three-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE MRA), using 1.0-mol gadobutrol, with intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (i.a. DSA) for evaluation of pelvic and peripheral arteries in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. A total of 203 patients were examined in a prospective, multi-centre study at 1.0/1.5 T. Ten vessel segments of one leg were evaluated on-site and by three independent blinded reviewers off-site. One hundred eighty-two patients were evaluable in blinded reading. For pelvis and thigh, there was statistically significant diagnostic agreement between CE MRA and i.a. DSA on-site (94%) and off-site (86-88%). Overall, for detection of clinically significant stenoses, 93% sensitivity and 90% specificity were achieved in on-site evaluation, with 71-76 and 87-93% off-site; for detection of occlusion, sensitivity and specificity on-site were 91 and 97%, with 75-82 and 94-98% off-site. Evaluation was more sensitive on-site than off-site for detection of stenoses and occlusion, whereas specificity was similar. The CE MRA with 1.0-mol gadobutrol gave results comparable to those of i.a. DSA for the larger arteries of pelvis and thigh. Results for calf arteries were compromised by spatial resolution and technical limitations. (orig.)

  16. Prospective Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy Between Point-of-Care and Conventional Ultrasound in a General Diagnostic Department: Implications for Resource-Limited Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Steffen J A; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta; Lam, David H; Cho, Joo Y; Sohn, Jae Ho; Harris, Robert

    2017-07-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of hand-held point-of-care (POC) versus conventional sonography in a general diagnostic setting with the intention to inform medical providers or clinicians on the rational use of POC ultrasound in resource limited settings. Over 3 months in 2010, 47 patients were prospectively enrolled at a single academic center to obtain 54 clinical conventional ultrasound examinations and 54 study-only POC ultrasound examinations. Indications were 48% abdominal, 26% retroperitoneal, and 24% obstetrical. Nine blinded readers (sonographers, residents, and attending radiologists) sequentially assigned diagnoses to POC and then conventional studies, yielding 476 interpreted study pairs. Diagnostic accuracy was obtained by comparing POC and conventional diagnoses to a reference diagnosis established by the unblinded, senior author. Analysis was stratified by study type, body mass index (BMI), diagnostic confidence, and image quality. The mean diagnostic accuracy of conventional sonography was 84% compared with 74% for POC (P reader, exam type, or BMI. The sensitivity and specificity to detect abnormalities with conventional was 85 and 83%, compared with 75 and 68% for POC. The POC sonography demonstrated greater variability in image quality and diagnostic confidence, and this accounted for lower diagnostic accuracy. When image quality and diagnostic confidence were similar between POC and conventional examinations, there was no difference in accuracy. Point-of-care was nearly as accurate as conventional sonography for basic, focused examinations. Observed differences in accuracy were attributed to greater variation in POC image quality. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  17. A comparison of acute and chronic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using LARS artificial ligaments: a randomized prospective study with a 5-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Gu, Aiqun; Jiang, Haitao; Zhang, Wenjie; Yu, Xiangrong

    2015-01-01

    This prospective randomized study compared acute and chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using ligament advanced reinforcement system (LARS) artificial ligament in young active adults with a 5-year follow-up. Fifty-five patients were enrolled in this study and divided into two groups based on the elapsed time between the injury and reconstruction: the acute group (3-7 weeks) and the chronic group (6-11 months). The clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Lysholm knee scoring scale, the Tegner activity rating, a KT-1000 Arthrometer, and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scoring system. Isokinetic strength of the quadriceps and hamstring was assessed using the Biodex System 3 isokinetic dynamometer. Anterior laxity was decreased and quadriceps/hamstring muscle strength was increased in the acute group compared to the chronic group (p > 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in Lysholm scores, Tegner activity scores, and the IKDC evaluation form between the two groups. These results suggest that earlier ACL reconstruction using a LARS artificial ligament may provide an advantage in the treatment and rehabilitation of ACL rupture.

  18. Prospective randomised comparison of diagnostic confidence and image quality with normal-dose and low-dose CT pulmonary angiography at various body weights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt [University Hospital Bern, University Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Inselspital, Berne (Switzerland); Hospital Centre of Biel, Institute of Radiology, Biel/Bienne (Switzerland); Megyeri, Boglarka [University of Debrecen, Health and Medical Science Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Debrecen (Hungary); Christe, Andreas; Vock, Peter; Heverhagen, Johannes T. [University Hospital Bern, University Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Inselspital, Berne (Switzerland); Schindera, Sebastian T. [University Hospital Bern, University Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Inselspital, Berne (Switzerland); University Hospital Basel, Department of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    To find a threshold body weight (BW) below 100 kg above which computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) using reduced radiation and a reduced contrast material (CM) dose provides significantly impaired quality and diagnostic confidence compared with standard-dose CTPA. In this prospectively randomised study of 501 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism and BW <100 kg, 246 were allocated into the low-dose group (80 kVp, 75 ml CM) and 255 into the normal-dose group (100 kVp, 100 ml CM). Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the pulmonary trunk was calculated. Two blinded chest radiologists independently evaluated subjective image quality and diagnostic confidence. Data were compared between the normal-dose and low-dose groups in five BW subgroups. Vessel attenuation did not differ between the normal-dose and low-dose groups within each BW subgroup (P = 1.0). The CNR was higher with the normal-dose compared with the low-dose protocol (P < 0.006) in all BW subgroups except for the 90-99 kg subgroup (P = 0.812). Subjective image quality and diagnostic confidence did not differ between CT protocols in all subgroups (P between 0.960 and 1.0). Subjective image quality and diagnostic confidence with 80 kVp CTPA is not different from normal-dose protocol in any BW group up to 100 kg. (orig.)

  19. Clinical outcome of 23g Trans-Conjunctival pars plana vitrectomy - a prospective comparison of Phaco-Vitrectomy with only vitrectomy in phakic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyab, Haroon; Khan, Asad Aslam; Javaid, Rana Muhammad Mohsin

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety profile of combined phacoemulsification with 23G pars plana vitrectomy when compared to pars plana vitrectomy alone in phakic patients. This study was performed at Al-Ehsan Eye Hospital (tertiary care eye hospital in Lahore, Pakistan) from January 2016 to August 2016. A total of 40 eyes in two equal groups of 20 eyes each, were enrolled in this prospective study. Group-A underwent combined phaco-vitrectomy, whereas Group-B underwent vitrectomy only for various vitreoretinal pathologies. We evaluated the safety of combined surgery, intra-operative and postoperative complications and short term surgical outcome. The most common reason for vitreoretinal intervention was rhegmatogenous retinal detachment followed by vitreous haemorrhage in combined study population. There was statistically significant difference in best corrected visual acuity pre-operatively and post operatively within the groups and between the groups. The most significant immediate post operative observation in Group-A was enhanced anterior chamber inflammation as compared to Group-B, whereas most signification observation in Group-B was development of visually significant cataract (35%) at 6 months follow-up. There was no other significant sequel or complication difference between both groups. Combined phaco-vitrectomy is a safe and effective procedure with minimum complication profile and it avoids the need of subsequent cataract surgery.

  20. A Comparison of Psychological Response, Body Image, Sexuality, and Quality of Life between Immediate and Delayed Autologous Tissue Breast Reconstruction: A Prospective Long-Term Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Toni; Hu, Jiayi; Bagher, Shaghayegh; Vo, Anthony; OʼNeill, Anne C; Butler, Kate; Novak, Christine B; Hofer, Stefan O P; Metcalfe, Kelly A

    2016-10-01

    This is the first study to use generic distress, cancer-specific, and procedure-specific measures to prospectively evaluate psychological responses, body image, sexuality, and health-related quality of life in immediate compared with delayed breast reconstruction. Consecutive patients undergoing autologous immediate and delayed breast reconstruction (June of 2009 to December of 2010) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Body Image Scale, Sexuality Scale, and BREAST-Q preoperatively and postoperatively (6, 12, and 18 months). Linear mixed-effects analyses between each outcome and time point were performed. One hundred six women underwent mastectomy with immediate (n = 30) and delayed breast reconstruction (n = 76). Before reconstruction, 26 percent of patients had abnormal anxiety scores and 9 percent had abnormal depression scores, with no significant differences between groups. Patients awaiting delayed breast reconstruction had significantly impaired prereconstruction body image (p = 0.01) and sexuality (p = 0.01) and worse satisfaction with breast (p depression, body image, sexuality, and health-related quality of life. This single-center study shows that mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction may protect breast cancer patients from a period of psychosocial distress, poor body image, and diminished sexual well-being compared with those waiting for delayed breast reconstruction. In patients who are oncologically eligible and strongly interested in breast reconstruction, efforts should be made to provide immediate breast reconstruction to decrease the interval of psychosocial distress, poor body image, and impaired sexuality.

  1. Prospective comparison between two different magnetic resonance defecography techniques for evaluating pelvic floor disorders: air-balloon versus gel for rectal filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francesca, Maccioni; Najwa, Al Ansari; Valeria, Buonocore; Fabrizio, Mazzamurro; Carlo, Catalano [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, Rome (Italy); Marileda, Indinnimeo; Massimo, Mongardini [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Surgical Sciences, Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    to prospectively compare two rectal filling techniques for dynamic MRI of pelvic floor disorders (PFD). Twenty-six patients with PFD underwent the two techniques during the same procedure, one based on rectal placement of a balloon-catheter filled with saline and air insufflation (air-balloon technique or AB); another based on rectal filling with 180 cc of gel (gel-filling technique or GF). The examinations were compared for assessment and staging of PFD, including rectal-descent, rectocele, cystocele, colpocele, enterocele, rectal invagination. Surgery and clinical examinations were the gold standard. AB showed sensitivity of 96 % for rectal descent, 100 % for both rectocele and colpocele, 86 % for rectal invagination and 100 % for enterocele; understaged 11 % of rectal descents and 19 % of rectoceles. GF showed sensitivity of 100 % for rectal descent, 91 % for rectocele, 83 % for colpocele, 100 % for rectal invagination and 73 % for enterocele; understaged 3.8 % of rectal descent and 11.5 % of rectoceles. Both techniques showed 100 % of specificity. Agreement between air-balloon and gel filling was 84 % for rectal descent, 69 % for rectocele, 88 % for rectal invagination, 84 % for enterocele, 88 % for cystocele and 92 % for colpocele. Both techniques allowed a satisfactory evaluation of PFD. The gel filling was superior for rectal invagination, the air-balloon for rectocele and anterior/middle compartment disorders. (orig.)

  2. Prospective comparison of tissue trauma after laparoscopic hysterectomy types with retroperitoneal lateral transsection of uterine vessels using ligasure and abdominal hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ahmet; Bige, Ozgur; Saatli, Bahadir; Solak, Ahmet; Saygili, Uğur; Onvural, Ata

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of tissue trauma after laparoscopic and total laparoscopic hysterectomy with retroperitoneal lateral transsection of uterine vessels using ligasure as compared with abdominal hysterectomy. A total of 45 women with various indications for hysterectomy were randomized into laparoscopic hysterectomy, total laparoscopic hysterectomy and abdominal hysterectomy. Laparoscopic and total laparoscopic hysterectomy with retroperitoneal lateral transsection of uterine vessels was performed by four-puncture laparoscopy and pre-, postoperative and postoperative 24th hour levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), the mean operative time, drop in hemoglobin concentration, weight of removed uterus, VAS scores, hospitalization period and major and minor operative complications were analyzed prospectively. CRP and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the abdominal hysterectomy group compared to either laparoscopy groups at the postoperative 24th hour. There were no significant differences in the levels of CRP and IL-6 between the two laparoscopy groups. The longest operative times were observed in the total laparoscopic hysterectomy group. Laparoscopic surgery causes less tissue trauma than the conventional open surgery; however, we observed no difference between the laparoscopic hysterectomy groups concerning the postoperative inflammatory response. We may prefer laparoscopic hysterectomy instead of total laparoscopic hysterectomy under suitable conditions, since laparoscopic hysterectomy causes the same level of tissue trauma as total laparoscopic hysterectomy, but has the advantage of a significantly shorter operative time. Meanwhile, hysterectomy done by laparoscopy with retroperitoneal lateral transsection of uterine vessels using ligasure is an effective and safe procedure.

  3. Prospective comparison of scar-related satisfaction and quality of life after laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy: no differences from patients' point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delongchamps, Nicolas Barry; Belas, Olivier; Saighi, Djillali; Zerbib, Marc; Peyromaure, Michaël

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate and compare scar-related satisfaction in patients treated with open (ORP) versus laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). We prospectively included all patients treated with ORP and LRP in our department between March and June 2010. Scar-related outcomes were collected at 1 and 3 months postoperatively. Three months after surgery, all patients filled up a questionnaire concerning their scar-related symptoms, scar self-consciousness and satisfaction. These variables were statistically compared between the two groups. A total of 101 patients were included for analysis. Of them, 48, 49 and 4 were treated with LRP, ORP and LRP converted to ORP, respectively. Age distribution was not statistically different between groups. Postoperatively, 5 patients experienced skin infection on their scar site, 2 in the ORP and 3 in the LRP group. The most frequently reported symptom was scar itching, that was more frequent after LRP, although difference was not significant (33 vs. 19%, p = 0.2). According to patient scar-related consciousness, satisfaction and impact on quality of life, no differences were reported between groups. Impact on quality of life was insignificant in 27 (55%) versus 21 (44%) patients after ORP and LRP, respectively (p = 0.3). With an overall low impact on satisfaction and quality of life, scars gendered by LRP and ORP were not different from patients' point of view. In patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, the cosmetic aspect of scars does not seem to be a concern.

  4. Left Ventricular Function Evaluation on a 3T MR Scanner with Parallel RF Transmission Technique: Prospective Comparison of Cine Sequences Acquired before and after Gadolinium Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Thibault; Schultz, Anthony; Schaeffer, Mickaël; Labani, Aïssam; Jeung, Mi-Young; Jurgens, Paul Thomas; El Ghannudi, Soraya; Roy, Catherine; Ohana, Mickaël

    To compare cine MR b-TFE sequences acquired before and after gadolinium injection, on a 3T scanner with a parallel RF transmission technique in order to potentially improve scanning time efficiency when evaluating LV function. 25 consecutive patients scheduled for a cardiac MRI were prospectively included and had their b-TFE cine sequences acquired before and right after gadobutrol injection. Images were assessed qualitatively (overall image quality, LV edge sharpness, artifacts and LV wall motion) and quantitatively with measurement of LVEF, LV mass, and telediastolic volume and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between the myocardium and the cardiac chamber. Statistical analysis was conducted using a Bayesian paradigm. No difference was found before or after injection for the LVEF, LV mass and telediastolic volume evaluations. Overall image quality and CNR were significantly lower after injection (estimated coefficient cine after > cine before gadolinium: -1.75 CI = [-3.78;-0.0305], prob(coef>0) = 0% and -0.23 CI = [-0.49;0.04], prob(coef>0) = 4%) respectively), but this decrease did not affect the visual assessment of LV wall motion (cine after > cine before gadolinium: -1.46 CI = [-4.72;1.13], prob(coef>0) = 15%). In 3T cardiac MRI acquired with parallel RF transmission technique, qualitative and quantitative assessment of LV function can reliably be performed with cine sequences acquired after gadolinium injection, despite a significant decrease in the CNR and the overall image quality.

  5. Comparison of the Efficiency of Ultrasound-Guided Injections of the Rhomboid Major and Trapezius Muscles in Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Double-blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin Ökmen, Burcu; Ökmen, Korgün; Altan, Lale

    2017-10-19

    We aimed to investigate the effect of ultrasound (US)-guided injections of the rhomboid major (deep) and trapezius (superficial) muscles on pain, disability, and quality of life in patients with myofascial pain syndrome. In this prospective randomized controlled double-blind study, 65 patients with a diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome were randomized into 2 groups. In group 1 (n = 33), US-guided rhomboid major muscle injection was performed, and in group 2 (n = 32), US-guided trapezius muscle injection was performed. The patients were assessed by a visual analog scale for pain, the Pressure Pain Threshold, the Neck Pain and Disability Scale, and Short Form 12. Data were obtained before treatment (week 0), the second week after treatment, and the fourth week after treatment. In both groups, significant improvements were observed for all parameters at both weeks 2 and 4 compared to pretreatment values (P pain, disability, and quality of life in patients with myofascial pain syndrome. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  6. A comparison of calorie and protein intake in hospitalized pediatric oncology patients dining with a caregiver versus patients dining alone: a randomized, prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth; Hinds, Pamela S; Ke, Weiming; Hu, X Joan

    2004-01-01

    Hospitalization and cancer therapy can contribute to decreased food intake in children and adolescents with cancer, making it a challenge to meet their nutritional needs. The affect of hospitalization and the eating environment for pediatric oncology patients has not been studied very well, and the effect of altering the social aspect of mealtime for hospitalized pediatric oncology patients has not been studied at all. The authors conducted a randomized, prospective clinical trial to determine if hospitalized pediatric oncology patients consume more protein and calories when eating with a family member or when eating alone in their room at mealtime. All food and beverage intake was recorded for 3 consecutive days, and a food service satisfaction survey was completed on Day 3. Food records were analyzed for calorie and protein intake, and surveys were analyzed for patient/parent satisfaction. The study was completed by 200 hospitalized patients and their parent/caregiver. Overall, neither calorie nor protein intake differed significantly between the two groups, but patient/parent satisfaction was significantly higher in the group of patients who dined with their caregiver. By using analysis of variance, the authors found that ideal body weight and years of sickness were significantly associated with calorie and protein intake.

  7. Comparison of a single- or double-injection technique for ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block: a prospective, randomized, blinded controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mélanie; Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Côté, Dany; Levesque, Simon; Dion, Nicolas; Nicole, Pierre C; Turgeon, Alexis F

    2012-01-01

    Despite good success rates reported with ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block using 1 or multiple injections, no consensus exists on the best technique to use. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that a double-injection technique would hasten the onset of sensory block. Adult patients undergoing hand, wrist, or elbow surgery were enrolled in this prospective double-blind randomized study. Blocks were performed under ultrasound guidance. In group S (single injection), 30 mL of mepivacaine 1.5% was injected at the junction of the subclavian artery and the first rib. In group D (double injection), 15 mL of the same solution was injected at the site described above, then 15 mL was injected in the most superficial portion of the lateral aspect of the cluster formed by the brachial plexus trunks and divisions. The primary end point was the rate of complete sensory block at 15 mins. Secondary end points were the rates of sensory, motor, and surgical blocks and procedure time. Fifty-one patients were randomized to each group. The rate of complete sensory block was similar at 15 mins (group S: 49% [95% confidence interval, 36%-62%], group D: 53% [95% confidence interval, 40%-66%]; P = 0.80) and at each time interval. The rates of complete motor block and surgical block success were similar between groups. The procedure time was shorter in group S (179 ± 104 vs 275 ± 137 secs; P block.

  8. High Quality InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructrues grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caroff, Philippe; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Dick, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    Growth and structural analysis of epitaxial InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructures are demonstrated for the first time. InSb segments are found to be perfect crystals, free of stacking faults or other major defects, and have a sharp interface with InAs (see image). After growth the seed particle...... is a single crystal nearly lattice matched to the nanowire. InSb segments are n-type and form ohmic contacts with Ni/Au electrodes....

  9. Antimony (SbIII) reduces growth, declines photosynthesis, and modifies leaf tissue anatomy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaculík, Marek; Mrázová, Anna; Lux, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The role of antimony (Sb)--a non-essential trace metalloid--in physiological processes running in crops is still poorly understood. Present paper describes the effect of Sb tartrate (SbIII) on growth, Sb uptake, photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf tissue organization in young sunflower plants grown in hydroponics. We found that growth of below- and aboveground part was reduced with increasing concentration of Sb in the medium. Although Sb was mostly taken up by sunflower roots and only small part (1-2%) was translocated to the shoots, decline in photosynthesis, transpiration, and decreased content of photosynthetic pigments were observed. This indicates that despite relatively low mobility of Sb in root-shoot system, Sb in shoot noticeably modifies physiological status and reduced plant growth. Additionally, leaf anatomical changes indicated that Sb reduced the size of intercellular spaces and made leaf tissue more compact.

  10. Quantum efficiency investigations of type-II InAs/GaSb midwave infrared superlattice photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giard, E., E-mail: edouard.giard@onera.fr; Ribet-Mohamed, I.; Jaeck, J.; Viale, T.; Haïdar, R. [ONERA, DOTA, Chemin de la Hunière, 91761 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Taalat, R.; Delmas, M.; Rodriguez, J.-B.; Christol, P. [Institut d' Electronique du Sud, UMR-CNRS 5214, Université Montpellier 2, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Steveler, E.; Bardou, N. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (LPN-CNRS), Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Boulard, F. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 Avenue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-28

    We present in this paper a comparison between different type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) photodiodes and focal plane array (FPA) in the mid-wavelength infrared domain to understand which phenomenon drives the performances of the T2SL structure in terms of quantum efficiency (QE). Our measurements on test photodiodes suggest low minority carrier diffusion length in the “InAs-rich” design, which penalizes carriers' collection in this structure for low bias voltage and front side illumination. This analysis is completed by a comparison of the experimental data with a fully analytic model, which allows to infer a hole diffusion length shorter than 100 nm. In addition, measurements on a FPA with backside illumination are finally presented. Results show an average QE in the 3–4.7 μm window equal to 42% for U{sub bias} = −0.1 V, 77 K operating temperature and no anti-reflection coating. These measurements, completed by modulation transfer function and noise measurements, reveal that the InAs-rich design, despite a low hole diffusion length, is promising for high performance infrared imaging applications.

  11. Pulling of 3 mm diameter AlSb rods by micro-pulling down method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourret-Courchesne Ph.D., Edith; Perrodin, Didier

    2009-05-14

    We designed and supplied special crucibles for AlSb material. Thermal insulation and limitation of Sb losses were our first work. The protection of the growth environment was also one of our priority to avoid any pollution of the Fibercryst {mu}PD facility. When this work was achieved, the next step was the calibration of the heating power for these new crucibles. Then, it was the definition of single crystal growth conditions that oriented our research. Following our proposal, many growths attempts were performed. We started from Al & Sb pure powder or from LBNL AlSb crystal as expected. We used different crucibles and different seeds.

  12. Temperature dependent properties of InSb and InAs nanowire field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Henrik A.; Caroff, Philippe; Thelander, Claes; Lind, Erik; Karlström, Olov; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2010-04-01

    We present temperature dependent electrical measurements on InSb and InAs nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs). The FETs are fabricated from InAs/InSb heterostructure nanowires, where one complete transistor is defined within each of the two segments. Both the InSb and the InAs FETs are n-type with good current saturation and low voltage operation. The off-current for the InSb FET shows a strong temperature dependence, which we attribute to a barrier lowering due to an increased band-to-band tunneling in the drain part of the channel.

  13. Quadrupole moment of the 8/sup -/ isomer in /sup 112/Sb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnke, H.; Dafni, E.; Rafailovich, M.H.; Sprouse, G.D.; Vapirev, E.

    1982-08-01

    The quadrupole interaction of the 8/sup -/ isomeric state (T/sub 1/2/ = 536 ns) in /sup 112/Sb has been measured using the time differential perturbed angular distribution method. The linear momentum transfer from the /sup 103/Rh(/sup 12/C, 3n) reaction recoiled the isomeric nuclei into single crystals of Sb and Sn and a polycrystalline In foil. From the quadrupole coupling constant for the 8/sup -/ state of /sup 112/Sb in Sb, the quadrupole moment was obtained relative to the moment of the stable ground state of /sup 121/Sb: Vertical BarQ(/sup 112/Sb,8/sup -/)/Q(/sup 121/Sb,(5/2)/sup +/)Vertical Bar = 1.958(10). The value is in accordance with the description of the isomer as an odd proton coupled to a neutron-excited Sn core. In addition, the measured coupling constants in Sn and In allow the determination of the quadrupole moments of isomers in /sup 120,122/Sb and /sup 115/Sb.

  14. Controlled synthesis of Sb2O3 nanoparticles by chemical reducing method in ethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Hui Shun; Cheong, Kuan Yew; Razak, Khairunisak Abdul

    2011-07-01

    Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) nanoparticles with particle size range from 2 to 12 nm were successfully synthesized by chemical reducing method. Antimony trichloride was reduced by hydrazine with the presence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as catalyst in ethylene glycol at 120 °C for 1 h. Effects of hydrazine concentration ([N2H5OH]/[Sb3+] = 0.75, 5, 10, 20, and 30, when concentration of NaOH was fixed [NaOH]/[Sb3+] = 3) and NaOH concentration ([NaOH]/[Sb3+] = 0, 1, 3, and 5, when concentration of hydrazine was fixed [N2H5OH]/[Sb3+] = 10) on the particle size and shape of the Sb2O3 nanoparticles were investigated. Transmission electron microscope, selected area electron diffraction pattern, and high resolution electron microscope were employed to study the morphology and crystallinity of the nanoparticles. It was observed that the particle size decreased and remained constant when [N2H5OH]/[Sb3+]) ≥ 10 and [NaOH]/[Sb3+] = 3. Further study on the crystallinity and phase of the nanoparticles was assisted by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). XRD revealed a cubic phase of Sb2O3 (ICDD file no. 00-043-1071) with preferred plane of (622) and lattice spacing of 1.68 Å. Correlation between UV-visible absorption wavelengths of the nanoparticles and their sizes was established.

  15. Crystalline structure, and magnetic and magneto-optical properties of MnSbBi thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, K

    2001-01-01

    the c-axis texture and the saturation magnetisation due to less segregation of the non-magnetic phase in the annealed films. Using a thin Sb seed layer in Mn/Sb/Bi// films also results in an increase in both the c-axis texture and the saturation magnetisation. Decreasing the layer thicknesses in Mn/Bi/Sb// films results in a decrease in the grain size. By depositing the Sb layer first in Pt/Mn/Sb// and Co/Mn/Sb// films, the perpendicular c-axis texture can be kept before and after annealing. Computer simulation was carried out to investigate the relationship between the crystal structure and the magnetic properties before and after annealing. Comparing optical and MO properties of annealed Mn/Sb/Bi// and Mn/Sb// films suggests a possible origin of the peaks in Kerr spectra caused by adding Bi. This thesis reports work carried out to investigate some aspects of the crystal structure, and magnetic and magneto-optical (MO) properties in thin films of the Mn-Sb system. Reports of interesting properties and the po...

  16. Spectral Power and Irradiance Responsivity Calibration of InSb Working-Standard Radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G; Rácz, M

    2000-11-01

    New, improved-performance InSb power-irradiance meters have been developed and characterized to maintain the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) spectral responsivity scale between 2 and 5.1 mum. The InSb radiometers were calibrated against the transfer-standard cryogenic bolometer that is tied to the primary-standard cryogenic radiometer of the NIST. The InSb radiometers serve as easy-to-use working standards for routine spectral power and irradiance responsivity calibrations. The spectral irradiance responsivities were derived from the spectral power responsivities by use of the measured area of the apertures in front of the InSb detectors.

  17. Multicarrier Transport in InGaSb/InAs Superlattice Structures (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    wavelength regions are used in a variety of applications,1 and type II superlattices based on GaSb and InAs have many advantages .2 Control and reduction...electron channel E2, and Triangles: hole channel H1. 175701-2 Mitchel et al. J. Appl . Phys. 120, 175701 (2016) 2 Distribution A. Approved for public...layers giving n-type conduction due to the larger contribution of the InAs layers compared to the GaSb or InGaSb, since bulk, undoped GaSb is p-type

  18. Comparison of efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of allergic rhinitis: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakhale, Ganesh; Tathod, Yogesh; Patel, Seema; Pimpalkhute, Sonali; Raghute, Latesh; Khamkar, Ajita

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of allergic rhinitis (AR). A 2-week, single-centered, randomized, double-blind, parallel group comparative clinical study was conducted on patients with AR. Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 67 patients were recruited and randomized to two treatment groups and received the respective drugs for 2 weeks. At follow-up, parameters assessed were total nasal symptom score (TNSS), change in total and differential count of eosinophil. In olopatadine group, there was a significantly higher reduction in TNSS (P rupatadine. Both the drugs significantly reduced the absolute eosinophil count, but olopatadine (P rupatadine group. Olopatadine is a better choice in AR in comparison to rupatadine due to its better efficacy and safety profile.

  19. Multilayer SnSb4-SbSe Thin Films for Phase Change Materials Possessing Ultrafast Phase Change Speed and Enhanced Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruirui; Zhou, Xiao; Zhai, Jiwei; Song, Jun; Wu, Pengzhi; Lai, Tianshu; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang

    2017-08-16

    A multilayer thin film, comprising two different phase change material (PCM) components alternatively deposited, provides an effective means to tune and leverage good properties of its components, promising a new route toward high-performance PCMs. The present study systematically investigated the SnSb4-SbSe multilayer thin film as a potential PCM, combining experiments and first-principles calculations, and demonstrated that these multilayer thin films exhibit good electrical resistivity, robust thermal stability, and superior phase change speed. In particular, the potential operating temperature for 10 years is shown to be 122.0 °C and the phase change speed reaches 5 ns in the device test. The good thermal stability of the multilayer thin film is shown to come from the formation of the Sb2Se3 phase, whereas the fast phase change speed can be attributed to the formation of vacancies and a SbSe metastable phase. It is also demonstrated that the SbSe metastable phase contributes to further enhancing the electrical resistivity of the crystalline state and the thermal stability of the amorphous state, being vital to determining the properties of the multilayer SnSb4-SbSe thin film.

  20. Simultaneous removal of Ni(II), As(III), and Sb(III) from spiked mine effluent with metakaolin and blast-furnace-slag geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, Tero; Runtti, Hanna; Niskanen, Mikko; Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarkkinen, Minna; Kemppainen, Kimmo; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2016-01-15

    The mining industry is a major contributor of various toxic metals and metalloids to the aquatic environment. Efficient and economical water treatment methods are therefore of paramount importance. The application of natural or low-cost sorbents has attracted a great deal of interest due to the simplicity of its process and its potential effectiveness. Geopolymers represent an emerging group of sorbents. In this study, blast-furnace-slag and metakaolin geopolymers and their raw materials were tested for simultaneous removal of Ni(II), As(III) and Sb(III) from spiked mine effluent. Blast-furnace-slag geopolymer proved to be the most efficient of the studied materials: the experimental maximum sorption capacities for Ni, As and, Sb were 3.74 mg/g, 0.52 mg/g, and 0.34 mg/g, respectively. Although the capacities were relatively low due to the difficult water matrix, 90-100% removal of Ni, As, and Sb was achieved when the dose of sorbent was increased appropriately. Removal kinetics fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model. Our results indicate that geopolymer technology could offer a simple and effective way to turn blast-furnace slag to an effective sorbent with a specific utilization prospect in the mining industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The superconducting gap structure of PrOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} and CeRu{sub 2} probed by C(H,{phi})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custers, J. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan) and Institute of Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: custers@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Yamada, A. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Tayama, T. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Sakakibara, T. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Sugawara, H. [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan); Aoki, Y. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Sato, H. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Onuki, Y. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Machida, K. [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    We have performed measurements of the angle-resolved specific heat C(H,{phi}) on PrOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} and the well-known s-wave superconductor CeRu{sub 2} in order to gain information about their respective superconducting (SC) gap structure. PrOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} exhibits pronounced minima (maxima) in C(H,{phi}) along the [100] ([111]) directions. CeRu{sub 2} shows minima (maxima) along the [110] ([100]) directions. The field dependence of the oscillation amplitude of C({phi}), vertical bar A vertical bar, shows similar behavior for both suggesting finite minima in the SC gap, where C({phi}) is smallest. On the other hand, in comparison the temperature dependence of |A| shows aberrant behavior.

  2. Reactive ion etching effects on carbon-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change material in CF4/Ar plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lanlan; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang; Li, Le; Guo, Tianqi; Liu, Bo; Wu, Liangcai; Cheng, Yan; Feng, Songlin

    2016-10-01

    Recently, carbon-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 (CGST) has been proved to be a high promising material for future phase change memory technology. In this article, reactive ion etching (RIE) of phase change material CGST films is studied using CF4/Ar gas mixture. The effects on gas-mixing ratio, RF power, gas pressure on the etch rate, etch profile and roughness of the CGST film are investigated. Conventional phase change material Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) films are simultaneously studied for comparison. Compared with GST film, 10 % more CF4 is needed for high etch rate and 10% less CF4 for good anisotropy of CGST due to more fluorocarbon polymer deposition during CF4 etching. The trends of etch rates and roughness of CGST with varying RF power and chamber pressure are similar with those of GST. Furthermore, the etch rate of CGST are more easily to be saturated when higher RF power is applied.

  3. Comparison of meloxicam and a glucosamine-chondroitin supplement in management of feline osteoarthritis. A double-blind randomised, placebo-controlled, prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, R M; Chase, D; Parkin, T; Bennett, D

    2014-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of meloxicam and a glucosamine-chondroitin (Glu-Ch) supplement in the management of feline osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective, blinded, randomized clinical trial. Cats over eight years of age with clinical signs of chronic OA were assigned to one of two groups and Glu-Ch or meloxicam was administered orally for 70 days, followed by a placebo until day 98. Cats were assessed by a veterinarian on five occasions and the owner completed an assessment form at the same time. Data were collected from thirty cats. Pre-treatment disease scores were significantly higher in the meloxicam group for owner mobility (p=0.01) and veterinary lameness (p=0.02). Owner mobility scores at day 14 (p=0.01) and day 42 (p=0.002) were significantly improved compared to pre-treatment scores for the meloxicam group. When meloxicam and Glu-Ch were discontinued and the placebo commenced, a significant proportion of the meloxicam group showed worsening of all the owner-assessed scores between day 70 and day 98, when compared to the Glu-Ch group (mobility p=0.01; activity p=0.02; temperament p=0.04; lifestyle p=0.01). Treatment with meloxicam resulted in a significant improvement in mobility and activity levels of cats with OA until the placebo was introduced. A greater proportion of cats receiving meloxicam medication showed a significant worsening of owner assessment scores once the placed was introduced, when compared to the Glu-Ch group.

  4. Comparison of the Laryngeal Mask Airway (CTrachTM and Direct Coupled Interface-Video Laryngoscope for Endotracheal Intubation: a Prospective, Randomized, Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Toker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Video laryngoscopy was developed to facilitate tracheal intubation of difficult airways. We aimed to compare the efficacy of CTrach™ (CT and Direct Coupled Interface-Videolaryngoscope (DCI-VL in patients with normal airways. Material and Methods: Sixty ASA I–II (American Society of Anesthesiologists adult patients admitted for elective surgery were enrolled in this prospective study. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups, where intubation was performed via CT or DCI-VL. Time to obtain a good glottic view, total intubation time, success rates and the number of patients who required maneuvers for a good glottic view were recorded.Results: The mean time to obtaining a good glottic view was significantly longer with CT than with DCI-VL (29.4±20.3 seconds vs. 12.8±1.9 seconds, respectively; p=0.01. Intubation was achieved on the first attempt in 28 patients in the CT group (93.3% and in 24 in the DCI-VL group (80% (p=0.77. The total intubation time for CT was significantly longer compared to DCI-VL (99.9±36.0 seconds vs. 39.2±21.4 seconds, respectively; p=0.01. Optimization maneuvers were required in eight and two patients in the CT and DCI-VL groups, respectively (p=0.03.Conclusion: Although the normal airway endotracheal intubation success rates were similar in both groups, the time to obtain a good glottic view and the total intubation time were significantly shorter with DCI-VL.

  5. The Sigma-trial protocol: a prospective double-blind multi-centre comparison of laparoscopic versus open elective sigmoid resection in patients with symptomatic diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy Antonio M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Diverticulosis is a common disease in the western society with an incidence of 33–66%. 10–25% of these patients will develop diverticulitis. In order to prevent a high-risk acute operation it is advised to perform elective sigmoid resection after two episodes of diverticulitis in the elderly patient or after one episode in the younger ( Method Indication for elective resection is one episode of diverticulitis in patients 50 years or in case of progressive abdominal complaints due to strictures caused by a previous episode of diverticulits. The diagnosis is confirmed by CT-scan, barium enema and/or coloscopy. It is required that the participating surgeons have performed at least 15 laparoscopic and open sigmoid resections. Open resection is performed by median laparotomy, laparoscopic resection is approached by 4 or 5 cannula. Sigmoid and colon which contain serosal changes or induration are removed and a tension free anastomosis is created. After completion of either surgical procedure an opaque dressing will be used, covering from 10 cm above the umbilicus to the pubic bone. Surgery details will be kept separate from the patient's notes. Primary endpoints are the postoperative morbidity and mortality. We divided morbidity in minor (e.g. wound infection, major (e.g. anastomotic leakage and late (e.g. incisional hernias complications, data will be collected during hospital stay and after six weeks and six months postoperative. Secondary endpoints are the operative and the postoperative recovery data. Operative data include duration of the operation, blood loss and conversion to laparotomy. Post operative recovery consists of return to normal diet, pain, analgesics, general health (SF-36 questionnaire and duration of hospital stay. Discussion The Sigma-trial is a prospective, multi-center, double-blind, randomized study to define the role of laparoscopic sigmoid resection in patients with symptomatic diverticulitis.

  6. Comparison of EUS-guided tissue acquisition using two different 19-gauge core biopsy needles: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, and blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John; Cho, Chang-Min; Lin, Jingmei; Al-Haddad, Mohammad; Canto, Marcia Irene; Salamone, Ashley; Hruban, Ralph H; Messallam, Ahmed A; Khashab, Mouen A

    2015-10-01

    The optimal core biopsy needle for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is unknown. The principle aim of this study is to compare outcomes of EUS-fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) with a new 19-gauge EUS histology needle (ProCore, Cook Medical Inc., Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States) to a conventional 19-gauge Tru-Cut biopsy (EUS-TCB) needle (19G, Quick-Core, Cook Medical Inc.). Patients referred for EUS who require possible histologic biopsy were prospectively randomized to EUS-FNB or EUS-TCB. With the initial needle, ≤ 3 biopsies were obtained until either technical failure or an adequate core was obtained. Patients with suspected inadequate biopsies were crossed over to the other needle and similarly ≤ 3 passes were obtained until adequate cores or technical failure occurred. Technical success, diagnostic histology, accuracy and complication rates were evaluated. Eighty-five patients (mean 58 years; 43 male) were randomized to FNB (n = 44) and TCB (n = 41) with seven patients excluded. Procedure indication, biopsy site, mass size, number of passes, puncture site, overall technical success and adverse events were similar between the two groups. FNB specimens had a higher prevalence of diagnostic histology (85 % vs. 57 %; P = 0.006), accuracy (88 % vs. 62 %; P = 0.02), mean total length (19.4 vs. 4.3 mm; P = 0.001), mean complete portal triads from liver biopsies (10.4 vs. 1.3; P = 0.0004) and required fewer crossover biopsies compared to those of TCB (2 % vs. 65 %; P = 0.0001). Overall technical success and complication rates were comparable. EUS-FNB using a 19-gauge FNB needle is superior to 19-gauge EUS-TCB needle.

  7. Treatment of proximal humerus fractures with a CFR-PEEK plate: 2-year results of a prospective study and comparison to fixation with a conventional locking plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliemann, Benedikt; Hartensuer, Rene; Koch, Thorben; Theisen, Christina; Raschke, Michael J; Kösters, Clemens; Weimann, Andre

    2015-08-01

    A radiolucent carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) plate was recently introduced for fixation of proximal humerus fractures. Prospective clinical and radiographic results of patients treated with a CFR-PEEK plate are compared with those of patients treated with a conventional locking plate. Twenty-nine patients (mean age, 66 years) were treated with a CFR-PEEK plate for a 3- or 4-part proximal humerus fracture. Patients were clinically and radiographically re-examined at 6 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months with the Simple Shoulder Test, Constant-Murley score (CMS), and Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) as well as with simple radiographs. In addition, results were compared with a matched group of patients treated with a conventional locking plate. At the final follow-up examination at 24 months, patients achieved a mean Simple Shoulder Test score of 58%, a mean CMS of 71.3 points (range, 44-97), and a mean OSS of 27.4 points (range, 8-45). Bone union was confirmed in all patients. Compared with patients treated with the conventional locking plate, patients treated with the CFR-PEEK plate achieved significantly better results with regard to the CMS and the OSS (P = .038 and .029, respectively). Furthermore, loss of reduction with subsequent varus deformity was less frequently observed in the CFR-PEEK plate group. Fixation of proximal humerus fractures with a CFR-PEEK plate provides satisfying clinical and radiographic results after 2 years of follow-up. The results are comparable to those achieved with conventional locking plates. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The OnControl bone marrow biopsy technique is superior to the standard manual technique for hematologists-in-training: a prospective, randomized comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Juden Reed

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare a novel bone marrow device with the standard marrow needle in a prospective, randomized study in a teaching hospital employing hematologists- in-training. The new device, the OnControl Bone Marrow (OBM Biopsy System, utilizes a battery-powered drill to insert the needle. Fifty-four bone marrows (27 standard and 27 OBM were performed by 11 fellows under the observation and supervision of 3 attending hematologists and 1 research technologist. The primary endpoint of the study, the mean length of the marrow biopsy specimens, a surrogate for marrow quality, was determined by a pathologist in a blinded manner. The mean length of the marrow biopsy specimens was significantly longer (56% for the OBM group (15.3 mm than for the standard bone marrow (SBM group (9.8 mm, P<0.003. An objectively determined secondary endpoint; mean procedure time, skin-to-skin; also favored the OBM group (175 s versus the SBM group (292 s, P<0.007. Several subjective secondary endpoints also favored the OBM group. Only minor adverse events were encountered in the OBM and SBM study groups. It was concluded that bone marrow procedures (BMPs performed by hematologists- in-training were significantly faster and superior in quality when performed with the OBM compared to the SBM. These data suggest that the OBM may be considered a new standard of care for adult hematology patients. OBM also appears to be a superior method for training hematology fellows.

  9. Sub-milliSievert (sub-mSv) CT colonography: a prospective comparison of image quality and polyp conspicuity at reduced-dose versus standard-dose imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubner, Meghan G.; Pooler, B.D.; Kitchin, Douglas R.; Kim, David H.; Munoz del Rio, Alejandro; Pickhardt, Perry J. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, E3/311 Clinical Sciences Center, Departments of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Tang, Jie [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, E3/311 Clinical Sciences Center, Departments of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-07-15

    To prospectively compare reduced-dose (RD) CT colonography (CTC) with standard-dose (SD) imaging using several reconstruction algorithms. Following SD supine CTC, 40 patients (mean age, 57.3 years; 17 M/23 F; mean BMI, 27.2) underwent an additional RD supine examination (targeted dose reduction, 70-90 %). DLP, CTDI{sub vol}, effective dose, and SSDE were compared. Several reconstruction algorithms were applied to RD series. SD-FBP served as reference standard. Objective image noise, subjective image quality and polyp conspicuity were assessed. Mean CTDI{sub vol} and effective dose for RD series was 0.89 mGy (median 0.65) and 0.6 mSv (median 0.44), compared with 3.8 mGy (median 3.1) and 2.8 mSv (median 2.3) for SD series, respectively. Mean dose reduction was 78 %. Mean image noise was significantly reduced on RD-PICCS (24.3 ± 19HU) and RD-MBIR (19 ± 18HU) compared with RD-FBP (90 ± 33), RD-ASIR (72 ± 27) and SD-FBP (47 ± 14 HU). 2D image quality score was higher with RD-PICCS, RD-MBIR, and SD-FBP (2.7 ± 0.4/2.8 ± 0.4/2.9 ± 0.6) compared with RD-FBP (1.5 ± 0.4) and RD-ASIR (1.8 ± 0.44). A similar trend was seen with 3D image quality scores. Polyp conspicuity scores were similar between SD-FBP/RD-PICCS/RD-MBIR (3.5 ± 0.6/3.2 ± 0.8/3.3 ± 0.6). Sub-milliSievert CTC performed with iterative reconstruction techniques demonstrate decreased image quality compared to SD, but improved image quality compared to RD images reconstructed with FBP. (orig.)

  10. Molecular imaging with (99m)Tc-MIBI and molecular testing for mutations in differentiating benign from malignant follicular neoplasm: a prospective comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, L; Campenni, A; Treglia, G; Verburg, F A; Trimboli, P; Ceriani, L; Bongiovanni, M

    2016-06-01

    To compare mutation analysis of cytology specimens and (99m)Tc-MIBI thyroid scintigraphy for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules in patients with a cytological reading of follicular neoplasm. Patients ≥18 years of age with a solitary hypofunctioning thyroid nodule (≥10 mm), normal thyrotropin and calcitonin levels, and a cytological diagnosis of follicular neoplasm were prospectively enrolled. Mutation analysis and (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy were performed and patients were subsequently operated on to confirm or exclude a malignant lesion. Mutations for KRAS, HRAS and NRAS and for BRAF and translocations of PAX8/PPARγ, RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 were investigated. Static thyroid scintigraphic images were acquired 10 and 60 min after intravenous injection of 200 MBq of (99m)Tc-MIBI and visually assessed. Additionally, the MIBI washout index was calculated using a semiquantitative method. In our series, 26 % of nodules with a follicular pattern on cytology were malignant with a prevalence of follicular carcinomas. (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy was found to be significantly more accurate (positive likelihood ratio 4.56 for visual assessment and 12.35 for semiquantitative assessment) than mutation analysis (positive likelihood ratio 1.74). A negative (99m)Tc-MIBI scan reliably excluded malignancy. In patients with a thyroid nodule cytologically diagnosed as a follicular proliferation, semiquantitative analysis of (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy should be the preferred method for differentiating benign from malignant nodules. It is superior to molecular testing for the presence of differentiated thyroid cancer-associated mutations in fine-needle aspiration cytology sample material.

  11. Comparison of the bedside head impulse test with the video head impulse test in a clinical practice setting: a prospective study of 500 outpatients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Wai eYip

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The primary aim was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of the bedside head impulse test (bHIT using the video HIT (vHIT as the gold standard for quantifying the function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR. Secondary aims were to determine the bHIT inter-rater reliability, and sensitivity in detecting unilateral and bilateral vestibulopathy.Methods: In this prospective study, 500 consecutive outpatients presenting to a tertiary neuro-otology clinic with vertigo or dizziness of various vestibular etiologies who did not have any of the pre-defined exclusion criteria were recruited. Bedside HITs were done by three experienced neuro-otology clinicians masked to the diagnosis, and the results were compared with the vHIT. The patients were likewise blinded to the bHIT and vHIT findings. Patients with VOR deficits were identified on the vHIT by referencing to the pre-selected pathological gain of 40%, the bHIT sensitivity = 51.7% and 83%, respectively. For bilateral vestibulopathy, overall bHIT sensitivity = 66.3%, reaching 86.84% for severely reduced bidirectional gains.Conclusions: For the primary outcome, the bHIT had moderate sensitivity and low PPV. While the study did not elucidate the best choice for vHIT reference, it demonstrated how the bHIT test properties varied with vHIT thresholds: selecting a lower threshold improved the sensitivity but diminished the PPV, while a higher threshold had the opposite effect. The VOR was most likely normal if the bHIT was negative due to its high NPV. The bHIT was moderately sensitive for detecting unilateral and bilateral vestibulopathy overall, but better for certain subgroups.

  12. Comparison of kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty for treatment of painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: twelve-month follow-up in a prospective nonrandomized comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xigong; Yang, Huilin; Tang, Tiansi; Qian, Zhonglai; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Zhigang

    2012-05-01

    A prospective nonrandomized comparative study. To compare the efficacy and safety of kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty for treatment of painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) with respect to pain, functional outcome, radiomorphology, cement leakage, and incidence of new adjacent vertebral fracture. Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty have become common treatments for painful osteoporotic VCFs. Although the benefits of either kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with conservative treatment have been frequently discussed, few clinical studies are available that directly compare the 2 procedures. Ninety-six patients with painful osteoporotic VCFs less than 4 weeks old were included and nonrandomly assigned to undergo kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty treatment. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the visual analog scale and the Oswestry Disability Index. Plain radiographs were analyzed to quantify spinal deformity correction (vertebral body height and kyphotic angle), and evaluate cement leakage and new adjacent vertebral fractures. The follow-up time was 12 months. The baseline clinical and radiological characteristics of both groups were comparable. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to improvement in pain and functional scores at all postoperative intervals. Vertebral height restoration and kyphotic angle reduction were achieved in both groups, but the correction of spinal deformity was more significant in the kyphoplasty group. Asymptomatic cement leakage occurred in 9.1% and 34.6% of treated vertebrae for the kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty groups, respectively. Three adjacent fractures in the kyphoplasty group and 2 in the vertebroplasty group were identified during the follow-up time, and no major adverse events were observed. Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty demonstrated similar good clinical outcomes during the 12-month follow-up. Kyphoplasty offers a higher degree of spinal deformity correction and results in

  13. TiLoop® Bra mesh used for immediate breast reconstruction: comparison of retropectoral and subcutaneous implant placement in a prospective single-institution series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Donato; Bernini, Marco; Bencini, Lapo; Roselli, Jenny; Lacaria, Maria Teresa; Martellucci, Jacopo; Banfi, Roberto; Calabrese, Claudio; Orzalesi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Immediate implant reconstruction after a conservative mastectomy is an attractive option made easier by prosthetic devices. Titanized polypropylene meshes are used as a hammock to cover the lower lateral implant pole. We conducted a prospective nonrandomized single-institution study of reconstructions using titanium-coated meshes either in a standard muscular mesh pocket or in a complete subcutaneous approach. The complete subcutaneous approach means to wrap an implant with titanized mesh in order to position the implant subcutaneously and spare muscles. Between November 2011 and January 2014, we performed immediate implant breast reconstructions after conservative mastectomies using TiLoop® Bra, either with the standard retropectoral or with a prepectoral approach. Selection criteria included only women with normal Body Mass Index (BMI), no large and very ptotic breasts, no history of smoking, no diabetes, and no previous radiotherapy. We analyzed short-term outcomes of such procedures and compared the outcomes to evaluate implant losses and surgical complications. A total of 73 mastectomies were performed. Group 1 comprised 29 women, 5 bilateral procedures, 34 reconstructions, using the standard muscular mesh pocket. Group 2 comprised 34 women, 5 bilateral procedures, 39 reconstructions with the prepectoral subcutaneous technique. Baseline and oncologic characteristics were homogeneous between the two groups. After a median follow-up period of 13 and 12 months, respectively, no implant losses were recorded in group 1, and one implant loss was recorded in group 2. We registered three surgical complications in group 1 and two surgical complications in group 2. Titanium-coated polypropylene meshes, as a tool for immediate definitive implant breast reconstruction, resulted as safe and effective in a short-term analysis, both for a retropectoral and a totally subcutaneous implant placement. Long-term results are forthcoming. A strict selection is mandatory to

  14. IMPaCT Back study protocol. Implementation of subgrouping for targeted treatment systems for low back pain patients in primary care: a prospective population-based sequential comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Nadine E; Mullis, Ricky; Young, Julie; Doyle, Carol; Lewis, Martyn; Whitehurst, David; Hay, Elaine M

    2010-08-20

    Prognostic assessment tools to identify subgroups of patients at risk of persistent low back pain who may benefit from targeted treatments have been developed and validated in primary care. The IMPaCT Back study is investigating the effects of introducing and supporting a subgrouping for targeted treatment system in primary care. A prospective, population-based, quality improvement study in one Primary Care Trust in England with a before and after design. Phases 1 and 3 collect data on current practice, attitudes and behaviour of health care practitioners, patients' outcomes and health care costs. Phase 2 introduces and supports the subgrouping for targeted treatment system, via a multi-component, quality improvement intervention that includes educational courses and outreach visits led by opinion leaders, audit/feedback, mentoring and organisational support to embed the subgrouping tools within IT and clinical management systems.We aim to recruit 1000 low back pain patients aged 18 years and over consulting 7 GP practices within one Primary Care Trust in England, UK. The study includes GPs in participating practices and physiotherapists in associated services. The primary objective is to determine the effect of the subgrouping for targeted treatment system on back pain related disability and catastrophising at 2 and 6 months, comparing data from phase 1 with phase 3. Key secondary objectives are to determine the impact on: a) GPs' and physiotherapists' attitudes and behaviour regarding low back pain; b) The process of care that patients receive; c) The cost-effectiveness and sustainability of the new clinical system. This paper details the rationale, design, methods, planned analysis and operational aspects of the IMPaCT Back study. We aim to determine whether the new subgrouping for targeted treatment system is implemented and sustained in primary care, and evaluate its impact on clinical decision-making, patient outcomes and costs. International Standard

  15. IMPaCT Back study protocol. Implementation of subgrouping for targeted treatment systems for low back pain patients in primary care: a prospective population-based sequential comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Nadine E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognostic assessment tools to identify subgroups of patients at risk of persistent low back pain who may benefit from targeted treatments have been developed and validated in primary care. The IMPaCT Back study is investigating the effects of introducing and supporting a subgrouping for targeted treatment system in primary care. Methods/Design A prospective, population-based, quality improvement study in one Primary Care Trust in England with a before and after design. Phases 1 and 3 collect data on current practice, attitudes and behaviour of health care practitioners, patients' outcomes and health care costs. Phase 2 introduces and supports the subgrouping for targeted treatment system, via a multi-component, quality improvement intervention that includes educational courses and outreach visits led by opinion leaders, audit/feedback, mentoring and organisational support to embed the subgrouping tools within IT and clinical management systems. We aim to recruit 1000 low back pain patients aged 18 years and over consulting 7 GP practices within one Primary Care Trust in England, UK. The study includes GPs in participating practices and physiotherapists in associated services. The primary objective is to determine the effect of the subgrouping for targeted treatment system on back pain related disability and catastrophising at 2 and 6 months, comparing data from phase 1 with phase 3. Key secondary objectives are to determine the impact on: a GPs' and physiotherapists' attitudes and behaviour regarding low back pain; b The process of care that patients receive; c The cost-effectiveness and sustainability of the new clinical system. Discussion This paper details the rationale, design, methods, planned analysis and operational aspects of the IMPaCT Back study. We aim to determine whether the new subgrouping for targeted treatment system is implemented and sustained in primary care, and evaluate its impact on clinical decision

  16. TU-FG-201-11: Evaluating the Validity of Prospective Risk Analysis Methods: A Comparison of Traditional FMEA and Modified Healthcare FMEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lah, J [Myongji Hospital, Goyang-si (Korea, Republic of); Manger, R; Kim, G [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To examine the ability of traditional Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) and a light version of Healthcare FMEA (HFMEA), called Scenario analysis of FMEA (SAFER) by comparing their outputs in terms of the risks identified and their severity rankings. Methods: We applied two prospective methods of the quality management to surface image guided, linac-based radiosurgery (SIG-RS). For the traditional FMEA, decisions on how to improve an operation are based on risk priority number (RPN). RPN is a product of three indices: occurrence, severity and detectability. The SAFER approach; utilized two indices-frequency and severity-which were defined by a multidisciplinary team. A criticality matrix was divided into 4 categories; very low, low, high and very high. For high risk events, an additional evaluation was performed. Based upon the criticality of the process, it was decided if additional safety measures were needed and what they comprise. Results: Two methods were independently compared to determine if the results and rated risks were matching or not. Our results showed an agreement of 67% between FMEA and SAFER approaches for the 15 riskiest SIG-specific failure modes. The main differences between the two approaches were the distribution of the values and the failure modes (No.52, 54, 154) that have high SAFER scores do not necessarily have high FMEA RPN scores. In our results, there were additional risks identified by both methods with little correspondence. In the SAFER, when the risk score is determined, the basis of the established decision tree or the failure mode should be more investigated. Conclusion: The FMEA method takes into account the probability that an error passes without being detected. SAFER is inductive because it requires the identification of the consequences from causes, and semi-quantitative since it allow the prioritization of risks and mitigation measures, and thus is perfectly applicable to clinical parts of radiotherapy.

  17. Postoperative Sore Throat Prevention in Ambulatory Surgery: A Comparison between Preoperative Aspirin and Magnesium Sulfate Gargle - A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Das, Anjan; Nandy, Sabyasachi; RoyBasunia, Sandip; Mitra, Tapobrata; Halder, Partha Sarathi; Chhaule, Subinay; Mandal, Subrata Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative sore throat (POST) frequently hampers the positive feedback of ambulatory surgery in spite of so many measures. This study was carried out to compare the efficacy of preoperative magnesium sulfate and aspirin gargle in preventing POST after ambulatory surgery. It was a prospective, randomized, and double-blinded study. Fifty-six adult patients of either sex, aged 25-50, of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II, scheduled for day care surgery, were randomly allocated to Group A ([n = 28] receiving aspirin gargle [325 mg tablet]) and Group M ([n = 28] receiving magnesium sulfate [20 mg/kg] gargle). In both groups, the medications were made into 20 mL of (5% dextrose) solution. Patients were asked to gargle with this mixture for 30 s, 15 min before induction of anesthesia. Episodes of POST were measured at 0, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 16 h postoperatively with a four-point scale. Both groups had a similar demographic profile with comparable oxygen saturation, hemodynamics, and consciousness status at immediate postoperative period. Number of patients with sore throat was significantly lower in magnesium group compared to aspirin group at 0 h (P = 0.0376), 2 h (P = 0.0429), 4 h (P = 0.0394) after the operation. POST pain score (visual analog scale) was significantly (P magnesium group compared to aspirin group after the operation at 0, 2, 4 h after operation. It is evident that preoperative magnesium sulfate gargle significantly attenuated the incidence and severity of POST, especially in the early postoperative period, with no adverse effects in patients undergoing day care surgery under general anesthesia.

  18. Prospective, randomized, controlled comparison of SYSTANE UD eye drops versus VISINE INTENSIV 1% EDO eye drops for the treatment of moderate dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Christina; Kruse, Friedrich E; Cursiefen, Claus

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized, clinical, single-center study was to compare the safety and efficacy of 2 ocular surface lubricant eye drops: preservative-free hydroxypropyl (HP)-Guar (SYSTANE UD(®)) eye drops versus preservative-free Tamarindus indica seed polysaccharide (TSP) 1% (VISINE INTENSIV 1% EDO(®)) eye drops. Fifty-six eyes of 28 patients with moderate keratoconjunctivitis sicca (DEWS severity level 2) were enrolled in the trial. Patients were randomized for 2 treatment groups (SYSTANE UD eye drops vs. VISINE INTENSIV 1% EDO eye drops). The eye drops in both groups were applied 5 times per day for 3 months. Statistical analyses were performed using Statistica™ software (Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon test). P-Values<0.05 were considered significant. After 3 months of treatment the patients of both groups had subjective benefit in the relief of symptoms of dry eye disease evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire score. Patients treated with HP-Guar and TSP showed improvements in tear film stability measured by tear break-up time (TBUT), which are statistically significant in the HP-Guar group (P=0.02). The results of this clinical trial show improvements of symptoms and signs in patients with moderate dry eye after the consistent use of preservative-free HP-Guar and TSP lubricant eye drops. Both artificial tear formulations produce amelioration in tear film stability improving eye conditions and patient quality of life. HP-Guar seems to be slightly more effective in improving ocular surface protection by decreasing tear film evaporation.

  19. Prospective evaluation of 68Ga-DOTA-NOC PET-CT in patients with recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma: comparison with 18F-FDG PET-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naswa, Niraj; Sharma, Punit; Suman Kc, Sudhir; Lata, Sneh; Kumar, Rakesh; Malhotra, Arun; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2012-07-01

    To prospectively evaluate the role of Ga-labelled [1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI-octreotide (Ga-DOTA-NOC) PET-CT in patients with recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and compare the same with F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET-CT. Fifty-two consecutive patients with recurrent MTC based on raised serum calcitonin levels underwent Ga-DOTA-NOC PET-CT. In addition, 41 patients also underwent F-FDG PET-CT. PET-CT images were evaluated by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians both qualitatively and quantitatively (standardized uptake value). Histopathology (when available), correlation with conventional imaging modalities (ultrasonography/CT/MRI) and subsequent clinical/imaging follow-up were used as reference standard. Serum calcitonin levels were correlated with findings of PET-CT. Overall, Ga-DOTA-NOC PET-CT showed a sensitivity of 80.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 67.4-90.3] and a positive predictive value of 100% (95% CI 91.5-100) for detecting recurrent MTC. When both were available (n=41), Ga-DOTA-NOC PET-CT proved superior to F-FDG PET-CT with a higher sensitivity (75.61 vs. 63.4%). However, the difference was statistically not significant (P=0.179). Ga-DOTA-NOC PET-CT was superior to F-FDG PET-CT for detecting recurrence in cervical lymph nodes (PNOC or F-FDG PET-CT. Both Ga-DOTA-NOC PET-CT and F-FDG PET-CT are able to localize disease recurrence in patients with MTC, and their role appears to be complementary for this purpose.

  20. Comparison of the health-related quality of life in patients with narrow gastric tube and whole stomach reconstruction after oncologic esophagectomy: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M; Wu, Q C; Li, Q; Jiang, Y J; Zhang, C; Chen, D

    2013-01-01

    To compare the health-related quality of life in patients with narrow gastric tube and whole stomach reconstructions after oncologic esophagectomy. In a prospective randomized single-center study from 2007 to 2008, 104 patients underwent esophagectomy for cancer. To assess health-related quality of life, the questionnaire (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 and the Oesophagus-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire 18) was administered at 3 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery. The perioperative complication rate was 26.9% in narrow gastric tube group and 48.1% in whole stomach group (P = 0.31). At the time of 3 weeks after surgery, the reflux and dyspnea scores were higher in whole stomach group than in narrow gastric tube group, which meant that the patients in whole stomach group suffered more severe problem. At the time of 6 months and 1 year after surgery, the reflux scores were lower in narrow gastric tube group than in whole stomach group, which revealed that there were less problems of reflux in the patients of narrow gastric tube group; meanwhile, the score of physical function scale in narrow gastric tube group was higher conversely, which suggested that the patients gain a better status in physical function. Nausea and vomiting is the only notable symptom that was worse in whole stomach group at the time of 2 years after surgery, which suggested that patients in whole stomach group suffered more severe nausea and vomiting. Narrow gastric tube reconstruction may be a good alternative choice for patients undergoing oncologic esophagectomy in view of better health-related quality of life after the surgery.

  1. Comparison of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and iRoot BP Plus Root Repair Material as Root-end Filling Materials in Endodontic Microsurgery: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zheng, Qinghua; Tan, Xuelian; Song, Dongzhe; Zhang, Lan; Huang, Dingming

    2017-01-01

    This prospective randomized controlled study evaluated the clinical and radiographic outcome of endodontic microsurgery when using iRoot BP Plus Root Repair Material (BP-RRM; Innovative BioCeramix Inc, Vancouver, BC, Canada) or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as the retrograde filling material and analyzed the relationship between some potential prognostic factors and the outcome of the surgery. By using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, 240 teeth were successfully enrolled and randomly and equally allocated to either the MTA or BP-RRM treatment group. A standardized surgical procedure was performed by a single operator. The patients were followed up at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months; follow-up included clinical and radiographic examination. Clinical and radiographic evaluations acquired at the 12-month follow-up were taken as the primary outcome. For the identification of prognostic factors, the dichotomous outcome (success vs failure) was taken as the dependent variable. A total of 158 teeth were analyzed at the 12-month follow-up, including 87 teeth in the MTA group and 71 teeth in the BP-RRM group. The success rate in the MTA and BP-RRM groups was 93.1% (81/87 teeth) and 94.4% (67/71 teeth), respectively (P > .05). Three significant outcome predictors were identified: quality of root filling (P MTA in clinical outcome when used as root-end filling materials in endodontic microsurgery. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor after small incision lenticule extraction and femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK: a prospective fellow eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agca, Alper; Ozgurhan, Engin Bilge; Demirok, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Ercument; Celik, Ugur; Ozkaya, Abdullah; Cankaya, Ilker; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk

    2014-04-01

    To compare corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) between eyes treated with small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (femto-LASIK). Beyoğlu Eye Training and Research Hospital. Prospective comparative case series. Sixty eyes from 30 patients with bilateral myopia or myopic astigmatism were studied. Inclusion criteria were spherical equivalent of subjective manifest refraction (SE) <10diopters (D) and a difference ≤0.50D between the SEs of both eyes. One eye of each patient was treated with SMILE, and the fellow eye underwent femto-LASIK. Randomization was performed using a sealed envelope system. The main outcome measures were CH and CRF measured preoperatively and postoperatively (1 and 6 months). Preoperative SE was similar in both groups (p=0.852). CH and CRF values were reduced postoperatively in both groups compared to their corresponding preoperative values (p<0.001). At the 6-month follow-up visit, the mean CH values in the SMILE and femto-LASIK groups were 8.95±1.47 and 9.02±1.27, respectively (p=0.852), and the mean CRF values were 7.77±1.37 and 8.07±1.26, respectively (p=0.380). CH and CRF decreased after SMILE. There were no differences between SMILE and femto-LASIK treatments in postoperative CH or CRF values. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of minimally invasive spine surgery using intraoperative computed tomography integrated navigation, fluoroscopy, and conventional open surgery for lumbar spondylolisthesis: a prospective registry-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Huang; Dubey, Navneet Kumar; Li, Yen-Yao; Lee, Ching-Yu; Cheng, Chin-Chang; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Huang, Tsung-Jen

    2017-08-01

    To date, the surgical approaches for the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis by transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) using minimally invasive spine surgery assisted with intraoperative computed tomography image-integrated navigation (MISS-iCT), fluoroscopy (MISS-FS), and conventional open surgery (OS) are debatable. This study compared TLIF using MISS-iCT, MISS-FS, and OS for treatment of one-level lumbar spondylolisthesis. This is a prospective, registry-based cohort study that compared surgical approaches for patients who underwent surgical treatment for one-level lumbar spondylolisthesis. One hundred twenty-four patients from January 2010 to March 2012 in a medical center were recruited. The outcome measures were clinical assessments, including Short-Form 12, visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index, Core Outcome Measurement Index, and patient satisfaction, and blood loss, hospital stay, operation time, postoperative pedicle screw accuracy, and superior-level facet violation. All surgeries were performed by two senior surgeons together. Ninety-nine patients (40M, 59F) who had at least 2 years' follow-up were divided into three groups according to the operation methods: MISS-iCT (N=24), MISS-FS (N=23), and OS (N=52) groups. Charts and surgical records along with postoperative CT images were assessed. MISS-iCT and MISS-FS demonstrated a significantly lowered blood loss and hospital stay compared with OS group (p2 mm) was found. However, a lower superior-level facet violation rate was observed in the MISS-iCT and OS groups (p=.049). MISS-iCT TLIF demonstrated reduced operation time, blood loss, superior-level facet violation, hospital stay, and improved functional outcomes compared with the MISS-FS and OS approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Whole-body MRI for initial staging of paediatric lymphoma: prospective comparison to an FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littooij, Annemieke S. [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Singapore (Singapore); Kwee, Thomas C.; Vermoolen, Malou A.; Keizer, Bart de; Beek, Frederik J.A.; Hobbelink, Monique G.; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Barber, Ignasi; Enriquez, Goya [Hospital Materno-Infantil Vall d' Hebron, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Giannina Gaslini Hospital, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Zsiros, Jozsef [University of Amsterdam, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Soh, Shui Yen [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Haematology and Oncology service, Department of Paediatric Subspecialities, Singapore (Singapore); Bierings, Marc B. [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Haematology-Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    To compare whole-body MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging (whole-body MRI-DWI), with FDG-PET/CT for staging newly diagnosed paediatric lymphoma. A total of 36 children with newly diagnosed lymphoma prospectively underwent both whole-body MRI-DWI and FDG-PET/CT. Whole-body MRI-DWI was successfully performed in 33 patients (mean age 13.9 years). Whole-body MRI-DWI was independently evaluated by two blinded observers. After consensus reading, an unblinded expert panel evaluated the discrepant findings between whole-body MRI-DWI and FDG-PET/CT and used bone marrow biopsy, other imaging data and clinical information to derive an FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard. Interobserver agreement of whole-body MRI-DWI was good [all nodal sites together (κ = 0.79); all extranodal sites together (κ = 0.69)]. There was very good agreement between the consensus whole-body MRI-DWI- and FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard for nodal (κ = 0.91) and extranodal (κ = 0.94) staging. The sensitivity and specificity of consensus whole-body MRI-DWI were 93 % and 98 % for nodal staging and 89 % and 100 % for extranodal staging, respectively. Following removal of MRI reader errors, the disease stage according to whole-body MRI-DWI agreed with the reference standard in 28 of 33 patients. Our results indicate that whole-body MRI-DWI is feasible for staging paediatric lymphoma and could potentially serve as a good radiation-free alternative to FDG-PET/CT. (orig.)

  5. A prospective nonrandomized comparison of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication in Indian population using detailed objective and subjective criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawanindra Lal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD worldwide. However, unfavourable postoperative sequel, including gas bloat and dysphagia, has encouraged surgeons to perform alternative procedures such as laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LTF. This prospective nonrandomized study was designed to compare LNF with LTF in patients with GERD. Materials and Methods: Hundred and ten patients symptomatic for GERD were included in the study after having received intensive acid suppression therapy for a minimum of 8 weeks. A 24-hour pH metry was done on all patients. Fifty patients having reflux on 24-hour pH metry were taken up for the surgery. Patients were further divided into group-A (LNF and group-B (LTF. Results: The median percentage time with esophageal pH < 4 decreased from 10.18% and 12.31% preoperatively to 0.85% and 1.94% postoperatively in LNF and LTF-groups, respectively. There was a significant and comparable increase in length of lower esophageal sphincter (LES, length of intraabdominal part of LES and LES pressure at respiratory inversion point in both the groups. In LNF-group, five patients had early dysphagia that improved afterwards. There were no significant postoperative complications. Conclusion: LNF and LTF are highly effective in the management of GERD with significant improvement in symptoms and objective parameters. LNF may be associated with significantly higher incidence of short onset transient dysphagia that improves with time. Patients in both the groups showed excellent symptom and objective control on 24-hour pH metry on short term follow-up.

  6. A prospective comparison between auto-registration and manual registration of real-time ultrasound with MR images for percutaneous ablation or biopsy of hepatic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong Ik; Lee, Min Woo; Song, Kyoung Doo; Oh, Young-Taek; Jeong, Ja-Yeon; Chang, Jung-Woo; Ryu, Jiwon; Lee, Kyong Joon; Kim, Jaeil; Bang, Won-Chul; Shin, Dong Kuk; Choi, Sung Jin; Koh, Dalkwon; Seo, Bong Koo; Kim, Kyunga

    2017-06-01

    To compare the accuracy and required time for image fusion of real-time ultrasound (US) with pre-procedural magnetic resonance (MR) images between positioning auto-registration and manual registration for percutaneous radiofrequency ablation or biopsy of hepatic lesions. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and all patients gave written informed consent. Twenty-two patients (male/female, n = 18/n = 4; age, 61.0 ± 7.7 years) who were referred for planning US to assess the feasibility of radiofrequency ablation (n = 21) or biopsy (n = 1) for focal hepatic lesions were included. One experienced radiologist performed the two types of image fusion methods in each patient. The performance of auto-registration and manual registration was evaluated. The accuracy of the two methods, based on measuring registration error, and the time required for image fusion for both methods were recorded using in-house software and respectively compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Image fusion was successful in all patients. The registration error was not significantly different between the two methods (auto-registration: median, 3.75 mm; range, 1.0-15.8 mm vs. manual registration: median, 2.95 mm; range, 1.2-12.5 mm, p = 0.242). The time required for image fusion was significantly shorter with auto-registration than with manual registration (median, 28.5 s; range, 18-47 s, vs. median, 36.5 s; range, 14-105 s, p = 0.026). Positioning auto-registration showed promising results compared with manual registration, with similar accuracy and even shorter registration time.

  7. Motivations for (nonparticipation in population-based health studies among the elderly – comparison of participants and nonparticipants of a prospective study on influenza vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas K. Akmatov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Participation in epidemiological studies has strongly declined in recent years. We examined the reasons for (nonparticipation in population-based health studies among participants and nonparticipants of a prospective study on influenza vaccination among the elderly. Methods Males and females between 65 and 80 years of age (N = 5582 were randomly selected from the residents’ registration office in Hannover, Germany, and were invited to participate in a study featuring vaccination with a seasonal adjuvanted influenza vaccine (Fluad™, Novartis including five follow-up visits (day 0, 1/3, 7, 21, 70 with respect to vaccination. A 24-item nonresponder questionnaire, including 10 items on reasons for participating in a hypothetical health study, was mailed to 1500 randomly selected nonparticipants. The same 10 items were included in the end-of-study questionnaire administered to the participants in the vaccination study (n = 200. Logistic regression analysis with backward elimination was used to identify the reasons most strongly associated with nonparticipation. Results Five hundred thirty-one (35% nonparticipants and 200 participants (100% returned the respective questionnaires. Nonparticipation was associated with a lower interest in obtaining personal health information (OR = 3.32 and a preference for less invasive (OR = 3.01 and less time-demanding (OR = 2.19 studies. Responses to other items, e.g. regarding altruistic motives, monetary compensation, general interest of the study, or study approval through ethics committee and data security authority, did not differ between participants and nonparticipants. Conclusions Participation rates in health studies among elderly individuals could potentially be improved by reducing interventions and time demand, for instance by implementing methods of self-sampling and remote data collection. Trial registration No. 1100359 (ClinicalTrials.gov, date of

  8. Whole-body MRI for the detection of bone marrow involvement in lymphoma: prospective study in 116 patients and comparison with FDG-PET

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    Adams, Hugo J.A.; Kwee, Thomas C.; Vermoolen, Malou A.; Keizer, Bart de; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Klerk, John M.H. de [Meander Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Adam, Judit A. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fijnheer, Rob [Meander Medical Center, Department of Hematology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Kersten, Marie Jose [Academic Medical Center, Department of Hematology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stoker, Jaap [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    To assess and compare the value of whole-body MRI with FDG-PET for detecting bone marrow involvement in lymphoma. A total of 116 patients with newly diagnosed lymphoma prospectively underwent whole-body MRI and blind bone marrow biopsy (BMB) of the posterior iliac crest. Of 116 patients, 80 also underwent FDG-PET. Patient-based sensitivities of whole-body MRI for detecting bone marrow involvement were calculated using BMB as reference standard and compared with FDG-PET in aggressive and indolent lymphomas separately. Sensitivity of whole-body MRI in all lymphomas was 45.5 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 29.8-62.0 %]. Sensitivity of whole-body MRI in aggressive lymphoma [88.9 % (95 % CI: 54.3-100 %)] was significantly higher (P = 0.0029) than that in indolent lymphoma [23.5 % (95 % CI: 9.1-47.8 %)]. Sensitivity of FDG-PET in aggressive lymphoma [83.3 % (95 % CI: 41.8-98.9 %)] was also significantly higher (P = 0.026) than that in indolent lymphoma [12.5 % (95 % CI: 0-49.2 %)]. There were no significant differences in sensitivity between whole-body MRI and FDG-PET (P = 1.00) Sensitivity of whole-body MRI for detecting lymphomatous bone marrow involvement is too low to (partially) replace BMB. Sensitivity of whole-body MRI is significantly higher in aggressive lymphoma than in indolent lymphoma and is equal to FDG-PET in both entities. (orig.)

  9. Which method is more effective in treatment of calcific tendinitis in the shoulder? Prospective randomized comparison between ultrasound-guided needling and extracorporeal shock wave therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang-Soo; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Yoon-vin; Kong, Chae-Gwan

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided needling with subacromial corticosteroid injection is more effective than extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for function restoration and pain relief in patients with calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. Fifty-four patients diagnosed with unilateral painful calcific tendinitis were randomly allocated to a US needling or ESWT group. The US needling group underwent US-guided needling and received a subacromial corticosteroid injection. The ESWT group received ESWT 3 times a week. All patients were prospectively evaluated; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Simple Shoulder Test, and visual analog scale for pain scores were recorded before the procedure and at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, and the last follow-up. The size and morphology of the deposits were evaluated by radiography. The average follow-up period was 23.0 months. At last follow-up, the mean size of the deposits was significantly different between the 2 groups (P = .001); it decreased to 0.5 mm from 14.8 mm in the US needling group and to 5.6 mm from 11.0 mm in the ESWT group. There were also significant improvements in clinical outcomes in both groups after treatment (P .05). Both treatment modalities for calcific tendinitis improved clinical outcomes and eliminated calcium deposits. US-guided needling treatment, however, was more effective in function restoration and pain relief in the short term. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prospective Side by Side Comparison of Outcomes and Complications With a Simple Versus Intensive Anticoagulation Monitoring Strategy in Pediatric Extracorporeal Life Support Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jane S; Barbaro, Ryan P; Granoski, Donald A; Bauman, Mary E; Massicotte, M Patricia; Lequier, Laurance L; Annich, Gail M; Ryerson, Lindsay M

    2017-11-01

    A continuous infusion of unfractionated heparin is the most common anticoagulant used for pediatric patients on extracorporeal life support. The objective of this study was to compare extracorporeal life support complications and outcomes between two large-volume pediatric extracorporeal life support centers that use different anticoagulation strategies. Prospective, observational cohort study. The University of Michigan used simple anticoagulation monitoring, whereas the University of Alberta used an intensive anticoagulation monitoring strategy. Pediatric patients on extracorporeal life support. None. The primary outcome measure was major bleeding per extracorporeal life support run defined as bleeding that was retroperitoneal, pulmonary, or involved the CNS; bleeding greater than 20 mL/kg over 24 hours; or bleeding that required surgical intervention. Secondary outcomes measured were patient thrombosis per run, circuit thrombosis per run, and survival to hospital discharge per patient. Eighty-eight patients (95 runs) less than 18 years old were enrolled at the two centers over 2 years. The two centers enrolled different extracorporeal life support populations; University of Alberta enrolled more postcardiac surgical patients (74% vs 47%; p = 0.005). The indication for extracorporeal life support support also varied by center (p = 0.04). The two centers used similar proportions of VA extracorporeal life support (p = 0.3). Median (interquartile range) unfractionated heparin doses were similar between University of Michigan and University of Alberta, 30 (21-34) U/kg/hr and 26 (22-31) U/kg/hr, p value equals to 0.3, respectively. Median (interquartile range) antifactor Xa was lower in the University of Michigan cohort (0.23 [0.19-0.28] vs 0.41 [0.36-0.46] U/mL; p strategies.

  11. Prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus in the first trimester, comparison of fasting plasma glucose, two-step and one-step methods: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeral, M Ilkin; Ozgu-Erdinc, A Seval; Uygur, Dilek; Seckin, K Doga; Karsli, M Fatih; Danisman, A Nuri

    2014-08-01

    Our aim was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of three methods commonly used for GDM screening: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), two-step 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT), and 75 g glucose tolerance test (GTT) in a randomized study design to predict GDM in the first trimester and determine the best approach in predicting GDM. In a non-blind, parallel-group prospective randomized controlled study; 736 singleton pregnant women underwent FPG testing in the first trimester and randomly assigned to two groups; two-step 50 g GCT and 75 g GTT. GDM diagnosis was made according to Carpenter-Coustan or ADA (American Diabetes Association) criteria in two-step 50 g GCT and 75 g GTT groups, respectively. Subsequent testing was performed by two-step 50 g GCT at 24-28 weeks for screen negatives. After excluding the women who were lost to follow-up or withdrawn as a result of pregnancy loss, 486 pregnant women were recruited in the study. The FPG, two-step GCT, and one-step GTT methods identified GDM in 25/486 (5.1 %), 15/248 (6.0 %), and 27/238 (11.3 %) women, respectively. Area under ROC curves were 0.623, 0.708, and 0.792, respectively. Sensitivities were 47.17, 68.18, and 87.1 %, respectively. Specificities were 77.37, 100, and 100 %, respectively. Positive predictive values were 20.33, 100, and 100 %, respectively. Negative predictive values were 92.29, 97, and 98.1 %, respectively. Until superior screening alternatives become available, the 75 g GTT may be preferred for GDM screening in the first trimester.

  12. Comparison of 2 resident learning tools-interactive screen-based simulated case scenarios versus problem-based learning discussions: a prospective quasi-crossover cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Shobana; Khanna, Ashish; Argalious, Maged; Kimatian, Stephen J; Mascha, Edward J; Makarova, Natalya; Nada, Eman M; Elsharkawy, Hesham; Firoozbakhsh, Farhad; Avitsian, Rafi

    2016-02-01

    Simulation-based learning is emerging as an alternative educational tool in this era of a relative shortfall of teaching anesthesiologists. The objective of the study is to assess whether screen-based (interactive computer simulated) case scenarios are more effective than problem-based learning discussions (PBLDs) in improving test scores 4 and 8 weeks after these interventions in anesthesia residents during their first neuroanesthesia rotation. Prospective, nonblinded quasi-crossover study. Cleveland Clinic. Anesthesiology residents. Two case scenarios were delivered from the Anesoft software as screen-based sessions, and parallel scripts were developed for 2 PBLDs. Each resident underwent both types of training sessions, starting with the PBLD session, and the 2 cases were alternated each month (ie, in 1 month, the screen-based intervention used case 1 and the PBLD used case 2, and vice versa for the next month). Test scores before the rotation (baseline), immediately after the rotation (4 weeks after the start of the rotation), and 8 weeks after the start of rotation were collected on each topic from each resident. The effect of training method on improvement in test scores was assessed using a linear mixed-effects model. Compared to the departmental standard of PBLD, the simulation method did not improve either the 4- or 8-week mean test scores (P = .41 and P = .40 for training method effect on 4- and 8-week scores, respectively). Resident satisfaction with the simulation module on a 5-point Likert scale showed subjective evidence of a positive impact on resident education. Screen-based simulators were not more effective than PBLD for education during the neuroanesthesia rotation in anesthesia residency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immediate and long-term relationship between severe maternal morbidity and health-related quality of life: a prospective double cohort comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Noor Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the growing interest in severe maternal morbidity (SMM, the need to assess its effects on quality of life is pressing. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of life scores between women with and without SMM at 1-month and 6-month postpartum in Kelantan, Malaysia. Methods A prospective double cohort study design was applied at two tertiary referral hospitals over a 6-month period. The study population included all postpartum women who delivered in 2014. Postpartum women with and without SMM were selected as the exposed and non-exposed groups, respectively. For each exposed case identified, a non-exposed case with a similar mode of delivery was selected. The main outcome measures used were scores from the Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12. Results The study measured 145 exposed and 187 non-exposed women. The group-time interaction of the repeated measure analysis of variance (RM ANOVA showed no significant difference in the mean overall SF-12 physical component summary score changes (P = 0.534 between women with and without SMM. Similarly, the group-time interaction of the RM ANOVA showed no significant difference in the mean overall SF-12 mental component summary score changes (P = 0.674 between women with and without SMM. However, women with SMM scored significantly lower on a general health perceptions subscale at 1-month (P = 0.031, role limitations due to physical health subscale at 6-month (P = 0.019, vitality subscale at 1-month (P = 0.007 and 6-month (P = 0.008, and role limitations due to emotional problems subscales at 6-month (P = 0.008. Conclusions Women with severe maternal morbidity demonstrated comparable quality of life during the 6-month postpartum period compared to women without severe maternal morbidity.

  14. Comparison of the effect of two endodontic irrigation protocols on the elimination of bacteria from root canal system: a prospective, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beus, Christopher; Safavi, Kamran; Stratton, Jeffrey; Kaufman, Blythe

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized clinical study was to compare the results of a nonactivated single-irrigation protocol (NAI) that used only 1% NaOCl with a passive ultrasonic multi-irrigation protocol (PUI) that used 1% NaOCl, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and 2% chlorhexidine in rendering canals bacteria free. In addition, the effect of a second-visit instrumentation after intra-appointment calcium hydroxide (CaOH(2)) was also evaluated in bacterial elimination. Fifty patients were recruited with a posterior tooth requiring primary endodontic treatment of apical periodontitis. Standard nonsurgical endodontic therapy was performed on both groups in a 2-visit approach by using calcium hydroxide intracanal medicament. Teeth were randomly treated with the NAI or PUI protocols in the first visit after complete instrumentation. Bacterial cultures were obtained at 4 periods during treatment from the canals: (1) before instrumentation, (2) after irrigation protocol, (3) after CaOH(2) medication, and (4) before obturation. Statistical analysis was performed on data by using the Fisher exact test and multivariate analysis. NAI and PUI rendered canals 80% and 84% bacteria free, respectively, at the end of the first visit. After CaOH(2) medication the total sample (NAI + PUI) had increased to 87% bacteria free, and the second-visit instrumentation resulted in a total of 91% bacteria free. These differences were not significant (P > .05). There was no statistical difference between irrigation methods. Each protocol resulted in a high frequency of negative cultures. This high frequency of negative cultures obtained in 1 visit is most likely related to an increased volume and depth of irrigation compared with previously reported protocols. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of a microsliced modified chondroperichondrium shield graft and a temporalis fascia graft in primary type I tympanoplasty: A prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Shambhu Nath; Pal, Sudipta; Saha, Somnath; Gure, Prasanta Kumar; Roy, Anupam

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial to compare outcomes in type I tympanoplasty patients who received an autologous microsliced modified cartilage perichondrium shield graft (cartilage group) and those who received an autologous temporalis muscle fascia graft (fascia group). Our three outcomes measures were (1) anatomic success rates at 3 months, (2) hearing results at 6 months, and (3) rates of morphologic success (i.e., the absence of reperforation, retraction, and graft displacement) at 2 years among those in each group who had an intact graft at 3 months. Of 56 patients who were initially enrolled and who underwent one of these type I tympanoplasty procedures, 51 completed the study-28 in the cartilage group and 23 in the fascia group. The former was made up of 11 males and 17 females, aged 15 to 48 years (mean: 27.4), and the latter included 9 males and 14 females, aged 15 to 52 years (mean: 31.7). The overall graft take rate at 3 months with respect to perforation closure (anatomic success) was 93.3% in the cartilage group and 91.7% in the fascia group, which was not a statistically significant difference. The mean hearing gain at 6 months was 11.7 ± 7.6 dB in the cartilage group and 12.6 ± 6.0 dB in the fascia group-again, not statistically significant. At 2 years, morphologic success rates were 92.3 and 81.0%, respectively-again, not statistically significant. We conclude that autologous microsliced modified cartilage perichondrium shield graft tympanoplasty is as effective as conventional temporalis fascia tympanoplasty in terms of graft take rates and functional results. Indeed, medium-term outcomes (2-yr follow-up) revealed that sustainable morphologic success was actually better with the cartilage technique than with the fascia technique because it was associated with fewer revision surgeries.

  16. Evaluation of the gallbladder and cystic duct patency with gadoxetate disodium enhanced MR cholangiography: prospective comparison of patients with normal gallbladder function and acute cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Joseph H; Yousuf, Ambereen; Agrawal, Garima; Thomas, Stephen; Appelbaum, Daniel E; Oto, Aytekin

    2015-07-01

    Using hepatocyte-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents such as gadoxetate disodium, MRI can provide functional information regarding the patency of the cystic duct similar to hepatobiliary scintigraphy in addition to anatomic images. To describe the gadoxetate disodium enhanced MR cholangiography (GDE-MRC) findings in patients with acute cholecystitis and to compare them with findings in patients without acute cholecystitis and with normal hepatobiliary scintigraphy. This study was HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved. Twenty-three patients (n = 14 diagnosed with acute calculous cholecystitis based on ultrasound [US] or computed tomography [CT]; n = 9 controls with normal hepatobiliary scintigraphy) were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent GDE-MRC within 2 days of the US, CT, or hepatobiliary scintigraphy. GDE-MRC included axial gradient echo T1-weighted images before and 3, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min after injection of 10 mL of gadoxetate disodium. If excretion of contrast into the gallbladder was not noted at 60 min, intravenous morphine was administered (0.04 mg/kg) and images were acquired 30 min later. In all nine controls, gadoxetate disodium was excreted into the gallbladder within 60 min (7/9 in acute cholecystitis completed the study. Six out of 12 (50%) patients demonstrated contrast in their gallbladder within 1 h of administration similar to the control group (2/6 in 60 min) or lack of filling of the gallbladder during GDE-MRC supports the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. However, filling of the gallbladder with contrast in acute calculous cholecystitis. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Comparison of SPECT imaging using monoclonal antibodies with computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US) for detection of recurrences of colorectal carcinoma: A prospective clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatal, J.F.; Saccavini, J.C.; Douillard, J.Y.; Curtet, C.; Kremer, M.; Le Mevel, B.

    1985-05-01

    A prospective clinical study compared SPECT imaging, ultrasonography (US), and computed tomography (CT) in 22 patients clinically or biologically (increased CEA and/or CA 19-9 serum concentration) suspected of recurrence of colorectal carcinoma. The recordings were performed 3 to 5 days after injection of 111 to 129.5 MBq of cocktail of I-131-labeled anti-CEA and 19-9 (F(ab')2 fragments) monoclonal antibodies. Twenty nine tumor sites were demonstrated by surgery or concordant results of conventional diagnostic methods. SPECT visualized 21 of these 29 tumor sites (72%). It was negative in 4 cases with no demonstrated recurrence (by any method and follow-up). With respect to localization of tumor sites, SPECT visualized 7/12 liver metastases, 8/8 local pelvic recurrences and 6/8 abdominal recurrences. CT and US, systematically performed blind after SPECT, respectively visualized 9/10 and 9/12 liver metastases, 7/12 and 4/13 pelvic and abdominal recurrences. Image interpretation of SPECT was difficult due to poor tumor contrast and the large number of low-intensity, nonspecific radioactive foci. A focus had to recur in at least 3 successive slices to be considered pathological. Four tumor sites were visualized with SPECT and not with US and CT (negative or uncertain results). SPECT would appear to be useful for localizing pelvic or abdominal recurrences in cases in which interpretation of US and CT images is difficult, often because their nonspecific approach does not make it possible to differentiate a tumor recurrence from post-operative anatomical changes.

  18. Late gadolinium enhancement cardiac imaging on a 3T scanner with parallel RF transmission technique: prospective comparison of 3D-PSIR and 3D-IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Anthony [Nouvel Hopital Civil, Strasbourg University Hospital, Radiology Department, Strasbourg Cedex (France); Nouvel Hopital Civil, Service de Radiologie, Strasbourg Cedex (France); Caspar, Thibault [Nouvel Hopital Civil, Strasbourg University Hospital, Cardiology Department, Strasbourg Cedex (France); Schaeffer, Mickael [Nouvel Hopital Civil, Strasbourg University Hospital, Public Health and Biostatistics Department, Strasbourg Cedex (France); Labani, Aissam; Jeung, Mi-Young; El Ghannudi, Soraya; Roy, Catherine [Nouvel Hopital Civil, Strasbourg University Hospital, Radiology Department, Strasbourg Cedex (France); Ohana, Mickael [Nouvel Hopital Civil, Strasbourg University Hospital, Radiology Department, Strasbourg Cedex (France); Universite de Strasbourg / CNRS, UMR 7357, iCube Laboratory, Illkirch (France)

    2016-06-15

    To qualitatively and quantitatively compare different late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) sequences acquired at 3T with a parallel RF transmission technique. One hundred and sixty participants prospectively enrolled underwent a 3T cardiac MRI with 3 different LGE sequences: 3D Phase-Sensitive Inversion-Recovery (3D-PSIR) acquired 5 minutes after injection, 3D Inversion-Recovery (3D-IR) at 9 minutes and 3D-PSIR at 13 minutes. All LGE-positive patients were qualitatively evaluated both independently and blindly by two radiologists using a 4-level scale, and quantitatively assessed with measurement of contrast-to-noise ratio and LGE maximal surface. Statistical analyses were calculated under a Bayesian paradigm using MCMC methods. Fifty patients (70 % men, 56yo ± 19) exhibited LGE (62 % were post-ischemic, 30 % related to cardiomyopathy and 8 % post-myocarditis). Early and late 3D-PSIR were superior to 3D-IR sequences (global quality, estimated coefficient IR > early-PSIR: -2.37 CI = [-3.46; -1.38], prob(coef > 0) = 0 % and late-PSIR > IR: 3.12 CI = [0.62; 4.41], prob(coef > 0) = 100 %), LGE surface estimated coefficient IR > early-PSIR: -0.09 CI = [-1.11; -0.74], prob(coef > 0) = 0 % and late-PSIR > IR: 0.96 CI = [0.77; 1.15], prob(coef > 0) = 100 %. Probabilities for late PSIR being superior to early PSIR concerning global quality and CNR were over 90 %, regardless of the aetiological subgroup. In 3T cardiac MRI acquired with parallel RF transmission technique, 3D-PSIR is qualitatively and quantitatively superior to 3D-IR. (orig.)

  19. Comparison between retrograde intrarenal surgery and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the treatment of lower pole kidney stones up to 15 mm. Prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilches, R M; Aliaga, A; Reyes, D; Sepulveda, F; Mercado, A; Moya, F; Ledezma, R; Hidalgo, J P; Olmedo, T; Marchant, F

    2015-05-01

    Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is currently the recommended treatment for intra-renal calculi smaller than 2 cm. However the low Stone Free Rate (SFR) in lower pole calculi gives rise to new techniques, such us retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), for improve the surgery outcomes. To compare the efficacy of a treatment with ESWL with RIRS, in terms of SFR after surgery, in patients with kidney stones up to 15 mm in the lower pole. A prospective study was carried out in order to assess the results of ESWL and RIRS in patients with lower pole stones less than 15 mm. Among a total of 55 patients, 31 were underwent to ESWL (Group 1) and the remaining 24 to RIRS (Group 2). Clinical data recorded, including general characteristics of each patient, were: calculi size, side, operative time, complications according to Clavien scale, SFR and the presence of residual fragments at 2 months post-treatment assessed by a CT scan. STATA 11 was used to perform the statistical analysis. There were no differences for general descriptors among groups with the exception of a significantly longer operative time for RIRS. The rates of SFR and residual fragments lesser than 3 mm. were lower in the RIRS group than in ESWL ones. RIRS also showed a lower rate of clinically significant fragments (0% vs 42.3%. P 3 mm (0% vs. 58.8%), being statistically significant (P < .05). Clavien III or higher complications were not reported in any of the groups. In the treatment of lower pole stone RIRS has the same results than ESWL in terms of SFR. Regarding absence of a clinically significant residual fragment, RIRS was superior to ESWL. A bigger sample size is required in order to confirm this results. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the hemodynamic response to induction and intubation during a target-controlled infusion of propofol with 2 different pharmacokinetic models. A prospective ramdomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Luengo, A; Asensio Merino, F; Castilla, M S; Alonso Rodriguez, E

    2015-11-01

    Determine the best propofol pharmacokinetic model that meets patient requirements and is devoid of major haemodynamic side effects. Prospective, randomised, open-label, clinical trial was performed on an intention to treat basis. It included 280 patients with ASA physical status i-iii, aged 18 to 80 years and weight range between 45 to 100kg, scheduled for surgery under general anaesthesia. They were randomized into 2 groups according to the pharmacokinetic model: Modified Marsh group and Schnider group. The haemodynamic changes that occurred during the induction and intubation were analysed. A propofol target controlled infusion was started to achieve and maintain a bispectral index value between 35 and 55. At minute 6, orotracheal intubation was performed and the study finished at minute 11. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure and their product (HR×MAP) were measured and recorded every minute throughout the study. Every HR×MAP value was compared to its baseline value to determine the minimum value before intubation, the maximum value after intubation, the maximum variation after intubation, and its final value. The GRADIENTE (MIN, MAX) variable (primary endpoint of this study)