WorldWideScience

Sample records for sawing

  1. SAW

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SPC Aviation Watch (SAW) Messages are issued to provide an area threat alert for the aviation meteorology community to forecast organized severe thunderstorms that...

  2. Saw Palmetto

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Saw Palmetto Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about saw palmetto—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  3. Arc saw development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.; Beitel, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The arc saw is one of the key components of the Contaminated Equipment Volume Reduction (CEVR) Program. This report describes the progress of the arc saw from its inception to its current developmental status. History of the arc saw and early contributors are discussed. Particular features of the arc saw and their advantages for CEVR are detailed. Development of the arc saw including theory of operation, pertinent experimental results, plans for the large arc saw and advanced control systems are covered. Associated topics such as potential applications for the arc saw and other arc saw installations in the world is also touched upon

  4. What Jane Saw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Singer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Review of Professor Janine Barchas' "What Jane Saw?" a website that reconstructs Joshua Reynolds's 1813 retrospective art exhibit, which Jane Austen attended, with particular attention to the Regency social and cultural history depicted in Austen's novels.

  5. Saw palmetto-induced pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibrin, Ismaila; Erinle, Ayodele; Saidi, Abdulfattah; Aliyu, Zakari Y

    2006-06-01

    Saw palmetto is a frequently used botanical agent in benign prostatic enlargement (BPH). Although it has been reported to cause cholestatic hepatitis and many medical conditions, Saw palmetto has not been implicated in acute pancreatitis. We report a case of a probable Saw palmetto induced acute hepatitis and pancreatitis. A 55-year-old reformed alcoholic, sober for greater than 15 years, presented with severe non-radiating epigastric pain associated with nausea and vomiting. His only significant comorbidity is BPH for which he intermittently took Saw palmetto for about four years. Physical examination revealed normal vital signs, tender epigastrium without guarding or rebound tenderness. Cullen and Gray Turner signs were negative. Complete blood count and basic metabolic profile were normal. Additional laboratory values include a serum amylase: 2,152 mmol/L, lipase: 39,346 mmol/L, serum triglyceride: 38 mmol/L, AST: 1265, ALT: 1232 and alkaline phosphatase was 185. Abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance cholangiography revealed sludge without stones. A hepatic indole diacetic acid scan was negative. Patient responded clinically and biochemically to withdrawal of Saw palmetto. Two similar episodes of improvements followed by recurrence were noted with discontinuations and reinstitution of Saw Palmetto. Simultaneous and sustained response of hepatitis and pancreatitis to Saw palmetto abstinence with reoccurrence on reinstitution strongly favors drug effect. "Natural" medicinal preparations are therefore not necessarily safe and the importance of detailed medication history (including "supplements") cannot be over emphasized.

  6. Saw palmetto for prostate disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Andrea E; Shaughnessy, Allen F

    2003-03-15

    Saw palmetto is an herbal product used in the treatment of symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The active component is found in the fruit of the American dwarf palm tree. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of saw palmetto in reducing symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Saw palmetto appears to have efficacy similar to that of medications like finasteride, but it is better tolerated and less expensive. There are no known drug interactions with saw palmetto, and reported side effects are minor and rare. No data on its long-term usage are available. The herbal product also has been used to treat chronic prostatitis, but currently there is no evidence of its efficacy.

  7. Grip for sawing round timber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    This paper describes a device development at Gedling Colliery, Nottinghamshire Area, United Kingdom. It is a gripping attachment, designed to overcome the safety hazards involved in cross cutting timbers with a circular saw.

  8. Circular sawing experiments on a radial arm saw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin; J.L. Lubxin

    1959-01-01

    Several years ago, the American Machine and Foundry Co. decided to conduct a comprehensive investigation in the field of cutting processes. The initial emphasis has been on circular sawing because of the product line of the company's DeWalt Division. As a nevessary antecedent to theoretical and experimental investigations, an extensive review of the literature on...

  9. Reconstructing see-saw models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    In this talk we discuss the prospects to reconstruct the high-energy see-saw Lagrangian from low energy experiments in supersymmetric scenarios. We show that the model with three right-handed neutrinos could be reconstructed in theory, but not in practice. Then, we discuss the prospects to reconstruct the model with two right-handed neutrinos, which is the minimal see-saw model able to accommodate neutrino observations. We identify the relevant processes to achieve this goal, and comment on the sensitivity of future experiments to them. We find the prospects much more promising and we emphasize in particular the importance of the observation of rare leptonic decays for the reconstruction of the right-handed neutrino masses

  10. Prototype arc saw design and cutting trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, G.S.

    1980-09-01

    A program was initiated to develop the arc saw as a tool capable of removing the end fittings from spent nuclear fuel bundles. A special arc saw for this purpose was designed, installed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and satisfactorily operated to remove end fittings from simulated, nonradioactive fuel bundles. The design of the arc saw included consideration of the cutting environment, power supply size, control equipment, and work piece size. Several simulated fuel bundles were cut to demonstrate that the arc saw met design specifications. Although the arc saw development program was curtailed before significant performance data could be collected, tests indicate that the arc saw is a good means of cropping spent fuel bundles and is well suited to remote operation and maintenance

  11. Arc saw and its application to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    The arc saw is a toothless, circular saw that cuts by arc erosion. A model was built to study the arc saw's usefulness in cutting up radioactively contaminated metal scrap. It was chosen because it cuts with very little contact to the work piece and because cutting is not affected by material hardness. After installation of several improvements it was found it could cut almost any combination of metals and that clamping or fixturing requirements were minimum. Cutting proceeds rapidly and efficiently

  12. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBPα and PPARγ. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis.

  13. Passive Wireless SAW Humidity Sensors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the preliminary development of passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) based humidity sensors for NASA application to distributed...

  14. Response of Saw Palmetto to Three Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael; D.G. Neary

    1985-01-01

    Saw palmetto [Serona repens (Bartram) Small] can be controlled with herbicides. Garion® 4E1/2 and Brush Killer® 800 were evaluated for effectiveness againest saw palmetto when they were applied at three rates in April, June, and August. Oust® was tested at three rates in April only. Herbicides were not effective with April...

  15. Analyzing Investments in Thin-Kerf Saws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Philip A. Araman

    1996-01-01

    The rising cost of hardwood sawlogs has increasd sawmill managers' interest in considering the installation of thin-kerf sawing machines in their sawmills. Replacement of circular headrigs by band headrigs and/or reducing resaw kerfs are the available options. Equipment replacement or modification to achieve thin-kerf sawing will require an investment. Sawmill...

  16. SAW based systems for mobile communications satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, R. C.; Miller, N.; Lee, M.

    1993-01-01

    Modern mobile communications satellites, such as INMARSAT 3, EMS, and ARTEMIS, use advanced onboard processing to make efficient use of the available L-band spectrum. In all of these cases, high performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are used. SAW filters can provide high selectivity (100-200 kHz transition widths), combined with flat amplitude and linear phase characteristics; their simple construction and radiation hardness also makes them especially suitable for space applications. An overview of the architectures used in the above systems, describing the technologies employed, and the use of bandwidth switchable SAW filtering (BSSF) is given. The tradeoffs to be considered when specifying a SAW based system are analyzed, using both theoretical and experimental data. Empirical rules for estimating SAW filter performance are given. Achievable performance is illustrated using data from the INMARSAT 3 engineering model (EM) processors.

  17. Microscopic saw mark analysis: an empirical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jennifer C; Derrick, Sharon M; Wiersema, Jason M; Peters, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic saw mark analysis is a well published and generally accepted qualitative analytical method. However, little research has focused on identifying and mitigating potential sources of error associated with the method. The presented study proposes the use of classification trees and random forest classifiers as an optimal, statistically sound approach to mitigate the potential for error of variability and outcome error in microscopic saw mark analysis. The statistical model was applied to 58 experimental saw marks created with four types of saws. The saw marks were made in fresh human femurs obtained through anatomical gift and were analyzed using a Keyence digital microscope. The statistical approach weighed the variables based on discriminatory value and produced decision trees with an associated outcome error rate of 8.62-17.82%. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Arc saw and its application to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    The arc saw is a toothless, circular saw that cuts by arc erosion. A model was built to study the arc saw's usefulness in cutting up radioactively contaminated metal scrap. It was chosen because it cuts with very little contact to the work piece and because cutting is not affected by material hardness. After installation of several improvements it was found it could cut almost any combination of metals and that clamping or fixturing requirements were minimum. Cutting proceeds rapidly and efficiently. 10 figures

  19. Chemically sensitive interfaces on SAW devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricco, A.J.; Martin, S.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Crooks, R.M.; Xu, Chuanjing [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Allred, R.E. [Adherent Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, three approaches to the effective use of chemically sensitive interfaces that are not highly chemically selective have been examined: (1) molecular identification from time-resolved permeation transients; (2) using multifrequency SAW devices to determine the frequency dependence of analyte/film interactions; (3) use of an array of SAW devices bearing diverse chemically sensitive interfaces to produce a distinct response pattern for each analyte. In addition to their well-known sensitivity to mass changes (0.0035 monolayer of N{sub 2} can be measured), SAW devices respond to the mechanical and electronic properties of thin films, enhancing response information content but making a thorough understanding of the perturbation critical. Simultaneous measurement of changes in frequency and attenuation, which can provide the information necessary to determine the type of perturbation, are used as part of the above discrimination schemes.

  20. Metal segmenting using abrasive and reciprocating saws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Fetrow, L.K.; Haun, F.E. Jr.

    1987-06-01

    This paper evaluates a light-weight, high-power abrasive saw for segmenting radioactively contaminated metal components. A unique application of a reciprocating mechanical saw for the remote disassembly of equipment in a hot cell also is described. The results of this work suggest that use of these techniques for selected remote sectioning applications could minimize operational and access problems and be very cost effective in comparison with other inherently faster sectioning methods. 2 refs., 7 figs

  1. Saw palmetto and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Edward M; Gerber, Glenn S

    2004-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common health issue that affects 8% of all men at the age of 40, 60% of men in their 70s, and 90% of those greater than 80 years of age. One-fourth of these men will develop moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms that greatly affect their quality of life. Recent evidence suggests that the use of saw palmetto leads to improvements in urinary function for those suffering from BPH. The favorable comparison of saw palmetto with tamsulosin, a well-known first line agent in the treatment of urinary tract symptoms, demonstrates promise towards a beneficial effect of this herbal agent, with very few, if any, adverse effects. However, what degree of this beneficial activity is due to placebo effects is yet to be determined. In addition, the precise mechanism of action of saw palmetto in men with BPH remains unclear.

  2. SAW Sensors for Chemical Vapors and Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Jagannath; Ohodnicki, Paul R; Greve, David W

    2017-04-08

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology provides a sensitive platform for sensing chemicals in gaseous and fluidic states with the inherent advantages of passive and wireless operation. In this review, we provide a general overview on the fundamental aspects and some major advances of Rayleigh wave-based SAW sensors in sensing chemicals in a gaseous phase. In particular, we review the progress in general understanding of the SAW chemical sensing mechanism, optimization of the sensor characteristics, and the development of the sensors operational at different conditions. Based on previous publications, we suggest some appropriate sensing approaches for particular applications and identify new opportunities and needs for additional research in this area moving into the future.

  3. SAW Sensors for Chemical Vapors and Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Jagannath; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Greve, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology provides a sensitive platform for sensing chemicals in gaseous and fluidic states with the inherent advantages of passive and wireless operation. In this review, we provide a general overview on the fundamental aspects and some major advances of Rayleigh wave-based SAW sensors in sensing chemicals in a gaseous phase. In particular, we review the progress in general understanding of the SAW chemical sensing mechanism, optimization of the sensor characteristics, and the development of the sensors operational at different conditions. Based on previous publications, we suggest some appropriate sensing approaches for particular applications and identify new opportunities and needs for additional research in this area moving into the future. PMID:28397760

  4. Saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Kane, Christopher; Shinohara, Katsuto; Neuhaus, John; Hudes, Esther S; Goldberg, Harley; Avins, Andrew L

    2006-02-09

    Saw palmetto is used by over 2 million men in the United States for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and is commonly recommended as an alternative to drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration. In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 225 men over the age of 49 years who had moderate-to-severe symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia to one year of treatment with saw palmetto extract (160 mg twice a day) or placebo. The primary outcome measures were changes in the scores on the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI) and the maximal urinary flow rate. Secondary outcome measures included changes in prostate size, residual urinary volume after voiding, quality of life, laboratory values, and the rate of reported adverse effects. There was no significant difference between the saw palmetto and placebo groups in the change in AUASI scores (mean difference, 0.04 point; 95 percent confidence interval, -0.93 to 1.01), maximal urinary flow rate (mean difference, 0.43 ml per minute; 95 percent confidence interval, -0.52 to 1.38), prostate size, residual volume after voiding, quality of life, or serum prostate-specific antigen levels during the one-year study. The incidence of side effects was similar in the two groups. In this study, saw palmetto did not improve symptoms or objective measures of benign prostatic hyperplasia. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00037154.). Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  5. Preventing Chain Saw Injuries After a Disaster

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    If you must use a chain saw, follow the instructions to be safe. Wear a hard hat, safety glasses, ear plugs, thick work gloves, chaps, and boots.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 9/24/2008.

  6. Radio requestable passive SAW water content sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reindl, L.; Ruppel, C.C.W.; Kirmayr, A.; Stockhausen, N.; Hilhorst, M.A.; Balendonk, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new passive sensor for remote measurement of water content in sandy soil was designed, using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) reflective delay line. Information from this sensor can be obtained by an interrogation device via a radio link operating in the European 434-MHz industrial-scientific-medical

  7. Grading sugar pine saw logs in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Henley

    1972-01-01

    Small limbs and small overgrown limbs cause problems when grading saw logs in sugar pine trees. Surface characteristics and lumber recovery information for 426 logs from 64 sugar pine trees were examined. Resulting modifications in the grading specification that allow a grader to ignore small limbs and small limb indicators do not appear to decrease the performance of...

  8. New piezoelectric materials for SAW filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelescu, Adrian; Nedelcu, Monica

    2010-11-01

    Scientific research of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices had an early start by the end of 1960s and led to the development of high frequency and small size piezo devices. A sustained effort was dedicated for these components to be transformed into many more interesting applications for telecom market. Recently the employment of new piezo materials and crystallographic orientations open new opportunities for SAW filters. New piezoelectric crystals of gallium orthophosphate (GaPO4) provide higher electromechanical coupling than quartz, while maintaining temperature compensated characteristics similar to quartz. Based on this material phase transition of 970°C, development of new piezo devices to operate at higher temperatures up to 800°C can be done. SAW velocities about 30% lower than ST-X quartz, favors smaller and more compact devices. Other advantages of GaPO4 are: stability with high resistance to stress induced twinning, 3~4 times higher electromechanical coupling than quartz and existence of SAW temperature compensated orientations. Another family of new materials of the trigonal 32 class has received much attention recently because of their temperature behavior similar to quartz and the promise of higher electromechanical coupling coefficients. It is the family of langasite (LGS, La3Ga5SiO14), langatate (LGT, La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14) and langanite (La3Ga5.5Nb0.5O14). Langasite crystals, easier to obtain and with the value of electromechanical coupling coefficient intermediate between quartz and lithium tantalate (k2=0.32% for 0°, 140°, 22.5° orientation and k2=0.38% for 0°, 140°, 25° orientation), enable us to design SAW filters with a relative pass band of 0.3% to 0.85%. Other piezoelectric materials are reviewed for comparison.

  9. SAW Classification Algorithm for Chinese Text Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Guo; Huiyu Sun; Tiehua Zhou; Ling Wang; Zhaoyang Qu; Jiannan Zang

    2015-01-01

    Considering the explosive growth of data, the increased amount of text data’s effect on the performance of text categorization forward the need for higher requirements, such that the existing classification method cannot be satisfied. Based on the study of existing text classification technology and semantics, this paper puts forward a kind of Chinese text classification oriented SAW (Structural Auxiliary Word) algorithm. The algorithm uses the special space effect of Chinese text where words...

  10. Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) flow sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shrinivas G.

    1991-03-01

    The use of a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) device to measure the rate of gas flow is described. A SAW oscillator heated to a suitable temperature above ambient is placed in the path of a flowing gas. Convective cooling caused by the gas flow results in a change in the oscillator frequency. A 73-MHz oscillator fabricated on 128 deg rotated Y-cut lithium niobate substrate and heated to 55 C above ambient shows a frequency variation greater than 142 kHz for flow-rate variation from 0 to 1000 cu cm/min. The output of the sensor can be calibrated to provide a measurement of volume flow rate, pressure differential across channel ports, or mass flow rate. High sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and direct digital output are among the attractive features of this sensor. Theoretical expressions for the sensitivity and response time of the sensor are derived. It is shown that by using ultrasonic Lamb waves propagating in thin membranes, a flow sensor with faster response than a SAW sensor can be realized.

  11. One-port portable SAW sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa Nguyen, Vu; Peters, Oliver; Schnakenberg, Uwe

    2018-01-01

    A portable device using the SAW-based impedance sensor type based on one interdigital transducer simultaneously as SAW generator and sensor element (1-port approach) is introduced. As a novelty, the so far required expensive vector network analyzer (VNA) is replaced by a hand-held device to measure the impedance spectrum of the SAW sensor by RF-gain-phase meters. Hence, some of the best features from the conventional oscillator and VNA approaches are combined to develop a low-cost and self-contained measurement system, including signal in- and output ability for real-time measurements. The pivotal aspect of the portable system is the transfer of the sophisticated high frequency approach into a quasi-static one. This enables the use of simple lumped electronics without the need of impedance matching circuits. Proof-of-concept was carried out by measuring conductivities of phosphate-buffered solutions and viscosities of glycerin. Sensitivities for temperature of 0.3%/°C, viscosity of 10.1% (mPa s)-1 and conductivity of 0.5% (S cm)-1 have been determined, respectively, which are competitive results compared to the benchmark approaches.

  12. Software analyzes feasibility of saw kerf reduction for hardwood mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele

    2005-01-01

    Reductions in saw kerf on head rigs and resaws can dramatically increase lumber recovery in hardwood sawmills. Research has shown that lumber sawing variation reduction will increase lumber recovery above that obtained solely from kerf reduction. Reductions in sawing machine kerf or variation always come at some cost in both capital and variable costs. Determining...

  13. Fire extinguishing strength of the combustion product of wood saw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty saw dust samples from four mature hard wood plants grown in southwestern part of Nigeria were analyzed for their ash contents, moisture contents, metallic contents and hence the fire extinguishing strength of the saw dust ash by classical and instrumental methods of analyses. Mahogany (Khaya ivorensis) wood saw ...

  14. Rayleigh SAW-Assisted SH-SAW Immunosensor on X-Cut 148-Y LiTaO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogai, Takashi; Yatsuda, Hiromi; Kondoh, Jun

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we describe a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) immunosensor that utilizes induce agitation by a Rayleigh SAW (R-SAW) on an X-cut 148-Y LiTaO 3 substrate. On this substrate, SH-SAWs and R-SAWs with different frequencies can be effectively generated at an interdigital transducer (IDT). First, to consider the power flow angles of SH-SAWs and R-SAWs on this substrate, the 360-MHz delay lines with six different tilt angles were designed and fabricated. From the experiments, an optimal power flow angle of 9° for the SH-SAW on this substrate is obtained. Second, in order to consider the immunoreactions of the SH-SAW immunosensors, a delay line with a tilt angle of 9° was designed and fabricated on this substrate. The delay line, which can generate two SAWs, namely, a 100-MHz SH-SAW and an 88.8-MHz R-SAW, has a propagation area covered with antigens of human serum albumin between transmitting and receiving IDTs. The immunoreactions caused by antigen-antibody binding events on the surface of the delay line were investigated on the basis of the velocity changes of the SH-SAWs for sensing with and without the assistance of an R-SAW. As a result, it was confirmed that the SH-SAW velocity changes due to antigen-antibody reactions can be markedly increased by the assistance of R-SAW agitation.

  15. Coagulopathy induced by saw palmetto: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Salvador; González, Jenniffer

    2009-01-01

    Saw palmetto is the most popular herbal supplement used to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The safety and efficacy of saw palmetto has been established in the literature. While the majority of studies document the efficacy and safety of saw palmetto, some studies document the adverse side effects, including increased risk of bleeding. There are no reports in the literature about increased prothombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT) or international normalized ratio (INR) while using saw palmetto. We present a case of hematuria and coagulopathy in a patient who was using saw palmetto.

  16. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  17. Evaluation of saw palmetto for biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitman, W.D. (Florida Univ., Ona, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Center)

    1993-01-01

    Saw palmetto is a widely distributed shrubby monocot (palm) which occurs in dense stands in the coastal region of the southern USA. Selected areas of an existing stand in peninsular Florida were subjected to harvest intervals of 6, 12, and 24 months, with season of harvest also evaluated. Annual yields were 2-3 Mg ha[sup -1] of foliage (fronds and petioles) dry matter. A quadratic response to harvest interval was obtained with annual foliage regrowth greatest at the 12-month interval. Plant vigour, as indicated by total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) concentration, and yield per harvest increased linearly with increasing harvest interval. Chemical analyses revealed high extractive content, with 100 mg g[sup -1] ethanol-benzene extract plus 90 mg g[sup -1] ethanol extract. Lignin concentration was also high at 180 mg g[sup -1]. The relatively low biomass yields and high concentrations of extractives and lignin indicate that saw palmetto does not have the desired characteristics for biomass energy conversion. Some potential may exist for specialty uses, such as starter fuel for waste combustion, due to availability and a highly combustible nature produced by the high extractive content. (author)

  18. Local saw mills save Velky Krtis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2006-01-01

    After the Bana Dolina coal mine has received its last state subsidy, the only major employer in the region will be the PRP saw mill. The unemployment rate is very high in the Velky Krtis region over 25%. Several agricultural and food processing companies have gone bankrupt and the Bana Dolina mine today only employs around 200 people. Few new jobs have been created. So far only furniture manufacturers from the Swedish company, Furni Finish, have promised the town they will open a new plant, where they may employ around 150. Another potential investment to be made by a Spanish producer of light components is still under negotiation, stated the mayor of Velky Krtis, Jozef Sauver. Should the Spanish company decide to come to the region, about 100 people could find a job at the former Liaz production halls. Currently, PRP is the largest employer in the region. Over the last 7 years, its owners have invested over 60 mil. Sk (1.58 mil. EUR) in the saw mill. Now they are preparing an 80 mil. Sk (2.10 mil. EUR) investment. The new business would process timber waste that is currently sold to the chipboard producer, Bucina DDD. In the future, the material could be used to produce energy. The town council are considering the construction of a new wood-fired heat plant that would use timber waste bought from PRP. (author)

  19. Jihad Bunuh Diri Menurut Hadis Nabi SAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adynata Adynata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pada zaman sekarang sering kita mendengar dan melihat di media massa banyaknya terjadi born bunuh diri, baik di tempat-tempat fasilitas umum seperti hotel, rumah ibadah, tempat pertemuan ataupun yang terjadi di daerah peperangan seperti di Palestina ketika perang antara tentara Israel dan Palestina. Para ulama telah mengkaji tentang hukum melakukan bom bunuh diri. Mereka berbeda pendapat tentang hukumnya; ada yang membolehkan dan ada pula yang melarang secara mutlak. Ayat-ayat al­ Quran dan hadis Rasulullah SAW yang terkait dengan persoalan ini, secara zahir tampak bertentangan. Dalam sebuah hadis Beliau melarang membunuh diri dengan cara apapun dan nanti di dalam neraka Jahannam pelakunya akan disiksa dengan cara yang dilakukannya ketika membunuh dirinya serta kekal di dalamnya. Sementara dalam Hadis yang lain disebutkan Rasulullah SAW menawarkan kepada satu orang sahabatnya untuk melawan musuh yang banyak yang diyakini akan membawa kematiannya pada perang Uhud sehingga terkesan sahabat tersebut mengorbankan dirinya. Hadis-hadis yang tampak bertentangan ini perlu dikaji lebih mendalam untuk ditemukan relevansinya dengan peristiswa born bunuh diri yang banyak terjadi sekarang. Penulis memahami bahwa bom bunuh diri pada prinsipnya diharamkan, tetapi jika dilakukan dalam kondisi terpaksa dalam medan peperangan untuk menyelamatkan pasukan dan menghindarkan bahaya yang lebih besar lagi maka boleh dilakukan asalkan atas perintah pemimpin perang. tetapi jika dilakukan tidak kondisi perang maka tidak boleh dilakukan dan termasuk sikap putus asa terhadap kemaksiatan yang terjadi

  20. Application of the chain saw machine for underground quarry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Han-Uk; Baek, Hwan-Jo [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon(Korea); Kim, Chi-Hwan [Woosuk University, Wonju(Korea); Kim, Tae-Soo [Sungshin Mining Co., Jungseun(Korea)

    2001-10-31

    Many regulatory activities for preservation of the environment make it recently difficult for the stone industry in our country. To reduce environmental hazards and to conserve original surface and woods, some effective underground methods must be adopted. Some new techniques such as chain saw machine, diamond wire saw and water jet cutting can be considered. But application of chain saw machine for underground quarry is proposed in this study. Some technical adoptions with chain saw were carried out at Jungseun marble mine. It is proved that this machine can be effectively adopted to cut dimension stone. With chain saw and diamond wire saw, it can be expected to achieve more effectively cutting the dimension stone. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end...

  2. Acute pancreatitis with saw palmetto use: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bruminhent, Jackrapong; Carrera, Perliveh; Li, Zhongzhen; Amankona, Raymond; Roberts, Ingram M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Saw palmetto is a phytotherapeutic agent commercially marketed for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Evidence suggests that saw palmetto is a safe product, and mild gastrointestinal adverse effects have been reported with its use. We report a case of acute pancreatitis, possibly secondary to the use of saw palmetto. Case presentation A 61-year-old Caucasian man with a history of benign prostatic hyperplasia and gastroesophageal reflux disease developed epiga...

  3. Log and tree sawing times for hardwood mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everette D. Rast

    1974-01-01

    Data on 6,850 logs and 1,181 trees were analyzed to predict sawing times. For both logs and trees, regression equations were derived that express (in minutes) sawing time per log or tree and per Mbf. For trees, merchantable height is expressed in number of logs as well as in feet. One of the major uses for the tables of average sawing times is as a bench mark against...

  4. Programmable SAW development :Sandia/NASA project final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2004-10-01

    This report describes a project to develop both fixed and programmable surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlators for use in a low power space communication network. This work was funded by NASA at Sandia National Laboratories for fiscal years 2004, 2003, and the final part of 2002. The role of Sandia was to develop the SAW correlator component, although additional work pertaining to use of the component in a system and system optimization was also done at Sandia. The potential of SAW correlator-based communication systems, the design and fabrication of SAW correlators, and general system utilization of those correlators are discussed here.

  5. Unusual suicide by electric saw: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zribi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide by power saws (bland, chain, circular or router saw are an extreme exception. A few case reports are published in forensic literature regarding it. We report the case of a 30-year-old carpenter found dead lying on the floor next to a router saw in his carpenter workshop, with two gaping and deep wounds in his head. We summarize the findings of the death scene examination, the forensic autopsy, and the world literature concerning suicide committed with power saws.

  6. Piezoelectric Analysis of Saw Sensor Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír KUTIŠ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution modeling and simulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW sensor using finite element method will be presented. SAW sensor is made from piezoelectric GaN layer and SiC substrate. Two different analysis types are investigated - modal and transient. Both analyses are only 2D. The goal of modal analysis, is to determine the eigenfrequency of SAW, which is used in following transient analysis. In transient analysis, wave propagation in SAW sensor is investigated. Both analyses were performed using FEM code ANSYS.

  7. [The morphological features of skin wounds inflicted by joinery hand saws designed for different types of sawing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisian, B A; Azarov, P A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the morphological features of skin wounds inflicted by joinery hand saws designed for longitudinal, transverse, and mixed sawing. A total of 60 injuries to the thigh skin inflicted by the recurring and reciprocating saw movements were simulated. The hand saws had 5 mm high "sharp" and "blunt"-tipped teeth. The analysis of the morphological features of the wounds revealed differences in their length and depth, shape of edge cuts and defects, and the relief of the walls depending on the sawtooth sharpness and the mode of sawing. It is concluded that morphological features of the wounds may be used to determine the type of the saw, the sharpness of its teeth, the direction and frequency of its movements.

  8. Preliminarily measurement and analysis of sawing forces in fresh cadaver mandible using reciprocating saw for reality-based haptic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yua, Dedong; Zhengb, Xiaohu; Chenc, Ming; Shend, Steve G F

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to preliminarily measure and analyze the cutting forces in fresh Chinese cadaver mandible using a clinically widely used reciprocating saw for reality-based haptic feedback. Eight mandibles were taken from fresh Chinese cadavers, 4 females and 4 males, aged between 59 and 95 years. A set of sawing experiments, using a surgery Stryker micro-reciprocating saw and Kistler piezoelectric dynamometer, was carried out by a CNC machining center. Under different vibration frequencies of saw and feeding rates measured from orthognathic surgery, sawing forces were recorded by a signal acquisition system. Remarkably different sawing forces were measured from different cadavers. Feed and vibration frequency of the reciprocating saw could determine the cutting forces only on 1 body. To reduce the impact of bone thickness changes on the cutting force measurements, all the cutting force data should be converted to the force of unit cutting length. The vibration frequency of haptic feedback system is determined by main cutting forces. Fast Fourier transform method can be used to calculate the frequency of this system. To simulate surgery in higher fidelity, all the sawing forces from the experiment should be amended by experienced surgeons before use in virtual reality surgery simulator. Sawing force signals of different ages for force feedback were measured successfully, and more factors related to the bone mechanical properties, such as bone density, should be concerned in the future.

  9. Saw palmetto supplement use and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnar-Pizzorno, Raven M; Littman, Alyson J; Kestin, Mark; White, Emily

    2006-01-01

    Saw palmetto is an herb used to treat the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. In vitro studies have found that saw palmetto inhibits growth of prostatic cancer cells and may induce apoptosis. To evaluate whether saw palmetto supplements are associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer, we conducted a prospective cohort study of 35,171 men aged 50-76 yr in western Washington state. Subjects completed questionnaires between 2000 and 2002 on frequency of use of saw palmetto supplements and saw palmetto-containing multivitamins over the previous 10 yr in addition to other information on supplement intake, medical history, and demographics. Men were followed through December 2003 (mean of 2.3 yr of follow-up) via the western Washington Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry, during which time 580 developed prostate cancer. Ten percent of the cohort used saw palmetto at least once per week for a year in the 10 yr before baseline. No association was found between this level of use of saw palmetto and risk of prostate cancer development [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.95; 95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.23] or with increasing frequency or duration of use. In this free-living population, use of commercial saw palmetto, which varies widely in dose and constituent ratios, was not associated with prostate cancer risk.

  10. GRASP - A Prototype Interactive Graphic Sawing Program - (Forest Products Journal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis G. Occeña; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1996-01-01

    A versatile microcomputer-based interactive graphics sawing program has been developed as a tool for modeling various hardwood processes, from bucking and topping to log sawing, lumber edging, secondary processing, and even veneering. The microcomputer platform makes the tool affordable and accessible. A solid modeling basis provides the tool with a sound geometrical...

  11. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The Best Opening Face (BOF) technology for volume maximization during sawing has been rapidly adopted by softwood sawmills. Application of this technology in hardwood sawmills has been limited because of their emphasis on sawing for the highest possible grade of lumber. The reason for this emphasis is that there is a relatively large difference in price between the...

  12. See-saw geometry and leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Bari, P.

    2005-01-01

    The representation of the see-saw orthogonal matrix in the complex plane establishes a graphical correspondence between neutrino mass models and geometrical configurations, particularly useful to study relevant aspects of leptogenesis. We first derive the CP asymmetry bound for hierarchical heavy neutrinos and then an expression for the effective leptogenesis phase, determining the conditions for maximal phase and placing a lower bound on the phase suppression for generic models. Reconsidering the lower bounds on the lightest right-handed (RH) neutrino mass M 1 and on the reheating temperature T reh , we find that models where one of the two heavier neutrino masses is dominated by the lightest right-handed (RH) neutrinos, typically arising from connections with quark masses, undergo both phase suppression and strong wash-out such that M 1 (T reh )-bar 10 11 (10 10 ) GeV. The window 10 9 GeV-bar M 1 ,T reh -bar 10 10 GeV is accessible only for a class of models where m 1 is dominated by the lightest RH neutrino, with no straightforward connections with quark masses. Within this class we describe a new scenario of thermal leptogenesis where the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is generated by the decays of the second lightest RH neutrino, such that the lower bound on M 1 disappears and is replaced by a lower bound on M 2 . Interestingly, the final asymmetry is independent on the initial conditions. We also discuss the validity of the approximation of hierarchical heavy neutrinos in a simple analytical way

  13. ISS Asset Tracking Using SAW RFID Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhase, Amy; Powers, Annie

    2004-01-01

    A team at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is undergoing final preparations to test Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to track assets aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Currently, almost 10,000 U.S. items onboard the ISS are tracked within a database maintained by both the JSC ground teams and crew onboard the ISS. This barcode-based inventory management system has successfully tracked the location of 97% of the items onboard, but its accuracy is dependant on the crew to report hardware movements, taking valuable time away from science and other activities. With the addition of future modules, the volume of inventory to be tracked is expected to increase significantly. The first test of RFID technology on ISS, which will be conducted by the Expedition 16 crew later this year, will evaluate the ability of RFID technology to track consumable items. These consumables, which include office supplies and clothing, are regularly supplied to ISS and can be tagged on the ground. Automation will eliminate line-of-sight auditing requirements, directly saving crew time. This first step in automating an inventory tracking system will pave the way for future uses of RFID for inventory tracking in space. Not only are there immediate benefits for ISS applications, it is a crucial step to ensure efficient logistics support for future vehicles and exploration missions where resupplies are not readily available. Following a successful initial test, the team plans to execute additional tests for new technology, expanded operations concepts, and increased automation.

  14. Acute pancreatitis with saw palmetto use: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amankona Raymond

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Saw palmetto is a phytotherapeutic agent commercially marketed for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Evidence suggests that saw palmetto is a safe product, and mild gastrointestinal adverse effects have been reported with its use. We report a case of acute pancreatitis, possibly secondary to the use of saw palmetto. Case presentation A 61-year-old Caucasian man with a history of benign prostatic hyperplasia and gastroesophageal reflux disease developed epigastric pain associated with nausea 36 hours prior to presentation. He denied drinking alcohol prior to the development of his symptoms. His home medications included saw palmetto, lansoprazole and multivitamins. Laboratory results revealed elevated lipase and amylase levels. An abdominal ultrasound demonstrated a nondilated common bile duct, without choledocholithiasis. Computed tomography of his abdomen showed the pancreatic tail with peripancreatic inflammatory changes, consistent with acute pancreatitis. Our patient's condition improved with intravenous fluids and pain management. On the fourth day of hospitalization his pancreatic enzymes were within normal limits: he was discharged home and advised to avoid taking saw palmetto. Conclusion It is our opinion that a relationship between saw palmetto and the onset of acute pancreatitis is plausible, and prescribers and users of saw palmetto should be alert to the possibility of such adverse reactions.

  15. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L. Lindshield

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g, individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g, and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g. Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  16. Acute pancreatitis with saw palmetto use: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruminhent, Jackrapong; Carrera, Perliveh; Li, Zhongzhen; Amankona, Raymond; Roberts, Ingram M

    2011-08-25

    Saw palmetto is a phytotherapeutic agent commercially marketed for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Evidence suggests that saw palmetto is a safe product, and mild gastrointestinal adverse effects have been reported with its use. We report a case of acute pancreatitis, possibly secondary to the use of saw palmetto. A 61-year-old Caucasian man with a history of benign prostatic hyperplasia and gastroesophageal reflux disease developed epigastric pain associated with nausea 36 hours prior to presentation. He denied drinking alcohol prior to the development of his symptoms. His home medications included saw palmetto, lansoprazole and multivitamins. Laboratory results revealed elevated lipase and amylase levels. An abdominal ultrasound demonstrated a nondilated common bile duct, without choledocholithiasis. Computed tomography of his abdomen showed the pancreatic tail with peripancreatic inflammatory changes, consistent with acute pancreatitis. Our patient's condition improved with intravenous fluids and pain management. On the fourth day of hospitalization his pancreatic enzymes were within normal limits: he was discharged home and advised to avoid taking saw palmetto. It is our opinion that a relationship between saw palmetto and the onset of acute pancreatitis is plausible, and prescribers and users of saw palmetto should be alert to the possibility of such adverse reactions.

  17. Development of cutting techniques of steel pipe by wire sawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, Yoshinori; Inai, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    A cutting method has a high cutting efficiency and enable cutting in safe. A wire saw cutting method is used for dismantling of massive concrete structures such as nuclear power plants with an effective and safe mean. In the case of dismantling of structures with multiple pipes installed at these facilities, an effective method is also demanded. If a wire saw method to remotely cut target objects in a large block in bulk is applicable, it will be expected an effective dismantling work under severe conditions with radioactivity. Although the wire saw method has adaptability for any shapes of cutting target objects and is widely adopted in dismantling of concrete constructs, it has few actual achievements in dismantling of steel structures such as steel pipe bundle. This study aims to verify its cutting characteristics and adaptability as a cutting method by conducting a cutting basic test to develop a diamond wire saw method to efficiently cut constructs with multiple pipes in a bundle. The test proved that a wire saw cutting method apply to dismantle structures with steel pipe bundle. A wire saw for metal cutting is adaptable in dismantling of bundle of thick carbon steel and stainless steel pipes. And also a wire saw for concrete cutting is adaptable in dismantling of pipe bundle structure with a mortar. (author)

  18. Analyzing the installation angle error of a SAW torque sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yanping; Ji, Xiaojun; Cai, Ping

    2014-01-01

    When a torque is applied to a shaft, normal strain oriented at ±45° direction to the shaft axis is at its maximum, which requires two one-port SAW resonators to be bonded to the shaft at ±45° to the shaft axis. In order to make the SAW torque sensitivity high enough, the installation angle error of two SAW resonators must be confined within ±5° according to our design requirement. However, there are few studies devoted to the installation angle analysis of a SAW torque sensor presently and the angle error was usually obtained by a manual method. Hence, we propose an approximation method to analyze the angle error. First, according to the sensitive mechanism of the SAW device to torque, the SAW torque sensitivity is deduced based on the linear piezoelectric constitutive equation and the perturbation theory. Then, when a torque is applied to the tested shaft, the stress condition of two SAW resonators mounted with an angle deviating from ±45° to the shaft axis, is analyzed. The angle error is obtained by means of the torque sensitivities of two orthogonal SAW resonators. Finally, the torque measurement system is constructed and the loading and unloading experiments are performed twice. The torque sensitivities of two SAW resonators are obtained by applying average and least square method to the experimental results. Based on the derived angle error estimation function, the angle error is estimated about 3.447°, which is close to the actual angle error 2.915°. The difference between the estimated angle and the actual angle is discussed. The validity of the proposed angle error analysis method is testified to by the experimental results. (technical design note)

  19. Notes on SAW Tag Interrogation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of interrogating a single SAW RFID tag with a known ID and known range in the presence of multiple interfering tags under the following assumptions: (1) The RF propagation environment is well approximated as a simple delay channel with geometric power-decay constant alpha >/= 2. (2) The interfering tag IDs are unknown but well approximated as independent, identically distributed random samples from a probability distribution of tag ID waveforms with known second-order properties, and the tag of interest is drawn independently from the same distribution. (3) The ranges of the interfering tags are unknown but well approximated as independent, identically distributed realizations of a random variable rho with a known probability distribution f(sub rho) , and the tag ranges are independent of the tag ID waveforms. In particular, we model the tag waveforms as random impulse responses from a wide-sense-stationary, uncorrelated-scattering (WSSUS) fading channel with known bandwidth and scattering function. A brief discussion of the properties of such channels and the notation used to describe them in this document is given in the Appendix. Under these assumptions, we derive the expression for the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for an arbitrary combination of transmitted interrogation signal and linear receiver filter. Based on this expression, we derive the optimal interrogator configuration (i.e., transmitted signal/receiver filter combination) in the two extreme noise/interference regimes, i.e., noise-limited and interference-limited, under the additional assumption that the coherence bandwidth of the tags is much smaller than the total tag bandwidth. Finally, we evaluate the performance of both optimal interrogators over a broad range of operating scenarios using both numerical simulation based on the assumed model and Monte Carlo simulation based on a small sample of measured tag waveforms. The performance evaluation results not only

  20. CAMEX-3 JPL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE (SAW) HYGROMETER V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This CAMEX-3 Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Hygrometer dataset consists of dewpoint timeline measurements acquired during each DC-8...

  1. DNA barcode authentication of saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Damon P; Jeanson, Marc L

    2013-12-17

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini-barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini-barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined.

  2. Passive Wireless SAW Humidity Sensors and System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I demonstrated the technical feasibility of creating surface acoustic wave (SAW) based humidity sensors that respond rapidly (under 0.5 second) and reversibly...

  3. Wireless, Passive Encoded Saw Sensors and Communication Links, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There are several objectives of this Phase I proposal. One major objective is to investigate SAW sensor embodiments for pressure and acceleration. Two approaches...

  4. A psychometric validation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Bjarne; Larsen, Klaus; Hornnes, Nete

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS).......The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS)....

  5. Effect of Spindle Parameters of Woodworking Band Saw on the AE Value of Crack Band Saw Blade in Compound Material Processing (1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jin-gui; Jiang, Zhao-fang; Luo, Lai-peng

    2017-04-01

    Taking the MJ3210A motion band saw as the research object, the AE value of the band saw blade vibration was obtained by analyzing the VIBSYS vibration signal acquisition and analysis software system in Beijing, and the change of the AE value of the band saw and the crack was found out. The experimental results show that in the MJ3210A sports car sawing machine, the band saw blade with width of 130 mm is used, and the AE value of the cracked band saw blade is well in the high band saw blade AE value. Under the best working condition of the band saw, the band saw blade AE If the value exceeds 104.7 dB (A) above, it means that the band saw blade has at least one crack length greater than 1.38 mm for the crack defect and the need to replace the band saw blade in time. Different species with saw blade of the AE value is different, white pine wood minimum, the largest oak wood; according to a variety of wood processing AE instrument value to determine the band saw blade crack to the situation; so as to fully rational use of band saw blade, The failure and the degree of development to find a new method.

  6. A possible case of saw palmetto-induced pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Kurt A; Allman, Elena; Ibrahim, Farrah

    2010-07-01

    A 65-year-old male with a history of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, gout, Barrett esophagitis, and chronic gastritis developed acute pancreatitis after taking one week of the herbal medicine, saw palmetto, for symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Ultrasound and computed tomography ruled out cholelithiasis and obstruction, triglycerides were normal, and he had no recent infection or trauma. He had a history of occasional alcohol consumption, though there was no recent increased intake. The most likely cause of pancreatitis in this case was saw palmetto. Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) is an herbal medication used primarily in the treatment of symptoms related to BPH. It has a high content of fatty acids and phytosterols which are thought to exert their effects by inhibiting the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase, thereby preventing the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT). It has been postulated that saw palmetto directly stimulates estrogenic receptors and inhibits progesterone receptors in the prostate tissue. A previous report implicated the estrogen/antiandrogen properties of saw palmetto as inducing hepatotoxicity in a patient. Additionally, it has also been postulated that stimulation of the estrogenic receptors may lead to increased triglyceride levels or induction of a hypercoagulable state that leads to pancreatic necrosis. Finally, inhibition of cyclooxygenase, a property of saw palmetto, may be linked to acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis, a serious and sometimes fatal disorder may occur secondary to medications. Although the mechanism is not fully known, this is the second case of acute pancreatitis that has been documented secondary to the herbal medication saw palmetto. It is important for clinicians to obtain detailed medication histories, including over-the-counter and herbal medications, in order to prevent further complications from occurring.

  7. A detailed safety assessment of a saw palmetto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avins, Andrew L; Bent, Stephen; Staccone, Suzanne; Badua, Evelyn; Padula, Amy; Goldberg, Harley; Neuhaus, John; Hudes, Esther; Shinohara, Katusto; Kane, Christopher

    2008-06-01

    Saw palmetto is commonly used by men for lower-urinary tract symptoms. Despite its widespread use, very little is known about the potential toxicity of this dietary supplement. The Saw palmetto for Treatment of Enlarged Prostates (STEP) study was a randomized clinical trial performed among 225 men with moderate-to-severe symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, comparing a standardized extract of the saw palmetto berry (160 mg twice daily) with a placebo over a 1-year period. As part of this study, detailed data were collected on serious and non-serious adverse events, sexual functioning, and laboratory tests of blood and urine. Between-group differences were assessed with mixed-effects regression models. There were no significant differences observed between the saw palmetto and placebo-allocated participants in the risk of suffering at least one serious adverse event (5.4% vs. 9.7%, respectively; p=0.31) or non-serious symptomatic adverse event (34.8% vs. 30.1%, p=0.48). There were few significant between-group differences in sexual functioning or for most laboratory analyses, with only small differences observed in changes over time in total bilirubin (p=0.001), potassium (p=0.03), and the incidence of glycosuria (0% in the saw palmetto group vs. 3.7% in the placebo group, p=0.05). Despite careful assessment, no evidence for serious toxicity of saw palmetto was observed in this clinical trial. Given the sample size and length of this study, however, these data do not rule out potential rare adverse effects associated with the use of saw palmetto.

  8. Tip stabilizer for a chain saw. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morabit, V.D.

    1993-09-10

    Prior to receiving the grant, Utilitip was faced with an idea that truly worked, however only a very limited line of component parts would fit various types of chain saws on the market. It also suffered from a severe problem when engaged in the ground of soil penetrating the saw chain area, thus eliminating one of the major benefits of keeping the chain sharp. Consequently, the grant funding was directed towards extending the tooling capabilities to produce parts for a much wider variety of chain saws that are on the market, and further by developing an effective flexible soil shield to prevent abrasive soil entry into the saw chain. Utilitip was able to complete a full set of design for a wide variety of large and small chain saws. This incorporated a design and fabrication of a small Utilitip, as well as a small anti-kickback device. In addition, tooling was also further developed for the large Utilitip and the large anti-kickback device. Accordingly, multiple tools are available for all combinations, as well as back-up provisions. Utilitip, Inc. invented a special, flexible attachment to be glued and/or molded to the tip guard. The soil shield prevents abrasive soil from coming into the chain area. In addition, it allows a flexible arrangement to allow the chain saw to be released from brush without binding. Otherwise, a larger, rigid soil shield would hold or restrict the saw in heavy brush. The rubber shield will flex out of the say and reduce, if not eliminate, this harmful binding.

  9. SAW Humidity Sensor Sensitivity Enhancement via Electrospraying of Silver Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Sayar Irani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we investigated the influence of the surface coatings of silver nanowires on the sensitivity of surface acoustic wave (SAW humidity sensors. Silver nanowires, with poly(vinylpyrrolidone (PVP, which is a hydrophilic capping agent, were chemically synthesized, with an average length of 15 µm and an average diameter of 60 nm. Humidity sensors, with 433 MHz frequency dual-port resonator Rayleigh-SAW devices, were coated by silver nanowires (AgNWs using the electrospray coating method. It was demonstrated that increasing thickness of coated AgNW on the surfaces of SAW devices results in increased sensitivity. The highest frequency shift (262 kHz in these SAW devices was obtained with an injection of 0.5 mL of the AgNW solution with a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL at an injection rate of 1 mL/h. It also showed the highest humidity sensitivity among the other prepared SAW devices.

  10. Cutting techniques of reinforced concrete by wire sawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyao, Hidehiko; Komatsu, Junji; Kamiyama, Yoshinori; Yasoshima, Harunori; Kukino, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Miyazaki, Takashi; Aritomi, Masanori

    1995-01-01

    The Research Association for Nuclear Facility Decommissioning (RANDEC) has been carrying out demonstration tests to improve current technologies for decommissioning. The conceptual dismantling system has been studied and basic cutting tests have been carried out by wire sawing. In terms of waste management and dismantling efficiency, the diamond wire saw cutting method has advantages for cutting radioactive concrete in large blocks. A conceptual design for a dismantling system for various concrete shieldings of nuclear facilities has been developed and diamond wire sawing has been designed and manufactured. The basic cutting tests by wire sawing have been carried out to obtain quantitative data, in addition to the conceptual design of a dismantling system for biological shielding of various power reactors (PWR, BWR, GCR) and cell walls of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. On the basis of the conceptual dismantling system and quantitative cutting performance data, wire sawing equipment has been manufactured for use in nuclear facilities. This study was performed on consignment for the Science and Technology Agency of Japan. (author)

  11. A4 see-saw models and form dominance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M-C; King, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the idea of Form Dominance in the (type I) see-saw mechanism, according to which a particular right-handed neutrino mass eigenstate is associated with a particular physical neutrino mass eigenstate, leading to a form diagonalizable effective neutrino mass matrix. Form Dominance, which allows an arbitrary neutrino mass spectrum, may be regarded as a generalization of Constrained Sequential Dominance which only allows strongly hierarchical neutrino masses. We consider alternative implementations of the see-saw mechanism in minimal A 4 see-saw models and show that such models satisfy Form Dominance, leading to neutrino mass sum rules which predict closely spaced neutrino masses with a normal or inverted neutrino mass ordering. To avoid the partial cancellations inherent in such models we propose Natural Form Dominance, in which a different flavon is associated with each physical neutrino mass eigenstate.

  12. A high sensitivity nanomaterial based SAW humidity sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, T-T; Chou, T-H [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y-Y [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: wutt@ndt.iam.ntu.edu.tw

    2008-04-21

    In this paper, a highly sensitive humidity sensor is reported. The humidity sensor is configured by a 128{sup 0}YX-LiNbO{sub 3} based surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator whose operating frequency is at 145 MHz. A dual delay line configuration is realized to eliminate external temperature fluctuations. Moreover, for nanostructured materials possessing high surface-to-volume ratio, large penetration depth and fast charge diffusion rate, camphor sulfonic acid doped polyaniline (PANI) nanofibres are synthesized by the interfacial polymerization method and further deposited on the SAW resonator as selective coating to enhance sensitivity. The humidity sensor is used to measure various relative humidities in the range 5-90% at room temperature. Results show that the PANI nanofibre based SAW humidity sensor exhibits excellent sensitivity and short-term repeatability.

  13. Coupling forces resulting from the type of chain saw used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Malinowska-Borowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Woodcutters’ working conditions are difficult due to the presence of numerous occupational hazards. Petrol –fuelled chain saws commonly used in forestry produce vibration, which may lead to the development of non-specific disorders in the upper extremities of the chain saw operator, referred to as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS. The magnitude of coupling forces exerted on a vibrating tool handle may affect the severity of HAVS and hand-wrist cumulative trauma disorders. The aim of the presented study was to measure coupling forces exerted by fellers on various chain saws and to find correlation between force magnitude and type of tool used. Material and methods. Coupling forces applied by workers on different types of chain saws were measured by means of a hydro-electronic force meter. All measurements were carried out during the harvesting of wood in real work conditions. Results. Mean force applied by forestry workers on their tools was 44.2 N. Coupling forces registered during cutting wood with small universal chain saws were larger than forces exerted on models characterized by higher power profile. Forces applied on comparable tools produced by various manufacturers also differed. Conclusions. The relationship between coupling forces and power of the chain saw should lead to ergonomic improvements of the tool and vibration-reducing devices. These results can also be used as a recommendation for fellers in a range of using proper machines for different types of cut or types of wood. They may also be applicable to develop more effective methods for assessing vibration exposure risks among woodcutters.

  14. Light Higgs from Scalar See-Saw in Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads Toudal

    2012-01-01

    We consider a TeV scale see-saw mechanism leading to light scalar resonances in models with otherwise intrinsically heavy scalars. The mechanism can provide a 125 GeV technicolor Higgs in e.g. two-scale TC models......We consider a TeV scale see-saw mechanism leading to light scalar resonances in models with otherwise intrinsically heavy scalars. The mechanism can provide a 125 GeV technicolor Higgs in e.g. two-scale TC models...

  15. Design of a Power Tool Attachment for Sawing Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Appaiah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Design of a Power Tool Attachment for Sawing Operation is discussed. First, the Target Specifications are established. The Design work is carried out, especially that of the Main Shaft and Support Tube. Calculations and Finite Element Analysis (FEA are also done. The Prototype is fabricated and assembled. The Testing of the prototype is done, by Sawing commercial plywood of maximum thickness 25mm. Weight of the Attachment is 1.3 kg, and the Machine is easy to use, benefitting unskilled users.

  16. Robust Design of SAW Gas Sensors by Taguchi Dynamic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsun-Heng Tsai

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts Taguchi’s signal-to-noise ratio analysis to optimize the dynamic characteristics of a SAW gas sensor system whose output response is linearly related to the input signal. The goal of the present dynamic characteristics study is to increase the sensitivity of the measurement system while simultaneously reducing its variability. A time- and cost-efficient finite element analysis method is utilized to investigate the effects of the deposited mass upon the resonant frequency output of the SAW biosensor. The results show that the proposed methodology not only reduces the design cost but also promotes the performance of the sensors.

  17. Estimation of Power Consumption in the Circular Sawing of Stone Based on Tangential Force Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoqin; Zhang, Meiqin; Huang, Hui; Guo, Hua; Xu, Xipeng

    2018-04-01

    Circular sawing is an important method for the processing of natural stone. The ability to predict sawing power is important in the optimisation, monitoring and control of the sawing process. In this paper, a predictive model (PFD) of sawing power, which is based on the tangential force distribution at the sawing contact zone, was proposed, experimentally validated and modified. With regard to the influence of sawing speed on tangential force distribution, the modified PFD (MPFD) performed with high predictive accuracy across a wide range of sawing parameters, including sawing speed. The mean maximum absolute error rate was within 6.78%, and the maximum absolute error rate was within 11.7%. The practicability of predicting sawing power by the MPFD with few initial experimental samples was proved in case studies. On the premise of high sample measurement accuracy, only two samples are required for a fixed sawing speed. The feasibility of applying the MPFD to optimise sawing parameters while lowering the energy consumption of the sawing system was validated. The case study shows that energy use was reduced 28% by optimising the sawing parameters. The MPFD model can be used to predict sawing power, optimise sawing parameters and control energy.

  18. Safety and toxicity of saw palmetto in the CAMUS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avins, Andrew L; Lee, Jeannette Y; Meyers, Catherine M; Barry, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    Extracts of the saw palmetto berry are used by many men in the United States as self-treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. While the most recent data from double-blind clinical trials do not support efficacy superior to that of placebo, there are sparse data on saw palmetto toxicity. A total of 369 patients were randomized in the CAMUS (Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Urological Symptoms) trial, of whom 357 were included in this modified intent to treat analysis. Participants were randomized to 320, 640 and 960 mg daily of an ethanolic saw palmetto extract or to an identical-appearing placebo in an escalating manner at 6-month intervals for a total of 18 months of followup. Adverse event assessments, vital signs, and blood and urine laboratory tests were obtained at regular intervals. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the rates of serious or nonserious adverse events, changes in vital signs, digital prostate examination findings or study withdrawal rates. Overall, there were no significant intergroup differences in laboratory test abnormalities, while differences in individual laboratory tests were rare and small in magnitude. No evidence of significant dose-response phenomena was identified. The saw palmetto extract used in the CAMUS trial showed no evidence of toxicity at doses up to 3 times the usual clinical dose during an 18-month period. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hepatotoxicity potential of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Y N; Devkota, A K; Sneeden, D C; Singh, K K; Halaweish, F

    2007-02-01

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens L.) is an herbal drug used to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). There has been a report that a preparation containing this herb has caused cholestatic hepatitis in one person and some indications exist that it may have the potential to produce liver toxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of saw palmetto on rat liver function by measuring its effects on several enzymes and formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), a byproduct of lipid peroxidation. A significant increase in these parameters is considered an indication of liver toxicity. Thirty-six rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 animals each. They were treated for 2 or 4 weeks with a placebo or saw palmetto at doses of 9.14 or 22.86 mg/kg/body wt./day; that is, 2 x and 5 x the maximum recommended daily human dosages. After 2 or 4 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected to prepare serum for enzyme assays, which were performed using commercially available kits. A portion of the liver was removed, and a homogenate prepared for the lipid peroxidation assay. Results showed no significant difference in animal body weight, enzyme activity, or MDA formation at either time or dosage level, as compared to controls. The data indicate that at the doses and time periods tested, saw palmetto did not produce any significant effect on the normal biological markers of liver toxicity.

  20. Chopping and webbing control saw-palmetto in south Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford E. Lewis

    1972-01-01

    Saw-palmetto is one of the more troublesome plants growing in south Florida, and its control is often desirable in programs of range and timber management. Both cross-chopping and webbing (root plowing) proved to be effective control measures, but webbing appeared to be less effective on a moist site. Many other shrubs were also effectively reduced by these treatments...

  1. Modeling, simulation, and design of SAW grating filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwelb, Otto; Adler, E. L.; Slaboszewicz, J. K.

    1990-05-01

    A systematic procedure for modeling, simulating, and designing SAW (surface acoustic wave) grating filters, taking losses into account, is described. Grating structures and IDTs (interdigital transducers) coupling to SAWs are defined by cascadable transmission-matrix building blocks. Driving point and transfer characteristics (immittances) of complex architectures consisting of gratings, transducers, and coupling networks are obtained by chain-multiplying building-block matrices. This modular approach to resonator filter analysis and design combines the elements of lossy filter synthesis with the transmission-matrix description of SAW components. A multipole filter design procedure based on a lumped-element-model approximation of one-pole two-port resonator building blocks is given and the range of validity of this model examined. The software for simulating the performance of SAW grating devices based on this matrix approach is described, and its performance, when linked to the design procedure to form a CAD/CAA (computer-aided design and analysis) multiple-filter design package, is illustrated with a resonator filter design example.

  2. Inner tubes cutting method by electrical arc saw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, P.

    1990-01-01

    The research program deals on the definition of tools used for dismantling steam generator tubes bundle of PWR and on tool used for cutting pipes of great diameter by using the process of cutting by electrical arc saw. The remote tools are used for cutting by the interior pipes of contamined circuits [fr

  3. Predictive modelling of noise level generated during sawing of rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents an experimental and statistical study on noise level generated during of rock sawing by circular diamond sawblades. Influence of the operating variables and rock properties on the noise level are investigated and analysed. Statistical analyses are then employed and models are built for the prediction of ...

  4. Resonance Frequency Readout Circuit for a 900 MHz SAW Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Zhang, Chun; Weng, Zhaoyang; Guo, Yanshu; Wang, Zhihua

    2017-09-15

    A monolithic resonance frequency readout circuit with high resolution and short measurement time is presented for a 900 MHz RF surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor. The readout circuit is composed of a fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) as the stimulus source to the SAW device and a phase-based resonance frequency detecting circuit using successive approximation (SAR). A new resonance frequency searching strategy has been proposed based on the fact that the SAW device phase-frequency response crosses zero monotonically around the resonance frequency. A dedicated instant phase difference detecting circuit is adopted to facilitate the fast SAR operation for resonance frequency searching. The readout circuit has been implemented in 180 nm CMOS technology with a core area of 3.24 mm². In the experiment, it works with a 900 MHz SAW resonator with a quality factor of Q = 130. Experimental results show that the readout circuit consumes 7 mW power from 1.6 V supply. The frequency resolution is 733 Hz, and the relative accuracy is 0.82 ppm, and it takes 0.48 ms to complete one measurement. Compared to the previous results in the literature, this work has achieved the shortest measurement time with a trade-off between measurement accuracy and measurement time.

  5. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW Resonators for Monitoring Conditioning Film Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Hohmann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose surface acoustic wave (SAW resonators as a complementary tool for conditioning film monitoring. Conditioning films are formed by adsorption of inorganic and organic substances on a substrate the moment this substrate comes into contact with a liquid phase. In the case of implant insertion, for instance, initial protein adsorption is required to start wound healing, but it will also trigger immune reactions leading to inflammatory responses. The control of the initial protein adsorption would allow to promote the healing process and to suppress adverse immune reactions. Methods to investigate these adsorption processes are available, but it remains difficult to translate measurement results into actual protein binding events. Biosensor transducers allow user-friendly investigation of protein adsorption on different surfaces. The combination of several transduction principles leads to complementary results, allowing a more comprehensive characterization of the adsorbing layer. We introduce SAW resonators as a novel complementary tool for time-resolved conditioning film monitoring. SAW resonators were coated with polymers. The adsorption of the plasma proteins human serum albumin (HSA and fibrinogen onto the polymer-coated surfaces were monitored. Frequency results were compared with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor measurements, which confirmed the suitability of the SAW resonators for this application.

  6. Simpson's neutrino and the singular see-saw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T.J.; Johnson, R.; Ranfone, S.; Schechter, J.; Walle, J.W.F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors of this paper derive explicit forms for the neutrino and lepton mixing-matrices which describe the generic singular see-saw model. The dependence on the hierarchy parameter is contrasted with the non-singular case. Application is made to Simpson's 17 keV neutrino

  7. Optimization for cellulase production by Aspergillus niger using saw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellulases are a group of hydrolytic enzymes and are capable of degrading lignocellulosic materials. Cellulases have wide range of applications. This work focuses on factors relevant for improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis of saw dust by using Aspergillus niger. Different cultural conditions were examined to assess their ...

  8. Metode Dakwah Rasulullah SAW kepada Golongan Non Muslim di Madinah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalinur M Nur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Da'wah is a call to believe in Allah SWT, dakwah is not a special task to a particular person but to all Moslems. In delivering da'wah required various methods and strategies in order the message of da'wah is accepted to the mad'unya. At the time of Rasulullah SAW, the method of dakwah used to non-Muslims in Medina was da'wah through writing (Da'wah bil Al-Qalam. He sent messengers, who carried Islamic invitations which addressed to Heraclius (Roman Emperors, King Negus (Ruler of Ethiopia, Khusrau (Persian Ruler, and other great leaders. This is motivated by the Hudaibiyah Peace Agreement, political and theological. The contents of the Prophet's message of propaganda send to the kings was amazing, always preceded by Basmalah, some letters also include verses of the Qur'an. The composition of the sentence in the letter of the Prophet SAW always preceded the phrase "From Muhammad, the servant of Allah, and his messenger", then mention the name of the king who became the object and mention his position and power. The message by Rasulullah SAW gives persuasive value to invite kings to embrace Islam. Besides writing method Rasulullah SAW delivered dakwah to the non-Muslims in Medina was lack of coercion in embracing Islam, equality, fairness, honesty, rahmah and goodness.

  9. Band Saw Blade Crack before and after Comparison and Analysis of Experiments (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jin-gui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on MJ3310 woodworking band saw machine as the research object, under the no-load and load of Vib system vibration signal acquisition, processing and analysis software of band saw blade transverse vibration test and the signal acquisition and analysis of the collected signals obtained: to determine the transverse vibration displacement 5.66μm ~ 7.86μm and the main vibration frequency between 624 Hz ~ 792 Hz, then saw blade crack at least 3 mm, need timely saw blade, cutting high hardness of wood band saw blade transverse vibration displacement and frequency will increase sharply. Can be generated according to the band saw blade crack before and after the changing rule of the horizontal vibration displacement and frequency of transverse vibration and scope, judgment and replacement time of saw blade saw blade defect types, which can fully rational utilization of saw blade work effectively.

  10. Laser-based gluing of diamond-tipped saw blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigs, Christian; Lahdo, Rabi; Springer, André; Kaierle, Stefan; Hustedt, Michael; Brand, Helmut; Wloka, Richard; Zobel, Frank; Dültgen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    To process natural stone such as marble or granite, saw blades equipped with wear-resistant diamond grinding segments are used, typically joined to the blade by brazing. In case of damage or wear, they must be exchanged. Due to the large energy input during thermal loosening and subsequent brazing, the repair causes extended heat-affected zones with serious microstructure changes, resulting in shape distortions and disadvantageous stress distributions. Consequently, axial run-out deviations and cutting losses increase. In this work, a new near-infrared laser-based process chain is presented to overcome the deficits of conventional brazing-based repair of diamond-tipped steel saw blades. Thus, additional tensioning and straightening steps can be avoided. The process chain starts with thermal debonding of the worn grinding segments, using a continuous-wave laser to heat the segments gently and to exceed the adhesive's decomposition temperature. Afterwards, short-pulsed laser radiation removes remaining adhesive from the blade in order to achieve clean joining surfaces. The third step is roughening and activation of the joining surfaces, again using short-pulsed laser radiation. Finally, the grinding segments are glued onto the blade with a defined adhesive layer, using continuous-wave laser radiation. Here, the adhesive is heated to its curing temperature by irradiating the respective grinding segment, ensuring minimal thermal influence on the blade. For demonstration, a prototype unit was constructed to perform the different steps of the process chain on-site at the saw-blade user's facilities. This unit was used to re-equip a saw blade with a complete set of grinding segments. This saw blade was used successfully to cut different materials, amongst others granite.

  11. Spontaneous bimanual independence during parallel tapping and sawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The performance of complex polyrhythms—rhythms where the left and right hand move at different rates—is usually the province of highly trained individuals. However, studies in which hand movement is guided haptically show that even novices can perform polyrhythms with no or only brief training. In this study, we investigated whether novices are able to tap with one hand by matching different rates of a metronome while sawing with the other hand. This experiment was based on the assumption that saw movement is controlled consistently at a predictable rate without the need for paying primary attention to it. It would follow that consciously matching different stipulated metronome rates with the other hand would result in the spontaneous performance of polyrhythms. Six experimental conditions were randomised: single handed tapping and sawing as well as four bimanual conditions with expected ratios of 1:1 (performed with and without matching a metronome) as well as 3:4 and 4:3 (performed matching a metronome). Results showed that participants executed the saw movement at a consistent cycle duration of 0.44 [0.20] s to 0.51 [0.19] s across single and bimanual conditions, with no significant effect of the condition on the cycle duration (p = 0.315). Similarly, free tapping was executed at a cycle duration of 0.48 [0.22] s. In the bimanual conditions, we found that for a ratio of 4:3 (4 taps against 3 sawing cycles per measure), the observed and predicted ratio of 0.75 were not significantly different (p = 0.369), supporting our hypothesis of the spontaneous adoption of polyrhythms. However, for a ratio of 3:4 (3 taps against 4 sawing cycles per measure), the observed and predicted ratio differed (p = 0.016), with a trend towards synchronisation. Our findings show that bimanual independence when performing complex polyrhythms can in principle be achieved if the movement of one hand can be performed without paying much—if any—attention to it. In this paradigm

  12. Comparison of setting time measured using ultrasonic wave propagation with saw-cutting times on pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    At present, there is little fundamental guidance available to assist contractors in choosing when to schedule saw cuts on joints. To : conduct pavement finishing and sawing activities effectively, however, contractors need to know when a concrete mix...

  13. Storage ring free electron lasers and saw-tooth instability

    CERN Document Server

    Dattoli, Giuseppe; Migliorati, M; Palumbo, L; Renieri, A

    1999-01-01

    We show that Free Electron Lasers (FEL) operating with storage rings may counteract beam instabilities of the Saw Tooth (STI) type. We use a model based on a set of equations that couple those describing the FEL evolution to those accounting for the STI dynamics. The analysis provides a clear picture of the FEL-STI mutual feedback and clarifies the mechanisms of the instability inhibition. The reliability of the results is supported by a comparison with fully numerical codes.

  14. Rapid Airfield Damage Recovery: Deployable Saw Technology Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-29

    portland cement concrete for Rapid Airfield Damage Recovery (RADR). However, the next generation of RADR is focusing on lighter and leaner efforts...best tools for cutting portland cement concrete (PCC) in ADR scenarios (Bell et al. 2015 and Edwards et al. 2015). The saws are easily attached to...Various teeth are available for varying needs and jobs. Most teeth are made of steel with carbide tips. The carbide may be produced as a seat tip or

  15. Comparison of piezosurgery and traditional saw in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Giuseppe; Lazzeri, Davide; Conti, Marco; Agostini, Tommaso; Mannelli, Giuditta

    2014-10-01

    Investigators have hypothesised that piezoelectric surgical device could permanently replace traditional saws in conventional orthognathic surgery. Twelve consecutive patients who underwent bimaxillary procedures were involved in the study. In six patients the right maxillary and mandible osteotomies were performed using traditional saw, whilst the left osteotomies by piezoosteotomy; in the remaining six patients, the surgical procedures were reversed. Intraoperative blood loss, procedure duration time, incision precision, postoperative swelling and haematoma, and nerve impairment were evaluated to compare the outcomes and costs of these two procedures. Compare to traditional mechanical surgery, piezoosteotomy showed a significant intraoperative blood loss reduction of 25% (p = 0.0367), but the mean surgical procedure duration was longer by 35% (p = 0.0018). Moreover, the use of piezoosteotomy for mandible procedure required more time than for the maxillary surgery (p = 0.0003). There was a lower incidence of postoperative haematoma and swelling following piezoosteotomy, and a statistically significant reduction in postoperative nerve impairment (p = 0.003). We believe that piezoelectric device allows surgeons to achieve better results compared to a traditional surgical saw, especially in terms of intraoperative blood loss, postoperative swelling and nerve impairment. This device represents a less aggressive and safer method to perform invasive surgical procedures such as a Le Fort I osteotomy. However, we recommend the use of traditional saw in mandible surgery because it provides more foreseeable outcomes and well-controlled osteotomy. Further studies are needed to analyse whether piezoosteotomy could prevent relapse and promote bony union in larger advancements. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PEMANFAATAN METODE SAW PENDUKUNG KEPUTUSAN PENILAIAN EFEKTIVITAS MODEL PEMBELAJARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Apriyanto Sundara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Students who are in junior high school should have been able to read children stories appreciative. However, based on the results of research that has been done, appreciative children's story reading skills in students is still low due to the model applied learning teachers have not been effective. This study is a follow-up that aims to identify effective learning model that can be used by teachers in teaching reading children stories appreciative. The learning model studied is a model of Group Investigation (GI and Jurisprudential Inquiry (JI to utilize the Simple Additive Weighting (SAW method for support decision. The criteria on which the decision is motivation and student learning outcomes. Based on the analysis of data using SAW method, it is known that an effective learning model applied to teachers in teaching reading children's stories are appreciative GI learning model.  Siswa yang duduk di bangku SMP selayaknya telah mampu membaca apresiatif cerita anak. Namun, berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang telah dilakukan, keterampilan membaca apresiatif cerita anak pada siswa masih rendah dikarenakan model pembelajaran yang diterapkan guru belum efektif. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian lanjutan yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui model pembelajaran efektif yang dapat digunakan guru dalam pembelajaran membaca apresiatif cerita anak. Model pembelajaran yang diteliti adalah model Group Investigation (GI dan Jurisprudential Inquiry (JI dengan memanfaatkan metode Simple Additive Weighting (SAW sebagai pendukung keputusan. Adapun kriteria yang menjadi dasar pengambilan keputusan adalah motivasi dan hasil belajar siswa. Berdasarkan hasil analisis data dengan menggunakan metode SAW, dapat diketahui bahwa model pembelajaran yang efektif diterapkan guru dalam pembelajaran membaca apresiatif cerita anak adalah model pembelajaran GI.

  17. Leptogenesis in unified theories with Type II see-saw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, Stefan; King, Steve F.

    2006-01-01

    In some classes of flavour models based on unified theories with a type I see-saw mechanism, the prediction for the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino is in conflict with the lower bound from the requirement of successful thermal leptogenesis. We investigate how lifting the absolute neutrino mass scale by adding a type II see-saw contribution proportional to the unit matrix can solve this problem. Generically, lifting the neutrino mass scale increases the prediction for the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino while the decay asymmetry is enhanced and washout effects are reduced, relaxing the lower bound on the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino from thermal leptogenesis. For instance in classes of unified theories where the lightest right-handed neutrino dominates the type I see-saw contribution, we find that thermal leptogenesis becomes possible if the neutrino mass scale is larger than about 0.15 eV, making this scenario testable by neutrinoless double beta decay experiments in the near future

  18. Wire sawing for the application for dismantling of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toenshoff, H.K.; Hillmann-Apmann, H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Production Engineering and Machine Tools

    2001-07-01

    In recent years diamond wire sawing process has been established as a technique for machining of hard and brittle materials in the quarrying and dimensioning of natural stone, i.e. marble and granite /Bor94/, or in machining of concrete and reinforced concrete /NN89, NN90, Rus93, Zil89/. It is more and more applied in different industrial sectors, namely the building and road-building industry, for purposes of reconstruction and decommissioning/. For the application of cutting austenitic steel most of the current wire sawing tools can not be used. First the diamond get in chemical reaction with the steel (graphitisation) and also the plastic flow of the workpiece material (''smearing'') while processing this material, the chip spaces between the diamonds are filled with the steel chips and thus the effective processing is reduced. Only the very tips of the diamonds are in contact with the workpiece, which leads in most cases to rapid wear of the grains. The tool loses its ability to grind in short terms of time. All these problems exclude the wire sawing technique from wide areas of application of cutting ductile steel materials. (orig.)

  19. Wire sawing for the application for dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toenshoff, H.K.; Hillmann-Apmann, H.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years diamond wire sawing process has been established as a technique for machining of hard and brittle materials in the quarrying and dimensioning of natural stone, i.e. marble and granite /Bor94/, or in machining of concrete and reinforced concrete /NN89, NN90, Rus93, Zil89/. It is more and more applied in different industrial sectors, namely the building and road-building industry, for purposes of reconstruction and decommissioning/. For the application of cutting austenitic steel most of the current wire sawing tools can not be used. First the diamond get in chemical reaction with the steel (graphitisation) and also the plastic flow of the workpiece material (''smearing'') while processing this material, the chip spaces between the diamonds are filled with the steel chips and thus the effective processing is reduced. Only the very tips of the diamonds are in contact with the workpiece, which leads in most cases to rapid wear of the grains. The tool loses its ability to grind in short terms of time. All these problems exclude the wire sawing technique from wide areas of application of cutting ductile steel materials. (orig.)

  20. Safety Audit of Band Saw in Manufacturing Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kotus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the verifying of safety status for a selected device in the manufacturing organization. The safety audit of band saw was realized in the manufacturing process. Safety requirements of the machinery for cutting material are given in the standard STN 20 0723. This standard from the point of view of the work safety defines selected requirements for sawing, cutting compounds and the using of prevention to work with cutting compounds. Among the basic requirements belong material clamping and security services for cut, band saws and jaws wear, as well as the required protective cover. The efficiency of audit in percentage was evaluated by the level of fulfilment as follows: fulfilled (A mostly fulfilled (AB, conditionally fulfilled (B or unfulfilled (C. Through safety audit, were defined the weaknesses that increase the degree of employee health hazard. There were proposed corrective actions to eliminate weaknesses and retraining employees. It is still needed to perform the safety audit due to reduction of the probability of occupational injury.

  1. The frequency and level of sweep in mixed hardwood saw logs in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Hamner; Marshall S. White; Philip A. Araman

    2007-01-01

    Hardwood sawmills traditionally saw logs in a manner that either orients sawlines parallel to the log central axis (straight sawing) or the log surface (allowing for taper). Sweep is characterized as uniform curvature along the entire length of a log. For logs with sweep, lumber yield losses from straight and taper sawing increase with increasing levels of sweep. Curve...

  2. Torque-Controlled Adaptive Speed Control on a CNC Marble Saw Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Simsir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although CNC marble saw machines can automatically cut marble slabs to desired dimensions, saw speed and feed rate are selected by operator according to stone parameters, features of the saw, and its immersion depth. If the feed rate is selected lower than the optimal value, there will be time-loss and capacity deficiencies or if it is selected faster, cutting quality will decrease, spindle motor will draw more current, and saw blade will corrode faster. While cutting especially thick materials, saw may be stacked in the stone, cutting quality may be impaired, saw blade may be abraded earlier, precision quality may go down because of increase in measurement errors, and machine may be damaged with the increase in vibrations when improper feed rates are selected. Because of nonhomogeneity of the slabs and deterioration of the saw blade, operator cannot determine a persistent feed rate. This study is targeted to find saw speeds according to saw diameter and optimum feed rate by means of limiting vibrations and current drawn from saw motor and torque accordingly in order to increase working performance of CNC marble saw machines. Thanks to adaptive adjustment of feed rate, one can save on material as well as time, labour, and cost by making use of optimum energy.

  3. Effects of AlN Coating Layer on High Temperature Characteristics of Langasite SAW Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High temperature characteristics of langasite surface acoustic wave (SAW devices coated with an AlN thin film have been investigated in this work. The AlN films were deposited on the prepared SAW devices by mid-frequency magnetron sputtering. The SAW devices coated with AlN films were measured from room temperature to 600 °C. The results show that the SAW devices can work up to 600 °C. The AlN coating layer can protect and improve the performance of the SAW devices at high temperature. The SAW velocity increases with increasing AlN coating layer thickness. The temperature coefficients of frequency (TCF of the prepared SAW devices decrease with increasing thickness of AlN coating layers, while the electromechanical coupling coefficient (K2 of the SAW devices increases with increasing AlN film thickness. The K2 of the SAW devices increases by about 20% from room temperature to 600 °C. The results suggest that AlN coating layer can not only protect the SAW devices from environmental contamination, but also improve the K2 of the SAW devices.

  4. Reflective array modeling for reflective and directional SAW transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D P

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new approximate method for analyzing reflective SAW transducers, with much of the convenience of the coupled-mode (COM) method but with better accuracy. Transduction accuracy is obtained by incorporating the accurate electrostatic solution, giving for example correct harmonics, and allowance for electrode width variation, in a simple manner. Results are shown for a single-electrode transducer, Natural SPUDT and DART SPUDT, each using theoretically derived parameters. In contrast to the COM, the RAM can give accurate results for short or withdrawal-weighted transducers and for wide analysis bandwidth.

  5. Saw Palmetto Berry as a Treatment for BPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagelman, Elliot; Lowe, Franklin C

    2001-01-01

    Phytotherapeutic agents are often prescribed in Europe for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with lower urinary tract symptoms and are commonly used in the United States in over-the-counter preparations. Saw palmetto berry is the most popular of these agents, and in vitro some studies suggest that liposterolic extract of the plant has antiandrogenic effects that inhibit the type 1 and type 2 isoenzymes of 5α-reductase; however there are no clinical studies that show any decrease in serum dihydrotestosterone or prostate-specific antigen. Its efficacy in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms has not been conclusively proven. Clinical efficacy was suggested by a meta-analysis of Permixon, a formulation of saw palmetto, but the meta-analysis was done on suboptimal studies. One trial supports the equivalency of Permixon to finasteride in treating moderate to severe symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, with less decrease in sexual function. However, without a control/placebo arm, the actual efficacy of the agents cannot be determined. Other than occasional gastrointestinal upset, no other side effects have been reported. PMID:16985705

  6. Palestine Saw-scaled Vipers hunt disadvantaged avian migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosef, Reuven; Zduniak, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    The selection of an ambush-cum-foraging site and proper prey are indispensable for maintaining an adequate energy intake by sit-and-wait predators to optimize survival and future fitness. This is important for snakes, where an ambush site has suitable ambience. We studied the foraging strategy of the Palestine Saw-scaled Viper (Echis coloratus) at an avian migratory stopover site. Following initial observations, we hypothesized that vipers are able to discern the body mass of a perched bird and hunt accordingly. We implemented an experiment where vipers chose between four groups of migratory Blackcaps with different body mass. Prey choice by vipers of both age classes was not random and adults focused on Blackcaps with the lightest body mass. Juveniles displayed a variability of prey choice but selected mainly birds from the lightest categories. We concluded that Saw-scaled Vipers hunt prey based on thermal cues; juveniles practice on different prey groups prior to perfecting their foraging techniques i.e., hunting is a learned process; and that they prefer birds with the lowest body mass. The last because Blackcaps, when on migration, save energy by entering a state of deep torpor in which they sacrifice their vigilance capabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Wireless SAW passive tag temperature measurement in the collision case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, A.; Shepeta, A.; Wattimena, M.

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes temperature measurement in the multisensor systems based on the radio-frequency identification SAW passive tags which are currently applied in the electric power systems and the switchgears. Different approaches of temperature measurement in the collision case are shown here. The study is based on the tag model with specific topology, which allows us to determine temperature through the response signal with time-frequency information. This research considers the collision case for several passive tags as the temperature sensors which are placed in the switchgear. This research proposal is to analyze the possibility of using several SAW passive sensors in the collision case. We consider the using of the different typical elements for passive surface acoustic wave tag which applies as an anticollision passive sensor. These wireless sensors based on the surface acoustic waves tags contain specifically coded structures. This topology makes possible the reliability of increasing tag identification and the temperature measurement in the collision case. As the results for this case we illustrate simultaneous measurement of at least six sensors.

  8. Modelling Sawing of Metal Tubes Through FEM Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bort, C. M. Giorgio; Bosetti, P.; Bruschi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a numerical model of the sawing process of AISI 304 thin tubes, which is cut through a circular blade with alternating roughing and finishing teeth. The numerical simulation environment is the three-dimensional FEM software Deform v.10.1. The teeth actual trajectories were determined by a blade kinematics analysis developed in Matlab. Due to the manufacturing rolling steps and subsequent welding stage, the tube material is characterized by a gradient of properties along its thickness. Consequently, a simplified cutting test was set up and carried out in order to identify the values of relevant material parameters to be used in the numerical model. The dedicated test was the Orthogonal Tube Cutting test (OTC), which was performed on an instrumented lathe. The proposed numerical model was validated by comparing numerical results and experimental data obtained from sawing tests carried out on an industrial machine. The following outputs were compared: the cutting force, the chip thickness, and the chip contact area.

  9. Modelling Sawing of Metal Tubes Through FEM Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bort, C. M. Giorgio; Bosetti, P.; Bruschi, S.

    2011-05-01

    The paper presents the development of a numerical model of the sawing process of AISI 304 thin tubes, which is cut through a circular blade with alternating roughing and finishing teeth. The numerical simulation environment is the three-dimensional FEM software Deform™ v.10.1. The teeth actual trajectories were determined by a blade kinematics analysis developed in Matlab™. Due to the manufacturing rolling steps and subsequent welding stage, the tube material is characterized by a gradient of properties along its thickness. Consequently, a simplified cutting test was set up and carried out in order to identify the values of relevant material parameters to be used in the numerical model. The dedicated test was the Orthogonal Tube Cutting test (OTC), which was performed on an instrumented lathe. The proposed numerical model was validated by comparing numerical results and experimental data obtained from sawing tests carried out on an industrial machine. The following outputs were compared: the cutting force, the chip thickness, and the chip contact area.

  10. On-Chip Correlator for Passive Wireless SAW Multisensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For decoding the asynchronous superposition of response signals from different sensors, it is a challenge to achieve correlation in a code division multiplexing (CDM based passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW multisensor system. Therefore, an on-chip correlator scheme is developed in this paper. In contrast to conventional CDM-based systems, this novel scheme enables the correlations to be operated at the SAW sensors, instead of the reader. Thus, the response signals arriving at the reader are the result of cross-correlation on the chips. It is then easy for the reader to distinguish the sensor that is matched with the interrogating signal. The operation principle, signal analysis, and simulation of the novel scheme are described in the paper. The simulation results show the response signals from the correlations of the sensors. A clear spike pulse is presented in the response signals, when a sensor code is matched with the interrogating code. Simulations verify the feasibility of the on-chip correlator concept.

  11. Occurrence of the saw-whet owl in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, F.H.; Stickley, A.R.

    1967-01-01

    On 31 October 1965 at 1000 hours we observed and collected a Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) in adult plumage and in apparently good physical condition at Ponte Vedra, St. Johns County, Florida. The bird flew from beneath a truck to a cross beam in a garage adjoining a large, fresh-water, wooded swamp dominated by cabbage palms (Sabal palmetto). We found a regurgitated pellet and a freshly killed, partially eaten cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus) beneath the truck. The bird was sent to Henry M. Stevenson for deposit in Florida State University Museum, Tallahassee (specimen no. 4092b). Dr. Stevenson found that the skull had been shattered and the gonads destroyed in collecting. Total length (before skinning) was 210 mm.

  12. Personnel selection using group fuzzy AHP and SAW methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Afshari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Personnel evaluation and selection is a very important activity for the enterprises. Different job needs different ability and the requirement of criteria which can measure ability is different. It needs a suitable and flexible method to evaluate the performance of each candidate according to different requirements of different jobs in relation to each criterion. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is one of Multi Criteria decision making methods derived from paired comparisons. Simple Additive Weighting (SAW is most frequently used multi attribute decision technique. The method is based on the weighted average. It successfully models the ambiguity and imprecision associated with the pair wise comparison process and reduces the personal biasness. This study tries to analyze the Analytic Hierarchy Process in order to make the recruitment process more reasonable, based on the fuzzy multiple criteria decision making model to achieve the goal of personnel selection. Finally, an example is implemented to demonstrate the practicability of the proposed method.

  13. Using of sawing quartzite fine residual for obtaining ceramic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, L.F.P.M.; Souza, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Quartzite is a metamorphic rock that is consisting mainly of quartz. In Paraiba there is a mining activity of this rock, in the region of Varzea and Junco do Serido especially where many wastes are created, including the sawing residue. The objective is to use the waste cited as the ceramic component coating mass, thereby replacing the quartz. Initially, the raw materials samples were taken and the chemical analysis was done of them. This passed the comminution process to achieve the required minimum particle size. After this, a formulation which added the residue in ceramic mass was made. The specimens were subjected to sintering and it was later made physical tests according to NBR 13818. The results show that the residue can replace the quartz ceramic mass successfully, but not as good as the original raw material. (author)

  14. Interference suppression using a SAW-based adaptive filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Gary J.; Grant, Calvin J.; Das, Pankaj K.

    The structure and performance of a transversal filter interference suppressor that has been constructed using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay line are described. The delay line operates at a center frequency of 300 MHz and has eight equally spaced taps with an intertap delay of 150 ns. In the programmable mode, the tap weights are externally controllable, and in the adaptive mode, the tap weights are adjusted using the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-squared algorithm. Experimental results are provided that illustrate the performance of the filter in both the adaptive and programmable modes. Filter responses obtained in the adaptive mode are shown, along with spectra demonstrating the corresponding interference suppression. Bit-error-rate performance results for a single-tone jammer interfering with a direct sequence spread spectrum signal are presented.

  15. A see-saw mechanism with light sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, B.H.J.; Garbutt, M.; Stephenson, G.J.; Goldman, T.

    2001-01-01

    The usual see-saw mechanism for the generation of light neutrino masses is based on the assumption that all of the flavours of right-handed (more properly, sterile) neutrinos are heavy. If the sterile Majorana mass matrix is singular, one or more of the sterile neutrinos will have zero mass before mixing with the active (left-handed) neutrinos and be light after that mixing is introduced In particular, a rank 1 sterile mass matrix leads naturally to two pseudo-Dirac pairs, one very light active Majorana neutrino and one heavy sterile Majorana neutrino. For any pattern of Dirac masses, there exists a region of parameter space in which the two pseudo-Dirac pairs are nearly degenerate in mass. This, in turn, leads to large amplitude mixing of active states as well as mixing into sterile states

  16. Signal processing circuitry for CMOS-based SAW gas sensors with low power and area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd-Yasin, F.; Tye, K.F.; Reaz, M.B.I.

    2009-06-01

    The design and development of interface circuitries for CMOS-based SAW gas sensor is presented in this paper. The SAW gas sensor devices typically run at RF, requiring most designs to have complex signal conditioning circuitry. The proposed approach attempts to design a simple architecture with reduced power consumption. The SAW gas sensors operate at 354MHz. Simulation data show that the interface circuitries are ten times smaller with lower power supply, comparing to existing work. (author)

  17. See-saw enhancement of neutrino mixing due to the right-handed phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, M.

    1994-11-01

    We study the see-saw enhancement mechanism in presence of the right-handed phases of the Dirac neutrino mass matrix and the Majorana mass matrix. The enhancement condition given by Smirnov is modified. We point out that the see-saw enhancement could be obtained due to the right-handed phases even if the Majorana matrix is proportional to the unit matrix. We show a realistic Dirac mass matrix which causes the see-saw enhancement. (author)

  18. Mixed Modeling of a SAW Delay Line Using VHDL-AMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2006-01-01

    To aid in the development of SAW sensors for aerospace applications we have created a model of a SAW Delay line using VHDL. The model implements the Impulse Response method to calculate the frequency response, impedance, and insertion loss. The model includes optimization for the number of finger pairs in the IDTs and for the aperture height. This paper presents the model and the results from the model for a SAW delay line design.

  19. Remote disassembly of radioactively contaminated vessels by means of an arc saw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    The arc saw, a newly developed tool, is a toothless circular saw which cuts by means of an electric arc. Cutting speeds between 20 to 30 cm 2 /S and depths up to 45 cm are possible. There is no mechanical contact between blade and work piece, no binding, and no blade breakage. The arc saw will be applied to the rapid and remote disassembly of multiple ton, contaminated stainless steel vessels

  20. Analysis of acoustic reflectors for SAW temperature sensor and wireless measurement of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Kim, Seong Hoon; Jeong, Jae Kee; Shin, Beom Soo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a wireless and non power SAW (surface acoustic wave) temperature sensor was developed. The single inter digital transducer (IDT) of SAW temperature sensor of which resonance frequency is 434 MHz was fabricated on 128.deg rot-X LiNbO 3 piezoelectric substrate by semiconductor processing technology. To find optimal acoustic reflector for SAW temperature sensor, various kinds of acoustic reflectors were fabricated and their reflection characteristics were analyzed. The IDT type acoustic reflector showed better reflection characteristic than other reflectors. The wireless temperature sensing system consisting of SAW temperature sensor with dipole antenna and a microprocessor based control circuit with dipole antenna for transmitting signal to activate the SAW temperature sensor and receiving the signal from SAW temperature sensor was developed. The result with wireless SAW temperature sensing system showed that the frequency of SAW temperature sensor was linearly decreased with the increase of temperature in the range of 40 to 80.deg.C and the developed wireless SAW temperature sensing system showed the excellent performance with the coefficient of determination of 0.99

  1. Toward an Elasticity of Chip-N-Saw: Demand and Supply Models of Chip-N-Saw Stumpage in Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun M. Tanger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Softwood chip-n-saw (CNS is a relatively new stumpage product in the sawtimber- and pulpwood-dominated stumpage markets in the U.S. South. Based on a quarterly data series from 2003 to 2016, this study estimates the demand and supply models of the softwood CNS stumpage market in Louisiana. The two-stage least squares (2SLS results reveal that own price elasticity of demand (PED is price elastic, and the cross-price elasticity (XEDwith sawtimber approaches unit elasticity. On the supply side, CNS is price inelastic in supply (PES, but more responsive to own price changesthan sawtimber quantity supplied. Further, severance tax increases are found to decrease the supply of CNS, indicating that suppliers are responsive to severance tax incidence. As the first empirical estimation of CNS, the findings should be of interest to those involved in the analysis of Southeastern stumpage markets.

  2. Saw Palmetto Extract Inhibits Metastasis and Antiangiogenesis through STAT3 Signal Pathway in Glioma Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3 plays an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis in human glioma. Previous research indicated that saw palmetto extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells through STAT3 signal pathway. But its effect on tumor metastasis and antiangiogenesis is not clear. This study is to further clear the impact of saw palmetto extract on glioma cell metastasis, antiangiogenesis, and its mechanism. TUNEL assay indicated that the apoptotic cells in the saw palmetto treated group are higher than that in the control group (p<0.05. The apoptosis related protein is detected and the results revealed that saw palmetto extract inhibits the proliferation of human glioma. Meanwhile pSTAT3 is lower in the experimental group and CD34 is also inhibited in the saw palmetto treated group. This means that saw palmetto extract could inhibit the angiogenesis in glioma. We found that saw palmetto extract was an important phytotherapeutic drug against the human glioma through STAT3 signal pathway. Saw palmetto extract may be useful as an adjunctive therapeutic agent for treatment of individuals with glioma and other types of cancer in which STAT3 signaling is activated.

  3. Saw Palmetto Extract Inhibits Metastasis and Antiangiogenesis through STAT3 Signal Pathway in Glioma Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hong; Shen, Jinglian; Yang, Yang; Che, Yuqin

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis in human glioma. Previous research indicated that saw palmetto extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells through STAT3 signal pathway. But its effect on tumor metastasis and antiangiogenesis is not clear. This study is to further clear the impact of saw palmetto extract on glioma cell metastasis, antiangiogenesis, and its mechanism. TUNEL assay indicated that the apoptotic cells in the saw palmetto treated group are higher than that in the control group (p saw palmetto extract inhibits the proliferation of human glioma. Meanwhile pSTAT3 is lower in the experimental group and CD34 is also inhibited in the saw palmetto treated group. This means that saw palmetto extract could inhibit the angiogenesis in glioma. We found that saw palmetto extract was an important phytotherapeutic drug against the human glioma through STAT3 signal pathway. Saw palmetto extract may be useful as an adjunctive therapeutic agent for treatment of individuals with glioma and other types of cancer in which STAT3 signaling is activated.

  4. Machine Shop I. Learning Activity Packets (LAPs). Section D--Power Saws and Drilling Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains two learning activity packets (LAPs) for the "power saws and drilling machines" instructional area of a Machine Shop I course. The two LAPs cover the following topics: power saws and drill press. Each LAP contains a cover sheet that describes its purpose, an introduction, and the tasks included in the LAP; learning…

  5. Experimental study on manufacturing of grits-spiral- distribution electroplated wire saw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei GAO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain high performance electroplating diamond wire saw, experimental studies are conducted for development of grits-spiral-distribution electroplated diamond wire saw using sand-suspend electroplating method. The influences of pre-plating cathode current density, grits electro-embedding cathode current density and time on composite deposite coating appearance and grits distribution of wire saw are analyzed, and the sawing experiment is carried out by using the trial wire saw. The results show that good bonding strength between the coating and the steel wire can be obtained when the adopted cathode current density is 5.0 A/dm2 at pre-plating stage; good coating and girts distribution can be obtained when the adopted cathode current density is 5.0 A/dm2 and the electroplating time is 7~8 min at grits electro-embedding stage. By winding insulation wire on the surface of steel wire and reasonably selecting technological parameters before pre-plating can make the diamond wire saw with grits-spiral-distribution on surface, and the new type of wire saw has a better crumbs-clearing effect in wire sawing process.

  6. Critical Analysis of Piezoelectric Surgery with Oscillating Saw in Bimaxillary Orthognathic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Zainab; Saleem, Hammad; Ahmed, Waseem

    2017-06-01

    To compare the piezosurgery with conventional saw for osteotomy in orthognathic bimaxillary surgery. Comparative study. The Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January 2012 to July 2015. Twenty-four patients, regardless of gender, were selected for bimaxillary surgery. Each underwent osteotomy with conventional saw and piezosurgery equipment. Intraoperative and postoperative parameters, like blood loss during operation, time required for surgery, postoperative swelling, nerve function, incision and surgical precisons, were evaluated. Out of total 96 osteotomies, 48 (50%) maxillary and 48 (50%) mandibular osteotomies were performed. Time required for piezosurgery was more (63 minutes) as compared to saw (p=0.003). Other parameters, like intraoperative blood loss (p=0.091), postoperative swelling (p=0.041), and nerve damage (p=0.009), were far less frequent with piezosurgery than frequent with saw procedures. Piezosurgery is a favourable alternative technique as compared to saw technique in bimaxillary orthognathic surgeries.

  7. Theoretical Studies on the SAW Properties of LGS at High-Temperature in Optimal Cuts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun JI; Tao HAN; Wenkang SHI; Guowei ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices play a significant role in signal processing, frequency control and sensing applications. In general, they cannot operate at elevated temperature. The new crystal of langasite provides possibility for surface acoustic wave devices applied at high temperature. This paper studies the SAW properties of single and doubly rotated cuts of LGS at high temperature. The calculated SAW properties of LGS are analyzed in space with aid of contour plots, and two promising SAW orientation regions at high temperature are presented. For some typical cuts and propagating directions within the two optimal regions, their SAW characteristics vs temperature are discussed. Based on the experimental evidence in some literatures, the reliability of calculated results is verified.

  8. A high linearity downconverter for SAW-less LTE receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Peichen; Guan Rui; Wang Wufeng; Chen Dongpo; Zhou Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a high linearity downconverter implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process for long term evolution (LTE) receivers without a surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter. The proposed downconverter is composed of a transconductance (G m ) stage, a passive mixer, a current buffer, a transimpedance (TIA) stage, and a DC-offset cancellation (DCOC) loop. The current buffer is utilized to provide very low load impedance for the passive mixer at high frequencies and reduce the output voltage swing induced by out-of-band blockers. This technique improves the input referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) and second-order intercept point (IIP2) of the down-converter by 4.5 dB and 11 dB, respectively. The measured results show that the proposed downconverter achieves a voltage conversion gain of 29.5 dB, double sideband noise figure of 12.7 dB, out-of-band IIP3 of 13 dBm and IIP2 of more than 62 dBm.

  9. An analytical approach for the Propagation Saw Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Lorenzo; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Gaume, Johan

    2016-04-01

    The Propagation Saw Test (PST) [1, 2] is an experimental in-situ technique that has been introduced to assess crack propagation propensity in weak snowpack layers buried below cohesive snow slabs. This test attracted the interest of a large number of practitioners, being relatively easy to perform and providing useful insights for the evaluation of snow instability. The PST procedure requires isolating a snow column of 30 centimeters of width and -at least-1 meter in the downslope direction. Then, once the stratigraphy is known (e.g. from a manual snow profile), a saw is used to cut a weak layer which could fail, potentially leading to the release of a slab avalanche. If the length of the saw cut reaches the so-called critical crack length, the onset of crack propagation occurs. Furthermore, depending on snow properties, the crack in the weak layer can initiate the fracture and detachment of the overlying slab. Statistical studies over a large set of field data confirmed the relevance of the PST, highlighting the positive correlation between test results and the likelihood of avalanche release [3]. Recent works provided key information on the conditions for the onset of crack propagation [4] and on the evolution of slab displacement during the test [5]. In addition, experimental studies [6] and simplified models [7] focused on the qualitative description of snowpack properties leading to different failure types, namely full propagation or fracture arrest (with or without slab fracture). However, beside current numerical studies utilizing discrete elements methods [8], only little attention has been devoted to a detailed analytical description of the PST able to give a comprehensive mechanical framework of the sequence of processes involved in the test. Consequently, this work aims to give a quantitative tool for an exhaustive interpretation of the PST, stressing the attention on important parameters that influence the test outcomes. First, starting from a pure

  10. Hydrothermal growth of titania nanowires for SAW device sensing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Mohd Rosydi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of titania or titanium dioxide (TiO2 is attracted to energy and environmental applications. Here, the growth of nanostructure TiO2 nanowires on Si (100 substrates by using the two-step method. Different seed layers of TiO2 were deposited by spin coating and annealing, followed by the growth of TiO2 nanowires by using the hydrothermal method. The sol-gel technique was used in preparing the TiO2 solution for the thin film deposition purpose. Acetic acid, hydrochloric acid and tris (2-aminoethyl amine were used as a stabilizer to synthesize three different TiO2 seed layers. The aim of this study was to understand the role of polycrystalline size on thin film towards the diameter of nanowires grown as a sensing area in Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW Biosensor. The morphology and structure of the thin film and TiO2 nanowires were characterized using X-Ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM.

  11. Effects of a saw palmetto herbal blend in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, L S; Partin, A W; Epstein, J I; Tyler, V E; Simon, I; Macairan, M L; Chan, T L; Dorey, F J; Garris, J B; Veltri, R W; Santos, P B; Stonebrook, K A; deKernion, J B

    2000-05-01

    We tested the effects of a saw palmetto herbal blend in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) via a randomized, placebo controlled trial. We randomized 44 men 45 to 80 years old with symptomatic BPH into a trial of a saw palmetto herbal blend versus placebo. End points included routine clinical measures (symptom score, uroflowmetry and post-void residual urine volume), blood chemistry studies (prostate specific antigen, sex hormones and multiphasic analysis), prostate volumetrics by magnetic resonance imaging, and prostate biopsy for zonal tissue morphometry and semiquantitative histology studies. Saw palmetto herbal blend and placebo groups had improved clinical parameters with a slight advantage in the saw palmetto group (not statistically significant). Neither prostate specific antigen nor prostate volume changed from baseline. Prostate epithelial contraction was noted, especially in the transition zone, where percent epithelium decreased from 17.8% at baseline to 10.7% after 6 months of saw palmetto herbal blend (p saw palmetto herbal blend (p saw palmetto herbal blend. When the study was no longer blinded, 41 men elected to continue therapy in an open label extension. Saw palmetto herbal blend appears to be a safe, highly desirable option for men with moderately symptomatic BPH. The secondary outcome measures of clinical effect in our study were only slightly better for saw palmetto herbal blend than placebo (not statistically significant). However, saw palmetto herbal blend therapy was associated with epithelial contraction, especially in the transition zone (p <0.01), indicating a possible mechanism of action underlying the clinical significance detected in other studies.

  12. Saw palmetto extract induces nuclear heterogeneity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Francis, Bettina M; Rayburn, A Lane

    2009-01-01

    Saw palmetto (SW), a phytotherapeutic compound used in the treatment of prostate disease, was examined for potential nuclear effects. SW extract was incorporated into a complete casein-based semisynthetic rodent chow at 0%, 0.1% and 1% SW. SW was fed to mice for 6 weeks, after which the mice received a single i/p injection of either the known genotoxic agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in saline or just saline. Forty-eight hours after injection, blood and bone marrow were collected for flow cytometric analysis. A significant effect of MMS was observed in both male and female mice with respect to: an increase in nuclear heterogeneity in bone marrow cells as measured by the coefficient of variation of the G1 peak in a flow histogram (6.32 versus 4.8 in male mice, 7.0 versus 4.9 in female mice) and an increase in the number of micronucleated blood cells (3.4% versus 0.56% male mice, 3.1% versus 0.6 in female mice) indicating a positive genotoxic response. SW also appears to increase the heterogeneity of bone marrow nuclei in a dose dependent manner (0-5.1%, 0.1-5.5% and 1-5.7% in male mice, 0-5.7%, 0.1-6.0% and 1-6.2% in female mice) without a concomitant increase in blood cell micronuclei. These results indicate that SW is not genotoxic with respect to physical DNA damage and that the changes observed in the bone marrow are due to chromatin conformation modifications in the nuclei of in vivo treated mouse cells. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Saw palmetto for the treatment of men with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, G S

    2000-05-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature on the use of saw palmetto in men with lower urinary tract symptoms is provided. A literature search of studies that have assessed the mechanism of action and clinical results of saw palmetto in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia was performed. A variety of potential mechanisms of action of saw palmetto have been demonstrated through in vitro studies, including 5-alpha reductase inhibition, adrenergic receptor antagonism and intraprostatic androgen receptor blockade. Clinical evidence of the relevance of these effects is largely unavailable. The use of saw palmetto in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia is safe with no recognized adverse effects. No effect on serum prostate specific antigen has been noted. Placebo controlled trials and meta-analyses have suggested that saw palmetto leads to subjective and objective improvement in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. However, most studies are significantly limited by methodological flaws, small patient numbers and brief treatment intervals. Evidence suggests that saw palmetto may have a significant effect on urinary flow rates and symptom scores compared to placebo in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. However, large scale, placebo controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy of saw palmetto.

  14. Development of a Wireless and Passive SAW-Based Chemical Sensor for Organophosphorous Compound Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Qian Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new wireless and passive surface acoustic wave (SAW-based chemical sensor for organophosphorous compound (OC detection is presented. A 434 MHz reflective delay line configuration composed by single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs and three shorted reflectors was fabricated on YZ LiNbO3 piezoelectric substrate as the sensor element. A thin fluoroalcoholpolysiloxane (SXFA film acted as the sensitive interface deposited onto the SAW propagation path between the second and last reflectors of the SAW device. The first reflector was used for the temperature compensation utilizing the difference method. The adsorption between the SXFA and OC molecules modulates the SAW propagation, especially for the time delay of the SAW, hence, the phase shifts of the reflection peaks from the corresponding reflectors can be used to characterize the target OC. Prior to the sensor fabrication, the coupling of modes (COM and perturbation theory were utilized to predict the SAW device performance and the gas adsorption. Referring to a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW-based reader unit, the developed SAW chemical sensor was wirelessly characterized in gas exposure experiments for dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP detection. Sensor performance parameters such as phase sensitivity, repeatability, linearity, and temperature compensation were evaluated experimentally.

  15. Serenoa repens (saw palmetto): a systematic review of adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbabiaka, Taofikat B; Pittler, Max H; Wider, Barbara; Ernst, Edzard

    2009-01-01

    Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small, also known as saw palmetto, is one of the most widely used herbal preparations for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although a number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of the efficacy of S. repens for the treatment of LUTS and BPH have been published, no systematic review on its drug interactions or adverse events currently exists. This review assesses all available human safety data of S. repens monopreparations. Systematic literature searches were conducted from date of inception to February 2008 in five electronic databases; reference lists and our departmental files were checked for further relevant publications. Information was requested from spontaneous reporting schemes of the WHO and national safety bodies. Twenty-four manufacturers/distributors of S. repens preparations and four herbalist organizations were contacted for additional information. No language restrictions were imposed. Only reports of adverse events in humans from monopreparations of S. repens were included. Data from all articles, regardless of study design, reporting adverse events or interactions were independently extracted by the first author and validated by the second. Forty articles (26 randomized controlled trials, 4 non-randomized controlled trials, 6 uncontrolled trials and 4 case reports/series) were included. They suggest that adverse events associated with the use of S. repens are mild and similar to those with placebo. The most frequently reported adverse events are abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, fatigue, headache, decreased libido and rhinitis. More serious adverse events such as death and cerebral haemorrhage are reported in isolated case reports and data from spontaneous reporting schemes, but causality is questionable. No drug interactions were reported. Currently available data suggest that S. repens is well tolerated by most users and is not

  16. Knowledge and prevalence of use of saw palmetto and other herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Persaud

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... side effects sometimes noted with more conventional options [4]. While we ... our patients, this may be a worthwhile objective in future research. There has ... studies of saw palmetto and other herbal derivatives have shown.

  17. High-performance circular sawing of AISI 1045 steel with cermet and tungsten carbide inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrao, A. M.; Rubio, J. C. Campos; Moreira, C.; Faria, P. E.

    2014-01-01

    This work investigated the influence of cutting speed and feed rate on cutting forces, surface roughness, and slot width circular sawing of AISI 1045 steel. The effects of tool material (cermet and tungsten carbide) and geometry (chip breaker flute and pre-cutting/postcutting teeth) were also investigated. Thrust and radial forces generally tended to decrease as the cutting speed increased and tended to increase with the feed rate. The lowest values of thrust and radial forces were obtained using a tungsten carbide saw ground with precutting and post-cutting teeth. With regard to the quality of the machined wall, the lowest surface roughness was obtained by applying the highest cutting speed and lowest feed rate and employing a cermet brazed saw. Under this condition, roughness values comparable to face turning and parting off operations were obtained. The cermet brazed saw was responsible for producing the narrowest slot widths.

  18. Full Dynamic Reactions in the Basic Shaft Bearings of Big Band Saw Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Boycho

    2013-03-01

    The band saws machines are a certain class woodworking machines for longitudinal or transversal cutting as well as for curvilinear wood cutting. These machines saw the wood through a band-saw blade and two feeding wheels. These wheels usually are very large and they are produced with inaccuracies. The centre of mass of the disc is displaced from the axis of rotation of the distance e (eccentricity) and the axis of the disk makes an angle with the axis of rotation. In this paper, the dy- namic reactions in the bearings of the basic shaft, which drives the band saw machines, are analyzed. These reactions are caused by the external loading and the kinematics and the mass characteristics of the rotating disk. The expressions for the full dynamic reactions are obtained. These expressions allow the parameters of the machines to be chosen in such a way that the loading in the shaft and the bearings to be minimal.

  19. Development of a Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using a Double Saw Resonator System at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Yunusa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A double SAW resonator system was developed as a novel method for gas sensing applications. The proposed system was investigated for hydrogen sensing. Commercial Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW resonators with resonance frequencies of 433.92 MHz and 433.42 MHz were employed in the double SAW resonator system configuration. The advantages of using this configuration include its ability for remote measurements, and insensitivity to vibrations and other external disturbances. The sensitive layer is composed of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polyaniline nanofibers which were deposited on pre-patterned platinum metal electrodes fabricated on a piezoelectric substrate. This was mounted into the DSAWR circuit and connected in parallel. The sensor response was measured as the difference between the resonance frequencies of the SAW resonators, which is a measure of the gas concentration. The sensor showed good response towards hydrogen with a minimum detection limit of 1%.

  20. A novel gene: sawD related to the differentiation of streptomyces ansochromogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, L; Wei, C; Yuqing, T; Huarong, T; Chater, K F; Buttner, M J

    1999-01-01

    A 1.3 kb DNA fragment was cloned from a total DNA library of Streptomyces ansochromogenes using Southern hybridization. Nucleotide sequencing analysis indicated that the 1320 bp DNA fragment contained a complete open reading frame (ORF). In search of databases, the deduced product of ORF containing 213 amino acids is homologous to the serine protease of Caulobacter cresceatus, and a conserved serine-catalytic active site (GPSAG) exists. The gene was designated as sawD. The function of this gene was studied with the strategy of gene disruption, and the result showed that the sawD may be related to sporulation and especially to the spore septation in Streptomyces ansochromogenes. The preliminary result indicated that sawD mutant could produce abundant pigment in contrast with the wild type, it seems that sawD gene may be involved in pigment biosynthesis, and this gene is also dispensable for biosynthesis of nikkomycin in Streptomyces ansochromogenes.

  1. Knowledge and prevalence of use of saw palmetto and other herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Persaud

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... men with prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and who were part of our outpatient clinics. ... plasia (BPH) and prostate cancer, of which saw palmetto (serenoa repens) may be the most .... receptor signaling.

  2. SAW passive wireless sensor-RFID tags with enhanced range, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) RFID sensor-tags with enhanced range for remote monitoring of large groups of...

  3. Enhanced Codeset Passive Wireless SAW Sensor-Tags and System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will develop a set of at least 100 passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) RFID sensor-tags for near-simultaneous remote monitoring of...

  4. Modified impedance control for robotic saw cutting: Simulation and implementation in three degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.M.; Reynolds, D.L.; Carroll, J.J.; Dawson, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) production and decommissioning operations produce solid radioactive transuranic (TRU) waste. This waste must be repackaged and sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for permanent disposal. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) built a test facility to demonstrate simulated waste processing. The test facility use's a CIMCORP multi-axis robot system, a CIMROC trademark II robot controller, and an electric circular saw to remotely open and size reduce plywood crates. The robot can either be teleoperated using joysticks or autonomously controlled via the, CIMROC trademark II. Both methods are inadequate for circular saw cutting of plywood crates due to frequent saw blade binding. Blade binding results from the current commercial robot controller limitations. The limitations are overcome by incorporating additional sensor information into the existing controller structure. In this paper we utilize a force sensor and a frequency counter to implement a modified impedance controller which prevents saw blade binding

  5. Effect of Increasing Doses of Saw Palmetto on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michael J.; Meleth, Sreelatha; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Kreder, Karl J.; Avins, Andrew L.; Nickel, J. Curtis; Roehrborn, Claus G.; Crawford, E. David; Foster, Harris E.; Kaplan, Steven A.; McCullough, Andrew; Andriole, Gerald L.; Naslund, Michael J.; Williams, O. Dale; Kusek, John W.; Meyers, Catherine M.; Betz, Joseph M.; Cantor, Alan; McVary, Kevin T.

    2012-01-01

    Context Saw palmetto fruit extracts are widely used for treating lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, recent clinical trials have questioned their efficacy, at least at standard doses (320 mg daily). Objective To determine the effect of a saw palmetto extract at up to three times the standard dose on lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Design Multicenter placebo-controlled randomized trial conducted from June, 2008 through October, 2010. Setting Eleven North American clinical sites. Participants Were men at least 45 years old, with a peak urinary flow rate ≥ 4 ml/sec, an AUA Symptom Index (AUASI) score ≥ 8 and ≤ 24, and no exclusions. Interventions One, two, and then three 320 mg daily doses of saw palmetto extract or placebo, with dose increases at 24 and 48 weeks. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcome was the difference in AUASI score from baseline to 72 weeks. Secondary outcomes were measures of urinary bother; nocturia; uroflow; postvoid residual; prostate-specific antigen; participants’ global assessments; and indices of sexual function, continence, sleep quality, and prostatitis symptoms. Results From baseline to 72 weeks, mean AUASI scores decreased from 14.4 to 12.2 points with saw palmetto and from 14.7 to 11.7 points with placebo. The group mean difference in AUASI score change from baseline to 72 weeks between the saw palmetto and placebo groups was 0.79 points favoring placebo (bound of the 95% confidence interval most favorable to saw palmetto was 1.77 points, one-sided P=0.91). Saw palmetto was no more effective than placebo for any secondary outcome. No attributable side effects were identified. Conclusions Increasing doses of a saw palmetto fruit extract did not reduce lower urinary tract symptoms more than placebo. (CAMUS study number NCT00603304 http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov) PMID:21954478

  6. Saw Palmetto Extract Inhibits Metastasis and Antiangiogenesis through STAT3 Signal Pathway in Glioma Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Hong; Shen, Jinglian; Yang, Yang; Che, Yuqin

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis in human glioma. Previous research indicated that saw palmetto extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells through STAT3 signal pathway. But its effect on tumor metastasis and antiangiogenesis is not clear. This study is to further clear the impact of saw palmetto extract on glioma cell metastasis, antiangiogenesis, and its mechanism. TUNEL ass...

  7. Evaluation of Cutting Performance of Diamond Saw Machine Using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Akhyani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence (AI techniques are used for solving the intractable engineering problems. In this study, it is aimed to study the application of artificial bee colony algorithm for predicting the performance of circular diamond saw in sawing of hard rocks. For this purpose, varieties of fourteen types of hard rocks were cut in laboratory using a cutting rig at 5 mm depth of cut, 40 cm/min feed rate and 3000 rpm peripheral speed. Four major mechanical and physical properties of studied rocks such as uniaxial compressive strength (UCS, Schimazek abrasivity factor (SF-a, Mohs hardness (Mh, and Young’s modulus (Ym were determined in rock mechanic laboratory. Artificial bee colony (ABC was used to classify the performance of circular diamond saw based on mentioned mechanical properties of rocks. Ampere consumption and wear rate of diamond saw were selected as criteria to evaluate the result of ABC algorithm. Ampere consumption was determined during cutting process and the average wear rate of diamond saw was calculated from width, length and height loss. The results of comparison between ABC’s results and cutting performance (ampere consumption and wear rate of diamond saw indicated the ability of metaheuristic algorithm such as ABC to evaluate the cutting performance.

  8. Comparison AHP and SAW to promotion of head major department SMK Muhammadiyah 04 Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, M.; Sitompul, O. S.; Sihombing, P.

    2018-04-01

    Decision Support System (DSS) is a system that can help a person to make informed decisions about various types of choices that are performed accurately and in accordance with the desired goals. Many problems can be solved by using decision support systems. In this journal the decision support system is used to assist the Chief of Muhammadiyah Medan branch in the selection of the department chief. The criteria used for the election of department chiefs are: Loyalty, Job Performance, Responsibility, Obedience, Honesty, Cooperation, Education, and Leadership. The selection promotion process consists of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) methods. The data were obtained through teacher assessment questionnaires by principals and colleagues. The results of this study used a comparison with two decision methods namely SAW method and AHP method so that the decision maker (principal) is more appropriate in the determination of candidates who will be elected head of department at school. The final result of this research is the first rank obtained by muhammad musa with weight value on AHP method (0.274) and weight value on SAW method (0.993), alvin syahrin with weight value on AHP method (0.241) and weight value on SAW method (0.883), noviyanti with weight value on AHP method (0.193) and weight value on SAW method (0.707). So the conclusion on the research that is by using SAW method the value of weight produced more accurate.

  9. High resolution SAW elastography for ex-vivo porcine skin specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kanheng; Feng, Kairui; Wang, Mingkai; Jamera, Tanatswa; Li, Chunhui; Huang, Zhihong

    2018-02-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) elastography has been proven to be a non-invasive, non-destructive method for accurately characterizing tissue elastic properties. Current SAW elastography technique tracks generated surface acoustic wave impulse point by point which are a few millimeters away. Thus, reconstructed elastography has low lateral resolution. To improve the lateral resolution of current SAW elastography, a new method was proposed in this research. A M-B scan mode, high spatial resolution phase sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT) system was employed to track the ultrasonically induced SAW impulse. Ex-vivo porcine skin specimen was tested using this proposed method. A 2D fast Fourier transform based algorithm was applied to process the acquired data for estimating the surface acoustic wave dispersion curve and its corresponding penetration depth. Then, the ex-vivo porcine skin elastogram was established by relating the surface acoustic wave dispersion curve and its corresponding penetration depth. The result from the proposed method shows higher lateral resolution than that from current SAW elastography technique, and the approximated skin elastogram could also distinguish the different layers in the skin specimen, i.e. epidermis, dermis and fat layer. This proposed SAW elastography technique may have a large potential to be widely applied in clinical use for skin disease diagnosis and treatment monitoring.

  10. A saw-tooth plasma actuator for film cooling efficiency enhancement of a shaped hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guozhan; Yu, Jianyang; Liu, Huaping; Chen, Fu; Song, Yanping

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports the large eddy simulations of the effects of a saw-tooth plasma actuator and the laidback fan-shaped hole on the film cooling flow characteristics, and the numerical results are compared with a corresponding standard configuration (cylindrical hole without the saw-tooth plasma actuator). For this numerical research, the saw-tooth plasma actuator is installed just downstream of the cooling hole and a phenomenological plasma model is employed to provide the 3D plasma force vectors. The results show that thanks to the downward force and the momentum injection effect of the saw-tooth plasma actuator, the cold jet comes closer to the wall surface and extends further downstream. The saw-tooth plasma actuator also induces a new pair of vortex which weakens the strength of the counter-rotating vortex pair (CRVP) and entrains the coolant towards the wall, and thus the diffusion of the cold jet in the crossflow is suppressed. Furthermore, the laidback fan-shaped hole reduces the vertical jet velocity causing the disappearance of downstream spiral separation node vortices, this compensates for the deficiency of the saw-tooth plasma actuator. Both effects of the laidback fan-shaped hole and the saw-tooth plasma actuator effectively control the development of the CRVP whose size and strength are smaller than those of the anti-counter rotating vortex pair in the far field, thus the centerline and the spanwise-averaged film cooling efficiency are enhanced. The average film cooling efficiency is the biggest in the Fan-Dc = 1 case, which is 80% bigger than that in the Fan-Dc = 0 case and 288% bigger than that in the Cyl-Dc = 0 case.

  11. Evolutionary origins and development of saw-teeth on the sawfish and sawshark rostrum (Elasmobranchii; Chondrichthyes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, Monique; Smith, Moya Meredith; Underwood, Charlie; Johanson, Zerina

    2015-09-01

    A well-known characteristic of chondrichthyans (e.g. sharks, rays) is their covering of external skin denticles (placoid scales), but less well understood is the wide morphological diversity that these skin denticles can show. Some of the more unusual of these are the tooth-like structures associated with the elongate cartilaginous rostrum 'saw' in three chondrichthyan groups: Pristiophoridae (sawsharks; Selachii), Pristidae (sawfish; Batoidea) and the fossil Sclerorhynchoidea (Batoidea). Comparative topographic and developmental studies of the 'saw-teeth' were undertaken in adults and embryos of these groups, by means of three-dimensional-rendered volumes from X-ray computed tomography. This provided data on development and relative arrangement in embryos, with regenerative replacement in adults. Saw-teeth are morphologically similar on the rostra of the Pristiophoridae and the Sclerorhynchoidea, with the same replacement modes, despite the lack of a close phylogenetic relationship. In both, tooth-like structures develop under the skin of the embryos, aligned with the rostrum surface, before rotating into lateral position and then attaching through a pedicel to the rostrum cartilage. As well, saw-teeth are replaced and added to as space becomes available. By contrast, saw-teeth in Pristidae insert into sockets in the rostrum cartilage, growing continuously and are not replaced. Despite superficial similarity to oral tooth developmental organization, saw-tooth spatial initiation arrangement is associated with rostrum growth. Replacement is space-dependent and more comparable to that of dermal skin denticles. We suggest these saw-teeth represent modified dermal denticles and lack the 'many-for-one' replacement characteristic of elasmobranch oral dentitions.

  12. Effect of increasing doses of saw palmetto extract on lower urinary tract symptoms: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michael J; Meleth, Sreelatha; Lee, Jeannette Y; Kreder, Karl J; Avins, Andrew L; Nickel, J Curtis; Roehrborn, Claus G; Crawford, E David; Foster, Harris E; Kaplan, Steven A; McCullough, Andrew; Andriole, Gerald L; Naslund, Michael J; Williams, O Dale; Kusek, John W; Meyers, Catherine M; Betz, Joseph M; Cantor, Alan; McVary, Kevin T

    2011-09-28

    Saw palmetto fruit extracts are widely used for treating lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); however, recent clinical trials have questioned their efficacy, at least at standard doses (320 mg/d). To determine the effect of saw palmetto extract (Serenoa repens, from saw palmetto berries) at up to 3 times the standard dose on lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to BPH. A double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled randomized trial at 11 North American clinical sites conducted between June 5, 2008, and October 10, 2010, of 369 men aged 45 years or older, with a peak urinary flow rate of at least 4 mL/s, an American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI) score of between 8 and 24 at 2 screening visits, and no exclusions. One, 2, and then 3 doses (320 mg/d) of saw palmetto extract or placebo, with dose increases at 24 and 48 weeks. Difference in AUASI score between baseline and 72 weeks. Secondary outcomes included measures of urinary bother, nocturia, peak uroflow, postvoid residual volume, prostate-specific antigen level, participants' global assessments, and indices of sexual function, continence, sleep quality, and prostatitis symptoms. Between baseline and 72 weeks, mean AUASI scores decreased from 14.42 to 12.22 points (-2.20 points; 95% CI, -3.04 to -1.36) [corrected]with saw palmetto extract and from 14.69 to 11.70 points (-2.99 points; 95% CI, -3.81 to -2.17) with placebo. The group mean difference in AUASI score change from baseline to 72 weeks between the saw palmetto extract and placebo groups was 0.79 points favoring placebo (upper bound of the 1-sided 95% CI most favorable to saw palmetto extract was 1.77 points, 1-sided P = .91). Saw palmetto extract was no more effective than placebo for any secondary outcome. No clearly attributable adverse effects were identified. Increasing doses of a saw palmetto fruit extract did not reduce lower urinary tract symptoms more than placebo. clinicaltrials

  13. Saw palmetto extracts potently and noncompetitively inhibit human alpha1-adrenoceptors in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goepel, M; Hecker, U; Krege, S; Rübben, H; Michel, M C

    1999-02-15

    We wanted to test whether phytotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms have alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonistic properties in vitro. Preparations of beta-sitosterol and extracts of stinging nettle, medicinal pumpkin, and saw palmetto were obtained from several pharmaceutical companies. They were tested for their ability to inhibit [3H]tamsulosin binding to human prostatic alpha1-adrenoceptors and [3H]prazosin binding to cloned human alpha1A- and alpha1B-adrenoceptors. Inhibition of phenylephrine-stimulated [3H]inositol phosphate formation by cloned receptors was also investigated. Up to the highest concentration which could be tested, preparations of beta-sitosterol, stinging nettle, and medicinal pumpkin were without consistent inhibitory effect in all assays. In contrast, all tested saw palmetto extracts inhibited radioligand binding to human alpha1-adrenoceptors and agonist-induced [3H]inositol phosphate formation. Saturation binding experiments in the presence of a single saw palmetto extract concentration indicated a noncompetitive antagonism. The relationship between active concentrations in vitro and recommended therapeutic doses for the saw palmetto extracts was slightly lower than that for several chemically defined alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists. Saw palmetto extracts have alpha1-adrenoceptor-inhibitory properties. If bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic properties of these ingredients are similar to those of the chemically defined alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists, alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonism might be involved in the therapeutic effects of these extracts in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic obstruction.

  14. Do saw palmetto extracts block human alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes in vivo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goepel, M; Dinh, L; Mitchell, A; Schäfers, R F; Rübben, H; Michel, M C

    2001-02-15

    To test whether saw palmetto extracts, which act as alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists in vitro, also do so in vivo in man. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, four-way cross-over study 12 healthy young men were treated with three different saw palmetto extract preparations (320 mg o.d.) for 8 days each. On the last day, before and 2, 4 and 6 hr after drug intake blood pressure and heart rate were determined and blood samples obtained, which were used in an ex vivo radioreceptor assay with cloned human alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes. Saw palmetto extract treatment did not result in alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype occupancy in the radioreceptor assay. Although the saw palmetto extracts caused minor reductions of supine blood pressure, they did not affect blood pressure during orthostatic stress testing and did not alter heart rate under either condition. Moreover, plasma catecholamines remained largely unaltered. Despite their alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist effects in vitro, therapeutically used doses of saw palmetto extracts do not cause alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonism in man in vivo. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Comparison of Saw Palmetto (extract and whole berry) and Cernitin on prostate growth in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, Nadeem; Echard, Bobby; Bagchi, Debasis; Bagchi, Manashi; Preuss, Harry G

    2003-08-01

    Pharmaceuticals such as finasteride and alpha blockers are used to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and are known to cause severe adverse reactions. Accordingly, a search for safer, natural products has been undertaken. Two natural agents (nutraceuticals) have come under recent scrutiny; because natural products, in general, often have evidence of long-term safety. The present study compares the in vivo effects on androgen-induced prostatic enlargement in rats of two nutraceuticals--the widely recognized Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) and the less well-known Cernitin (defined pollen extract). Non-castrated rats, had a mean prostate weight of 124 mg +/- 8.8 (S.E.M.) compared to the 24.5 mg +/- 1.9 (S.E.M.) of the castrated rat followed under the same regimen (p Saw Palmetto, crushed whole berry derived from Saw Palmetto fruit, a water soluble and fat soluble extract of Cernitin or a combination of the Saw Palmetto extract and Cernitin. All treatments decreased the size of the prostate to roughly the same size as in the non-castrated rats, a size that was significantly smaller than castrated rats treated with testosterone in the same manner (p Saw Palmetto (whole berry and extract) and Cernitin to influence prostatic hyperplasia via effects on androgen metabolism.

  16. Metabolomics study of Saw palmetto extracts based on 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Combarieu, Eric; Martinelli, Ernesto Marco; Pace, Roberto; Sardone, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Preparations containing Saw palmetto extracts are used in traditional medicine to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. According to the European and the American Pharmacopoeias, the extract is obtained from comminuted Saw palmetto berries by a suitable extracting procedure using ethanol or supercritical carbon dioxide or a mixture of n-hexane and methylpentanes. In the present study an approach to metabolomics profiling using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used as a finger-printing tool to assess the overall composition of the extracts. The phytochemical analysis coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) showed the same composition of the Saw palmetto extracts obtained with carbon dioxide and hexane with minor not significant differences for extracts obtained with ethanol. In fact these differences are anyhow lower than the batch-to-batch variability ascribable to the natural-occurring variability in the Saw palmetto fruits' phytochemical composition. The fingerprinting analysis combined with chemometric method, is a technique, which would provide a tool to comprehensively assess the quality control of Saw palmetto extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Saw palmetto and lower urinary tract symptoms: what is the latest evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avins, Andrew L; Bent, Stephen

    2006-07-01

    The use of dietary supplements for treating a wide range of health conditions has grown rapidly in the United States. In the field of men's health, the most common dietary supplement used is an extract of the berry of the saw palmetto plant, with which men commonly self-medicate in order to treat lower urinary tract symptoms. Throughout the past two decades, substantial literature has emerged examining the biologic and clinical effects of saw palmetto extracts. Several lines of evidence suggest that saw palmetto may exert physiologic effects consistent with a beneficial clinical effect on the mechanisms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Although most clinical studies tend to suggest a modest efficacy benefit of saw palmetto, more recent studies are less consistent and the precise clinical value of saw palmetto for treating lower urinary tract symptoms remains undefined. Overall, there appear to be few safety concerns with short-term use of this herbal medicine, although large-scale and longer-term safety studies have not been performed. Higher-quality studies are currently underway to better define the potential benefits and risks of plant-based extracts for treating symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  18. Predicting the Performance of Chain Saw Machines Based on Shore Scleroscope Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumac, Deniz

    2014-03-01

    Shore hardness has been used to estimate several physical and mechanical properties of rocks over the last few decades. However, the number of researches correlating Shore hardness with rock cutting performance is quite limited. Also, rather limited researches have been carried out on predicting the performance of chain saw machines. This study differs from the previous investigations in the way that Shore hardness values (SH1, SH2, and deformation coefficient) are used to determine the field performance of chain saw machines. The measured Shore hardness values are correlated with the physical and mechanical properties of natural stone samples, cutting parameters (normal force, cutting force, and specific energy) obtained from linear cutting tests in unrelieved cutting mode, and areal net cutting rate of chain saw machines. Two empirical models developed previously are improved for the prediction of the areal net cutting rate of chain saw machines. The first model is based on a revised chain saw penetration index, which uses SH1, machine weight, and useful arm cutting depth as predictors. The second model is based on the power consumed for only cutting the stone, arm thickness, and specific energy as a function of the deformation coefficient. While cutting force has a strong relationship with Shore hardness values, the normal force has a weak or moderate correlation. Uniaxial compressive strength, Cerchar abrasivity index, and density can also be predicted by Shore hardness values.

  19. DETERMINATION OF CRITICAL ROTATIONAL SPEED OF CIRCULAR SAWS FROM NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF ANNULAR PLATE WITH ANALOGOUS DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Skoblar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is suitable to reduce thickness of circular saw when trying to enhance usability of wood raw material, but reducing thickness also causes reduction of permissible rotational speed which reduces sawing speed. If one increase circular saw rotational speed over permissible one the quality of machined surfaces will reduce because of enhanced vibrations. Permissible rotational speed can be calculated from critical rotational speed which can be defined from natural frequencies of the saw. In this article critical rotational speeds of standard clamped saws (with flat disk surface and without slots are calculated by using finite element method and classical theory of thin plates on annular plates. Mode shapes and natural frequencies of annular plates are determined by using Bessel functions and by using polynomial functions. Obtained results suggest that standard clamped circular saws without slots and with relatively small teeth can be determined from classical theory of thin plates for annular plates with accuracy depending on clamping ratio.

  20. [Efficacy and safety of Saw Palmetto Extract Capsules in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Xiao-bing; Gu, Xiao-jian; Zhang, Zheng-yu; Wei, Zhong-qing; Xu, Zhuo-qun; Miao, Hui-dong; Zhou, Wei-min; Xu, Ren-fang; Cheng, Bin; Ma, Jian-guo; Niu, Tian-li; Qu, Ping; Xue, Bo-xin; Zhang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of Saw Palmetto Extract Capsules in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We conducted a multi-centered open clinical study on 165 BPH patients treated with Saw Palmetto Extract Capsules at a dose of 160 mg qd for 12 weeks. At the baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks of medication, we compared the International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS), prostate volume, postvoid residual urine volume, urinary flow rate, quality of life scores (QOL), and adverse events between the two groups of patients. Compared with the baseline, both IPSS and QOL were improved after 6 weeks of medication, and at 12 weeks, significant improvement was found in IPSS, QOL, urinary flow rate, and postvoid residual urine. Mild stomachache occurred in 1 case, which necessitated no treatment. Saw Palmetto Extract Capsules were safe and effective for the treatment of BPH.

  1. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW-Enhanced Chemical Functionalization of Gold Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Greco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface chemical and biochemical functionalization is a fundamental process that is widely applied in many fields to add new functions, features, or capabilities to a material’s surface. Here, we demonstrate that surface acoustic waves (SAWs can enhance the chemical functionalization of gold films. This is shown by using an integrated biochip composed by a microfluidic channel coupled to a surface plasmon resonance (SPR readout system and by monitoring the adhesion of biotin-thiol on the gold SPR areas in different conditions. In the case of SAW-induced streaming, the functionalization efficiency is improved ≈ 5 times with respect to the case without SAWs. The technology here proposed can be easily applied to a wide variety of biological systems (e.g., proteins, nucleic acids and devices (e.g., sensors, devices for cell cultures.

  2. Calculation of the Stiffness in the Roll Tensioning of the Circular Saw Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linh Vo Tung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The circular blade has been widely used in some projects such as cutting stone, wood and other projects. Owing to its particularity and wide use, it has an important position in cutting industry. Roll tensioning is considered as an effective method which can be used to improve the stiffness and performance of the circular saw blade. The effect of rolling position and width in the roll tensioning is obvious. In this paper the calculation of the maximum stiffness at different rolling position and width in the rolling were carried out through the finite -element. The results show that three ideal points are found. And when rolling position is Ø950mm and rolling width is 20mm, the maximum stiffness of the circular saw blade whose minimum deformation is 0.028mm is found. The roll tensioning can increase the stiffness of the saw blade. It will provide a theoretical basis and guidance for the actual production.

  3. Development of Mathematical Model for Lifecycle Management Process of New Type of Multirip Saw Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Phung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research is a new type of the multirip saw machine with circular reciprocating saw blades. This machine has a number of advantages in comparison with other machines of similar purpose. The paper presents an overview of different types of saw equipment and describes basic characteristics of the machine under investigation.Using the concept of lifecycle management of the considered machine in a unified information space is necessary to improve quality and competitiveness in the current production environment. In this lifecycle all the members, namely designers, technologists, customers, etc., have a philosophy to tend to optimize the overall machine design as much as possible. However, it is not always possible to achieve. Conversely, at the boundary between the phases there are several mismatching situations, if not even conflicting inconsistencies. For example, improvement of mass characteristics can lead to poor stability and rigidity of the saw blade. Machine output improvement through increasing frequency of the machine motor rotation, on the other side, results in reducing stable ability of the saw blades and so on.In order to provide a coherent framework for the collaborative environment between the members of the life cycle, the article presents a technique to construct a mathematical model that allows combining all different members’ requirements in the unified information model. The article also gives analysis of kinematic and dynamic behavior and technological characteristics of the machine. Describes in detail all the controlled parameters, functional constraints, and quality criteria of the machine under consideration. Depending on the controlled parameters, the analytical relationships formulate functional constraints and quality criteria of the machine. The proposed algorithm allows fast and exact calculation of all the functional constraints and quality criteria of the machine for a given vector of the control

  4. What do I tell patients about saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Christopher J; Raheem, Omer A; Bent, Stephen; Avins, Andrew L

    2011-08-01

    Saw palmetto is widely used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although there is passionate support for herbal and complementary therapies for LUTS, clinical evidence is mixed. Because there is a well-recognized, profound placebo effect in tests of efficacy for agents treating LUTS, it is imperative that all therapies be tested in placebo-controlled trials. This article reviews evidence of the efficacy and safety of saw palmetto for men with LUTS caused by BPH, with particular emphasis on published randomized clinical trials and the upcoming Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Urologic Symptoms (CAMUS) trial. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Contact Resistance Reduction of ZnO Thin Film Transistors (TFTs) with Saw-Shaped Electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Woojin

    2018-05-15

    We report a saw-shaped electrode architecture ZnO thin film transistor (TFT) for effectively increase channel width. Such a saw-shaped electrode has ~2 times longer contact line at the contact metal/ZnO channel junction. We experimentally observed an enhancement in the output drive current by 50% and reduction in the contact resistance by over 50%, when compared to a typical shaped electrode ZnO TFT consuming the same chip area. This performance enhancement is attributed to extension of channel width. This technique can contribute to device performance enhancement and especially reduction in the contact resistance which is a serious challenge.

  6. Transimpedance Amplifier for MEMS SAW Oscillator in 1.4GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, N.; Karim, J.; Hussin, H.

    2018-03-01

    This work is to design a transimpedance amplifier for MEMS SAW resonator to achieve low power consumption at desired frequency. A transimpedance amplifier is designed and characterized for MEMS SAW resonator in 0.18μm CMOS process. The transimpedance amplifier achieves gain is 31 dBΩ at 176°. The power consume by oscillator is 0.6mW at VDD 1.8V while phase noise at -133.97dBc/Hz at 10kHz.

  7. The capability of pulsed laser radiation for cutting band saws hardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinin Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the possibilities of pulsed laser radiation for hardening the band saws. The regimes of pulsed laser hardening the band saws of 1 mm thick made of tool steel 9CrV are grounded theoretically and experimentally tested. Selected and justified modes of treatment harden in the autohardening mode without additional heat removal. The results of the experimental research of microhardness are presented and formed as a result of processing of the microstructure. Selected modes increase the microhardness of the surface to 8500 MPa and form ultra highly dispersed structure in the surface layer characterized by high resistance to abrasion.

  8. Early development of rostrum saw-teeth in a fossil ray tests classical theories of the evolution of vertebrate dentitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Moya Meredith; Riley, Alex; Fraser, Gareth J; Underwood, Charlie; Welten, Monique; Kriwet, Jürgen; Pfaff, Cathrin; Johanson, Zerina

    2015-10-07

    In classical theory, teeth of vertebrate dentitions evolved from co-option of external skin denticles into the oral cavity. This hypothesis predicts that ordered tooth arrangement and regulated replacement in the oral dentition were also derived from skin denticles. The fossil batoid ray Schizorhiza stromeri (Chondrichthyes; Cretaceous) provides a test of this theory. Schizorhiza preserves an extended cartilaginous rostrum with closely spaced, alternating saw-teeth, different from sawfish and sawsharks today. Multiple replacement teeth reveal unique new data from micro-CT scanning, showing how the 'cone-in-cone' series of ordered saw-teeth sets arrange themselves developmentally, to become enclosed by the roots of pre-existing saw-teeth. At the rostrum tip, newly developing saw-teeth are present, as mineralized crown tips within a vascular, cartilaginous furrow; these reorient via two 90° rotations then relocate laterally between previously formed roots. Saw-tooth replacement slows mid-rostrum where fewer saw-teeth are regenerated. These exceptional developmental data reveal regulated order for serial self-renewal, maintaining the saw edge with ever-increasing saw-tooth size. This mimics tooth replacement in chondrichthyans, but differs in the crown reorientation and their enclosure directly between roots of predecessor saw-teeth. Schizorhiza saw-tooth development is decoupled from the jaw teeth and their replacement, dependent on a dental lamina. This highly specialized rostral saw, derived from diversification of skin denticles, is distinct from the dentition and demonstrates the potential developmental plasticity of skin denticles. © 2015 The Authors.

  9. Effects of Friction Reduction on Fiber Damage in a Saw-Type Lint Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. cotton is at a competitive disadvantage from a fiber-quality standpoint, because lint cleaning is required for mechanically harvested cotton, and lint cleaning causes fiber damage. Lint-cleaning research has focused mainly on modifying saw-type lint cleaners, but the work reported here focuses...

  10. FEV 1 , FVC, FEV 1 /FVVC as predictors of rhinitis among saw mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on sociodemographic variables, symptoms of rhinitis, etc was obtained using a modified semi structured British medical research council questionnaire while respiratory function data was measured using a spirometry. Result: A total of 400 responds comprising of 200 saw mill workers and 200 controls participated in ...

  11. A see-saw scenario of an $A_4$ flavour symmetric standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Dinh, Dinh Nguyen; Văn, Phi Quang; Vân, Nguyen Thi Hông

    2016-01-01

    A see-saw scenario for an $A_4$ flavour symmetric standard model is presented. As before, the see-saw mechanism can be realized in several models of different types depending on different ways of neutrino mass generation corresponding to the introduction of new fields with different symmetry structures. In the present paper, a general desription of all these see-saw types is made with a more detailed investigation on type-I models. As within the original see-saw mechanism, the symmetry structure of the standard model fields decides the number and the symmetry structure of the new fields. In a model considered here, the scalar sector consists of three standard-model-Higgs-like iso-doublets ($SU_L(2)$-doublets) forming an $A_4$ triplet. The latter is a superposition of three mass-eigen states, one of which could be identified with the recently discovered Higgs boson. A possible relation to the still-deliberated 750 GeV diphoton resonance at the 13 TeV LHC collisions is also discussed. In the lepton sector, the ...

  12. Improving BPH symptoms and sexual dysfunctions with a saw palmetto preparation? Results from a pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Andreas; Saller, Reinhard; Riedi, Eugen; Heinrich, Michael

    2013-02-01

    In elderly men, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a major risk factor for sexual dysfunctions (SDys). Additionally, the standard treatments for BPH symptoms, alpha blockers and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors, cause SDys themselves. Preparations from saw palmetto berries are an efficacious and well-tolerated symptomatic treatment for mild to moderate BPH and have traditionally been used to treat SDys. We conducted an open multicentric clinical pilot trial to investigate whether the saw palmetto berry preparation Prostasan® influenced BPH symptoms and SDys. Eighty-two patients participated in the 8-week trial, taking one capsule of 320 mg saw palmetto extract daily. At the end of the treatment, the International Prostate Symptom Score was reduced from 14.4 ± 4.7 to 6.9 ± 5.2 (p saw palmetto to show improvement in BPH symptoms and SDys as well. [Corrections made here after initial online publication.] Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Response of Saw Palmetto to Three Herbicides During the First Growing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael

    1980-01-01

    Trimec 881 and 823 (mixture of 2,4-D; MCPP and dicamba in 2:1:0.l and 1:1:0.25 ratio respectively) and trichlopyr ester were evaluated for effectiveness against saw palmetto, Serenoa repens (Bartram) Small, when they were applied at three rates in April, June, and August. Herbicides were most effective with April applicatiorr, least effective in...

  14. Saw palmetto is an indirectly acting sympathomimetic in the rat-isolated prostate gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nga; Haynes, John M; Ventura, Sabatino

    2006-02-01

    To investigate whether saw palmetto that inhibits alpha1-adrenoceptor binding in vitro affects contractility of the rat prostate gland. The effects of a commercially available saw palmetto extract were examined on the contractility of rat-isolated prostate glands. The extract was tested in the presence and absence of phentolamine, prazosin, yohimbine, propranolol, hexamethonium, cocaine, desipramine, nifedipine, guanethidine, atropine, and alpha,beta-methylene ATP to evaluate the mechanism of action. Isolated preparations of rat vas deferens and bladder were used for comparison. Unexpectedly, saw palmetto extract caused contractions of the rat prostate gland that could be attenuated by prazosin, phentolamine, nifedipine, guanethidine, cocaine, and desipramine but not by any of the other pharmacological tools. Similar contractile effects were observed in rat-isolated vas deferens preparations but not in rat-isolated bladder preparations. In the rat prostate gland, saw palmetto extract causes indirect alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated contractions via the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic neurons. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Saw palmetto extracts potently and noncompetitively inhibit human alpha1-adrenoceptors in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goepel, M.; Hecker, U.; Krege, S.; Rübben, H.; Michel, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We wanted to test whether phytotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms have alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonistic properties in vitro. METHODS: Preparations of beta-sitosterol and extracts of stinging nettle, medicinal pumpkin, and saw palmetto were obtained

  16. Ethanol extracts of saw palmetto contain the indirectly acting sympathomimetic: tyramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Thiam; Simpson, Jamie S; Ventura, Sabatino

    2011-01-01

    To identify the bioactive components of saw palmetto ethanol extracts that affect contractility in the rat prostate gland. A commercially available saw palmetto ethanol extract was lyophilized then subjected to fractionation using silica gel column chromatography. Composition of fractions was assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). Contractile activity of these fractions was evaluated pharmacologically using isolated preparations of rat prostate gland and compared to the activity of crude ethanol extract. Saw palmetto ethanol extract caused contractions of the rat prostate gland which were consistent with indirectly acting sympathomimetic activity. Fractions resulting from chromatography produced contractions of isolated rat prostates that were similar in magnitude to the contractions produced by the crude extracts. Analysis of NMR and mass spectra revealed that this bioactivity was due to tyramine in the active fraction. Tyramine is present in saw palmetto ethanol extracts and causes indirect α(1)-adrenoceptor mediated contractions via the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic neurons. This has clinical implications, as tyramine interacts with MAO inhibitors to cause hypertensive crisis. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Instructional Media Production for Early Childhood Education: A. B. C. Jig-Saw Puzzle, a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mudashiru Olalere; Olanrewaju, Olatayo Solomon; Soetan, Aderonke K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a. b. c. jig-saw puzzle was produced for early childhood education using local materials. This study was a production based type of research, to serve as a supplemental or total learning resource. Its production followed four phases of development referred to as information, design, production and evaluation. The storyboard cards,…

  18. Properties of concrete modified with waste Low Density Polyethylene and saw dust ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimanikandan, P.; Sreenath, S.

    2017-07-01

    The increase in industrialization creates need for disposal of large quantity of by-products. To overcome the difficulty of disposal, these by-products can be used as a replacement for raw material. In this concern, non-conventional industrial wastes such as plastic bags, PET bottles, pulverized waste Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and biological waste such as saw-dust ash, coconut coir were used as a replacement in concrete. In this project, saw-dust ash and pulverized waste LDPE were introduced as the partial replacement for cement and fine aggregates respectively. 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of sand by volume was replaced with LDPE and 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 10% of cement by volume was replaced with saw dust ash. Standard cube, cylinder and prism specimens were cast to assess the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of modified concrete after 28 days of curing. Optimum percentage of replacement was found by comparing the test results. The mix with 5% of LDPE and 3% of saw dust ash showed a better result among the other mixes.

  19. 'Dear diary I saw an angel, she looked like heaven on earth': Sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Dear diary I saw an angel, she looked like heaven on earth': Sex talk and sex ... gender, sexuality and HIV/AIDS education' and was conducted in Botswana, Kenya, ... problematising them, and without reproducing stereotypes of boys as subjects ... themselves and talk about sexual desire and the opposite sex in different

  20. Comparison of Dust Release from Epoxy and Paint Nanocomposites and Conventional Products during Sanding and Sawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, V.; Levin, Marcus; Saber, A. T.

    2014-01-01

    The release of dust generated during sanding or sawing of nanocomposites was compared with conventional products without nanomaterials. Epoxy-based polymers with and without carbon nanotubes, and paints with different amounts of nano-sized titanium dioxide, were machined in a closed aerosol chamber...

  1. Discriminating neutrino mass models using Type-II see-saw formula

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    though a fuller analysis needs the full matrix form when all terms are present. This is followed by the normal hierarchical model (Type [III]) and inverted hierarchical model with opposite CP phase (Type [IIB]). γ ≃ 10−2 for both of them. Our main results on neutrino masses and mixings in Type-II see-saw formula are presented ...

  2. Advances in SAW gas sensors based on the condensate-adsorption effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiuling; Wang, Wen; Li, Shunzhou; Liu, Minghua; He, Shitang

    2011-01-01

    A surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) gas sensor with a low detection limit and fast response for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on the condensate-adsorption effect detection is developed. In this sensor a gas chromatography (GC) column acts as the separator element and a dual-resonator oscillator acts as the detector element. Regarding the surface effective permittivity method, the response mechanism analysis, which relates the condensate-adsorption effect, is performed, leading to the sensor performance prediction prior to fabrication. New designs of SAW resonators, which act as feedback of the oscillator, are devised in order to decrease the insertion loss and to achieve single-mode control, resulting in superior frequency stability of the oscillator. Based on the new phase modulation approach, excellent short-term frequency stability (±3 Hz/s) is achieved with the SAW oscillator by using the 500 MHz dual-port resonator as feedback element. In a sensor experiment investigating formaldehyde detection, the implemented SAW gas sensor exhibits an excellent threshold detection limit as low as 0.38 pg.

  3. Effect of Saw Dust Biochar and NPK 15:15:15 Inorganic Fertilizer on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A factorialexperiment was conducted in the screen house of Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria to examine the response of Moringa oleifera Lam. seedlings to saw dust biochar and NPK 15:15:15 inorganic fertilizer amendments. The plants were grown for twelve weeks in top soil (0-30cm) collected from an Oxisol in the ...

  4. Single Interdigital Transducer Approach for Gravimetrical SAW Sensor Applications in Liquid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Hoa Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface acoustic wave (SAW devices are well known for mass-sensitive sensor applications. In biosensing applications, chemical and biochemically evoked binding processes on surfaces are detected in liquid environments using delay line or resonator sensor configurations, preferably in combination with the appropriate microfluidic devices. All configurations share the common feature of analyzing the transmission characteristic of the propagating SAW. In this paper, a novel SAW-based impedance sensor type is introduced which uses only one interdigital transducer (IDT, simultaneously as the SAW generator and the sensor element. Here, the input port reflection coefficient S11 is measured at the IDT instead of the commonly used S21 transmission forward gain parameter. Thus, a sharp and distinct peak of the S11 spectrum is obtained, enabling a comfortable direct readout of the sensor signal. Proof of the concept was gained by analyzing the specific binding of the 4-mercaptophenylacetic acid gold nanoparticles (MPA–AuNP directly to the IDT surface. The corresponding binding kinetic of the MPA–AuNP on the functionalized gold surface has been analyzed and a sensitivity of 7.4 mΩ nM−1 has been determined.

  5. Radiative see-saw formula in nonsupersymmetric SO (10) with dark ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the absence of supersymmetry, we show how experimentally verifiable radiative see-saw formula of Ma type is realized in non-SUSY (10) while fulfilling the twin objectives: precision gauge coupling unification and dark matter. This model is expected to have a dramatic impact on neutrino physics, dark matter and all ...

  6. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW for Chemical Sensing Applications of Recognition Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Mujahid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface acoustic wave (SAW resonators represent some of the most prominent acoustic devices for chemical sensing applications. As their frequency ranges from several hundred MHz to GHz, therefore they can record remarkably diminutive frequency shifts resulting from exceptionally small mass loadings. Their miniaturized design, high thermal stability and possibility of wireless integration make these devices highly competitive. Owing to these special characteristics, they are widely accepted as smart transducers that can be combined with a variety of recognition layers based on host-guest interactions, metal oxide coatings, carbon nanotubes, graphene sheets, functional polymers and biological receptors. As a result of this, there is a broad spectrum of SAW sensors, i.e., having sensing applications ranging from small gas molecules to large bio-analytes or even whole cell structures. This review shall cover from the fundamentals to modern design developments in SAW devices with respect to interfacial receptor coatings for exemplary sensor applications. The related problems and their possible solutions shall also be covered, with a focus on emerging trends and future opportunities for making SAW as established sensing technology.

  7. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) for Chemical Sensing Applications of Recognition Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L

    2017-11-24

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators represent some of the most prominent acoustic devices for chemical sensing applications. As their frequency ranges from several hundred MHz to GHz, therefore they can record remarkably diminutive frequency shifts resulting from exceptionally small mass loadings. Their miniaturized design, high thermal stability and possibility of wireless integration make these devices highly competitive. Owing to these special characteristics, they are widely accepted as smart transducers that can be combined with a variety of recognition layers based on host-guest interactions, metal oxide coatings, carbon nanotubes, graphene sheets, functional polymers and biological receptors. As a result of this, there is a broad spectrum of SAW sensors, i.e., having sensing applications ranging from small gas molecules to large bio-analytes or even whole cell structures. This review shall cover from the fundamentals to modern design developments in SAW devices with respect to interfacial receptor coatings for exemplary sensor applications. The related problems and their possible solutions shall also be covered, with a focus on emerging trends and future opportunities for making SAW as established sensing technology.

  8. Comparison of simple additive weighting (SAW) and composite performance index (CPI) methods in employee remuneration determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlitasari, L.; Suhartini, D.; Benny

    2017-01-01

    The process of determining the employee remuneration for PT Sepatu Mas Idaman currently are still using Microsoft Excel-based spreadsheet where in the spreadsheet there is the value of criterias that must be calculated for every employee. This can give the effect of doubt during the assesment process, therefore resulting in the process to take much longer time. The process of employee remuneration determination is conducted by the assesment team based on some criterias that have been predetermined. The criteria used in the assessment process are namely the ability to work, human relations, job responsibility, discipline, creativity, work, achievement of targets, and absence. To ease the determination of employee remuneration to be more efficient and effective, the Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) method is used. SAW method can help in decision making for a certain case, and the calculation that generates the greatest value will be chosen as the best alternative. Other than SAW, also by using another method was the CPI method which is one of the calculating method in decision making based on performance index. Where SAW method was more faster by 89-93% compared to CPI method. Therefore it is expected that this application can be an evaluation material for the need of training and development for employee performances to be more optimal.

  9. The saw-tooth sign as a clinical clue for intrathoracic central airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakajima Akira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The saw-tooth sign was first described by Sanders et al in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as one cause of extrathoracic central airway obstruction. The mechanism of the saw-tooth sign has not been conclusively clarified. The sign has also been described in various extrathoracic central airway diseases, such as in burn victims with thermal injury to the upper airways, Parkinson’s disease, tracheobronchomalacia, laryngeal dyskinesia, and pedunculated tumors of the upper airway. Case presentation A 61-year-old man was referred to our hospital with a two-month history of persistent dry cough and dyspnea. He was diagnosed with lung cancer located in an intrathoracic central airway, which was accompanied by the saw-tooth sign on flow-volume loops. This peculiar sign repeatedly improved and deteriorated, in accordance with the waxing and waning of central airway stenosis by anti-cancer treatments. Conclusion This report suggests that the so-called saw-tooth sign may be found even in intrathoracic central airway obstruction due to lung cancer.

  10. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization on Value in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    Research based on applying volume-maximizing sawing solutions to idealized hardwood log forms has shown that average lumber yield can be increased by 6 percent. It is possible, however, that a lumber volume-maximizing solution may result in a decrease in lumber grade and a net reduction in total value of sawn lumber. The objective of this study was to determine the...

  11. Cost of Sawing Timber (COST) Module (Version 1.0) for Windows®

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jefferson, Jr. Palmer; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Robert W. Mayer; Robert W. Mayer

    2005-01-01

    The Cost of Sawing Timber (COST) Module calculates the cost of operations per minute and per thousand board feet for a hardwood sawmill. It may be used independently or as a source of cost information for use in sawmill efficiency software such as the SOLVE program. Cost figures are calculated on the basis of information entered by the user. Sawmill managers use these...

  12. Study of a high-precision SAW-MOEMS strain sensor with laser optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xinwei; Chen, Shufen; Zou, Zhengfeng; Fu, Lei; Meng, Yanbin; Li, Honglang

    2015-01-01

    A novel structure design of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) micro-optic-electro-mechanical-system (MOEMS) strain sensor with a light readout unit is presented in this paper. By measuring the polarization intensity ratio of the TE/TM mode outputted from the waveguide, the strain produced from an object can be measured precisely. The basic working principle of the SAW MOEMS strain sensor is introduced and the mathematical model of the strain sensor system is established. The SAW characteristics effected by the strain sensor are mathematically deduced. The coupling coefficient between the SAW modes and light modes can be calculated based on the theory of coupling modes. The conversion coefficient of polarized light modes is obtained. Due to the restrictions of the specific parameters of the device, the level of technology and the material characteristics, the sensitivity of the strain sensor system is calculated through simulation as 0.1 με, with a dynamic range of 0 ∼ ±50 με. (paper)

  13. Application of wire sawing method to decommissioning of high level activated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hideki; Nishimura, Youichi; Watanabe, Morishige; Yamashita Yoshitaka

    1999-01-01

    Wire sawing method is proposed as an effective cutting method for the dismantling of high level activated concrete of a nuclear power plant. The cutting test with wire sawing method discussed in this paper was carried out to obtain the data such as the cutting rate, the volume of concrete dust and the time of cutting and related work. The cutting test consisted of two parts; 'Fundamental test' and 'mock-up test.' In the fundamental test, we carried out the cutting test with small concrete blocks simulating the high level activated concrete of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Through the test, the following data were obtained: the cutting rate of wire sawing, the volume of generated concrete dust and the grading distribution of suspended particulate. We also studied the life of wire and the relations between the wire tension, the wire rotating speed, the steel ratio and the cutting rate. In the mock-up test, we carried out the test with large concrete blocks simulating the part of the reactor shield wall of BWR and the biological shield wall of PWR. Through the mock-up test, we made clear that it is possible that the large test blocks with high re-bar ratio and a steel plate (steel plates) were cut smoothly by the wire sawing method. In the test, the following data were obtained; the cutting rate, the time of the cutting and related work and the remote controllability of cutting machines. (author)

  14. Large and almost maximal neutrino mixing within the type II see-saw mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Rodejohann, Werner

    2007-01-01

    Within the type II see-saw mechanism the light neutrino mass matrix is given by a sum of a direct (or triplet) mass term and the conventional (type I) see-saw term. Both versions of the see-saw mechanism explain naturally small neutrino masses, but the type II scenario offers interesting additional possibilities to explain large or almost maximal or vanishing mixings which are discussed in this paper. We first introduce 'type II enhancement' of neutrino mixing, where moderate cancellations between the two terms can lead to large neutrino mixing even if all individual mass matrices and terms generate small mixing. However, nearly maximal or vanishing mixings are not naturally explained in this way, unless there is a certain initial structure (symmetry) which enforces certain elements of the matrices to be identical or related in a special way. We therefore assume that the leading structure of the neutrino mass matrix is the triplet term and corresponds to zero U e3 and maximal θ 23 . Small but necessary corrections are generated by the conventional see-saw term. Then we assume that one of the two terms corresponds to an extreme mixing scenario, such as bimaximal or tri-bimaximal mixing. Deviations from this scheme are introduced by the second term. One can mimic Quark-Lepton Complementarity in this way. Finally, we note that the neutrino mass matrix for tri-bimaximal mixing can be-depending on the mass hierarchy-written as a sum of two terms with simple structure. Their origin could be the two terms of type II see-saw

  15. Is there a see-saw over an ice-free Arctic Ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendel, Martin; Yang, Shuting; Langen, Peter; Rodehacke, Christian; Mottram, Ruth; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The "see-saw" in winter temperatures between western Greenland and the Canadian Arctic on one side and northern Europe on the other has been described by Loewe already in 1937, but actually this behaviour was at least known since the Danish colonization of Greenland in the early 18th century. The see-saw is associated with pressure anomalies not only near the region of interest, but as remote as the Mediterranean and the North Pacific. Recent research has pointed out the role of sea ice in maintaining the see-saw in either its warm or its cold phase over extended periods, which strongly affects European winter temperatures. What would happen to the seesaw if Arctic sea ice were to disappear suddenly? In the framework of the FP7-funded project ice2ice, we try to answer this and related questions. We have conducted a very long global simulation with a global climate model interactively coupled to a Greenland ice sheet component, covering the period 1850-3250 at a horizontal resolution of approximately 125 km. Up to 2005, the forcing is from observed greenhouse gas concentrations, and from 2006 onward it follows the extended RCP8.5 scenario, in which greenhouse gas concentrations continue to increase and eventually level out around 2250. With such a strong forcing, all Arctic sea ice has completely disappeared by roughly the same time, and the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet becomes strongly negative. We investigate how the see-saw behaves in such an ice-free world and which implications circulation changes have in the Arctic and over Europe. To further elucidate the role of sea ice distribution on the atmospheric flow and the role of surface fluxes in maintaining the Greenland-European see-saw, we intend at a later time to expand our analysis to include a contrasting simulation with both western Greenland and northern Europe covered by ice during the Last Glacier Maximum.

  16. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto in men with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, G S; Kuznetsov, D; Johnson, B C; Burstein, J D

    2001-12-01

    To assess the effects of saw palmetto on urinary symptoms, sexual function, and urinary flow rate in men with lower urinary tract symptoms using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The eligible patients were 45 years of age or older and had an International Prostate Symptom Score of 8 or greater. After a 1-month placebo run-in period, 85 men were randomized to receive saw palmetto or placebo for 6 months. Patients were evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score, a sexual function questionnaire, and by measurement of the urinary flow rate. The mean symptom score decreased from 16.7 to 12.3 in the saw palmetto group compared with 15.8 to 13.6 in the placebo group (P = 0.038). The quality-of-life score improved to a greater degree in the saw palmetto group, but this difference was not statistically significant. No change occurred in the sexual function questionnaire results in either group. The peak flow rate increased by 1.0 mL/s and 1.4 mL/s in the saw palmetto and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.73). Saw palmetto led to a statistically significant improvement in urinary symptoms in men with lower urinary tract symptoms compared with placebo. Saw palmetto had no measurable effect on the urinary flow rates. The mechanism by which saw palmetto improves urinary symptoms remains unknown.

  17. 76 FR 62678 - Table Saw Blade Contact Injuries; Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking; Request for Comments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... reduces the risk of injury. 15 U.S.C. 2058(f)(3). C. The Product Table saws are stationary power tools... identified at least 15 manufacturers and importers of table saws. According to the Power Tool Institute... for medical treatment, lost time from work, product liability litigation, and pain and suffering. The...

  18. Seed Yield of Long Fiber Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. Plants Depending on Rates of Sawing of Seed and Mineral Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. Ф. Рибак

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Impact of rates of sawing of seed and fertilization on seed productivity of Kameniar and Irma Long Fiber Flax in the conditions of Ukrainian Woodlands are highlighted. A trustworthy proportion is established of factors influence, in particular, of the sawing and fertilization rates, on Long Fiber Flax yield formation.

  19. Evaluation of saw damage using diamond-coated wire in crystalline silicon solar cells by photoluminescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Kosuke; Kojima, Takuto; Suzuki, Ryota; Kawatsu, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Kyotaro; Ohshita, Yoshio; Ogura, Atsushi

    2018-05-01

    Si ingots were sliced using a diamond-coated wire, and saw damage was observed even after damage removal etching and texturization. Since invisible microscopic damage was observed only under uncontrolled slice conditions, such damage was identified as saw damage. The wafers with saw damage exhibited the degradation of solar cell conversion efficiency (approximately 1–2% absolute). The results of external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements showed a slight deterioration of EQE in the short wavelength region. Current–voltage characteristic measurements showed similar results that agreed with the EQE measurement results. In addition, EQE mapping measurements were carried out at various irradiation wavelengths between 350 and 1150 nm. Areas with dark contrasts in EQE mapping correspond to saw damage. In the cells with a low conversion efficiency, both EQE mapping and PL images exhibited dark areas and lines. On the other hand, in the cells with a high conversion efficiency, a uniform distribution of saw damage was observed even with the saw damage in the PL images. We believe that sophisticated control to suppress saw damage during sawing is required to realize higher conversion efficiency solar cells in the future.

  20. [A case of rhabdomyolysis caused by saw palmetto of healthy foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaka, Minako; Yoshii, Chiharu; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Ito, Chiyo; Chojin, Yasuo; Nagata, Shuya; Yamasaki, Kei; Nishida, Chinatsu; Kawanami, Toshinori; Kawanami, Yukiko; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    An 82-year-old man visited our hospital when he developed a fever of over 38 degrees C after having consumed 5 types of health foods. He had previously been treated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension and hyperuricemia. Blood examination on admission revealed renal dysfunction, marked elevation of C-reactive protein, and an elevated level of serum creatine kinase. According to the laboratory data and his clinical history, rhabdomyolysis complicated by acute renal failure was suspected, but his condition improved and his fever was reduced with fluid infusion. As a drug lymphocyte stimulation test was positive for only saw palmetto in the 5 health foods, we diagnosed the case as rhabdomyolysis induced by saw palmetto. We believe that this is the first case of a health food being the cause of rhabdomyolysis.

  1. Design and use of multiple blade slurry sawing in a production atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynah, F. P., Jr.; Ross, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    The technique and uses of the multiple blade slurry (MBS) saw are considered. Multiple bands of steel are arranged in a frame and the frame is reciprocated with the steel bands to a workpiece, while simultaneously applying abrasive at the point of contact. The blades wear slots in the workpiece and progress through the piece resulting in several parts of wafers. The transition to MBA from diamond slicing is justified by savings resulting from minimized kerf losses, minimized subsurface damage, and improved surface quality off the saw. This allows wafering much closer to finished thickness specifications. The current state of the art MBS technology must be significantly improved if the low cost solar array (LSA) goals are to be attained. It is concluded that although MBS will never be the answer to every wafering requirement, the economical production of wafers to LSA project specifications will be achieved.

  2. Dissecting the fuel element replacement machine in the NPP Muehlheim-Kaerlich using a wire saw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Melanie; Ambos, Frank; Platt, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    By the end of 2000 the NPP Muehlheim-Kaerlich is decommissioned and has to be dismantled. The authors describe the demolition of the fuel element replacement machine. The work is aimed to declassify the waste without restraints for conventional disposal. Within 7 weeks the component has to be dissected using a wire saw. The authors describe the concept and its adaptation to the boundary conditions and experiences during the realization of the demolition concept.

  3. Ear Mushroom (Auricularia sp.) Cultivation On Irradiated Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunch And Saw Dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endrawanto; Suwadji, E.

    2000-01-01

    The experiments were conducted under laboratory condition. Ear mushroom (Auricularia sp.) were grown on palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB), sludge of oil residue, and saw dust as growth medium after (heating) autoclaved and irradiated by gamma rays at the dose of 30 kGy. EFB fiber as well as saw dust were mixed with sludge in composition of (1:0), (0;1), (1;1), (2;5), (1;5), (1;10) and (1;20). The mixture was then composted within 2 weeks by the addition of CaO 2%, CaSO 4 (gypsum) 2 %, rice bran 12%, P fertilizer 0,5% and urea 0,25%. A plastic bag volume 1000 ml was filled by 400 grams of composted material as mushrooms medium or bag log. Sterilized bag logs were then inoculated with mushroom spawns. After inoculation, bag logs were incubated during 1.5 months waiting for mycelium growing. Parameters of the experiments were following weight of mushrooms after harvesting, biological efficiency, rendement, and total fiber on bag log after mushrooms harvesting. Results of experiments showed that utilization of sludge as mixture with EFB produced weight mushrooms yield more than without sludge addition. Saw dust treatment produced more mushrooms weight compared to EFB treatments I.e. 90 g and 75 g. Weight of mushrooms produced and 76.6 g respectively. Rendement obtained between saw dust palm oil empty fruit bunch treatments were not significant at P<0.05 I.e. 91-92%

  4. [Application of saw palmetto fruit extract in the treatment of prostate diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xu-xin; Shang, Xue-jun; Huang, Yu-feng

    2015-09-01

    Saw palmetto fruit extract (SPE), as a herbal product, is widely used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Recent studies show that SPE also has some therapeutic effects on chronic prostatitis, prostate cancer, sexual dysfunction, and so on. This article presents an overview on the application of SPE in the treatment of BPH, prostate cancer, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, with a discussion on its action mechanisms.

  5. Effects of saw palmetto extracts on prostate gland function in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Thiam

    2017-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is associated with many urinary symptoms that can severely diminish quality of life and can lead to complications including urinary tract infections and obstructive nephropathy. The cause behind BPH is not well understood. Extracts of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) are amongst the most widely used medicinal herbal preparations, used almost exclusively to alleviate urinary symptoms related to BPH. Given that little is known about the beneficial physiological role of...

  6. Some Fundamental Limits on SAW RFID Tag Information Capacity and Collision Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we apply results from multi-user information theory to study the limits of information capacity and collision resolution for SAW RFID tags. In particular, we derive bounds on the achievable data rate per tag as a function of fundamental parameters such as tag time-bandwidth product, tag signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and number of tags in the environment. We also discuss the implications of these bounds for tag waveform design and tag interrogation efficiency

  7. The Effect of Nitrogen and Titanium on the Toughness of High Strength Saw Weld Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-12

    2.3 CCT diagram for typical SAW steel welds [8]. 26 Figure 2.4 Oxygen and nitrogen levels expected from several arc 31 welding processes [10]. Figure...alloyed ferritic weld metal such formation is achieved if the CCT diagram is displaced towards longer times. However, it is worth noting that too large...dilution and cooling rate [5]. In this context, the CCT diagram is often used to denote the transformations that occur in weld metal samples which

  8. Hot tests of the small portable arc saw using an electromechanical manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    A hand-held portable arc saw was demonstrated in 1982. Known as the Small Portable Arc Saw (SPARCS), it weighed less than 15-lb and could cut metal sheet up to 1/2-in thick. From the hand-held SPARCS, a manipulator-handled model was developed for use in decommissioning operations by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). During cold tests, the SPARCS, which was maneuvered with a mechanical, master-slave manipulator, cut 1-in thick stainless steel plate. The decommissioning method of PNL depended principally on a plasma cutting torch for size reduction. The SPARCS unit was installed in the cell to assist the plasma torch. At present, use of the SPARCS in this project has not been necessary, and it has not been operated in the cell. The plasma cutting torch is a widely used tool for size reduction; the torch can cut stainless steel and heavy material, is lightweight, and is easy to handle with manipulators. Some shortcomings, however, have been reported; for example, cutting pipe, laminates, or forms with hollow cross sections (e.g., unistrut) is sometimes cumbersome. The stand-off spacing required is another constraint. The torch tip must be spaced approximately 1/2-in from the work to achieve proper cutting action. During cutting, this spacing requires accurate control of the torch. The manipulator operator must have significant skill to achieve this control. Test results to date show that the arc saw's ability to cut heavy, hard, and inert metal compares favorably with the performance of the plasma torch. The arc saw offers the further advantages of cutting hollow cross-section forms without special procedures, and of cutting without stand-off spacing

  9. Extension of the SUSY Les Houches Accord 2 for see-saw mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, L.; Belyaev, A.; Chowdhury, D.; Ghosh, D.K.; Hirsch, M.; Khalil, S.; Moretti, S.; O'Leary, B.; Porod, W.; Staub, F.

    2012-01-01

    The SUSY Les Houches Accord (SLHA) 2 extended the first SLHA to include various generalisations of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) as well as its simplest next-to-minimal version. Here, we propose further extensions to it, to include the most general and well-established see-saw descriptions (types I/II/III, inverse, and linear) in both an effective and a simple gauged extension of the MSSM framework. (authors)

  10. Application of wire sawing method to decommissioning of high level activated concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Hideki; Nishimura, Youichi [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, Morishige; Yamashita Yoshitaka

    1999-07-01

    Wire sawing method is proposed as an effective cutting method for the dismantling of high level activated concrete of a nuclear power plant. The cutting test with wire sawing method discussed in this paper was carried out to obtain the data such as the cutting rate, the volume of concrete dust and the time of cutting and related work. The cutting test consisted of two parts; 'Fundamental test' and 'mock-up test.' In the fundamental test, we carried out the cutting test with small concrete blocks simulating the high level activated concrete of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Through the test, the following data were obtained: the cutting rate of wire sawing, the volume of generated concrete dust and the grading distribution of suspended particulate. We also studied the life of wire and the relations between the wire tension, the wire rotating speed, the steel ratio and the cutting rate. In the mock-up test, we carried out the test with large concrete blocks simulating the part of the reactor shield wall of BWR and the biological shield wall of PWR. Through the mock-up test, we made clear that it is possible that the large test blocks with high re-bar ratio and a steel plate (steel plates) were cut smoothly by the wire sawing method. In the test, the following data were obtained; the cutting rate, the time of the cutting and related work and the remote controllability of cutting machines. (author)

  11. Pulsed laser deposition of metallic films on the surface of diamond particles for diamond saw blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chao; Luo Fei; Long Hua; Hu Shaoliu; Li Bo; Wang Youqing

    2005-01-01

    Ti or Ni films have been deposited on the diamond particle surfaces by pulsed laser deposition. Compressive resistance of the uncoated and coated diamond particles was measured, respectively, in the experiments. The compressive resistance of the Ti-coated diamonds particles was found much higher than that of the uncoated ones. It increased by 39%. The surface morphology is observed by the metallography microscope. The surface of the uncoated diamonds particles had many hollows and flaws, while the surface of Ni-coated diamond particles was flat and smooth, and the surface of Ti-coated diamond particles had some metal masses that stood out of the surface of the Ti-coated film. The components of the metallic films of diamond particles were examined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). TiC was found formed on the Ti-coated diamond surface, which resulted in increased surface bonding strength between the diamond particles and the Ti films. Meanwhile, TiC also favored improving the bonding strength between the coated diamond particles and the binding materials. Moreover, the bending resistance of the diamond saw blade made of Ti-coated diamond was drastically higher than that of other diamond saw blades, which also played an important role in improving the blade's cutting ability and lifetime. Therefore, it was most appropriate that the diamond saw blade was made of Ti-coated diamond particles rather than other materials

  12. Biosorption of aniline violet from aqueous solution on moringa oleifera saw dust (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, T.; Mirza, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Batch adsorption studies were carried out to evaluate the potential of Moringa Oleifera wood saw dust for the removal of aniline violet dye from aqueous solution by optimizing different parameters such as effect of shaking time, adsorbent dose, initial adsorbate concentration etc. The experimental data was subjected to different types of linearized isotherm models such as Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich. The Freundlich isotherm was fitted well with the data. The maximum adsorption capacity of 8.92 m mol./g of aniline violet has been observed through Freundlich isotherm by using the optimized parameters of 50 mg of adsorbent, 5 minutes of shaking time at room temperature of 25 deg. C. The sorption mean free energy from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm is 13.36 kJ mol 1 indicating chemisorption. Pseudo-first and Pseudo-second order kinetics models were tested for the adsorption of 1.23 X 10/sup -5) mol L/sup -1) of aniline violet onto Moringa Oleifera wood saw dust. The experimental data fitted well for Pseudo-second order model with coefficient of correlation R/sup 2/ greater or equal to 0.999. The uptake of aniline violet was also studied with the rise in temperature. Thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated and the adsorption process seems to be endothermic. The results indicate that the Moringa Oleifera wood saw dust is an efficient adsorbent for aniline violet from aqueous solutions. (author)

  13. Homologous recombination induced by doxazosin mesylate and saw palmetto in the Drosophila wing-spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Katiane Cella; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Lehmann, Mauricio; Reguly, Maria Luiza; Richter, Marc François; Andrade, Heloisa Helena Rodrigues de

    2013-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common tumor in men over 40 years of age. Acute urinary retention (AUR) is regarded as the most serious hazard of untreated BPH. α-Blockers, such as doxazosin mesylate, and 5-α reductase inhibitors, such as finasteride, are frequently used because they decrease both AUR and the need for BPH-related surgery. An extract of the fruit from American saw palmetto plant has also been used as an alternative treatment for BPH. The paucity of information available concerning the genotoxic action of these compounds led us to assess their activity as inducers of different types of DNA lesions using the somatic mutation and recombination test in Drosophila melanogaster. Finasteride did not induce gene mutation, chromosomal mutation or mitotic recombination, which means it was nongenotoxic in our experimental conditions. On the other hand, doxazosin mesylate and saw palmetto induced significant increases in spot frequencies in trans-heterozygous flies. In order to establish the actual role played by mitotic recombination and by mutation in the genotoxicity observed, the balancer-heterozygous flies were also analyzed, showing no increment in the total spot frequencies in relation to the negative control, for both drugs. Doxazosin mesylate and saw palmetto were classified as specific inducers of homologous recombination in Drosophila proliferative cells, an event linked to the loss of heterozygosity. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Effect of saw palmetto extract on PI3K cell signaling transduction in human glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Hui, Lv; Yuqin, Che; Jie, Li; Shuai, Hou; Tiezhu, Zhou; Wei, Wang

    2014-08-01

    Saw palmetto extract can induce the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of saw palmetto extract on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling transduction pathway in human glioma U87 and U251 cell lines. Suspensions of U87 and U251 cells in a logarithmic growth phase were seeded into six-well plates at a density of 10 4 cells/well. In the experimental group, 1 μl/ml saw palmetto extract was added, while the control group was cultured without a drug for 24 h. The expression levels of PI3K, B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) and p53 were evaluated through western blot analysis. In the experimental group, the U87 and U251 cells exhibited a lower expression level of PI3K protein as compared with the control group (t=6.849; Psaw palmetto extract induces glioma cell growth arrest and apoptosis via decreasing PI3K/Akt signal transduction.

  15. See-saw motion of thermal boundary layer under vibrations: An implication of forced piston effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, D.; Erriguible, A.; Amiroudine, S.

    2017-12-01

    The phenomenon of piston effect is well known in supercritical fluids wherein the thermal homogenization of the bulk occurs on a very short time scale due to pressure change caused by expansion or contraction of the fluid in the thermal boundary layer. In this article, we highlight an interesting phenomenon wherein by the application of external forces (vibration) normal to the temperature gradient, see-saw motion of the thermal boundary layer is observed in weightlessness conditions. This is attributed to the thermomechanical coupling caused by the temperature change due to external forces. We term this change in the temperature field due to external forces as forced piston effect (FPE). A detailed investigation of this intriguing behavior shows that the see-saw motion is attributed to the variation of the relative thickness of the thermal boundary layer, defined on the basis of relative local bulk temperature, along the direction of vibration. This change in the temperature field, which is observed to be caused by FPE in vibration, is shown to depend on the compressibility (and thus proximity to the critical point), the imposed acceleration and the cell size. It is also found that see-saw motion persists in the presence of gravity and thus is described ubiquitous in nature for all conditions. A plot illustrating the maximum change in the temperature as a function of these parameters is further proposed.

  16. Modeling and experimental validation of sawing based lander anchoring and sampling methods for asteroid exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Dong, Chengcheng; Zhang, Hui; Li, Song; Song, Aiguo

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a novel lander anchoring system based on sawing method for asteroid exploration. The system is composed of three robotic arms, three cutting discs, and a control system. The discs mounted at the end of the arms are able to penetrate into the rock surface of asteroids. After the discs cut into the rock surface, the self-locking function of the arms provides forces to fix the lander on the surface. Modeling, trajectory planning, simulations, mechanism design, and prototype fabrication of the anchoring system are discussed, respectively. The performances of the system are tested on different kinds of rocks, at different sawing angles, locations, and speeds. Results show that the system can cut 15 mm deep into granite rock in 180 s at sawing angle of 60°, with the average power of 58.41 W, and the "weight on bit" (WOB) of 8.637 N. The 7.8 kg anchoring system is capable of providing omni-directional anchoring forces, at least 225 N normal and 157 N tangent to the surface of the rock. The system has the advantages of low-weight, low energy consumption and balance forces, high anchoring efficiency and reliability, and could enable the lander to move and sample or assist astronauts and robots in walking and sampling on asteroids.

  17. Evaluation of Surface Cleaning Procedures for CTGS Substrates for SAW Technology with XPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Brachmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A highly efficient and reproducible cleaning procedure of piezoelectric substrates is essential in surface acoustic waves (SAW technology to fabricate high-quality SAW devices, especially for new applications such SAW sensors wherein new materials for piezoelectric substrates and interdigital transducers are used. Therefore, the development and critical evaluation of cleaning procedures for each material system that is under consideration becomes crucial. Contaminants like particles or the presence of organic/inorganic material on the substrate can dramatically influence and alter the properties of the thin film substrate composite, such as wettability, film adhesion, film texture, and so on. In this article, focus is given to different cleaning processes like SC-1 and SC-2, UV-ozone treatment, as well as cleaning by first-contact polymer Opticlean, which are applied for removal of contaminants from the piezoelectric substrate Ca 3 TaGa 3 Si 2 O 14 . By means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the presence of the most critical contaminants such as carbon, sodium, and iron removed through different cleaning procedures were studied and significant differences were observed between the outcomes of these procedures. Based on these results, a two-step cleaning process, combining SC-1 at a reduced temperature at 30 ∘ C instead of 80 ∘ C and a subsequent UV-ozone cleaning directly prior to deposition of the metallization, is suggested to achieve the lowest residual contamination level.

  18. See, Seeing, Seen, Saw: A Phenomenology of Ultra-Violent Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downes Sarah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vivian Sobchack claims in Carnal Thoughts that human bodies are continually remade by the “technologies of photography, cinema, and the electronic media” (2004, 135. One such sphere of contemporary media that continuously redefines the notion of the human body is horror cinema. The recent advent of so-called ‘gorenography,’ spearheaded by James Wan and Leigh Whannel’s Saw (2004, issues conceptual and philosophical challenges to the presentation and conceptualization of the phenomenal body. Following in the scope of frameworks advanced by both Sobchack and Jennifer Barker this paper aims to explore how the body of the Saw series is constructed and how it emulates both the conceptualized bodies of its viewers and the state of modern information flow in a technological age. It will be argued that the Saw series not only recognises viewers’ enjoyment of its genre conventions but also acknowledges and manipulates their engagement with the film as a phenomenological object through which a sense of re-embodiment can be enacted

  19. Study of low insertion loss and miniaturization wavelet transform and inverse transform processor using SAW devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Lu, Wenke; Zhang, Guoan

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a low insertion loss and miniaturization wavelet transform and inverse transform processor using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. The new SAW wavelet transform devices (WTDs) use the structure with two electrode-widths-controlled (EWC) single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDT-SPUDT). This structure consists of the input withdrawal weighting interdigital transducer (IDT) and the output overlap weighting IDT. Three experimental devices for different scales 2(-1), 2(-2), and 2(-3) are designed and measured. The minimum insertion loss of the three devices reaches 5.49dB, 4.81dB, and 5.38dB respectively which are lower than the early results. Both the electrode width and the number of electrode pairs are reduced, thus making the three devices much smaller than the early devices. Therefore, the method described in this paper is suitable for implementing an arbitrary multi-scale low insertion loss and miniaturization wavelet transform and inverse transform processor using SAW devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a Room Temperature SAW Methane Gas Sensor Incorporating a Supramolecular Cryptophane A Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new room temperature supra-molecular cryptophane A (CrypA-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW sensor for sensing methane gas is presented. The sensor is composed of differential resonator-oscillators, a supra-molecular CrypA coated along the acoustic propagation path, and a frequency signal acquisition module (FSAM. A two-port SAW resonator configuration with low insertion loss, single resonation mode, and high quality factor was designed on a temperature-compensated ST-X quartz substrate, and as the feedback of the differntial oscillators. Prior to development, the coupling of modes (COM simulation was conducted to predict the device performance. The supramolecular CrypA was synthesized from vanillyl alcohol using a double trimerisation method and deposited onto the SAW propagation path of the sensing resonators via different film deposition methods. Experiential results indicate the CrypA-coated sensor made using a dropping method exhibits higher sensor response compared to the unit prepared by the spinning approach because of the obviously larger surface roughness. Fast response and excellent repeatability were observed in gas sensing experiments, and the estimated detection limit and measured sensitivity are ~0.05% and ~204 Hz/%, respectively.

  1. Detection, Identification, Location, and Remote Sensing Using SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Richard J.; Kennedy, Timothy F.; Williams, Robert M.; Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong H.

    2009-01-01

    The Electromagnetic Systems Branch (EV4) of the Avionic Systems Division at NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX is studying the utility of surface acoustic wave (SAW) radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags for multiple wireless applications including detection, identification, tracking, and remote sensing of objects on the lunar surface, monitoring of environmental test facilities, structural shape and health monitoring, and nondestructive test and evaluation of assets. For all of these applications, it is anticipated that the system utilized to interrogate the SAW RFID tags may need to operate at fairly long range and in the presence of considerable multipath and multiple-access interference. Towards that end, EV4 is developing a prototype SAW RFID wireless interrogation system for use in such environments called the Passive Adaptive RFID Sensor Equipment (PARSED) system. The system utilizes a digitally beam-formed planar receiving antenna array to extend range and provide direction-of-arrival information coupled with an approximate maximum-likelihood signal processing algorithm to provide near-optimal estimation of both range and temperature. The system is capable of forming a large number of beams within the field of view and resolving the information from several tags within each beam. The combination of both spatial and waveform discrimination provides the capability to track and monitor telemetry from a large number of objects appearing simultaneously within the field of view of the receiving array. In this paper, we will consider the application of the PARSEQ system to the problem of simultaneous detection, identification, localization, and temperature estimation for multiple objects. We will summarize the overall design of the PARSEQ system and present a detailed description of the design and performance of the signal detection and estimation algorithms incorporated in the system. The system is currently configured only to measure temperature

  2. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - ADAMANT CIRCULAR SAW OENHP NUMBER: 2001-05, VERSION A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting up specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactive contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Adamant circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Adamant was only used during a limited ''test'' on a regular plywood crate due to safety considerations of the tool for this application. The Adamant circular saw, a counter-rotating twin-cutter, constructed with blades that work differently than conventional cutting wheels with twin blades, each rotating in opposite directions. It is used to cut wood and metals. Each blade is approximately 8 3/4 inches in diameter with a maximum cutting depth of 2 1/2 inches. The machine has two rotation speeds: 1,900 and 2,900 rotations per minute (rpm). The saw is operated with an interlocked, guarded trigger switch located at the end of the saw opposite the cutting blades. To operate the saw, the safety interlock must be depressed prior to powering the saw with the trigger control. The saw is supported by a handle at the front of the saw near the cutting blades. The top part of the blades is guarded near the handle, with approximately three-fourths of the face of the blades exposed. The Adamant circular saw is an innovative technology used to cut metals and wood. Its safety features include: interlocking switch for powering the saw, overload indicator and shutoff, and an electronic brake that stops the engine immediately when the start button is released. The top part of the blades is guarded near the motor. With approximately three-fourths of the face of the blades

  3. Treatment Assignment Guesses by Study Participants in a Double-Blind Dose Escalation Clinical Trial of Saw Palmetto

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeannette Y.; Moore, Page; Kusek, John; Barry, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This report assesses participant perception of treatment assignment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BCM).

  4. Theoretical studies on a TeO2/ZnO/diamond-layered structure for zero TCD SAW devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewan, Namrata; Sreenivas, K; Gupta, Vinay

    2008-01-01

    High-frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on diamond substrate are useful because of their very high SAW velocity. In the present work, SAW propagation characteristics, such as phase velocity, coupling coefficient and temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) of a TeO 2 /ZnO/diamond-layered structure, are examined using theoretical calculations. The ZnO/diamond bi-layer structure is found to exhibit a high positive TCD value. A zero TCD device structure is obtained after integration with a TeO 2 over layer having a negative TCD value. Introduction of a non-piezoelectric TeO 2 over layer on the bi-layer structure (ZnO/diamond) increases the coupling coefficient. A relatively low thickness of TeO 2 thin film (∼(1.6–3.1) × 10 −3 λ) is required to achieve temperature-stable SAW devices based on diamond

  5. Healing of osteotomy sites applying either piezosurgery or two conventional saw blades: a pilot study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Stübinger, Stefan; Liu, Xi Ling; Schneider, Urs A; Lang, Niklaus P

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare bone healing of experimental osteotomies applying either piezosurgery or two different oscillating saw blades in a rabbit model. The 16 rabbits were randomly assigned into four groups to comply with observation periods of one, two, three and five weeks. In all animals, four osteotomy lines were performed on the left and right nasal bone using a conventional saw blade, a novel saw blade and piezosurgery. All three osteotomy techniques revealed an advanced gap healing starting after one week. The most pronounced new bone formation took place between two and three weeks, whereby piezoelectric surgery revealed a tendency to faster bone formation and remodelling. Yet, there were no significant differences between the three modalities. The use of a novel as well as the piezoelectric bone-cutting instrument revealed advanced bone healing with a favourable surgical performance compared to a traditional saw.

  6. Theoretical studies on a TeO2/ZnO/diamond-layered structure for zero TCD SAW devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Namrata; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2008-08-01

    High-frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on diamond substrate are useful because of their very high SAW velocity. In the present work, SAW propagation characteristics, such as phase velocity, coupling coefficient and temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) of a TeO2/ZnO/diamond-layered structure, are examined using theoretical calculations. The ZnO/diamond bi-layer structure is found to exhibit a high positive TCD value. A zero TCD device structure is obtained after integration with a TeO2 over layer having a negative TCD value. Introduction of a non-piezoelectric TeO2 over layer on the bi-layer structure (ZnO/diamond) increases the coupling coefficient. A relatively low thickness of TeO2 thin film (~(1.6-3.1) × 10-3λ) is required to achieve temperature-stable SAW devices based on diamond.

  7. The effect of curve sawing two-sided cants from small diameter hardwood sawlogs on lumber and pallet part yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Hamner; Marshall S. White; Philip A. Araman

    2006-01-01

    Curve sawing is a primary log breakdown process that incorporates gang-saw technology to allow two-sided cants from logs with sweep to be cut parallel to the log surface or log axis. Since curve-sawn logs with sweep are cut along the grain, the potential for producing high quality straight-grain lumber and cants increases, and strength, stiffness, and dimensional...

  8. SAW propagation characteristics of TeO3/3C-SiC/LiNbO3 layered structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Namrata D.

    2018-04-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3) single crystal are advantageous because of its high SAW phase velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient and cost effectiveness. In the present work a new multi-layered TeO3/3C-SiC/128° Y-X LiNbO3 SAW device has been proposed. SAW propagation properties such as phase velocity, coupling coefficient and temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) of the TeO3/SiC/128° Y-X LiNbO3 multi layered structure is examined using theoretical calculations. It is found that the integration of 0.09λ thick 3C-SiC over layer on 128° Y-X LiNbO3 increases its electromechanical coupling coefficient from 5.3% to 9.77% and SAW velocity from 3800 ms‑1 to 4394 ms‑1. The SiC/128° Y-X LiNbO3 bilayer SAW structure exhibits a high positive TCD value. A temperature stable layered SAW device could be obtained with introduction of 0.007λ TeO3 over layer on SiC/128° Y-X LiNbO3 bilayer structure without sacrificing the efficiency of the device. The proposed TeO3/3C-SiC/128° Y-X LiNbO3 multi-layered SAW structure is found to be cost effective, efficient, temperature stable and suitable for high frequency application in harsh environment.

  9. Pharmacological characterization and chemical fractionation of a liposterolic extract of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens): effects on rat prostate contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Thiam; Eise, Nicole T; Simpson, Jamie S; Ventura, Sabatino

    2014-03-14

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) was first used medicinally by native American Indians to treat urological disorders. Nowadays, saw palmetto extracts are widely used in Europe and North America to treat the urinary symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia even though its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize the bioactive constituents of a lipid extract of saw palmetto that are able to affect contractility of the rat prostate gland. The mechanism of action will also be investigated. A commercially available lipid extract of saw palmetto was subjected to fractionation using normal phase column chromatography. Composition of fractions was assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Contractile activities of these fractions were evaluated pharmacologically using isolated preparations of rat prostate gland and compared to the activity of the crude extract. Saw palmetto extract inhibited contractions of the rat prostate gland which were consistent with smooth muscle relaxant activity. Only the ethyl acetate fraction resulting from chromatography inhibited contractions of isolated rat prostates similarly to the inhibition produced by the crude lipid extract. Comparison with authentic samples and analysis of NMR data revealed that this bioactivity was due to the fatty acid components present in the ethyl acetate fraction. Bioassay using various pharmacological tools identified multiple contractile mechanisms which were affected by the bioactive constituents. A fatty acid component of saw palmetto extract causes inhibition of prostatic smooth muscle contractions via a non-specific mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Piezoelectric shunt damping of a circular saw blade with autonomous power supply for noise and vibration reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Martin; Rose, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Circular saws are widespread tools for machining metal, wood or even ceramics. Due to the thin blade and excitation by the workpiece contact of the cutting edges, circular saws are prone to vibration and intense noise emission. Damping the blade will lower the hearing protection requirements of the users and possibly increase precision. Therefore a new damping concept for circular saw blades is presented in this paper. It is based on negative capacitance shunted piezoelectric transducers which are applied to the saw blade core. The required energy for the electronics is harvested from the rotation by a generator, so that no change of the machine tool is required. All components are integrated into an autonomous saw tool. Finally, the system is experimentally investigated without rotation, in idling and in cutting condition in a circular saw test stand in the Institute for Machine Tools and Production Engineering (IWF) at TU Braunschweig. The experimental investigation shows a good reduction of the vibration amplitude over a wide frequency range in the non-rotating condition. When rotating, the damping effect is lower and limited to some narrow frequency bands. The proposed reason for the reduced damping effect in rotating condition consists in the saturation of the electronic circuits due to the limited supply voltage capabilities.

  11. Experimental investigation of the thickness effect for large as-welded SAW S355 steel specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Ólafur Magnús; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Berggreen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The presented work aims to investigate and establish a pre-cise, thorough and detailed database from series of experi-mental testing of submerged arc welded (SAW) specimens of various thicknesses typically applied in ships and offshore structures and foundations. Welded structures of all sizes...... and shapes exhibit fatigue failure primarily in the welded region, rather than in the base material, due to imperfections and flaws relating to the welding procedure. The welded region has therefore received much attention from universities, re-search institutions along with industry as it is of significant...

  12. Machine Selection in A Dairy Product Company with Entropy and SAW Method Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aşkın Özdağoğlu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Machine selection is an important and difficult process for the firms, and its results may generate more problems than anticipated. In order to find the best alternative, managers should define the requirements of the factory and determine the necessary criteria. On the other hand, the decision making criteria in order to choose the right equipment may vary according to the type of the manufacturing facility, market requirements, and consumer assigned criteria. This study aims to find the best machine alternative  among  the three machine offerings according to twelve evaluation criteria by integrating entropy method with SAW method.

  13. A 3-D discontinuous Galerkin Method for jet engine buzz-saw noise propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remaki, M.; Habashi, W.G.; Ait-Ali-Yahia, D.; Jay, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a 3-D methodology for solving jet engine aero-acoustics problems in the presence of strong shocks and rarefactions. For example, turbofan engines suffer from Multiple Pure Tone noise, also called Buzz-saw noise, generated by the fan when the blade rotational tip speed is supersonic. These waves are composed of a series of shocks and rarefactions produced by a coalescence of shocks due to non-uniformities in the blade spacing and in the blade stagger angles, arising from manufacturing tolerances

  14. The Effect of Increasing Doses of Saw Palmetto Fruit Extract on Serum PSA Levels: Analysis of the CAMUS Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Gerald L.; McCullum-Hill, Christie; Sandhu, Gurdarshan S.; Crawford, E. David; Barry, Michael J.; Cantor, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Saw palmetto extracts are used for treating lower urinary tract symptoms in men despite level I evidence concluding that saw palmetto was ineffective in reducing lower urinary symptoms. We sought to determine whether higher doses of saw palmetto as studied in CAMUS affect serum PSA levels. Materials and Methods The CAMUS trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled double blind multi-centered North American trial conducted between June 5, 2008 and October 10, 2012 in which 369 men >45 years of age with AUA symptom score ≥ 8 and ≤ 24 were randomly assigned to placebo or dose escalation saw palmetto, which consisted of 320mg for first 24 weeks to 640mg for next 24 weeks to 960mg for last 24 weeks of this 72 week trial. Serum PSA levels (Beckman-Coulter) were obtained at baseline and at weeks 24, 48 and 72 and were compared between treatment groups using the pooled t and Fisher's exact tests. Results Serum PSA levels were similar at baseline for the placebo (1.93 ± 1.59 ng/ml) and saw palmetto groups (2.20 ± 1.95, p = 0.16). Changes in PSA levels over the course of the study were similar: placebo group mean change 0.16 ± 1.08 ng/ml and saw palmetto group mean change 0.23 ± 0.83 ng/ml (p value 0.50). Additionally, no differential effect on serum PSA levels was observed between treatment arms when groups were stratified by baseline PSA values. Conclusions Saw palmetto extract does not affect serum PSA levels more than placebo even at relatively high doses. PMID:23253958

  15. New Natural Pigment Fraction Isolated from Saw Palmetto: Potential for Adjuvant Therapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hor-Yue Tan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, we discovered a small proportion of aqueous fraction from Saw Palmetto apart from the fatty acid-rich fraction exhibited pharmacological activity. Therefore, this study aims to explore the anti-tumor potential of red pigmented aqueous fraction of Saw Palmetto, NYG on human hepatocellular carcinoma and its possible targets. Subcutaneous xenograft and orthotopic implantation models of HCC were used to evaluate the tumor inhibitory effect of NYG. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC were used as in vitro model. The mRNA expression was conducted by qPCR. Protein expression was monitored by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Cell migration and blood vessel formation were determined by chamber assay and tube formation assay, respectively. Significant tumor inhibition of NYG in dose-dependent manner was observed on subcutaneous xenograft and orthotopic HCC model. NYG has no direct action on cell viability or VEGF secretion of HCC cells. However, NYG reduced in vitro migration and vessel formation activities of HUVEC cells, as well as in vivo intratumoral neovascularization. NYG attenuated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK activation in endothelial cells, which may be associated with the suppression of migration and tube formation of HUVEC. NYG suppressed tumor expansion of HCC via inhibiting neovascularization, and may be potential adjuvant treatment for HCC.

  16. New Natural Pigment Fraction Isolated from Saw Palmetto: Potential for Adjuvant Therapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hor-Yue; Wang, Ning; Takahashi, Masao; Feng, Yigang; Li, Hongyun; Feng, Yibin

    2016-08-05

    For the first time, we discovered a small proportion of aqueous fraction from Saw Palmetto apart from the fatty acid-rich fraction exhibited pharmacological activity. Therefore, this study aims to explore the anti-tumor potential of red pigmented aqueous fraction of Saw Palmetto, NYG on human hepatocellular carcinoma and its possible targets. Subcutaneous xenograft and orthotopic implantation models of HCC were used to evaluate the tumor inhibitory effect of NYG. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used as in vitro model. The mRNA expression was conducted by qPCR. Protein expression was monitored by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Cell migration and blood vessel formation were determined by chamber assay and tube formation assay, respectively. Significant tumor inhibition of NYG in dose-dependent manner was observed on subcutaneous xenograft and orthotopic HCC model. NYG has no direct action on cell viability or VEGF secretion of HCC cells. However, NYG reduced in vitro migration and vessel formation activities of HUVEC cells, as well as in vivo intratumoral neovascularization. NYG attenuated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) activation in endothelial cells, which may be associated with the suppression of migration and tube formation of HUVEC. NYG suppressed tumor expansion of HCC via inhibiting neovascularization, and may be potential adjuvant treatment for HCC.

  17. Measuring Torque and Temperature in a Rotating Shaft Using Commercial SAW Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diogo; Mendes, Joana C; Pereira, António B; Gégot, François; Alves, Luís N

    2017-07-02

    Real-time monitoring of torque in a rotating shaft is not easy to implement with technologies such as optic fiber sensors or strain gages. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors are wireless and passive and can be used to monitor strain in moving parts. Commercial solutions (sensors, antennas and interrogation unit) can easily be purchased from some companies; however, they are not customized and may not meet the specificity of the measurements. In order to evaluate the adequacy of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) solutions, temperature and strain sensors fabricated by SENSeOR (Besançon, France) were mounted on a load cell. The sensors were calibrated using a thermal chamber and a universal testing machine. The load cell was then assembled together with a steel shaft that rotated at different speeds inside an oven. The commercial antennas were replaced with an RF (radio frequency) coupler and the sensors were interrogated with the commercial interrogation unit. The influence of rotation in the accuracy on the measurements, as well as the adequacy of the sensors structure, was evaluated. It can be concluded that SAW sensors can be used to measure temperature or torque in a rotating environment; however, some customization of the components is required in order to overcome the limitations posed by COTS sensing solutions.

  18. Characterization of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) piezoelectric properties for Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosydi Zakaria, Mohd; Johari, Shazlina; Hafiz Ismail, Mohd; Hashim, Uda

    2017-11-01

    In fabricating Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) biosensors device, the substrate is one of important factors that affected to performance device. there are many types of piezoelectric substrate in the markets and the cheapest is zinc Oxide substrate. Zinc Oxide (ZnO) with its unique properties can be used as piezoelectric substrate along with SAW devices for detection of DNA in this research. In this project, ZnO thin film is deposited onto silicon oxide substrate using electron beam evaporation (E-beam) and Sol-Gel technique. Different material structure is used to compare the roughness and best piezoelectric substrate of ZnO thin film. Two different structures of ZnO target which are pellet and granular are used for e-beam deposition and one sol-gel liquid were synthesize and compared. Parameter for thickness of ZnO e-beam deposition is fixed to a 0.1kÅ for both materials structure and sol-gel was coat using spin coat technique. After the process is done, samples are annealed at temperature of 500°C for 2 hours. The structural properties of effect of post annealing using different material structure of ZnO are studied using Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) for surface morphology and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) for phase structure.

  19. SoilSaw trademark demonstration. Final report, September 1992--January 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saugier, K.; Isaac, R.E.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has identified leaking underground storage tanks and buried mixed waste at numerous sites within the DOE complex. Preventing these wastes from entering the environment is a challenging task. One method of preventing waste migration is to isolate the contaminants using subsurface containment barriers. Isolation and containment can be accomplished by both in situ and ex situ methods. This report describes a novel in situ construction method of forming vertical containment barriers (slurry walls) using the SoilSaw trademark Barrier System. The SoilSaw trademark Barrier System is shown to be a feasible process for constructing subsurface vertical containment barriers to depths of fifty feet. The process is most efficient in sandy soil (including free flowing sand) with barrier construction rates of over 130 square feet per minute. Productivity diminishes to approximately 30 square feet per minute as soils become harder and more cohesive. The present hardware is designed to form a barrier of approximately 12 inch in width. Additional barrier widths can be constructed with this technology by application of wider jet heads. The requirement for a varied arrangement of barrier widths is an increase in hydraulic horse power and additional jet heads

  20. Disposal of metal fragments released during polycrystalline slicing by multi-wire saw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutouchent-Guerfi, N.; Drouiche, N.; Medjahed, S.; Ould-Hamou, M.; Sahraoui, F.

    2016-08-01

    The environmental and economic impacts linked with solar systems are largely based on discharges of slurry generated during the various stages of sawing and cutting ingots. These discharges into the environment are subject to the general regulations on hazardous and special industrial waste disposal. Therefore, they should not be abandoned or burned in open air. The cutting of Silicon ingots leads to the production of Silicon wafers additional costs, losing more than 30% of Silicon material. Abrasive grains (Silicon Carbide) trapped between the wire and the block of Silicon need to be removed by various mechanisms to be later evacuated by slurry fragments. In the interest of decreasing operational costs during polycrystalline ingot slicing at Semiconductors Research Center, and, avoid environmental problems; it is necessary to recover the solar grade Silicon from the Silicon sawing waste. For this reason, the removal of metal fragments has become a preliminary requirement to regenerate the slurry; in addition, the solid phase needs to be separated from the liquid phase after the dissolution PEG with the solvent. In the present study, magnetic separation and centrifugation methods were adopted for metals removal, followed by the analysis of some operating parameters such as: washing time, pH, and initial concentration of Silicon. Finally, analytical, morphological and basic methods were performed in order to evaluate the efficiency of the process undertaken.

  1. SoilSaw{trademark} demonstration. Final report, September 1992--January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saugier, K.; Isaac, R.E.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has identified leaking underground storage tanks and buried mixed waste at numerous sites within the DOE complex. Preventing these wastes from entering the environment is a challenging task. One method of preventing waste migration is to isolate the contaminants using subsurface containment barriers. Isolation and containment can be accomplished by both in situ and ex situ methods. This report describes a novel in situ construction method of forming vertical containment barriers (slurry walls) using the SoilSaw{trademark} Barrier System. The SoilSaw{trademark} Barrier System is shown to be a feasible process for constructing subsurface vertical containment barriers to depths of fifty feet. The process is most efficient in sandy soil (including free flowing sand) with barrier construction rates of over 130 square feet per minute. Productivity diminishes to approximately 30 square feet per minute as soils become harder and more cohesive. The present hardware is designed to form a barrier of approximately 12 inch in width. Additional barrier widths can be constructed with this technology by application of wider jet heads. The requirement for a varied arrangement of barrier widths is an increase in hydraulic horse power and additional jet heads.

  2. Emotional see-saw affects rationality of decision-making: Evidence for metacognitive impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folwarczny, Michał; Kaczmarek, Magdalena C; Doliński, Dariusz; Szczepanowski, Remigiusz

    2018-05-01

    This research investigated the cognitive mechanisms that underlie impairments in human reasoning triggered by the emotional see-saw technique. It has previously been stated that such manipulation is effective as it presumably induces a mindless state and cognitive deficits in compliant individuals. Based on the dual-system architecture of reasoning (system 2) and affective decision-making (system 1), we challenged the previous theoretical account by indicating that the main source of compliance is impairment of the meta-reasoning system when rapid affective changes occur. To examine this hypothesis, we manipulated affective feelings (system 1 processing) by violating participants' expectations regarding reward and performance in a go/no-go task in which individuals were to inhibit their responses to earn money. Aside from the go/no-go performance, we measured rationality (meta-reasoning system 2) in decision-making by asking participants to comply with a nonsensical request. We found that participants who were exposed to meta-reasoning impairments due to the emotional see-saw phenomenon exhibited mindless behavior. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. SUSY see-saw and NMSO(10)GUT inflation after BICEP2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Ila

    2016-01-01

    Supersymmetric see-saw slow roll inflection point inflation occurs along a MSSM D-flat direction associated with gauge invariant combination of Higgs, s lepton and right-handed s neutrino at a scale set by the right-handed neutrino mass M vc ∼ 10 6 -10 13 GeV. The tensor to scalar perturbation ratio r ∼ 10 -3 can be achieved in this scenario. However, this scenario faced difficulty in being embedded in the realistic new minimal supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified theory (NMSO(10)GUT). The recent discovery of B-mode polarization by BICEP2, changes the prospects of NMSO(10) GUT inflation. Inflection point models become strongly disfavoured, as the trilinear coupling of SUSY see-saw inflation potential gets suppressed relative to the mass parameter favoured by BICEP2. Large values of r ≈ 0.2 can be achieved with super-Planck scale inflaton values and mass scales of inflaton ≥10 13 GeV. In NMSO(10)GUT, this can be made possible with an admixture of heavy Higgs doublet fields, i.e., other than MSSM Higgs field, which are present and have masses of order GUT scale. (author)

  4. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    For many NASA missions, remote sensing is a critical application that supports activities such as environmental monitoring, planetary science, structural shape and health monitoring, non-destructive evaluation, etc. The utility of the remote sensing devices themselves is greatly increased if they are passive V that is, they do not require any on-board power supply such as batteries V and if they can be identified uniquely during the sensor interrogation process. Additional passive sensor characteristics that enable greater utilization in space applications are small size and weight, long read ranges with low interrogator power, ruggedness, and operability in extreme environments (vacuum, extreme high/low temperature, high radiation, etc.) In this paper, we consider one very promising passive sensor technology, called surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID), that satisfies all of these criteria. In general, RFID is a method of identifying items using radio waves to interrogate tags encoded with a unique identifier that are affixed to the items of interest. In the case of passive tags, only the interrogator, which transmits power to the tags in the form of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, requires access to a power supply. Passive RFID technologies are used today in many applications, including asset tracking and management, security and access control, and remote sensing. To date, most of the development and application in RFID technology has focused on either asset/inventory tracking and control or security and access control because these are the largest commercial application areas. Recently however, there has been growing interest in using passive RFID technology for remote sensing applications, and SAW devices are at the forefront of RFID sensing technology development. Although SAW RFID tags have great potential for use in numerous space-based remote sensing applications, the limited collision resolution capability of

  5. RELEVANSI STRATEGI DAKWAH HIZBUT TAHRIR INDONESIA DENGAN STRATEGI DAKWAH NABI MUHAMMAD SAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunis Khoerunnisa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia is a unique and phenomenal propaganda institution. For one decade (1998-2008 it has exercised a very intensive preaching, conception of Islam, enforcement of Syari’ah and the Khilafah ruling system. The purpose of this study is to determine the Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia thinking about: (1 the arguments used by Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia in preaching; (2 the purpose of the preaching of Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia; (3 the method used in the propaganda activities of Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia; (4 the program of propaganda in the view of Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia; and (5 the relevance of Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia propagation strategy with the strategy of propaganda of the Prophet Muhammad. The results showed that (1 Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia propagation argument is Surah (Chapter Ali-Imran verse 104; (2 the purpose of Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia propaganda is to hold Islamic life and to carry the Islamic propagation to the entire world and to revive Islam in the right way; (3 the method adopted by Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia in carrying out the mission is the laws of Personality which is taken from Prophet Sayings; (4 HizbutTahrir Indonesia propagation program is basically the same as Hizbut Tahrir anywhere, for espousing ideas, ideals and the same activity which reflects on propagation strategy of the Prophet; and (5 selection of Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia toward the Prophet Traditions about the propagation method applied by the Prophet Muhammad SAW tend to choose a more nuanced firm. In fact, the propagation method applied by the Prophet varies depending on the existing situation and conditions.   Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia adalah sebuah lembaga dakwah yang unik dan fenomenal. Selama kurang lebih satu dasawarsa (1998-2008 sangat intensif melakukan dakwahnya, konsepsinya tentang penegakan Syari’at Islam dan sistem pemerintahan Khilafah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pemikiran Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia tentang: (1 landasan yang digunakan

  6. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - MILWAUKEE WORM DRIVE CIRCULAR SAW OENHP NUMBER: 2001-02, VERSION A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw is a hand-held tool with a 7 1/4-inch diameter circular blade for cutting wood. The saw contains a fixed upper and a retractable lower blade guard to prevent access to the blade during use. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch; and is supported with a handgrip mounted on top of the saw. An adjustable lever sets the depth of cut. The retractable blade guard permits blind or plunge cuts and protects from blade access during shutdown and blade coast. Kickback, the sudden reaction to a pinched blade, is possible when using this saw and could cause the saw to lift up and out of the work piece toward the operator. Proper work position and firm control of the saw minimizes the potential for a sprain or strain. Care needs to be exercised to support the work piece properly and to not force the tool. Personal noise sampling indicated that one worker was near the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) while the other was at the Action Level with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 82.7 and 84.6 dBA, respectively. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it

  7. Treatment assignment guesses by study participants in a double-blind dose escalation clinical trial of saw palmetto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeannette Y; Moore, Page; Kusek, John; Barry, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This report assesses participant perception of treatment assignment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BCM). Participants randomized to receive saw palmetto were instructed to take one 320 mg gelcap daily for the first 24 weeks, two 320 mg gelcaps daily for the second 24 weeks, and three 320 mg gelcaps daily for the third 24 weeks. Study participants assigned to placebo were instructed to take the same number of matching placebo gelcaps in each time period. At 24, 48, and 72 weeks postrandomization, the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI) was administered and participants were asked to guess their treatment assignment. The study was conducted at 11 clinical centers in North America. Study participants were men, 45 years and older, with moderate to low severe BPH symptoms, randomized to saw palmetto (N=151) or placebo (N=155). Treatment arms were compared with respect to the distribution of participant guesses of treatment assignment. For participants assigned to saw palmetto, 22.5%, 24.7%, and 29.8% correctly thought they were taking saw palmetto, and 37.3%, 40.0%, and 44.4% incorrectly thought they were on placebo at 24, 48, and 72 weeks, respectively. For placebo participants, 21.8%, 27.4%, and 25.2% incorrectly thought they were on saw palmetto, and 41.6%, 39.9%, and 42.6% correctly thought they were on placebo at 24, 48, and 72 weeks, respectively. The treatment arms did not vary with respect to the distributions of participants who guessed they were on saw palmetto (p=0.823) or placebo (p=0.893). Participants who experienced an improvement in AUA-SI were 2.16 times more likely to think they were on saw palmetto. Blinding of treatment assignment was successful in this study. Improvement in BPH-related symptoms was associated with the perception that participants were taking saw palmetto.

  8. The effect of biochar, cocopeat and saw dust compost on the growth of two dipterocarps seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARJENAH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Marjenah, Kiswanto, Purwanti S, Sofyan FPM. 2016. The effect of biochar, cocopeat and saw dust compost on the growth of two dipterocarps seedlings. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 39-44. Good growing media contains enough nutrients, light textured, and have the capacity to hold water to create conditions that can support plant growth. The growing media used for propagation has several requirements, that is firm and dense to enhance the growth of stems, has the capability to hold water, guarantee the plant life, and moderate humidity. This study attempts to evaluate the effect of biochar, cocopeat, and saw dust compost on the growth of Dryobalanops aromatica and Shorea balangeran seedlings. An experiment was conducted by using completely randomized block design (CRBD in factorial with two factors, namely growing media (top soil 100%; top soil 80% + saw dust compost 20%; top soil 80% + biochar 20%, top soil 80% + 20% coco peat and two species of dipterocarps seedlings (D. aromatica and S. balangeran. The experiment was carried out in a Forestry Faculty nursery during 3 months. To determine the best growth media, the vegetative parameters of seedlings were measured and the data were statistically analyzed. Survival rates of both of seedlings showed good specification in all types of growing media. The survival rates of D. aromatica for 100% top soil (control; 80% top soil+ 20% sawdust compost; 80% topsoil + 20% biochar; 80% top soil + 20% cocopeat are 100%; 100%; 97.78% and 97.78%; respectively. S. balangeran are 93.33%; 100%; 100%; 97.78%. Quality Index of D. aromatica 100% top soil (control; 80% top soil+ 20% sawdust compost; 80% topsoil + 20% biochar; 80% top soil + 20% cocopeat that are 0.15; 0.14; 0.10; and 0.10; and for S. balangeran 0.09; 0.38; 0.05 and 0.07 respectively.

  9. Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms: effects on urodynamic parameters and voiding symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, G S; Zagaja, G P; Bales, G T; Chodak, G W; Contreras, B A

    1998-06-01

    To assess the effects of saw palmetto on voiding symptoms and urodynamic parameters in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) presumed secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Fifty men with previously untreated LUTS and a minimum International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of 10 or greater were treated with a commercially available form of saw palmetto (160 mg twice per day) for 6 months. The initial evaluation included measurement of peak urinary flow rate, postvoid residual urine volume, pressure-flow study, and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Patients completed an IPSS, serum PSA was determined, and flow rate was measured every 2 months during the course of the study. A urodynamic evaluation was repeated at the completion of the 6-month trial. The mean IPSS (+/-SD) improved from 19.5+/-5.5 to 12.5+/-7.0 (P saw palmetto for 2 months. An improvement in symptom score of 50% or greater after treatment with saw palmetto for 2, 4, and 6 months was noted in 21% (10 of 48), 30% (14 of 47), and 46% (21 of 46) of patients, respectively. There was no significant change in peak urinary flow rate, postvoid residual urine volume, or detrusor pressure at peak flow among patients completing the study. No significant change in mean serum PSA level was noted. Saw palmetto is a well-tolerated agent that may significantly improve lower urinary tract symptoms in men with BPH. However, we were unable to demonstrate any significant improvement in objective measures of bladder outlet obstruction. Placebo-controlled trials of saw palmetto are needed to evaluate the true effectiveness of this compound.

  10. Development of large diamond-tipped saws and their application to cutting large radioactive reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlings, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    The object of this research was to develop a large circular saw, capable of cutting away, by remote control, the inner radio-activated layer of reinforced concrete biological shields or pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel of gas-cooled reactors. Initial investigations and enquiries put to the existing saw industry established although there were blades in use approaching the size and type required, the development of large machines was restricted to the fixed-bed type because there was little demand for deep sawing in the construction or demolition industry. Preliminary work was carried out in 1981 to demonstrate the largest available wall saw at that time which showed that by changing the blade three times, a kerf 810 mm deep could be achieved. From this demonstration, the design and development of a 'free frame saw' and construction of a 660 mm blade as well as a 2500 mm blade, were performed. Initially, the 660 mm blade was used to cut the concrete and reinforcement, followed by the 2500 mm blade to produce a 1 m kerf. Subsequent development and testing demonstrated that the 2500 mm blade could be controlled to ''plunge cut'', that is to cut straight down in the reinforced concrete to a depth of 1 m in 7 minutes and would then advance at 160 mm/min; this is a work rate of 10 m 2 /hr. The final demonstration was to mount the saw on an extendible boom and remove a 1 m 3 block of reinforced concrete from the vertical face of a test wall

  11. Sterile neutrino in a minimal three-generation see-saw model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sterile neutrino in a minimal three-generation see-saw model. Table 1. Relevant right-handed fermion and scalar fields and their transformation properties. Here we have defined Y. I3R· (B–L)/2. SU´2µL ¢U´1µI3R ¢U´1µB L. SU´2µL ¢UY ´1µ. Le ·Lµ Lτ. Seµ. 2R ν R. (1,1/2, 1). (1,0). 1. 1 ν·R. (1,1/2, 1). (1,0). 1. 1. ντR. (1, 1/2, 1).

  12. New chalcanonol glycoside from the seeds of saw palmetto: antiproliferative and antioxidant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Bar, Fatma M

    2015-01-01

    A new chalcanonol glycoside dimer, bis-O-[(I-4') → (II-6')]-α-hydroxyphloretin-2'-O-β-glucoside (1), in addition to six known compounds, namely (-)-epicatechin (2) and (-)-epiafzelechin (3), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), protocatechuic acid (5), methylgallate (6), β-sitosterol (7) and β-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside (8), was isolated from the seeds of saw palmetto. The structures of the isolated compounds were established from the analysis of their MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The antiproliferative activities of the isolated compounds towards PC3, the human prostate cancer cells were investigated. Amongst the isolated compounds, the new compound and the sterolic derivatives showed antiproliferative effects. Screening of the antioxidant effects of the isolated compounds by 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical assay revealed that the isolated phenolics were active free radical scavengers.

  13. Herb-drug interactions. Interactions between saw palmetto and prescription medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, Rubin

    2005-11-01

    Patients over age 50 typically present with one chronic disease per decade. Each chronic disease typically requires long-term drug therapy, meaning most older patients require several drugs to maintain health. Simultaneously, use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased in the United States in the last 20 years, reaching 36% in 2002; herbal medicine use accounts for approximately 22% of all CAM use. Older adults often add herbal medicines to prescription medications, yet do not always inform their physicians. The drug metabolizing enzyme systems process all compounds foreign to the body, including prescription and herbal medications. Therefore use of both medicinals simultaneously has a potential for adverse interactions. This review, which discusses saw palmetto, is the last in a series covering the documented interactions among the top 5 efficacious herbal medicines and prescription drugs.

  14. Pemetaan Kinerja Relatif Kepemimpian Kepala Daerah terhadap Sifat Kepemimpinan Rasulullah SAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmat Ceha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a model of performance measurement (mapping is based on the four leadership qualities of Prophet Muhammad SAW, they are shiddig, talbligh, amanah and fathanah. The case study used is the implementation of the leadership of the three head region Municipality (kabupaten of West Java province. Assessment process begins with identifying the variables or criteria along with unit size of each trait Prophet. Furthermore, the survey was conducted in the target study, the city of A, B, and C. For mapping, use the concept of calculation developed by a team of Technology Atlas Project-Unitet Nation and eventually can be calculated Leadership Index (IK for each of the leadership in their respective regions. IK illustrates the relative levels of leadership according to the views of the community, whether it is in compliance with the nature of leadership that ha according to the views of the community s been exemplified by the Rasulullah.

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory corregated metal pipe saw facility preliminary safety analysis report. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-09-19

    This Preliminary Safety Analysis Report addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and design operation of the processing systems in the Corrugated Metal Pipe Saw Facility with respect to normal and abnormal conditions. Potential hazards are identified, credible accidents relative to the operation of the facility and the process systems are analyzed, and the consequences of postulated accidents are presented. The risk associated with normal operations, abnormal operations, and natural phenomena are analyzed. The accident analysis presented shows that the impact of the facility will be acceptable for all foreseeable normal and abnormal conditions of operation. Specifically, under normal conditions the facility will have impacts within the limits posted by applicable DOE guidelines, and in accident conditions the facility will similarly meet or exceed the requirements of all applicable standards. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Gamma irradiation effects on larval and pupal stages on the saw toothed grain beetle oryzaephilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.W.; Ahmed, M.Y.Y.

    1978-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation from Co 60 on larval and pupal stages of the saw-toothed grain beetle. Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. were determined. Larval and pupal sensitivity depended on age at treatment, the older the larvae or pupae, the less susceptible. No adults emerged in the 10- to 12-day larvae and 4-day old pupae when irradiated at 10 and 100 Krad. respectively. Irradiation of larvae and pupae especially at high doses, resulted in reduced percent adult emergence in incomplete emergence, and in structural deformities. The percentage sterility for both sexes at each dosage used were determined. Males and females irradiated asl-d and 4-d-old pupae, then mated with normal unmated adults of the opposite sex laid infertile eggs when irradiated at 12 Krad. Adult mortality from irradiated pupae (1- or 4-d-old) was increased with the increase of the dose

  17. Analyzing the Performances of Automotive Companies Using Entropy Based MAUT and SAW Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Ömürbek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performances of automotive companies traded on BİST (Istanbul Stock Exchange and also operated in our country have been  compared with the multi-criteria decision making techniques. Data of the most important automotive companies operating in Turkey have been analyzed based on capital, stock certificate, marketing value, sales revenue, number of employees, net profit margin, current ratio, net profit/capital, net profit/sales and net sales/number of employees. Criteria applied on  Performance measurement  was gained  operating reports of companies  in 2014. Entropy method  has been used to determine the weights of the criteria. Those weights have been used MAUT (Multi-Attribute Utility Theory and SAW (Simple Additive Weighting  methods to rank automative companies’ performances The findings highlight that the same companies were in the first three places  in both methods.

  18. SAW RFID-Tags for Mass-Sensitive Detection of Humidity and Vapors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Fischerauer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One-port surface acoustic wave (SAW devices with defined reflector patterns give characteristic signal patterns in the time domain making them identifiable and leading to so-called RFID-Tags. Each sensor responds with a burst of signals, their timed positions giving the identification code, while the amplitudes can be related to the analyte concentration. This paper presents the first combination of such a transducer with chemically sensitive layer materials. These include crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol for determining relative humidity and tert-butylcalix[4]arene for detecting solvent vapors coated on the free space between the reflectors. In going from the time domain to the frequency domain by Fourier transformation, changes in frequency and phase lead to sensor responses. Hence, it is possible to measure the concentration of tetrachloroethene in air down to 50 ppm, as well as 1% changes in relative humidity.

  19. Comparison of Multi-Criteria Decision Support Methods (AHP, TOPSIS, SAW & PROMENTHEE) for Employee Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widianta, M. M. D.; Rizaldi, T.; Setyohadi, D. P. S.; Riskiawan, H. Y.

    2018-01-01

    The right decision in placing employees in an appropriate position in a company will support the quality of management and will have an impact on improving the quality of human resources of the company. Such decision-making can be assisted by an approach through the Decision Support System (DSS) to improve accuracy in the employee placement process. The purpose of this paper is to compare the four methods of Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM), ie Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), Simple Additive Weighting (SAW), Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Of Evaluations (PROMETHEE) for the application of employee placement in accordance with predetermined criteria. The ranking results and the accuracy level obtained from each method are different depending on the different scaling and weighting processes in each method.

  20. Preparation and pigmented polyester coating of saw dust particle board using ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darsono; Sugiarto Danu; Anik Sunarni

    2010-01-01

    Experiments on the preparation and pigmented polyester coating of saw dust particle board have been conducted using ultra-violet (UV) radiation curing. The adhesive used for preparation of particle board was the mixture of eugenol and isoeugenol residue as by product of clover oil distillation. Dry saw dust (20 – 40 mesh) was mixed with adhesive at concentration of 16 % b.w. The mixture then was hot pressed at 160, 170, and 180 kg/cm 2 , temperature of 160 °C for 30 minutes. Particle boards obtained have the density of 0.85 - 92 g/cm 3 , water content of 5.4 – 6.8 % and thickness swelling 45 – 62 % ( 2 hr immersion) and unmeasurable for 24 hr immersion due to brittle condition. It was found that particle boards have properties of modulus of rupture = 64 – 71 kgf/cm 2 , modulus of elasticity = 402 – 447 kgf/ cm 2 , and internal bond of 0.52 – 0.57 kgf/cm 2 . Cured coating made of the mixture of polyester resin, photoinitiator (2 and 3 % b.w) and pigment (1 and 2 % b.w) on particle board and irradiated at 1 – 4 m/min have pendulum hardness = 25.0 – 63.9 sec, pencil hardness = HB – 2H, % remaining = 92 – 100 %, glossy = 42.3 – 58.8 %, and color value of L = 54.3 – 73.9, a = -1.3 – 1.9, and b = 0.4 – 3.3. The cured coatings resist to chemical, solvent and stain, except against 10 % NaOH solution and red permanent marker stain. (author)

  1. Safety and Toxicity of Saw palmetto in the Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Urological Symptoms (CAMUS) Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avins, Andrew L.; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Meyers, Catherine M.; Barry, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Extracts of the saw palmetto berry are used by many men in the U.S. as self-treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. While the most recent data from double-blind clinical trials do not support efficacy superior to that of placebo, there are few data on the toxicity of saw palmetto. Materials and Methods 369 patients were randomized in the Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Urological Symptoms (CAMUS) trial; 357 participants are included in this modified intention-to-treat analysis. Participants were randomized to 320mg, 640mg, and 960mg daily of an ethanolic saw palmetto extract or an identical-appearing placebo, in an escalating manner at 6-month intervals, for a total of 18 months follow-up. Adverse-event assessments, vital signs, and blood and urine laboratory tests were obtained at regular intervals. Results There were no statistically significant differences between groups in rates of serious or non-serious adverse events, changes in vital signs, digital prostate exam findings, or study withdrawal rates. Overall, there were no significant inter-group differences in the occurrence of laboratory-test abnormalities; differences in individual laboratory tests were uncommon and small in magnitude. No evidence of significant dose-response phenomena were identified. Conclusions The saw palmetto extract used in the CAMUS trial showed no evidence of toxicity at doses up to three times the usual clinical dose over a period of 18 months. PMID:23063633

  2. Reducing the risk of injury from table saw use: the potential benefits and costs of automatic protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John D; Chang, Joice

    2015-02-01

    The use of table saws in the United States is associated with approximately 28,000 emergency department (ED) visits and 2,000 cases of finger amputation per year. This article provides a quantitative estimate of the economic benefits of automatic protection systems that could be designed into new table saw products. Benefits are defined as reduced health-care costs, enhanced production at work, and diminished pain and suffering. The present value of the benefits of automatic protection over the life of the table saw are interpreted as the switch-point cost value, the maximum investment in automatic protection that can be justified by benefit-cost comparison. Using two alternative methods for monetizing pain and suffering, the study finds switch-point cost values of $753 and $561 per saw. These point estimates are sensitive to the values of inputs, especially the average cost of injury. The various switch-point cost values are substantially higher than rough estimates of the incremental cost of automatic protection systems. Uncertainties and future research needs are discussed. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Theoretical bases of rotation dynamics of raw materials poller with s ratify consideration for saw gin processing of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidov, Kh.; Babaeva, A.Kh.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper is examined motion of raw materials rollers on the base of a stratify models. Foe every layers of the rollers are determined dynamical influences for saw gin processing of cotton. It is noticed that in the gin processing of cotton the second layer of cotton roller plagues an important role

  4. Acoustoelectric Effect on the Responses of SAW Sensors Coated with Electrospun ZnO Nanostructured Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Ziya Ozturk

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO was a very good candidate for improving the sensitivity of gas sensor technology. The preparation of an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on a 433 MHz Rayleigh wave based Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW sensor and the investigation of the acoustoelectric effect on the responses of the SAW sensor are reported. We prepared an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on the SAW devices by using an electrospray technique. To investigate the dependency of the sensor response on the structure and the number of the ZnO nanoparticles, SAW sensors were prepared with different coating loads. The coating frequency shifts were adjusted to fall between 100 kHz and 2.4 MHz. The sensor measurements were performed against VOCs such as acetone, trichloroethylene, chloroform, ethanol, n-propanol and methanol vapor. The sensor responses of n-propanol have opposite characteristics to the other VOCs, and we attributed these characteristics to the elastic effect/acoustoelectric effect.

  5. A Low Noise CMOS Readout Based on a Polymer-Coated SAW Array for Miniature Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chun Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose (E-Nose is one of the applications for surface acoustic wave (SAW sensors. In this paper, we present a low-noise complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC based on an SAW sensor array for achieving a miniature E-Nose. The center frequency of the SAW sensors was measured to be approximately 114 MHz. Because of interference between the sensors, we designed a low-noise CMOS frequency readout circuit to enable the SAW sensor to obtain frequency variation. The proposed circuit was fabricated in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process technology. The total chip size was nearly 1203 × 1203 μm2. The chip was operated at a supply voltage of 1 V for a digital circuit and 1.8 V for an analog circuit. The least measurable difference between frequencies was 4 Hz. The detection limit of the system, when estimated using methanol and ethanol, was 0.1 ppm. Their linearity was in the range of 0.1 to 26,000 ppm. The power consumption levels of the analog and digital circuits were 1.742 mW and 761 μW, respectively.

  6. On the Old Saw That Dialogue Is a Socratic but Not an Aristotelian Method of Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Kristján

    2014-01-01

    Kristján Kristjánsson's aim in this article is to bury the old saw that dialogue is exclusively a Socratic but not an Aristotelian method of education for moral character. Although the truncated discussion in Aristotle's "Nicomachean Ethics" of the character development of the young may indicate that it is merely the result of…

  7. Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Focused Surface Acoustic Wave (F-SAW Device for Interfacial Droplet Jetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghwi Lee

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the interfacial droplet jetting characteristics and thermal stability of a focused surface acoustic wave device (F-SAW. An F-SAW device capable of generating a 20 MHz surface acoustic wave by applying sufficient radio frequency power (2–19 W on a 128°-rotated YX-cut piezoelectric lithium niobate substrate for interfacial droplet jetting is proposed. The interfacial droplet jetting characteristics were visualized by a shadowgraph method using a high-speed camera, and a heat transfer experiment was conducted using K-type thermocouples. The interfacial droplet jetting characteristics (jet angle and height were analyzed for two different cases by applying a single interdigital transducer and two opposite interdigital transducers. Surface temperature variations were analyzed with radio frequency input power increases to evaluate the thermal stability of the F-SAW device in air and water environments. We demonstrate that the maximum temperature increase of the F-SAW device in the water was 1/20 of that in the air, owing to the very high convective heat transfer coefficient of the water, resulting in prevention of the performance degradation of the focused acoustic wave device.

  8. Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW-Based Biosensing for Quantification of Cell Growth in 2D and 3D Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection and quantification of cell viability and growth in two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D cell cultures commonly involve harvesting of cells and therefore requires a parallel set-up of several replicates for time-lapse or dose–response studies. Thus, developing a non-invasive and touch-free detection of cell growth in longitudinal studies of 3D tumor spheroid cultures or of stem cell regeneration remains a major unmet need. Since surface acoustic waves (SAWs permit mass loading-based biosensing and have been touted due to their many advantages including low cost, small size and ease of assembly, we examined the potential of SAW-biosensing to detect and quantify cell growth. Herein, we demonstrate that a shear horizontal-surface acoustic waves (SH-SAW device comprising two pairs of resonators consisting of interdigital transducers and reflecting fingers can be used to quantify mass loading by the cells in suspension as well as within a 3D cell culture platform. A 3D COMSOL model was built to simulate the mass loading response of increasing concentrations of cells in suspension in the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS well in order to predict the characteristics and optimize the design of the SH-SAW biosensor. The simulated relative frequency shift from the two oscillatory circuit systems (one of which functions as control were found to be concordant to experimental data generated with RAW264.7 macrophage and A549 cancer cells. In addition, results showed that SAW measurements per se did not affect viability of cells. Further, SH-SAW biosensing was applied to A549 cells cultured on a 3D electrospun nanofiber scaffold that generate tumor spheroids (tumoroids and the results showed the device's ability to detect changes in tumor spheroid growth over the course of eight days. Taken together, these results demonstrate the use of SH-SAW device for detection and quantification of cell growth changes over time in 2D suspension cultures and in

  9. Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW)-Based Biosensing for Quantification of Cell Growth in 2D and 3D Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Green, Ryan; Nair, Rajesh Ramakrishnan; Howell, Mark; Mohapatra, Subhra; Guldiken, Rasim; Mohapatra, Shyam Sundar

    2015-12-19

    Detection and quantification of cell viability and growth in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures commonly involve harvesting of cells and therefore requires a parallel set-up of several replicates for time-lapse or dose-response studies. Thus, developing a non-invasive and touch-free detection of cell growth in longitudinal studies of 3D tumor spheroid cultures or of stem cell regeneration remains a major unmet need. Since surface acoustic waves (SAWs) permit mass loading-based biosensing and have been touted due to their many advantages including low cost, small size and ease of assembly, we examined the potential of SAW-biosensing to detect and quantify cell growth. Herein, we demonstrate that a shear horizontal-surface acoustic waves (SH-SAW) device comprising two pairs of resonators consisting of interdigital transducers and reflecting fingers can be used to quantify mass loading by the cells in suspension as well as within a 3D cell culture platform. A 3D COMSOL model was built to simulate the mass loading response of increasing concentrations of cells in suspension in the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) well in order to predict the characteristics and optimize the design of the SH-SAW biosensor. The simulated relative frequency shift from the two oscillatory circuit systems (one of which functions as control) were found to be concordant to experimental data generated with RAW264.7 macrophage and A549 cancer cells. In addition, results showed that SAW measurements per se did not affect viability of cells. Further, SH-SAW biosensing was applied to A549 cells cultured on a 3D electrospun nanofiber scaffold that generate tumor spheroids (tumoroids) and the results showed the device's ability to detect changes in tumor spheroid growth over the course of eight days. Taken together, these results demonstrate the use of SH-SAW device for detection and quantification of cell growth changes over time in 2D suspension cultures and in 3D cell

  10. A phytochemical comparison of saw palmetto products using gas chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolomic profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Anthony; Suter, Andy; Krnjic, Ana; Strassel, Brigitte; Zloh, Mire; Said, Mazlina; Heinrich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Preparations containing saw palmetto berries are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). There are many products on the market, and relatively little is known about their chemical variability and specifically the composition and quality of different saw palmetto products notwithstanding that in 2000, an international consultation paper from the major urological associations from the five continents on treatments for BPH demanded further research on this topic. Here, we compare two analytical approaches and characterise 57 different saw palmetto products. Methods An established method – gas chromatography – was used for the quantification of nine fatty acids, while a novel approach of metabolomic profiling using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used as a fingerprinting tool to assess the overall composition of the extracts. Key findings The phytochemical analysis determining the fatty acids showed a high level of heterogeneity of the different products in the total amount and of nine single fatty acids. A robust and reproducible 1H NMR spectroscopy method was established, and the results showed that it was possible to statistically differentiate between saw palmetto products that had been extracted under different conditions but not between products that used a similar extraction method. Principal component analysis was able to determine those products that had significantly different metabolites. Conclusions The metabolomic approach developed offers novel opportunities for quality control along the value chain of saw palmetto and needs to be followed further, as with this method, the complexity of a herbal extract can be better assessed than with the analysis of a single group of constituents. PMID:24417505

  11. A phytochemical comparison of saw palmetto products using gas chromatography and (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Anthony; Suter, Andy; Krnjic, Ana; Strassel, Brigitte; Zloh, Mire; Said, Mazlina; Heinrich, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Preparations containing saw palmetto berries are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). There are many products on the market, and relatively little is known about their chemical variability and specifically the composition and quality of different saw palmetto products notwithstanding that in 2000, an international consultation paper from the major urological associations from the five continents on treatments for BPH demanded further research on this topic. Here, we compare two analytical approaches and characterise 57 different saw palmetto products. An established method - gas chromatography - was used for the quantification of nine fatty acids, while a novel approach of metabolomic profiling using (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used as a fingerprinting tool to assess the overall composition of the extracts. The phytochemical analysis determining the fatty acids showed a high level of heterogeneity of the different products in the total amount and of nine single fatty acids. A robust and reproducible (1) H NMR spectroscopy method was established, and the results showed that it was possible to statistically differentiate between saw palmetto products that had been extracted under different conditions but not between products that used a similar extraction method. Principal component analysis was able to determine those products that had significantly different metabolites. The metabolomic approach developed offers novel opportunities for quality control along the value chain of saw palmetto and needs to be followed further, as with this method, the complexity of a herbal extract can be better assessed than with the analysis of a single group of constituents. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. Knowledge and prevalence of use of saw palmetto and other herbal products among men with prostate disease in Trinidad and Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Persaud

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the use of herbal products is common among men with prostate disease in Trinidad and Tobago and that saw palmetto is the most common product used. It also highlights the prevalence of unsubstantiated beliefs as well as the uncertainty about the efficacy of saw palmetto.

  13. Saw Palmetto induces growth arrest and apoptosis of androgen-dependent prostate cancer LNCaP cells via inactivation of STAT 3 and androgen receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ikezoe, Takayuki; Zheng, Zhixing; Taguchi, Hirokuni; Koeffler, H Phillip; Zhu, Wei-Guo

    2007-09-01

    PC-SPES is an eight-herb mixture that has an activity against prostate cancer. Recently, we purified Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) from PC-SPES and found that Saw Palmetto induced growth arrest of prostate cancer LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 cells with ED50s of approximately 2.0, 2.6, and 3.3 microl/ml, respectively, as measured by mitochondrial-dependent conversion of the the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Saw Palmetto induced apoptosis of LNCaP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner as measured by TUNEL assays. Also, Saw Palmetto increased the expression of p21waf1 and p53 protein in LNCaP cells. In addition, we found that Saw Palmetto down-regulated DHT- or IL-6-induced expression of prostate specific antigen in conjunction with down-regulation of the level of androgen receptor in the nucleus as measured by Western blot analysis. Moreover, Saw Palmetto down-regulated the IL-6-induced level of the phosphorylated form of STAT 3 in LNCaP cells. Furthermore, Saw Palmetto inhibited the growth of LNCaP cells present as tumor xenografts in BALB/c nude mice without adverse effect. These results indicate that Saw Palmetto might be useful for the treatment of individuals with prostate cancer.

  14. Comparison of Food Habits of the Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) and the Western Screech-owl (Otus kennicottii) in Southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlotte Rains

    1997-01-01

    I compared the breeding-season diets of Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus) and Western Screech-owls (Otus kennicottii). Prey items were obtained from regurgitated pellets collected from saw-whet owl and screech-owl nests found in nest boxes in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southwestern Idaho....

  15. Pharmacological effects of saw palmetto extract in the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mayumi; Ito, Yoshihiko; Fujino, Tomomi; Abe, Masayuki; Umegaki, Keizo; Onoue, Satomi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-03-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), an extract from the ripe berries of the American dwarf palm, has been widely used as a therapeutic remedy for urinary dysfunction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Europe. Numerous mechanisms of action have been proposed for SPE, including the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase. Today, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists and muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonists are commonly used in the treatment of men with voiding symptoms secondary to BPH. The improvement of voiding symptoms in patients taking SPE may arise from its binding to pharmacologically relevant receptors in the lower urinary tract, such as alpha(1)-adrenoceptors, muscarinic cholinoceptors, 1,4-dihyropyridine receptors and vanilloid receptors. Furthermore, oral administration of SPE has been shown to attenuate the up-regulation of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors in the rat prostate induced by testosterone. Thus, SPE at clinically relevant doses may exert a direct effect on the pharmacological receptors in the lower urinary tract, thereby improving urinary dysfunction in patients with BPH and an overactive bladder. SPE does not have interactions with co-administered drugs or serious adverse events in blood biochemical parameters, suggestive of its relative safety, even with long-term intake. Clinical trials (placebo-controlled and active-controlled trials) of SPE conducted in men with BPH were also reviewed. This review should contribute to the understanding of the pharmacological effects of SPE in the treatment of patients with BPH and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).

  16. Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtysek, Carina; Krukiewicz, Aleksandra A.; Alonso, Jose-Luis; Sharma, Karan P.; Sharma, Pal C.; Goldmann, Wolfgang H.

    2009-01-01

    Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit prostate cancer growth by increasing p53 protein expression and also inhibit carcinoma development by decreasing p21 and p27 protein expression. In the presence of cholesterol, these features are not only reversed but increased significantly. The results show for the first time the potential of SPBE, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol as potential anti-tumor agents. Since the protein p53 is also regarded as nuclear matrix protein facilitating actin cytoskeletal binding, 2D tractions were measured. The cell adhesion strength in the presence of SPBE, β-sitosterol and cholesterol and the observation was that the increase in p53 expression triggered an increase in the intracellular force generation. The results suggest a dual function of p53 in cells.

  17. Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtysek, Carina; Krukiewicz, Aleksandra A; Alonso, José-Luis; Sharma, Karan P; Sharma, Pal C; Goldmann, Wolfgang H

    2009-02-13

    Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit prostate cancer growth by increasing p53 protein expression and also inhibit carcinoma development by decreasing p21 and p27 protein expression. In the presence of cholesterol, these features are not only reversed but increased significantly. The results show for the first time the potential of SPBE, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol as potential anti-tumor agents. Since the protein p53 is also regarded as nuclear matrix protein facilitating actin cytoskeletal binding, 2D tractions were measured. The cell adhesion strength in the presence of SPBE, beta-sitosterol and cholesterol and the observation was that the increase in p53 expression triggered an increase in the intracellular force generation. The results suggest a dual function of p53 in cells.

  18. Isolation and pharmacological characterization of fatty acids from saw palmetto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masayuki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Asahi; Onoue, Satomi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been widely used for the treatment of lower urinary-tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The mechanisms of pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase, anti-androgenic effects, anti-proliferative effects, and anti-inflammatory effects. Previously, we showed that SPE bound actively to alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel (1,4-DHP) receptors in the prostate and bladder of rats, whereas its active constituents have not been fully clarified. The present investigation is aimed to identify the main active components contained in hexane and diethyl ether extracts of SPE with the use of column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Based on the binding activity with alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic, and 1,4-DHP receptors, both isolated oleic and lauric acids were deduced to be active components. Authentic samples of oleic and lauric acids also exhibited similar binding activities to these receptors as the fatty acids isolated from SPE, consistent with our findings. In addition, oleic and lauric acids inhibited 5alpha-reductase, possibly leading to therapeutic effects against benign prostatic hyperplasia and related lower urinary-tract symptoms.

  19. Talspeak Curve: An Illustration Of A See-Saw Effect In Separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalupski, Peter; Martin, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    A superbly balanced thermodynamic struggle for metal ion coordination by aqueous aminopolycarboxylate reagent, DTPA, and non-aqueous organophosphorous phase transfer reagent, HDEHP, affords the separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides under the umbrella of the Talspeak liquid-liquid distribution process. This thermodynamic relationship has been linked to an analogous 'see-saw' behavior, where the balance is distorted when either of the key complexing players is subject to adverse conditions that interfere with their optimal operation. The thermodynamic balance is tipped in favor of HDEHP whenever increased acidity of the aqueous solution out-competes the metal ion complexation by aqueous complexing agent. Also enhanced steric crowding may switch-off efficient coordination of the metal ion. When HDEHP is depolymerized due to the presence of aliphatic alcohol in the organic phase its phase transferring power is diminished. Such complication paves way for DTPA to establish its dominance on the distribution of trivalent metal ions in the 2-phase system. The illustrated sensitivity of the thermodynamic balance between DTPA and HDEHP in Talspeak-type systems may serve as informative tool when studying less-predictable realms of Talspeak chemistry.

  20. IMPLEMENTATION OF SIMPLE ADDITIVE WEIGHTING (SAW METHODE IN DETERMINING HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT’S INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prind Triajeng Pungkasanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of Republic of Indonesia has set a regulation about curriculum applied in education field named Kurikulum 2013. One of the subsections in the Kurikulum 2013 regulates all requirements of majoring in high school. High school students determine their major based on Kurrikulum 2013 as they are on the 10th grade. The purpose of the majoring in education is to allow children development based on their skills and interests, because before, majoring have been done based on scores obtained. The main problem is the majoring requirements considered are admission test score and Junior High School National Test score. Both scores are not sufficient enough to determine the students major therefore academic aptitude test score is required. In term of weighting, the school has not been imposed the weighting system so the scores obtained is the average of admission test score and national test score. Based on the issue above, a solution required to solve the issue using a method. Method used in this research is Simple Additive Weighting (SAW, wherein this methode is looking for the weighted sum of performance rate on every alternative of atributes. This research provides the information about which potential students is suitable to enter the science major and social major so this results can be used as consideration of school decisions.

  1. Minimal see-saw model predicting best fit lepton mixing angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a minimal predictive see-saw model in which the right-handed neutrino mainly responsible for the atmospheric neutrino mass has couplings to (ν e ,ν μ ,ν τ ) proportional to (0,1,1) and the right-handed neutrino mainly responsible for the solar neutrino mass has couplings to (ν e ,ν μ ,ν τ ) proportional to (1,4,2), with a relative phase η=−2π/5. We show how these patterns of couplings could arise from an A 4 family symmetry model of leptons, together with Z 3 and Z 5 symmetries which fix η=−2π/5 up to a discrete phase choice. The PMNS matrix is then completely determined by one remaining parameter which is used to fix the neutrino mass ratio m 2 /m 3 . The model predicts the lepton mixing angles θ 12 ≈34 ∘ ,θ 23 ≈41 ∘ ,θ 13 ≈9.5 ∘ , which exactly coincide with the current best fit values for a normal neutrino mass hierarchy, together with the distinctive prediction for the CP violating oscillation phase δ≈106 ∘

  2. Comparison of dust release from epoxy and paint nanocomposites and conventional products during sanding and sawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Virginia; Levin, Marcus; Saber, Anne T; Irusta, Silvia; Dal Maso, Miikka; Hanoi, Roberto; Santamaria, Jesus; Jensen, Keld A; Wallin, Håkan; Koponen, Ismo K

    2014-10-01

    The release of dust generated during sanding or sawing of nanocomposites was compared with conventional products without nanomaterials. Epoxy-based polymers with and without carbon nanotubes, and paints with different amounts of nano-sized titanium dioxide, were machined in a closed aerosol chamber. The temporal evolution of the aerosol concentration and size distribution were measured simultaneously. The morphology of collected dust by scanning electron microscopy was different depending on the type of nanocomposites: particles from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanocomposites had protrusions on their surfaces and aggregates and agglomerates are attached to the paint matrix in particles emitted from alkyd paints. We observed no significant differences in the particle size distributions when comparing sanding dust from nanofiller containing products with dust from conventional products. Neither did we observe release of free nanomaterials. Instead, the nanomaterials were enclosed or partly enclosed in the matrix. A source strength term Si (cm(-3) s(-1)) that describes particle emission rates from continuous sources was introduced. Comparison between the Si parameters derived from sanding different materials allows identification of potential effects of addition of engineered nanoparticles to a composite. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  3. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - PORTER-CABLE CIRCULAR SAW OENHP: 2001-04, VERSION A; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Porter-Cable circular saw was assessed on August 15-16, 2001 (Porter-Cable No.1 and Porter-Cable No.2, respectively). During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Porter-Cable saw is a straightforward machine for cutting wood of varying thickness. The blade is fully guarded with a fixed upper and a lower retractable guard. The lower guard retracts as the blade engages the work piece. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch and is supported with a handgrip mounted near the front of the saw. The saw is equipped with a directional nozzle, which aims sawdust away from the operator and the line of cut. An optional vacuum system, attached to the directional nozzle, is used to remove and collect dust. During the demonstration of Porter-Cable No.1, personal noise sampling indicated that one worker was under and one was at the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 82.7 and 84.6 dBA, respectively. During the demonstration of Porter-Cable No.2, however, both workers did exceed the Action Level with TWA's of 89.7 and 90.0 dBA. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it is no longer necessary. The total nuisance dust sample for Porter-Cable No.1 was 3

  4. Combined use of isotopic fingerprint and metabolomics analysis for the authentication of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Matteo; Paolini, Mauro; Camin, Federica; Appendino, Giovanni; Vitulo, Francesca; De Combarieu, Eric; Sardone, Nicola; Martinelli, Ernesto Marco; Pace, Roberto

    2018-04-22

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens, SP) is the most expensive oil source of the pharmaceutical and healthfood market, and its high cost and recurrent shortages have spurred the development of designer blends of fatty acids to mimic its phytochemical profile and fraudulently comply with the current authentication assays. To detect this adulteration, the combined use of isotopic fingerprint and omic analysis has been investigated, using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to handle the complex databases generated by these techniques and to identify the possible source of the adulterants. Surprisingly, the presence of fatty acids of animal origin turned out to be widespread in commercial samples of saw palmetto oil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of phytosterols in Standard Reference Materials containing saw palmetto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedner, Mary; Schantz, Michele M; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2008-05-23

    Liquid chromatographic (LC) methods using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometric (APCI-MS) detection were developed for the separation and analysis of the phytosterols campesterol, cycloartenol, lupenone, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. Brassicasterol and cholesterol were also included for investigation as internal standards. The methods were used to identify and quantify the phytosterols in each of two Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Values obtained by LC-MS were compared to those obtained using the more traditional approach of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. This is the first reported use of LC-MS to determine phytosterols in saw palmetto dietary supplement materials.

  6. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - EVOLUTION 180 CIRCULAR SAW OENHP: 2001-03, VERSION A; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated gloveboxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Evolution 180 circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Evolution 180 is a portable, metal cutting circular saw with a 7-inch diameter blade. The blade is contained within the main housing and has a retractable lower blade guard to prevent operator access to the blade during operation and shutdown. The saw is equipped with a chip collector. The maximum cutting thickness for metal is one-quarter inch and can cut steel tubing and pipe 2 inches in diameter. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch and is supported with the hand guide mounted to the side of the saw. An adjustable lever sets the depth of the cut. The machine's circuitry will automatically shut the saw motor off if excessive overload is detected during operation. The one-half hour demonstration involved vertical and horizontal cuts and blade changes. During this process, operators experienced binding of the saw. This caused the blade to become hot, causing the sawdust collected in the chip collector to smoke. Care should be exercised to use the appropriate blade for the application, operator training, and personal protective equipment (PPE). Personal noise sampling indicated that neither worker was over the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 69.1 and 68.8 dBA. The personal noise sample taken during the special demonstration with the

  7. Effects of saw palmetto extract on micturition reflex of rats and its autonomic receptor binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Tomomi; Suzuki, Mayumi; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Akio; Umegaki, Keizo; Yamada, Shizuo

    2005-04-01

    We examined the effects of saw palmetto extract (SPE) on the rat micturition reflex and on autonomic receptors in the lower urinary tract. The effect of SPE was examined on cystometrograms of anesthetized rats induced by intravesical infusion of saline or 0.1% acetic acid. SHR/NDmc-cp (cp/cp) rats received repeat oral administration of SPE and nighttime urodynamic function was determined. The autonomic receptor binding activity of SPE in the rat bladder and prostate was examined by radioligand binding assay. Intraduodenal administration of SPE (60 mg/kg) in anesthetized rat cystometry caused a significant increase in the micturition interval, micturition volume and bladder capacity during intravesical saline infusion. Also, similar administration of SPE at doses of 12 and 20 mg/kg significantly reversed the shortened micturition interval as well as the decreased micturition volume and bladder capacity due to 0.1% acetic acid infusion in a dose dependent manner. In conscious SHR/NDmc-cp (cp/cp) rats repeat oral administration of SPE (6 mg/kg daily) constantly increased the micturition interval and concomitantly decreased voiding frequency. SPE inhibited specific binding of [H]NMS ([N-methyl-H]scopolamine methyl chloride) (bladder) and [H]prazosin (prostate) with IC50 values of 46.1 and 183 microg/ml, respectively. SPE significantly alleviates urodynamic symptoms in hyperactive rat bladders by increasing bladder capacity and subsequently prolonging the micturition interval. Our data may support the clinical efficacy of SPE for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms.

  8. Extensive clonal spread and extreme longevity in saw palmetto, a foundation clonal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mizuki K; Horner, Liana M; Kubota, Toshiro; Keller, Nathan A; Abrahamson, Warren G

    2011-09-01

    The lack of effective tools has hampered out ability to assess the size, growth and ages of clonal plants. With Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) as a model, we introduce a novel analytical framework that integrates DNA fingerprinting and mathematical modelling to simulate growth and estimate ages of clonal plants. We also demonstrate the application of such life-history information of clonal plants to provide insight into management plans. Serenoa is an ecologically important foundation species in many Southeastern United States ecosystems; yet, many land managers consider Serenoa a troublesome invasive plant. Accordingly, management plans have been developed to reduce or eliminate Serenoa with little understanding of its life history. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we genotyped 263 Serenoa and 134 Sabal etonia (a sympatric non-clonal palmetto) samples collected from a 20 × 20 m study plot in Florida scrub. Sabal samples were used to assign small field-unidentifiable palmettos to Serenoa or Sabal and also as a negative control for clone detection. We then mathematically modelled clonal networks to estimate genet ages. Our results suggest that Serenoa predominantly propagate via vegetative sprouts and 10,000-year-old genets may be common, while showing no evidence of clone formation by Sabal. The results of this and our previous studies suggest that: (i) Serenoa has been part of scrub associations for thousands of years, (ii) Serenoa invasion are unlikely and (ii) once Serenoa is eliminated from local communities, its restoration will be difficult. Reevaluation of the current management tools and plans is an urgent task. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Development of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) fruit and extract standard reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Bedner, Mary; Long, Stephen E; Molloy, John L; Murphy, Karen E; Porter, Barbara J; Putzbach, Karsten; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Thomas, Jeanice B; Wise, Stephen A; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Yarita, Takashi; NguyenPho, Agnes; Sorenson, Wendy R; Betz, Joseph M

    2008-10-01

    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed two standard reference materials (SRMs) representing different forms of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), SRM 3250 Serenoa repens fruit and SRM 3251 Serenoa repens extract. Both of these SRMs have been characterized for their fatty acid and phytosterol content. The fatty acid concentration values are based on results from gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis while the sterol concentration values are based on results from GC-FID and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis. In addition, SRM 3250 has been characterized for lead content, and SRM 3251 has been characterized for the content of beta-carotene and tocopherols. SRM 3250 (fruit) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 14 fatty acids as triglycerides, and lead along with reference concentration values for four fatty acids as triglycerides and 16 free fatty acids. SRM 3251 (extract) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 17 fatty acids as triglycerides, beta-carotene, and gamma-tocopherol along with reference concentration values for three fatty acids as triglycerides, 17 fatty acids as free fatty acids, beta-carotene isomers, and delta-tocopherol and information values for two phytosterols. These SRMs will complement other reference materials currently available with concentrations for similar analytes and are part of a series of SRMs being developed for dietary supplements.

  10. Saw Palmetto for Symptom Management During Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gwen K; Sikorskii, Alla; Safikhani, Abolfazl; McVary, Kevin T; Herman, James

    2016-06-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) affect 75%-80% of men undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for prostate cancer. To determine the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and preliminary efficacy of Serenoa repens commonly known as saw palmetto (SP) for management of LUTS during RT for prostate cancer. The dose finding phase used the time-to-event continual reassessment method to evaluate safety of three doses (320, 640, and 960 mg) of SP. Dose-limiting toxicities were assessed for 22 weeks using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events for nausea, gastritis, and anorexia. The exploratory randomized controlled trial phase assessed preliminary efficacy of the MTD against placebo. The primary outcome of LUTS was measured over 22 weeks using the International Prostate Symptom Score. Additional longitudinal assessments included quality of life measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate. The dose finding phase was completed by 27 men who reported no dose-limiting toxicities and with 20 participants at the MTD of 960 mg daily. The exploratory randomized controlled trial phase included 21 men, and no statistically significant differences in the International Prostate Symptom Score were observed. The prostate-specific concerns score of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate improved in the SP group (P = 0.03). Of 11 men in the placebo group, two received physician-prescribed medications to manage LUTS compared with none of the 10 men in the SP group. SP at 960 mg may be a safe herbal supplement, but its efficacy in managing LUTS during RT needs further investigation. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection, Identification, Location, and Remote Sensing using SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, we will consider the problem of simultaneous detection, identification, location estimation, and remote sensing for multiple objects. In particular, we will describe the design and testing of a wireless system capable of simultaneously detecting the presence of multiple objects, identifying each object, and acquiring both a low-resolution estimate of location and a high-resolution estimate of temperature for each object based on wireless interrogation of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) radiofrequency identification (RFID) sensor tags affixed to each object. The system is being studied for application on the lunar surface as well as for terrestrial remote sensing applications such as pre-launch monitoring and testing of spacecraft on the launch pad and monitoring of test facilities. The system utilizes a digitally beam-formed planar receiving antenna array to extend range and provide direction-of-arrival information coupled with an approximate maximum-likelihood signal processing algorithm to provide near-optimal estimation of both range and temperature. The system is capable of forming a large number of beams within the field of view and resolving the information from several tags within each beam. The combination of both spatial and waveform discrimination provides the capability to track and monitor telemetry from a large number of objects appearing simultaneously within the field of view of the receiving array. In the presentation, we will summarize the system design and illustrate several aspects of the operational characteristics and signal structure. We will examine the theoretical performance characteristics of the system and compare the theoretical results with results obtained from experiments in both controlled laboratory environments and in the field.

  12. Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Evaluasi Pemilihan Pemenang Pengadaan Aset dengan Metode Simple Additive Weighting (SAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajar Nugraha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Procurement of assets by auction requires a decision support in selecting the winning bidder so that decision makers can pick and choose the winner of the auction. This study aims to develop a Decision Support System (DSS, which serves as an aid in decision mak ing in the process  of  evaluating  the  winning  bidder  acquisitions.  In order to  achieve  the  purpose  of  SPK  well  then helped  by  using  one  of  the methods in decision-making that is the method of Simple Additive weighting method (SAW to evaluate alternatives in the provision of asset  based  decision-making  criteria.  This  method  has  the  advantage  criteria  (benefits  and  cost  criteria  (cost.  Criteria  advantage (benefit is used when considering the aspects of decision making maximum profit. While the cost criteria (cost is the inver se of the attributes of an advantage, in this draft decision will be looking  for a minimal fee. The results may support the decision on the selection of an alternative evaluation of acquisitions winners based on predetermined criteria.Keywords: Acquisitions; Decision support systems; Simple additive weighting

  13. Effects of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil in Korean men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Chun-Soo; Maeng, Sungho

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the prevention and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. For this purpose, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed over 12 months on 47 benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with average age of 53.3 years and international prostate symptom score over 8. Subjects received either sweet potato starch (group A, placebo, 320 mg/day), pumpkin seed oil (group B, 320 mg/day), saw palmetto oil (group C, 320 mg/day) or pumpkin seed oil plus saw palmetto oil (group D, each 320 mg/day). International prostate symptom score, quality of life, serum prostate specific antigen, prostate volume and maximal urinary flow rate were measured. In groups B, C and D, the international prostate symptom score were reduced by 3 months. Quality of life score was improved after 6 months in group D, while those of groups B and C were improved after 3 months, compared to the baseline value. Serum prostate specific antigen was reduced only in group D after 3 months, but no difference was observed in prostate volume in all treatment groups. Maximal urinary flow rate were gradually improved in groups B and C, with statistical significance after 6 months in group B and after 12 months in group C. None of the parameters were significantly improved by combined treatment with pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil. From these results, it is suggested that administrations of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil are clinically safe and may be effective as complementary and alternative medicine treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  14. Material property evaluations of bimetallic welds, stainless steel saw fusion lines, and materials affected by dynamic strain aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudland, D.; Scott, P.; Marschall, C.; Wilkowski, G. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Pipe fracture analyses can often reasonably predict the behavior of flawed piping. However, there are material applications with uncertainties in fracture behavior. This paper summarizes work on three such cases. First, the fracture behavior of bimetallic welds are discussed. The purpose of the study was to determine if current fracture analyses can predict the response of pipe with flaws in bimetallic welds. The weld joined sections of A516 Grade 70 carbon steel to F316 stainless steel. The crack was along the carbon steel base metal to Inconel 182 weld metal fusion line. Material properties from tensile and C(T) specimens were used to predict large pipe response. The major conclusion from the work is that fracture behavior of the weld could be evaluated with reasonable accuracy using properties of the carbon steel pipe and conventional J-estimation analyses. However, results may not be generally true for all bimetallic welds. Second, the toughness of austenitic steel submerged-arc weld (SAW) fusion lines is discussed. During large-scale pipe tests with flaws in the center of the SAW, the crack tended to grow into the fusion line. The fracture toughness of the base metal, the SAW, and the fusion line were determined and compared. The major conclusion reached is that although the fusion line had a higher initiation toughness than the weld metal, the fusion-line J-R curve reached a steady-state value while the SAW J-R curve increased. Last, carbon steel fracture experiments containing circumferential flaws with periods of unstable crack jumps during steady ductile tearing are discussed. These instabilities are believed to be due to dynamic strain aging (DSA). The paper discusses DSA, a screening criteria developed to predict DSA, and the ability of the current J-based methodologies to assess the effect of these crack instabilities. The effect of loading rate on the strength and toughness of several different carbon steel pipes at LWR temperatures is also discussed.

  15. Multiple doses of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) did not alter cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, John S; Donovan, Jennifer L; Devane, C Lindsay; Taylor, Robin M; Ruan, Ying; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Chavin, Kenneth D

    2003-12-01

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) is the most commonly used herbal preparation in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The objective of this study was to determine whether a characterized saw palmetto product affects the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 or 3A4 in healthy volunteers (6 men and 6 women). The probe substrates dextromethorphan (CYP2D6 activity) and alprazolam (CYP3A4 activity) were administered orally at baseline and again after exposure to saw palmetto (320-mg capsule once daily) for 14 days. Dextromethorphan metabolic ratios and alprazolam pharmacokinetics were determined at baseline and after saw palmetto treatment. The mean ratio of dextromethorphan to its metabolite was 0.038 +/- 0.044 at baseline and 0.048 +/- 0.080 after 14 days of saw palmetto administration (P =.704, not significant [NS]), indicating a lack of effect on CYP2D6 activity. The area under the plasma alprazolam concentration versus time curve was 476 +/- 178 h. ng. mL(-1) at baseline and 479 +/- 125 h. ng. mL(-1) after saw palmetto treatment (P =.923, NS), indicating a lack of effect on CYP3A4 activity. The elimination half-life of alprazolam was 11.4 +/- 3.1 hours at baseline and 11.6 +/- 2.7 hours after saw palmetto treatment (P =.770, NS), also indicating a lack of effect on CYP3A4 activity. Our results indicate that extracts of saw palmetto at generally recommended doses are unlikely to alter the disposition of coadministered medications primarily dependent on the CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 pathways for elimination. These conclusions must be weighed in the context of the study's limited assessments and regarded as only the initial investigation into the drug interaction potential of saw palmetto.

  16. Improved Safety and Cost Savings from Reductions in Cast-Saw Burns After Simulation-Based Education for Orthopaedic Surgery Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Donald S; Lynch, Hayley; Jamieson, Katherine; Yu-Moe, C Winnie; Roussin, Christopher

    2017-09-06

    The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of simulation training aimed at reducing cast-saw injuries. Third-year orthopaedic residents underwent simulation-based instruction on distal radial fracture reduction, casting, and cast removal using an oscillating saw. The analysis compared incidences of cast-saw injuries and associated costs before and after the implementation of the simulation curriculum. Actual and potential costs associated with cast-saw injuries included wound care, extra clinical visits, and potential total payment (indemnity and expense payments). Curriculum costs were calculated through time-derived, activity-based accounting methods. The researchers compared the costs of cast-saw injuries and the simulation curriculum to determine overall savings and return on investment. In the 2.5 years prior to simulation, cast-saw injuries occurred in approximately 4.3 per 100 casts cut by orthopaedic residents. For the 2.5-year period post-simulation, the injury rate decreased significantly to approximately 0.7 per 100 casts cut (p = 0.002). The total cost to implement the casting simulation was $2,465.31 per 6-month resident rotation. On the basis of historical data related to cast-saw burns (n = 6), total payments ranged from $2,995 to $25,000 per claim. The anticipated savings from averted cast-saw injuries and associated medicolegal payments in the 2.5 years post-simulation was $27,131, representing an 11-to-1 return on investment. Simulation-based training for orthopaedic surgical residents was effective in reducing cast-saw injuries and had a high theoretical return on investment. These results support further investment in simulation-based training as cost-effective means of improving patient safety and clinical outcomes. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  17. Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Welded High Strength Steel Plate Using SMAW and SAW Method for LPG Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarto, Winarto; Riastuti, Rini; Kumeidi, Nur

    2018-03-01

    Indonesian government policy to convert energy consumption for domestic household from kerosene to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) may lead to the increasing demand for LPG storage tank. LPG storage tank with a large capacity generally used the HSLA steel material of ASTM A516 Grade 70 joined by SMAW or combination between SMAW and SAW method. The heat input can affect the microstructure and mechanical properties of the weld area. The input heat is proportional to the welding current and the arc voltage, but inversely proportional to its welding speed. The result shows that the combination of SMAW-SAW process yield the lower hardness in the HAZ and the fusion zone compared to the singe SMAW process. PWHT mainly applied to reduce residual stress of welded joint. The result shows that PWHT can reduce the hardness in the HAZ and the fusion zone in comparing with the singe SMAW process. The microstructure of weld joint shows a coarser structure in the combined welding process (SMAW-SAW) comparing with the single welding process (SMAW).

  18. Muscarinic and alpha 1-adrenergic receptor binding characteristics of saw palmetto extract in rat lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mayumi; Oki, Tomomi; Sugiyama, Tomomi; Umegaki, Keizo; Uchida, Shinya; Yamada, Shizuo

    2007-06-01

    To elucidate the in vitro and ex vivo effects of saw palmetto extract (SPE) on autonomic receptors in the rat lower urinary tract. The in vitro binding affinities for alpha 1-adrenergic, muscarinic, and purinergic receptors in the rat prostate and bladder were measured by radioligand binding assays. Rats received vehicle or SPE (0.6 to 60 mg/kg/day) orally for 4 weeks, and alpha 1-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor binding in tissues of these rats were measured. Saw palmetto extract inhibited specific binding of [3H]prazosin and [N-methyl-3H]scopolamine methyl chloride (NMS) but not alpha, beta-methylene adenosine triphosphate [2,8-(3)H]tetrasodium salt in the rat prostate and bladder. The binding activity of SPE for muscarinic receptors was four times greater than that for alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. Scatchard analysis revealed that SPE significantly reduced the maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) for each radioligand in the prostate and bladder under in vitro condition. Repeated oral administration of SPE to rats brought about significant alteration in Bmax for prostatic [3H]prazosin binding and for bladder [3H]NMS binding. Such alteration by SPE was selective to the receptors in the lower urinary tract. Saw palmetto extract exerts significant binding activity on autonomic receptors in the lower urinary tract under in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  19. Cultivation of different strains of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) on saw dust and rice straw in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonmoon, Mahbuba; Uddin, Md Nazim; Ahmed, Saleh; Shelly, Nasrat Jahan; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman

    2010-10-01

    Pleurotus eryngii is a popular mushroom due to its excellent consistency of cap and stem, culinary qualities and longer shelf life. In Bangladesh, where Pleurotus mushrooms are very popular, P. eryngii may take position among the consumers, but currently this mushroom is not cultivated in large scale there. In this study, 3 strains of P. eryngii such as Pe-1 (native to Bangladesh), Pe-2 (germplasm collected from China) and Pe-3 (germplasm collected from Japan) were cultivated on saw dust and rice straw and their growth and yield parameters were investigated. Pe-1 on saw dust showed the highest biological yield and efficiency (73.5%) than other strains. Also, the mycelium run rate and number of fruiting bodies were higher in Pe-1 than other two strains. The quality of mushroom strains was near about similar. On saw dust, the yield and efficiency were better than those cultivated on rice straw, however, on straw; the mushroom fruiting bodies were larger in size. This study shows the prospects of P. eryngii cultivation in Bangladesh and suggests further study in controlled environment for higher yield and production.

  20. Analysis and optimization of silicon wafers wire sawing; Analyse et optimisation du procede de decoupe de plaques de silicium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouault de Coligny, P.

    2002-09-15

    This work has been done at the Centre de Mise en Forme des Materiaux and supported by the Agence de l'Environnement et la Maitrise de l'Energie and Photowatt International SA. It concerns one of the stages of the production of photovoltaic solar cells: the cutting of multi-crystalline silicon wafers by wire sawing. A review of the literature combined with the observation of rough wafers shows that wire sawing involves 3-body abrasion and that material removal is achieved in a ductile manner and forms micro-chips. Therefore, the depth of indentation which is necessary for the ductile-fragile transition as shown by the review of the literature is not reached. The resulting abrasion can be described thanks to Archard's Law. The subsurface damage is 2.5 {mu}m deep. A thermal study has shown that the temperature of the cutting is no higher than about 50 deg. C and that it depends on how much heat can be evacuated by the wire. Analyzing the flaws of the wafers has enabled us to identify their origins and to find solutions. The study of the wire's wear has proved that its diameter can be reduced only if the wire is drawn continuously. Energy can be saved at various stages, the surface of the wafers can be improved, these three arguments plead for the suppression of the back and forth. A tribological device has been set up which allows us to study the abrasion of silicon in the same conditions as in the wire sawing. A mechanical model linking the bending of the wire to the parameters collected during the wire sawing process can predict how high the wire web will be in the transitional and permanent regimes, the contact pressure and the wire wear. Material removal by plane strain scratch tests has been numerically simulated. The orders of magnitude of wear coefficients are identical to those deduced from tribological simulations and to those measured on the saws. This approach has opened new prospects which will improve the process by optimizing the

  1. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - DEWALT RECIPROCATING SAW OENHP NUMBER: 2001-01, VERSION A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The DeWalt reciprocating saw was assessed on August 13, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The DeWalt reciprocating saw is a hand-held industrial tool used for cutting numerous materials, including wood and various types of metals depending upon the chosen blade. Its design allows for cutting close to floors, corners, and other difficult areas. An adjustable shoe sets the cut at three separate depths. During the demonstration for the dismantling of the fiberglass-reinforced plywood crate, the saw was used for extended continuous cutting, over a period of approximately two hours. The dismantling operation involved vertical and horizontal cuts, saw blade changes, and material handling. During this process, operators experienced vibration to the hand and arm in addition to a temperature rise on the handgrip. The blade of the saw is partially exposed during handling and fully exposed during blade changes. Administrative controls, such as duty time of the operators and the machine, operator training, and personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, should be considered when using the saw in this application. Personal noise sampling indicated that both workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 88.3 and 90.6 dBA. Normally, a worker would be placed in a hearing conservation program if his TWA was greater than

  2. [Saw palmetto fruit extract improves LUTS in type ⅢA prostatitis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yun-Peng; Xue, Hao-Liang; Shen, Bai-Xin; Ding, Liu-Cheng; Chen, Zheng-Seng; Wei, Zhong-Qing

    2017-05-01

    To assess the clinical efficacy of the saw palmetto fruit extract (SPFE) in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with type ⅢA prostatitis. This retrospective study included 54 cases of type ⅢA prostatitis treated in the Outpatient Department of our hospital from January to December 2015. The patients were aged 35.06 ± 5.85 years, with a mean disease course of 3.8 ± 2.1 years, and all received oral medication of SPFE Capsules at the dose of 320 mg qd for 12 weeks. We assessed the therapeutic effects by comparing the NIH-chronic prostatitis symptom indexes (NIH-CPSI), voiding diary, International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS), and results of urodynamic examination before and after treatment. Compared with the baseline, both NIH-CPSI and IPSS were significantly decreased after medication (27.61 ± 3.76 vs 18.6 ± 5.34, P <0.01; 20.44 ± 4.51 vs 10.96±4.62, P <0.01), and urodynamic examination and voiding diary showed dramatic post-medication improvement in the average urinary flow rate ([8.05±1.42] vs [12.05±2.60] ml/s, P <0.01 ), maximum urinary flow rate ([14.22±1.74] vs [21.32±4.51] ml/s, P <0.01), residual urine volume ([46.15±16.57] vs [14.55±10.21] ml, P <0.01), maximum urethral closure pressure ([76.52±3.53] vs [65.32±4.75] cm H2O, P <0.01), mean urinary volume ([124.63±40.55] vs [285.93±58.68] ml, P <0.01), urination frequency (16.96±4.17 vs 8.96±2.50, P <0.01), and nocturia frequency (8.94±3.23 vs 3.15±1.90, P <0.01). No apparent adverse reactions were observed in any of the patients. SPFE Capsules can safely and effectively improve LUTS and thus the quality of life of patients with type ⅢA prostatitis.

  3. STONES SAWING SLUDGE AS BY-PRODUCT: characterization for a future recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichella, Lorena; Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola

    2017-04-01

    The European Commission, as part of its Thematic Strategy on the prevention and recycling of waste, committed itself to tackle one of the issues around the waste definition, namely the distinction between waste and by-products. This definition has been outlined through the Communication on waste and by-product of the European Court of Justice (Brussels, 21.2.2007 COM(2007) 59 final COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL AND THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT). By-product is a substance or object, resulting from a production process, the primary aim of which is not the production of that item. By-products can come from a wide range of business sectors, and can have very different environmental impacts. If there is a possibility that the material is in fact not useable, because it does not meet the technical specifications that would be required for its use, then it should continue to be considered as a waste. The status of waste protects the environment from the potential consequences of this uncertainty. If it subsequently happens that a use is found for the waste in question then it will lose its status of waste and it will be considered a by-product. An incorrect classification could be the cause of environmental damage or unnecessary costs for business. For this purpose a characterization of sludge coming from different plants of stone processing was carried out for a better classification of the materials in view of a future recovery. The different stones cutting processes considered for this study are: gangsaw, diamond blade and diamond wire. The cut materials are granites, gneisses, and other stones mainly of silicatic nature. The tests performed on the sawing sludge are the following: particle size analysis, chemical analysis, wet magnetic separation, diffraction and SEM analysis. The study performed is useful for evaluating the possible reuses of the products coming from the magnetic separation: the metal fraction, and the mineral one. In order to avoid a

  4. A SAW-Based Chemical Sensor for Detecting Sulfur-Containing Organophosphorus Compounds Using a Two-Step Self-Assembly and Molecular Imprinting Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Pan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new effective approach for the sensitive film deposition of surface acoustic wave (SAW chemical sensors for detecting organophosphorus compounds such as O-ethyl-S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX containing sulfur at extremely low concentrations. To improve the adsorptive efficiency, a two-step technology is proposed for the sensitive film preparation on the SAW delay line utilizing gold electrodes. First, mono[6-deoxy-6-[(mercaptodecamethylenethio

  5. Use of refractory chromites for obtaining fluxes amassed employed in submerged arc welding (SAW); Empleo de cromitas refractarias par la obtencion de fundentes aglomerados utilizados en la soldadura automatica por arco sumegido (SAW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdomo-Gonzalez, L.; Quintana-Puchol, R.; Cruz-Crespo, A.; Castellanos-Estupinan, J.; Garcia-Sanchez, L. L.; Formoso-Prego, A.; Cores-Sanchez, A.

    2003-07-01

    In the present work high carbon ferrochrome (load ferrochrome) and slags are obtained, starting from the metallurgic reductive processing of refractory chromites. The obtaining of alloys and slags is studied using an experiment design based in the relationships among components. The chemical compositions of alloys and slags guarantee their application for the conformation of alloys loads and matrix fluxes amassed for the superficial filling by means of submerged arc welding (SAW). The melting-reduction process is carried out in an electric arc furnace. (Author) 16 refs.

  6. Dynamics of vegetation and soils of oak/saw palmetto scrub after fire: Observations from permanent transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, G. Ross

    1991-01-01

    Ten permanent 15 m transects previously established in two oak/saw palmetto scrub stands burned in December 1986, while two transects remained unburned. Vegetation in the greater than 0.5 m and the less than 0.5 m layers on these transects was sampled at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months postburn and determined structural features of the vegetation (height, percent bare ground, total cover). The vegetation data were analyzed from each sampling by height layer using detrended correspondence analysis ordination. Vegetation data for the greater than 0.5 m layer for the entire time sequence were combined and analyzed using detrended correspondence analysis ordination. Soils were sampled at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postburn and analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na), NO3-N, NH4-N, Al, available metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn), and PO4-P. Shrub species recovered at different rates postfire with saw palmetto reestablishing cover greater than 0.5 m within one year, but the scrub oaks had not returned to preburn cover greater than 0.5 m in 3 years after the fire. These differences in growth rates resulted in dominance shifts after the fire with saw palmetto increasing relative to the scrub oaks. Overall changes in species richness were minor, although changes occurred in species richness by height layers due to different growth rates. Soils of well drained and poorly drained sites differed markedly. Soil responses to the fire appeared minor. Soil pH increased at 6 and 12 months postfire; calcium increased at 6 months postburn. Nitrate-nitrogen increased at 12 months postburn. Low values of conductivity, PO4-P, Mg, K, Na, and Fe at 12 months postburn may be related to heavy rainfall the preceding month. Seasonal variability in some soil parameters appeared to occur.

  7. An Analysis of the Joints’ Properties of Fine-Grained Steel Welded by the MAG and SAW Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of properties of welded joints of fine-grained steel of P460NH type used more and more often in the modern constructions. A process of examining a technology of welding has been carried out on the thick-walled butt joints of sheet metal by two methods of welding namely MAG – 135 and SAW – 121. The article deals with a topic of optimizing a process of welding thick-walled welded joints of fine-grained steel due to their mechanicalproperties and efficiency.

  8. An analysis of the joints’ properties of thick-grained steel welded by the SAW and ESW methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of properties of welded joints of thick-grained steel of P460NH type used more and more often in the modern constructions. A process of examining a technology of welding has been carried out on the thick-walled butt joints of sheet metal by two methods of welding namely submerged arc welding (SAW - 121 and electroslag (ESW - 722. The article deals with a topic of optimizing a process of welding thick-walled welded joints of fine-grained steel due to their mechanical properties and efficiency.

  9. Modification of Hack Saw Blade Support 'REMOR 400' from the Length of 650 mm to 450 mm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagino, Abdul-Hafid

    2005-01-01

    REMOR 400 type is the hack saw machine for cutting large work piece. The capacity of cutting is 310 mm diameter. The length of the blade is 650 mm (26 inches). For cutting small work piece (≤ 150 mm), the use of this blade is not efficient because the blade is relatively expensive. To solve this problem, the modification of the blade support is performed so that REMOR 400 machine can use the blade of 450 mm which is cheaper and easier to find in the market. (author)

  10. SAW-Based Phononic Crystal Microfluidic Sensor-Microscale Realization of Velocimetry Approaches for Integrated Analytical Platform Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseev, Aleksandr; Lucklum, Ralf; Zubtsov, Mikhail; Schmidt, Marc-Peter; Mukhin, Nikolay V; Hirsch, Soeren

    2017-09-23

    The current work demonstrates a novel surface acoustic wave (SAW) based phononic crystal sensor approach that allows the integration of a velocimetry-based sensor concept into single chip integrated solutions, such as Lab-on-a-Chip devices. The introduced sensor platform merges advantages of ultrasonic velocimetry analytic systems and a microacoustic sensor approach. It is based on the analysis of structural resonances in a periodic composite arrangement of microfluidic channels confined within a liquid analyte. Completed theoretical and experimental investigations show the ability to utilize periodic structure localized modes for the detection of volumetric properties of liquids and prove the efficacy of the proposed sensor concept.

  11. Application of wire sawing method to decommissioning of nuclear power plant. Cutting test with turbine pedestal of thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hideki; Uchiyama, Noriyuki; Sugiyama, Kazuya; Yamashita, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Morishige

    1995-01-01

    It is very important to reduce radioactive waste volume, and to reduce radiation dose to workers and to the public during dismantling of the activated concrete in the decommissioning stage of a nuclear power plant. For the above, we studied a dismantling method which can separate activated concrete from non-activated concrete safely and effectively. Considering the state of legal regulation about radioactive waste disposal, and the state of developing of decommissioning technologies, we come to a conclusion that wire sawing method is feasible as a concrete cutting method. This study was carried out to evaluate the availability of the wire sawing method to dismantling of concrete structures of nuclear power plants. This study consists of concrete cutting rate test and concrete block cutting test. The former is to obtain data about cutting rate with various steel ratios while the latter is to obtain data about working time and man hour of the whole work with wire sawing. Thirty-six year old turbine pedestal of a thermal power plant was selected as a test piece to simulate actual decommissioning work of nuclear power plant, taking its massive concrete volume and age. Taking account of the handling in the building, the wire sawing machine with motor driven was used in this study considering that it did not produce exhaust gas. The concrete cutting rate test was performed with parameter of steel ratio in the concrete, wire tension and cutting direction. In the concrete block cutting test, imaging the actual cutting situation, cubic blocks which side was approximately 1 meter were taken out, and a large block to be cut and to be taken out is a section of 1m x 1.5m x 10m. Test results are shown below. The difference of cutting rate was mainly caused by the difference of reinforcement steel ratio. Working time data of installation, removal of machines and cutting were obtained. Data on secondary waste (dust, drainage and sludge) and environmental effect (noise and

  12. A prospective, 1-year trial using saw palmetto versus finasteride in the treatment of category III prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Steven A; Volpe, Michael A; Te, Alexis E

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of saw palmetto or finasteride in men with category III prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). A prospective, randomized, open label, 1-year study was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of saw palmetto and finasteride in the treatment of men diagnosed with CP/CPPS. Patients were randomized to finasteride (5 mg once daily) or saw palmetto (325 mg daily) for 1 year. Patients were evaluated using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index, individual domains (pain, urinary symptoms, quality of life and mean pain score) and the American Urological Association Symptom Score at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. A total of 64 consecutive men 24 to 58 years old (mean age 43.2) with a diagnosis of CP/CPPS were equally randomized to the 2 treatment arms. All 64 men had previously received antibiotics (duration of 3 to 93 weeks), 52 (82%) had been on alpha-blockade. There were 61, 57 and 56 patients evaluable at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. At 1 year mean total National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index score decreased from 23.9 to 18.1 in the finasteride group (p saw palmetto arm (p = 0.41). In the finasteride arm the quality of life and pain domains were significantly improved at 1 year; however, urination was not. Adverse events included headache (3 cases) in the saw palmetto group and decreased libido (2 cases) in the finasteride group. At the end of the trial 13 of 32 (41%) and 21 of 32 (66%) opted to continue saw palmetto and finasteride, respectively. CP/CPPS treated with saw palmetto had no appreciable long-term improvement. In contrast, patients treated with finasteride had significant and durable improvement in all various parameters except voiding. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the mechanism and reproducibility of these effects in a placebo controlled trial.

  13. The effect of increasing doses of saw palmetto fruit extract on serum prostate specific antigen: analysis of the CAMUS randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Gerald L; McCullum-Hill, Christie; Sandhu, Gurdarshan S; Crawford, E David; Barry, Michael J; Cantor, Alan

    2013-02-01

    Saw palmetto extracts are used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms in men despite level I evidence that saw palmetto is ineffective in reducing these lower urinary tract symptoms. We determined whether higher doses of saw palmetto as studied in the CAMUS (Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Urologic Symptoms) trial affect serum prostate specific antigen levels. The CAMUS trial was a randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind, multicenter, North American trial conducted between June 5, 2008 and October 10, 2012, in which 369 men older than 45 years with an AUA symptom score of 8 to 24 were randomly assigned to placebo or dose escalation of saw palmetto, which consisted of 320 mg for the first 24 weeks, 640 mg for the next 24 weeks and 960 mg for the last 24 weeks of this 72-week trial. Serum prostate specific antigen levels were obtained at baseline and at weeks 24, 48 and 72, and were compared between treatment groups using the pooled t test and Fisher's exact test. Serum prostate specific antigen was similar at baseline for the placebo (mean ± SD 1.93 ± 1.59 ng/ml) and saw palmetto groups (2.20 ± 1.95, p = 0.16). Changes in prostate specific antigen during the study were similar, with a mean change in the placebo group of 0.16 ± 1.08 ng/ml and 0.23 ± 0.83 ng/ml in the saw palmetto group (p = 0.50). In addition, no differential effect on serum prostate specific antigen was observed between treatment arms when the groups were stratified by baseline prostate specific antigen. Saw palmetto extract does not affect serum prostate specific antigen more than placebo, even at relatively high doses. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The risk-benefit profile of commonly used herbal therapies: Ginkgo, St. John's Wort, Ginseng, Echinacea, Saw Palmetto, and Kava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Edzard

    2002-01-01

    Because use of herbal remedies is increasing, a risk-benefit profile of commonly used herbs is needed. This article provides a clinically oriented overview of the efficacy and safety of ginkgo, St. John's wort, ginseng, echinacea, saw palmetto, and kava. Wherever possible, assessments are based on systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials. Encouraging data support the efficacy of some of these popular herbal medicinal products, and the potential for doing good seems greater than that for doing harm. The published evidence suggests that ginkgo is of questionable use for memory loss and tinnitus but has some effect on dementia and intermittent claudication. St. John's wort is efficacious for mild to moderate depression, but serious concerns exist about its interactions with several conventional drugs. Well-conducted clinical trials do not support the efficacy of ginseng to treat any condition. Echinacea may be helpful in the treatment or prevention of upper respiratory tract infections, but trial data are not fully convincing. Saw palmetto has been shown in short-term trials to be efficacious in reducing the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Kava is an efficacious short-term treatment for anxiety. None of these herbal medicines is free of adverse effects. Because the evidence is incomplete, risk-benefit assessments are not completely reliable, and much knowledge is still lacking.

  15. Constraints on the rare tau decays from μ→eγ in the supersymmetric see-saw model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Simonetto, Cristoforo

    2008-01-01

    It is now a firmly established fact that all family lepton numbers are violated in Nature. In this paper we discuss the implications of this observation for future searches for rare tau decays in the supersymmetric see-saw model. Using the two loop renormalization group evolution of the soft terms and the Yukawa couplings we show that there exists a lower bound on the rate of the rare process μ→eγ of the form BR(μ→eγ) ∼> C x BR(τ→μγ)BR(τ→eγ), where C is a constant that depends on supersymmetric parameters. Our only assumption is the absence of cancellations among the high-energy see-saw parameters. We also discuss the implications of this bound for future searches for rare tau decays. In particular, for large regions of the mSUGRA parameter space, we show that present B-factories could discover either τ→μγ or τ→eγ, but not both

  16. Detection of coffee flavour ageing by solid-phase microextraction/surface acoustic wave sensor array technique (SPME/SAW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barié, Nicole; Bücking, Mark; Stahl, Ullrich; Rapp, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The use of polymer coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor arrays is a very promising technique for highly sensitive and selective detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We present new developments to achieve a low cost sensor setup with a sampling method enabling the highly reproducible detection of volatiles even in the ppb range. Since the VOCs of coffee are well known by gas chromatography (GC) research studies, the new sensor array was tested for an easy assessable objective: coffee ageing during storage. As reference method these changes were traced with a standard GC/FID set-up, accompanied by sensory panellists. The evaluation of GC data showed a non-linear characteristic for single compound concentrations as well as for total peak area values, disabling prediction of the coffee age. In contrast, the new SAW sensor array demonstrates a linear dependency, i.e. being capable to show a dependency between volatile concentration and storage time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inferior alveolar nerve function after sagittal split osteotomy by reciprocating saw or piezosurgery instrument: prospective double-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnazzi, Marcelo Silva; Real Gabrielli, Mario Francisco; Passeri, Luis Augusto; Cabrini Gabrielli, Marisa Aparecida; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Pereira-Filho, Valfrido Antonio

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to objectively evaluate inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) sensory disturbances in patients who underwent sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) by comparing 1 side treated with a reciprocating saw with the other side treated with a piezosurgery device. Clinical evaluation of IAN sensory disturbance was undertaken preoperatively and at 1 week, 4 weeks, 2 months, and 6 months postoperatively in 20 patients who underwent SSRO at the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Araraquara Dental School, São Paulo State University. The 20 patients were examined at all periods for IAN functionality by Semmes-Weinstein testing; neither the patients nor the examiner knew which side was treated using piezosurgery or a reciprocating saw. The mean age of the patients was 28.4 years (range, 20 to 48 yr). Before surgery, no patient had impaired function of the IAN in any of the 8 zones in the mental and inferior lip areas. All patients reported feeling the first monofilament at the time of the preoperative test. Seven days postoperatively, all patients reported some kind of altered sensitivity in at least 1 zone evaluated. The results of this study suggest there was no statistically significant difference in the sensitivity of the labiomental area regarding the instrument used to perform the osteotomy. Future studies will focus on enlarging the sample and evaluating the results. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dry diamond wire sawing techniques to be used in an active environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loftus, S.

    2003-01-01

    Dry diamond wire sawing techniques usable in an active environment has the following benefits: - Reduced personnel exposure time due the remote control and operation of the cutting equipment, the operator is positioned outside the active cell when controlling the equipment; - The equipment will be reusable with only the diamond cutting wire and the drive wheel rubber inserts coming into contact with potentially contaminated material; - The reduced impact on the existing ventilation systems from fumes or particulate blinding in-cell filters. - No dismantling work has to be carried out on the object to make it suitable for cutting using diamond wire cutting; - The diamond wire is the only piece of equipment subject to short-term replacement due to wear. The paper presents the following issues: The project the equipment is to be used on; -The equipment to be used; - Cutting machine support frame; - Drive units; - Wire coolant device. The seconds part of the paper deals with in-active cutting trials. To produce a strategy for cutting up a vessel in an active facility, the cutting technique proposed for size reducing the vessel to be tested implies establishing its suitability before developing the cutting rig that will be used for the actual task. A mock-up of the vessel was manufactured and size reduced using an existing cutting rig located at the supplies works. This sets out and records the results of the trials performed to functionally demonstrate the adequacy of using a diamond wire to cut the vessel into several pieces. The trials were performed at Diamant Boart test facility in Brussels.The objectives of the vessel cutting trials were: - To assess if a double skinned mock-up of the vessel can be cut successfully, dry, using Diamant Boart diamond wire cooled using liquid nitrogen; - To optimise the cutting process to achieve maximum cutting speed, minimum nitrogen usage and optimise wire life; - To identify any changes to the cutting rig, heat exchanger or

  19. FEM Analysis of Sezawa Mode SAW Sensor for VOC Based on CMOS Compatible AlN/SiO2/Si Multilayer Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Aslam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A Finite Element Method (FEM simulation study is conducted, aiming to scrutinize the sensitivity of Sezawa wave mode in a multilayer AlN/SiO2/Si Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW sensor to low concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs, that is, trichloromethane, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethene. A Complimentary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS compatible AlN/SiO2/Si based multilayer SAW resonator structure is taken into account for this purpose. In this study, first, the influence of AlN and SiO2 layers’ thicknesses over phase velocities and electromechanical coupling coefficients (k2 of two SAW modes (i.e., Rayleigh and Sezawa is analyzed and the optimal thicknesses of AlN and SiO2 layers are opted for best propagation characteristics. Next, the study is further extended to analyze the mass loading effect on resonance frequencies of SAW modes by coating a thin Polyisobutylene (PIB polymer film over the AlN surface. Finally, the sensitivity of the two SAW modes is examined for VOCs. This study concluded that the sensitivity of Sezawa wave mode for 1 ppm of selected volatile organic gases is twice that of the Rayleigh wave mode.

  20. Potency of a novel saw palmetto ethanol extract, SPET-085, for inhibition of 5alpha-reductase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Pilar

    2010-08-01

    The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent membrane protein 5alpha-reductase irreversibly catalyses the conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In humans, two 5alpha-reductase isoenyzmes are expressed: type I and type II. Type II is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been widely used for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The mechanisms of the pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase, among other actions. Clinical studies of SPE have been equivocal, with some showing significant results and others not. These inconsistent results may be due, in part, to varying bioactivities of the SPE used in the studies. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro potency of a novel saw palmetto ethanol extract (SPET-085), an inhibitor of the 5alpha-reductase isoenzyme type II, in a cell-free test system. On the basis of the enzymatic conversion of the substrate androstenedione to the 5alpha-reduced product 5alpha-androstanedione, the inhibitory potency was measured and compared to those of finasteride, an approved 5alpha-reductase inhibitor. SPET-085 concentration-dependently inhibited 5alpha-reductase type II in vitro (IC(50)=2.88+/-0.45 microg/mL). The approved 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, tested as positive control, led to 61% inhibition of 5alpha-reductase type II. SPET-085 effectively inhibits the enzyme that has been linked to BPH, and the amount of extract required for activity is very low compared to data reported for other extracts. It can be concluded from data in the literature that SPET-085 is as effective as a hexane extract of saw palmetto that exhibited the highest levels of bioactivity, and is more effective than other SPEs tested. This study confirmed that SPET-085 has prostate health-promoting bioactivity that also corresponds favorably to

  1. Improved hybridization of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) algorithm with Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making - Simple Additive Weighting (FMADM-SAW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiwani, B. E.; Zarlis, M.; Efendi, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this research, the improvement of hybridization algorithm of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) with Fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (FTOPSIS) in selecting the best bank chief inspector based on several qualitative and quantitative criteria with various priorities. To improve the performance of the above research, FAHP algorithm hybridization with Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making - Simple Additive Weighting (FMADM-SAW) algorithm was adopted, which applied FAHP algorithm to the weighting process and SAW for the ranking process to determine the promotion of employee at a government institution. The result of improvement of the average value of Efficiency Rate (ER) is 85.24%, which means that this research has succeeded in improving the previous research that is equal to 77.82%. Keywords: Ranking and Selection, Fuzzy AHP, Fuzzy TOPSIS, FMADM-SAW.

  2. MicroSaw and Piezosurgery in Harvesting Mandibular Bone Blocks from the Retromolar Region: A Randomized Split-Mouth Prospective Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Thomas; Doliveux, Romain

    The aim of this randomized prospective split-mouth clinical trial was to evaluate the outcome of bone block harvesting from the retromolar region using the MicroSaw and Piezosurgery. Fifty-three patients for extensive bilateral bone grafting procedures with or without concomitant implant placement in the maxilla and/or mandible were scheduled. In each patient, bone blocks were harvested in the retromolar area within the external oblique ridge of the mandible. Using a randomized protocol, bone blocks were harvested with the MicroSaw and Piezosurgery either from the right or the left side. Clinical outcome parameters were the comparison of osteotomy time; volume of block graft; and clinical determination of intraoperative complications such as hemorrhage, nerve injury, pain, swelling, and healing of the donor site. The mean osteotomy time for harvesting including luxating a bone block was 5.63 (± 1.37) minutes using the MicroSaw and 16.47 (± 2.74) minutes using Piezosurgery (P .05). Swelling did not appear significantly different either (P > .05), and none of the donor sites showed primary healing complications. The data described in this randomized prospective split-mouth clinical trial indicate that the MicroSaw and Piezosurgery allowed efficient and safe bone block harvesting from the external oblique ridge. Clinically, concerning harvesting time and volume of the grafts, the MicroSaw performed significantly better, whereas pain, swelling, and healing did not appear to be considerably different. Given the improved visibility, precise cut geometries, and the margin of safety afforded by the MicroSaw and Piezosurgery, they are both instruments of choice when harvesting bone from the retromolar area.

  3. Staircase and saw-tooth field emission steps from nanopatterned n-type GaSb surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kildemo, M.; Le Roy, S.; Søndergård, E.

    2009-01-01

    High resolution field emission experiments from nanopatterned GaSb surfaces consisting of densely packed nanocones prepared by low ion-beam-energy sputtering are presented. Both uncovered and metal-covered nanopatterned surfaces were studied. Surprisingly, the field emission takes place by regular steps in the field emitted current. Depending on the field, the steps are either regular, flat, plateaus, or saw-tooth shaped. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first time that such results have been reported. Each discrete jump in the field emission may be understood in terms of resonant tunneling through an extended surface space charge region in an n-type, high aspect ratio, single GaSb nanocone. The staircase shape may be understood from the spatial distribution of the aspect ratio of the cones.

  4. Modelling of Strains During SAW Surfacing Taking into Heat of the Weld in Temperature Field Description and Phase Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winczek, J.; Makles, K.; Gucwa, M.; Gnatowska, R.; Hatala, M.

    2017-08-01

    In the paper, the model of the thermal and structural strain calculation in a steel element during single-pass SAW surfacing is presented. The temperature field is described analytically assuming a bimodal volumetric model of heat source and a semi-infinite body model of the surfaced (rebuilt) workpiece. The electric arc is treated physically as one heat source. Part of the heat is transferred by the direct impact of the electric arc, while another part of the heat is transferred to the weld by the melted material of the electrode. Kinetics of phase transformations during heating is limited by temperature values at the beginning and at the end of austenitic transformation, while the progress of phase transformations during cooling is determined on the basis of TTT-welding diagramand JMA-K law for diffusive transformations, and K-M law for martensitic transformation. Totalstrains equal to the sum ofthermaland structuralstrainsinduced by phasetransformationsin weldingcycle.

  5. Staircase and saw-tooth field emission steps from nanopatterned n-type GaSb surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kildemo, M.; Levinsen, Y. Inntjore; Le Roy, S.; Soenderga ring rd, E. [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondlieim (Norway); Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondlieim, Norway and AB CERN, CH- 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Laboratoire Surface du Verre et Interfaces, UMR 125 Unite Mixte de Recherche CNRS/Saint-Gobain Laboratoire, 39 Quai Lucien Lefranc, F-93303 Aubervilliers Cedex (France)

    2009-09-15

    High resolution field emission experiments from nanopatterned GaSb surfaces consisting of densely packed nanocones prepared by low ion-beam-energy sputtering are presented. Both uncovered and metal-covered nanopatterned surfaces were studied. Surprisingly, the field emission takes place by regular steps in the field emitted current. Depending on the field, the steps are either regular, flat, plateaus, or saw-tooth shaped. To the author's knowledge, this is the first time that such results have been reported. Each discrete jump in the field emission may be understood in terms of resonant tunneling through an extended surface space charge region in an n-type, high aspect ratio, single GaSb nanocone. The staircase shape may be understood from the spatial distribution of the aspect ratio of the cones.

  6. Development of low cost silicon solar cells by reusing the silicon saw dust collected during wafering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, Z.I.; Raza, B.; Ahmed, M.; Sheikh, H.; Qazi, I.A.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon material due to its abundance in nature and maximum conversion efficiency has been successfully being used for the fabrication of electronic and photovoltaic devices such as ICs, diodes, transistors and solar cells. The 80% of the semiconductor industry is ruled by silicon material. Single crystal silicon solar cells are in use for both space and terrestrial application, due to the well developed technology and better efficiency than polycrystalline and amorphous silicon solar cells. The current research work is an attempt to reduce the cost of single crystal silicon solar cells by reusing the silicon saw dust obtained during the watering process. During the watering process about 45% Si material is wasted in the form of Si powder dust. Various waste powder silicon samples were analyzed using inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) technique, for metallic impurities critical for solar grade silicon material. The results were evaluated from impurity and cost point of view. (author)

  7. Evaluation of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion with piezosurgery versus oscillating saw and chisel osteotomy - a randomized prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Majeed; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rana, Madiha; Piffkó, Jozsef; Kater, Wolfgang

    2013-02-17

    Ultrasonic bone-cutting surgery has been introduced as a feasible alternative to the conventional sharp instruments used in craniomaxillofacial surgery because of its precision and safety. The piezosurgery medical device allows the efficient cutting of mineralized tissues with minimal trauma to soft tissues. Piezoelectric osteotome has found its role in surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME), a procedure well established to correct transverse maxillary discrepancies. The advantages include minimal risk to critical anatomic structures. The purpose of this clinical comparative study (CIS 2007-237-M) was to present the advantages of the piezoelectric cut as a minimally invasive device in surgically assisted, rapid maxillary expansion by protecting the maxillary sinus mucosal lining. Thirty patients (18 females and 12 males) at the age of 18 to 54 underwent a surgically assisted palatal expansion of the maxilla with a combined orthodontic and surgical approach. The patients were randomly divided into two separate treatment groups. While Group 1 received conventional surgery using an oscillating saw, Group 2 was treated with piezosurgery. The following parameters were examined: blood pressure, blood values, required medication, bleeding level in the maxillary sinus, duration of inpatient stay, duration of surgery and height of body temperature. The results displayed no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding laboratory blood values and inpatient stay. The duration of surgery revealed a significant discrepancy. Deploying piezosurgery took the surgeon an average of 10 minutes longer than working with a conventional-saw technique. However, the observation of the bleeding level in the paranasal sinus presented a major and statistically significant advantage of piezosurgery: on average the bleeding level was one category above the one of the remaining patients. This method of piezoelectric surgery with all its advantages is going

  8. Muscle activity and spine load during anterior chain whole body linkage exercises: the body saw, hanging leg raise and walkout from a push-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart; Andersen, Jordan; Cannon, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined anterior chain whole body linkage exercises, namely the body saw, hanging leg raise and walkout from a push-up. Investigation of these exercises focused on which particular muscles were challenged and the magnitude of the resulting spine load. Fourteen males performed the exercises while muscle activity, external force and 3D body segment motion were recorded. A sophisticated and anatomically detailed 3D model used muscle activity and body segment kinematics to estimate muscle force, and thus sensitivity to each individual's choice of motor control for each task. Gradations of muscle activity and spine load characteristics were observed across tasks. On average, the hanging straight leg raise created approximately 3000 N of spine compression while the body saw created less than 2500 N. The hanging straight leg raise created the highest challenge to the abdominal wall (>130% MVC in rectus abdominis, 88% MVC in external oblique). The body saw resulted in almost 140% MVC activation of the serratus anterior. All other exercises produced substantial abdominal challenge, although the body saw did so in the most spine conserving way. These findings, along with consideration of an individual's injury history, training goals and current fitness level, should assist in exercise choice and programme design.

  9. The effect of purification of single-walled carbon nanotube bundles on the alcohol sensitivity of nanocomposite Langmuir-Blodgett films for SAW sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penza, M; Tagliente, M A; Aversa, P; Re, M; Cassano, G

    2007-01-01

    HiPco (high-pressure CO dissociation process) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundles containing Fe particles were purified in a two-step purification process by thermal annealing in oxygen and post-treatment in HCl. Nanocomposite films of pristine and purified SWCNTs embedded in an organic matrix of cadmium arachidate (CdA) were prepared by a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) molecular engineering technique with a fixed weight filler content of 75 wt% onto a surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer operating as an oscillator at a frequency of 433 MHz. The raw and purified samples were characterized at various stages of the purification process using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), along with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Functional characterizations of the SWCNT-nanocomposite-based SAW sensors were investigated towards methanol, isopropanol and ethanol, and demonstrated high sensitivity, reversibility, fast response and ppm level detection at room temperature. Results indicate that the sensitivity of the SAW sensors based on a nanocomposite film of oxygen-annealed SWCNTs is enhanced to the alcohols tested at room temperature. Purification of the SWCNTs in the nanocomposite film affects the SAW sensitivity to alcohol by modulating the sensing properties. The sensing mechanisms are analysed and discussed

  10. Evaluation of a gas chromatograph with a novel surface acoustic wave detector (SAW GC) for screening of volatile organic compounds in Hanford waste tank samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    A novel instrument, a gas chromatograph with a Surface Acoustic Wave Detector (SAW GC), was evaluated for the screening of organic compounds in Hanford tank headspace vapors. Calibration data were developed for the most common organic compounds, and the accuracy and precision were measured with a certified standard. The instrument was tested with headspace samples collected from seven Hanford waste tanks

  11. Autumn migration of Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus) in the Middle Atlantic and Northeastern United States: what observations from 1995 suggest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David F. Brinker; Katharine E. Duffy; David M. Whalen; Bryan D. Watts; Kevin M. Dodge

    1997-01-01

    During the autumn of 1995 more than 5,900 migrant Northern Saw-whet Owls were banded in eastern and central North America. Though typical numbers of owls were banded at most Great Lakes stations during 1995, a record number were netted at Hawk Ridge, near Duluth, Minnesota and, when compared with more normal years, a remarkably disproportionate 40 percent of the total...

  12. The effect of purification of single-walled carbon nanotube bundles on the alcohol sensitivity of nanocomposite Langmuir-Blodgett films for SAW sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penza, M; Tagliente, M A; Aversa, P; Re, M; Cassano, G [ENEA, Department of Physical Technologies and New Materials, SS 7, Appia, km 714-72100 Brindisi (Italy)

    2007-05-09

    HiPco (high-pressure CO dissociation process) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundles containing Fe particles were purified in a two-step purification process by thermal annealing in oxygen and post-treatment in HCl. Nanocomposite films of pristine and purified SWCNTs embedded in an organic matrix of cadmium arachidate (CdA) were prepared by a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) molecular engineering technique with a fixed weight filler content of 75 wt% onto a surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer operating as an oscillator at a frequency of 433 MHz. The raw and purified samples were characterized at various stages of the purification process using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), along with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Functional characterizations of the SWCNT-nanocomposite-based SAW sensors were investigated towards methanol, isopropanol and ethanol, and demonstrated high sensitivity, reversibility, fast response and ppm level detection at room temperature. Results indicate that the sensitivity of the SAW sensors based on a nanocomposite film of oxygen-annealed SWCNTs is enhanced to the alcohols tested at room temperature. Purification of the SWCNTs in the nanocomposite film affects the SAW sensitivity to alcohol by modulating the sensing properties. The sensing mechanisms are analysed and discussed.

  13. Low propagation loss in a one-port SAW resonator fabricated on single-crystal diamond for super-high-frequency applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Odawara, Tatsuya; Yamada, Haruya; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-Ya; Torii, Hironori; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shinichi

    2013-05-01

    Diamond has the highest known SAW phase velocity, sufficient for applications in the gigahertz range. However, although numerous studies have demonstrated SAW devices on polycrystalline diamond thin films, all have had much larger propagation loss than single-crystal materials such as LiNbO3. Hence, in this study, we fabricated and characterized one-port SAW resonators on single-crystal diamond substrates synthesized using a high-pressure and high-temperature method to identify and minimize sources of propagation loss. A series of one-port resonators were fabricated with the interdigital transducer/ AlN/diamond structure and their characteristics were measured. The device with the best performance exhibited a resonance frequency f of 5.3 GHz, and the equivalent circuit model gave a quality factor Q of 5509. Thus, a large fQ product of approximately 2.9 × 10(13) was obtained, and the propagation loss was found to be only 0.006 dB/wavelength. These excellent properties are attributed mainly to the reduction of scattering loss in a substrate using a single-crystal diamond, which originated from the grain boundary of diamond and the surface roughness of the AlN thin film and the diamond substrate. These results show that single-crystal diamond SAW resonators have great potential for use in low-noise super-high-frequency oscillators.

  14. Saving electrical energy in a saw-mill; Einsparung von elektrischer Energie in einem Saegereibetrieb. Stromeinsparungen in den Bereichen Holzbearbeitung, Foerdertechnik, Holztrocknung, Absauganlagen, Druckluft, Beleuchtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrsch, I. [Wyrsch Technologies, Kuessnacht am Rigi (Switzerland); Dolder, M. [Ingenieurbuero Dolder, Luzern (Switzerland)

    2005-01-15

    This comprehensive, illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the findings of a project that examined the electricity consumption of saw-mills and ways in which the amount of electrical power used in such facilities could be reduced. The Schilliger Holz AG company was taken as an example of a saw-mill in Switzerland. Its power consumption in 2001 was almost 6 gigawatt-hours. The work done in the two phases of the project is described and commented on. The first phase involved the measurement and analysis of power consumption; in the second phase measures to be taken to help save energy were developed. The various machinery and installations in this saw mill are described. These include various systems for the processing of the raw timber through to finished products that include wood for building, decoration and laminates. Measurement data is presented and commented on. Potentials for saving electricity and measures to be taken are described in detail for the various processing plants in the saw-mill.

  15. Analysis of SAW properties in ZnO/AlxGa1-xN/c-Al2O3 structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Emanetoglu, Nuri William; Saraf, Gaurav; Wu, Pan; Lu, Yicheng; Parekh, Aniruddh; Merai, Vinod; Udovich, Eric; Lu, Dong; Lee, Dong S; Armour, Eric A; Pophristic, Milan

    2005-07-01

    Piezoelectric thin films on high acoustic velocity nonpiezoelectric substrates, such as ZnO, AlN, or GaN deposited on diamond or sapphire substrates, are attractive for high frequency and low-loss surface acoustic wave devices. In this work, ZnO films are deposited on AlxGa1-xN/c-Al2O3 (0 structure provides several advantages, including higher order wave modes with higher velocity and larger electromechanical coupling coefficient (K2). The surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocities and coupling coefficients of the ZnO/AlxGa1-xN/c-Al2O3 structure are tailored as a function of the Al mole percentage in AlxGa1-xN films, and as a function of the ZnO (h1) to AlxGa1-xN (h2) thickness ratio. It is found that a wide thickness-frequency product (hf) region in which coupling is close to its maximum value, K(2)max, can be obtained. The K(2)max of the second order wave mode (h1 = h2) is estimated to be 4.3% for ZnO/GaN/c-Al2O3, and 3.8% for ZnO/AlN/c-Al2O3. The bandwidth of second and third order wave modes, in which the coupling coefficient is within +/- 0.3% of K(2)max, is calculated to be 820 hf for ZnO/GaN/c-Al2O3, and 3620 hf for ZnO/AlN/c-Al2O3. Thus, the hf region in which the coupling coefficient is close to the maximum value broadens with increasing Al content, while K(2)max decreases slightly. When the thickness ratio of AlN to ZnO increases, the K(2)max and hf bandwidth of the second and third higher wave modes increases. The SAW test devices are fabricated and tested. The theoretical and experimental results of velocity dispersion in the ZnO/AlxGa1-xN/c-Al2O3 structures are found to be well matched.

  16. Effects of dietary saw palmetto on the prostate of transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model (TRAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Teri L; Worstell, Teresa R; Greenberg, Norman M; Roselli, Charles E

    2007-05-01

    Several of the proposed mechanisms for the actions of the liposterolic extract of saw palmetto (SPE) are exerted on known risk factors for prostate cancer (CaP). This study investigated whether SPE could prevent the progression of CaP in a transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Two different doses of SPE designed to deliver 50 mg/kg/day SPE and 300 mg/kg/day SPE were administered in a custom diet to TRAMP mice for 12 or 24 weeks. Body and organ weights were used to evaluate toxicity, and radioimmunoassay was used to measure plasma and tissue androgen levels to monitor effects of SPE on 5alpha reductase activity. Prostate tissues were evaluated histologically to determine the effect of treatment on tumor grade, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Treatment with 300 mg/kg/day SPE from 4 to 24 weeks of age significantly reduced the concentration of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the prostate and resulted in a significant increase in apoptosis and significant decrease in pathological tumor grade and frank tumor incidence. Dietary supplementation with SPE may be effective in controlling CaP tumorigenesis. SPE suppression of prostatic DHT levels lends support to the hypothesis that inhibition of the enzyme 5alpha-reductase is a mechanism of action of this substance. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Synthesis and application of a ternary composite of clay, saw-dust and peanut husks in heavy metal adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungondori, Henry H; Mtetwa, Sandile; Tichagwa, Lilian; Katwire, David M; Nyamukamba, Pardon

    2017-05-01

    The adsorption of a multi-component system of ferrous, chromium, copper, nickel and lead on single, binary and ternary composites was studied. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ternary composite of clay, peanut husks (PH) and saw-dust (SD) exhibited a higher adsorption capacity than that of a binary system of clay and SD as well as a single component adsorbent of PH alone. The materials were used in their raw state without any chemical modifications. This was done to retain the cost effective aspect of the naturally occurring adsorbents. The adsorption capacities of the ternary composite for the heavy metals Fe 2+ , Cr 3+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Pb 2+ were 41.7 mg/g, 40.0 mg/g, 25.5 mg/g, 41.5 mg/g and 39.0 mg/g, respectively. It was found that the ternary composite exhibited excellent and enhanced adsorption capacity compared with both a binary and single adsorbent for the heavy metals Fe 2+ , Ni 2+ and Cr 3+ . Characterization of the ternary composites was done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Kinetic models and adsorption isotherms were also studied. The pseudo second order kinetic model and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm best described the adsorption mechanisms for the ternary composite towards each of the heavy metal ions.

  18. Perancangan Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Seleksi Penerimaan Karyawan Dengan Metode Simple Additive Weighting (SAW (Studi Kasus Toko Markas Hobby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadi Rosadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Selection process for new employees at the Markas Hobby is still done manually, the application file new candidates will be evaluated by comparing the file contents with the specified criteria. Selection of the files that meet the criteria then continued with the interview process. The series of processes followed by a series written the tests, including psychological tests, tests of academic potential and so on. Statements this thesis aims to build a Decision Support System Selection Recruitment of new uses Simple Additive weighting method (SAW. This method was chosen because it can determine the weight values for each attribute, and then proceed with the ranking process that will select the best alternative from several alternatives, In this case, the alternative is entitled to be accepted as a new employee in accordance with criteria specified. In developing this application writer use the method of RUP (Rational Unified Process, with Descriptive Research Methodology and Action Research Methodology. While the system implementation using PHP programming language and MySQL as the database. The decision support system may help section Recruitment in making decisions for the recruitment process at Markas Hobby more easily and quickly.

  19. Increasing the Control Efficacy of Saw toothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L) Using Gamma Irradiation and Essential Plant Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sileem, Th.M.; Hassan, R.S.; Sayed, W.A.A

    2017-01-01

    The combination of gamma irradiation and essential oils could potentially be used to control the Saw toothed grain beetle, Oryzaephlius surinamensis (L). Lethal dose of gamma irradiation and six commonly essential oils (Rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Marjoram, Origanum vulgare and Sesame, Sesamum indicum, Mintha, Mentha pulegium, Basil, Ocimum basilicum, and Pine, Pinus longifolia L) as a fumigants was tested. It was noticed that the O. surinamensis (L) larvae were most susceptible to irradiation where as, the aged adults were most tolerant. The insecticidal activity of the essential oils varied depending on the insect age and the type of essentials oils. The larval stage among the three test ages was more susceptible to the tested oils and the younger adults more sensitive than the older once to the tested essential oils in general. The combined treatment increased the mortality, which was also two times higher than could be expected from the sum of the effects of each of the treatments. The results indicated that synergistic effect was more pronounced in the case of fumigation followed by irradiation than in the case of irradiation followed by fumigation. Also, the total amount of glutathione (GSH+GSSG), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and acetylcholine esterase (ACHE) were recorded. The findings indicate that the ionizing radiation might be considered as an environmentally compatible alternative or supplement to the essential oils for stored product-pests management

  20. A comparative study of the SSC resistance of a novel welding process IEA with SAW and MIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natividad, C.; Salazar, M.; Espinosa-Medina, M.A.; Perez, R.

    2007-01-01

    The Stress Sulphide Cracking resistance of X65 weldments produced by Indirect Electric Arc, Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) and Metal Inert Gas (MIG) processes were evaluated in a NACE solution saturated with H 2 S at 25 deg. C, 37 deg. C and 50 deg. C using Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT) and electrochemical measurements. Weldments produced by the Indirect Electric Arc presented the best Stress Sulphide Cracking resistance at 25 deg. C. This behavior is attributed to the microstructural modification of the weld bead from ferrite in a needlelike form to a fine grain microstructure, which was not observed at 37 deg. C and 50 deg. C. In addition, the hydrogen permeation flux increased with the temperature, this result is associated with the ferrite phase. The electrochemical results show a decrease of the trapping sites for the atomic hydrogen on this weldment. This behavior has not been observed for the other welding processes due to their microstructure (a typical columnar growth of coarse grain)

  1. Pharmaceutical supply chain risk assessment in Iran using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and simple additive weighting (SAW) methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaberidoost, Mona; Olfat, Laya; Hosseini, Alireza; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Alaeddini, Mahdi; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical supply chain is a significant component of the health system in supplying medicines, particularly in countries where main drugs are provided by local pharmaceutical companies. No previous studies exist assessing risks and disruptions in pharmaceutical companies while assessing the pharmaceutical supply chain. Any risks affecting the pharmaceutical companies could disrupt supply medicines and health system efficiency. The goal of this study was the risk assessment in pharmaceutical industry in Iran considering process's priority, hazard and probability of risks. The study was carried out in 4 phases; risk identification through literature review, risk identification in Iranian pharmaceutical companies through interview with experts, risk analysis through a questionnaire and consultation with experts using group analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method and rating scale (RS) and risk evaluation of simple additive weighting (SAW) method. In total, 86 main risks were identified in the pharmaceutical supply chain with perspective of pharmaceutical companies classified in 11 classes. The majority of risks described in this study were related to the financial and economic category. Also financial management was found to be the most important factor for consideration. Although pharmaceutical industry and supply chain were affected by current political conditions in Iran during the study time, but half of total risks in the pharmaceutical supply chain were found to be internal risks which could be fixed by companies, internally. Likewise, political status and related risks forced companies to focus more on financial and supply management resulting in less attention to quality management.

  2. Development Of An Improved Concrete Roman Tile Alternative Roofing System Using Waste Raw Materials Paper amp Saw Dust As Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegoke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Since the early civilizations in China Neolithic and the Middle East humans have recognized the dual desirable roles of clay tiles as roofing material which remain valid today - First it was an effective means to shed water from buildings and secondly it reduced the spread of fire. The Standard Double Roman tile SDRT was the first roof tile to be mass produced in South Africa. The Double Roman can trace its shape back to Roman engineering principles where it was discovered that arches have an ability to withstand greater pressures as the arch distributes the weight more evenly down to the base of the structure. However after the initial introduction of the concrete tile to Nigerian roofing market architects began to express displeasure with its unusually heavier weight than other competing roofing materials. Suggestions were made to original manufacturers for product improvement by reducing the overall product weight. Concrete tiles are composite materials made from mixture of Portland cement sharp sand smooth sand and natural fibre. Bolyn Industries 7 has established that a mix ratio by volume of 1cement112sharp sand112smooth sand with some fibre makes a good concrete tile product. The sharp sand provides strength while smooth sand provides smoothness to the concrete surface. This study seeks to improve the current Double Roman product by reducing its overall product weight which is currently at about 5.0 kg to about 4.0 kg. Going by the previous experience with Polycrete invention 2 it is hereby conceived that replacement of smooth sand with lighter waste materials such as paper or saw dust in the concrete tile constituents may achieve the desired product weight reduction. The study investigates the most economic mix ratio of the concrete tile constituents to achieve the desirable engineering properties of light weight strength durability water tightness and rust-proofness. Results with preliminary mix trials indicate that replacement

  3. Crystal structure of the disintegrin heterodimer from saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) at 1.9 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgrami, Sameeta; Yadav, Savita; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Perbandt, Markus; Betzel, Christian; Singh, Tej P

    2005-08-23

    Disintegrins constitute a family of potent polypeptide inhibitors of integrins. Integrins are transmembrane heterodimeric molecules involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. They are involved in many diseases such as cancer and thrombosis. Thus, disintegrins have a great potential as anticancer and antithrombotic agents. A novel heterodimeric disintegrin was isolated from the venom of saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) and was crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 1.9 A resolution and belonged to space group P4(3)2(1)2. The data indicated the presence of a pseudosymmetry. The structure was solved by applying origin shifts to the disintegrin homodimer schistatin solved in space group I4(1)22 with similar cell dimensions. The structure refined to the final R(cryst)/R(free) factors of 0.213/0.253. The notable differences are observed between the loops, (Gln39-Asp48) containing the important Arg42-Gly43-Asp44, of the present heterodimer and schistatin. These differences are presumably due to the presence of two glycines at positions 43 and 46 that allow the molecule to adopt variable conformations. A comparative analysis of the surface-charge distributions of various disintegrins showed that the charge distribution on monomeric disintegrins occurred uniformly over the whole surface of the molecule, while in the dimeric disintegrins, the charge is distributed only on one face. Such a feature may be important in the binding of two integrins to a single dimeric disintegrin. The phylogenetic analysis developed on the basis of amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structures indicates that the protein diversification and evolution presumably took place from the medium disintegrins and both the dimeric and short disintegrins evolved from them.

  4. Saw palmetto alters nuclear measurements reflecting DNA content in men with symptomatic BPH: evidence for a possible molecular mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Robert W; Marks, Leonard S; Miller, M Craig; Bales, Wes D; Fan, John; Macairan, Maria Luz; Epstein, Jonathan I; Partin, Alan W

    2002-10-01

    To examine the nuclear chromatin characteristics of epithelial cells, looking for an SPHB-mediated effect on nuclear DNA structure and organization. Saw palmetto herbal blend (SPHB) causes contraction of prostate epithelial cells and suppression of tissue dihydrotestosterone levels in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, but a fundamental mechanism remains unknown. A 6-month randomized trial, comparing prostatic tissue of men treated with SPHB (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20), was performed. At baseline, the two groups were similar in age (65 versus 64 years), symptoms (International Prostate Symptom Score 18 versus 17), uroflow (maximal urinary flow rate 10 versus 11 mL/s), prostate volume (59 versus 58 cm(3)), prostate-specific antigen (4.2 versus 2.7 ng/mL), and percentage of epithelium (17% versus 16%). Prostatic tissue was obtained by sextant biopsy before and after treatment. Five-micron sections were Feulgen stained and quantitatively analyzed using the AutoCyte QUIC-DNA imaging system. Images were captured from 200 randomly selected epithelial cell nuclei, and 60 nuclear morphometric descriptors (NMDs) (eg, size, shape, DNA content, and textural features) were determined for each nucleus. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the differences in the variances of the NMDs between the treated and untreated prostate epithelial cells. At baseline, the SPHB and placebo groups had similar NMD values. After 6 months of placebo, no significant change from baseline was found in the NMDs. However, after 6 months of SPHB, 25 of the 60 NMDs were significantly different compared with baseline, and a multivariate model for predicting treatment effect using 4 of the 25 was created (P <0.001). The multivariate model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 94% and an accuracy of 85%. Six months of SPHB treatment appears to alter the DNA chromatin structure and organization in prostate epithelial cells. Thus, a possible molecular

  5. Nonlinear smooth orthogonal decomposition of kinematic features of sawing reconstructs muscle fatigue evolution as indicated by electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segala, David B; Gates, Deanna H; Dingwell, Jonathan B; Chelidze, David

    2011-03-01

    Tracking or predicting physiological fatigue is important for developing more robust training protocols and better energy supplements and/or reducing muscle injuries. Current methodologies are usually impractical and/or invasive and may not be realizable outside of laboratory settings. It was recently demonstrated that smooth orthogonal decomposition (SOD) of phase space warping (PSW) features of motion kinematics can identify fatigue in individual muscle groups. We hypothesize that a nonlinear extension of SOD will identify more optimal fatigue coordinates and provide a lower-dimensional reconstruction of local fatigue dynamics than the linear SOD. Both linear and nonlinear SODs were applied to PSW features estimated from measured kinematics to reconstruct muscle fatigue dynamics in subjects performing a sawing motion. Ten healthy young right-handed subjects pushed a weighted handle back and forth until voluntary exhaustion. Three sets of joint kinematic angles were measured from the right upper extremity in addition to surface electromyography (EMG) recordings. The SOD coordinates of kinematic PSW features were compared against independently measured fatigue markers (i.e., mean and median EMG spectrum frequencies of individual muscle groups). This comparison was based on a least-squares linear fit of a fixed number of the dominant SOD coordinates to the appropriate local fatigue markers. Between subject variability showed that at most four to five nonlinear SOD coordinates were needed to reconstruct fatigue in local muscle groups, while on average 15 coordinates were needed for the linear SOD. Thus, the nonlinear coordinates provided a one-order-of-magnitude improvement over the linear ones.

  6. Effects of wood saw dust ash admixed with treated sisal fibre on the geotechnical properties of lateritic soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Engbonye SANI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary investigation conducted on the lateritic soil collected at Shika, Zaria shows that it falls under A-7-6 (10 classification for AASHTO (1986 and CL according to unified soil classification system USCS (ASTM 1992. The soil was treated with both wood saw dust ash (WSDA and treated sisal fiber, in stepped concentration of 0,2,4,6, and 8% for WSDA and 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% treated sisal fibre by dry weight of soil using Standard proctor. The Sisal Fibre was treated with Sodium Borohydride (NaBH4 (1% wt/vol for 60 minutes at room temperature to remove the cellulose content present in the Fibre. Statistical analysis was carried out on the obtained results using XLSTART 2017 software and analysis of variance with the Microsoft Excel Analysis Tool Pak Software Package. The liquid limit (LL of the soil was found to be 48% while the plastic limit(PL is 21.27%. The maximum dry density(MDDhowever, decreases generally from a value of 1.85 Mg/m3 to 1.68Mg/m3 at 0.25% sisal fiber content/0% WSDA. It has its least value of 1.57Mg/m3 at 1% sisal fiber and 8% WSDA. The OMC increased from 18 % of the natural soil to 23.7% at 0.75% sisal fiber / 6% WSDA content. There was a general increase in the value of UCS of the soil-sisal fibre mixture with WSDA content from 100 kN/m2 of the natural soil to 696 kN/m2 at 0.75 % sisal fibre content / 6% WSDA. The UCS value met the standard of 687-1373 kN/m2 requirements of sub base for adequate lime and cement stabilization, respectively (Ingas and Metcalf 1972.

  7. Coordination of Rad1-Rad10 interactions with Msh2-Msh3, Saw1 and RPA is essential for functional 3' non-homologous tail removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmiller, Robin; Medina-Rivera, Melisa; DeSanto, Rachel; Minca, Eugen; Kim, Christopher; Holland, Cory; Seol, Ja-Hwan; Schmit, Megan; Oramus, Diane; Smith, Jessica; Gallardo, Ignacio F; Finkelstein, Ilya J; Lee, Sang Eun; Surtees, Jennifer A

    2018-04-06

    Double strand DNA break repair (DSBR) comprises multiple pathways. A subset of DSBR pathways, including single strand annealing, involve intermediates with 3' non-homologous tails that must be removed to complete repair. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rad1-Rad10 is the structure-specific endonuclease that cleaves the tails in 3' non-homologous tail removal (3' NHTR). Rad1-Rad10 is also an essential component of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. In both cases, Rad1-Rad10 requires protein partners for recruitment to the relevant DNA intermediate. Msh2-Msh3 and Saw1 recruit Rad1-Rad10 in 3' NHTR; Rad14 recruits Rad1-Rad10 in NER. We created two rad1 separation-of-function alleles, rad1R203A,K205A and rad1R218A; both are defective in 3' NHTR but functional in NER. In vitro, rad1R203A,K205A was impaired at multiple steps in 3' NHTR. The rad1R218A in vivo phenotype resembles that of msh2- or msh3-deleted cells; recruitment of rad1R218A-Rad10 to recombination intermediates is defective. Interactions among rad1R218A-Rad10 and Msh2-Msh3 and Saw1 are altered and rad1R218A-Rad10 interactions with RPA are compromised. We propose a model in which Rad1-Rad10 is recruited and positioned at the recombination intermediate through interactions, between Saw1 and DNA, Rad1-Rad10 and Msh2-Msh3, Saw1 and Msh2-Msh3 and Rad1-Rad10 and RPA. When any of these interactions is altered, 3' NHTR is impaired.

  8. In vivo assessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 phenotypes: Citrus aurantium, Echinacea purpurea, milk thistle, and saw palmetto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Bill J; Gardner, Stephanie F; Hubbard, Martha A; Williams, D Keith; Gentry, W Brooks; Carrier, Julie; Khan, Ikhlas A; Edwards, David J; Shah, Amit

    2004-11-01

    Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Single-time point phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine whether long-term supplementation of Citrus aurantium , Echinacea purpurea , milk thistle (Silybum marianum), or saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) extracts affected CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity. Twelve healthy volunteers (6 women, 6 men) were randomly assigned to receive C aurantium , E purpurea , milk thistle, or saw palmetto for 28 days. For each subject, a 30-day washout period was interposed between each supplementation phase. Probe drug cocktails of midazolam and caffeine, followed 24 hours later by chlorzoxazone and debrisoquin (INN, debrisoquine), were administered before (baseline) and at the end of supplementation. Presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic trait measurements were determined for CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, and CYP2D6 by use of 1-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam serum ratios (1-hour sample), paraxanthine/caffeine serum ratios (6-hour sample), 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone/chlorzoxazone serum ratios (2-hour sample), and debrisoquin urinary recovery ratios (8-hour collection), respectively. The content of purported "active" phytochemicals was determined for each supplement. Comparisons of presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic ratios suggested that these particular supplements had no significant effect on CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity. Phytochemical profiles indicated that C aurantium was devoid of the CYP3A4 inhibitor 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin. Quantities of fatty acids, flavonolignans, and cichoric acid were consistent with label claims for saw palmetto, milk thistle, and E purpurea , respectively. Botanical supplements containing C aurantium , milk thistle, or saw palmetto extracts appear to pose a minimal risk for CYP-mediated herb-drug interactions in humans. Although the effects of E purpurea on CYP activity were minor, further

  9. Knowledge and prevalence of use of saw palmetto and other herbal products among men with prostate disease in Trinidad and Tobago

    OpenAIRE

    S. Persaud; J. Leach; A. Ramkissoon; L. Goetz

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the knowledge and prevalence of use of saw palmetto and other herbal products among men attending the urology outpatient clinic at San Fernando General Hospital. Subjects and methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study carried out between February and May 2015. A structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected men with prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and who were part of our outpat...

  10. Recycling silicon wire-saw slurries: separation of silicon and silicon carbide in a ramp settling tank under an applied electrical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tzu-Hsuan; Shih, Yu-Pei; Wu, Yung-Fu

    2013-05-01

    The growing demand for silicon solar cells in the global market has greatly increased the amount of silicon sawing waste produced each year. Recycling kerf Si and SiC from sawing waste is an economical method to reduce this waste. This study reports the separation of Si and SiC using a ramp settling tank. As they settle in an electrical field, small Si particles with higher negative charges have a longer horizontal displacement than SiC particles in a solution of pH 7, resulting in the separation of Si and SiC. The agreement between experimental results and predicted results shows that the particles traveled a short distance to reach the collection port in the ramp tank. Consequently, the time required for tiny particles to hit the tank bottom decreased, and the interference caused by the dispersion between particles and the fluid motion during settling decreased. In the ramp tank, the highest purities of the collected SiC and Si powders were 95.2 and 7.01 wt%, respectively. Using a ramp tank, the recycling fraction of Si-rich powders (SiC tanks. Recycling Si and SiC abrasives from the silicon sawing waste is regarded as an economical solution to reduce the sawing waste. However, the separation of Si and SiC is difficult. This study reports the separation of Si and SiC using a ramp settling tank under an applied electrical field. As they settle in an electrical field, small Si particles with higher negative charges have a longer horizontal displacement than SiC particles in a solution of pH 7, resulting in the separation of Si and SiC. Compared with the rectangular tanks, the recycling fraction of Si-rich powders using a ramp tank is greater, and the proposed ramp settling tank is more suitable for industrial applications.

  11. Evaluation of the performances of wastewater treatment services provided by the metropolitan municipalities in Turkey using Entropy integrated SAW, MOORA and TOPSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyıldız, Ertuğrul; Özçelik, Gökhan

    2018-01-01

    Reusingof the wastewater has a vital importance because of limited natural waterresources all around the world. Recycled wastewater can be used in many areassuch as agriculture, industry, cleaning etc. Treatment of wastewater is one ofthe important tasks of metropolitan municipalities. The aim of this study is toevaluate the performances of wastewater treatment services provided by themetropolitan municipalities in Turkey using Entropy integrated SAW, MOORA andTOPSIS methods. In the scope of ...

  12. Performance, kinetics, and equilibrium of methylene blue adsorption on biochar derived from eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Chen, Dongmei; Wan, Shungang; Yu, Zebin

    2015-12-01

    Biochar derived from eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids at low temperatures was utilized as adsorbent to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the carboxyl group was introduced on the biochar surface. Adsorption experiment data indicated that eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric acid showed higher MB adsorption efficiency than that modified with tartaric and acetic acids. Pseudo-second-order kinetics was the most suitable model for describing MB adsorption on biochar compared with pseudo-first-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models. The calculated values of ΔG(0) and ΔH(0) indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption process. MB adsorption on biochar followed the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacities for eucalyptus saw dust modified with citric, tartaric, and acetic acids were 178.57, 99.01, and 29.94 mg g(-1), respectively, at 35°C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Temperature coefficient of elastic constants of SiO2 over-layer on LiNbO3 for a temperature stable SAW device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K

    2003-01-01

    The influence of sputtered SiO 2 over-layer on the SAW propagation characteristics of a 128 deg. rotated Y-cut X-propagating lithium niobate SAW filter has been studied. Experimentally measured SAW phase velocity and temperature coefficient of delay (TCD), with varying SiO 2 over-layer thickness, show a significant deviation from the theoretically calculated values using the bulk material parameters of SiO 2 . The observed deviation is attributed to the differences in the material parameters (density, elastic and dielectric constants and their temperature coefficient) of the deposited SiO 2 over-layer. The density and the dielectric constant of the deposited SiO 2 layer were determined separately, and the elastic constants and their temperature coefficients were estimated by fitting the experimental velocity and TCD data, respectively. The deviation in the dielectric constant and the density in comparison to the bulk was insignificant, and the estimated values of the elastic constants (C 11 = 0.75x10 11 N m -2 and C 44 0.225x10 11 N m -2 ) were found to be lower, and the respective temperature coefficients (5.0x10 -4 deg C -1 and 2.0x10 -4 deg C -1 ) were high in comparison to the bulk material parameters

  14. Temperature coefficient of elastic constants of SiO{sub 2} over-layer on LiNbO{sub 3} for a temperature stable SAW device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2003-08-07

    The influence of sputtered SiO{sub 2} over-layer on the SAW propagation characteristics of a 128 deg. rotated Y-cut X-propagating lithium niobate SAW filter has been studied. Experimentally measured SAW phase velocity and temperature coefficient of delay (TCD), with varying SiO{sub 2} over-layer thickness, show a significant deviation from the theoretically calculated values using the bulk material parameters of SiO{sub 2}. The observed deviation is attributed to the differences in the material parameters (density, elastic and dielectric constants and their temperature coefficient) of the deposited SiO{sub 2} over-layer. The density and the dielectric constant of the deposited SiO{sub 2} layer were determined separately, and the elastic constants and their temperature coefficients were estimated by fitting the experimental velocity and TCD data, respectively. The deviation in the dielectric constant and the density in comparison to the bulk was insignificant, and the estimated values of the elastic constants (C{sub 11} = 0.75x10{sup 11} N m{sup -2} and C{sub 44} 0.225x10{sup 11} N m{sup -2}) were found to be lower, and the respective temperature coefficients (5.0x10{sup -4} deg C{sup -1} and 2.0x10{sup -4} deg C{sup -1}) were high in comparison to the bulk material parameters.

  15. Assessment of Temperature Rise and Time of Alveolar Ridge Splitting by Means of Er:YAG Laser, Piezosurgery, and Surgical Saw: An Ex Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matys, Jacek; Flieger, Rafał; Dominiak, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    The most common adverse effect after bone cutting is a thermal damage. The aim of our study was to evaluate the bone temperature rise during an alveolar ridge splitting, rating the time needed to perform this procedure and the time to raise the temperature of a bone by 10°C, as well as to evaluate the bone carbonization occurrence. The research included 60 mandibles ( n = 60) of adult pigs, divided into 4 groups ( n = 15). Two vertical and one horizontal cut have been done in an alveolar ridge using Er:YAG laser with set power of 200 mJ (G1), 400 mJ (G2), piezosurgery unit (G3), and a saw (G4). The temperature was measured by K-type thermocouple. The highest temperature gradient was noted for piezosurgery on the buccal and lingual side of mandible. The temperature rises on the bone surface along with the increase of laser power. The lower time needed to perform ridge splitting was measured for a saw, piezosurgery, and Er:YAG laser with power of 400 mJ and 200 mJ, respectively. The temperature rise measured on the bone over 10°C and bone carbonization occurrence was not reported in all study groups. Piezosurgery, Er:YAG laser (200 mJ and 400 mJ), and surgical saw are useful and safe tools in ridge splitting surgery.

  16. Assessment of Temperature Rise and Time of Alveolar Ridge Splitting by Means of Er:YAG Laser, Piezosurgery, and Surgical Saw: An Ex Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Matys

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common adverse effect after bone cutting is a thermal damage. The aim of our study was to evaluate the bone temperature rise during an alveolar ridge splitting, rating the time needed to perform this procedure and the time to raise the temperature of a bone by 10°C, as well as to evaluate the bone carbonization occurrence. The research included 60 mandibles (n=60 of adult pigs, divided into 4 groups (n=15. Two vertical and one horizontal cut have been done in an alveolar ridge using Er:YAG laser with set power of 200 mJ (G1, 400 mJ (G2, piezosurgery unit (G3, and a saw (G4. The temperature was measured by K-type thermocouple. The highest temperature gradient was noted for piezosurgery on the buccal and lingual side of mandible. The temperature rises on the bone surface along with the increase of laser power. The lower time needed to perform ridge splitting was measured for a saw, piezosurgery, and Er:YAG laser with power of 400 mJ and 200 mJ, respectively. The temperature rise measured on the bone over 10°C and bone carbonization occurrence was not reported in all study groups. Piezosurgery, Er:YAG laser (200 mJ and 400 mJ, and surgical saw are useful and safe tools in ridge splitting surgery.

  17. A 45° saw-dicing process applied to a glass substrate for wafer-level optical splitter fabrication for optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, M. J.; Costa, C. G.; Silva, M. F.; Gonçalves, S. B.; Peixoto, A. C.; Ribeiro, A. Fernando; Wolffenbuttel, R. F.; Correia, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports on the development of a technology for the wafer-level fabrication of an optical Michelson interferometer, which is an essential component in a micro opto-electromechanical system (MOEMS) for a miniaturized optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. The MOEMS consists on a titanium dioxide/silicon dioxide dielectric beam splitter and chromium/gold micro-mirrors. These optical components are deposited on 45° tilted surfaces to allow the horizontal/vertical separation of the incident beam in the final micro-integrated system. The fabrication process consists of 45° saw dicing of a glass substrate and the subsequent deposition of dielectric multilayers and metal layers. The 45° saw dicing is fully characterized in this paper, which also includes an analysis of the roughness. The optimum process results in surfaces with a roughness of 19.76 nm (rms). The actual saw dicing process for a high-quality final surface results as a compromise between the dicing blade’s grit size (#1200) and the cutting speed (0.3 mm s-1). The proposed wafer-level fabrication allows rapid and low-cost processing, high compactness and the possibility of wafer-level alignment/assembly with other optical micro components for OCT integrated imaging.

  18. Application of SAW method for multiple-criteria comparative analysis of the reliability of heat supply organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetova, I. G.; Chichirova, N. D.

    2016-12-01

    Heat supply is the most energy-consuming sector of the economy. Approximately 30% of all used primary fuel-and-energy resources is spent on municipal heat-supply needs. One of the key indicators of activity of heat-supply organizations is the reliability of an energy facility. The reliability index of a heat supply organization is of interest to potential investors for assessing risks when investing in projects. The reliability indices established by the federal legislation are actually reduced to a single numerical factor, which depends on the number of heat-supply outages in connection with disturbances in operation of heat networks and the volume of their resource recovery in the calculation year. This factor is rather subjective and may change in a wide range during several years. A technique is proposed for evaluating the reliability of heat-supply organizations with the use of the simple additive weighting (SAW) method. The technique for integrated-index determination satisfies the following conditions: the reliability level of the evaluated heat-supply system is represented maximum fully and objectively; the information used for the reliability-index evaluation is easily available (is located on the Internet in accordance with demands of data-disclosure standards). For reliability estimation of heat-supply organizations, the following indicators were selected: the wear of equipment of thermal energy sources, the wear of heat networks, the number of outages of supply of thermal energy (heat carrier due to technological disturbances on heat networks per 1 km of heat networks), the number of outages of supply of thermal energy (heat carrier due to technologic disturbances on thermal energy sources per 1 Gcal/h of installed power), the share of expenditures in the cost of thermal energy aimed at recovery of the resource (renewal of fixed assets), coefficient of renewal of fixed assets, and a coefficient of fixed asset retirement. A versatile program is developed

  19. Prediction of Performance of Diamond Wire Saw with Respect to Texture Characteristics of Rock / Prognozowanie Wydajności Pracy Strunowej Piły Diamentowej W Odniesieniu Do Charakterystyki Tekstury Skał

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaysari, N.; Ataei, M.; Sereshki, F.; Mikaiel, R.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, prediction of production rate in diamond wire saw has been investigated. Performance measurements of diamond wire saw carried out in 7 different quarries of carbonate rocks in Iran. For determination textural properties, rock samples were collected from these quarries. At first, a thin section was prepared for each rock and then 5 digital photographs were taken from each section. After this, all images were digitized using AutoCAD software. Then, area, perimeter, longest diameter and shortest diameter were assigned. According to these parameters, all of the other textural characteristics and texture coefficient were determined too. The correlation between sawing rate and textural characteristics were evaluated using multiple and simple regression analyses. Then developed model was validated by P-value test. It was concluded that area, perimeter, diameter equivalent and index of grain size homogeneity are very effective on production rate. Production rate using diamond wire saw can reliably be predicted using developed model.

  20. Effects of Saw Palmetto Extract on Urodynamic Parameters, Bladder Muscarinic and Purinergic Receptors and Urinary Cytokines in Rats with Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrin, Sweety; Masuda, Eiji; Kugaya, Haruna; Osano, Ayaka; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shizuo

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the effect of saw palmetto extract (SPE), a phytotherapeutic agent, on urodynamic parameters, bladder muscarinic and purinergic receptors, and urinary cytokines in rats with cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP). Saw palmetto extract (60 mg/kg per day) was administered orally twice a day for 7 days to rats. The urodynamic parameters in CYP (150 mg/kg i.p.)-treated rats were monitored by a cystometric method under anesthesia. The muscarinic and purinergic receptors in the bladder and submaxillary gland were measured by radioreceptor assays using [N-methyl-(3) H] scopolamine chloride([(3) H]NMS) and αβ-methylene-ATP [2,8-(3) H] tetrasodium salt ([(3) H]αβ-MeATP), respectively. Urinary cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β], IL-6 and L-17) were measured with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Micturition interval and micturition volume were significantly decreased and the frequency of micturition and basal pressure were significantly increased in the CYP-treated rats compared with sham-operated rats. Orally administered SPE significantly increased the micturition interval and micturition volume and decreased the frequency of micturition and basal pressure. The maximal number of sites (Bmax ) for the specific binding of [(3) H]NMS and [(3) H]αβ-MeATP was significantly decreased in the bladder. The decrease in receptors was attenuated by repeated treatment with SPE. An elevation in urinary cytokine (IL-1β and IL-17) levels were seen, and this increase was effectively suppressed by SPE treatment. Saw palmetto extract attenuates the alteration of urodynamic parameters, pharmacologically relevant receptors, and urinary cytokines in CYP-treated rats. Therefore, SPE may be a potential therapeutic agent for improving the clinical symptoms of cystitis. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Tecnología de recuperación de sierras de disco para el proceso de la madera // Recovering Technology of circular saws for the wood process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Martínez Rodríguez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se señala la recuperación de sierras de discos, a partir del estudio de su asignación de servicio y de las condiciones de trabajo.Se recomienda la preparación de la superficie deteriorada y su restauración mediante el método de soldadura por arco eléctricocon electrodo revestido._______________________________________________________________________AbstractThis article shows the way to restore circular saws, based on a study of its duty assignment and working conditions. It issuggested the preparations of the damaged surface and restoration using arc welding method with coated electrodes.

  2. Randomized trial of a combination of natural products (cernitin, saw palmetto, B-sitosterol, vitamin E) on symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, H G; Marcusen, C; Regan, J; Klimberg, I W; Welebir, T A; Jones, W A

    2001-01-01

    Because benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is relatively common, it is important to discover safe and effective means to treat this often debilitating perturbation. Accordingly, we examined the effectiveness of a combination of natural products (cernitin, saw palmetto, B-sitosterol, vitamin E) in treating symptoms of BPH. We undertook a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Patients were enrolled from 3 urological practices in the USA. 144 subjects were randomized for study. 17 subjects eventually withdrew, leaving 70 patients in the test group and 57 in the placebo group to complete the study. Inclusion criteria consisted of a diagnosis of BPH, no evidence of cancer, and a maximal urinary flow rate between 5 and 15 ml/second. Patients received either placebo or the combined natural products for 3 months. Evaluations were performed via the American Urological Association (AUA) Symptom Index score, urinary flow rate, PSA measurement, and residual bladder volume. Nocturia showed a markedly significant decrease in severity in patients receiving the combined natural products compared to those taking placebo (p saw palmetto, B-sitosterol, vitamin E) compared to placebo can significantly lessen nocturia and frequency and diminish overall symptomatology of BPH as indicated by an improvement in the total AUA Symptom Index score. The combination of natural products caused no significant adverse side effects.

  3. Binary Channel SAW Mustard Gas Sensor Based on PdPc0.3PANI0.7 hybrid Sensitive Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Y B; Xiang, J J; Feng, Q H; Hu, Z P; Zhang, H Q; Guo, J Y

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed the working principle of binary channel surface acoustic wave (SAW) lithium niobate piezoelectric chip detecting mustard, established the mathematic model of beat frequency output Δf and the mustard gas density δ. The MEMS craft solved the parameters of the binary channel SAW chip such as its interdigital electrode number was 15∼25 couple, width and spacing were both 25μm, degree of overlapping was 2mm, fundamental frequency was 10∼35MHz, frequency-domain width was 5∼20Hz, and its back pt hot film's. According to TG-DSC thermal analysis, vacuum coating craft was adopted to solve the hybrid sensitive film forming craft parameter of PdPc 0.3 PANI 0.7 (phthalocyanine palladium 0.3 Poiyaniline 0.7 ). The micro-appearance of sensitive film was analyzed through SEM. The sensor's sensitivity and response characteristic were tested and analyzed: appear linear change, its response time is less than 5min while its recovery time is less than 8min

  4. Texture-enhanced Al-Cu electrodes on ultrathin Ti buffer layers for high-power durable 2.6 GHz SAW filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sulei; Wang, Weibiao; Xiao, Li; Lu, Zengtian; Li, Qi; Song, Cheng; Zeng, Fei; Pan, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Achieving high resistance to acoustomigration and electromigration in the electrodes used in high-power and high-frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters is important to mobile communications development. In this study, the effects of the Ti buffer layers on the textures and acoustomigration and electromigration resistances of the Al-Cu electrodes were studied comprehensively. The results demonstrate that both power durability and electromigration lifetime are positively correlated with the Al-Cu electrode texture quality. Ultrathin (˜2 nm) Ti can lead to the strongest Al-Cu (111) textured electrodes, with a full width at half maximum of the rocking curve of 2.09°. This represents a remarkable enhancement of the power durability of high-frequency 2.6 GHz SAW filters from 29 dBm to 35 dBm. It also produces lifetime almost 7 times longer than those of electrodes without Ti buffer layers in electromigration tests. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that these improved acoustomigration and electromigration resistances can be attributed primarily to the reductions in overall and large-angle grain boundaries in the highly Al-Cu (111) textured electrodes. Furthermore, the growth mechanism of highly Al-Cu texture films is discussed in terms of surface-interface energy balance.

  5. Acousto-optical and SAW propagation characteristics of temperature stable multilayered structures based on LiNbO{sub 3} and diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandilya, Swati; Sreenivas, K; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India)

    2008-01-21

    Theoretical studies on the surface acoustic wave (SAW) properties of c-axis oriented LiNbO{sub 3}/IDT/diamond and diamond/IDT/128{sup 0} rotated Y-X cut LiNbO{sub 3} multilayered structures have been considered. Both layered structures exhibit a positive temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) characteristic, and a zero TCD device is obtained after integrating with an over-layer of either tellurium dioxide (TeO{sub 2}) or silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}). The presence of a TeO{sub 2} over-layer enhanced the electromechanical coupling coefficients of both multilayered structures, which acts as a better temperature compensation layer than SiO{sub 2}. The temperature stable TeO{sub 2}/LiNbO{sub 3}/IDT/diamond layered structure exhibits good electromechanical coefficient and higher phase velocity for SAW device applications. On the other hand, a high acousto-optical (AO) figure of merit (30-37) x 10{sup -15} s{sup 3} kg{sup -1} has been obtained for the temperature stable SiO{sub 2}/diamond/IDT/LiNbO{sub 3} layered structure indicating a promising device structure for AO applications.

  6. Acousto-optical and SAW propagation characteristics of temperature stable multilayered structures based on LiNbO3 and diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandilya, Swati; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical studies on the surface acoustic wave (SAW) properties of c-axis oriented LiNbO3/IDT/diamond and diamond/IDT/128° rotated Y-X cut LiNbO3 multilayered structures have been considered. Both layered structures exhibit a positive temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) characteristic, and a zero TCD device is obtained after integrating with an over-layer of either tellurium dioxide (TeO2) or silicon dioxide (SiO2). The presence of a TeO2 over-layer enhanced the electromechanical coupling coefficients of both multilayered structures, which acts as a better temperature compensation layer than SiO2. The temperature stable TeO2/LiNbO3/IDT/diamond layered structure exhibits good electromechanical coefficient and higher phase velocity for SAW device applications. On the other hand, a high acousto-optical (AO) figure of merit (30-37) × 10-15 s3 kg-1 has been obtained for the temperature stable SiO2/diamond/IDT/LiNbO3 layered structure indicating a promising device structure for AO applications.

  7. Acousto-optical and SAW propagation characteristics of temperature stable multilayered structures based on LiNbO3 and diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandilya, Swati; Sreenivas, K; Gupta, Vinay

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical studies on the surface acoustic wave (SAW) properties of c-axis oriented LiNbO 3 /IDT/diamond and diamond/IDT/128 0 rotated Y-X cut LiNbO 3 multilayered structures have been considered. Both layered structures exhibit a positive temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) characteristic, and a zero TCD device is obtained after integrating with an over-layer of either tellurium dioxide (TeO 2 ) or silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ). The presence of a TeO 2 over-layer enhanced the electromechanical coupling coefficients of both multilayered structures, which acts as a better temperature compensation layer than SiO 2 . The temperature stable TeO 2 /LiNbO 3 /IDT/diamond layered structure exhibits good electromechanical coefficient and higher phase velocity for SAW device applications. On the other hand, a high acousto-optical (AO) figure of merit (30-37) x 10 -15 s 3 kg -1 has been obtained for the temperature stable SiO 2 /diamond/IDT/LiNbO 3 layered structure indicating a promising device structure for AO applications

  8. Empleo de cromitas refractarias para la obtención de fundentes aglomerados utilizados en la soldadura automática por arco sumergido (SAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perdomo-González, L.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work high carbon ferrochrome (load ferrochrome and slags are obtained, starting frora the métallurgie reductive processing of refractory chromites. The obtaining of alloys and slags is studied using an experiment design based in the relationships among components. The chemical compositions of alloys and slags guarantee their application for the conformation of alloys loads and matrix fluxes amassed for the superficial filling by means of submerged arc welding (SAW. The melting-reduction process is carried out in an electric arc furnace.

    En el presente trabajo se obtienen ferrocromo de alto carbono (ferrocromo de carga y escorias a partir del proceso de reducción de cromitas refractarias. Mediante la utilización de un diseño de experimento de relaciones entre componentes, se estudia la obtención de aleaciones y escorias. La composición química de ambas garantiza su aplicación para la conformación de cargas aleantes y matrices de fundentes aglomerados, para el relleno superficial mediante soldadura automática por arco sumergido (SAW. El proceso de fusión-reducción se realiza en un horno eléctrico de arco.

  9. A Fusion Approach to Feature Extraction by Wavelet Decomposition and Principal Component Analysis in Transient Signal Processing of SAW Odor Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant SINGH

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical analysis of a new approach for development of surface acoustic wave (SAW sensor array based odor recognition system. The construction of sensor array employs a single polymer interface for selective sorption of odorant chemicals in vapor phase. The individual sensors are however coated with different thicknesses. The idea of sensor coating thickness variation is for terminating solvation and diffusion kinetics of vapors into polymer up to different stages of equilibration on different sensors. This is expected to generate diversity in information content of the sensors transient. The analysis is based on wavelet decomposition of transient signals. The single sensor transients have been used earlier for generating odor identity signatures based on wavelet approximation coefficients. In the present work, however, we exploit variability in diffusion kinetics due to polymer thicknesses for making odor signatures. This is done by fusion of the wavelet coefficients from different sensors in the array, and then applying the principal component analysis. We find that the present approach substantially enhances the vapor class separability in feature space. The validation is done by generating synthetic sensor array data based on well-established SAW sensor theory.

  10. Using of sawing quartzite fine residual for obtaining ceramic coating; Utilizacao do residuo fino da serragem de quartzito para obtencao de revestimento ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, L.F.P.M.; Souza, M.M., E-mail: junior.luiz09@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DIAREN/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Laboratorio de Processamento Mineral e Residuo

    2016-07-01

    Quartzite is a metamorphic rock that is consisting mainly of quartz. In Paraiba there is a mining activity of this rock, in the region of Varzea and Junco do Serido especially where many wastes are created, including the sawing residue. The objective is to use the waste cited as the ceramic component coating mass, thereby replacing the quartz. Initially, the raw materials samples were taken and the chemical analysis was done of them. This passed the comminution process to achieve the required minimum particle size. After this, a formulation which added the residue in ceramic mass was made. The specimens were subjected to sintering and it was later made physical tests according to NBR 13818. The results show that the residue can replace the quartz ceramic mass successfully, but not as good as the original raw material. (author)

  11. Enhanced c-axis orientation of aluminum nitride thin films by plasma-based pre-conditioning of sapphire substrates for SAW applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinger, M.; Shaposhnikov, K.; Knobloch, T.; Stöger-Pollach, M.; Artner, W.; Hradil, K.; Schneider, M.; Kaltenbacher, M.; Schmid, U.

    2018-03-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) on sapphire has been investigated with two different pretreatments prior to sputter deposition of the AlN layer to improve the orientation and homogeneity of the thin film. An inverse sputter etching of the substrate in argon atmosphere results in an improvement of the uniformity of the alignment of the AlN grains and hence, in enhanced electro-mechanical AlN film properties. This effect is demonstrated in the raw measurements of SAW test devices. Additionally, the impulse response of several devices shows that a poor AlN thin film layer quality leads to a higher signal damping during the transduction of energy in the inter-digital transducers. As a result, the triple-transit signal cannot be detected at the receiver.

  12. A quantitative discussion on the assessment of power supply technologies: DEA (data envelopment analysis) and SAW (simple additive weighting) as complementary methods for the “Grammar”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakouri, Hamed G.; Nabaee, Mahdis; Aliakbarisani, Sajad

    2014-01-01

    The growing concern about the negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment, and the limited resources of them have forced more intensive use of other energy sources. In absence of sufficient economically feasible renewable energies, nuclear power may play essential role in this field. Recently, the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power and fossil fuels regarding their efficiencies have been attracted researchers' interest. This paper discusses on the findings from “A Grammar for assessing the performance of power supply systems: comparing nuclear energy to fossil energy” (Diaz-Maurin F, Giampietro M. 2013). Although the “Grammar” is a very valuable approach, it can be accomplished by using helpful quantitative methods. In this discussion, we apply quantitative decision-making approaches to compare the same fossil fuel (coal) power plants with nuclear power plants. Economic variables are also taken into consideration. The DEA (data envelopment analysis) and SAW (simple additive weighting) are the methods applied. Results confirm the results of the reference paper in most cases and show that the fossil fuel power plants with CCS (carbon capture and storage) are slightly more efficient than nuclear power plants. However, selection of input and output variables is disputable. Assuming job creation as a desired output can change the ranking results. - Highlights: • A numeric decision making approach is proposed to facilitate assessment of technologies introduced as a “Grammar”. • Two different methods are chosen (SAW and DEA) since the results obtained for ranking may differ with different methods. • We propose to use the original fractional objective function of DEA with equal weightings applied for the attributes. • Proper combinations of both input and output attributes including economic variables are discussed. • The attributes for assessment of the technologies differ from different viewpoints. Labor force and costs are simple

  13. Calibrated acoustic emission system records M -3.5 to M -8 events generated on a saw-cut granite sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaskey, Gregory C.; Lockner, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) analyses have been used for decades for rock mechanics testing, but because AE systems are not typically calibrated, the absolute sizes of dynamic microcrack growth and other physical processes responsible for the generation of AEs are poorly constrained. We describe a calibration technique for the AE recording system as a whole (transducers + amplifiers + digitizers + sample + loading frame) that uses the impact of a 4.76-mm free-falling steel ball bearing as a reference source. We demonstrate the technique on a 76-mm diameter cylinder of westerly granite loaded in a triaxial deformation apparatus at 40 MPa confining pressure. The ball bearing is dropped inside a cavity within the sample while inside the pressure vessel. We compare this reference source to conventional AEs generated during loading of a saw-cut fault in a second granite sample. All located AEs occur on the saw-cut surface and have moment magnitudes ranging from M −5.7 down to at least M −8. Dynamic events rupturing the entire simulated fault surface (stick–slip events) have measurable stress drop and macroscopic slip and radiate seismic waves similar to those from a M −3.5 earthquake. The largest AE events that do not rupture the entire fault are M −5.7. For these events, we also estimate the corner frequency (200–300 kHz), and we assume the Brune model to estimate source dimensions of 4–6 mm. These AE sources are larger than the 0.2 mm grain size and smaller than the 76 × 152 mm fault surface.

  14. A high-linearity CMOS receiver achieving +44dBm IIP3 and +13dBm B1dB for SAW-less LTE radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lien, Yuan-Ching; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Tenbroek, Bernard; Strange, Jon; Nauta, Bram

    2017-01-01

    LTE-advanced wireless receivers require high-linearity up-front filtering to prevent corruption of the in-band signals by strong out-of-band (OOB) signals and self-interference from the transmitter. SAW duplexer filters are generally used for this purpose, but supporting the plethora of existing and

  15. Impact of layer and substrate properties on the surface acoustic wave velocity in scandium doped aluminum nitride based SAW devices on sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillinger, M., E-mail: manuel.gillinger@tuwien.ac.at; Knobloch, T.; Schneider, M.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Shaposhnikov, K.; Kaltenbacher, M. [Institute of Mechanics and Mechatronics, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-06-06

    This paper investigates the performance of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices consisting of reactively sputter deposited scandium doped aluminum nitride (Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N) thin films as piezoelectric layers on sapphire substrates for wireless sensor or for RF-MEMS applications. To investigate the influence of piezoelectric film thickness on the device properties, samples with thickness ranging from 500 nm up to 3000 nm are fabricated. S{sub 21} measurements and simulations demonstrate that the phase velocity is predominantly influenced by the mass density of the electrode material rather than by the thickness of the piezoelectric film. Additionally, the wave propagation direction is varied by rotating the interdigital transducer structures with respect to the crystal orientation of the substrate. The phase velocity is about 2.5% higher for a-direction compared to m-direction of the sapphire substrate, which is in excellent agreement with the difference in the anisotropic Young's modulus of the substrate corresponding to these directions.

  16. SISTEM PENDUKUNG KEPUTUSAN MENENTUKAN LOKASI CAFE BARU SUNCAFE SEBAGAI DESTINASI WISATA KULINER DI KABUPATEN PRINGSEWU MENGGUNAKAN METODE SIMPLE ADDITIVE WEIGHTING (SAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hidayat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available District Pringsewu is growing districts that continue to make the development of various sectors, one of the tourism sector. Culinary tourism in the District Pringsewu growing quite rapidly, has a lot of standing places that sell a lot of food choices, from street vendors to modern eating places like cafes. Many cafe in the district of Pringsewu would be a separate issue in determining the appropriate location for the new cafe location Suncafe, for it needed a system that could help determine the location of a new cafe. The criteria used in making this decision support system include building area, spacious parking, accessibility, security, distance to the city center, the price of the location, and comfort. Decision support system is made using a simple additive weighting method (SAW is looking for a weighted sum of the performance of each alternative. While the implementation of the program for decision support system is made by using Delphi 7. Obtained big 3 ranking the final results to determine the location of a new cafe, namely 1. Subdistrict of Pagelaran with a value of 80, 2. Subdistrict of Gadingrejo with a value of 79, and 3. Subdistrict of Adiluwih with a value of 78.55.

  17. Determination of campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol in saw palmetto raw materials and dietary supplements by gas chromatography: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Wendy R; Sullivan, Darryl

    2006-01-01

    In conjunction with an AOAC Presidential Task Force on Dietary Supplements, a method was validated for measurement of 3 plant sterols (phytosterols) in saw palmetto raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements. AOAC Official Method 994.10, "Cholesterol in Foods," was modified for purposes of this validation. Test samples were saponified at high temperature with ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution. The unsaponifiable fraction containing phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol) was extracted with toluene. Phytosterols were derivatized to trimethylsilyl ethers and then quantified by gas chromatography with a hydrogen flame ionization detector. The presence of the phytosterols was detected at concentrations greater than or equal to 1.00 mg/100 g based on 2-3 g of sample. The standard curve range for this assay was 0.00250 to 0.200 mg/mL. The calibration curves for all phytosterols had correlation coefficients greater than or equal to 0.995. Precision studies produced relative standard deviation values of 1.52 to 7.27% for campesterol, 1.62 to 6.48% for stigmasterol, and 1.39 to 10.5% for beta-sitosterol. Recoveries for samples fortified at 100% of the inherent values averaged 98.5 to 105% for campesterol, 95.0 to 108% for stigmasterol, and 85.0 to 103% for beta-sitosterol.

  18. Determination of campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol in saw palmetto raw materials and dietary supplements by gas chromatography: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Wendy R; Sullivan, Darryl

    2007-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted to evaluate a method for the determination of campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol in saw palmetto raw materials and dietary supplements at levels >1.00 mg/100 g based on a 2-3 g sample. Test samples were saponified at high temperature with ethanolic KOH solution. The unsaponifiable fraction containing phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol) was extracted with toluene. Phytosterols were derivatized to trimethylsilyl ethers and then quantified by gas chromatography with hydrogen flame ionization detection. Twelve blind duplicates, one of which was fortified, were successfully analyzed by 10 collaborators. Recoveries were obtained for the sample that was fortified. The results were 99.8, 111, and 111% for campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol, respectively. For repeatability, the relative standard deviation (RSDr) ranged from 3.93 to 17.3% for campesterol, 3.56 to 22.7% for stigmasterol, and 3.70 to 43.9% for beta-sitosterol. For reproducibility, the RSDR ranged from 7.97 to 22.6%, 0 to 26.7%, and 5.27 to 43.9% for campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol, respectively. Overall, the Study Director approved 5 materials with acceptable HorRat values for campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol ranging from 1.02 to 2.16.

  19. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program: radiological survey of the former Simonds Saw and Steel Co., Lockport, New York. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    Results of a radiological survey of the former Simonds Saw and Steel Company (current name of this facility is Guterl Special Steel Corporation), Lockport, New York, are presented in this report. During the period 1948 to 1956, this company handled large quantities of uranium metal and smaller quantities of thorium metal in rolling mill operations. The survey included measurement of residual alpha and beta-gamma radiation levels in the rolling mill building and forging shop; external gamma radiation in the same area; uranium, radium, and thorium in soil samples taken from beneath removable floor plates in the rolling mill area and from other parts of the site; radon and radon daughter concentrations in the rolling mill building; and contamination in drainage paths leading from the buildings and grounds. Elevated concentrations of uranium were found in soil samples taken from beneath the floor plates within 40 ft of the 16-inch rolling mill. Beta-gamma radiation levels were greater than 1 mrad/hr at the locations having the highest concentrations of uranium. External gamma radiation levels were above the background level in a few small isolated areas in the rolling mill building. The 16-inch rolling mill showed elevated alpha and beta contamination levels in several areas

  20. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A MOLYBDENUM-REDUCING AND GLYPHOSATE-DEGRADING Klebsiella oxytoca STRAIN SAW-5 IN SOILS FROM SARAWAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Sabullah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of pollutants including heavy metals and xenobiotics is an economic and environmentally friendly process. A novel molybdenum-reducing bacterium with the ability to utilize the pesticide glyphosate as a carbon source is reported. The characterization works were carried out utilizing bacterial resting cells in a microplate format. The bacterium reduces molybdate to Mo-blue optimally between pH 6.3 and 6.8 and at 34oC. Glucose was the best electron donor for supporting molybdate reduction followed by lactose, maltose, melibiose, raffinose, d-mannitol, d-xylose, l-rhamnose, l-arabinose, dulcitol, myo-inositol and glycerol in descending order. Other requirements include a phosphate concentration at 5.0 mM and a molybdate concentration between 20 and 30 mM. The molybdenum blue exhibited an absorption spectrum resembling a reduced phosphomolybdate. Molybdenum reduction was inhibited by mercury, silver, cadmium and copper at 2 ppm by 45.5, 26.0, 18.5 and 16.3%, respectively. Biochemical analysis identified the bacterium as Klebsiella oxytoca strain Saw-5. To conclude, the capacity of this bacterium to reduce molybdenum into a less toxic form and to grow on glyphosate is novel and makes the bacterium an important instrument for bioremediation of these pollutants.

  1. The effect of product quality on the integrity of advanced surface engineering treatments applied to high speed steel circular saw blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, S.R.; Sarwar, M.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced surface engineering technologies have been successfully applied to high speed steel drills and carbide single-point cutting tools, but, as yet, limited benefits have been realized when applying the same technologies to multi-point cutting tools of commercial quality. This paper discusses the factors that have limited the benefits of advanced surface engineering treatments when applied to high speed steel circular saw blades. Common manufacturing defects have been identified on the teeth of the blades. Tests which evaluate the blade performance throughout its useful life and examination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have shown that these defects adversely affect the performance and wear resistance of surface engineered blades. Further investigations suggest that significant improvements in coating integrity can be achieved through the careful preparation of the substrate surface and refinement of the cutting edge geometry prior to treatment. For this application, the need for refinement and enhancement of current manufacturing practices is demonstrated if the full benefits of advanced surface engineering are to be realized. (orig.)

  2. The Different Sensitive Behaviors of a Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer-Coated SAW Sensor for Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Simulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Long

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A linear hydrogen-bond acidic (HBA linear functionalized polymer (PLF, was deposited onto a bare surface acoustic wave (SAW device to fabricate a chemical sensor. Real-time responses of the sensor to a series of compounds including sarin (GB, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP, mustard gas (HD, chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (2-CEES, 1,5-dichloropentane (DCP and some organic solvents were studied. The results show that the sensor is highly sensitive to GB and DMMP, and has low sensitivity to HD and DCP, as expected. However, the sensor possesses an unexpected high sensitivity toward 2-CEES. This good sensing performance can’t be solely or mainly attributed to the dipole-dipole interaction since the sensor is not sensitive to some high polarity solvents. We believe the lone pair electrons around the sulphur atom of 2-CEES provide an electron-rich site, which facilitates the formation of hydrogen bonding between PLF and 2-CEES. On the contrary, the electron cloud on the sulphur atom of the HD molecule is offset or depleted by its two neighbouring strong electron-withdrawing groups, hence, hydrogen bonding can hardly be formed.

  3. Characteristics of heat affected zone in SAW and SMAW welding of microalloyed steel 450 EMZ studied by means of a welding simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Palma, R.; Carrillo Olivares, F.; Lopez Torres, E.

    1997-01-01

    In high elastic limit microalloyed steels the heat input remains limited to values around 3 kj/mm, since, from a theoretical point of view the metallurgic transformations produced in the heat affected zone (HAZ) may fragile the metal. The study of the transmission of heat in the HAZ from a theoretical point of view is carried out by solving Rosenthal's equation, which allows us to know the peak temperature reached and the heat cycle in every point of the HAZ. With these data and the CCT curves for 450 EMZ steel corresponding to our steel we will be able to determine the metallurgic transformations produced in those points, with the help of an electron microscope. The welding simulator is valuable help for laboratory study of heat cycles as it allows us to check that for the actual welding processes chosen, i.e. SMAW and SAW, and for the heat input, the transformation products obtained in the HAZ have the right toughness. (Author) 17 refs

  4. The Hammer and the Saw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Lau

    Artiklen forklarer forskellen på insiderhandel, oplysningspligt og manipulation, og kritiserer forslaget til markedsmisbrugsforordning for at sammenblande disse, samt kritiserer Domstolens afgørelse i Daimler....

  5. Effect of Saw Palmetto Supplements on Androgen-Sensitive LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cell Number and Syrian Hamster Flank Organ Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Opoku-Acheampong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Saw palmetto supplements (SPS are commonly consumed by men with prostate cancer. We investigated whether SPS fatty acids and phytosterols concentrations determine their growth-inhibitory action in androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells and hamster flank organs. High long-chain fatty acids-low phytosterols (HLLP SPS ≥ 750 nM with testosterone significantly increased and ≥500 nM with dihydrotestosterone significantly decreased LNCaP cell number. High long-chain fatty acids-high phytosterols (HLHP SPS ≥ 500 nM with dihydrotestosterone and high medium-chain fatty acids-low phytosterols (HMLP SPS ≥ 750 nM or with androgens significantly decreased LNCaP cell number (n=3; p<0.05. Five- to six-week-old, castrated male Syrian hamsters were randomized to control (n=4, HLLP, HLHP, and HMLP SPS (n=6 groups. Testosterone or dihydrotestosterone was applied topically daily for 21 days to the right flank organ; the left flank organ was treated with ethanol and served as the control. Thirty minutes later, SPS or ethanol was applied to each flank organ in treatment and control groups, respectively. SPS treatments caused a notable but nonsignificant reduction in the difference between left and right flank organ growth in testosterone-treated SPS groups compared to the control. The same level of inhibition was not seen in dihydrotestosterone-treated SPS groups (p<0.05. Results may suggest that SPS inhibit 5α-reductase thereby preventing hamster flank organ growth.

  6. Effect of Saw Palmetto Supplements on Androgen-Sensitive LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cell Number and Syrian Hamster Flank Organ Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku-Acheampong, Alexander B; Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2016-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements (SPS) are commonly consumed by men with prostate cancer. We investigated whether SPS fatty acids and phytosterols concentrations determine their growth-inhibitory action in androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells and hamster flank organs. High long-chain fatty acids-low phytosterols (HLLP) SPS ≥ 750 nM with testosterone significantly increased and ≥500 nM with dihydrotestosterone significantly decreased LNCaP cell number. High long-chain fatty acids-high phytosterols (HLHP) SPS ≥ 500 nM with dihydrotestosterone and high medium-chain fatty acids-low phytosterols (HMLP) SPS ≥ 750 nM or with androgens significantly decreased LNCaP cell number (n = 3; p < 0.05). Five- to six-week-old, castrated male Syrian hamsters were randomized to control (n = 4), HLLP, HLHP, and HMLP SPS (n = 6) groups. Testosterone or dihydrotestosterone was applied topically daily for 21 days to the right flank organ; the left flank organ was treated with ethanol and served as the control. Thirty minutes later, SPS or ethanol was applied to each flank organ in treatment and control groups, respectively. SPS treatments caused a notable but nonsignificant reduction in the difference between left and right flank organ growth in testosterone-treated SPS groups compared to the control. The same level of inhibition was not seen in dihydrotestosterone-treated SPS groups (p < 0.05). Results may suggest that SPS inhibit 5α-reductase thereby preventing hamster flank organ growth.

  7. Clinical Effects of Formulated Food of Peucedanum japonicum Extract and Saw Palmetto Extract in Male Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Shinji; Beppu, Masanori; Ohnogi, Hiromu; Miyazaki, Sayaka; Haruno, Akihiro; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shizuo

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate changes over time in subjective symptom scores and urination parameters before and after oral administration of formulated food containing a combination of Peucedanum japonicum (P. japonicum) extract and saw palmetto extract (SPE) in male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This study was conducted in an open label manner on male patients with untreated LUTS. The urination state of patients was evaluated before and after administration of food formulated with P. japonicum extract and SPE for 4 weeks, based on urodynamic parameters and subjective symptom scores (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS and IPSS-QOL], Overactive Bladder Symptom Score [OABSS], Overactive Bladder Questionnaire [OAB-q], and International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF]). After the administration of food formulated with these extracts, the following results were obtained: (i) Subjective findings: The IPSS-QOL score improved significantly; both parameters related to nocturia, i.e., frequency of nighttime urination and OABSS-2, improved significantly; other ratings for subjective symptoms slightly improved. (ii) Objective findings: Residual urine volume decreased significantly, and blood prostate specific antigen (PSA) and urinary 8-OHdG levels decreased slightly after the treatment. (iii) Other findings: Blood pressure decreased slightly. No adverse drug reactions were reported. (iv) Patient impressions: 75% of patients gave a rating of "Good" or higher, with 15 out of 20 patients wanting to continue treatment after the end of 4-week administration period. Food formulated with P. japonicum extract and SPE may be useful to decrease frequency of nighttime urination and residual urine volume in male patients with LUTS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Effects of a supplement combining Pycnogenol® and l-arginine aspartate on lower urinary dysfunction compared with saw palmetto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Hiroshi; Sato, Ryo; Nishio, Kojiro; Arai, Gaku; Soh, Shigehiro; Okada, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and sexual dysfunction (SDys) are common problems that affect quality of life (QOL) in elderly men. In addition to prescribed drugs, many over-the-counter medications including supplements are used to treat QOL diseases. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are reported to be effective for both LUTS and SDys by increasing nitric oxide levels. French maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol ® , which is a potent nitric oxide donor, is reported to be effective for SDys. However, no reports have been published on whether it ameliorates LUTS. Open-labeled, randomized study. The effects of two supplements, Nokogiriyashi EX ® containing 160 mg saw palmetto (SP) extract per tablet and Edicare ® containing 10 mg of Pycnogenol ® , 115 mg of l-arginine and 92 mg of aspartate (PAA) per tablet on International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS-QOL, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF5), Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF), urinary 8-OHdG and uroflowmetry (UFM) of total 40 men with LUTS and SDys were examined. 19 subjects were instructed to take two tablets of SP, on the other 20 were on four tablets of PAA for 16 weeks. IPSS and IPSS-QOL showed statistically significant improvements in both groups. OABSS and IIEF5 were significantly improved in the PAA group. Conversely, ICIQ-SF, 8-OHdG and UFM did not change in either group. PAA might be an effective therapeutic alternative for elderly patients with LUTS and SDys.

  9. The Selection of Wagons for the Internal Transport of a Logistics Company: A Novel Approach Based on Rough BWM and Rough SAW Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Stević

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rationalization of logistics activities and processes is very important in the business and efficiency of every company. In this respect, transportation as a subsystem of logistics, whether internal or external, is potentially a huge area for achieving significant savings. In this paper, the emphasis is placed upon the internal transport logistics of a paper manufacturing company. It is necessary to rationalize the movement of vehicles in the company’s internal transport, that is, for the majority of the transport to be transferred to rail transport, because the company already has an industrial track installed in its premises. To do this, it is necessary to purchase at least two used wagons. The problem is formulated as a multi-criteria decision model with eight criteria and eight alternatives. The paper presents a new approach based on a combination of the Simple Additive Weighting (SAW method and rough numbers, which is used for ranking the potential solutions and selecting the most suitable one. The rough Best–Worst Method (BWM was used to determine the weight values of the criteria. The results obtained using a combination of these two methods in their rough form were verified by means of a sensitivity analysis consisting of a change in the weight criteria and comparison with the following methods in their conventional and rough forms: the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, Technique for Ordering Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS and MultiAttributive Border Approximation area Comparison (MABAC. The results show very high stability of the model and ranks that are the same or similar in different scenarios.

  10. The effect of a SiO2 layer on the performance of a ZnO-based SAW device for high sensitivity biosensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Dali; Chen, Jiansheng; Wang, Guolei

    2009-01-01

    The properties of ZnO/SiO 2 /Si surface acoustic wave (SAW) love mode biosensors are studied in this paper. This specific structure is very suitable for biosensors since the reactive ZnO surface offers the opportunity for effective bio–ZnO interfaces, and the development of sensors directly on Si substrates provides the chance for full integration with read-out and signal processing circuitry in the mature Si technology. However, investigations of the dependence of buffer layer SiO 2 on the performance of biosensors are very few. Therefore, the main interest of this paper is to find the relation between the properties of biosensors and the SiO 2 layer. Some important results are obtained by solving the coupled electromechanical field equations. It is found that the mass loading sensitivity can be further improved by adding the SiO 2 layer; furthermore, the maximal sensitivity of the biosensors can be obtained by adjusting the thicknesses of the two layers. Accordingly, consideration of the buffer layer is very important in the optimization of devices. On the other hand, it is found that the thickness of the piezoelectric guiding layer has an evident effect on the electromechanical coupling coefficient, while that of the SiO 2 layer has a tiny effect on it. Moreover, we find that the effect of initial stresses on the properties of biosensors depends on the distribution of acoustic flow power in the two layers. This analysis is meaningful for the manufacture and applications of the ZnO/SiO 2 /Si structure love wave biosensor

  11. Estudo exploratório da utilização de saw palmetto no tratamento da hiperplasia benigna da próstata por urologistas de Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ferreira

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a utilização de fitoterápicos a base de saw palmetto na terapia sintomática da hiperplasia benigna da próstata (HBP por médicos urologistas da cidade de Porto Alegre. Consistiu em um estudo transversal, exploratório, por meio de entrevista semi-estruturada aplicada a urologistas de Porto Alegre. A amostra foi obtida utilizando catálogo do plano de saúde UNIMED- Porto Alegre. A randomização foi realizada através de sistemática aleatória, sendo sorteados trinta e cinco médicos, dos quais 21 foram selecionados para realização da pesquisa através de questionário. Todos os urologistas entrevistados avaliam e tratam pacientes com hiperplasia benigna da próstata. O saw palmetto não foi citado como terapia medicamentosa de 1ª ou 2ª escolhas no tratamento da HBP. O grupo farmacológico mais freqüentemente utilizado para o tratamento da HBP foi ∝-bloqueadores. Mais da metade dos médicos entrevistados relata ter conhecimento sobre a utilização do saw palmetto, principalmente através de artigos científicos. Os resultados indicam que o saw palmetto não é prescrito pelos urologistas em Porto Alegre, todavia a maior parte destes profissionais tem conhecimento sobre sua utilização.

  12. Randomised controlled double-blind non-inferiority trial of two antivenoms for saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus envenoming in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa S Abubakar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In West Africa, envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus causes great morbidity and mortality, but there is a crisis in supply of effective and affordable antivenom (ISRCTN01257358. METHODS: In a randomised, double-blind, controlled, non-inferiority trial, "EchiTAb Plus-ICP" (ET-Plus equine antivenom made by Instituto Clodomiro Picado was compared to "EchiTAb G" (ET-G ovine antivenom made by MicroPharm, which is the standard of care in Nigeria and was developed from the original EchiTAb-Fab introduced in 1998. Both are caprylic acid purified whole IgG antivenoms. ET-G is monospecific for Echis ocellatus antivenom (initial dose 1 vial and ET-Plus is polyspecific for E. ocellatus, Naja nigricollis and Bitis arietans (initial dose 3 vials. Both had been screened by pre-clinical and preliminary clinical dose-finding and safety studies. Patients who presented with incoagulable blood, indicative of systemic envenoming by E. ocellatus, were recruited in Kaltungo, north-eastern Nigeria. Those eligible and consenting were randomly allocated with equal probability to receive ET-Plus or ET-G. The primary outcome was permanent restoration of blood coagulability 6 hours after the start of treatment, assessed by a simple whole blood clotting test repeated 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 hr after treatment. Secondary (safety outcomes were the incidences of anaphylactic, pyrogenic and late serum sickness-type antivenom reactions. FINDINGS: Initial doses permanently restored blood coagulability at 6 hours in 161/194 (83.0% of ET-Plus and 156/206 (75.7% of ET-G treated patients (Relative Risk [RR] 1.10 one-sided 95% CI lower limit 1.01; P = 0.05. ET-Plus caused early reactions on more occasions than did ET-G [50/194 (25.8% and 39/206 (18.9% respectively RR (1.36 one-sided 95% CI 1.86 upper limit; P = 0.06. These reactions were classified as severe in 21 (10.8% and 11 (5.3% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: At these doses, ET-Plus was

  13. Pharmacologically relevant receptor binding characteristics and 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of free Fatty acids contained in saw palmetto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masayuki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Oyunzul, Luvsandorj; Oki-Fujino, Tomomi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), used widely for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been shown to bind alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) calcium channel antagonist receptors. Major constituents of SPE are lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid and linoleic acid. The aim of this study was to investigate binding affinities of these fatty acids for pharmacologically relevant (alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP) receptors. The fatty acids inhibited specific [(3)H]prazosin binding in rat brain in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 23.8 to 136 microg/ml, and specific (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110 binding with IC(50) values of 24.5 to 79.5 microg/ml. Also, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid inhibited specific [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine ([(3)H]NMS) binding in rat brain with IC(50) values of 56.4 to 169 microg/ml. Palmitic acid had no effect on specific [(3)H]NMS binding. The affinity of oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid for each receptor was greater than the affinity of SPE. Scatchard analysis revealed that oleic acid and lauric acid caused a significant decrease in the maximal number of binding sites (B(max)) for [(3)H]prazosin, [(3)H]NMS and (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110. The results suggest that lauric acid and oleic acid bind noncompetitively to alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP calcium channel antagonist receptors. We developed a novel and convenient method of determining 5alpha-reductase activity using LC/MS. With this method, SPE was shown to inhibit 5alpha-reductase activity in rat liver with an IC(50) of 101 microg/ml. Similarly, all the fatty acids except palmitic acid inhibited 5alpha-reductase activity, with IC(50) values of 42.1 to 67.6 microg/ml. In conclusion, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, and linoleic acid, major constituents of SPE, exerted binding activities of alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP receptors and inhibited 5

  14. Efficacy and safety of drug with plant extract of saw palmetto in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms because of benign prostatic enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Tršinar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benign prostatic enlargement (BPE is the most frequent cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in men. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Prostasan, the plant extract of saw palmetto in men with LUTS/BPE.Methods: The study was approved by the Ethical Committee of the Republic of Slovenia. In a prospective, open clinical study, men between 45 and 80 years of age with at least moderate LUTS/BPE, normal serum PSA, in a good physical condition were included after having given their written informed consent . At the beginning of this study, the digito-rectal examination of the prostate was performed together with the evaluation of IPSS and quality of life, total PSA in serum, uroflow and transabdominal US measurement of prostate volume. They were also asked about their erectile dysfunction and libido. All patients received Prostasan 320 mg per day for 12 months. The same parameters as at the beginning of the study were assessed after 6 and 12 months. The subjective assessments of the efficacy and safety of the drug were also recorded byinvestigators and by patients. The side effects of the treatment were recorded at both follow-ups. For statistical analyses, t-test and chi-square tests were used.Results: 72 men out of 76 (94.7 % with LUTS/BPE completed the trial. They were 62.7 ± 8.54 years old. IPSS score and quality of life were reduced from 14.46 ± 5.36  to  11.08 ± 3.92 (p = 0.0000  and  from  2.72 ± 0,96  to  2.25 ± 1.05 (p = 0.0001 respectively after 12 months of treatment. The uroflow increased from 13.94 ± 5.00 to 15.34 ± 4.07 ml/s (p = 0.0005. Total PSA did not change significantly. After 12 months, prostate volume decreased by 3 % (p = 0.0392. Prostasan had no important influence on erectile function or libido. The majority of patients and doctors rated the efficacy of drug as good (69.7 % and 72.4 % and safe (86.8 % and 88.2 %, respectively. Seven patients (9.2 % reported

  15. Dynamical implications of sample shape for avalanches in 2-dimensional random-field Ising model with saw-tooth domain wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka

    2018-03-01

    We study dynamics of a built-in domain wall (DW) in 2-dimensional disordered ferromagnets with different sample shapes using random-field Ising model on a square lattice rotated by 45 degrees. The saw-tooth DW of the length Lx is created along one side and swept through the sample by slow ramping of the external field until the complete magnetisation reversal and the wall annihilation at the open top boundary at a distance Ly. By fixing the number of spins N =Lx ×Ly = 106 and the random-field distribution at a value above the critical disorder, we vary the ratio of the DW length to the annihilation distance in the range Lx /Ly ∈ [ 1 / 16 , 16 ] . The periodic boundary conditions are applied in the y-direction so that these ratios comprise different samples, i.e., surfaces of cylinders with the changing perimeter Lx and height Ly. We analyse the avalanches of the DW slips between following field updates, and the multifractal structure of the magnetisation fluctuation time series. Our main findings are that the domain-wall lengths materialised in different sample shapes have an impact on the dynamics at all scales. Moreover, the domain-wall motion at the beginning of the hysteresis loop (HLB) probes the disorder effects resulting in the fluctuations that are significantly different from the large avalanches in the central part of the loop (HLC), where the strong fields dominate. Specifically, the fluctuations in HLB exhibit a wide multi-fractal spectrum, which shifts towards higher values of the exponents when the DW length is reduced. The distributions of the avalanches in this segments of the loops obey power-law decay and the exponential cutoffs with the exponents firmly in the mean-field universality class for long DW. In contrast, the avalanches in the HLC obey Tsallis density distribution with the power-law tails which indicate the new categories of the scale invariant behaviour for different ratios Lx /Ly. The large fluctuations in the HLC, on the other

  16. Effect of fuel type and deposition surface temperature on the growth and structure of ash deposit collected during co-firing of coal with sewage-sludge, saw-dust and refuse derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof; Weber, Roman [Clausthal Univ. of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Energy Process Engineering and Fuel Technology

    2008-07-01

    Blends of a South African bituminous ''Middleburg'' coal and three alternative fuels (a municipal sewage-sludge, a saw-dust and a refuse derived fuel) have been fired in the slagging reactor to examine the effect of the added fuel on slagging propensity of the mixtures. Two kinds of deposition probes have been used, un-cooled ceramic probes and air-cooled steal probes. Distinct differences in physical and chemical structures of the deposits collected using the un-cooled ceramic probes and air-cooled metal probes have been observed. Glassy, easily molten deposits collected on un-cooled ceramic deposition probes were characteristic for co-firing of municipal sewage-sludge with coal. Porous, sintered (not molten) but easily removable deposits of the same fuel blend have been collected on the air-cooled metal deposition probes. Loose, easy removable deposits have been sampled on air-cooled metal deposition probe during co-firing of coal/saw-dust blends. The mass of the deposit sampled at lower surface temperatures (550-700 C) was always larger than the mass sampled at higher temperatures (1100-1300 C) since the higher temperature ash agglomerated and sintered much faster than the low temperature deposit. (orig.)

  17. Improvement of High-Temperature Stability of Al2O3/Pt/ZnO/Al2O3 Film Electrode for SAW Devices by Using Al2O3 Barrier Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingpeng Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop film electrodes for the surface acoustic wave (SAW devices operating in harsh high-temperature environments, novel Al2O3/Pt/ZnO/Al2O3 multilayered film electrodes were prepared by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE at 150 °C. The first Al2O3 layer was used as a barrier layer to prevent the diffusion of Ga, La, and Si atoms from the La3Ga5SiO14 (LGS substrate to the film electrode and thus improved the crystalline quality of ZnO and Pt films. It was found that the resistance of the Al2O3/Pt/ZnO/Al2O3 electrode did not vary up to a temperature of 1150 °C, suggesting a high reliability of electrode under harsh high-temperature environments. The mechanism of the stable resistance of the Al2O3/Pt/ZnO/Al2O3 film electrodes at high temperature was investigated by analyzing its microstructure. The proposed Al2O3/Pt/ZnO/Al2O3 film electrode has great potential for application in high-temperature SAW devices.

  18. Non-contact evaluation of mechanical properties of electroplated wear resistant Ni-P layer from the velocity dispersion of laser SAW; Laser reiki Rayleigh ha no sokudo bunsan wo mochiita taimamo Ni-P mekkiso tokusei no hisesshoku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Y.; Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Nakayama, T. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    We developed a new laser surface acoustic wave (SAW) system and applied this to estimate the mechanical properties of the wear-resistant Ni-P layer electroplated on a stainless steel. The velocity dispersions of Rayleigh wave of the as -plated and heat-treated Ni-P layer were obtained by the one point time domain signal processing. The Ni-P layers with excellent wear resistance produced by the heated treatment higher than 725K were found to show higher Rayleigh velocities than that of the substrate steel, while the Ni-P layer with poor wear resistance showed lower velocities. Young`s moduli of the Ni-P layer, estimated so as the computed velocity dispersion agreed with the measured one, increased with the increase of wear resistance. 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Three-dimensional computed tomographic evaluation of bilateral sagittal split osteotomy lingual fracture line and le fort I pterygomaxillary separation in orthognathic surgery using cadaver heads: ultrasonic osteotome versus conventional saw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammous, Sophie; Dupont, Quentin; Gilles, Roland

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the quality of the fracture line on the lingual side of the mandible after sagittal split osteotomy and the quality of pterygomaxillary separation after Le Fort I osteotomy using the BoneScalpel ultrasonic osteotome. Bimaxillary procedures, according to the standard protocol, were performed using 10 fresh cadaver heads. The ultrasonic osteotome was used in the study group, and a reciprocating saw was used in the control group. Three-dimensional reconstructions of postoperative computed tomographic scans were obtained. The lingual ramus fracture pattern and the pterygomaxillary separation pattern were observed, classified, and compared. Postoperative dissections of the skulls were performed to assess the integrity of the infra-alveolar nerve and the descending palatine artery. No significant differences were found in the cutting time of bone between the BoneScalpel and the sagittal saw. Of the sagittal split osteotomies in the study group, 90% showed a good pattern (vertical pattern of fracture line extending to the inferior border of the mandible running behind the mandibular canal) compared with 50% of the sagittal split osteotomies in the control group. Ideal separation of the pterygoid plates without fractures was observed in 80% of the Le Fort I osteotomies in the study group compared with 50% of the osteotomies in the control group. High-level fractures occurred in 30% of cases in the control group compared with none in the study group. The integrities of the infra-alveolar nerve and the descending palatine artery were preserved in all cases. Use of the ultrasonic BoneScalpel did not require more time than the conventional method. An improved pattern of lingual fracture lines in mandibular sagittal split osteotomy procedures and the pattern of pterygomaxillary separation in Le Fort I osteotomy procedures were observed. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc

  20. On the evening of June 15, 2008, ALICE physicists saw the first tracks at LHC during the first injection test in transfer line TI 2. The Silicon Pixel detector recorded muon tracks produced in the beam dump near Point 2 of the LHC.

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, Vito

    2008-01-01

    On the evening of June 15, 2008, ALICE physicists saw the first tracks at LHC during the first injection test in transfer line TI 2. The Silicon Pixel detector recorded muon tracks produced in the beam dump near Point 2 of the LHC

  1. Determination of the potency of a novel saw palmetto supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE for 5α-reductase isoform II inhibition using a cell-free in vitro test system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais P

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pilar Pais, Agustí Villar, Santiago Rull Euromed, Barcelona, Spain Background: The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent membrane protein 5α-reductase catalyses the conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen – 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Two 5α-reductase isoenzymes are expressed in humans: type I and type II. The latter is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE has been used extensively in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. The pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5α-reductase, as well as anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. Clinical studies of SPE have been inconclusive – some have shown significant results, and others have not – possibly the result of varying bioactivities of the SPEs used in the studies. Purpose: To determine the in vitro potency in a cell-free test system of a novel SP supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE, an inhibitor of the 5α-reductase isoenzyme type II. Materials and methods: The inhibitory potency of SPSE was compared to that of finasteride, an approved 5α-reductase inhibitor, on the basis of the enzymatic conversion of the substrate androstenedione to the 5α-reduced product 5α-androstanedione. Results: By concentration-dependent inhibition of 5α-reductase type II in vitro (half-maximal inhibitory concentration 3.58±0.05 µg/mL, SPSE demonstrated competitive binding toward the active site of the enzyme. Finasteride, the approved 5α-reductase inhibitor tested as positive control, led to 63%–75% inhibition of 5α-reductase type II. Conclusion: SPSE effectively inhibits the enzyme that has been linked to BPH, and the amount of extract required for activity is comparatively low. It can be confirmed from the results of this study that SPSE has bioactivity that promotes prostate health at a level that is superior to that of many other phytotherapeutic extracts. The

  2. Extracts from fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata) and roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica): viable alternatives in the medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated lower urinary tracts symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, E

    2001-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are very common disorders in aging men. Despite the great clinical importance, many aspects of their aetiology remain uncertain although it is generally accepted that advanced age and testicular androgens are important requirements for the development of these complaints. The currently available therapeutic options include watchful waiting, changes of life style, medical treatments and invasive therapies. In many European countries the use of phytopharmaceuticals for the management of BPH and related LUTS is common and these products represent up to 80 % of all drugs prescribed for this disorder. In particularly, extracts from the fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata, syn. Serenoa repens) and the roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are popular. During the last years numerous papers have been published which elaborated on the pharmacological activities and the clinical assessment of these herbal remedies. These investigations have not only broadened the scientific basis for the rational use of phytotherapeutics but have also provided evidence for their therapeutic efficacy and favourable safety profile.

  3. A preliminary investigation of the enzymatic inhibition of 5alpha-reduction and growth of prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCap-FGC by natural astaxanthin and Saw Palmetto lipid extract in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark L

    2005-01-01

    Inhibition of 5alpha-reductase has been reported to decrease the symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and possibly inhibit or help treat prostate cancer. Saw Palmetto berry lipid extract (SPLE) is reported to inhibit 5alpha-reductase and decrease the clinical symptoms of BPH. Epidemiologic studies report that carotenoids such as lycopene may inhibit prostate cancer. In this investigation the effect of the carotenoid astaxanthin, and SPLE were examined for their effect on 5alpha-reductase inhibition as well as the growth of prostatic carcinoma cells in vitro. These studies support patent #6,277,417 B1. The results show astaxanthin demonstrated 98% inhibition of 5alpha-reductase at 300 microg/mL in vitro. Alphastat, the combination of astaxanthin and SPLE, showed a 20% greater inhibition of 5alpha-reductase than SPLE alone n vitro. A nine day treatment of prostatic carcinoma cells with astaxanthin in vitro produced a 24% decrease in growth at 0.1 mcg/mL and a 38% decrease at 0.01 mcg/mL. SPLE showed a 34% decrease at 0.1 mcg/mL. Low levels of carotenoid astaxanthin inhibit 5alpha-reductase and decrease the growth of human prostatic cancer cells in vitro. Astaxanthin added to SPLE shows greater inhibition of 5alpha-reductase than SPLE alone in vitro.

  4. Utilization of the granite sawing residue For the manufacture of low cost ceramic membranes; Aproveitamento do residuo de serragem de granito para fabricacao de membranas ceramicas de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, R.C.O.; Lira, H.L.; Neves, G.A.; Silva, M.C.; Silva, C.D., E-mail: rosacolima@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    A prominent application of bentonite clays is to obtain organoclays for use in polymer nanocomposites. In Brazil, there are Membranes are thin structures that allow the phase separation of a substance through the transport of certain chemical species. Ceramic membranes present several advantages in relation to others materials, including longer lifetime, better clean facility, chemical and biological stability and high temperature and pressure resistance, its use is limited, however, by the high cost of fabrication. The search for raw materials of low cost is necessary. Combining the demands of the market with environmental concerns, the aim of this work is to make use of granite sawing residue to prepare tubular ceramic membranes of low cost. Firstly the granite residue was characterized by particle size distribution, chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. The membranes were prepared with bentonite clay (35%), quartz (35%) and granite residue (30%) and sintering at temperatures of 750, 800, 850 and 900 deg C and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry and permeate water flux. The results showed that the granite residue present average particle size of 18.46μm and high content of silica and alumina. The membranes present average pore size between microfiltration and ultrafiltration and permeate water flux from 10.0 to 20.0 L/h.m{sup 2}. (author)

  5. The man that saw grow the plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona Vallejo, Mateo

    2002-01-01

    The author makes a reminder of the founder of the Botanical Garden in Bogota (Colombia) Enrique Perez Arbelaez, speaks of his life, studies, publications and contributions to the knowledge of the Colombian flora

  6. DIE SAW SE ROL IN SWA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wei die verdediging van die landsgrense teen 'n vyand wat die orde, gesag, vrede, stabiliteit en welvaart in Suidwes-Afrika en die Republiek van. Suid-Afrika wil vernietig. Hierdie oorlog moet nie ge'lsoleerd gesien word nie, maar in perspektief geplaas word teen die agtergrond van 'n nag groter konflik, naamlik die van die ...

  7. 1738-IJBCS-Article-Saw Yaya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    the “Instituto de Quimica, -(U.N.A.M),. Mexico” - while Mössbauer spectra were obtained as described previously (DE Sousa et al., 2006). The infrared spectra were obtained with FTIR spectrometer, the samples being as. KBr pellets. Infrared data are given in cm-1. IR abbreviations: (vs) very strong, (s) strong, (m) medium ...

  8. Loss from variation in sawing precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    A major loss sustained by small mills results from inaccurately cut lumber. Such lumber sells only at reduced prices and encounters stiffer sales resistance than lumber from the more accurately cutting band mills. A less apparent loss is the excessive loss of material that results from inaccurate cutting.

  9. Wireless SAW Sensors Having Integrated Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Mark (Inventor); Malocha, Donald C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A wireless surface acoustic wave sensor includes a piezoelectric substrate, a surface acoustic wave device formed on the substrate, and an antenna formed on the substrate. In some embodiments, the antenna is formed on the surface of the substrate using one or more of photolithography, thin film processing, thick film processing, plating, and printing.

  10. 2231-IJBCS-Article-Adama Saw+

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Thoroughbred sport horses during training period. Lucrări Stiinłifice. Medicină Veterinară, XLI(8): 759-763. Pritchard JC, Burn CC, Barr ARS, Whay HR. 2009. Haematological and serum biochemical reference values for apparently healthy working horses. Pakistan Research in Veterinary. Science, 87(3): 389-395. Rahal K ...

  11. Saw palmetto extract enhances erectile responses by inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 activity and increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger ribonucleic acid expression in rat and rabbit corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Surong; Chen, Changrui; Li, Yiying; Ren, Zhenghua; Zhang, Yungang; Wu, Gantong; Wang, Hao; Hu, Zhenzhen; Yao, Minghui

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate whether saw palmetto extract (SPE) relaxes corpus cavernosum and explore the underlying mechanisms. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats and 30 New Zealand rabbits were randomly allocated into 3 SPE-treated groups (low-, middle-, and high-dose) and 1 saline-treated control group. SPE was administered intragastrically for 7 consecutive days. Another 23 rats treated with sildenafil were used to appraise the erectile response to electrical stimulation of nerves in the corpus cavernosum. The erectile functions of rats and rabbits were evaluated 24 hours after the last SPE administration or 15 minutes after intragastric sildenafil. Outcome measures included corpus cavernosum electrical activity recording, phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) activity detected by the colorimetric quantitative method, and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level for PDE5 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the SPE-treated animals, the relaxant response to electrical stimulation of nerves in the corpus cavernosum, reflected by the amplitude of the electrical activity within the cavernosum, was significantly and dose-dependently augmented. Similar effects were observed in the sildenafil-treated rats. PDE5 activity in rat and rabbit corpus cavernosum tissues was significantly and dose-dependently inhibited in SPE-treated animals, whereas the iNOS mRNA level increased compared with the saline group. PDE5 mRNA, however, was only significantly enhanced in the rats treated with the middle dose of SPE. The results suggest that SPE may have potential application value for the prevention or treatment of erectile dysfunction through an increase in iNOS mRNA expression and inhibition of PDE5 activity in corpus cavernosum smooth muscles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Saw palmetto extract suppresses insulin-like growth factor-I signaling and induces stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation in human prostate epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Teri L; Carroll, Julie M; Mallinson, Rebecca A; Roberts, Charles T; Roselli, Charles E

    2004-07-01

    A common alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the extract from the fruit of saw palmetto (SPE). BPH is caused by nonmalignant growth of epithelial and stromal elements of the prostate. IGF action is important for prostate growth and development, and changes in the IGF system have been documented in BPH tissues. The main signaling pathways activated by the binding of IGF-I to the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) are the ERK arm of the MAPK cascade and the phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) cascade. We tested the hypothesis that SPE suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in the P69 prostate epithelial cell line by inhibiting IGF-I signaling. Treatment with 150 microg/ml SPE for 24 h decreased IGF-I-induced proliferation of P69 cells and induced cleavage of the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP), an index of apoptosis. Treatment of serum-starved P69 cells with 150 microg/ml SPE for 6 h reduced IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of Akt (assessed by Western blot) and Akt activity (assessed by an Akt kinase assay). Western blot analysis showed that SPE reduced IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of the adapter protein insulin receptor substrate-1 and decreased downstream effects of Akt activation, including increased cyclin D1 levels and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 and p70(s6k). There was no effect on IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of MAPK, IGF-IR, or Shc. Treatment of starved cells with SPE alone induced phosphorylation the proapoptotic protein JNK. SPE treatment may relieve symptoms of BPH, in part, by inhibiting specific components of the IGF-I signaling pathway and inducing JNK activation, thus mediating antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on prostate epithelia.

  13. Síntesis de una matriz cuasiceramica destinada a la obtención de fundentes aglomerados para proceso SAW y evaluación cinético-termodinámica de su proceso de humectación Synthesis of a cuasiceramic matrix destined to the obtaining of agglomerated fuxes for the SAW process and kinetic and thermodynamic evaluations of its humectation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Quintana-Puchol

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se expone una concepción de la síntesis por sinterización, a relativa baja temperatura, de una matriz cuasicerámica amorfa destinada a la confección de fundentes aglomerados para el proceso SAW. Para diseñar la matriz cuasicerámica se hace una valoración de la composición química de los concentrados minerales de feldespato, zeolita y calcita, así como de la relación SiO2/Al2O3 de los alumosilicatos. También, como herramientas estratégicas para la síntesis, se usa el diagrama de fase SiO2-Al2O3-CaO, los índices de basicidad y de actividad química y la temperatura Temman. Mediante valoración del espectro de DRX de la matriz y un novedoso criterio sobre el grado de sinterización se selecciona la variante de síntesis más adecuada. También se hace una valoración cinética y termodinámica del proceso de absorción isotérmica de la humectación por los granos de la matriz. El modelo de las isotermas de Langmuir se ajusta aceptablemente para describir el proceso de absorción de humedad por los granos de la matriz. La determinación de los valores de las constantes de las isotermas de Langmuir a diferentes humedades relativas y temperaturas permitió calcular los valores de entalpía, entropía y energía libre de Gibbs del proceso de adsorción.In the this paper is presented a conception of the synthesis by sinterización at relative low temperature, of an amorphous cuasiceramic matrix to be used in agglomerated flux in the SAW process. In the design of the cuasiceramic it was made a valuation of the chemical composition of the diferent mineral concentrates (feldspar, zeolite and calcite, as well as of the relationship SiO2/Al2O3 of the alumosilicates. Also, as strategic tools for synthesis were used the phase diagram SiO2-Al2O3-CaO, the basicity and chemical activity indexes and the Temman temperature. It was selected the more appropriate synthesis variant by a valuation of the DRX spectrum of the matrix

  14. Determination of the potency of a novel saw palmetto supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE) for 5α-reductase isoform II inhibition using a cell-free in vitro test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Pilar; Villar, Agustí; Rull, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent membrane protein 5α-reductase catalyses the conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen - 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Two 5α-reductase isoenzymes are expressed in humans: type I and type II. The latter is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been used extensively in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5α-reductase, as well as anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. Clinical studies of SPE have been inconclusive - some have shown significant results, and others have not - possibly the result of varying bioactivities of the SPEs used in the studies. To determine the in vitro potency in a cell-free test system of a novel SP supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE), an inhibitor of the 5α-reductase isoenzyme type II. The inhibitory potency of SPSE was compared to that of finasteride, an approved 5α-reductase inhibitor, on the basis of the enzymatic conversion of the substrate androstenedione to the 5α-reduced product 5α-androstanedione. By concentration-dependent inhibition of 5α-reductase type II in vitro (half-maximal inhibitory concentration 3.58±0.05 μg/mL), SPSE demonstrated competitive binding toward the active site of the enzyme. Finasteride, the approved 5α-reductase inhibitor tested as positive control, led to 63%-75% inhibition of 5α-reductase type II. SPSE effectively inhibits the enzyme that has been linked to BPH, and the amount of extract required for activity is comparatively low. It can be confirmed from the results of this study that SPSE has bioactivity that promotes prostate health at a level that is superior to that of many other phytotherapeutic extracts. The bioactivity of SPSE corresponds favorably to that reported for the hexane extract used in a large number of positive BPH clinical trials, as well as to finasteride

  15. Effects of D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) or the lipidosterolic extract of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) on the sexual activity in male rats: A controlled, experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Lilia C; Mas, Rosa; Fernández, Julio; Mendoza, Sarahí; Gámez, Rafael; Pardo, Balia

    2008-02-01

    The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is not completely understood, but hormonal changes in aging men seem to be pivotal. Dihydrotestosterone, a potent, active metabolite of testosterone, is formed by the enzymatic action of prostate 5α-reductase and causes cell growth and hyperplasia. Consistent with this action, male sexual dysfunction has been clinically documented to be among the drug-related adverse events associated with 5α-reductase inhibitors. The lipidosterolic extract of saw palmetto (LESP) fruit (Serenoa repens) has been used to treat BPH. D-004, a lipid extract of Roystonea regia Royal palm fruit, has been found to prevent prostatic hyperplasia induced by testoste-rone in rodents and to competitively inhibit prostate 5α-reductase activity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of D-004 and LESP, administered as single or repeated doses, on the sexual activity in male rats. This controlled, experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Centre of Natural Products, National Centre for Scientific Research, Havana City, Cuba. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 300 g were randomized into 5 groups: 2 groups treated orally with D-004 (400 and 800 mg/kg); 2 groups treated orally with LESP (400 and 800 mg/kg); and 1 control group orally administered a water vehicle. Sexual activity behavior (the number of mounts and intromissions, mount latency, and intromission latency) was assessed during 2 observation periods: 90 minutes after the initial dose and at the end of the 30-day treatment. Latency was defined as time elapsed between the first mount and intromission. A total of 50 rats (mean [SD] age, 10 [3] weeks; mean [SD] weight, 295 [10] g) were included in the experiment. There were no significant difterences in the mean number of mounts, intromissions, mount latency, or intromission latency in the groups treated with single or repeated doses of D-004 or LESP (400 and 800 mg/kg) compared with the

  16. Reciclagem de resíduos da construção civil para a produção de argamassas Granite sawing waste recycling for mortar production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Menezes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O volume de resíduos inorgânicos gerados a cada ano vem crescendo em todo mundo e apresenta um dos maiores problemas da sociedade moderna. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a viabilidade de utilização do resíduo da serragem do granito e de resíduos da construção civil como materiais alternativos para a produção de argamassas. Os resíduos foram caracterizados física e mineralogicamente por meio da determinação de distribuição e tamanho de partículas, massa e área específica, composição química, difração de raios X e análise térmica diferencial. Foi determinado o índice de atividade pozolânica com cal dos resíduos da construção. Foram formuladas composições de argamassas substituindo parcialmente a cal pelos resíduos, e moldados corpos-de-prova. Os corpos-de-prova foram curados por 7, 14, 28 e 60 dias e, em seguida, foi determinada a resistência à compressão simples. Os resíduos apresentam elevados teores de SiO2, Al2O3 e Fe2O3 e possuem as fases cristalinas quartzo, mica, feldspato, carbonato de cálcio e óxido de ferro. A substituição do aglomerante por resíduos na produção de argamassas pode ser efetuada com sucesso em teores de até 50% e os resíduos com atividade pozolânica propiciam aumentos significativos na resistência à compressão simples das argamassas.Around the world the amount of inorganic wastes has increased dramatically and is one of the most important issues for modern society. This work has as aim to analyze the suitability of granite sawing waste and construction wastes as alternative raw materials for the production of mortars. The wastes were physically and mineralogical characterized by the determination of particle size distribution, specific mass and specific area, chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. The pozzolanic activity index with hydrated lime of construction wastes was determined. Mortar compositions were formulated

  17. FY 1999 report on the results of R and D projects by local consortiums for immediate effects. R and D regarding high quality/high performance of lithium tantalate single crystal's solidifying growth and SAW wafer; 1999 nendo sankabutsu tankessho no ikusei to wafer no kohinshitsu konoritsuka ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The R and D project has been implemented for establishing, e.g., methods for growing oxide single crystals (e.g., lithium tantalate, LiTaO{sub 3}) to have the large and/or long products, technologies for polishing/cleaing the wafer products, and technologies for evaluating device performance. For solidifying growth and production technologies for lithium tantalate single crystals, pulling-up of the single crystal, 154 mm in body length and 12.9 kg, is succeeded by reducing temperature gradient at the crystal solid-liquid interface, increasing oxygen concentration, and improving the seed-sustaining system. Bright prospects have been obtained for the automated crystal pulling-up system, and high-precision control of crystal weight. For technologies for polishing/cleaning the wafers, the investigated cleaning methods include ELID polishing, mechanochemical polishing, and supersonic cleaning which uses two frequency bands of multi-supersonic and megasonic waves. For development of the technologies for evaluation/examination of the highly functional devices, the non-contact type method has been developed, which can measure the absolute level of SAW speed at a high speed and precision. (NEDO)

  18. FY 1999 report on the results of R and D projects by local consortiums for immediate effects. R and D regarding high quality/high performance of lithium tantalate single crystal's solidifying growth and SAW wafer; 1999 nendo sankabutsu tankessho no ikusei to wafer no kohinshitsu konoritsuka ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The R and D project has been implemented for establishing, e.g., methods for growing oxide single crystals (e.g., lithium tantalate, LiTaO{sub 3}) to have the large and/or long products, technologies for polishing/cleaing the wafer products, and technologies for evaluating device performance. For solidifying growth and production technologies for lithium tantalate single crystals, pulling-up of the single crystal, 154 mm in body length and 12.9 kg, is succeeded by reducing temperature gradient at the crystal solid-liquid interface, increasing oxygen concentration, and improving the seed-sustaining system. Bright prospects have been obtained for the automated crystal pulling-up system, and high-precision control of crystal weight. For technologies for polishing/cleaning the wafers, the investigated cleaning methods include ELID polishing, mechanochemical polishing, and supersonic cleaning which uses two frequency bands of multi-supersonic and megasonic waves. For development of the technologies for evaluation/examination of the highly functional devices, the non-contact type method has been developed, which can measure the absolute level of SAW speed at a high speed and precision. (NEDO)

  19. Quark see-saw, Higgs mass and vacuum stability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Kavli Institute for .... This paper is organized as follows: in §2, we present the basic ingredients of the ..... scalar coupling λ must satisfy the positivity condition λ(μ) > 0 for all values of the mass μ.

  20. no es nada it is nothing simbonile we saw himjher

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Universal Grammar (UG) to applied linguistics and language teaching. In particular I am ... input in which subjects are sometimes physically present and .... in complex sentences than simple sentences, and I have found .... Present tense perf.

  1. Surface photovoltage measurements and finite element modeling of SAW devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Christine

    2012-03-01

    Over the course of a Summer 2011 internship with the MEMS department of Sandia National Laboratories, work was completed on two major projects. The first and main project of the summer involved taking surface photovoltage measurements for silicon samples, and using these measurements to determine surface recombination velocities and minority carrier diffusion lengths of the materials. The SPV method was used to fill gaps in the knowledge of material parameters that had not been determined successfully by other characterization methods. The second project involved creating a 2D finite element model of a surface acoustic wave device. A basic form of the model with the expected impedance response curve was completed, and the model is ready to be further developed for analysis of MEMS photonic resonator devices.

  2. Optimization for cellulase production by Aspergillus niger using saw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Several other parameters like inoculum size, time duration, nitrogen source and its ... β-1,4-D-glycosidic bond (Gielkens et al., 1999; Han et al.,. 1995). Cellulase is a ... management, medical/pharmaceutical industry, proto-.

  3. Economic implications of manufacturing sawed ties and timbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence D. Garrett; Lawrence D. Garrett

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss those factors that affect the profitability of manufacturing timbers and show that the combined manufacture of both lumber and timbers will provide a greater daily income than the manufacture of lumber alone.

  4. Determining optimal primary sawing and ripping machine settings in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For wood manufacturers around the world, the single biggest cost factor is known to be its raw material. Maximum volume recovery of this raw material is, therefore, of key importance for the industry. The wood products industry consists of several interrelated manufacturing steps for converting trees into logs and logs into ...

  5. ANALISA PENERIMAAN DOSEN BARU DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN SAW (SIMPLE ADDITIVE WEIGHTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutriana Hidayati

    2016-11-01

    The calculation of the value of selection acceptance of new lecturers with perangkingan method based on three aspects which have been set, getting the order rengking with the highest value is 32.5 in the applicant 1 (P1 as the first rank, and as a potential new lecturers will be accepted on Faculty of Information Technology and Communication.

  6. 'I saw Santa drinking soda!' Advertising and children's food preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioutas, E D; Tzimitra-Kalogianni, I

    2015-05-01

    The influence of advertising on children's food preferences is well documented in the research literature. In this study we aim to examine the ways in which food advertising propels children's consumer behaviour and to investigate how food advertising affects the frequency of unhealthy food consumption. Data were drawn from a sample of elementary school children in the region of Thessaly (Greece). Three scales were used to measure children's lifestyle patterns, food consumption frequencies, and their response to advertising. Univariate and inferential statistics were used to answer the research questions. The analysis revealed that a significant proportion of children (47.4%) frequently consume unhealthy foods. Children who have little understanding of the persuasive intent of advertising rate advertised foods as healthier and more nutritious. The frequency of unhealthy food consumption is influenced by the entertaining dimension of advertising and the level of the motivational arousal after children's exposure to food advertisements. Food advertising impels children's consumer behaviour through four different modes. First, advertising engenders expectations, which raise purchase motivation. Second, the purchase of advertised foods is accompanied by positive feelings (happiness, satisfaction). Third, the entertaining dimension of advertising generates pleasant mood, which positively predisposes the evaluation of advertised foods. Fourth, children do not always possess the ability to recognize the persuasive nature of advertising. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. REKONTEKSTUALISASI SEJARAH: KONTRIBUSI LEMBAGA PENDIDIKAN ISLAM TERHADAP DAKWAH RASULULLAH SAW

    OpenAIRE

    Musaddad Harahap; Lina Mayasari Siregar

    2017-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine the success of Prophet Muhmmad PBUH in arranging Islamic teachings into a set through education. Within 23 years, Islam emerged into an established teaching and full of hidden knowledge, making Islam gets predicate of blessing for the universe. Through literary study, this research explains the success of the prophet in delivering prophetic messages with support of representative teaching places at the period. The places acculturated with the coming of Islam and...

  8. Geelong Grammar boy saw deep inside the atom

    CERN Multimedia

    Persse, M C

    2003-01-01

    "John Gordon Rushbrooke, whose brilliant career as a high-energy physicist has been cut short by cancer, was one of a succession of scientists educated at Geelong Grammar School in the middle years of the 20th century who achieved world eminence in their fields" (1 page).

  9. The Sun as you never saw it before

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The remarkable images come from SOHO's visible-light coronagraph LASCO. It masks the intense rays from the Sun's surface in order to reveal the much fainter glow of the solar atmosphere, or corona. Operated with its widest field of view, in its C3 instrument, LASCO's unprecedented sensitivity enables it to see the thin ionized gas of the solar wind out to the edges of the picture, 22 million kilometres from the Sun's surface. Many stars are brighter than the gas, and they create the background scene. The results alter human perceptions of the Sun. Nearly 30 years ago, Apollo photographs of the Earth persuaded everyone of what until then they knew only in theory, that we live on a small planet. Similarly the new imagery shows our motion in orbit around the Sun, and depicts it as one star among - yet close enough to fill the sky emanations that engulf us. For many centuries even astrologers knew that the Sun was in Sagittarius in December and drifting towards the next zodiacal constellation, Capricornus. This was a matter of calculation only, because the Sun's own brightness prevented a direct view of the starfield. The SOHO-LASCO movie makes this elementary point of astronomy a matter of direct observation for the first time. The images are achievable only from a vantage point in space, because the blue glow of the Earth's atmosphere hides the stars during the day. A spacial allocation of observing time, and of data tranmission from the SOHO spacecraft, enabled the LASCO team to obtain large numbers of images over the period 22-28 December 1996. Since then, a sustained effort in image processing, frame by frame, has achieved a result of high technical and aesthetic quality. Only now is the leader of the LASCO team, Guenter Brueckner of the US Naval Research Laboratory, satisfied with the product and ready to authorize its release. "I spend my life examining the Sun," Brueckner says, "but this movie is a special thrill. For a moment I forget the years of effort that went into creating LASCO and SOHO, and leave aside the many points of scientific importance in the images, I am happy to marvel at a new impression of the busy star that gives us life, and which affects our environment in many ways that we are only now beginning to understand." Transatlantic cooperation The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. ESA and the European aerospace industry built the spacecraft, and NASA launched it on 2 December 1995. Operating 1,500,000 kilometres out on the sunward side of the Earth, near the position called Lagrangian point L1, SOHO has an uninterrupted view of the Sun from an undisturbed vantage point, and a precision of pointing which makes delicate observations possible. SOHO carries 12 sets of instruments provided by scientific teams, each led by a European or an American principal investigator. They study the solar interior by helioseismology, the solar atmosphere seen by ultraviolet and visible light, and the solar wind and energetic particles. There is much transatlantic collaboration within the various teams. Besides the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, LASCO involves the Max-Planck-Institüt für Aeronomie at Lindau (Germany), the Unversity of Birmingham (England) and Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale at Marseille (France). Sharing LASCO's electronic systems, and many operations and analyses, is SOHO's extreme ultraviolet imager EIT. This is the responsibility of a team led from Orsay (France) and it observes activity in the Sun's hot atmosphere related to the wider events seen by LASCO. Roger Bonnet, who presides over the multinational effort as ESA's Director of Science, shares the enthusiasm for the Christmas movie. "For the first time we see the Sun clearly among the stars, thanks to SOHO and LASCO," Bonnet comments. "Now when we say that the Sun is a typical star, and a key to understanding the whole Universe, that is no longer a theoretical statement but something everyone can see. The quality of the images confirms that SOHO is the finest and most stable spacecraft ever devoted to the study of the Sun." Features of the motion picture North is at the top of the scene, which corresponds with the orientation of the Sun as seen at midday in the northern hemisphere of the Earth. SOHO's progress in orbit around the Sun remains in step with the Earth's motion. It travels towards the right (west) in relation to the stars, during the period of observation. As a result, the Sun's position appears to shift to the left (eastwards) in front of the stars. LASCO C3 observes an area of the sky 32 times wider than the visible Sun itself. If you spread the fingers of one hand and hold them at arm's length towards the sky, they will span the 17-degree width of LASCO's field of view. For comparison, the Sun is less than half the width of your little finger. At the time of the observations, SOHO is looking towards the heart of the Milky Way Galaxy, which lies in the constellation of Sagittarius. The Milky Way, made by the light of billions of distant stars, forms a luminous band slanting down and to the right. Dark lanes seen in the Milky Way are real features familiar to astronomers. They are created by dust clouds in the disk of the Galaxy which obscure the distant stars. A doomed comet, previously unknown, enters on the left of the image on 22 December. Its path curves towards the Sun and on 23 December. Its path curves towards the Sun and on 23 December it disappears behind the occulting mask of the coronagraph. It fails to reappear on the far side of the Sun. Whether or not its trajectory took it directly towards the visible surface, the comet must have evaporated in Sun's atmosphere. It was one of a family of comets known as sungrazers, believed to be remnants of a large comet that that broke up perhaps 900 years ago. Other fragments were responsible for spectacular comet apparitions in 1843, 1882 and 1965. The object in the movie is called Comet SOHO 6. It is one of seven sungrazers discovered so far by LASCO, with its unparalleled view of the solar vicinity. Analyses of the comets'orbits, now in progress, are a prerequisite for their inclusion in the official record of comet discoveries. LASCO also provided unique pictures of Comet Hyakutake passing behind the Sun at the beginning of May 1996. Debris strewn from the tails of many comets makes a disk of dust around the Sun, in the ecliptic plane where the planets orbit. It scatters sunlight and is sometimes visible at twilight on the Earth, as the Zodiacal Light. In the raw images obtained by LASCO, the Zodiacal Light is brighter than the solar corona. Image processing has to subtract its effects precisely, to bring the solar wind and the Milky Way into plain view. Random flashes of light in the images are due to cosmic rays striking the detector. These should be regarded, not as blemishes, but as part of the scenery. Cosmic rays are energetic particles coming from exploded stars in the Milky Way, and variations in the solar wind influence their intensity in the vicinity of SOHO and the Earth. Operating beyond the Earth's magnetic field, which repels many particles, SOHO is more exposed to the cosmic rays. In the largest outburst from the Sun seen in the Christmas movie, a mass ejection causes billions of tonnes of gas to race out into space on the right-hand (western) side of the Sun. The origin of this event much lower in the Sun's atmosphere was evident in an expanding bubble seen in processed images from the extreme ultraviolet imager EIT. Coronagraph views obtained during the same Christmas period in the narrower fields of LASCO's C1 and C2 instruments also helped to reveal the Sun's complex behaviour. Coronal mass ejections are the hurricanes of space weather. SOHO is ideally placed and instrumented to report and even anticipate their origins in the Sun's atmosphere. Although the Sun is supposedly very quiet at present, being close to the minimum count of sunspots, LASCO observes so many outbursts large and small - roughly one a day - that scientists are having to think again about how to define a coronal mass ejection. SOHO's continuing success Later LASCO images, on 6 January 1997, revealed a large mass ejection directed towards the Earth. As it swelled it appeared as a halo around the Sun. The mass ejection reached SOHO itself less than four days later, and the solar-wind analyser CELIAS detected an acceleration in the solar wind, from 350 to more than 500 kilometres per second. Soon afterwards, American, Russian and Japanese satellites operating closer to the Earth registered the event, which caused a magnetic storm and bright auroras. The failure of an American TV satellite on 11 January may have been directly related to this event. Mass ejections and other upheavals on the Sun will become even commoner during the coming years, as the count of sunspots increases towards the expected maximum of solar activity in 2000-01. Meanwhile, SOHO is seeking the fundamental reason for the cycle of sunspot activity, which is essentially a magnetic phenomenon. One of the helioseismic instruments probing the solar interior, SOI/MDI, has detected a likely source for the Sun's puzzling magnetism. There may be a natural dynamo operating at the base of the turbulent outer region of the Sun, called the convective zone. This rotates about 7 per cent faster than the underlying and more cohesive region of dense gas, the radiative zone. With the spacecraft in excellent condition and their instruments performing beyond expectations, SOHO's scientists are urging ESA and NASA to allow them to continue their work beyond April 1998, when the initial year of their scientific operations will have been completed.

  10. Fully Integrated SAW-Less Discrete-Time Superheterodyne Receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madadi, I.

    2015-01-01

    There are nowadays strong business and technical demands to integrate radio- frequency (RF) receivers (RX) into a complete system-on-chip (SoC) realized in scaled digital processes technology. As a consequence, the RF circuitry has to function well in face of reduced power supply ( V DD ) while the

  11. TAKHRIJ AL-HADITS TENTANG PERALATAN MAKAN NABI SAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairul Hudaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For the Muslims, the position of the Prophet Muhammad is not only transmitting the revelations, but also explaining and realizing them in all aspects of his life. Therefore, the description of how and what he ate is included as parts of the hadith. Nevertheless, the practice of hadith can not be separated from the assessment of the quality of these hadith. The results showed that the hadith associated with the Prophets tableware and Food is authentic both from its sanad and matan. The Hadith can be understood as a form of the humble life style of the prophet. This attitude fits with what is said in the Qur'an and the Hadiths

  12. The Glacial BuzzSaw, Isostasy, and Global Crustal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Oncken, O.; Niu, F.

    2015-12-01

    The glacial buzzsaw hypothesis predicts that maximum elevations in orogens at high latitudes are depressed relative to temperate latitudes, as maximum elevation and hypsography of glaciated orogens are functions of the glacial equilibrium line altitude (ELA) and the modern and last glacial maximum (LGM) snowlines. As a consequence crustal thickness, density, or both must change with increasing latitude to maintain isostatic balance. For Airy compensation crustal thickness should decrease toward polar latitudes, whereas for Pratt compensation crustal densities should increase. For similar convergence rates, higher latitude orogens should have higher grade, and presumably higher density rocks in the crustal column due to more efficient glacial erosion. We have examined a number of global and regional crustal models to see if these predictions appear in the models. Crustal thickness is straightforward to examine, crustal density less so. The different crustal models generally agree with one another, but do show some major differences. We used a standard tectonic classification scheme of the crust for data selection. The globally averaged orogens show crustal thicknesses that decrease toward high latitudes, almost reflecting topography, in both the individual crustal models and the models averaged together. The most convincing is the western hemisphere cordillera, where elevations and crustal thicknesses decrease toward the poles, and also toward lower latitudes (the equatorial minimum is at ~12oN). The elevation differences and Airy prediction of crustal thickness changes are in reasonable agreement in the North American Cordillera, but in South America the observed crustal thickness change is larger than the Airy prediction. The Alpine-Himalayan chain shows similar trends, however the strike of the chain makes interpretation ambiguous. We also examined cratons with ice sheets during the last glacial period to see if continental glaciation also thins the crust toward higher latitudes. The glaciated North American and European cratons show a trend of modest thinning (~3km), and glaciated western Asia minor thinning (~1.5 km). These values are at the level of model uncertainties, but we note that cratons without ice sheets during the last glacial period show substantially different patterns.

  13. Diagnosing smallpox: would you know it if you saw it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Ryan; McCarthy, Tara; Barry, M Anita; Mahon, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The intentional release of anthrax in the United States in 2001 and other recent acts of terrorism have highlighted the possibility of intentional release of smallpox by terrorists. Little is known about physicians' ability to diagnose smallpox, especially in the critical first days, when the potential for rapid control of transmission is greatest. During December 2002 and January 2003, primary care and emergency physicians at a large urban academic medical center were surveyed regarding the diagnosis and management of patients who present with vesicular rash illness. In addition to demographic and training-related questions, the questionnaire included items about perceived comfort in diagnosing and evaluating rashes, knowledge of the key differential diagnostic characteristics of chickenpox and smallpox, and the diagnostic interpretation of color photographs of patients with smallpox or chickenpox. Responses were summarized as a perceived comfort score, a differential diagnosis score, and a picture score. Of 266 eligible physicians, 178 (67%) responded. Of these, 95% thought clinicians need more education about bioterrorism; only 17% reported comfort in diagnosing smallpox. Although most physicians recognized pictures of smallpox and chickenpox, only 36% correctly answered 3 of 4 questions regarding differential diagnosis, an important aspect of identifying cases early. Those who were comfortable diagnosing rash illnesses had higher differential diagnosis scores. Strategies for bioterrorism-related training could take advantage of physicians' awareness of their own knowledge deficits.

  14. die geskiedenis van die saw gedenkteken te fort klapperkop militere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As gevolg van enige optrede, op enige plek, te enige tyd, deur enige vyand van die RSA of deur enige terroris(te), insurgent(e) of ander persoon of persone wat die RSA en sy volkere kwaadgesind is. h. Binne twee jaar (vyfhondred-en-dertig dae) nadat hy/sy met 'n ongeskiktheids- pensioen uit diens getree het agv siekte,.

  15. Predictive modelling of noise level generated during sawing of rocks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents an experimental and statistical study on noise level generated .... hardness were determined according to related ISRM (1981) suggested methods. Thin section ..... tistical Package for the Social Sciences). Additionally, the ...

  16. KONTRIBUSI PEMIKIRAN MUHAMMAD SAW PRA DAN PASCA KENABIAN ERA MAKKIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Jaya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Muhammad is the greatest phenomenon in human history. Signs He enshrined in the presence of the holy scriptures is  as a justification former glory. His presence was expected by every group and interest, although later become a boomerang for them because the treatise was carrying remodel beliefs and traditions handed down from their ancestors. The suffering experiences completed His life’s history  as a candidate of  a prophet. Born with orphan status, grew by profession and lived as a shepherd, had suffering experiences has  formed  the identity of Muhammad to become an intelligent and wise leader. Muhammad's intelligence and wisdom in deciding the issue and genius as well as the accuracy of missionary strategy embedded in the period of Mecca is the contribution of thinking which is priceless. Keywords: the contribution of ideas, leadership training, intelligence, wisdom, leadership characteristics

  17. Análise da co-utilização do resíduo do beneficiamento do caulim e serragem de granito para produção de blocos e telhas cerâmicos Analysis of the use of kaolin processing waste and granite sawing waste together for the production of ceramic bricks and roof tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Menezes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O volume de resíduos gerado pela mineração e o beneficiamento mineral vêm se intensificando a cada dia, em virtude do aumento da demanda causado pelo crescimento da economia mundial. As indústrias do beneficiamento do caulim e da serragem do granito são importantes segmentos econômicos do Estado da Paraíba, entretanto produzem enormes quantidades de resíduos. Assim, este trabalho tem por objetivo caracterizar os resíduos do beneficiamento do caulim e da serragem do granito e avaliar a viabilidade de sua co-utilização para produção de blocos e telhas cerâmicos. Os resíduos foram caracterizados através da determinação de sua composição química e mineralógica, pelo uso de difração de raios X e análise térmica diferencial e gravimétrica, distribuição e tamanho de partículas e análise morfológica por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Foram formuladas composições contendo os resíduos e confeccionados corpos de prova por extrusão. Os corpos de prova foram queimados e em seguida determinou-se sua absorção de água e módulo de ruptura à flexão. Pode-se observar que o resíduo do caulim é constituído por caulinita, mica e quartzo, que o resíduo de granito é constituído por quartzo, mica, albita e calcita e, que os resíduos apresentam distribuições granulométricas significativamente diferentes. Concluiu-se também que é possível a incorporação de até 50% de resíduo em formulações para produção de blocos e telhas cerâmicas e que a co-utilização do resíduo de granito e de caulim possibilita obter propriedades físicas superiores às observadas nos corpos de prova com incorporação de apenas resíduo de caulim.The amount of wastes generated by the miner and mineral processing industries has increasing day by day due to the high demand cause by the global economy grow up. The processing kaolin ad sawing granite industries are important economic segments in the state of Paraíba, but generate

  18. Pinus saw timber tree optimisation in South Africa: a comparison of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both Cut to Length (CTL) and Full Tree/Tree Length (FT/TL) ground-based systems are used to harvest pine in South Africa. The fully mechanised CTL system is the most recently introduced system in South Africa. One of the reasons for the limited use of CTL harvesting systems in South Africa is the perceived inability of the ...

  19. 78 FR 31897 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; CPSC Table Saw...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC or Commission) is... respondents, advertisements will be placed on popular Web sites, in woodworking magazines, and posted in woodworking guilds with their cooperation. Respondents will have the option to go through a screening process...

  20. All I saw was the cake. Hunger effects on attentional capture by visual food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piech, Richard M; Pastorino, Michael T; Zald, David H

    2010-06-01

    While effects of hunger on motivation and food reward value are well-established, far less is known about the effects of hunger on cognitive processes. Here, we deployed the emotional blink of attention paradigm to investigate the impact of visual food cues on attentional capture under conditions of hunger and satiety. Participants were asked to detect targets which appeared in a rapid visual stream after different types of task irrelevant distractors. We observed that food stimuli acquired increased power to capture attention and prevent target detection when participants were hungry. This occurred despite monetary incentives to perform well. Our findings suggest an attentional mechanism through which hunger heightens perception of food cues. As an objective behavioral marker of the attentional sensitivity to food cues, the emotional attentional blink paradigm may provide a useful technique for studying individual differences, and state manipulations in the sensitivity to food cues. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Evidence-based systematic review of saw palmetto by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Catherine; Basch, Ethan; Bent, Steve; Boon, Heather; Corrado, Michelle; Foppa, Ivo; Hashmi, Sadaf; Hammerness, Paul; Kingsbury, Eileen; Smith, Michael; Szapary, Philippe; Vora, Mamta; Weissner, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Here presented is an evidence-based systematic review including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.

  2. JULIO BELLO: AN OLD MAN TALKS ABOUT THE OLD PEOPLE WHO SAW AND LIVED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarcon Agra do Ó

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Invented in Brazil, while the nineteenth and twentieth centuries are still mixed, the modern experience of old age would not have the face that eventually take over without the help of a series of historical practices, including theproduction memoirs Northeast. There in those pages full of memories andassessments of the time, past or present, body translates as aged and since then they began to think (about the world. In this paper I explore the narrativeof one of the most celebrated memoirists Northeast, the Pernambuco Julio Bello Celso de Albuquerque (1873-1951, seeking in it, to discern the profile ofa new mode of experiencing the ages, especially in regard to the which started to be appointed as old age

  3. "I Saw it in a Different Light": International Learning Experiences in Baccalaureate Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Linda V.; DeJoseph, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Ten nursing students and two faculty mentors participated in an immersion experience in Guatemala. Themes from interviews included the experience of being "other," growth as a professional nurse, and expansion of world views. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

  4. Soft see-saw: Radiative origin of neutrino masses in SUSY theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Megrelidze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiative neutrino mass generation within supersymmetric (SUSY construction is studied. The mechanism is considered where the lepton number violation is originating from the soft SUSY breaking terms. This requires MSSM extensions with states around the TeV scale. We present several explicit realizations based on extensions either by MSSM singlet or SU(2w triplet states. Besides some novelties of the proposed scenarios, various phenomenological implications are also discussed.

  5. N ¯ oscillation, high-scale see-saw and origin of matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Working Group 3: Flavor Physics and Model Building Volume 67 Issue 5 November 2006 ... has been a dominant paradigm in the discussion of neutrino masses. ... Department of Physics and Center for String and Particle Theory, University of ...

  6. Observable N–¯N oscillation, high-scale see-saw and origin of matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Physics and Center for String and Particle Theory, University of ... oscillation to be quite plausible theoretically if small neutrino masses are to be ..... S L Glashow, The future of elementary particle physics, in Proceedings of the ...

  7. Impact of Saw Dust Application on the Distribution of Potentially Toxic Metals in Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awokunmi, Emmmanuel E

    2017-12-01

    The need to develop an approach for the reclamation of contaminated site using locally available agricultural waste has been considered. The present study investigated the application of sawdust as an effective amendment in the immobilization of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) by conducting a greenhouse experiment on soil collected from an automobile dumpsite. The amended and non-amended soil samples were analyzed for their physicochemical parameters and sequential extraction of PTMs. The results revealed that application of amendment had positive impact on the physicochemical parameters as organic matter content and cation exchange capacity increased from 12.1% to 12.8% and 16.4 to 16.8 meq/100 g respectively. However, the mobility and bioavalability of these metals was reduced as they were found to be distributed mostly in the non-exchangeable phase of soil. Therefore, application of sawdust successfully immobilized PTMs and could be applied for future studies in agricultural soil reclamation.

  8. Cant sawing log positioning in a sawmill: searching for an optimal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This algorithm was compared to the population-based incremental learning algorithm, the simulated annealing algorithm, and the particle swarm optimisation algorithm. The tentacle algorithm performed the best of all the algorithms evaluated in terms of the mean volume recovery obtained. However, exhaustive searches ...

  9. They saw a movie: long-term memory for an extended audiovisual narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Orit; Dorfman, Nimrod; Hasson, Uri; Davachi, Lila; Dudai, Yadin

    2007-06-01

    We measured long-term memory for a narrative film. During the study session, participants watched a 27-min movie episode, without instructions to remember it. During the test session, administered at a delay ranging from 3 h to 9 mo after the study session, long-term memory for the movie was probed using a computerized questionnaire that assessed cued recall, recognition, and metamemory of movie events sampled approximately 20 sec apart. The performance of each group of participants was measured at a single time point only. The participants remembered many events in the movie even months after watching it. Analysis of performance, using multiple measures, indicates differences between recent (weeks) and remote (months) memory. While high-confidence recognition performance was a reliable index of memory throughout the measured time span, cued recall accuracy was higher for relatively recent information. Analysis of different content elements in the movie revealed differential memory performance profiles according to time since encoding. We also used the data to propose lower limits on the capacity of long-term memory. This experimental paradigm is useful not only for the analysis of behavioral performance that results from encoding episodes in a continuous real-life-like situation, but is also suitable for studying brain substrates and processes of real-life memory using functional brain imaging.

  10. Modeling of microdevices for SAW-based acoustophoresis - A study of boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Nils Refstrup; Bruus, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    We present a finite-element method modeling of acoustophoretic devices consisting of a single, long, straight, water-filled microchannel surrounded by an elastic wall of either borosilicate glass (pyrex) or the elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and placed on top of a piezoelectric transducer...

  11. Contact Resistance Reduction of ZnO Thin Film Transistors (TFTs) with Saw-Shaped Electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Woojin; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Min, Jungwook; Lee, Sang Kyung; Lee, Byoung Hun; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    an enhancement in the output drive current by 50% and reduction in the contact resistance by over 50%, when compared to a typical shaped electrode ZnO TFT consuming the same chip area. This performance enhancement is attributed to extension of channel width

  12. Saw-toothed pattern of sedimentary paleointensity records explained by cumulative viscous remanence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Yvo S.; Tauxe, Lisa

    1996-01-01

    The relative paleointensity of the earth's magnetic field from ODP Site 851 has been characterized by progressive decay w x towards polarity reversals, followed by sharp recovery of pre-reversal values 1 . We resampled the Gilbert-Gaub reversal boundary of this deep-sea core, and show that during

  13. The fourth CERN Golden Hadron awards saw seven of the LHC's best suppliers receive recognition

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    'The Golden Hadron awards are a symbol of our appreciation of not only the quality and timely delivery of components but also the collaborative and flexible way the firms have contributed to this very difficult project,' said Lyn Evans, head of the LHC project.

  14. I saw the sign: the new federal menu-labeling law and lessons from local experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Michelle I

    2010-01-01

    Following the lead of several state and local governments, Congress recently imposed menu-labeling requirements on chain restaurants as part of the federal health care reform bill signed into law in March 2010. Section 4205 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act requires restaurant chains with 20 or more locations nationwide to display calorie information for standard menu items on menus, menu boards, and drive-thru displays. This paper examines the new federal law in light of existing state and local regulations and considers the arguments for and against mandatory calorie labeling at restaurants as a federal tool for preventing obesity. Specifically, this paper examines the provisions of the new federal law, highlights how it differs from the municipal and state menu-labeling laws already in effect, reviews early studies of the effectiveness of these state and local laws, and considers the propriety of requiring restaurants to disclose calorie information on menus by discussing arguments for and against menu labeling generally and calorie labeling in particular. This paper finds that based on initial studies of state and local menu-labeling regulations, the efficacy of compulsory menu labeling as a tool to combat obesity remains uncertain. Finally, this paper raises practical considerations associated with the new federal law, including implementation issues, potential collateral effects of the law, a survey of legal challenges that may arise, and a discussion of the Food and Drug Administration's competence to enforce a menu-labeling requirement against restaurants.

  15. Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Evaluasi Pemilihan Pemenang Pengadaan Aset dengan Metode Simple Additive Weighting (SAW)

    OpenAIRE

    Fajar Nugraha; Bayu Surarso; Beta Noranita

    2014-01-01

    Procurement of assets by auction requires a decision support in selecting the winning bidder so that decision makers can pick and choose the winner of the auction. This study aims to develop a Decision Support System (DSS), which serves as an aid in decision mak ing in the process  of  evaluating  the  winning  bidder  acquisitions.  In order to  achieve  the  purpose  of  SPK  well  then helped  by  using  one  of  the methods in decision-making that is the method of Simple Additive weightin...

  16. The First Time Ever I Saw Your Feet: Inversion Effect in Newborns' Sensitivity to Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Lara; Regolin, Lucia; Simion, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Inversion effect in biological motion perception has been recently attributed to an innate sensitivity of the visual system to the gravity-dependent dynamic of the motion. However, the specific cues that determine the inversion effect in naïve subjects were never investigated. In the present study, we have assessed the contribution of the local…

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF SIMPLE ADDITIVE WEIGHTING (SAW) METHODE IN DETERMINING HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT’S INTEREST

    OpenAIRE

    Prind Triajeng Pungkasanti

    2017-01-01

    The Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of Republic of Indonesia has set a regulation about curriculum applied in education field named Kurikulum 2013. One of the subsections in the Kurikulum 2013 regulates all requirements of majoring in high school. High school students determine their major based on Kurrikulum 2013 as they are on the 10th grade. The purpose of the majoring in education is to allow children development based on their skills and interests, because before, ...

  18. Simulations, fabrication and characterization of diamond coated Love wave-type SAW sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Talbi, A.; Soltani, A.; Rumeau, A.; Taylor, Andrew; Drbohlavová, L.; Klimša, Ladislav; Kopeček, Jaromír; Fekete, Ladislav; Krečmarová, Marie; Mortet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 212, č. 11 (2015), 2606-2610 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA ČR GA13-31783S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : acoustic sensors * chemical vapor deposition * diamond * nanocrystalline materials * quartz * surface acoustic waves Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2015

  19. RELEVANSI STRATEGI DAKWAH HIZBUT TAHRIR INDONESIA DENGAN STRATEGI DAKWAH NABI MUHAMMAD SAW

    OpenAIRE

    Khoerunnisa, Eunis

    2017-01-01

    Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia is a unique and phenomenal propaganda institution. For one decade (1998-2008) it has exercised a very intensive preaching, conception of Islam, enforcement of Syari’ah and the Khilafah ruling system. The purpose of this study is to determine the Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia thinking about: (1) the arguments used by Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia in preaching; (2) the purpose of the preaching of Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia; (3) the method used in the propaganda activities of Hizbut Tah...

  20. Ocean-atmosphere coupled climate model development at SAWS: description and diagnosis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beraki, A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the South African Weather Service's coupled ocean-atmosphere model. The paper also demonstrates the advances made in configuring an operational coupled ocean-atmosphere model in South Africa for seasonal forecast production...

  1. SUSY see-saw and NMSO(10)GUT inflation after BICEP2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-13

    Jan 13, 2016 ... Recently, BICEP2, a telescope mounted at the south pole for background imaging of cosmic extragalatic polarization claimed the detection of the signal of primordial gravitational waves. The gravitational waves active during the inflationary epoch produce polarization in cosmic microwave background.

  2. Hot tests of the small portable arc saw using an electromechanical manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    Satisfactorily disposing of waste generated in the Nuclear Industry appears to be one of the main challenges to utilization of nuclear power as an alternative energy source. Significant progress is being made perfecting processes for safe disposal of fuel end products which constitute the majority of the waste. Of smaller volume is the worn out or failed equipment that has been in contact with radioactive material. Much of this waste is organic such as rubber gloves, clothing, wiping materials, etc. Most of these items can be disposed of directly following proper packaging. More troublesome is metallic equipment such as tanks, reactor vessels, glove boxes, etc. Having been built to withstand long use under hostile operating conditions, these metallic wastes are difficult to handle and difficult to package in acceptable containers for disposal. A general purpose process for disposing of contaminated equipment is not currently available because the waste is in such nonspecific forms. Most processes under development utilize a size reduction step as one of the first orders of business. Subsequent steps may involve packaging, melting, dissolving or remanufacturing

  3. Initial Design and Quick Analysis of SAW Ultra–Wideband HFM Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Janeliauskas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents techniques for initial design and quick fundamental and harmonic operation analysis of surface acoustic waves ultra–wideband hyperbolically frequency modulated (HFM interdigital transducer (IDT. The primary analysis is based on the quasi–static method. Quasi–electrostatic charge's density distribution was approximated by Chebyshev polynomials and the method of Green’s function. It assesses the non uniform charge distribution of electrodes, electric field interaction and the end effects of a whole transducer. It was found that numerical integration (e.g. Romberg, Gauss–Chebyshev requires a lot of machine time for calculation of the Chebyshev polynomial and the Green’s function convolution when integration includes coordinates of a large number of neighboring electrodes. In order to accelerate the charge density calculation, the analytic expressions are derived. Evaluation of HFM transducer fundamental and harmonics' operation amplitude response with simulation single–dispersive interdigital chirp filter structure is presented. Elapsed time of HFM IDT with 589 electrodes simulations and 2000 frequency response point is only 54 seconds (0.027 s/point on PC with CPU Intel Core I7–4770S. Amplitude response is compared with linear frequency modulated (LFM IDT response. It was determined that the HFM transducer characteristic is less distorted in comparison with LFM transducer.

  4. 77 FR 8751 - Table Saw Blade Contact Injuries; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... notice in the Federal Register. Commissioner Robert S. Adler voted to deny the request. Commissioner Adler issued a statement. The web address for Commissioner Adler's statement is: http://www.cpsc.gov/pr...

  5. A stone relief of a water-powered stone saw at Hierapolis, Phrygia

    OpenAIRE

    Grewe, Klaus; Kessener, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Not many drawings or images of technical constructions or machinery have been preserved from classical times. Only in few cases is has been possible to reconstruct the functioning of a technical contraption by means of a description or illustration of the ancient engineer/designer, both for large constructions and for manual tools alike. The modern engineer has no choice but to extract data from the often limited and incomplete remains of the ancient construction or apparatus to decipher the ...

  6. Durability of saw-cut joints in plain cement concrete pavements : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate factors influencing the durability of the joints in portland cement concrete pavement in the state of Indiana. : The scope of the research included the evaluation of the absorption of water in concrete...

  7. Durability of saw-cut joints in plain cement concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate factors influencing the durability of the joints in portland cement concrete : pavement in the state of Indiana. Specifically this work evaluated the absorption of water, the absorption of deicing solutio...

  8. Volume distribution in saw-timber types in the ponderosa pine region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen N. Wyckoff

    1939-01-01

    The forest survey, a Nation-wide project authorized by Congress in 1928, consists of a complete and detailed investigation of the country's present and future forest resources in five major parts: (1) an inventory of the country's existing forest resources in terms of areas occupied by forest-cover types and of timber volumes, by species, in board feet and...

  9. Total knee arthroplasty with a computer-navigated saw: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Kevin L; Barrera, Andres; Mahoney, Craig R; Hartman, Curtis W; Haider, Hani

    2013-01-01

    Computer-aided surgery aims to improve implant alignment in TKA but has only been adopted by a minority for routine use. A novel approach, navigated freehand bone cutting (NFC), is intended to achieve wider acceptance by eliminating the need for cumbersome, implant-specific mechanical jigs and avoiding the expense of navigation. We determined cutting time, surface quality, implant fit, and implant alignment after NFC of synthetic femoral specimens and the feasibility and alignment of a complete TKA performed with NFC technology in cadaveric specimens. Seven surgeons prepared six synthetic femoral specimens each, using our custom NFC system. Cutting times, quality of bone cuts, and implant fit and alignment were assessed quantitatively by CT surface scanning and computational measurements. Additionally, a single surgeon performed a complete TKA on two cadaveric specimens using the NFC system, with cutting time and implant alignment analyzed through plain radiographs and CT. For the synthetic specimens, femoral coronal alignment was within ± 2° of neutral in 94% of the specimens. Sagittal alignment was within 0° to 5° of flexion in all specimens. Rotation was within ± 1° of the epicondylar axis in 97% of the specimens. The mean time to make cuts improved from 13 minutes for the first specimen to 9 minutes for the fourth specimen. TKA was performed in two cadaveric specimens without complications and implants were well aligned. TKA is feasible with NFC, which eliminates the need for implant-specific instruments. We observed a fast learning curve. NFC has the potential to improve TKA alignment, reduce operative time, and reduce the number of instruments in surgery. Fewer instruments and less sterilization could reduce costs associated with TKA.

  10. Investigations on the wire saw process on steels of selected geometries in the encircling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This thesis illustrates a new and innovative model for the usual looping method to describe cutting time and wear. Several test series have been carried out to determine and analyze the various influencing factors. This new model now allows for exact predictions for cutting times and the resulting wear. A special test stand was planned and built. With the help of this test stand various influencing parameters were determined in preliminary tests. Due to the high correlation between these parameters, a matrix was created to rate them. From these results and the findings of the preliminary tests, the boundary conditions such as work piece size were defined and an experimental design was created. Eleven test series were conducted and each one consists of up to ten work pieces. In each test series, only one parameter was changed, the other influencing parameters remained unchanged. The parameter of the following characteristics were varied: the speed of the diamond wire, the feed pressure, the cutting angle, the geometry with respective cutting area, the work piece material, as well as the twisting of the diamond wire. By varying these parameters, the influence could be shown on the performance of the cutting process and also on the wear behavior of the diamond wire. A model was created from the obtained data which enables a cutting time prediction for rectangular work pieces. In addition to the model, a new criterion has been developed, with which it is possible to quantify the progress of wear and to be able to determine a necessary wire replacement. The classification of particle sizes of the accumulated chips has shown that a lower average cutting performance results in a decrease of the average particle size. From this circumstance a termination criterion of <150 μm has been established. When the particle size drops below this value, the cutting process becomes ineffective and should not be continued, or the diamond wire should be replaced, respectively. Furthermore, other studies were conducted to further increase the understanding of the wire cutting process. Parts of work pieces were cut in order to better analyze the local forces. An attempt was made with an underwater wire cutter to compensate for the great disadvantage of the parameter correlation in the looping method in order to achieve a better isolation of the influencing parameters. A special setup showed that the force the diamond wire applies to the work piece is slightly increased on the output side compared to the set feed force. On the work piece's inlet side this value is, if only initially, just one-third of the set feed force. Another special setup was dedicated to the examination and description of a change in the cutting angle in the course of a section using different geometries. Also, the change of the wire's contact length in different work piece shapes was determined. The resulting model provides a more efficient diamond wire cutting process because predictions of the required separation time and thereby of the accumulating wear are now possible.

  11. Modification of Iraqi Asphalt 40/50 Properties Using Saw Dust (SD and Natural Rubber Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusul l M. Darwesh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to enhance the fundamental properties for asphalt binder as those spec-ifications relate to performance of asphalt mixtures. In this paper studied the effect of add (2, 4 % SD in different sizes and (3, 5 and 7% Natural rubber latex to the straight asphalt 40/50 produced from Al-Dura refinery at 160C, it was added each additive separately and then added together to asphalt in same temperature, then tested physically and mechanically according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM, the result showed largely improvement.

  12. "Hey, I Saw Your Grandparents at Walmart": Teacher Education for Rural Schools and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This is a case study about how teacher education might better prepare rural teacher candidates for rural schools. Parents, teachers, community members, and students associated with a rural school described what is important in the preparation of teachers for today's rural schools. Their goals and wishes for their children's school and community…

  13. suitability of saw dust ash-lime mixture for production of sandcrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    material of a building component will lead to the corresponding decrease in the cost of the building. The materials used for production of sand- crete hollow blocks are cement, sand and wa- ter. Cement is the most costly material. Its reduction will definitely reduce the cost of pro- duction of sandcrete hollow blocks and ulti-.

  14. Gauge see-saw: A mechanism for a light gauge boson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye-Sung, E-mail: hlee@ibs.re.kr; Seo, Min-Seok, E-mail: minseokseo@ibs.re.kr

    2017-04-10

    There has been rapidly growing interest in the past decade in a new gauge boson which is considerably lighter than the standard model Z boson. A well-known example of this kind is the so-called dark photon, and it is actively searched for in various experiments nowadays. It would be puzzling to have a new gauge boson which is neither massless nor electroweak scale, but possesses a rather small yet nonzero mass. We present a mechanism that can provide a light gauge boson as a result of a mass matrix diagonalization.

  15. PHYSICAL AND STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF BRICKS PRODUCED FROM PORTLAND CEMENT AND SAW DUST OF DANIELIA OLIVERII WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oriabure EKHUEMELO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of sawdust as partial replacement for sand in wood-concrete hollow blocks. Sharp sand, ordinary Portland cement (binder and sawdust were used as raw materials. Sawdust was treated by boiling then sieved after drying using British Standard sieve of 3.35mm to remove sticky wood capable of causing pores. The quantities of sawdust used were 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. A mixing proportion of 1:8 cement sand ratio, moulding machine with single 6” (450mm x 225mm x 150mm mould and vibrated with 5.0KW power machine for adequate compaction were used. Wood-concrete block was cured for 28 days. The blocks produced were tested for compressive strength and water absorption. The results showed that mean compressive strength of 100% sand was 2.81N/mm2 followed by 95% sand and 5% sawdust replacement with 1.58N/mm2 ; 90% Sand and 10% sawdust replacement with 0.55N/mm2 ; 85% sand and 15% sawdust replacement with 0.43 N/mm2 and 80% sand 20% sawdust replacement with 0.24N/mm2 . The result further showed that as the percentage of sawdust increased, the compressive strength decreased. At 28 days, the compressive strength of blocks with 5% SD replacement satisfied meets Ghana Building Code for non- load bearing walls. The results also reveals that blocks with 80% sand 20% sawdust replacement level has the highest water absorption (23.72% followed by 85% Sand and 15% sawdust replacement (20.40%; 90% sand and 10% sawdust replacement (18.0%; 95% sand and 5% sawdust replacement (12.12% and 100% sand and 0% sawdust replacement (11.43%. It was concluded that 5% sawdust (8kg replacement and cured 28 days could be used for non-load bearing walls. It was recommended that further research should be carried out to evaluate sawdust replacement level within the range of 1-4% to ascertain results that could be used for various other purposes.

  16. Physical and Strength Properties of Bricks Produced from Portland Cement and Saw Dust of Danielia Oliverii Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oriabure EKHUEMELO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of sawdust as partial replacement for sand in wood-concrete hollow blocks. Sharp sand, ordinary Portland cement (binder and sawdust were used as raw materials. Sawdust was treated by boiling then sieved after drying using British Standard sieve of 3.35mm to remove sticky wood capable of causing pores. The quantities of sawdust used were 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. A mixing proportion of 1:8 cement sand ratio, moulding machine with single 6” (450mm x 225mm x 150mm mould and vibrated with 5.0KW power machine for adequate compaction were used. Wood-concrete block was cured for 28 days. The blocks produced were tested for compressive strength and water absorption. The results showed that mean compressive strength of 100% sand was 2.81N/mm2 followed by 95% sand and 5% sawdust replacement with 1.58N/mm2 ; 90% Sand and 10% sawdust replacement with 0.55N/mm2 ; 85% sand and 15% sawdust replacement with 0.43 N/mm2 and 80% sand 20% sawdust replacement with 0.24N/mm2 . The result further showed that as the percentage of sawdust increased, the compressive strength decreased. At 28 days, the compressive strength of blocks with 5% SD replacement satisfied meets Ghana Building Code for non- load bearing walls. The results also reveals that blocks with 80% sand 20% sawdust replacement level has the highest water absorption (23.72% followed by 85% Sand and 15% sawdust replacement (20.40%; 90% sand and 10% sawdust replacement (18.0%; 95% sand and 5% sawdust replacement (12.12% and 100% sand and 0% sawdust replacement (11.43%. It was concluded that 5% sawdust (8kg replacement and cured 28 days could be used for non-load bearing walls. It was recommended that further research should be carried out to evaluate sawdust replacement level within the range of 1-4% to ascertain results that could be used for various other purposes.

  17. Prospective trial of an herbal formula BYSH and Saw palmetto in patients with hormonal refractory prostate cancer: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Anthony C-F; Cheng, K-F; Leung, P-C

    2014-01-01

    BYSH, a herbal formula, was evaluated for efficacy and safety in a pilot study for patients with advanced hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). The pilot study was designed as a single-center open-label trial. Patients with HRPC were treated with BYSH for 24 weeks. The primary end point was the changes in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Safety parameters such as liver and renal functions were monitored during the study period. Ten patients were eligible for the study. Most of them had stable PSA levels while taking BYSH. However, at the end of the BYSH treatment, the level of PSA increased. The median survival from diagnosis of HRPC was 16.4 months. Liver and renal functions remained normal. BYSH was well tolerated and no patient reported adverse events during the study period. Although it is inappropriate to make a conclusion based on the pilot study results, the trend of improvement is obvious. Further investigations should be conducted to demonstrate its clinical benefits. We have also briefly reviewed some plant products which are patented and also available in market.

  18. Inhibition of inflammatory gene expression in keratinocytes using a composition containing carnitine, thioctic Acid and saw palmetto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittur, Sridar; Parr, Brian; Marcovici, Geno

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the hair follicle (HF) is considered a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Previously, we clinically tested liposterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) and its glycoside, β-sitosterol, in subjects with AGA and showed a highly positive response to treatment. In this study, we sought to determine whether blockade of inflammation using a composition containing LSESr as well as two anti-inflammatory agents (carnitine and thioctic acid) could alter the expression of molecular markers of inflammation in a well-established in vitro system. Using a well-validated assay representative of HF keratinocytes, specifically, stimulation of cultured human keratinocyte cells in vitro, we measured changes in gene expression of a spectrum of well-known inflammatory markers. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provided an inflammatory stimulus. In particular, we found that the composition effectively suppressed LPS-activated gene expression of chemokines, including CCL17, CXCL6 and LTB(4) associated with pathways involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the test compound exhibits anti-inflammatory characteristics in a well-established in vitro assay representing HF keratinocyte gene expression. These findings suggest that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors combined with blockade of inflammatory processes could represent a novel two-pronged approach in the treatment of AGA with improved efficacy over current modalities.

  19. Inhibition of Inflammatory Gene Expression in Keratinocytes Using a Composition Containing Carnitine, Thioctic Acid and Saw Palmetto Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridar Chittur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation of the hair follicle (HF is considered a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia (AGA. Previously, we clinically tested liposterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr and its glycoside, β-sitosterol, in subjects with AGA and showed a highly positive response to treatment. In this study, we sought to determine whether blockade of inflammation using a composition containing LSESr as well as two anti-inflammatory agents (carnitine and thioctic acid could alter the expression of molecular markers of inflammation in a well-established in vitro system. Using a well-validated assay representative of HF keratinocytes, specifically, stimulation of cultured human keratinocyte cells in vitro, we measured changes in gene expression of a spectrum of well-known inflammatory markers. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS provided an inflammatory stimulus. In particular, we found that the composition effectively suppressed LPS-activated gene expression of chemokines, including CCL17, CXCL6 and LTB(4 associated with pathways involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the test compound exhibits anti-inflammatory characteristics in a well-established in vitro assay representing HF keratinocyte gene expression. These findings suggest that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors combined with blockade of inflammatory processes could represent a novel two-pronged approach in the treatment of AGA with improved efficacy over current modalities.

  20. Saw palmetto and finasteride in the treatment of category-III prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jennifer; Te, Alexis E

    2005-07-01

    Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is a common entity for which a standardized management has not been established. Patients often have a significant symptom complex and impact on quality of life, but very little is known about the efficacy of second- and third-line treatments, such as the use of herbal supplements. Many treatments studied in recent literature include antibiotics, alpha-blockade, anti-inflammatory agents, and cognitive behavioral interventions such as biofeedback and psychotherapy.

  1. ‘I just saw this on Facebook, I need it now’: Exploring Small Business use of Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Augar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study exploring social media adoption and use by twelve small businesses. Results indicate that Facebook is the dominant platform used and it can provide small businesses with a virtually cost free and easy way to reach customers. Businesses reported immediate results from using Facebook; customers arrived in store after seeing Facebook posts. Participants felt there were minimal risks involved and none had experienced negative feedback or inappropriate posts. Most felt that using Facebook increased their competitive advantage due to their enhanced online profile. Despite some effort to engage customers, business to consumer transfer of information is the primary function of the Facebook pages studied. Page owners report limited training for and analysis of their Facebook activities. This indicates a need for further research in the small business context, focused on approaches to boosting customer interaction, to realize the full potential of Facebook engagement.

  2. 'Dear diary I saw an angel, she looked like heaven on earth': Sex talk and sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattman, Rob; Chege, Fatuma

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we highlight and address some of the problems involved in teaching HIV/AIDS education in southern and eastern Africa, and especially in generating open discussion among pupils about sex and sexuality. The paper draws on the findings of a UNICEF-funded study, in which we were involved, as research consultants (2001). The study focused on 'young people, gender, sexuality and HIV/AIDS education' and was conducted in Botswana, Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. In Botswana, Rwanda and Kenya, teachers and young people were interviewed about their attitudes towards and experiences of teaching/learning HIV/AIDS education. Young people were also interviewed more generally, in all the countries, about what it was like being a boy or girl of their age. We argue that HIV/AIDS education, as it is commonly taught, as a series of moral injunctions (against pre marital sex) effectively silences young people, and means that sex 'becomes' naughty when they do talk about it. We propose HIV/AIDS pedagogies, which emulate the practices our researchers adopted when researching the identities and views of boys and girls, especially concerning gender and sexuality. By addressing young people as experts about themselves and in a holistic and non-judgemental way, our interviewees were able to speak about anxieties and pleasures, many of which related to sexuality. This, they had not been able to do with other adults, and even with other children. We focus on the regulation and production of gender identities through the ways boys and girls talked about sex in our interviews and also in their participation in HIV/AIDS classes. In particular we look at how boys and girls 'performed' gender when discussing sexuality with boys often very loud and girls quiet, with boys presenting themselves as sexual and girls presenting themselves as asexual. We argue for approaches to HIV/AIDS education which challenge gender power relations without alienating boys by problematising them, and without reproducing stereotypes of boys as subjects and girls as objects of sexual desire. We examine the implications of this for single sex and mixed group work and for addressing 'sexual harassment'. Importantly, we found that both girls and boys described people of the opposite sex and heterosexual desire very differently in mixed-sex group interviews and in the diaries they kept. Rather than addressing girls and boys as unitary gendered subjects, we argue for approaches in HIV/AIDS education, which are responsive to the different and contradictory ways boys and girls present themselves and talk about sexual desire and the opposite sex in different contexts.

  3. I saw where you have been--The topography of human demonstration affects dogs' search patterns and perseverative errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, András; Topál, József; Miklósi, Ádám; Pongrácz, Péter

    2016-04-01

    Performance in object search tasks is not only influenced by the subjects' object permanence ability. For example, ostensive cues of the human manipulating the target markedly affect dogs' choices. However, the interference between the target's location and the spatial cues of the human hiding the object is still unknown. In a five-location visible displacement task, the experimental groups differed in the hiding route of the experimenter. In the 'direct' condition he moved straight towards the actual location, hid the object and returned to the dog. In the 'indirect' conditions, he additionally walked behind each screen before returning. The two 'indirect' conditions differed from each other in that the human either visited the previously baited locations before (proactive interference) or after (retroactive interference) hiding the object. In the 'indirect' groups, dogs' performance was significantly lower than in the 'direct' group, demonstrating that for dogs, in an ostensive context, spatial cues of the hider are as important as the observed location of the target. Based on their incorrect choices, dogs were most attracted to the previously baited locations that the human visited after hiding the object in the actual trial. This underlines the importance of retroactive interference in multiple choice tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A see-saw of pre-Columbian boom regions in southern Peru, determined by large-scale circulation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mächtle, B.; Schittek, K.; Forbriger, M.; Schäbitz, F.; Eitel, B.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental changes and cultural transitions during several periods of Peruvian history show a strong coincidence between humid and dry climatic oscillations and the rise and decline of cultures. It is noteworthy, that alternating periods of geo-ecological fragility and stability occurred in time and space between the coastal Nasca region (14.5° S) and the high Andean northern Titicaca basin, just a few hundred kilometers to the east. Based on a multi-proxy palynological and sedimentological approach to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental changes, we found that the Nasca region received a maximum of precipitation during the archaeological boom times of the Early Horizon and the Early Intermediate Period (800 BC - 650 AD, Paracas and Nasca cultures) as well as during the late intermediate period (1150-1450 AD), whereas, in contrast, the Titicaca region further to the south-east experienced drought and cultural depression during that times. During the Middle Horizon (650 - 1150 AD), the Tiwanaku agronomy and culture boomed in the Titicaca region and expanded to the west, contemporaneous with a raised lake level and more humid conditions. In the Nasca region, runoff for irrigation purposes was reduced and less reliable due to drought. Considering a coincidence between environmental and cultural changes, we state that success and decline of civilizations were controlled by hydrological oscillations, triggering fertility as well as a critical loss of natural resources. In response to spatial changing resources, cultural foci were shifted. Therefore, the success of pre-Columbian civilizations was closely coupled to areas of geo-ecological favorability, which were directly controlled by distinct regional impacts of large-scale circulation mechanisms, including El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Changes in the position of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the Bolivian anticyclone determined meridional shifts in moisture transport across the Andes, which directly triggered human migration to the respective granaries.

  5. Peptidomimetic hydroxamate metalloproteinase inhibitors abrogate local and systemic toxicity induced by Echis ocellatus (saw-scaled) snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ana Silvia; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María

    2017-06-15

    The ability of two peptidomimetic hydroxamate metalloproteinase inhibitors, Batimastat and Marimastat, to abrogate toxic and proteinase activities of the venom of Echis ocellatus from Cameroon and Ghana was assessed. Since this venom largely relies for its toxicity on the action of zinc-dependent metalloproteinases (SVMPs), the hypothesis was raised that toxicity could be largely eliminated by using SVMP inhibitors. Both hydroxamate molecules inhibited local and pulmonary hemorrhagic, in vitro coagulant, defibrinogenating, and proteinase activities of the venoms in conditions in which venom and inhibitors were incubated prior to the test. In addition, the inhibitors prolonged the time of death of mice receiving 4 LD 50 s of venom by the intravenous route. Lower values of IC 50 were observed for in vitro and local hemorrhagic activities than for systemic effects. When experiments were performed in conditions that simulated the actual circumstances of snakebite, i.e. by administering the inhibitor after envenoming, Batimastat completely abrogated local hemorrhage if injected immediately after venom. Moreover, it was also effective at inhibiting lethality and defibrinogenation when venom and inhibitor were injected by the intraperitoneal route. Results suggest that these, and possibly other, metalloproteinase inhibitors may become an effective adjunct therapy in envenomings by E. ocellatus when administered at the anatomic site of venom injection rapidly after the bite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Real-time monitoring of calcium carbonate and cationic peptide deposition on carboxylate-SAM using a microfluidic SAW biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pohl

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A microfluidic biosensor with surface acoustic wave technology was used in this study to monitor the interaction of calcium carbonate with standard carboxylate self-assembled monolayer sensor chips. Different fluids, with and without biomolecular components, were investigated. The pH-dependent surface interactions of two bio-inspired cationic peptides, AS8 and ES9, which are similar to an extracellular domain of the chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation, were also investigated in a biological buffer system. A range of experimental conditions are described that are suitable to study non-covalent molecular interactions in the presence of ionic substances, such as, mineral precursors below the solubility equilibrium. The peptide ES9, equal to the mollusc chitin synthase epitope, is less sensitive to changes in pH than its counterpart AS8 with a penta-lysine core, which lacks the flanking acidic residues. This study demonstrates the extraordinary potential of microfluidic surface acoustic wave biosensors to significantly expand our experimental capabilities for studying the principles underlying biomineralization in vitro.

  7. Reporting on What Jane Saw 2.0: Female Celebrity and Sensationalism in Boydell’s Shakespeare Gallery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Barchas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay reports on ongoing efforts to build an accurate digital model of John Boydell’s popular Shakespeare Gallery precisely as it looked in August 1796—when a 20-year-old Jane Austen visited London’s sites, staying within a ten-minute walk from the gallery. The essay argues for the substantial difference between studying Boydell’s pictures in a paper volume (whether as lists, illustrations in books, or engraved folio plates and viewing them as an exhibition of paintings on walls, albeit virtual ones. For example, the digital reconstruction illuminated commissions from several female participants in Boydell’s male-dominated gallery, especially Angelica Kauffman (1741-1807 and Anne Seymour Damer (1749-1828. In addition, the essay also recounts how the celebrity of model Emma Hart/Hamilton (1765-1815 safeguarded one Boydell painting from oblivion while The Shakespeare Gallery proved the site of a strange form of self-promotion practiced by actress Mary Wells (1762-1829. Our digital visualization of an historic exhibition in 1796 brought the controversial celebrity of a few women artists into focus. In sum, this essay shows DH methodology in action while sampling what might be gleaned when digital tools serve historical scholarship in the humanities.

  8. Non-Destructive Detection of Rebar Buried in a Reinforced Concrete Wall with Wireless Passive SAW Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yanping; Ji, Xiaojun; Cai, Ping; Lu, Qianhui

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce the damage to the old reinforced concrete walls and work out the best construction scheme during the renovation of old buildings, it is often required to detect the position of rebar buried in concrete walls. In this paper, we propose a non-destructive method to detect the buried rebar by self-inductive sensor combined with surface acoustic wave resonator (SAWR). The proposed method has the advantages of wireless, passive and convenient operations. In our new design, the sensing element of self-inductance coil was made as a component of SAWR matching network. The distribution of rebar could be measured according to the system resonant frequency, using a signal demodulation device set. The depth of buried rebar and the deviation of output resonant frequency from inherent frequency of SAWR have an inverse relation. Finally, the validity of the method was verified in theoretical calculation and simulation.

  9. TGfU--Would You Know It if You Saw It? Benchmarks from the Tacit Knowledge of the Founders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Joy

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the tacit expert knowledge and understanding about games curriculum and pedagogy of three men, Len Almond, David Bunker, and Rod Thorpe, credited as the founders of the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) model. The model emerged from teacher practice in the late 1970s and was little theorized at the time, apart from a…

  10. ZnO/AlN diamond layered structure for SAW devices combining higl velocity and high electromechanical coupling coefficient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    El Hakiki, M.; Elmazria, O.; Assouar, M.B.; Mortet, V.; Le Brizoual, L.; Vaněček, Milan; Alnot, P.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2005), s. 1175-1178 ISSN 0925-9635 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) HPRN-CT-1999-00139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : aluminium nitride * zinc oxide * diamond * surface acoustic wave devices Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2005

  11. For Me It Was When I Saw a Simple Chart: Former Climate Contrarians Recount What Changed Their Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, K. B.

    2017-12-01

    Efforts to advance climate policy in the US have been hindered by a sector of the public that is reluctant to accept the science of anthropogenic climate change. Climate educators, advocates, and policymakers seek to resolve this roadblock through educational efforts and strategic messaging, while social science research strives to understand the causes of resistance on climate change. A discussion on the social media platform, AskReddit, offered a surprising source of insight when a tantalizing question was posed, "Former climate deniers, what changed your mind?" Responses to the query offered a rare glimpse into the process of how people switched camps, outgrew their parents' values, had transformative experiences, or were worn down by mounting scientific evidence. The posts contained 66 examples of people who were initially uncertain or dismissive of climate change, but came to accept the mainstream science. The commenters provided insightful narratives describing the origins of their skeptical beliefs, the rationales for their changing opinions, and the events that caused them to reverse course. Analysis of the comments revealed the primary reasons that influenced people to change their minds. Those were: science and evidence (cited as a factor in 47% of the comments); stewardship for the Earth and concerns about pollution (29%); unusual weather events (21%); and the untrustworthiness of the messengers who claim that climate change is false (17%). Note that several commenters pointed to more than one factor that contributed to their evolving views. While neither the setting nor the sample size allow a robust scientific analysis, these anecdotal accounts offer useful insights on a vexing problem. Learning about the circumstances that lead people to update their thinking can help us improve efforts to communicate the science and policy around climate change. This work is the topic of an article at Yale Climate Connections, https://www.yaleclimateconnections.org/2017/04/changing-minds-on-a-changing-climate/.

  12. A 1.2-V CMOS front-end for LTE direct conversion SAW-less receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Riyan; Li Zhengping; Zhang Weifeng; Zeng Longyue; Huang Jiwei

    2012-01-01

    A CMOS RF front-end for the long-term evolution (LTE) direct conversion receiver is presented. With a low noise transconductance amplifier (LNA), current commutating passive mixer and transimpedance operational amplifier (TIA), the RF front-end structure enables high-integration, high linearity and simple frequency planning for LTE multi-band applications. Large variable gain is achieved using current-steering transconductance stages. A current commutating passive mixer with 25% duty-cycle LO improves gain, noise and linearity. A direct coupled current-input filter (DCF) is employed to suppress the out-of-band interferer. Fabricated in a 0.13-μm CMOS process, the RF front-end achieves a 45 dB conversion voltage gain, 2.7 dB NF, −7 dBm IIP3, and +60 dBm IIP2 with calibration from 2.3 to 2.7 GHz. The total RF front end with divider draws 40 mA from a single 1.2-V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  13. Women Saw Large Decrease In Out-Of-Pocket Spending For Contraceptives After ACA Mandate Removed Cost Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nora V; Polsky, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The Affordable Care Act mandates that private health insurance plans cover prescription contraceptives with no consumer cost sharing. The positive financial impact of this new provision on consumers who purchase contraceptives could be substantial, but it has not yet been estimated. Using a large administrative claims data set from a national insurer, we estimated out-of-pocket spending before and after the mandate. We found that mean and median per prescription out-of-pocket expenses have decreased for almost all reversible contraceptive methods on the market. The average percentages of out-of-pocket spending for oral contraceptive pill prescriptions and intrauterine device insertions by women using those methods both dropped by 20 percentage points after implementation of the ACA mandate. We estimated average out-of-pocket savings per contraceptive user to be $248 for the intrauterine device and $255 annually for the oral contraceptive pill. Our results suggest that the mandate has led to large reductions in total out-of-pocket spending on contraceptives and that these price changes are likely to be salient for women with private health insurance. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. Analysis of chain saw lubricating oils commonly used in Thailand's southern border provinces for forensic science purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choodum, Aree; Tripuwanard, Kijja; Daeid, Niamh Nic

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, Thailand's southern border provinces (Malay-Muslim-majority border provinces) have become the scene of violence and insurgency. One of the attack patterns is the blocking of roads with perennial plants followed by planned attacks using improvised explosive devices (IEDs) or weapons on first responders. Containers of viscous dark lubricating oil and traces of lubricants on the felled trees were usually found at the scene. These were suspected to be chain oil lubricant from the chainsaws used to cut down the trees used for the roadblock. This work aimed to differentiate the chromatographic patterns of used lubricating oils available in automobile repair shops from various locations across Thailand's southern border provinces. Lubricating oils were analyzed using gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) every two weeks to study their variation in chemical compositions over time. The results obtained from GC/FID were normalized for differentiation. This included four two-stroke, six four-stroke, and three recycled oils. Two lubricating oils found at an incident scene were also analyzed and the results compared with the chain oil from five seized chainsaws. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A general method for propagation of the phase space distribution, with application to the saw-tooth instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnock, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The authors propose and illustrate a general numerical method to follow the probability distribution in phase space as a function of time. It applies to any multiparticle system governed by Liouville, Vlasov or Vlasov-Fokker-Planck dynamics. The technique, based on discretization of the local Perron-Frobenius operator, is simple in concept, easy to implement, and numerically stable in examples studied to date. The authors illustrate by treating longitudinal dynamics in electron storage rings with realistic wake field. Applied to the SLC damping rings, the method gives the observed current threshold for bunch lengthening, and several aspects of observed behavior above threshold, including the presence of a bursting or sawtooth mode. In contrast to previous particle-in-cell simulations, the authors have very low numerical noise and the ability to follow the motion over several damping times. The method has also been applied to the coherent beam-beam interaction. It appears likely that this approach will be of interest for some of the central problems of this workshop, for instance matching of space-charge dominated beams to a focusing channel, and coherent synchrotron radiation with self-consistent charge/current density

  16. Contr rol of r root-kn saw not nem wdust matod in tom e by u mato ro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    proved with visualizing mical level a ot-knot nema ard dust ame dust. by- and accum ..... Table 2. Effect of sawdust on length of shoot and root (cm) of tomato plants. ...... Evaluation of powdered pine bark for control of Meloidogyne arenaria.

  17. "Such a smoking nation as this I never saw...": smoking, nationalism, and manliness in nineteenth-century Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco smoking became an important marker of Hungarian national identity during the nineteenth century. this national symbol ultimately had an economic origin: Hungarian tobacco producers resisted the tobacco monopoly of the Habsburg central government, and led an ultimately successful consumer boycott of Austrian products. Tobacco nationalism, however, became a common theme in Hungarian popular culture in its own right, as tobacco use came to symbolize community and fraternity. The use of tobacco was also highly gendered; smoking as a metaphor for membership shows that the Hungarian nation was a gender-exclusive "national brotherhood."

  18. ESTETIKA KESENIAN TERBANG PAPAT DALAM TRADISI KARNAVAL AMPYANG MAULUD NABI MUHAMMAD SAW DI DESA LORAM KULON KECAMATAN JATI KABUPATEN KUDUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idih Tri Relianto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Maraknya kesenian modern yang berkembang dimasyarakat pada saat ini, berakibat terhadap merosotnya eksistensi kesenian daerah. Meskipun demikian karena adanya kearipan lokal diantaranya ada yang masih bertahan. Berdasarkan latar belakang tersebut penelitian peneliti merumuskan permasalahan diantaranya :estetika kesenian terbang papat dalam tradisi karnaval ampyang,bagaimana bentuk interaksi simbolik masyarakat terhadap kesenian terbang papat dalam tradisi karnaval ampyang. Metode penelitian yang dipakai peneliti adalah metode kualitatif dengan memusatkan pada metode riset lapangan, dalam hal ini teknik pengumpulan data dialakukan dengan cara wawancara, observasi, teknik studi dokumen, Berdasarkan data yang diperoleh hal ini dapat disimpulankan sebagai berikut. Dilihat dari segi penampilan antara lain : bentuk esetika kesenian terbang papat terletak pada instrumennya, pola pukulan, teknik permainan, juga pesan dari syair yang dilagukan. Ditemukan dua motif pola irama terbang papat yaitu motif gombrang dan motif krangen, keunikan yang lain adalah pada instrument jedor, seniman terbang papat pada saat memainkan alat musik terbang papat harus dapat menguasai nada dan syair terlebih dahulu. Bentuk dari interaksi sosial masyarakat adalah ditemukan beberapa rangkaian acara terbang papat dalam tradisi karnaval ampyang yaitu; nganten mubeng gapuro padurekso, tradisi nasi kepel, tradisi loram bersholawat atau tradisi albarzanji, dan juga Loram ekspo. The rise of modern art that developed in the community at this time, causes a decline in the existence of local arts. How everdue to the local genius some of which still survive. Based on this background, the study research hers formulate problem ssuch as:aesthetics art terbang papat in ampyang carnival tradition, how the forms of social interaction on the terbang papat art in the tradition of carnival ampyang. The research method is a method of observation, document study techniques, Based on the data obtainedit can be concluded as follows. In terms of appearance among others: esetika art form terbang papat located on the instrument, pattern punch, playing techniques, also the message of the poemsung. Found two motifs terbang papat rhythm patterns and motifs baggy motifs Krangen, another unique nessison jedor instruments, artists terbang papat when playing a musical instrument terbang papat should be able to master the tone and lyrics first. Forms of social interaction is found terbang papat a series of events in the carnival tradition ampyang namely; nganten mubeng gapuro padurekso, nasi kepel tradition, tradition or tradition sloram bersholawatal barzanji, and also loram expo Maraknya kesenian modern yang berkembang dimasyarakat pada saat ini, berakibat terhadap merosotnya eksistensi kesenian daerah. Meskipun demikian karena adanya kearipan lokal diantaranya ada yang masih bertahan. Berdasarkan latar belakang tersebut penelitian peneliti merumuskan permasalahan diantaranya :estetika kesenian terbang papat dalam tradisi karnaval ampyang,bagaimana bentuk interaksi simbolik masyarakat terhadap kesenian terbang papat dalam tradisi karnaval ampyang. Metode penelitian yang dipakai peneliti adalah metode kualitatif dengan memusatkan pada metode riset lapangan, dalam hal ini teknik pengumpulan data dialakukan dengan cara wawancara, observasi, teknik studi dokumen, Berdasarkan data yang diperoleh hal ini dapat disimpulankan sebagai berikut. Dilihat dari segi penampilan antara lain : bentuk esetika kesenian terbang papat terletak pada instrumennya, pola pukulan, teknik permainan, juga pesan dari syair yang dilagukan. Ditemukan dua motif pola irama terbang papat yaitu motif gombrang dan motif krangen, keunikan yang lain adalah pada instrument jedor, seniman terbang papat pada saat memainkan alat musik terbang papat harus dapat menguasai nada dan syair terlebih dahulu. Bentuk dari interaksi sosial masyarakat adalah ditemukan beberapa rangkaian acara terbang papat dalam tradisi karnaval ampyang yaitu; nganten mubeng gapuro padurekso, tradisi nasi kepel, tradisi loram bersholawat atau tradisi albarzanji, dan juga Loram ekspo.

  19. See-sawing between work and home: Shift-working mothers’ perceptions on work/family balance

    OpenAIRE

    Huhtala, Eija; Uusiautti, Satu; Määttä, Kaarina

    2012-01-01

    Recent public discourse and studies are filled with issues related to work/family balance. Shift work concretely affects family life considerably already starting from the schedule the family has to follow because of one or both parents’ work shifts. The purpose of this study is to contribute by dissecting shift worker-mothers’ perceptions on the balance between shift work and family life. This research was a qualitative study where eight shift-working mothers were interviewed. This phenomeno...

  20. Real-time monitoring of calcium carbonate and cationic peptide deposition on carboxylate-SAM using a microfluidic SAW biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Anna; Weiss, Ingrid M

    2014-01-01

    A microfluidic biosensor with surface acoustic wave technology was used in this study to monitor the interaction of calcium carbonate with standard carboxylate self-assembled monolayer sensor chips. Different fluids, with and without biomolecular components, were investigated. The pH-dependent surface interactions of two bio-inspired cationic peptides, AS8 and ES9, which are similar to an extracellular domain of the chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation, were also investigated in a biological buffer system. A range of experimental conditions are described that are suitable to study non-covalent molecular interactions in the presence of ionic substances, such as, mineral precursors below the solubility equilibrium. The peptide ES9, equal to the mollusc chitin synthase epitope, is less sensitive to changes in pH than its counterpart AS8 with a penta-lysine core, which lacks the flanking acidic residues. This study demonstrates the extraordinary potential of microfluidic surface acoustic wave biosensors to significantly expand our experimental capabilities for studying the principles underlying biomineralization in vitro.