WorldWideScience

Sample records for sawdust

  1. Acid hydrolysis of hemicelluloses in beech sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojnos, J.

    1977-01-01

    The hemicellulose of beechwood consists mainly of 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan, 92.4 to 94.4% of which is selectively hydrolyzed to D-xylose (1) by exposing moist beechwood sawdust to HCl (g) at 50/sup 0/ for 50 min. The prepn. of 1 in 85.6% yield from beechwood sawdust can also be carried out by heating it at 140/sup 0/ for 70 to 100 min in 3 to 4.5% H/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ soln. Dry SO/sub 2/(g) does not hydrolyze beechwood sawdust.

  2. Effects of pine sawdust, hardwood sawdust, and peat on bareroot soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Koll; Martin F. Jurgensen; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of three organic amendments on soil properties and seedling growth at the USDA Forest Service JW Toumey Nursery in Watersmeet, MI. Pine sawdust (red pine, Pinus resinosa), hardwood sawdust (maple [Acer spp.] and aspen [Populus spp.]), and peat were individually incorporated into a loamy sand nursery soil in August 2006, and soil properties...

  3. Saccharification of delignified sawdust from 20 different trees in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    volumes of almost 104 000 m3 sawdust (Aina, 2006) are incinerated, burnt or accumulated on the banks of the. Lagos Lagoon where the ocean tide and waves washes these wood residuals into the lagoon causing water pollution (Akparta and Ekundayo, 1983). Sawdust clogs water ways and it enhances the germination of ...

  4. Development of Particleboard from Waste Styrofoam and Sawdust

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    Disposal of sawdust has always been a problem of growing concern to the wood industries in Nigeria due to its negative impact on the economy and environment. Enormous quantities of sawdust are produced annually by sawmills. Likewise, in recent years, the Styrofoam, otherwise known as expanded polystyrene (EPS) ...

  5. Growing reforestation conifer stock: Utilizing peat/sawdust medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K. Schaefer

    2009-01-01

    Western Forest Systems, Incorporated (WFS) (Lewiston, ID) has been utilizing a peat/sawdust blended mix as our growing medium for the past 10 years. Our decision to change from a peat/vermiculite blend to a peat/Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) sawdust blend involved worker health and safety issues, seedling culture, seedling production, and...

  6. Response of cowpea, okra and tomato sawdust ash manure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at Akure and Obaile in Southwest Nigeria to test effect of sawdust ash manure treatments on cowpea (var. 1T82D – 716), okra (var. NAAe – 47 – 4) and Roma variety of tomato. The nutrient analysis of leaf and pod of okra given by different sawdust ash manure treatments was done.

  7. Growth and yield of anthurium in response to sawdust mulching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objectives of the study were to analyze the effect of sawdust mulch on the: (1 soil characteristics; (2 growth and flower yield of the anthurium cv. 'Apalai'. Assay was conducted in a totally randomized design in subdivided plots, with five treatments and eight replications. The treatment consisted of five volumes of sawdust 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80L m-2, distributed over the bed, every three months. Soil, plants and flower stalks were evaluated during two years. Soil temperature, moisture, organic matter, bulk density and water retention conditions were improved, while the leaf area of plants and the yield of flower stalks were increased when the soil were mulched with sawdust. In addition to increasing soil organic matter, however, no change occurred in the level of nutrients in plants. Sawdust also improved the dimension of flower stalks. Application of 40L m-2 of sawdust every three months is recommended.

  8. Development and production of brake pad from sawdust composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Sius LAWAL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research work on new alternative materials for brake pad. A new asbestos free brake pad was developed using an agro waste material of sawdust along with other ingredients. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of sawdust which are largely deposited as waste around sawmills in replacing asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. A brake pad was produced using sawdust as a base material following the standard procedure employed by the manufacturers. The sawdust was sieved into sieve grades of 100μm, 355μm and 710μm. The sieved sawdust was used in production of brake pad in ratio of 55% sawdust, 15% steel dust, 5% graphite, 10% silicon carbide and 15% epoxy resin using compression moulding. The properties examined are microstructure analysis, hardness, compressive strength, density, ash content, wear rate and water absorption. The results obtained showed that the finer the sieve size the better the properties. The results obtained in this work were compared with that of commercial brake pad (asbestos based and showed a close correlation. Hence sawdust can be used in production of asbestos-free brake pad.

  9. The carbonaceous concrete based on sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELOUSOVA Elena Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today there are many requirements for strength, ecology and economy of produced concretes. The authors of the paper study attenuation of electromagnetic radiation of carbonaceous powders in the concrete composition. Carbon black was selected as a carbon powder for addition in concrete composition. Carbon black is a nanomaterial with disoriented structure of particles (average size is about 50 nm. The composition of the carbon black contains at least 90 wt.% amorphous carbon, more than 5 wt. % chemisorbed oxygen and about 4 wt.% of impurities. Materials with the addition of carbon black have electrical conductivity due to the high content of carbon. These materials are able to absorb electromagnetic radiation. For cement composition with addition of carbon black (more than 30 wt. % and water transmission coefficient of electromagnetic radiation is about –10 dB, for cement composition with 20 wt. % of carbon black the reflection coefficient is –8 dB in the frequency range 8–12 GHz. The concretes with a saturated aqueous solution of calcium chloride and 10% of carbon black possess minimal reflection coefficient (–14... –8 dB. Electromagnetic radiation shielding of concrete with the addition of sawdust was investigated. The concrete with sawdust (40 wt. % impregnated with an aqueous solution with carbon black has the reflection coefficient less than –8 dB and transmission coefficient –40 dB in the frequency range 8–12 GHz. These concretes can be used for creation of a shielded room with the technical equipment for information processing to prevent data leakage through the compromising emanations and crosstalk.

  10. Heavy metal ions adsorption from mine waters by sawdust

    OpenAIRE

    G. Bogdanović; Milan Gorgievski; Dragana Božić; Velizar Stanković

    2009-01-01

    In this work the results on the batch and column adsorption of copper and some associated ions by employing linden and poplar sawdust as a low-cost adsorbent are presented. The mine water from a local abandoned copper mine, as well as synthetic solutions of those ions which are the main constituents of the mine water were both used as a model-system in this study. The adsorption ability of the chosen sawdust to adsorb heavy metal ions is considered as a function of the initial pH of the solut...

  11. Estimation of Properties of Unfired Ceramic Products with Sawdust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previously obtained experimental data have been used to develop empirical models to estimate the physical and mechanical properties of unfired ceramic model products with sawdust additives. The models were herein used to study similar product development requiring additives such as straw to meet specific properties ...

  12. Studies on the degraduation of wood sawdust by Lentinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer, a basidiomycete also known as a white rot fungi, was immobilized on sodium alginate and tested for the effectiveness to degrade wood sawdust (WSD). Untreated and 0.1 M HCl-pretreated WSD samples were separately reacted in a micro-carrier bioreactor (mCBR) and the extent of ...

  13. Cobalt removal from wastewater using pine sawdust | Musapatika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was observed that the combined effect of low adsorbent dose, high pH and high initial concentration of wastewater resulted in the highest adsorption capacity. The Freundlich isotherm provided a better fit to the experimental data than the Langmuir isotherm. Moreover, pine sawdust showed adsorption capabilities for ...

  14. Growth and productivity of ( Pleurotus floridanus ) on sawdust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study was conducted to investigate growth and biological efficiency of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus floridanus) cultivated on different proportions of sawdust substrate supplemented with wheat bran. The experiment was a complete randomized design with three treatments (A- 500g , B-1000g and C-1500g) 10 replicates ...

  15. Effect of detergent and sawdust addition on hydrocarbon reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) and okra growth performance (shoot length, leaf number, root length, total fresh weight, dry weight, leaf area and leaf area ratio) were analyzed. Results showed significant (p=0.05) reductions in THC of 44.23%, 26.5%, 70.80% and 10.79%, in detergent (20 g), sawdust (200 g), ...

  16. Development of particleboard from waste styrofoam and sawdust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PBR was synthesised via solvolysis of waste Styrofoam in a chosen solvent, and properly mixed with sawdust by simple mechanical stirring, using hand lay-up process in cold pressing to obtain the desired shapes. ASTM D-1037 standard was used to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of the manufactured ...

  17. Effects of water and sawdust additives on thermal effusivity, thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of water and sawdust additives on the thermal effusivity (e), thermal conductivity (λ), and durability of cement-stabilized laterites were investigated. The thermal effusivity (e) and conductivity(λ) have direct influ-ence on heat transfer and thermal insulation in buildings, and the parameters were determined by hot ...

  18. Amendment of crude oil contaminated soil with sawdust and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the effectiveness of sawdust and chromoleana leaves as soil restorative measures to optimize plant growth at two intensities of crude oil contamination showed that both restore parity on the growth parameters (leaf area, leaf ratio, relative leaf growth rate, relative growth rate, and net assimilation rate) of crops ...

  19. Mechanism and optimization for plasma electrolytic liquefaction of sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Dengke; Zhou, Rusen; Zhou, Renwu; Zhang, Xianhui; Ye, Liyi; Li, Jiangwei; Jiang, Congcong; Chen, Qiang; Sun, Guoya; Liu, Qinghuo; Yang, Size

    2017-10-01

    In this work, plasma electrolytic technology was successfully employed to achieve fast liquefaction of sawdust when polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200) and glycerol were used as liquefacient in the presence of the catalyst sulfuric acid. Results showed that H ions could heat the solution effectively during the plasma electrolytic liquefaction (PEL) process. The influence of some key parameters including liquefaction time, catalyst percentage, liquefacient/sawdust mass ratio, and PEG 200/glycerol molar ratio on the liquefaction yield were investigated. Based on the results of single factor experiments, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the liquefaction process. Under the optimal conditions that is liquefaction time of 5.10min, catalyst percentage of 1.05%, liquefacient/sawdust mass ratio of 7.12/1 and PEG 200/glycerol molar ratio of 1.40/1, the liquefaction yield reached 99.48%. Hence, it could be concluded that PEL has good application potential for biomass fast liquefaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Heavy metal ions adsorption from mine waters by sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bogdanović

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the results on the batch and column adsorption of copper and some associated ions by employing linden and poplar sawdust as a low-cost adsorbent are presented. The mine water from a local abandoned copper mine, as well as synthetic solutions of those ions which are the main constituents of the mine water were both used as a model-system in this study. The adsorption ability of the chosen sawdust to adsorb heavy metal ions is considered as a function of the initial pH of the solution and kind of metal ions. At lower pH of solutions the adsorption percentage (AD % decreases leading to a zero AD % at pH < 1.1. Maximum AD % is achieved at 3.5 < pH < 5. It was found that poplar and linden sawdust have both almost equal adsorption capacities against copper ions. The highest AD % ( ≈80% was achieved for Cu2+, while for Fe2+ it was slightly above 10%. The other considered ions (Zn2+ and Mn2+ were within this interval. The results obtained in the batch mode were verified through the column test by using the real mine water originating from an acid mine drainage (AMD of the copper mine „Cerovo“, RTB Bor. The breakthrough curves are presented as a function of the aqueous phase volume passed through the column allowing having an insight into the column adsorption features. Breakthrough points were determined for copper, manganese and zinc ions. A very high adsorption degree – higher than 99% was achieved in these experiments for all mentioned ions. After completing the adsorption, instead of desorption, the loaded sawdust was drained, dried and burned; the copper bearing ash was then leached with a controlled volume of sulphuric acid solution to concentrate copper therein. The obtained leach solution had the concentration of copper higher than 15 g dm-3 and the amount of H2SO4 high enough to serve as a supporting electrolyte suitable to be treated by the electrowinning for recovery of copper. The technology process based on the column

  1. Heat Energy From Value-Added Sawdust Briquettes Of Albizia Zygia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sawdust collected in 30 livestock feed sacs were later transported to Celina Industries where they were densified into briquettes at a pressure of 2000MPa at 4500C and heat intensity of 300% for the production of heat energy and a comparative analysis of the physical properties between the sawdust briquettes and the ...

  2. Characteristics and synergistic effects of co-pyrolysis of yinning coal and poplar sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Shenghua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-process of biomass and coal is perceived as a way to enhance the energy utilization by virtue of the integrated and interactive effects between different types of carbonaceous fuels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the co-pyrolysis characteristics of Yining coal and poplar sawdust, and to determine whether there is any synergistic effect in pyrolytic product yields. The coal was blended with sawdust at a mass fraction of 9:1, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7 and 1:9 respectively. The change of char yields, maximum weight loss rate and the corresponding temperature of different coal/sawdust blends during pyrolysis were compared by thermogravimetric analysis (TG. The total tar yields during separate coal, sawdust as well as their blends pyrolysis were acquired from the low temperature aluminum retort distillation test. By compare the experimental and theoretical value of the char yields from TG and tar yields from carbonization test, it was observed that co-pyrolysis of coal/sawdust blends produced less char and tar than the total amount produced by separate coal and sawdust pyrolysis. The different product distribution suggested that there was synergy effect in gas product yields. The co-pyrolysis of demineralized and devolatilized sawdust with coal indicated that the ash in the sawdust was the main contributor to the synergistic effect.

  3. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-5 PNL Sawdust Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. D. Habel

    2008-05-20

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-5 Burial Ground, the PNL (Pacific Northwest Laboratory) Sawdust Pit. The 118-F-5 Burial Ground was an unlined trench that received radioactive sawdust from the floors of animal pens in the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm.

  4. Density-independent algorithm for sensing moisture content of sawdust based on reflection measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    A density-independent algorithm for moisture content determination in sawdust, based on a one-port reflection measurement technique is proposed for the first time. Performance of this algorithm is demonstrated through measurement of the dielectric properties of sawdust with an open-ended haft-mode s...

  5. Heat Energy From Value-Added Sawdust Briquettes Of Albizia Zygia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    vbe processed into upgraded liquid fuel products such as briquettes. .... briquetting machine, as shown in cross-section in Fig. 1. The outer surface of the ... Obantoko areas of Abeokuta in Ogun State. The sawdust of Albizia zygia was collected and transported to Celina Industries Limited, Ota. Ogun State. The sawdust had a ...

  6. The Use Of Sawdust As An Alternative Source Of Energy For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the reports on the utilization of sawdust stove as a way of ameliorating the effect of perennial fuel crisis in Nigeria on domestic cooking and a means of reducing deforestation and subsequent desertification. The performance of the sawdust stove, in terms of cooking duration and specific fuel consumption ...

  7. The removal of heavy metal from aqueous solutions by sawdust adsorption - removal of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B; Zhang, Y; Shukla, A; Shukla, S S; Dorris, K L

    2000-12-30

    Locally available sawdust, a byproduct of the world industry, was found to be a low cost and promising adsorbent for the removal of copper(II) from wastewater. In this work, adsorption of copper on sawdust has been studied by using batch techniques. The equilibrium adsorption level was determined to be a function of the solution pH, contact time, and sorbate concentration. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of sawdust for copper was obtained by using linear Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Ion exchange is probably one of the major adsorption mechanisms for binding divalent metal ions to the maple sawdust. The results provide strong evidence to support the hypothesis of adsorption mechanism. It also supplies significant sawdust operation capacity data for engineering design.

  8. THE IMPACT OF FRESH SAWDUST AND DRY PIG MANURE PRODUCED ON SAWDUST BEDDING APPLICATION ON THE NUTRIENTS MOBILITY IN SOIL AND SUGAR BEET YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kováčik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the pot trial carried out at the area of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra was to determine the impact of dry pig manure produced on the sawdust bedding and sawdust litter on the level of nutrients’ mobility in the soil and sugar beet yield. The achieved results showed that one month after the sawdust and manure application to the soil, the contents of mobile nutrients (Nan, P, K, Ca, Mg in soil were lower than in the control unfertilized treatment. The sawdust litter immobilized nutrients more considerably than manure. Four months after the manure application into soil, its immobilization effect was not evident. On the contrary, the manure increased the mobile nutrients content in soil. In the second year of experiment the immobilization effect of sawdust litter was proved even four months after its application into soil. The application of manure increased considerably the beet root yield. The maximum root yield was determined in the treatment where the highest dose of manure was applied. The minimum root yield was detected in the treatment where the highest dose of sawdust litter was applied.

  9. Development of Particleboard from Waste Styrofoam and Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Abdulkareem

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of Plastic Based Resin (PBR synthesised from waste Styrofoam as binder in the production of particleboard was the focus of this investigation. This study explored the properties of particleboard produced from sawdust wastes and PBR resin synthesized from waste Styrofoam. Three particleboard panels namely C1, C2 and C3 were prepared with 20%, 30%, and 40%, (v/v, respectively. PBR was synthesised via solvolysis of waste Styrofoam in a chosen solvent, and properly mixed with sawdust by simple mechanical stirring, using hand lay-up process in cold pressing to obtain the desired shapes. ASTM D-1037 standard was used to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of the manufactured particleboards. Density, moisture content (MC, water absorption (WA, thickness swelling (TS, and mechanical properties i.e. modulus of elasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR of C2 and C3 were better than that of C1 particleboard and met the LD-1 requirement of ANSI A208.1. PBR from Styrofoam waste is confirmed as a good substitute for Urea or formaldehyde based resin presently used industrially. The properties of C2 and C3 synthesised are in tandem with the requirements of the ANSI A208.1 standards.

  10. Effects of sawdust-CPAM on textile dyeing sludge dewaterability and filter cake properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haijian; Ning, Xun-An; Liang, Xiujuan; Feng, Yinfang; Liu, Jingyong

    2013-07-01

    Sawdust was used as a filter aid for the textile dyeing sludge dewatering in this study. Results showed that sawdust conditioning in conjunction with cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) presented much better dewaterability than CPAM alone. The optimal sawdust and CPAM dosage for the best dewaterability was found to be 60 wt.% (mass percent) and 15 kg/t DS (dry solid), the time to filter (TTF) and the yield at 90% degree of the filtration completion (YN90) were 5s and 15.6 kg/m(2)h under the conditions, respectively. TTF and YN90 were more appropriate parameters than specific resistance to filtration (SRF) for assessing the sludge dewaterability as affected by physical conditioners. The moisture content of various filter cake layers gradually became the same with the increase of sawdust dosage. The flocculated sludge cake became relatively incompressible after sawdust conditioning. Sawdust acts to maintain the permeability during the compressed filtration by resisting cake compression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinetics of co-pyrolysis of sawdust, coal and tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiano, M G; Díaz-Faes, E; Barriocanal, C

    2016-04-01

    Two coals, sawdust and coal tar were selected to prepare briquettes. Thermogravimetric analyses at three heating rates (i.e. 10, 20 and 30°C/min) and up to 1000°C were carried out with the briquette components. Four blends were prepared and the experimental decomposition profiles were compared with the calculated data taking into account the amount of each component in the blend. No interaction was found when comparing the experimental and calculated decomposition profiles of the blends. Isoconversional models OFW (Ozawa-Flynn-Wall) and KAS (Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose) were used to obtain the activation energies of the blend components. The activation energies obtained were introduced in the Coats-Redfern (CR) model to derive the pre-exponential factors. The thermal decomposition profiles calculated using the kinetic parameters were in good agreement with the experimental results in the case of the briquette components, but worse results were obtained in the case of the blends due to their greater complexity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cedrela odorata L. PRODUCTION IN A RAW SAWDUST SUBSTRATE IN TECHNICIAN SYSTEM AT TECPAN DE GALEANA, GUERRERO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Justo Mateo-Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nursery high quality plants production by using expensive commercial substrates (peat moss, perlite, vermiculite decreases profits; this is the main reason to search alternative production substrates. Pine sawdust is a sub product of forestry industry cheap and available in forest areas. In recent years it has been used as a substrateproviding good results. In this study it was evaluated the effect of different sawdust mixtures on Cedrela odorata L. plant growth in a technician system in forest nursery under shade cloth covered. A completely randomized experimental design was used with eleven substrate components combinations (sawdust + peat moss-perlite-vermiculite mixtures ranging from 0% to 100% each. After three and a half months morphological variables were measured so as some quality indexes in seedlings. The largest diameter was obtained by the mixture of 70% sawdust + 30% peat moss mix-vermiculite-perlite. The highest in height by using the mixture 80% sawdust + 20% peat moss - vermiculite – perlite mixture. The highest leaves dry weight corresponded to 90 % sawdust + 10% peat moss-vermiculite-perlite mixture. However the highest root weight and total dry weight values occurred in 60% sawdust + 40% peat moss – perlite - vermiculite mixture. As for the height-diameter ratio (slenderness index, the best value is obtained a mixture of 80% sawdust + 20% peat moss, perlite, vermiculite. According to Dickson Quality Index (DQI, used to predict the plant field surviving, the highest value was obtained for the 60% sawdust + 40% peat moss-perlite-vermiculite mixture.

  13. Rice straw addition as sawdust substitution in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) planted media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Christine Pamardining; Susilawati, Puspita Ratna

    2017-08-01

    Oyster mushroom is favorite by the people because of the high nutrients. The oyster mushroom cultivation usually using sawdust. The availability of sawdust become difficult to find. It makes difficulties of mushroom cultivation. Rice straw as an agricultural waste can be used as planted media of oyster mushroom because they contain much nutrition needed to the mushroom growth. The aims of this research were to analysis the influence of rice straw addition in a baglog as planted media and to analysis the concentration of rice straw addition which can substitute sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom. This research used 4 treatment of sawdust and rice straw ratio K = 75 % : 0 %, P1 = 60 % : 15 %, P2 = 40 % : 35 %, P3 = 15 % : 60 %. The same material composition of all baglog was bran 20%, chalk 5%, and water 70%. The parameters used in this research were wet weight, dry weight, moisture content and number of the mushroom fruit body. Data analysis was used ANOVA test with 1 factorial. The results of this research based on statistical analysis showed that there was no influence of rice straw addition in a planted media on the oyster mushroomgrowth. 15% : 60% was the concentrationof rice straw additionwhich can substitute the sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom.

  14. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-liang; Chang, Jian-min; Cai, Li-ping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2014-12-01

    This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application Waste Sawdust as Mixed Polyurethane Insulation in Traditional Cold Storage of Fishing Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutopo Purwono Fitri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the process of fishing it takes some supplies such as fishing equipment, instrumentation and storage of fish. The traditional fishermen of their fishing days fishing usually only bring ice cubes. Solid plastic polyurethane foam is a mixture solution of polyols and isocyanates, commonly used as an insulating material storage. From the observation waste generated being sawmill sawdust per spindle with diameter of 30 cm and a length of 1 m with 5 times sawmill, Saws 0.8 cm thick produced 0.0088 m³ / burnable logs only discarded. Therefore takes thermal conductivity test to review mixture of sawdust and polyurethane comparison with variations different dosing. Maximum disposals sawdust can be done is 40% of the total volume of material mixture, polyurethane and sawdust because composite material (sawdust-polyurethane can not be bond with good so easy slab separately from origin form. Thermal Conductivity insulating good and economical on disposals 40% wood flour (0.05252 W / m°C and is able to maintain a 2 kg of ice crystals melt up perfect on 34 hours. Operating profits economical from 4,8 m³insulation composite application with obtained Rp 4.486.000 compared with 100% Polyurethane Insulation Manufacture.

  16. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of sawdust and coal blend in TGA and a fixed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Kyoo; Kim, Sang Done; Lee, See Hoon; Lee, Jae Goo

    2010-08-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of sawdust and coal blend were determined in TGA and a fixed bed reactor. The yield and conversion of co-pyrolysis of sawdust and coal blend based on volatile matters are higher than those of the sum of sawdust and coal individually. Form TGA experiments, weight loss rate of sawdust and coal blend increases above 400 degrees C and additional weight loss was observed at 700 degrees C. In a fixed bed at isothermal condition, the synergy to produce more volatiles is appeared at 500-700 degrees C, and the maximum synergy exhibits with a sawdust blending ratio of 0.6 at 600 degrees C. The gas product yields remarkably increase at lower temperature range by reducing tar yield. The CO yield increases up to 26% at 400 degrees C and CH(4) yield increases up to 62% at 600 degrees C compared with the calculated value from the additive model. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coefficient of Thermal Diffusivity of Insulation Brick Developed from Sawdust and Clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bwayo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental result on the effect of particle size of a mixture of ball clay, kaolin, and sawdust on thermal diffusivity of ceramic bricks. A mixture of dry powders of ball clay, kaolin of the same particle size, and sawdust of different particle sizes was mixed in different proportions and then compacted to high pressures before being fired to 950°C. The thermal diffusivity was then determined by an indirect method involving measurement of thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat capacity. The study reveals that coefficient of thermal diffusivity increases with decrease in particle size of kaolin and ball clay but decreases with increase in particle size of sawdust.

  18. Removal of Copper from Aqueous Solution Using Orange Pell, Sawdust and Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Shafiqul Alam

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Orange peel, sawdust and bagasse have been used as adsorbents for the removal of Cu(II from aqueous solution. The effects of contact time, pH, concentration, dose and ionic strength on the removal of Cu(II have been studied. Moreover, treated sawdust has been used as an adsorbent for the same. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of the adsorbents for Cu(II was obtained by Langmuir isotherm. The ionic strength effect on the removal of Cu(II from its aqueous solution indicated that the removal followed ion-exchange mechanism.

  19. High-value utilization of coniferous sawdust derived from the chipping of (pulp)wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtureanu, N.; Apostol, V.; Andriuca, A.

    1973-01-01

    Tests on sulfate pulping and semichemical pulping of spruce/fir sawdust in NE Rumainia are described. A two-stage impregnation/cooking process was developed to overcome the technical difficulties. Data are tabulated for the particle-size distribution of sawdust from roundwood, slabs, and edgings. The dust fraction, amounting to approx. 5% (more from edgings), was removed before processing. The pulp yield was adequate but the quality was relatively poor. Paper-making trials showed that 3 to 5% of the sulfate pulp, separately cooked, could be added to normal sulfate pulp without significant loss of quality of the product paper sacks.

  20. Modelling of bio-oil yield from fast pyrolysis of sawdust | Kuye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work an existing kinetic model equation has been modified using polynomial equations in conjunction with experimental data for six different sawdust types using the least squares method. The existing Model was modified with a linear equation (Model B), quadratic equation (Model C), and also by a cubic equation ...

  1. Evaluation of sawdust ash as a partial replacement for mineral filler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bitumen, coarse aggregates, fine aggregates, and mineral filler were obtained from Espro Asphalt Plant, Ife- Ibadan Road, Osun state, Nigeria. The sawdust was burnt into ash using a furnace at a temperature of 800°C, allowed to cool and sieved through 75 μm BS sieve (No.200). The properties of the materials were ...

  2. The effects of Sawdust and Goat Dung Supplements on growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sawdust and goat dung supplements were studied for their effects on growth components and yield of Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench) in diesel oil contaminated soil. Each organic supplement was added at the rate of 3kg per 4kg of sandy-loam soil at various levels of diesel oil contamination (1.00, 2.00, 3.00, 4.00 ...

  3. Electromagnetic shielding of polypyrrole-sawdust composites: polypyrrole globules and nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babayan, V.; Kazantseva, N. E.; Moučka, R.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 8 (2017), s. 3445-3451 ISSN 0969-0239 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : wood sawdust * conducting polymer * nanotubes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.417, year: 2016

  4. Conversion of masonia tree sawdust and cotton plant by product into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of fungus treatment on the biochemical composition and degradation patter of sawdust and cotton plant by-products (cotton burns and cotton gin trash) by Pleurotus sajor caju were evaluated. Lignin degradation increased as the incubation period progressed while the highest loss of hemicellulose, cellulose, ...

  5. Spectroscopic analysis of bio-oil produced from sawdust of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pyrolytic degradation was used to produce bio-oil from the sawdusts of Gmelina arborea, Nessogordonia papaverifera and Cordia millenii .The functional groups and various classes of chemical compositions present in thee bio-oil obtained at different temperature conditions were identified by Fourier Transform Infrared ...

  6. Performance evaluation of clay-sawdust composite filter for point of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance evaluation of clay-sawdust composite filter for point of use water treatment. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... This work explores the possibility of improving water quality and eliminating the possibility of recontamination by the use of point of use (POU) water filters made from cheap locally available materials ...

  7. Impact of sawdust on the water quality of Elechi creek in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three sampling stations were established – upstream, vicinity and downstream of the main dump site of the sawdust in the water body. Various physiochemical characteristics, including temperature, Electrical conductivity, pH, Dissolved Oxygen, and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as well as nutrients and heavy metal ...

  8. Removal of two cationic dyes from a textile effluent by filtration-adsorption on wood sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasri, Laila; Elamrani, M Khalid; Cherkaoui, Omar

    2007-06-01

    Wastewater from textile industry contains various contaminants such as dyes, surfactants and heavy metals. Textile dyes have synthetic origin and complex aromatic molecular structures that make them difficult to biodegrade when discharged in the ecosystem. The objective of this study was to examine the decolourisation of textile effluents containing cationic dyes by filtration-adsorption on wood sawdust from two different origins; fir as an example of a conifer tree, and beech as an example of a deciduous one, and to explain the adsorption mechanism. The process of dye removal was applied to a synthetic effluent in batch mode. Adsorption experiments were performed by suspending sawdust in the effluent and analyzing the supernatant by spectrophotometry. The effectiveness of the treatment process was evaluated by measuring coloration. Experimental results showed a significant potential for wood sawdust, especially coniferous sawdust, to remove cationic dyes from textile effluents. Adsorption kinetics was influenced by the initial dye concentration, nature and amount of sorbent as well as sorbent particle size. The adsorption followed a pseudo first-order kinetics. For both basic dyes, the Langmuir adsorption equation showed a better fit than the Freundlich equation. Filtration-adsorption using an inexpensive and readily available biosorbent provided an attractive alternative treatment for dye removal, and it does not generate any secondary pollution. Recommendations and Perspectives. Laboratory studies provide promising perspectives for the utilization of wood sawdust as renewable adsorbent for reducing pollution while enhancing the reuse of textile effluents. However, the treatment process needs to be applied to the other textile dye classes in order to be used on an industrial scale.

  9. In situ batch denitrification of nitrate rich groundwater using sawdust as a carbon source - Marydale, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Israel, S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch experiments were performed to denitrify groundwater using sawdust as a carbon source at Marydale, South Africa. Alkalinity, pH, Electrical Conductivity, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, SO42-, heterotrophic plate count (HPC), dissolved organic...

  10. Thermogravimetric study of interactions in the pyrolysis of blends of coal with radiata pine sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulloa, C.A. [Centro de Ciencias Ambientales EULA (Chile); Gordon, A.L.; Garcia, X.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile)

    2009-04-15

    The co-pyrolysis of coal-biomass blends were studied by using thermogravimetric analysis to look for thermal events indicating interactions that could cause synergic or inhibitory effects during the first stage in the co-combustion of these materials. Two coals from different rank were selected for the study and combined with radiata pine sawdust, the selected biomass compound. Pyrolysis assays were carried out on the individual components and the binary coal-sawdust blends (50% p/p) at different heating rates (10, 30, 50 C/min) until reaching a maximum temperature of 1200 C. The individual components behaved as expected and as is widely described in the specialized literature. Interactions detected in the blends resulted in greater-than-expected volatile yield values. These interactions were produced at pyrolysis temperatures over 400 C, when most of the components in the blend are devolatilized, and are attributed to secondary reactions that inhibit the formation of char. (author)

  11. Utilization of poplar wood sawdust for heavy metals removal from model solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demcak Stefan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Some kinds of natural organic materials have a potential for removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater. It is well known that cellulosic waste materials or by-products can be used as cheap adsorbents in chemical treatment process. In this paper, poplar wood sawdust were used for removal of Cu(II, Zn(II and Fe(II ions from model solutions with using the static and dynamic adsorption experiments. Infrared spectrometry of poplar wood sawdust confirmed the presence of the functional groups which correspond with hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin. At static adsorption was achieved approximately of 80 % efficiency for all treated model solutions. Similar efficiency of the adsorption processes was reached after 5 min at dynamic condition. The highest efficiency of Cu(II removal (98 % was observed after 30 min of dynamic adsorption. Changes of pH values confirmed a mechanism of ion exchange on the beginning of the adsorption process.

  12. Lignin degradation, ligninolytic enzymes activities and exopolysaccharide production by Grifola frondosa strains cultivated on oak sawdust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Nona A.; Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S.; Ohimain, Elijah I.

    2011-01-01

    Fourteen strains of Grifola frondosa (Dicks.) S. F. Gray, originating from different regions (Asia, Europe and North America) were tested for lignin degradation, ligninolytic enzyme activities, protein accumulation and exopolysaccharide production during 55 days of cultivation on oak sawdust. Lignin degradation varied from 2.6 to7.1 % of dry weight of the oak sawdust substrate among tested strains. The loss of dry matter in all screened fungi varied between 11.7 and 33.0%, and the amount of crude protein in the dry substrate varied between 0.94 to 2.55%. The strain, MBFBL 596, had the highest laccase activity (703.3 U/l), and the maximum peroxidase activity of 22.6 U/l was shown by the strain MBFBL 684. Several tested strains (MBFBL 21, 638 and 662) appeared to be good producers of exopolysaccharides (3.5, 3.5 and 3.2 mg/ml respectively). PMID:24031728

  13. Investigation on cotton stalk and bamboo sawdust carbonization for barbecue charcoal preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shaowu; Zhang, Shouyu; Wu, Qiaomei; Guo, Xi; Dong, Aixia; Chen, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, biochar preparation from cotton stalk and bamboo sawdust by carbonization process was addressed. The physical and chemical properties and combustion characteristics of the biochar prepared using a tubular fixed bed were investigated. The combustion character index (S), the ignition temperature (Ti) and burnout temperature (Tf) were used to evaluate the combustion characteristics of the biochars. The results indicate that the yield and the volatile yield of the biochar decrease and the fixed carbon yield increases with the increase of the carbonization temperature. The ignition temperature and burnout temperature of the biochar increase and the value of S decreases when the carbonization temperature increases. The biochar produced from cotton stalk shows better combustion characteristics than the bamboo sawdust biochar does. Compared with commercial barbecue charcoal, the cotton stalk biochar produced under 600 °C can be utilized as barbecue charcoal. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Preparation, characterization and phenol adsorption capacity of activated carbons from African beech wood sawdust

    OpenAIRE

    N.T. Abdel-Ghani; G.A. El-Chaghaby; F. Helal

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, different activated carbons were prepared from carbonized African beech wood sawdust by potassium hydroxide activation. The activated carbons were characterized by brunauer–emmett–teller, scanning electron microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analyzer. The phenol adsorption capacity of the prepared carbons was evaluated. The different factors affecting phenol’s removal were studied including: contact time, solution pH and initial phe...

  15. Sono-chemical synthesis of cellulose nanocrystals from wood sawdust using Acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Th I; Emam, Hossam E

    2017-10-06

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) is a unique material obtained from naturally occurring cellulose fibers. Owing to their mechanical, optical, chemical, and rheological properties, CNC gained significant interest. Herein, we investigate the potential of commercially non-recyclable wood waste, in particular, sawdust as a new resource for CNC. Isolation of CNC from sawdust was conducted as per acid hydrolysis which induced by ultrasonication technique. Thus, sawdust after being alkali delignified prior sodium chlorite bleaching, was subjected to sulfuric acid with concentration of 65% (w/w) at 60(°)C for 60min. After complete reaction, CNC were collected by centrifugation followed by dialyzing against water and finally dried via using lyophilization technique. The CNC yield attained values of 15% from purified sawdust. Acid hydrolysis mechanism exactly referred that, the amorphous regions along with thinner as well as shorter crystallites spreaded throughout the cellulose structure are digested by the acid leaving CNC suspension. The latter was freeze-dried to produce CNC powder. A thorough investigation pertaining to nanostructural characteristics of CNC was performed. These characteristics were monitored using TEM, SEM, AFM, XRD and FTIR spectra for following the changes in functionality. Based on the results obtained, the combination of sonication and chemical treatment was great effective in extraction of CNC with the average dimensions (diameter×length) of 35.2±7.4nm×238.7±81.2nm as confirmed from TEM. Whilst, the XRD study confirmed the crystal structure of CNC is obeyed cellulose type I with crystallinity index ∼90%. Cellulose nanocrystals are nominated as the best candidate within the range studied in the area of reinforcement by virtue of their salient textural features. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Characteristics of Rice Hulls, Sawdust, Wood Shavings and Mixture of Sawdust and Wood Shavings, and Their Usefulness According to the Pen Location for Hanwoo Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Gyu Chul; Jang, Sun Sik; Kwak, Hyung Jun; Lee, Sang Rak; Oh, Young Kyun; Park, Keun Kyu

    2016-04-01

    In this study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the physicochemical characteristics (Exp. I) of bedding materials such as rice hulls (RH), sawdust (SD), wood shavings (WS) and sawdust+wood shavings (S+W; 1:1 in volume), and utilization of these beddings except RH (Exp. II) for rearing beef cattle. In Exp. I, the distribution of particle size (%) with 250 μm and below 250 μm was greater (pside on feed bunk side (Side A) and another side equipped with water supply (Side B) for 3 weeks with duplicated periods. Average moisture concentrations (%) of beddings were higher (pside A, 65.7; side B, 57.9) than SD (side A, 62.5; side B, 52.2) and S+W (side A, 61.6; side B, 50.7). Regardless of types of beddings, moisture concentrations (%) of beddings within a pen were lower (pside B than A, implying longer period of utilization. These results suggest that using S+W would be a better choice than SD or WS alone, considering physicochemical characteristics and economics, and RH is not a suitable material as a bedding for beef cattle.

  17. Study of the removal of paraquat from aqueous solution by biosorption onto Ayous (Triplochiton schleroxylon) sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanseu-Njiki, Charles Peguy; Dedzo, Gustave Kenne [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Ngameni, Emmanuel, E-mail: engameni@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812 Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2010-07-15

    This study concerns the batch biosorption of paraquat on Ayous (Triplochiton schleroxylon) sawdust; the study centers on the evolution of biosorption parameters during the process. It appears that paraquat forms a monolayer on the sawdust surface as evidenced by the good correlation between the experimental data and the Langmuir model. The biosorption which is rather fast (the equilibrium was reached after ten minutes) follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and does not obey to the intra-particle diffusion model. According to the mathematical kinetic modeling, pore and surface mass transfer well describe the phenomenon. NaCl reduces the adsorption capacity of the material but has no significant effect on the kinetics. Alkaline solutions enhance the accumulation of the pollutant, the reverse being observed for acidic media. According to the thermodynamic data, this biosorption is a spontaneous and exothermic process. From these results we concluded that the adsorption of the pollutant is mainly due to cation exchange as indicated by the adsorption energy determined by the Dubinin-Radushkevich model (E = 12.0736 kJ mol{sup -1}); some other interactions resulting from the affinity through organophilic interactions between paraquat and sawdust have also been pointed out. Desorption experiments conducted in HCl and HNO{sub 3} solutions confirmed the proposed mechanism.

  18. Pyrolysis of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) sawdust: Characterization of bio-oil and bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralı, Uğur; Yavuzel, Nazan; Şensöz, Sevgi

    2016-12-01

    Slow pyrolysis of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) sawdust was performed to produce bio-oil and bio-char. The operational variables were as follows: pyrolysis temperature (400-600°C), heating rate (10-50°Cmin(-1)) and nitrogen flow rate (50-150cm(3)min(-1)). Physicochemical and thermogravimetric characterizations of hornbeam sawdust were performed. The characteristics of bio-oil and bio-char were analyzed on the basis of various spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques such as FTIR, GC-MS, 1H NMR, SEM, BET. Higher heating value, density and kinematic viscosity of the bio-oil with maximum yield of 35.28% were 23.22MJkg(-1), 1289kgm(-3) and 0.6mm(2)s(-1), respectively. The bio-oil with relatively high fuel potential can be obtained from the pyrolysis of the hornbeam sawdust and the bio-char with a calorific value of 32.88MJkg(-1) is a promising candidate for solid fuel applications that also contributes to the preservation of the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Scavenging behaviour of meranti sawdust in the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, A., E-mail: aneesahmad_ana@yahoo.com [Environmental Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Rafatullah, M.; Sulaiman, O. [Bio-resource, Paper and Coatings Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Ibrahim, M.H. [Environmental Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Hashim, R. [Bio-resource, Paper and Coatings Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-10-15

    Meranti (Philippine mahogany) sawdust, an inexpensive material, showed strong scavenging behaviour through adsorption for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Batch studies were performed to evaluate and optimize the effects of various parameters such as contact time, pH, initial dye concentrations and adsorbent dosage. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to analyze the equilibrium data at different temperatures. The experimental data fitted well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, indicating thereby the mono layer adsorption of the dye. The monolayer sorption capacity of meranti sawdust for MB was found to be 120.48, 117.64, 149.25 and 158.73 mg/g at 30, 40, 50 and 60 deg. C, respectively. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the MB adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous in nature. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The results indicated that the meranti sawdust could be an alternative material in place of more costly adsorbents used for dye removal.

  20. Calcined clay lightweight ceramics made with wood sawdust and sodium silicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santis, Bruno Carlos de; Rossignolo, Joao Adriano, E-mail: desantis.bruno@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil); Morelli, Marcio Raymundo [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2016-11-15

    This paper aims to study the influence of including wood sawdust and sodium silicate in the production process of calcined clay lightweight ceramics. In the production process first, a sample used by a company that produces ceramic products in Brazil was collected. The sample was analysed by techniques of liquidity (LL) and plasticity (LP) limits, particle size analysis, specific mass, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). From the clay, specimens of pure clay and mixtures with wood sawdust (10%, 20% and 30% by mass) and sodium silicate were produced and fired at a temperature of 900 deg C. These specimens were submitted to tests of water absorption, porosity, specific mass and compressive strength. Results of this research indicate that the incorporation of wood sawdust and sodium silicate in the ceramic paste specimens can be useful to make calcined clay lightweight ceramics with special characteristics (low values of water absorption and specific mass and high values of compressive strength), which could be used to produce calcined clay lightweight aggregates to be used in structural concrete. (author)

  1. Influence of Sawdust as an Aggregate in the Production of Interlocking Pavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayiwola Olaleye AJALA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the effect of incorporating sawdust into the production of interlocking pavers. Sawdust, stone dust, cement and sharp-sand were combined in different mixing ratios of 2:4:2:0, 2:3:2:1, 2:2:2:2, 3:1:2:2 and 0:3:2:3 respectively with five replicates of each treatment. The interlocking pavers produced were tested for weight, density, hardness, compressive and impact strength. The Analysis of Variance was conducted to test the significance of the strength properties of the pavers produced. The results showed that pavers produced with mixing ratio 0:3:2:3 has the highest mean density and mean compressive strength at 1.58kg/m3 and 4.72N/mm2 respectively, closely followed by ratio 2:2:2:2 which has the highest mean impact strength at 4.39J, compressive strength of 3.26N/mm2 , hardness of 1.70kg and mean density of 1.20kg/m3 . However there is no significant difference in the interlocking pavers’ degree of resistance to abrasion (hardness. It can be concluded that optimum replacement of aggregates exists in ratio 2:2:2:2 where 25% of sawdust can be utilized in each unit of interlocking paver.

  2. GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LATERITIC SOIL STABILIZED WITH SAWDUST ASH-LIME MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Segun Nnochiri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the geotechnical characteristics of lateritic soil and sawdust ash lime (SDAL mixtures. Preliminary tests were carried out on the natural soil sample for identification and classification purposes. The sawdust was mixed with lime for stabilization in the ratio 2:1. This mixture was thereafter added to the lateritic soil in varying proportions of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% by weight of soil. Addition of SDAL increased values of Optimum Moisture Content (OMC from 17.0% at 0% SDAL to 26.5% at 10% SDAL by weight of soil, also, values of Maximum Dry Density (MDD decreased from 2040 kg/m3 at 0% SDAL to 1415 kg/m3 at 10% SDAL. Values of Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS increased from 38.58 kN/m2 at 0% SDAL to highest value of 129.63 kN/m2 at 6% SDAL. The values of liquid limits and plasticity index of the soil were effectively reduced with the addition of the SDAL, from 54.0% at 0% SDAL to 49.0% at 10% SDAL and from 13.7% at 0% SDAL to 12.5% at 10% SDAL respectively. It was therefore concluded that the sawdust ash lime (SDAL mixture can serve as a cheap soil stabilizing agent for poor lateritic soil.

  3. Some Chemical Compositional Changes in Miscanthus and White Oak Sawdust Samples during Torrefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Richard Hess

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction tests on miscanthus and white oak sawdust were conducted in a bubbling sand bed reactor to see the effect of temperature and residence time on the chemical composition. Process conditions for miscanthus and white oak sawdust were 250–350 °C for 30–120 min and 220–270 °C for 30 min, respectively. Torrefaction of miscanthus at 250 °C and a residence time of 30 min resulted in a significant decrease in moisture—about 82.68%—but the other components—hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and volatiles—changed only marginally. Increasing torrefaction temperatures to 350 °C with a residence time of 120 min further reduced the moisture content to 0.54%, with a significant decrease in the hydrogen, nitrogen, and volatiles by 58.29%, 14.28%, and 70.45%, respectively. Regression equations developed for the moisture, hydrogen, nitrogen, and volatile content of the samples with respect to torrefaction temperature and time have adequately described the changes in chemical composition based on R2 values of >0.82. Surface plots based on the regression equation indicate that torrefaction temperatures of 280–350 °C with residence times of 30–120 min can help reduce moisture, nitrogen, and volatile content from 1.13% to 0.6%, 0.27% to 0.23%, and 79% to 23%, with respect to initial values. Trends of chemical compositional changes in white oak sawdust are similar to miscanthus. Torrefaction temperatures of 270 °C and a 30 min residence time reduced the moisture, volatiles, hydrogen, and nitrogen content by about 79%, 17.88%, 20%, and 5.88%, respectively, whereas the carbon content increased by about 3.5%.

  4. Synthesis of carbon nanostructures by the pyrolysis of wood sawdust in a tubular reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Sebag Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanostructures were produced by wood sawdust pyrolysis. The results obtained revealed that the thermodynamic simulations (FactSage were successful to predict the best reaction conditions for the synthesis of carbon, and potentially carbon fibers and nanotubes production. Graphite formation was indicated by XRD study, and by thermal analysis which presented the carbon oxidation range. The morphology of the samples (SEM/TEM analysis showed carbon nanotubes/nanofibers varying in size and thickness, with defects and flaws. The tubular reactor was considered to be an economic and environmental correct way to nanomaterials growing, with the simultaneous generation of hydrogen and lower pollutant gas emissions.

  5. ENERGY CONVERSION FROM WOODY BIOMASS STUFF: POSSIBLE MANUFACTURE OF BRIQUETTED CHARCOAL FROM SAWMILL-GENERATED SAWDUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Roliadi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available There are three dominant kinds of wood industries in Indonesia which consume huge amount of  wood materials as well as generate considerable amount of  woody waste stuffs, i.e. sawmills, plywood, and pulp/paper. For the two latest industries, their wastes to great extent have been reutilized in the remanufacturing process, or burnt under controlled condition to supplement their energy needs in the corresponding factories, thereby greatly alleviating environmental negative impacts.  However, wastes from sawmills (especially sawdust still often pose a serious environmental threat, since they as of this occasion are merely dumped on sites, discarded to the stream, or merely burnt, hence inflicting dreadful stream as well as air pollutions. One way to remedy those inconveniences is by converting the sawdust into useful product, i.e. briquetted charcoal, as has been experimentally tried. The charcoal was at first prepared by carbonizing the sawdust wastes containing a mixture of the ones altogether from the sawing of seven particular Indonesia's wood species, and afterwards was shaped into the briquette employing various concentrations of starch binder at two levels (3.0 and 5.0 % and also various hydraulic pressures (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 kg/cm2.  Further, the effect of those variations was examined on the yield and qualities of the resulting briquetted charcoal. The results revealed that the most satisfactory yield and qualities of the briquetted sawdustcharcoal were acquired at 3 % starch binder concentration with 5.0 kg/cm2 hydraulic pressure. As such, the briquette qualities were as follows: density at 0.60 gram/cm3, tensile strength 15.27 kg/cm2, moisture content 2.58 %, volatile matter 23.35 %, ash content 4.10 %, fixed carbon 72.55 %, and calorific value 5,426 cal/gram. Those qualities revealed that the experimented briquetted sawdust charcoal could be conveniently used as biomass-derived fuel.

  6. Dimensional stability of wood-plastic composites reinforced with potassium methyl siliconate modified fiber and sawdust made from beetle-killed trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Zhiyong Cai; Nicole M. Stark; Charles J. Montezun

    2014-01-01

    Wood fromtwovarieties of beetle-killed trees was used to fabricate wood–plastic composites. Loblolly pine and lodgepole pine beetle-killed trees were defibrated mechanically and thermomechanically, respectively, into fiber. Fiber and sawdust produced from the trees were modified with potassium methyl siliconate (PMS) and injection-molded into fiber/sawdust reinforced...

  7. Beads-Milling of Waste Si Sawdust into High-Performance Nanoflakes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Kasukabe, Takatoshi; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Kimura, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Taketoshi; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Okai, Makoto; Kyotani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, ca. 176,640 tons/year of silicon (Si) (>4N) is manufactured for Si wafers used for semiconductor industry. The production of the highly pure Si wafers inevitably includes very high-temperature steps at 1400?2000??C, which is energy-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. Inefficiently, ca. 45?55% of such costly Si is lost simply as sawdust in the cutting process. In this work, we develop a cost-effective way to recycle Si sawdust as a high-performance anode material for lithium-io...

  8. Effects of thermal treatments on the characterisation and utilisation of red mud with sawdust additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi; Ming, Hui; Dharmarajan, Rajarathnam; Du, Jianhua

    2016-06-01

    Extremely large amounts of red mud (bauxite residue) are generated globally every year from alumina refining industries, which are being disposed of on engineered landfills. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of thermal treatments on red mud for development of utilisation strategies. Thermal treatments of red mud samples and their characterisations were investigated under inert (N2) and oxidative (air) conditions with and without sawdust addition at 200-600°C. After calcination, the resulting samples were analysed using thermogravimetric-infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR) for functional group transformations, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for thermal loss profiles and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineral transformations. The characterisation results showed that in N2 environment, boehmite in red mud was transferred to transition alumina at around 400°C while losing water from structural components. The addition of sawdust for incubation and calcination of red mud in air increased the surface area, whereas that in nitrogen atmosphere lead to reduction of hematite to magnetite at around 500°C. The incorporated carbon materials played a major role in increasing the surface area especially for pore size less than 2.5 nm. This treated red mud with altered mineral composition and improved properties for binding contaminants can be used for environmental remediation and in the process of metal recovery such as iron. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Preparation, characterization and phenol adsorption capacity of activated carbons from African beech wood sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.T. Abdel-Ghani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, different activated carbons were prepared from carbonized African beech wood sawdust by potassium hydroxide activation. The activated carbons were characterized by brunauer–emmett–teller, scanning electron microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analyzer. The phenol adsorption capacity of the prepared carbons was evaluated. The different factors affecting phenol’s removal were studied including: contact time, solution pH and initial phenol concentration. The optimum phenol removal was obtained after a contact time of 300 min. and at an initial phenol solution pH 7. The maximum removal percentages were determined at 5mg/l initial phenol concentration as 79, 93, 94 and 98% for AC0, AC1, AC2 and AC3; respectively. The adsorption of phenol on African beech sawdust activated carbons was found to follow the Lagergren first order kinetics and the intraparticle diffusion mechanism gave a good fit to the experimental data. The isothermal models applied fitted the experimental data in the order: Langmuir> Dubinin–Radushkevich> Freundlich and Temkin.

  10. Experimental study of co-pyrolysis of polyethylene/sawdust mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrueco Cesar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the behavior of the thermal decomposition of mixtures of biomass and thermoplastics, such as polyethylene, is of interest for processes for the thermal recovery of industrial and urban wastes such as pyrolysis or gasification. No solid residue is formed during the thermal degradation of pure polyethylene. However, the addition of biomass, which generates char can vary the product distribution and increase the heating value of the gas obtained. A study of the thermal degradation of pine sawdust, polyethylene and mixtures of polyethylene and pine sawdust has been carried out in a fluidized bed reactor. Experiments were carried out at five different temperatures: 640, 685, 730, 780, and 850 ºC. The yields and composition of the derived oil, wax, and gas were determined. The addition of polyethylene increases the gas production and decreases the production of waxes and liquids for the different temperatures tested. The main gases produced from the co-pyrolysis process were, at low temperatures, carbon monoxide ethylene, carbon dioxide, propylene, butadiene, methane and pentadiene while at high temperatures the gas composition changed drastically, the main components being carbon monoxide (more than 33 wt.%, ethylene, methane benzene and hydrogen. The analysis of the liquid fraction shows a decrease of the concentration of oxygenated and aliphatic compounds.

  11. The impact of calculation on the value of thermodynamic parameters of copper adsorption on poplar sawdust

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    Brdar Mirjana M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Cu(II onto poplar sawdust as an adsorbent is analyzed. The experimental data were fitted by the Langmuir isotherm using four linearized forms at the isotherm along with the original one. The least squares regression method was applied. Using the obtained Langmuir constants by each at methods, the enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy at adsoption were calculated. A comparison of the used linear and non-linear regression methods in view at the goodness of the fit is presented. The coefficient of correlation was adopted as a criterionn to select the best method. The impact of the choice at regression model on the resulting estimates of the thermodynamic parameters is discussed. The best fit of the experimental data is obtained by the nonlinear regression. Thus, it is recommended to use the Langmuir parameters calculated by the nonlinear regression for estimating the thermodynamic parameters of adsorptin. The differences in the values obtained by different models are not so large to change the basic conclusion that the adsorption of copper ions on poplar sawdust is a spontaneous endothermic process i.e. that tested adsorbent has an affinity for copper ions.

  12. Lignin degradation, ligninolytic enzymes activities and exopolysaccharide production by Grifola frondosa strains cultivated on oak sawdust

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    Nona A Mikiashvili

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen strains of Grifola frondosa (Dicks. S. F. Gray, originating from different regions (Asia, Europe and North America were tested for lignin degradation, ligninolytic enzyme activities, protein accumulation and exopolysaccharide production during 55 days of cultivation on oak sawdust. Lignin degradation varied from 2.6 to7.1 % of dry weight of the oak sawdust substrate among tested strains. The loss of dry matter in all screened fungi varied between 11.7 and 33.0%, and the amount of crude protein in the dry substrate varied between 0.94 to 2.55%. The strain, MBFBL 596, had the highest laccase activity (703.3 U/l, and the maximum peroxidase activity of 22.6 U/l was shown by the strain MBFBL 684. Several tested strains (MBFBL 21, 638 and 662 appeared to be good producers of exopolysaccharides (3.5, 3.5 and 3.2 mg/ml respectively.

  13. Bioactivity guided isolation of the antifungal components in sawdust extracts of Piptadeniatrum africanum, and Terminalia ivorensis

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    Olajuyigbe A.O

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The antifungal activities of extracts from fresh sawdust of Piptadeniatrum africanum,and Terminalia ivorensis was determined using the agar well diffusion method. Aqueous, methanol, chloroform,and n-hexane extracts obtained from the sawdust samples were tested against fungi isolated from some decayed wood samples.Methodology and Results: Fungal isolates included: Aspergillus. niger, Aspergillus. flavus, Aspergillus. fumigates, Aspergillus. wentii, Aspergillus. tamari, and Penicillium. chrysogenum (please write the microorganisms’ name in full when first time introducing them. Results of inhibitory activities showed that the chloroform extracts showed the highest inhibitory abilities with zones of inhibition ranging from 14 mm-24 mm for P. africanum, and 11 mm-15 mm for T. ivorensis. However, the aqueous extracts exhibited the least antifungal activity with zones of inhibition ranging between 10 mm-13 mm and 8 mm-11 mm respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The major secondary plant metabolites identified are alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthraglycosides, arbutin, glycosides, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, coumarins and valepotriates. The antifungal components in P. africanum were identified to be 3, 7, 8, 3'–Tetramethoxy-6–C-methyl-5, 4'–dihydroxyflavone and 3–methoxy–6–C–methyl–3',4',5,7,8–pentahydroxyflavone while Terminalia ivorensis contained 5,7,8-Trihydroxy-2′5′-methoxy-3′,4′-methylenedioxyisoflavanone as the bioactive component.

  14. Cadmium-109 Radioisotope Adsorption onto Polypyrrole Coated Sawdust of Dryobalanops aromatic: Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Mahmud, Habibun Nabi Muhammad Ekramul

    2016-01-01

    A radiotracer study was conducted to investigate the removal characteristics of cadmium (109Cd) from aqueous solution by polypyrrole/ sawdust composite. Several factors such as solution pH, sorbent dosage, initial concentration, contact time, temperature and interfering metal ions were found to have influence on the adsorption process. The kinetics of adsorption was relatively fast, reaching equilibrium within 3 hours. A lowering of the solution pH reduced the removal efficiency from 99.3 to ~ 46.7% and an ambient temperature of 25°C was found to be optimum for maximum adsorption. The presence of sodium and potassium ions inhibited 109Cd removal from its aqueous solution. The experimental data for 109Cd adsorption showed a very good agreement with the Langmuir isotherm and a pseudo-first order kinetic model. The surface condition of the adsorbent before and after cadmium loading was investigated using BET, FESEM and FTIR. Considering the low cost of the precursor’s materials and the toxicity of 109Cd radioactive metal, polypyrrole synthesized on the sawdust of Dryobalanops aromatic could be used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of 109Cd radioisotope from radionuclide-containing effluents. PMID:27706232

  15. Emissions of volatile hydrocarbons (VOC) during drying of sawdust; Utslaepp av laettflyktiga kolvaeten vid torkning av biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granstroem, Karin

    2001-08-01

    In the project 'Emissions of volatile hydrocarbons (VOC) during drying of sawdust' the identity, amount and composition of monoterpenes found in the drying medium of a fluidized bed drier drying sawdust from Norwegian spruce and Scotch pine has been determined. The energy efficiency of the drier has also been measured. The aim of this project was to reduce both emissions and energy required for drying, to minimize environmental and health hazards, and make drying more competitive. This would help our primary target group - small scale saw mills - to make use of the sawdust produced as a by- product by making pellets and briquettes. If the VOC remains in the sawdust its energy content will improve and therefore also its value as a fuel. The sawdust was dried to different moisture levels in a spouted bed drier at atmospheric pressure, using either recirculating or not recirculating drying medium with temperatures 140, 170 or 200 deg C. The emissions of VOC were measured using a flame ionization detector (FID) and the nature of the emissions analyzed with a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometric detector (GC-MS). The GC-MS data is reported as emitted substance per oven dry weight (odw). Experiments show that terpenes do not leave the sawdust in great amounts until it is dried to a moisture content (water/total weight) below 10%. When sawdust is dried to a predetermined moisture level, the terpene emissions increase when warmer incoming drying medium is used. The monoterpenes found in greatest amount are a-pinene, b-pinene, 3-carene, limonene and myrcene. y-terpinene was detected in emissions from pine but not from spruce. The relative amounts of different monoterpenes did not vary significantly with post-drying moisture content, but drying medium of higher temperature caused an increase in the relative amount of less volatile monoterpenes. The FID data is reported as concentration of VOC in the drying medium, and as weight VOC per odw. The concentration

  16. Characteristics of Rice Hulls, Sawdust, Wood Shavings and Mixture of Sawdust and Wood Shavings, and Their Usefulness According to the Pen Location for Hanwoo Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu Chul Ahn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the physicochemical characteristics (Exp. I of bedding materials such as rice hulls (RH, sawdust (SD, wood shavings (WS and sawdust+wood shavings (S+W; 1:1 in volume, and utilization of these beddings except RH (Exp. II for rearing beef cattle. In Exp. I, the distribution of particle size (% with 250 μm and below 250 μm was greater (p<0.05 in SD (30.4 than RH (4.4, WS (18.8 and S+W (20.1. Bulk density (kg/m3 of bedding materials was directly proportional to the percentage of 250 μm and below 250 μm particles, 178, 46, 112, and 88 for SD, WD, S+W and RH, respectively. Water absorption rate (% after submersion in water for 24 h was higher (p<0.05 in WS (540.2 compared to SD (270.2, S+W (368.2. The S+W had an intermediate value of the absorption rate between SD and WS, but had an outstanding durability of water absorption capacity. Moisture evaporation rate (% for 12 h was higher (p<0.05 in WS (75.4 than SD (70.5, S+W (72.2 and RH (57.8. Average ammonia emission (mg/m2/h for 36 h was higher (p<0.05 in RH (3.15 than SD (1.70, WS (1.63, and S+W (1.73. In Exp. II, thirty six Hanwoo cows were allocated in 9 pens with one side on feed bunk side (Side A and another side equipped with water supply (Side B for 3 weeks with duplicated periods. Average moisture concentrations (% of beddings were higher (p<0.05 in WS (side A, 65.7; side B, 57.9 than SD (side A, 62.5; side B, 52.2 and S+W (side A, 61.6; side B, 50.7. Regardless of types of beddings, moisture concentrations (% of beddings within a pen were lower (p<0.05 at side B than A, implying longer period of utilization. These results suggest that using S+W would be a better choice than SD or WS alone, considering physicochemical characteristics and economics, and RH is not a suitable material as a bedding for beef cattle.

  17. Preconcentration and determination of Cu (Ⅱ) from aqueous samples using functionalized sawdust and comparison with synthetic functionalized sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jasmin; Jan, Mohammad Rasul; Sadia, Maria; Haq, Atta-ul [University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan)

    2013-03-15

    The efficiency of indigenous functionalized sorbent (sawdust functionalized with polyaniline) was compared with synthetic functionalized sorbents (Dowex functionalized with 8-hydroxyquinoline (Dowex-8HQ) and α-nitroso-β-naphthol (Dowex-αNβN)) for preconcentration and determination of Cu (Ⅱ) from aqueous samples. The synthetic functionalized sorbents and indigenous functionalized sorbent were characterized using FTIR. Different parameters like pH, equilibration time and sample volume were investigated for maximum sorption of Cu (Ⅱ). Isotherm studies showed that the sorption data fitted well into Langmuir isotherm for the sawdust functionalized with polyaniline. Freundlich isotherm was followed for Dowex-8HQ and Dowex-αNβN. Four types of kinetic equations were applied to the data, and it was observed that sorption of Cu (Ⅱ) followed second-order kinetics. Thermodynamically, the sorption of Cu (Ⅱ) on these three sorbents was found to be exothermic and spontaneous. For maximum recovery of Cu (Ⅱ) from loaded sorbents, different parameters like shaking time, eluent type, concentration and volume were investigated, and 89% Cu (Ⅱ) was recovered from loaded sawdust functionalized with polyaniline and Dowex-8HQ. The interference studies showed the selectivity of sawdust functionalized with polyaniline for Cu (Ⅱ) in comparison to synthetic functionalized sorbents. Thus, Cu (Ⅱ) can be easily removed from aqueous samples in the presence of foreign ions.

  18. Kinetic Study of the Leaching of Low-Grade Manganese Ores by Using Pretreated Sawdust as Reductant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Sun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The reductive leaching of manganese from a low-grade manganese oxide ore was investigated by using pretreated sawdust as the reductant in a sulfuric acid medium. The effects of stirring speed, liquid/solid ratio, sawdust/ore mass ratio, sulfuric acid concentration, reaction temperature, and time on the manganese extraction were examined. It was found that the leaching efficiency is strongly dependent on temperature and acid concentration. The leaching efficiency of manganese reached 94.1% under the optimal conditions: stirring speed of 300 rpm, liquid/solid ratio of 8:1, mass ratio of sawdust to ore 0.25, sulfuric acid concentration of 1 mol/L and a temperature of 363 K for 180 min. The kinetic analysis was carried out based on the shrinking core model, which indicated that the reductive leaching process was controlled by the chemical reaction. The reaction orders with respect to the sulfuric acid concentration and mass ratio of sawdust are 1.66 and 0.57, respectively. The apparent activation energy for the leaching process has been calculated using the Arrhenius expression and was found to be 51.7 kJ/mol.

  19. Ash deposition during the co-firing of bituminous coal with pine sawdust and olive stones in a laboratory furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Abreu; C. Casaca; M. Costa [Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal). Mechanical Engineering Department

    2010-12-15

    This article describes an experimental study on ash deposition during the co-firing of bituminous coal with pine sawdust and olive stones in a laboratory furnace. The main objective of this study was to relate the ash deposit rates with the type of biomass burned and its thermal percentage in the blend. The thermal percentage of biomass in the blend was varied between 10% and 50% for both sawdust and olive stones. For comparison purposes, tests have also been performed using only coal or only biomass. During the tests, deposits were collected with the aid of an air-cooled deposition probe placed far from the flame region, where the mean gas temperature was around 640{sup o}C. A number of deposit samples were subsequently analyzed on a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector. Results indicate that blending sawdust with coal decreases the deposition rate as compared with the firing of unblended coal due to both the sawdust low ash content and its low alkalis content. The co-firing of coal and sawdust yields deposits with high levels of silicon and aluminium which indicates the presence of ashes with high fusion temperature and, thus, with less capacity to adhere to the surfaces. In contrast, in the co-firing of coal with olive stones the deposition rate increases as compared with the firing of unblended coal and the deposits produced present high levels of potassium, which tend to increase their stickiness. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Synthesize and characterization of sawdust/MnFe2O4 nano composite for removal of indigo carmine from aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Saeedeh Hashemian; Motaharah Hidarian

    2014-01-01

    Sawdust/MnFe2O4 nano composite was prepared and characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM and BET. The sawdust, MnFe2O4 nano particles and sawdust/MnFe2O4 nano composite were used for removal of indigo carmine (IC). The maximum percentage of adsorption of IC was found at contact time of 15 min and pH 2. The adsorption of IC followed by pseudo second order kinetic model. The experimental data of sorption isotherms analyzed with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm. The adsorption of IC was best described by...

  1. Sawdust Ash as Powder Material for Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Naphthalene Sulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine U. Elinwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tests are carried out to determine the fluidity of Ashaka Portland cement paste and its compatibility with sawdust ash (SDA as powder material for self-compacting cement (SCC mixtures. Results of the investigation showed that saturation was achieved at w/c ratios of 0.4 and 0.42, at dosages of naphthalene sulfonate superplasticizers of 3.5% and 2%, respectively. The optimum replacement level for the SCC mixture was 10 wt.% of cement by SDA and 2% of the superplasticizer dosage. The achieved spread and flow time were 26 cm and 8 seconds and are within the specified range of 24 cm to 26 cm and 7 to 11 seconds, respectively. Statistical inference showed that the mix, w/c, and the interaction between the mix and w/c ratio are significant.

  2. STABILIZATION OF DEWATERED SEWAGE SLUDGE BY AEROBIC COMPOSTING METHOD: USING SAWDUST AS BULKING AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A PARVARESH

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sludge production from municipal wastewater treatment plants should have quality standards before disposal in to the environment. Environmental specialists classified sewage sludge as a hazardous waste because of high organic compounds and pathogenic microorganisms. They belive that sewage should be stabilized before disposal and so composting of sewage sludge is an effective and economical method to stabilize. Sewage sludge compost could be used to improve soil structure and enrich the soil with nutrients. Methods. To evaluate the optimum conditions of aerobic compost, the mixture of dewatered sewage sludge from Isfahan municipal waste water treatment plant and sawdust as bulking agent were used. Pilot scale study were performed in Isfahan municipal waste water treatment plant. To perform this research project, the dewatered sewage sludge with humidity between 78 to 82 percent were mixed with sawdust. Turning over method of the piles with one week interval were applied to aerate the mixture. Temperature of the piles were monitored at different depths daily. Other parameters such as N, G, organic matters and pH were determined weekly. Total and fecal coli form, and salmonella were determined at the beginning and end of the composting process, also heavy metals were measured at the same time. Results. The results of this study showed that after days, temperature of the mixture reached up to 55 G, and were stabled for 15 days. Humidity, organic matter, organic carbon and GIN ratio of the mixture decreased over the period of the study, due to increasing the temperature. Also organic matter and humidity mainly decreased in thermofilic phase. The number of total and fecal coliform and also salmonella decreased to A class standards of US.EPA at the end of the operation. Discussion. The results of the study also showed that, this type of composting method is reliable, and simple to schedule, with high flexibility and low odor

  3. Evaluation of humic substances during co-composting of food waste, sawdust and Chinese medicinal herbal residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2014-09-01

    Humification during co-composting of food waste, sawdust and Chinese medicinal herbal residues (CMHRs) was investigated to reveal its correlation with compost maturity. Food waste, sawdust and CMHRs were mixed at 5:5:1 and 1:1:1 (dry weight basis) while food waste:sawdust at 1:1 (dry wt. basis) served as control. Lime at 2.25% was added to all the treatments to alleviate low pH, and composted for 56 days. Humic acid/fulvic acid (HA/FA) ratio increased to 0.5, 2.0 and 3.6 in the control and treatment at 5:5:1, and 1:1:1 mixing ratio, respectively at the end of composting. The decrease in aliphatic organics in HA demonstrated the degradation of the readily available organics, while an increase in aromatic functional groups indicated the maturity of compost. Disappearance of hemicellulose and weak intensity of lignin in the CMHRs treatments indicated that the lignin provided the nucleus for HA formation; and the CMHRs accelerated the compost maturity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antioxidant Potential of Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) Cultivated on Artocarpus heterophyllus Sawdust Substrate in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, P; Lal, Merlin Rajesh; Maheshwari, Uma; Krishnan, Sreeram

    2015-01-01

    The artificial cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum (MTCC1039) using Artocarpus heterophyllus as sawdust substrate was optimized and free radical scavenging activities of the generated fruiting bodies were investigated. The choice of A. heterophyllus as substrate was due to its easy availability in South India. Sawdust supplemented with dextrose medium yielded better spawn hyphae and early fruiting body initiation (15 days). The biological yield obtained was 42.06 ± 2.14 g/packet and the biological efficiency was 8.41 ± 0.48%. Both aqueous and methanolic extracts of fruiting body were analyzed for radical scavenging activity. Methanolic extract showed maximum scavenging activity for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (IC50 = 290 μg/ml) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid (IC50 = 580 μg/ml), whereas aqueous extract had better scavenging for ferric reducing antioxidant power (IC50 = 5 μg/ml). Total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were significantly higher in methanolic extract (p < 0.01). A positive correlation existed between the phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Our results indicated that fruiting bodies of G. lucidum cultivated in sawdust medium possess antioxidant property, which can be exploited for therapeutic application.

  5. Total Phenolics, Flavonoids, Tannin Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivated on Different Wastes and Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşenur Yılmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the usage possibilities of some agro-industrial wastes such as; peanut wastes, potatoes farm wastes, walnut and orange tree sawdust in Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation were investigated and total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin content and antioxidant properties of these methanolic mushroom extracts were examined. For the determination of the total phenolic contents, the Folin-Ciocalteau procedure was used. The content of total flavonoid present in the methanolic extracts was measured using a spectrophotometric assay. Condensed tannins were determined according to the method by Julkunen-Tıtto. The antioxidant capacity was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and free radical scavenging activity of DPPH. The highest total phenolic content (2.672 ± 0.003 mg GAE/g was found in mushroom cultivated on walnut sawdust. The highest condensed tannin (1.011 ± 0.088 CE mg/g and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP (12.332 ± 0.017 μmol FeSO4.7H2O/g were observed in the same mushroom extract. The highest total flavonoid and free radical scavenging activity of DPPH were found in extract of mushroom cultivated on potatoes handle. Bioactive properties of P. ostreatus cultivated on walnut tree sawdust were generally exhibited remarkable results.

  6. Effect of particle size and addition of cocoa pod husk on the properties of sawdust and coal pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Forero Nuñez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increase of the world energy demand, the rise of fossil fuels costs, and the strong environmental policies around the globe are some of the reasons for the wood pellets industry increase. However, there are some other available biomass feedstocks capable of being densified for energy production. Among the various options, the use of mixed biomass pellets is becoming remarkable due to the wide variety of species, although more research is needed in order to enhance the mechanical properties of these pellets. This study aims to identify the effect of particle size on the mechanical properties of sawdust and coal pellets when cocoa pod husks are used as an additive. Cocoa pod husks have a similar composition to sawdust and less sulfur and nitrogen than coal. Thus, the use of this additive might decrease the environmental impact during coal pellets combustion. Results show an attractive potential of cocoa pod husks grinds for pellet production, an increase of the durability of coal pellets mixed with this raw material, and similar performance between cocoa pod husks and sawdust pellets. The compression ratio, the compressive and impact resistance varied linearly with the addition of cocoa pod husks.

  7. Determination of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from co-pelletization combustion of lignite and rubber wood sawdust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, R.; Kaosol, T.; Tekasakul, P.; Tekasakul, S.

    2017-09-01

    Determination of particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from co-pelletization combustion of lignite and rubber wood sawdust in a horizontal tube furnace is investigated using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with coupled Diode Array and Fluorescence Detection (HPLC-DAD/FLD). The particle-bound PAHs based on the mass concentration and the toxicity degree are discussed in the different size ranges of the particulate matters from 0.07-11 μm. In the present study, the particle-bound PAHs are likely abundant in the fine particles. More than 70% of toxicity degree of PAHs falls into PM1.1 while more than 80% of mass concentration of PAHs falls into PM2.5. The addition of lignite amount in the co-pelletization results in the increasing concentration of either 4-6 aromatic ring PAHs or high molecular weight PAHs. The high contribution of 4-6 aromatic ring PAHs or high molecular weight PAHs in the fine particles should be paid much more attention because of high probability of human carcinogenic. Furthermore, the rubber wood sawdust pellets emit high mass concentration of PAHs whereas the lignite pellets emit high toxicity degree of PAHs. By co-pelletized rubber wood sawdust with lignite (50% lignite pellets) has significant effect to reduce the toxicity degree of PAHs by 70%.

  8. Cement composites with limestone dust and different grades of wood sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut, Paki [Department of Civil Engineering, Harran University, Osmanbey Campus, Sanliurfa (Turkey)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents a parametric experimental study which investigates the potential use of limestone powder wastes (LPW) and wood sawdust wastes (WSW) combination for producing a lightweight composite as a building material. Some of the physical and mechanical properties of brick materials having various levels of LPW and WSW with different particle sizes are investigated. The obtained compressive strength, flexural strength, unit weight, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and water absorption values satisfy the relevant international standards. The results show the effect of high level replacement of WSW with LPW does not exhibit a sudden brittle fracture even beyond the failure loads, indicates high energy absorption capacity, reduce the unit weight dramatically and introduce a smoother surface compared to the current bricks in the market. It shows a potential to be used for walls, wooden board substitute, alternative to the concrete blocks, ceiling panels, sound barrier panels, absorption materials, etc. Recycling of unmanaged WSW and LPW as new brick material supplements appears to be viable solution not only to the environmental problem but also to the problem of the economic design of buildings. (author)

  9. Equilibrium and kinetics of cadmium adsorption from aqueous solutions using untreated Pinus halepensis sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semerjian, L

    2010-01-15

    Untreated Pinus halepensis sawdust has been investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and metal concentration on sorption efficiency. The favorable pH for maximum cadmium adsorption was at 9.0. For the investigated cadmium concentrations (1-50mg/L), maximum adsorption rates were achieved almost in the 10-20 min of contact. An adsorbent dose of 10 g/L was optimum for almost complete cadmium removal within 30 min from a 5mg/L cadmium solution. For all contact times, an increase in cadmium concentration resulted in decrease in the percent cadmium removal (100-87%), and an increase in adsorption capacity (0.11-5.36 mg/g). The equilibrium adsorption data were best fitted with the Freundlich isotherm (R(2)=0.960). The kinetics of cadmium adsorption was very well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R(2)>0.999).

  10. Equilibrium and kinetics of cadmium adsorption from aqueous solutions using untreated Pinus halepensis sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semerjian, L., E-mail: ls07@aub.edu.lb [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2010-01-15

    Untreated Pinus halepensis sawdust has been investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and metal concentration on sorption efficiency. The favorable pH for maximum cadmium adsorption was at 9.0. For the investigated cadmium concentrations (1-50 mg/L), maximum adsorption rates were achieved almost in the 10-20 min of contact. An adsorbent dose of 10 g/L was optimum for almost complete cadmium removal within 30 min from a 5 mg/L cadmium solution. For all contact times, an increase in cadmium concentration resulted in decrease in the percent cadmium removal (100-87%), and an increase in adsorption capacity (0.11-5.36 mg/g). The equilibrium adsorption data were best fitted with the Freundlich isotherm (R{sup 2} = 0.960). The kinetics of cadmium adsorption was very well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R{sup 2} > 0.999).

  11. Isolation and characterization of cellulose-decomposing bacteria inhabiting sawdust and coffee residue composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallh Eida, Mohamed; Nagaoka, Toshinori; Wasaki, Jun; Kouno, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Clarifying the identity and enzymatic activities of microorganisms associated with the decomposition of organic materials is expected to contribute to the evaluation and improvement of composting processes. In this study, we examined the cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic abilities of bacteria isolated from sawdust compost (SDC) and coffee residue compost (CRC). Cellulolytic bacteria were isolated using Dubos mineral salt agar containing azurine cross-linked (AZCL) HE-cellulose. Bacterial identification was performed based on the sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes, and cellulase, xylanase, β-glucanase, mannanase, and protease activities were characterized using insoluble AZCL-linked substrates. Eleven isolates were obtained from SDC and 10 isolates from CRC. DNA analysis indicated that the isolates from SDC and CRC belonged to the genera Streptomyces, Microbispora, and Paenibacillus, and the genera Streptomyces, Microbispora, and Cohnella, respectively. Microbispora was the most dominant genus in both compost types. All isolates, with the exception of two isolates lacking mannanase activity, showed cellulase, xylanase, β-glucanase, and mannanase activities. Based on enzyme activities expressed as the ratio of hydrolysis zone diameter to colony diameter, it was suggested that the species of Microbispora (SDCB8, SDCB9) and Paenibacillus (SDCB10, SDCB11) in SDC and Microbispora (CRCB2, CRCB6) and Cohnella (CRCB9, CRCB10) in CRC contribute to efficient cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic processes during composting.

  12. Phytate degradation by fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust and coffee residue composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallh Eida, Mohamed; Nagaoka, Toshinori; Wasaki, Jun; Kouno, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Phytate is the primary source of organic phosphorus, but it cannot be directly utilized by plants and is strongly adsorbed by the soil, reducing bioavailability. Composting is a process used to improve the bioavailability of phytate in organic wastes through degradation by microorganisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phytate-degrading ability of fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust compost and coffee residue compost, and their contribution to the composting process. In the plate assay, the fungi that formed clear zones around their colonies belonged to the genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, Coniochaeta, Aspergillus, and Fusarium, while the bacteria belonged to the genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Chitinophaga, and Rahnella. Eight fungal isolates (genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, and Coniochaeta) and four bacterial isolates (genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and Rahnella) were selected to evaluate phytase activity in their liquid culture and their ability to degrade phytate in organic materials composed of mushroom media residue and rice bran. The selected fungi degraded phytate in organic materials to varying degrees. Penicillium isolates showed the highest degradation ability and Coniochaeta isolate exhibited relatively high degradation ability. The clear zone diameters of these fungal isolates displayed significantly positive and negative correlations with inorganic and phytate phosphorus contents in the organic materials after incubation, respectively; however, none of the selected bacteria reduced phytate phosphorus in organic materials. It is therefore possible that fungi are major contributors to phytate degradation during composting.

  13. Catalytic pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust for bio-oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Başak B; Kanmaz, Gülin

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the catalytic pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust in the presence of ZSM-5, H-Y and MCM-41 (10 wt % of the biomass sample) was carried out in order to increase the quality of the liquid product at the various pyrolysis temperatures of 400, 450, 500 and 550(o)C. In the non-catalytic work, the maximum oil yield was obtained as 42% at 500(o)C in a fixed-bed reactor system. In the catalytic work, the maximum oil yield was decreased to 37.48, 30.04 and 29.23% in the presence of ZSM-5, H-Y and MCM-41, respectively. The obtained pyrolysis oils were analyzed by various spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. It was determined that the use of a catalyst decreased acids and increased valuable organics found in the bio-oil. The removal of oxygen from bio-oil was confirmed with the results of the elemental analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Steam Gasification of Sawdust Biochar Influenced by Chemical Speciation of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metallic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Feng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical speciation (H2O/NH4Ac/HCl-soluble and insoluble of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species on the steam gasification of sawdust biochar was investigated in a lab-scale, fixed-bed reactor, with the method of chemical fractionation analysis. The changes in biochar structures and the evolution of biochar reactivity are discussed, with a focus on the contributions of the chemical speciation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs on the steam gasification of biochar. The results indicate that H2O/NH4Ac/HCl-soluble AAEMs have a significant effect on biochar gasification rates. The release of K occurs mainly in the form of inorganic salts and hydrated ions, while that of Ca occurs mainly as organic ones. The sp3-rich or sp2-sp3 structures and different chemical-speciation AAEMs function together as the preferred active sites during steam gasification. H2O/HCl-soluble AAEMs could promote the transformation of biochar surface functional groups, from ether/alkene C-O-C to carboxylate COO− in biochar, while they may both be improved by NH4Ac-soluble AAEMs. H2O-soluble AAEMs play a crucial catalytic role in biochar reactivity. The effect of NH4Ac-soluble AAEMs is mainly concentrated in the high-conversion stage (biochar conversion >30%, while that of HCl-soluble AAEMs is reflected in the whole activity-testing stage.

  15. Preparation of steam activated carbon from rubberwood sawdust (Hevea brasiliensis) and its adsorption kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Kumar, B G; Shivakamy, K; Miranda, Lima Rose; Velan, M

    2006-08-25

    Activated carbon was produced from a biowaste product, rubberwood sawdust (RWSD) using steam in a high temperature fluidized bed reactor. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of various process parameters such as activation time, activation temperature, particle size and fluidising velocity on the quality of the activated carbon. The activated carbon was characterized based on its iodine number, methylene blue number, Brauner Emmet Teller (BET) surface area and surface area obtained using the ethylene glycol mono ethyl ether (EGME) retention method. The best quality activated carbon was obtained at an activation time and temperature of 1h and 750 degrees C for an average particle size of 0.46 mm. The adsorption kinetics shows that pseudo-second-order rate fitted the adsorption kinetics better than pseudo-first-order rate equation. The adsorption capacity of carbon produced from RWSD was found to be 1250 mg g(-1) for the Bismark Brown dye. The rate constant and diffusion coefficient for intraparticle transport were determined for steam activated carbon. The characteristic of the prepared activated carbon was found comparable to the commercial activated carbon.

  16. Preparation of steam activated carbon from rubberwood sawdust (Hevea brasiliensis) and its adsorption kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash Kumar, B.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Shivakamy, K. [Centralised Waste Management Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Miranda, Lima Rose [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Velan, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)]. E-mail: velan@annauniv.edu

    2006-08-25

    Activated carbon was produced from a biowaste product, rubberwood sawdust (RWSD) using steam in a high temperature fluidized bed reactor. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of various process parameters such as activation time, activation temperature, particle size and fluidising velocity on the quality of the activated carbon. The activated carbon was characterized based on its iodine number, methylene blue number, Brauner Emmet Teller (BET) surface area and surface area obtained using the ethylene glycol mono ethyl ether (EGME) retention method. The best quality activated carbon was obtained at an activation time and temperature of 1 h and 750 deg. C for an average particle size of 0.46 mm. The adsorption kinetics shows that pseudo-second-order rate fitted the adsorption kinetics better than pseudo-first-order rate equation. The adsorption capacity of carbon produced from RWSD was found to be 1250 mg g{sup -1} for the Bismark Brown dye. The rate constant and diffusion coefficient for intraparticle transport were determined for steam activated carbon. The characteristic of the prepared activated carbon was found comparable to the commercial activated carbon.

  17. Evaluation of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic abilities of fungi isolated from coffee residue and sawdust composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eida, Mohamed Fathallah; Nagaoka, Toshinori; Wasaki, Jun; Kouno, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on the evaluation of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic fungi isolated from sawdust compost (SDC) and coffee residue compost (CRC). To identify fungal isolates, the ITS region of fungal rRNA was amplified and sequenced. To evaluate enzyme production, isolates were inoculated onto wheat bran agar plates, and enzymes were extracted and tested for cellulase, xylanase, β-glucanase, mannanase, and protease activities using different azurine cross-linked (AZCL) substrates. In total, 18 isolates from SDC and 29 isolates from CRC were identified and evaluated. Four genera (Aspergillus, Galactomyces, Mucor, and Penicillium) and five genera (Aspergillus, Coniochaeta, Fusarium, Penicillium, and Trichoderma/Hypocrea) were dominant in SDC and CRC, respectively. Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp., and Aspergillus sp. displayed high cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities, while Mucor isolates exhibited the highest β-glucanase and mannanase activities. The enzyme analyses revealed that Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Mucor isolates significantly contributed to the degradation of SDC, whereas Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Trichoderma isolates had a dominant role in the degradation of CRC. Notably, isolates SDCF5 (P. crustosum), CRCF6 (P. verruculosum), and CRCF2 and CRCF16 (T. harzianum/H. lixii) displayed high activity regarding cellulose and hemicellulose degradation, which indicates that these species could be beneficial for the improvement of biodegradation processes involving lignocellulosic materials.

  18. Optimization of microwave-assisted rubberwood sawdust based activated carbon preparation conditions for methylene blue removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasri, Azduwin; Ahmad, Mohd Azmier

    2017-10-01

    Optimum preparation conditions of rubberwood sawdust based activated carbon (RSAC) for methylene blue (MB) dye removal was studied. RSAC was produced by applying physiochemical activation method by using potassium hydroxide as a chemical agent which accompanied by carbon dioxide gasification under microwave heating. The effects of microwave power, irradiation time and impregnation ratio on two types of responses namely MB removal and RSAC yield using the center composite design (CCD) were also included in this study. The preparation variables correlation for responses was developed by two quadratic models. Optimum preparation conditions of RSAC were obtained at microwave power, irradiation time and IR of 354 W, 4.5 minutes and 0.98, respectively, which resulted MB removal and yield of 83.79% and 28%, respectively. The average pore diameter, surface area and total pore volume of optimized RSAC were 4.12 nm, 796.33 m2/g and 0.4219 cm3/g, respectively. This sample was found to has well-developed pores on its surface and can be a promising adsorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution.

  19. Effect of high-pressure on pine sawdust pyrolysis: Products distribution and characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baiqing; Li, Aimin

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the pressurized pyrolysis of pine sawdust was performed with a self-made pressurized pyrolysis reactor to investigatethe influence of pyrolysis pressure in the range of 0-5 MPa on products distribution and characteristics. The combustion feature and microstructure of bio-char had analyzed by thermogravimetric (TG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Elemental analyzer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to confirm the identities of bio-oil. The results indicated the pressure had a notable impact on the biomass pyrolysis, which promoted the secondary cracking of bio-oil to produce more gaseous products and bio-char. The minimum bio-oil yield of 20.24% was obtained at the pressure of 5 MPa. Furthermore, the pressure improved the products characteristics. The increasing of pressure was favour to the deoxygenation and dehydrogenation reactions of bio-oil, which led to the increase of CH4, H2 and CO2 in gas. At the same time, under the influence of pressure, the surface structure and compactedness of the bio-char were obviously improved.

  20. Detection of changes in fuel quality during storage of sawdust from pine and spruce by using gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and VIS-NIR-spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshadi, Mehrdad; Nilsson, David; Geladi, Paul (Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, SE-904 03 Umeaa (Sweden)). e-mail: mehrdad.arshadi@btk.slu.se

    2008-10-15

    Fuel pellets made of sawdust represent a renewable energy source for heat production. The raw material comes from sawmills and sawdust is used in the pellet mills and for reasons of logistics there is a need for storage of large quantities of the raw material. Long-term storage induces changes in the sawdust and therefore processing parameters for pellets production have to be adapted. This makes knowledge of storage time or maturity necessary. Two examples of experimental studies are presented: An industrial storage of pine and spruce sawdust was carried out over a period of 16 weeks in order to monitor the changes in the quality of sawdust during storage. Samples were taken out every week and all samples were analysed by VIS-NIR spectroscopy while some samples were analysed by GC-MS for their composition of fatty- and resin acids. The resulting data were subjected to multivariate data analysis. GC-MS data showed the difference between pine and spruce sawdust and the influence of maturity. This maturity effect could be associated with the decrease in fatty- and resin acids due to auto oxidative reactions. Multivariate analysis of the VIS-NIR data showed a major effect due to maturity associated with a colour change and also weaker effects of fatty- and resin acids differences. PLS regression was used to predict the storage time with RMSEP values between 10 and 15 days. However, since weather conditions, precipitation and seasonal variation have high influence on the speed of maturing of sawdust it will be necessary to continuously determine the degree of maturity. A second similar study is used as a complementary way of corroborating the results of the first one

  1. Sawdust and Bark-Based Substrates for Soilless Strawberry Production: Irrigation and Electrical Conductivity Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depardieu, Claire; Caron, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize a soilless growing system for producing bare-root strawberry transplants in three organic substrates. Three trials were conducted in the Quebec City area to determine the productivity potential of a peat-sawdust mixture (PS25) and an aged bark (AB) material compared to conventional coconut fiber (CF) substrate. A first experiment was carried out to define appropriate irrigation set points for each substrate that allowed optimal plant growth and fruit yields. For all substrates, wetter conditions (irrigation started at -1.0 kPa for CF; -1.5 kPa for AB and PS25, relative to -1.5 kPa for CF; -2.5 kPa for AB and PS25) enhanced plant growth and fruit production. The second trial was carried out to test the productivity potential for commercial production of the three substrates using high-tunnels. After the addition of an initial fertilizer application to PS25, we successfully established bare-root plants that gave similar fruit yields than those in CF and AB. The productivity potential of PS25 and AB were further confirmed during a third trial under greenhouse conditions. The critical factor for plant establishment in PS25 was attributed to consistent N, P and S immobilization by microorganisms, as well as the retention of other elements (Mg2+, K+) in the growth media. Taken together, our results showed that PS25 and AB are promising alternative substrates to coconut coir dust for strawberry cultivation. This paper also provides a useful guide for strawberry cultivation in Quebec, and suggests future research that might be conducted to optimize soilless systems for cold-climate strawberry production in Northern America. PMID:27099949

  2. (cedrela odorata l. PRODUCTION IN RAW SAWDUST AND DIFFERENT FERTILIZING DOSES IN TECPAN OF GALEANA, GUERRERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Mohedano-Caballero

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of nursery plant production is the proper use of substrates and fertilization routines to achieve morphological and physiological plant quality, to resist and overcome environmental conditions for country establishment. This study evaluated the effects of different levels of slow-release fertilizer on early growth of Cedrela odorata L., in container production. A completely randomized experimental design was used with a substrate composed by sawdust (70% and a peat moss-perlite-vermiculite mixture -60:20:20- respectively (30%, four levels of slow-release fertilizer Osmocote Plus™ (12/09/1915 0, 6, 9 and 12 Kg/m3, as factors. After three and half months plants with fourth fertilization level (12kg/m3 showed the highest values for shoot dry weight, root dry weight, total dry weight, shoot / root ratio, and quality indexes (slenderness and Dickson. Fertilization level 3 (9 Kg/m3 fertilizer had the highest values for height and diameter. According to results there is a direct relationship between fertilization rate and studied variables, as fertilizer rate increases these will increase too. However, the application of 12 kg/m3 caused a slight phytotoxicity effect leading to decline plant height and diameter, compared with treatment of 9 kg/m3. According this and no statistical significance difference of these two treatments data, 9 kg/m3 treatment is technically the best one in technical and economic sense, because of it implies savings of 3 kg fertilizer per cubic meter in substrate, than of 12 kg/m3 treatment with almost the same results.

  3. Decline in extractable kitasamycin during the composting of kitasamycin manufacturing waste with dairy manure and sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nengfei; Li, Weidong; Liu, Chen; Fu, Qinglin; Guo, Bin; Li, Hua; Li, Ningyu; Lin, Yicheng

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was to propose a feasible treatment of kitasamycin manufacturing waste by examining extractable kitasamycin and evaluating its compost maturity during the composting of waste with different ratios of dairy manure and sawdust over a 40-day period (volume/volume/volume; M1, 0/80/20; M2, 10/70/20; and M3, 30/50/20). During composting, the concentration of extractable kitasamycin in kitasamycin-contaminated composts declined rapidly, and was undetectable in M2 within 15 days. M2 also achieved the highest fertility compost, which was characterised by the following final parameters: electrical conductivity, 2.34 dS cm(-1); pH, 8.15; total C/N, 22.2; water-soluble NH4(+), P, and K, 0.37, 3.43, and 1.05 g kg(-1), respectively; and plant germination index values, 92%. Furthermore, DGGE analysis showed a dramatic increase in the diversity of bacterial species during composting. In contrast, a high concentration (121 mg kg(-1)) of extractable kitasamycin still remained in the M3 compost, which exerted an inhibitory effect on the composting, resulting in reduced bacterial diversity, high values of electrical conductivity and water-soluble NH4(+), a low C/N ratio, and a low plant germination index value. Furthermore, 3.86 log (CFU g(-1)) kitasamycin-resistant bacteria were still present on day 40, indicating the biological degradation contributed to the decline of extractable kitasamycin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A new hydrocarbon material based on seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides) sawdust: A structural promoter of cobalt catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankina, G. V.; Chernavskii, P. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Aspects of the physicochemical properties of a hydrocarbon material based on seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides) sawdust are studied. The use of a hydrocarbon material based on sea buckthorn sawdust as a structural promoter of Co/CHip cobalt catalyst in the reaction of CO hydrogenation is shown to require an additional cycling stage in the mode of reduction and oxidation. The resulting mean size of the Co particles is found to be 18-19 nm and is considered acceptable for the synthesis of C5+ liquid hydrocarbons.

  5. The biodegradation of Olive Oil Mill Wastewaters by Sawdust and by a Phanerochaetae chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez, J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD abatement in olive mill wastewaters (OMW by Phanerochaetae chrysosporium grown in static, stirred and immobilized cultures. When P. Chrysosporium is used in cultures, no decolorization of crude OMW is observed. Decolorization occurs only after the removal of polyphenols by adsorption in sawdust, which allows a 39% polyphenol removal. The use of a High lignin peroxides (Lip producing medium, yields the highest OMW decolorization and COD removal efficiencies. The use of P. Chrysosporium immobilized on polyurethane foam leads to significant abatements of OMW polluting characteristics. And COD abatement reached 70%. The reduction of polyphenols reached its highest level at 62%. A significant effluent decolorization is apparent.Este trabajo describe la decoloración y la disminución de la demanda química de oxígeno del alpechín (OMW por Phanerochaetae chrysosporium, crecido en cultivos estáticos, agitados e inmovilizados. Cuando P. chrysosporium fue cultivado en agitación, no se observa ninguna decoloración de OMW crudo, la decoloración ocurre solamente después de eliminar los polifenoles mediante adsorción en el serrín (Disminución del 39% del contenido en polifenoles. La utilización de la lignina peroxidasa generada en el medio da lugar a la mayor decoloración de alpechín y a las eficiencias de eliminación de DQO más altas. Las pruebas de la decoloración realizadas en las muestras de OMW que fueron pretratadas por la adsorción de madera del serrín, y usaron cultivos inmovilizadas demostraron resultados mejores. Por tanto, la eficiencia de eliminación de DQO alcanzó un 70%. La reducción de los polifenoles alcanzó los niveles más altos siempre, i.e. 62%. Se observó una decoloración significativa del efluente.

  6. Catalytic effects of eight inorganic additives on pyrolysis of pine wood sawdust by microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ming-qiang; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Ming-xu; Chen, Ming-gong; Min, Fan-fei [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan, Anhui 232001 (China); Zhu, Xi-feng [Laboratory of Biomass Clean Energy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Tan, Zhi-cheng [Thermochemistry Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, pyrolysis of pine wood sawdust was carried out by microwave heating at ca. 470 C under dynamic nitrogen atmosphere. Eight inorganic additives (NaOH, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, NaCl, TiO{sub 2}, HZSM-5, H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}) were investigated in terms of their catalytic effects on the pyrolysis. All of the eight additives have increased yields of solid products greatly and decreased yields of gaseous products more or less. Yields of liquid products have not subjected to dramatic change. The incondensable gases produced from pyrolysis consist mainly of H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO and CO{sub 2}. All of the eight additives have made these gases evolve earlier, among which the four sodium additives have the most marked effect. All the additives have made the amount of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} decrease, while all of them except NaCl, TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} have made that of H{sub 2} increase and all of them except Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} and HZSM-5 have made that of CO decrease. Alkaline sodium compounds NaOH, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} favor H{sub 2} formation most. The most abundant organic component in the liquid products from pyrolysis of untreated sample and samples treated by all the additives except H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} is acetol. All the four sodium compounds favor acetol formation reaction and the selection increasing effect follows the order of NaOH > Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} {approx} Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} > NaCl. TiO{sub 2} goes against the formation of acetol, HZSM-5 has no marked effect on acetol formation. The two dominant organic components identified in the liquid products from pyrolysis of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} treated samples are both fufural and 4-methyl-2-methoxy-phenol. A possible pathway for acetol formation is tentatively proposed. (author)

  7. Annealing effect on the particle size and chemical composition of activated carbon obtained from vacuum furnace of teak sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armynah, B., E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Tahir, D., E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Jaya, N., E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    Activated carbon was produced from sawdust by using physical method in a high temperature vacuum furnace without additional chemical. Fast pyrolysis process was carried out prior in fluidized a bed furnace to produce char before activation process. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various process parameters such as particle size, activation temperature and activation time on the quality of the activated carbon. In addition, the chemical composition studies were done by using x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The crystallite sizes were calculated by using Scherer equation based on x-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy data. The pyrolysis temperature and time were varied from 600°C to 900°C and from 3 hours to 6 hours, respectively. The particle size of activated carbon was increase with increasing temperature. The composition and crystallite size of the prepared activated carbon was compared with the non-activated carbon. The results indicated that the teak sawdust carbon could be employed as a low cost alternative to produce commercial activated carbon.

  8. Determination of the efficiency of sawdust and coco fiber used as Biofilter for pollutant removal for the treatment of wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Vicente Reyes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Water is a resource used by mankind for industrial and domestic needs, which once used, is discharged into the public sewer system or septic tanks. This project proposes an ecological alternative for the treatment of wastewater from domestic use named Biofilter, which is built of living material (worms and inert material (chip and gravel, which filters the wastewater; the biological filter has shown high efficiency in the removal of organic matter and pathogens. The field work was carried out with experimental biological filters, to ascertain the best composition of inert material, different variants were used. Two experimental Biofilters, one using sawdust and the other coco fiber were used in the treatment of domestic wastewater; treated samples from each reactor were subjected to laboratory analysis. The analysis and interpretation of results showed that the Biofilter using sawdust removed 53.53 % of pollutants and is outside the required norm for wastewater treatment and the Biofilter using coco fiber removed 82.37 % of contaminants and is within the Environmental Quality Norm and Effluent Discharge: Water Resource.

  9. Cumulative effects of bamboo sawdust addition on pyrolysis of sewage sludge: Biochar properties and environmental risk from metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Junwei; Wang, Minyan; Cao, Yucheng; Wu, Shengchun; Liang, Peng; Li, Yanan; Zhang, Jianyun; Zhang, Jin; Wong, Ming Hung; Shan, Shengdao; Christie, Peter

    2017-03-01

    A novel type of biochar was produced by mixing bamboo sawdust with sewage sludge (1:1, w/w) via a co-pyrolysis process at 400-600°C. Changes in physico-chemical properties and the intrinsic speciation of metals were investigated before and after pyrolysis. Co-pyrolysis resulted in a lower biochar yield but a higher C content in the end product compared with use of sludge alone as the raw material. FT-IR analysis indicates that phosphine derivatives containing PH bonds were formed in the co-pyrolyzed biochars. In addition, co-pyrolysis of sludge with bamboo sawdust transformed the potentially toxic metals in the sludge into more stable fractions, leading to a considerable decrease in their direct toxicity and bioavailability in the co-pyrolyzed biochar. In conclusion, the co-pyrolysis technology provides a feasible method for the safe disposal of metal-contaminated sewage sludge in an attempt to minimize the environmental risk from potentially toxic metals after land application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effective Remediation of Lead Ions from Aqueous Solution by Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust: Equilibrium, Kinetics, and Thermodynamic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubber wood sawdust was carbonized into charcoal by chemical treatment which was used for removal of lead ion from aqueous solution. The work involves batch experiments to investigate the pH effect, initial concentration of adsorbate, contact time, and adsorbent dose. Experimental data confirmed that the adsorption capacities increased with increasing inlet concentration and bed height and decreased with increasing flow rate. Adsorption results showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 37 mg/g at 308 K. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin model adsorption isotherm models were applied to analyze the process where Temkin was found as a best fitted model for present study. Simultaneously kinetics of adsorption like pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were investigated. Thermodynamic parameters were used to analyze the adsorption experiment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the batch adsorption of lead ion onto chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust.

  11. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Essential Oil Obtained from Sawdust of Chamaecyparis obtusa by Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K. Bajpai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species and free radicals play a major role in food deterioration. Current research is directed towards finding naturally occurring antioxidants of plant origin. In the present study, the chemical composition analysis of the essential oil obtained from sawdust of Chamaecyparis obtusa (COEO was conducted by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Further, the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the COEO were investigated using different radical scavenging assays. The COEO obtained from the dried sawdust material using a microwave-assisted hydrodistillation technique resulted in the determination of 46 different compounds by GC-MS analysis, representing 98.94 % of total oil content. The COEO was characterised by the presence of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenes, steroids, diterpenes and indole derivatives. At the highest tested concentration range, the COEO showed antioxidant capacity, i.e. the inhibition of DPPH, nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals of 80.16, 82.93, 72.99 and 71.62 %, respectively. Moreover, the COEO displayed concentration-dependent reducing power ability and remarkable inhibitory effect on ferric ion-induced lipid peroxidation in bovine brain extract. In addition, the COEO yielded (6.13±0.05 mg of gallic acid per g of dry mass. The present study confirms that the C. obtusa essential oil has potent antioxidant, lipid peroxidation inhibition and radical scavenging abilities; therefore, it might be used as a natural antioxidant to prevent food deterioration.

  12. Beads-Milling of Waste Si Sawdust into High-Performance Nanoflakes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukabe, Takatoshi; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Kimura, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Taketoshi; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Okai, Makoto; Kyotani, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, ca. 176,640 tons/year of silicon (Si) (>4N) is manufactured for Si wafers used for semiconductor industry. The production of the highly pure Si wafers inevitably includes very high-temperature steps at 1400-2000 °C, which is energy-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. Inefficiently, ca. 45-55% of such costly Si is lost simply as sawdust in the cutting process. In this work, we develop a cost-effective way to recycle Si sawdust as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries. By a beads-milling process, nanoflakes with extremely small thickness (15-17 nm) and large diameter (0.2-1 μm) are obtained. The nanoflake framework is transformed into a high-performance porous structure, named wrinkled structure, through a self-organization induced by lithiation/delithiation cycling. Under capacity restriction up to 1200 mAh g-1, the best sample can retain the constant capacity over 800 cycles with a reasonably high coulombic efficiency (98-99.8%).

  13. Treatment of Copper Contaminated Municipal Wastewater by Using UASB Reactor and Sand-Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor and its posttreatment unit of sand-chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust (CCRWSD column system for the treatment of a metal contaminated municipal wastewater was investigated. Copper ion contaminated municipal wastewater was introduced to a laboratory scale UASB reactor and the effluent from UASB reactor was then followed by treatment with sand-CCRWSD column system. The laboratory scale UASB reactor and column system were observed for a period of 121 days. After the posttreatment column the average removal of monitoring parameters such as copper ion concentration (91.37%, biochemical oxygen demand (BODT (93.98%, chemical oxygen demand (COD (95.59%, total suspended solid (TSS (95.98%, ammonia (80.68%, nitrite (79.71%, nitrate (71.16%, phosphorous (44.77%, total coliform (TC (99.9%, and fecal coliform (FC (99.9% was measured. The characterization of the chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF, and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Overall the system was found to be an efficient and economical process for the treatment of copper contaminated municipal wastewater.

  14. Treatment of Copper Contaminated Municipal Wastewater by Using UASB Reactor and Sand-Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swarup; Mishra, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and its posttreatment unit of sand-chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust (CCRWSD) column system for the treatment of a metal contaminated municipal wastewater was investigated. Copper ion contaminated municipal wastewater was introduced to a laboratory scale UASB reactor and the effluent from UASB reactor was then followed by treatment with sand-CCRWSD column system. The laboratory scale UASB reactor and column system were observed for a period of 121 days. After the posttreatment column the average removal of monitoring parameters such as copper ion concentration (91.37%), biochemical oxygen demand (BODT) (93.98%), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (95.59%), total suspended solid (TSS) (95.98%), ammonia (80.68%), nitrite (79.71%), nitrate (71.16%), phosphorous (44.77%), total coliform (TC) (99.9%), and fecal coliform (FC) (99.9%) was measured. The characterization of the chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF), and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Overall the system was found to be an efficient and economical process for the treatment of copper contaminated municipal wastewater.

  15. In vivo assessment of an industrial waste product as a feed additive in dairy cows: Effects of larch (Larix decidua L.) sawdust on blood parameters and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, D; Garavaglia, L; Spagnuolo, M S; Pferschy-Wenzig, E M; Bauer, R; Franz, C

    2015-12-01

    When larch (Larix spp.) is processed in the wood industry, the sawdust is currently disposed of as waste or used as combustible material, even though it is rich in biologically active compounds. In this study the effect of larch sawdust supplementation on blood parameters as well as milk composition was examined in healthy mid-lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Italian Friesian dairy cows were assigned to groups receiving either 300 g/day/cow of larch sawdust or a control diet, and treatments were continued for a 20 day period. Milk parameters were unaffected by treatment. A lower plasma total protein concentration was observed and can be attributed to a decrease in globulin concentration. A lower plasma urea concentration was also detected in the larch group. Moreover, biomarkers of liver function were influenced by the treatment. Total bilirubin was lower in larch-treated animals, and cholesterol tended to be lower. In addition, an interaction between day and treatment was observed for very low density lipoprotein. The concentration of other parameters, including reactive oxygen metabolites, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and nitrotyrosine, did not differ between treatments. The observed benefits, together with the good palatability, make larch sawdust a promising candidate for the development of beneficial feed supplements for livestock. Further studies will be useful, particularly to evaluate its efficacy in different health conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solution by Modified Holly Sawdust: A Study of Equilibrium and Kinetics

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    S. Azizian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Industrial wastewaters including heavy metals, are among the important sources of environmental pollution. Heavy metals such as chromium are found in plating wastewater and is harmful for human health and environment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the absorption of heavy metals such as chromium onto modified holly sawdust as an cheaper absorbent. Materials & Methods: This study was a fundamental- application study done in Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, hygiene faculty water and wastewater chemistry laboratory. This study investigated the removal of hexavalent chromium by using modified holly sawdust with pH changes ,contact time ,absorbent dose and Cr(VI concentrations in batch system. Then the result was analyzed by Excel software.Results: The results showed that the removal efficiency decrease is accompanied by the increase of pH and initial chromium concentration. pH increase from 2 to 12(equilibrium time= 180 min, adsorbent dose= 0.6g/100CC, Cr(VI concentrations= 60 mg/L,leaded to the removal efficiency decrease from 99.67 % to 29.78 %. Also removal efficiency decreased from 99.37 % to 40.24 % after increasing the initial chromium concentrations from 20 mg/L to 100 mg/L. Moreover the results showed the removal efficiency increased after increasing the adsorbent dose and contact time. By increasing adsorbent dose from 0.2 g/100CC to 1 g/100CC, the removal efficiency increased from 34.65 % to 99.76 %.Additionally, the removal efficiency increased from 48.53%to 99.76% by increasing contact time from 5 mins to 180 mins. Experimental isotherms and kinetics models were assessed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics models. The results showed that the data were acceptably explained acceptably by Langmuir isotherms and pseudo-second-order kinetics models respectively.Conclusion: The results showed that the removal of hexavalent chromium

  17. Characterization of wood plastic composites made from landfill-derived plastic and sawdust: Volatile compounds and olfactometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Félix, Juliana S., E-mail: jfelix@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, I3A, EINA, University of Zaragoza (UNIZAR), Zaragoza 50018 (Spain); Domeño, Celia, E-mail: cdomeno@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, I3A, EINA, University of Zaragoza (UNIZAR), Zaragoza 50018 (Spain); Nerín, Cristina, E-mail: cnerin@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, I3A, EINA, University of Zaragoza (UNIZAR), Zaragoza 50018 (Spain)

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: This work details the characterization of VOCs of WPC, produced from residual materials which would have landfills as current destination, and evaluates their odor profile. Highlights: ► More than 140 volatile compounds were identified in raw materials and WPC products. ► Markers were related to the thermal degradation, sawdust or coupling agents. ► WPC prototype showed a characteristic odor profile of burnt, sweet and wax-like. ► Aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones and phenols were odor descriptors of WPC. - Abstract: Application of wood plastic composites (WPCs) obtained from recycled materials initially intended for landfill is usually limited by their composition, mainly focused on release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which could affect quality or human safety. The study of the VOCs released by a material is a requirement for new composite materials. Characterization and quantification of VOCs of several WPC produced with low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate (PE/EVA) films and sawdust were carried out, in each stage of production, by solid phase microextraction in headspace mode (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). An odor profile was also obtained by HS-SPME and GC–MS coupled with olfactometry analysis. More than 140 compounds were observed in the raw materials and WPC samples. Some quantified compounds were considered WPC markers such as furfural, 2-methoxyphenol, N-methylphthalimide and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Hexanoic acid, acetic acid, 2-methoxyphenol, acetylfuran, diacetyl, and aldehydes were the most important odorants. None of the VOCs were found to affect human safety for use of the WPC.

  18. Computation of adsorption parameters for the removal of dye from wastewater by microwave assisted sawdust: Theoretical and experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Suganya; P, Senthil Kumar; A, Saravanan; P, Sundar Rajan; C, Ravikumar

    2017-03-01

    In this research, the microwave assistance has been employed for the preparation of novel material from agro/natural bio-waste i.e. sawdust, for the effective removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solution. The characterization of the newly prepared microwave assisted sawdust (MASD) material was performed by using FTIR, SEM and XRD analyses. In order to obtain the maximum removal of MB dye from wastewater, the adsorption experimental parameters such as initial dye concentration, contact time, solution pH and adsorbent dosage were optimized by trial and error approach. The obtained experimental results were applied to the different theoretical models to predict the system behaviour. The optimum conditions for the maximum removal MB dye from aqueous solution for an initial MB dye concentration of 25mg/L was calculated as: adsorbent dose of 3g/L, contact time of 90min, solution pH of 7.0 and at the temperature of 30°C. Freundlich and pseudo-second order models was best obeyed with the studied experimental data. Langmuir maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of MASD for MB dye removal was calculated as 58.14mg of MB dye/g of MASD. Adsorption diffusion model stated that the present adsorption system was controlled by intraparticle diffusion model. The obtained results proposed that, novel MASD was considered to be an effective and low-cost adsorbent material for the removal of dye from wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioremediation of contaminated mixtures of desert mining soil and sawdust with fuel oil by aerated in-vessel composting in the Atacama Region (Chile)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy-Faundez, Alex [Department of Chemical Engineering and Bioprocesses, Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)], E-mail: agodoy@puc.cl; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca [Department of Water and Environment Science and Technology, University of Bulevar Ronda Rufino Peon, 39316 Torrelavega, Cantabria (Spain)], E-mail: b_antizar@hotmail.com; Reyes-Bozo, Lorenzo [Department of Chemical Engineering and Bioprocesses, Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile); Camano, Andres [Minera Escondida Ltd. (Chile); Saez-Navarrete, Cesar [Department of Chemical Engineering and Bioprocesses, Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)], E-mail: csaez@ing.puc.cl

    2008-03-01

    Since early 1900s, with the beginning of mining operations and especially in the last decade, small, although repetitive spills of fuel oil had occurred frequently in the Chilean mining desert industry during reparation and maintenance of machinery, as well as casual accidents. Normally, soils and sawdust had been used as cheap readily available sorbent materials of spills of fuel oil, consisting of complex mixtures of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Chilean legislation considers these fuel oil contaminated mixtures of soil and sawdust as hazardous wastes, and thus they must be contained. It remains unknown whether it would be feasible to clean-up Chilean desert soils with high salinity and metal content, historically polluted with different commercial fuel oil, and contained during years. Thus, this study evaluated the feasibility of aerated in-vessel composting at a laboratory scale as a bioremediation technology to clean-up contaminated desert mining soils (fuel concentration > 50,000 mg kg{sup -1}) and sawdust (fuel concentration > 225,000 mg kg{sup -1}) in the Atacama Region. The composting reactors were operated using five soil to sawdust ratios (S:SD, 1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 0:1, on a dry weight basis) under mesophilic temperatures (30-40 deg. C), constant moisture content (MC, 50%) and continuous aeration (16 l min{sup -1}) during 56 days. Fuel oil concentration and physico-chemical changes in the composting reactors were monitored following standard procedures. The highest (59%) and the lowest (35%) contaminant removals were observed in the contaminated sawdust and contaminated soil reactors after 56 days of treatment, respectively. The S:SD ratio, time of treatment and interaction between both factors had a significant effect (p < 0.050) on the contaminant removal. The results of this research indicate that bioremediation of an aged contaminated mixture of desert mining soil and sawdust with fuel oil is feasible. This study recommends a S:SD ratio 1

  20. Influence of resting and pine sawdust application on chemical changes in post-agricultural soil and the ectomycorrhizal community of growing Scots pine saplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małecka Monika

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in chemical compounds and in ectomycorrhizal structure were determined for Scots pine growing on post agricultural soil lying fallow for 3, 6 and 15 years, after amendment with pine sawdust. Soil without any amendments was used as the control treatment. Comparing the ectomycorrhizal structure 15 years after the application of pine sawdust revealed no significant differences in abundance or species richness between soil with and without organic enrichment. The results showed that the ectomycorrhizal status depends on soil conditions (soil pH, nitrogen content, which remain unaffected by saw dust application. In all treatments, the most frequently occurring ectomycorrhizae genera were Dermocybe, Hebeloma, Suillus, Tomentella and Tricholoma. Two species (Paxillus involutus, Amanita muscaria were specific to the control plots that lay fallow for 15 years.

  1. Influence of Sawdust Bio-filler on the Tensile, Flexural, and Impact Properties of Mangifera Indica Leaf Stalk Fibre Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heckadka Srinivas Shenoy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to have biodegradable composites is aloft in today’s market as they are environment friendly and are also easy to fabricate. In this study, mangifera indica leaf stalk fibres were used as reinforcement along with saw dust as bio-filler material. Unsaturated isophthalic polyester resin was used as the matrix. The fibres were treated with 6 % vol. NaOH and neutralized with 3 % vol. of dilute HCl. Treatment of sawdust fillers was done by using 2% vol. NaOH solution. Hand layup method and compression moulding technique was used to fabricate the composite laminates. Specimens for evaluating the mechanical properties were prepared by using water jet machining. The results indicated an increase in tensile, flexural and impact strength of composites with addition of sawdust upto 3%. Further addition of the bio-filler resulted in decrease of mechanical properties.

  2. Catalytic steam reforming of volatiles released via pyrolysis of wood sawdust for hydrogen-rich gas production on Fe–Zn/Al2O3 nanocatalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, F; Wu, C; Dong, L; Jin, F; Williams, PT; Huang, J

    2015-01-01

    Thermo-chemical processing of biomass is a promising alternative to produce renewable hydrogen as a clean fuel or renewable syngas for a sustainable chemical industry. However, the fast deactivation of catalysts due to coke formation and sintering limits the application of catalytic thermo-chemical processing in the emerging bio-refining industry. In this research, Fe–Zn/Al2O3 nanocatalysts have been prepared for the production of hydrogen through pyrolysis catalytic reforming of wood sawdust...

  3. Co-firing of eucalyptus bark and rubberwood sawdust in a swirling fluidized-bed combustor using an axial flow swirler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakritthakul, Songpol; Kuprianov, Vladimir I

    2011-09-01

    Co-combustion of eucalyptus bark (as shredded fuel) and rubberwood sawdust was conducted in a swirling fluidized-bed combustor using a 22-vane axial flow swirler. During the co-firing tests, the fuel blend feed rate was maintained at about 60 kg/h, while the mass/energy fraction of the blended fuels was variable. Excess air supply ranged from 20% to 80% for each fuel option via variation of primary air, while secondary air was injected tangentially into the bed splash zone at a constant flowrate. For comparison, tests with pure rubberwood sawdust at similar operating conditions were performed as well. Temperature and concentrations of O(2), CO and NO were measured along radial and axial directions in the combustor as well as at stack. For all fuel firing options, the radial and axial temperature profiles in the reactor were found to be weakly dependent on operating conditions. However, the gas concentration profiles exhibited apparent effects of fuel properties, excess air and secondary air injection, which resulted in variable emission characteristics of the combustor. For the sawdust energy fraction in the fuel blend of about 0.85, CO and NO emissions can be controlled at acceptable levels (both complying with the national emission limits) by maintaining excess air between 50% and 55%. Under such conditions, the co-combustion of high-moisture eucalyptus bark and rubberwood sawdust in the proposed combustor occurs in a stable regime with high, 99.6%, combustion efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Crescimento micelial de Pleurotus ostreatus em resíduo de Simarouba amara Mycelial growth of Pleurotus ostreatus in Simarouba amara sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceci Sales-Campos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento micelial do cogumelo Pleurotus ostreatus, cultivado na serragem da espécie madeireira Simarouba amara. Avaliaram-se: o efeito das temperaturas de 22, 25, 27, 30 e 35ºC sobre o crescimento micelial de P. ostreatus, nos meios malte-ágar 3% e SDA-MA (infusão da serragem de S. amara, enriquecida com farelo de soja-dextrose-ágar; e o crescimento micelial em substrato de cultivo de serragem de S. amara, com e sem suplementação de farelo de soja, a 25 e 30ºC. O melhor desenvolvimento de P. ostreatus ocorreu em meio malte-ágar 3% a 25ºC. A suplementação de farelo de soja na serragem de S. amara favorece o crescimento micelial.The objective of this work was to assess the mycelial growth of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated in sawdust of Simarouba amara. Evaluations were made for the effect of temperatures 22, 25, 27, 30 and 35ºC on the mycelial growth of P. ostreatus in 3% malt-agar and SDA-MA (infusion of S. amara sawdust, enriched with soybean meal-dextrose-agar media; and the mycelial growth in cultivation substrate of S. amara sawdust, with and without supplementation of soybean meal, at 25 and 30ºC. The best development of P. ostreatus was in 3% malt-agar medium at 25ºC. Soybean meal supplementation on S. amara sawdust promoted mycelial growth.

  5. O uso da serragem no processo de minicompostagem The use of sawdust in a little compounder system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Spricigo Maragno

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho utilizou-se quatro minicomposteiras de PVC cilíndricas e idênticas, com 40 cm de diâmetro, 75 cm de comprimento e com as extremidades abertas. Cada minicomposteira recebeu 35,5 kg de resíduos sólidos orgânicos, previamente triturados e 6 kg de serragem. Foi acompanhado o processo através de análises de C/N, variação da temperatura, grau de umidade e pH. Os resultados mostraram que o uso do resíduo serragem como palhoso, nas minicomposteiras desenvolvidas, utilizando pequena quantidade de resíduos orgânicos, atingiu temperaturas de até 65º C, permanecendo na faixa termofílica por aproximadamente 6 dias. Após 18 dias a massa em degradação atingiu a temperatura ambiente, sendo então, deixada para maturar por 55 dias. A umidade no sistema foi próxima de 60% no início e o pH final ficou na faixa de 8,0 a 8,5. A relação C/N inicial foi 30/1 e chegou a 12/1 após 73 dias.In this work used four cylindrical PVC (polyvinyl chloride mini compost bins, they all had the same size and were identical, with 40 cm diameter and 75 cm length, they also were opened on both sides. Each mini compost bean received 35,5 kg of solid organic wastes, which were previously crushed and 6 kg of sawdust. It was evaluated during the composting process the C/N analyses, temperature measurement, humidity and pH. Results showed that the use of sawdust as a source of high carbon inputs on the mini compost beans and using low quantities of organic solid wastes reached temperatures as high as 65º C, keeping on the thermophilic phase for almost 6 days. After 18 days the environmental temperature was reached, the organic wastes were then laid to reach full maturity for 55 more days. The C/N ratio was initially around 30/1 and after 73 days it was around 12/1.

  6. Masonry concrete block strength compound with sawdust according to residue treatment - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.14372

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima Souza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of building blocks with the partial replacement of fine aggregates by sawdust is evaluated. The parameter adopted comprised analysis of the compressive strength according to the treatment applied to sawdust residue of the species Dinizia Excelsa Ducke (red angelim. Blocks were composed by replacing fine aggregates by sawdust at 5% weight. Before mixing the wood residues to the concrete, the former underwent treatment so that wood residues could be compatible with the cement matrix. Two treatment processes were investigated. The first treatment comprised the washing of residues in an alkaline solution (lime at a 5% proportion (weight / weight. The second treatment comprised the immersion of the residue in aluminum sulfate. Analysis was undertaken from compressive strength assays of the blocks on the 7th and 28th day. Results showed low efficiency in the alkaline-based treatment (lime and good performance in the aluminum sulfate-based treatment. The production of masonry blocks with a replacement of 5% fine aggregates for this type of treatment and species studied is possible. 

  7. Activated carbons from waste of oil-palm kernel shells, sawdust and tannery leather scraps and application to chromium(VI), phenol, and methylene blue dye adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Suarez, Sergio; Colpas-Castillo, Fredy; Meza-Fuentes, Edgardo; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Johana; Fernandez-Maestre, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Phenol, chromium, and dyes are continuously dumped into water bodies; the adsorption of these contaminants on activated carbon is a low-cost alternative for water remediation. We synthesized activated carbons from industrial waste of palm oil seed husks (kernel shells), sawdust, and tannery leather scraps. These materials were heated for 24 h at 600, 700 or 800°C, activated at 900°C with CO2 and characterized by proximate analysis and measurement of specific surface area (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Langmuir), and microporosity (t-plot). Isotherms showed micropores and mesopores in activated carbons. Palm seed activated carbon showed the highest fixed carbon content (96%), and Langmuir specific surface areas up to 1,268 m2/g, higher than those from sawdust (581 m2/g) and leather scraps (400 m2/g). The carbons were applied to adsorption of Cr(VI), phenol, and methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions. Phenol adsorption on activated carbons was 78-82 mg/g; on palm seed activated carbons, Cr(VI) adsorption at pH 7 was 0.35-0.37 mg/g, and methylene blue adsorption was 40-110 mg/g, higher than those from sawdust and leather scraps. Activated carbons from palm seed are promising materials to remove contaminants from the environment and represent an alternative application for vegetal wastes instead of dumping into landfills.

  8. Combination of artificial neural network and genetic algorithm method for modeling of methylene blue adsorption onto wood sawdust from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajeh, Mostafa; Sarafraz-Yazdi, Ali; Natavan, Zahra Bameri

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a low price and environmentally friendly adsorbent with abundant of source to remove methylene blue (MB) from water samples. Sawdust solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was used for the extraction and determination of MB. In this study, an experimental data-based artificial neural network model is constructed to describe the performance of sawdust solid-phase extraction method for various operating conditions. The pH, time, amount of sawdust, and temperature were the input variables, while the percentage of extraction of MB was the output. The optimum operating condition was then determined by genetic algorithm method. The optimized conditions were obtained as follows: 11.5, 22.0 min, 0.3 g, and 26.0°C for pH of the solution, extraction time, amount of adsorbent, and temperature, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the detection limit and relative standard deviation were 0.067 μg L(-1) and <2.4%, respectively. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the isotherm constant and for the removal and determination of MB from water samples. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Optimization of properties of cement-bonded particleboard manufactured from cotton stalk and sawdust containing calcium chloride CaCl2 as an additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza nazerian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigation of hydration behavior and mechanical properties of cement-bonded particleboard manufactured from different ratio of cotton stalk to poplar wood particle, sawdust content and CaCl2 as additive at different weight ratios. At the first, curing time of cement paste containing different amount of additive (CaCl2 and wood and cotton fines was determined. Besides, the effect of additive (CaCl2 content, weight ratio of cotton to poplar wood particles and percentage of sawdust on modulus of rupture (MOR, modulus of elasticity (MOE and internal bonding (IB of cement-bonded particleboard was evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM. In order to optimize the properties of panels, a mathematical model equation (second order plan was done by a computer simulation program. According to results, there is a good coincidence between predicted values and actual values (R2 for MOR, MOE and IB was 0.93, 0.90 and 0.95, respectively. This study showed that the response surface methodology (RSM can be effectively used for modeling of panel properties. Results showed that using weight ratio of cotton to poplar particle 43:57 the MOR, MOE and IB of panels can be reached to maximum values (12.5, 2545 and 0.35 MPa, respectively. Simultaneously, application of 4.5% additive and 9% sawdust at had a positive effect on the properties of the panels.

  10. Low temperature microwave-assisted pyrolysis of wood sawdust for phenolic rich compounds: Kinetics and dielectric properties analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hu; Bao, Liwei; Kong, Lingzhao; Sun, Yuhan

    2017-08-01

    Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of wood sawdust for phenolic rich compounds was carried out between 400 and 550°C in a batch reactor. An efficient preparation of liquid products was observed at 500°C with a yield of 58.50%, which was similar to conventional fast pyrolysis. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds in liquid product reached up to 78.7% (area) in which the alkoxy phenols contributed 81.8% at 500°C. Microwave thermogravimetric analysis using KAS method was used firstly to investigate the low-temperature pyrolytic behaviors and activation energy. The results indicated that effective pyrolytic range was 250-400°C and average activation energy was 42.78kJ/mol, which were 50-100°C and 50-100kJ/mol lower than conventional pyrolysis, respectively. Analysis on dielectric properties of pyrolytic products confirmed that accelerated pyrolysis and low temperature were attributed to the formation of instantaneous "hot spots". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis and application of a ternary composite of clay, saw-dust and peanut husks in heavy metal adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungondori, Henry H; Mtetwa, Sandile; Tichagwa, Lilian; Katwire, David M; Nyamukamba, Pardon

    2017-05-01

    The adsorption of a multi-component system of ferrous, chromium, copper, nickel and lead on single, binary and ternary composites was studied. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ternary composite of clay, peanut husks (PH) and saw-dust (SD) exhibited a higher adsorption capacity than that of a binary system of clay and SD as well as a single component adsorbent of PH alone. The materials were used in their raw state without any chemical modifications. This was done to retain the cost effective aspect of the naturally occurring adsorbents. The adsorption capacities of the ternary composite for the heavy metals Fe 2+ , Cr 3+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Pb 2+ were 41.7 mg/g, 40.0 mg/g, 25.5 mg/g, 41.5 mg/g and 39.0 mg/g, respectively. It was found that the ternary composite exhibited excellent and enhanced adsorption capacity compared with both a binary and single adsorbent for the heavy metals Fe 2+ , Ni 2+ and Cr 3+ . Characterization of the ternary composites was done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Kinetic models and adsorption isotherms were also studied. The pseudo second order kinetic model and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm best described the adsorption mechanisms for the ternary composite towards each of the heavy metal ions.

  12. Broiler litter supplementation improves storage and feed-nutritional value of sawdust-based spent mushroom substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, W S; Jung, S H; Kim, Y I

    2008-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of broiler poultry litter (BL) supplementation to spent mushroom substrate (SMS) on its storage and feed-nutritional value improvement. In Exp. 1, the sawdust-based SMS from a king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) farm was mixed with BL at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% levels on a wet basis and deepstack stored for short-term (1-wk) and long-term (3-wk). At 1-wk of short-term deepstack storage, SMS with more than 50% BL levels showed favorable conservation. At 3-wk of long-term storage, all treatments except for BL 100% had a serious fungal problem. Based on chemical parameters, BL-blending to SMS practically improved the feed-nutritional value of the mixtures. Since the deepstacking method was not effective for long term storage, in Exp. 2 SMS ensiled with or without BL was attempted to improve long-term (3-wk) storage. All the ensiled treatments (SMS 100%, SMS 75%+BL 25% and SMS 50%+BL 50%) had desirable fermentation. As in deepstacking, BL-blending to SMS improved the nutritive value of the ensiled mixtures. The populations of total bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeast were highest (PSMS was blended with 25% BL. In conclusion, blending 50% or more BL with SMS was effective for the short-term (1-wk) deepstack storage. For long-term (3-wk) storage of SMS, an ensiling method was effective with or without the addition of BL.

  13. Adsorption of Bismark Brown dye on activated carbons prepared from rubberwood sawdust (Hevea brasiliensis) using different activation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Kumar, B G; Miranda, Lima Rose; Velan, M

    2005-11-11

    Hevea brasiliensis or rubberwood tree, as it is commonly known finds limited use once the latex has been tapped. The sawdust of this tree is chosen to ascertain it viability as a precursor for activation. The carbons thus obtained were characterized in terms of iodine, methylene blue number and surface area. The best carbon in each method was utilized to study the adsorption of Bismark Brown, a dye used in the leather industry. Adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out with the synthetic solutions of the dye, at room temperature (298 K). Equilibrium data are fitted with the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms models for the system. The effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial dye concentrations on sorption capacity were carried out. Excellent adsorption capacities of 2000 and 1111 mg g(-1) were obtained for steam and chemical followed by steam-activated carbons, respectively. Pilot-plant experimental studies have been performed using packed-bed column with different feed concentrations, flow rates and bed heights, to evaluate sorption of Bismark Brown on steam-activated carbon. Bed depth service time (BDST) design model have been used to analyze the data.

  14. Adsorption of Bismark Brown dye on activated carbons prepared from rubberwood sawdust (Hevea brasiliensis) using different activation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash Kumar, B.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Miranda, Lima Rose [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Velan, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India)]. E-mail: velan@annauniv.edu

    2005-11-11

    Hevea brasiliensis or rubberwood tree, as it is commonly known finds limited use once the latex has been tapped. The sawdust of this tree is chosen to ascertain it viability as a precursor for activation. The carbons thus obtained were characterized in terms of iodine, methylene blue number and surface area. The best carbon in each method was utilized to study the adsorption of Bismark Brown, a dye used in the leather industry. Adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out with the synthetic solutions of the dye, at room temperature (298 K). Equilibrium data are fitted with the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms models for the system. The effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial dye concentrations on sorption capacity were carried out. Excellent adsorption capacities of 2000 and 1111 mg g{sup -1} were obtained for steam and chemical followed by steam-activated carbons, respectively. Pilot-plant experimental studies have been performed using packed-bed column with different feed concentrations, flow rates and bed heights, to evaluate sorption of Bismark Brown on steam-activated carbon. Bed depth service time (BDST) design model have been used to analyze the data.

  15. Secretion of laccase and manganese peroxidase by Pleurotus strains cultivate in solid-state using Pinus spp. sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Camassola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus species secrete phenol oxidase enzymes: laccase (Lcc and manganese peroxidase (MnP. New genotypes of these species show potential to be used in processes aiming at the degradation of phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dyes. Hence, a screening of some strains of Pleurotus towards Lcc and MnP production was performed in this work. Ten strains were grown through solid-state fermentation on a medium based on Pinus spp. sawdust, wheat bran and calcium carbonate. High Lcc and MnP activities were found with these strains. Highest Lcc activity, 741 ± 245 U gdm-1 of solid state-cultivation medium, was detected on strain IB11 after 32 days, while the highest MnP activity occurred with strains IB05, IB09, and IB11 (5,333 ± 357; 4,701 ± 652; 5,999 ± 1,078 U gdm-1, respectively. The results obtained here highlight the importance of further experiments with lignocellulolytic enzymes present in different strains of Pleurotus species. Such results also indicate the possibility of selecting more valuable strains for future biotechnological applications, in soil bioremediation and biological biomass pre-treatment in biofuels production, for instance, as well as obtaining value-added products from mushrooms, like phenol oxidase enzymes.

  16. Analysis of Major Nutritional Components of Pleurotus pulmonarius During the Cultivation in Different Indoor Environmental Conditions on Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariqul Islam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus pulmonarius was cultivated in three different environmental conditions, in ambient indoor environment (System 1, in humidifying without ventilation (System 2 and in humidifying with ventilation (System 3 to analyse the major nutritional contents. Sawdust was the main substrate for all the cultivation systems. The lowest temperature and the highest optimal humidity were found in System 3. The temperature and humidity had shown statistically significant among the three cultivation Systems. The highest numbers of flushes was found both in System 2 and System 3 but System 1 was produced mushrooms till 3rd flush. About 29.5%, 28.3%, 28.5% protein; 59.0%, 55.8%, 54.3% carbohydrate and 3.8%, 3.5%, 3.3% lipid were found in System 1, System 2 and System 3 respectively. The protein, carbohydrate, and lipid contents were shown statistically insignificant among the cultivation systems. The highest value of protein, carbohydrate and lipid were found for the sample of 1st flush in all the cultivation systems but the values were started to decrease with the increased numbers of flushes significantly. So, this study shown that, although the environmental conditions of the three cultivation systems were varied significantly but the protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents were existed their normal values in all cases but the values were decreased by the increased numbers of flushes.

  17. Biosorption mechanism of Methylene Blue from aqueous solution onto White Pine (Pinus durangensis sawdust: Effect of operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J. Salazar-Rabago

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the biosorption mechanism of the cationic dye Methylene Blue (MB on natural White Pine sawdust (NS (Pinus durangensis was investigated. Likewise, the surface charge distribution of NS was determined, and its point of zero charge was found to be 4.3. Besides, the capacity of the NS for adsorbing MB was increased 1.7, 2.0 and 4.6 times when the pH was raised from 3 to 4.25, 3 to 7 and 3 to 10, respectively. This behavior was attributed to the electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged surface of NS and the cationic species MB+. The adsorption capacity increased with increased temperature because the adsorption was an endothermic process. The adsorption capacity was drastically reduced by increasing the ionic strength of the solution corroborating with the fact that the electrostatic attractions played a crucial role in the adsorption of MB on NS. It was also shown that the MB was chemisorbed because the adsorption was not reversible. The predominant adsorption mechanisms were the electrostatic attraction and chemisorption and not ion exchange.

  18. Separation of CO2 in a Solid Waste Management Incineration Facility Using Activated Carbon Derived from Pine Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Durán

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The selective separation of CO2 from gas mixtures representative of flue gas generated in waste incineration systems is studied on two activated carbons obtained from pine sawdust and compared to a commercial activated carbon. Dynamic adsorption experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed adsorption column using a binary mixture (N2/CO2 with a composition representative of incineration streams at temperatures from 30 to 70 °C. The adsorption behavior of humid mixtures (N2/CO2/H2O was also evaluated in order to assess the influence of water vapor in CO2 adsorption at different relative humidity in the feed gas: 22% and 60%. Moreover, CO2 adsorption was studied in less favorable conditions, i.e., departing from a bed initially saturated with H2O. In addition, the effect of CO2 on H2O adsorption was examined. Experimental results showed that the CO2 adsorption capacity can be reduced significantly by the adsorption of H2O (up to 60% at high relative humidity conditions. On the other hand, the breakthrough tests over the adsorbent initially saturated with water vapor indicated that H2O is little affected by CO2 adsorption. The experimental results pointed out the biomass based carbons as best candidates for CO2 separation under incineration flue gas conditions.

  19. Optimisation of the manufacturing variables of sawdust pellets from the bark of Pinus caribaea Morelet: Particle size, moisture and pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relova, I.; Leon, M.A. [Universidad de Pinar del Rio, Marti 270 esq, a 27 de Noviembre, Pinar del Rio (Cuba); Vignote, S.; Ambrosio, Y. [Departamento de Economia y Gestion Forestal, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    Different variables affect the processes of compacting biomass, and these variables depend on the raw material, such as the type of wood or type of biomass being compacted, its moisture, size, as well as on other aspects relating to the manufacturing process, such as the pressure applied and the temperature reached during compaction. This work analyses the influence of the size of the sawdust particles from the bark of the species Pinus caribaea var. Morelet, which ranges from 0.63 to 2 mm; it had a moisture content in dry basis of 6; 9.5; 13 and 20%; and the force applied in the laboratory was 8000, 12,000, 16,000 and 20,000 N. These values are relatively high given that they do not take into account the heat caused by the matrixes chafing with the material to be compacted, as occurs in industrial processes. The different experimental treatments were processed and statistically analysed using SSPS version 12.0, and Statgraphics version 5.0. Once the data had been tested in the ANOVA and in various comparison tests, it was observed that the results did not show any significant differences between the pellets obtained with forces of 16,000 and 20,000 N, or between pellets obtained with 9.5 and 13% moisture, and that the pellets with higher qualities were obtained from particle sizes of between 1 and 2 mm. (author)

  20. Sawdust biochar application to rice paddy field: reduced nitrogen loss in floodwater accompanied with increased NH3 volatilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanfang; Sun, Haijun; Xue, Lihong; Wang, Yueman; Yang, Linzhang; Shi, Weiming; Xing, Baoshan

    2018-01-06

    Sawdust biochar (SDB) was for the first time applied to rice paddy field to evaluate its effects on potential nitrogen (N) runoff and ammonia (NH3) volatilization losses in a soil column experimental system. Results showed that total N concentration of surface floodwater under SDB treatments was reduced by 7.29-35.16, 16.34-32.35, and 12.21-28.12% after three split N fertilizations, respectively. Particularly, NH4+-N was decreased by 11.84-27.08, 14.29-36.50, and 2.97-19.64%, respectively. However, SDB addition has no significant influence on NO3--N concentration. Meanwhile, SDB application increased NH4+-N and total N content of top (0-15 cm) soil. Furthermore, these SDB-induced influences were more pronounced for 3 wt% SDB treatments. SDB treatments recorded 3.56-5.78 kg ha-1 higher NH3 volatilization than urea control treatment, which was attributed to the elevated pH values of floodwater and top soil induced by SDB. Fortunately, the yield-scale NH3 volatilization was not increased dramatically.

  1. The usage of activated carbon from teak sawdust (tectona grandis l.f.) and zeolite for the adsorption of Cr(VI) and its analysis using solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputro, S.; Masykuri, M.; Mahardiani, L.; Mulyani, B.; Qorina, I.; Yoshimura, K.; Takehara, K.; Matsuoka, S.

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the usage of teak sawdust and zeolite as an adsorbent of Cr(VI) ion; optimal composition ratio of the composite adsorbent; and the sensitivity of solid-phase spectrophotometry (SPS) as a method to determine the levels of Cr(VI) ion as an adsorption results of adsorbents. The adsorbent used were teak sawdust activated carbon and zeolite as a single and composite adsorbents. The teak sawdust carbonization using muffle furnace and then activated with H3PO4 10% while the zeolite with H2SO4 10%. The contacting process of the adsorbents with Cr(VI) was done by varying the compositions. Analysis of Cr(VI) level was done using SPS method. Characterization of adsorbent before and after being activated is done using a FTIR. The results showed that teak sawdust and zeolite can be used as adsorbents to adsorb Cr(VI) in the simulated liquid waste with the adsorption capacity 1.19 µg/g the optimum composition ratio of teak sawdust activated carbon and zeolite was 75%:25% with the percentage of adsorption was 62.72%. Solid-phase spectrophotometry is a sensitive method to analyze the decreased levels of Cr(VI) as an adsorption results in µg/L level with the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.03 µg/L.

  2. Composting sewage sludge amended with different sawdust proportions and textures and organic waste of food industry--assessment of quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammari, Tarek G; Al-Omari, Qusai; Abbassi, Bassim E

    2012-01-01

    The quality of compost made from dewatered sewage sludge, sawdust (SD) and organic wastes of a potato-processing industry (OW), in terms of chemical and biological properties, was assessed. Mixtures of the sludge, SD and OW were composted for 57 days in insulated containers at two C:N ratios (approximately 30 : 1 and approximately 20 : 1) and SD textures (coarse- and fine-textured SD). The parameters monitored over this period were pH, electrical conductivity (EC), C:N ratio, CO2 evolution and two spectrophotometric ratios (Q2/6 and Q2/4). All the studied parameters were in general similarly influenced by initial C:N ratio and texture of SD except for EC, Q2/6 and Q2/4. At high C:N ratio of both textures, the EC of the final products increased but were less than those of low C:N ratio of both textures. Thus, final product can be used alone as growth medium without the need for grinding or blending with other materials. The spectrophotometric ratios (Q2/6 and Q2/4) dramatically decreased two weeks after composting and then slightly increased at the end of composting process. However, coarse-textured SD at the low C:N ratio and fine-textured SD at both C:N ratios resulted in lower Q2/6 and Q2/4 ratios, reflecting a better degree of aromatic condensation and organic matter humification. Considering these parameters, co-composting sludge with fine-textured SD and OW at high initial C:N ratio would represent the best compromise.

  3. Impact of ultrasound on solid–liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from maritime pine sawdust waste. Kinetics, optimization and large scale experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Meullemiestre, Alice; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Maache-Rezzoug, Z.; Chemat, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Maritime pine sawdust, a by-product from industry of wood transformation, has been investigated as a potential source of polyphenols which were extracted by ultrasound-assisted maceration (UAM). UAM was optimized for enhancing extraction efficiency of polyphenols and reducing time-consuming. In a first time, a preliminary study was carried out to optimize the solid/liquid ratio (6 g of dry material per mL) and the particle size (0.26 cm2) by conventional maceration (CVM). Under these conditio...

  4. Catalytic activity of active carbons impregnated before activation of pinewood sawdust and nutshells to be used on the control of atmospheric emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceição M; Gaspar, Carla Maria T B

    2005-03-17

    This work analyses the catalytic activity of metal oxides impregnated on activated carbons to be used for the complete oxidation of benzene present in atmospheric emissions. When the impregnation step is performed before CO2 activation, the knowledge about catalytic activity is as yet quite scarce, being the main objective of the study here reported. Pinewood sawdust and nutshells were recycled to produce the activated carbons. Non-expensive metal oxides (CoO, Co3O4 and CrO3) were impregnated. When the impregnation was performed before CO2 activation instead of after activation, at 523 K the kinetic constants were 3.6-4.3 times higher for sawdust carbons, and 2.1-2.7 times higher for nutshell carbons, due to a better metal oxide dispersion on higher mesopore areas and on wider micropores. With Co3O4 as catalyst, a benzene conversion of 90% was reached at a lower temperature than with CrO3 (472 and 558 K, respectively). The carbons impregnated before CO2 activation allowed very good conversions at temperatures that guarantee carbon stability (lower than 575 K). The results obtained led to the conclusion that activated carbon is a suitable support for metal oxide catalyst aiming the complete oxidation of benzene, mainly if an adequately porous texture is induced, proceeding to the impregnation before CO2 activation.

  5. Antibacterial Mode of Action of the Essential Oil Obtained from Chamaecyparis obtusa Sawdust on the Membrane Integrity of Selected Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K. Bajpai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the possible antibacterial mechanism of action of the essential oil obtained from Chamaecyparis obtusa (COEO sawdust against foodborne pathogenic bacteria. The COEO was obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation of C. obtusa sawdust. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of COEO against the tested foodborne pathogens including Bacillus cereus ATCC 13061, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 43174 and Escherichia coli ATCC 43889 were found in the range from 62.5 to 500 μg/mL and from 125 to 1000 μg/mL, respectively. At the MIC concentrations, the COEO had potential inhibitory effect on the cell viability of the tested bacteria. In addition, the scanning electron microscopic analysis confirmed the inhibitory effect of COEO by revealing significant morphological alterations or rupture of the cell membranes of B. cereus ATCC 13061 and E. coli ATCC 43889. Moreover, the mode of action of COEO on the cell membrane of both Gram-positive B. cereus ATCC 13061 and Gram-negative E. coli ATCC 43889 bacteria was confirmed by marked release of extracellular adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP and cellular material that absorbs at 260 nm, and by efflux of potassium ions. These findings suggest that COEO holds a broad-spectrum antibacterial efficacy, confirming its influence on the membrane integrity and morphological characteristics of tested foodborne pathogens.

  6. Sawdust, Spawn, and Shiitake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Van T.; Lanphear-Cook, Carol J.

    1988-01-01

    Deals with a fungus that plays an important role in the forests of Asia as a decomposer of recently dead trees and in agriculture as an important edible mushroom. Describes how to culture these mushrooms including materials, conditions, and troubleshooting. Gives ideas for classroom activities. (CW)

  7. Synthesis of magnetic biochar from pine sawdust via oxidative hydrolysis of FeCl{sub 2} for the removal sulfamethoxazole from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reguyal, Febelyn [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Gao, Wei [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Synthesis of strongly magnetic biochar via oxidative hydrolysis of FeCl{sub 2}. • Saturation magnetisation of magnetic pine sawdust biochar (MPSB) is 47.8 A m{sup 2}/kg. • Single-phase iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles formed on the surface of biochar. • Adsorption behaviour and regeneration were investigated. • Sorption of sulfamethoxazole onto MPSB could be due to hydrophobic interaction. - Abstract: Magnetisation of carbonaceous adsorbent using iron oxide (Fe{sub x}O{sub y}) has potential to decrease the recovery cost of spent adsorbent because it could be separated magnetically. However, formation of various phases of Fe{sub x}O{sub y} and iron hydroxide (Fe{sub x}(OH){sub y}) during synthesis particularly the non-magnetic phases are difficult to control and could significantly reduce the magnetic saturation of the adsorbent. Hence, formation of the most magnetic Fe{sub x}O{sub y}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4,} on biochar via oxidative hydrolysis of FeCl{sub 2} under alkaline media was performed to synthesise magnetic adsorbent using pine sawdust biochar (magnetic pine sawdust biochar: MPSB). The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles on the surface of biochar contributed to high saturation magnetisation of MPSB, 47.8 A m{sup 2}/kg, enabling it to be separated from aqueous solution using a magnet. MPSB were examined physically and chemically using various techniques. Sorbent-stability, parametric, kinetics, isotherm, thermodynamic and sorbent-regeneration studies were performed to comprehend the potential of MPSB as adsorbent to remove an emerging contaminant, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) from aqueous solution. Results showed that MPSB was stable within solution pH 4–9. Adsorption of SMX onto MPSB was favourable at low pH, fast and best described by Redlich-Peterson model. Adsorption was exothermic with physisorption possibly due to hydrophobic interaction and spent adsorbent could be regenerated by organic solvents.

  8. Alkaline treatment of timber sawdust: A straightforward route toward effective low-cost adsorbent for the enhanced removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamina Djilali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study assesses the ability of two low-cost adsorbents – timber sawdust (TS–OH and its alkaline treated analog (TS–ONa – to remove two basic dyes, namely, Methylene Blue and Methyl Green, from aqueous solutions. The presence of new functional groups on the surface of TS–ONa resulted in a dramatic increase of surface polarity and the density of sorption sites, thereby improving the sorption efficiency of the cationic dyes. The results obtained from the sorption characteristics have revealed that the sorption process for TS–ONa was uniform and rapid. The adsorption of cationic dyes reached equilibrium within the first 10 min of contact time and the treated material acts efficiently in a wide pH range of dye solutions. The extent of adsorption was measured through equilibrium sorption isotherms and analyzed using the Langmuir model. The monolayer saturation capacities for Methylene Blue are 694.44 and 1928.31 mg g−1 and for Methyl Green are 892.86 and 1821.33 mg g−1 for TS–OH and TS–ONa, respectively. Therefore, the chemically treated sawdust proved two- to threefold higher adsorption capacities of these dyes than those of the untreated analog. The exothermic nature of adsorption is demonstrated by a decrease of adsorption capacity with increasing temperature, and the negative value of free energy change indicated the spontaneity of adsorption. Desorption experiments with 1 M aqueous NaCl put into evidence that cationic dyes were completely desorbed from the matrices and the reusability of the TS–ONa matrix after three repeated cycles led to just a slight attenuation in its performance. These results show that alkaline treatment of a low value by-product of the timber industry leads to a powerful and efficient low-cost adsorbent, which may be used for the treatment of colored wastewaters.

  9. Influence of reaction conditions and the char separation system on the production of bio-oil from radiata pine sawdust by fast pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Ju; Park, Young-Kwon; Kim, Joo Sik [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, 90 Jeonnong-Dong, Dondaemun-Gu, Seoul 130-743 (Korea)

    2008-08-15

    Radiata pine sawdust was pyrolyzed in a bubbling fluidized bed equipped with a char separation system. The influence of the reaction conditions on the production of bio-oil was investigated through the establishment of mass balance, and the examination of the products' chemical and physical characteristics. The optimal reaction temperature for the production of bio-oil was between 673 and 723 K, and the yield was above 50 wt.% of the product. An optimal feed size also existed. In a particle with a size that was less than 0.3 mm, the bio-oil yield decreased due to overheating, which led to gas formation. A higher flow rate and feeding rate were found to be more effective for the production of bio-oil, but did not significantly affect it. The main compounds of bio-oil were phenolics, including cresol, guaiacol, eugenol, benzendiol and their derivatives, ketones, and aldehydes. In addition, high-quality bio-oils, which contained less than 0.005 wt.% of solid, no ash and low concentrations of alkali and alkaline earth metals, were produced due to the char removal system. (author)

  10. Comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography with fast-quadrupole mass spectrometry detector analysis of polar compounds extracted from the bio-oil from the pyrolysis of sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jaderson K; da Cunha, Michele E; dos Santos, Anaí L; Maciel, Gabriela P S; Brasil, Márcia C; Pinho, Andrea R; Mendes, Fábio L; Jacques, Rosângela A; Caramão, Elina B

    2014-08-22

    In this paper it is studied the most polar fractions of bio-oil produced by fast pyrolysis of Lignocel BK40-90 (sawdust from forest timber). The biomass was submitted to the pyrolysis in an existing FCC pilot plant that was adapted for this procedure. The equipment consists of a fluidized bed reactor with nitrogen injection. The unit operates with continuous biomass feeding and continuous solids circulation. The produced bio-oil was submitted to an aqueous alkaline extraction, isolating the acidic compounds that were analyzed by one-dimensional gas chromatography and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (qMS). One hundred and thirty compounds (mainly phenols and ketones) were tentatively identified in the extract, some of them by the use of retention indexes. The main differences between chromatographic techniques were the substantial increasing in the peak capacity of GC×GC and the resolution of some co-elutions that occurred in GC/qMS. It is also possible to conclude that this extract is rich in important raw materials for the chemical industry and can be used for this end. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of ultrasound on solid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from maritime pine sawdust waste. Kinetics, optimization and large scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meullemiestre, A; Petitcolas, E; Maache-Rezzoug, Z; Chemat, F; Rezzoug, S A

    2016-01-01

    Maritime pine sawdust, a by-product from industry of wood transformation, has been investigated as a potential source of polyphenols which were extracted by ultrasound-assisted maceration (UAM). UAM was optimized for enhancing extraction efficiency of polyphenols and reducing time-consuming. In a first time, a preliminary study was carried out to optimize the solid/liquid ratio (6g of dry material per mL) and the particle size (0.26 cm(2)) by conventional maceration (CVM). Under these conditions, the optimum conditions for polyphenols extraction by UAM, obtained by response surface methodology, were 0.67 W/cm(2) for the ultrasonic intensity (UI), 40°C for the processing temperature (T) and 43 min for the sonication time (t). UAM was compared with CVM, the results showed that the quantity of polyphenols was improved by 40% (342.4 and 233.5mg of catechin equivalent per 100g of dry basis, respectively for UAM and CVM). A multistage cross-current extraction procedure allowed evaluating the real impact of UAM on the solid-liquid extraction enhancement. The potential industrialization of this procedure was implemented through a transition from a lab sonicated reactor (3 L) to a large scale one with 30 L volume. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mobility and phytoavailability of As and Pb in a contaminated soil using pine sawdust biochar under systematic change of redox conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Awad, Yasser M; Beckers, Felix; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Yong Sik; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-07-01

    Biochar has been adopted to control the mobility and phytoavailability of trace elements (TEs) in soils. To date, no attempt has been made to determine the mobility and phytoavailability of arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) in a contaminated soil with biochars as amendments under predefined redox potentials (EH). Thus, in this study, a soil contaminated with As and Pb (2047 and 1677 mg kg-1, respectively) was pre-incubated for 105 days with three amendments (pine sawdust biomass (BM) and two biochars produced from the same feedstock at 300 °C (BC300) and 550 °C (BC550)). The aged samples were then exposed to dynamic EH conditions to evaluate the mobility and phytoavailability of As and Pb after immobilization. The BM amendment significantly decreased and the BC300 slightly reduced the mobility and phytoavailability of As and Pb, which may be related to the oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of BM and BC300. In contrast, BC550 increased the mobility of As at -300 to -100 mV and 100 mV, enhanced the phytoavailability of As under oxidizing condition (>100 mV), but reduced the phytoavailability of Pb, which might be caused by the properties of amendments and redox chemistry of the TEs. The effectiveness of BM and biochars for the stabilization of As and Pb varied under dynamic EH conditions, which indicates that detailed investigations should be conducted before the applications of biochar as soil amendment under variable environmental conditions, especially for contaminated paddy soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Caracterização dos produtos líquidos e do carvão da pirólise de serragem de eucalipto Characterization of liquid products and char from the pyrolysis of eucalyptus sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayrton F. Martins

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the low temperature pyrolysis as an alternative conversion process for residual biomass and for obtaining gaseous, liquid and solid chemical feedstocks. Using a bench electrical pyrolysis oven, four product fractions from eucalyptus sawdust were obtained: a gaseous one, two liquid (aqueous and oily, and a solid residue (char. These products were characterized by different analytical methods. The liquid fractions showed themselves as potential sources for input chemicals. The residual char revealed appreciable adsorption capability. The process demonstrated good efficiency, generating at least two fractions of great industrial interest: bio oil and char.

  14. Using broiler litter and swine manure lagoon effluent in sawdust-based swine mortality composts: Effects on nutrients, bacteria, and gaseous emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, M.R., E-mail: mike.mclaughlin@ars.usda.gov; Brooks, J.P.; Adeli, A.; Miles, D.M.

    2015-11-01

    Disposition of mortalities challenges confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), especially sow (farrowing) farms, which experience mortalities daily. Regulations and transportation costs may preclude incineration, landfill burial, and rendering; therefore, swine CAFOs in Mississippi in the Mid-South U.S. often compost mortalities. In this study, a farm-standard composting mix of sawdust (S) and water (W) was compared with mixes where N was supplied by broiler litter (L) and water was replaced with swine lagoon effluent (E). The objective was to assess the effects of these manure byproducts: 1) on nutrients and bacteria in composts destined for land application; and 2) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Three replications of four mixes (SW, SLW, SE, SLE) were compared in microcosms comprising modified plastic recycling bins. The experiment was repeated three times in different seasons in one year. Mixes were compared for differences in temperature, water content, nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), bacteria (Gram −, Gram +, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli), and emissions (NH{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O). Litter addition increased composting temperatures initially and after aerations; increased nutrient concentrations, except C, in start mixes and all except C and N, in finish mixes; increased Gram + bacteria, Salmonella, and E. coli in start mixes, but only Gram+s in finish mixes; and increased emissions. Effluent addition increased early composting temperatures; had no effect on nutrients or bacteria, except increased C. perfringens in start, but not finish mixes; and had no effect on emissions. Nutrients in finish composts did not differ among mixes for N (average 3.3%), but litter composts had more P and K, and lower N:P than composts without litter. Improving mortality composting is of global importance as increasing livestock populations and intensive animal production systems require

  15. Caracterização de compósitos produzidos com polietileno de alta densidade (HDPE e serragem da indústria moveleira Characterization of composites made from high density polythylene (HDPE and furniture industry sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éverton Hillig

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, realizou-se a caracterização de compósitos confeccionados com polietileno de alta densidade "virgem" (v-HDPE e diferentes tipos de serragem gerados na indústria moveleira. Os compósitos foram produzidos por extrusão, utilizando-se uma extrusora monorrosca de 35 mm e temperaturas de 160 ºC, 170 ºC e 180 ºC nas zonas 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente. Foram utilizados resíduos de madeira de pinus (Pinus taeda, de aglomerado, de chapa de fibra de média densidade (MDF e madeira de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis, que foram incorporados ao HDPE "virgem", juntamente com um agente de acoplamento à base de anidrido maléico. Para caracterização física dos compósitos, foram realizadas análises por calorimetria diferencial de varredura (DSC e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (SEM. Foram também analisadas as propriedades mecânicas de resistência à tração, flexão estática e resistência ao impacto, conforme as normas ASTM D638, D790 e D256. Verificou-se que todos os tipos de serragem agiram como agentes nucleantes, pois os compósitos apresentaram índices de cristalinidade maiores que o v-HDPE puro, e houve influência do tipo de serragem usada na dispersão das fibras na matriz polimérica. Os ensaios mecânicos indicaram diferenças nas propriedades dos compósitos confeccionados com diferentes tipos de serragem. De maneira geral, a inclusão de serragem de aglomerado e de eucalipto proporcionaram compósitos com maior resistência à flexão e ao impacto que aqueles fabricados com MDF e pinus.This work aimed to carry out a characterization of composites made of high density polyethylene (HDPE and different types of furniture industry-derived sawdust. The composites were produced by extrusion, using a 35 mm single-screw extruder, at temperatures of 160ºC, 170ºC and 180ºC in zones 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Particleboard residues from Pinus taeda sawdust, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF and Eucalyptus grandis wood

  16. Use of sawdust Eucalyptus sp. in the preparation of activated carbons Utilização de serragem de Eucalyptus sp. na preparação de carvões ativados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Martucci Couto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood sawdust is a solid residue, generated in the timber industry, which is of no profitable use and can cause serious environmental problems if disposed inadequately. The aim of this study was to use the eucalyptus sawdust in the preparation of activated carbons AC and test them as adsorbents of methylene blue (MB and phenol, representative pollutants from aqueous effluents of various industries. The eucalyptus sawdust was characterized by instrumental analysis such as elementary analysis (CHNS-O, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The activated carbons were prepared by physical activation with carbon dioxide AC_CO2, (10º C min-1, 850º C, 1h and by chemical activation with potassium carbonate AC_K2CO3 (10º C min-1, 850º C, 3h. The AC_CO2 and AC_K2CO3 were characterized by CHN-O, TGA, FTIR, N2 adsorption/desorption (BET to evaluate the specific surface area and SEM. The resulting activated carbons were tested for their ability to adsorb MB and phenol in water. The activated carbons produced in this work were predominantly microporous and showed specific surface area of about 535 m² g-1. The AC_K2CO3 was more effective in the adsorption of MB (81 mg g-1 and phenol (330 mg g-1 than AC_CO2 (32 mg g-1 and 172 mg g-1, respectively, for MB and phenol.A serragem é um resíduo sólido, gerado na indústria madeireira, que não tem uso rentável e pode causar sérios problemas ambientais quando disposta inadequadamente. Neste estudo, objetivou-se utilizar a serragem de eucalipto na preparação de carvões ativados (AC e testá-los como adsorventes do corante azul de metileno (MB e fenol; moléculas que representam poluentes de efluentes industriais. A serragem de eucalipto foi caracterizada por análises instrumentais, tais como: análise elementar (CHNS-O, análise termogravimétrica (TGA, espectroscopia na região do infravermelho (FTIR e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (SEM

  17. Pendimethalin aplicado à casca de arroz e serragem para o controle de plantas daninhas em Ixora chinensis Lam. Pendimethalin applied on rice husks and sawdust for weed control on Ixora chinensis Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Seixas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de herbicidas residuais à coberturas mortas pode aumentar a eficiência desses materiais no manejo da comunidade infestante. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a possibilidade de aplicação do pendimethalin à casca de arroz e à serragem para o controle de plantas daninhas em Ixora chinensis. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos aplicando-se o pendimethalin às coberturas mortas através de embebição e pulverização do herbicida, variando-se também a quantidade de cobertura utilizada. As espécies de plantas daninhas que ocorreram com maior frequência foram Alternanthera tenella, Blainvillea rhomboidea, Cenchrus echinatus e Commelina benghalensis. Há possibilidade de aplicação do herbicida pendimethalin à palha de arroz ou à serragem para controle de plantas daninhas em I. chinensis, principalmente quando ocorrem chuvas regulares e bem distribuídas. Há evidências de que a embebição da cobertura morta no herbicida seja um pouco mais eficiente no controle das plantas daninhas que a sua pulverização sobre a cobertura. Possivelmente, a quantidade de cobertura morta utilizada influencia na eficiência de controle, apesar deste fato não ter ficado claro neste trabalho.Applying herbicides at mulches may increase the efficiency of these materials for weed management. The objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of pendimethalin applied on rice husks and sawdust for weed control on Ixora chinensis. In two field trials, pendimethalin was applied to the mulches through imbibition and spraying herbicide, also varying the amount of mulches. Higher frequent weeds were Alternanthera tenella, Blainvillea rhomboidea, Cenchrus echinatus and Commelina benghalensis. There are possibility of pendimethalin application on rice husks or sawdust for controlling weeds in I. chinensis mainly when regular and well-distributed rainfalls occur. There are evidences that the imbibition of these mulches to the herbicide

  18. Effect of fuel type and deposition surface temperature on the growth and structure of ash deposit collected during co-firing of coal with sewage-sludge, saw-dust and refuse derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof; Weber, Roman [Clausthal Univ. of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Energy Process Engineering and Fuel Technology

    2008-07-01

    Blends of a South African bituminous ''Middleburg'' coal and three alternative fuels (a municipal sewage-sludge, a saw-dust and a refuse derived fuel) have been fired in the slagging reactor to examine the effect of the added fuel on slagging propensity of the mixtures. Two kinds of deposition probes have been used, un-cooled ceramic probes and air-cooled steal probes. Distinct differences in physical and chemical structures of the deposits collected using the un-cooled ceramic probes and air-cooled metal probes have been observed. Glassy, easily molten deposits collected on un-cooled ceramic deposition probes were characteristic for co-firing of municipal sewage-sludge with coal. Porous, sintered (not molten) but easily removable deposits of the same fuel blend have been collected on the air-cooled metal deposition probes. Loose, easy removable deposits have been sampled on air-cooled metal deposition probe during co-firing of coal/saw-dust blends. The mass of the deposit sampled at lower surface temperatures (550-700 C) was always larger than the mass sampled at higher temperatures (1100-1300 C) since the higher temperature ash agglomerated and sintered much faster than the low temperature deposit. (orig.)

  19. Caracterização e comparação entre diferentes granulometrias de serragem de Eucalyptus grandis para confecção de briquetes. Characterization and comparison between different sizes of Eucalyptus grandis sawdust for briquettes confection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Farrapo GONÇALVES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A grande geração de resíduos lignocelulósicos, a partir de processos industriais e da agricultura, torna o uso da biomassa uma fonte de energia térmica viável; sua compactação aumenta sua densidade, seu poder calorífico e sua resistência. O objetivo da pesquisa consistiu na comparação entre briquetes produzidos a partir de diferentes granulometrias de serragens de Eucalyptus grandis. Os tratamentos foram: T1 = serragem que passou pela peneira de 10 mesh e ficou retida na de 20 mesh (10 a 20; T2 = 20 a 60; T3 = 60 a 100 ; T4 = 10 a 100. As características da matéria-prima mostraram-se viáveis para a produção de briquetes, com teor de umidade de 12%, 88,65% de voláteis, 0,44% de cinzas, 10,80% de carbono fixo e poder calorífico de 4.229 kcal.kg-1. As comparações realizadas entre os tratamentos foram feitas a partir da expansão (diametral e longitudinal e de ensaios de compressão diametral para força máxima e tensão de força máxima dos briquetes. O tratamento T4 foi o que apresentou os melhores resultados nesses testes (1,04%; 15,06%; 90,22 kgf; 0,6714 MPa, respectivamente, diferindo significativamente, a nível de 5% dos outros tratamentos. A produção em larga escala do tratamento T4 viabiliza a produção dos briquetes, pois não é necessário o processo de separação granulométrica.The great generation of lignocellulose wastes from industrial processes and agriculture makes the use of biomass a source of viable thermal energy; its compaction increases its density, its calorific value and its strength. The objective of the research consisted in comparing briquettes produced from different particle sizes of sawdust of Eucalyptus grandis. The treatments were: T1 = sawdust that passed through 10 mesh sieve and was retained on the 20 mesh (10 to 20; T2 = 20 to 60; T3 = 60 to 100; T4 = 10 to 100. The characteristics of the raw material proved feasibility to produce briquettes, with moisture content of 12%, 88.65% of

  20. Biomateriais à base de Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 preparados com serragem e com glucose de milho: influência na porosidade e na cristalinidade Biomaterials based on Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 prepared with sawdust or corn glucose: effects on porosity and crystallinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. de Campos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho biomateriais à base de Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 foram obtidos pelo método clássico de fusão e os biovidros submetidos ao tratamento térmico a diferentes temperaturas. A porosidade das peças foi controlada pela adição de serragem e/ou glucose de milho.A porosidade e a cristalinidade das amostras sintetizadas foram acompanhadas com auxílio das técnicas de Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura e difração de raios X, respectivamente. Amostras tratadas termicamente a 800 °C mostraram uma reorganização estrutural e conseqüente aumento da dureza. Observou-se que em ambas as cerâmicas tanto a adição de serragem quanto de glucose de milho aumentou a porosidade das peças. Contudo, a estrutura mais organizada e poros mais homogêneos foram obtidos para a mistura vidro/glucose de milho.In this work, biomaterials constituted of Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 were obtained by the classic method of melt and the bioglasses submitted to the thermal treatment at different temperatures, where the porosity of the pieces were controlled by the addition of sawdust and/ or corn glucose. Samples submitted to temperatures above 800 °C became completely opaque, indicating a reorganization of the structure and consequent increase of the hardness of the material. The influence of the sawdust in the process of crystallization of the glass was observed. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used in both ceramics and results showed the increase of the porosity as so much the sawdust or corn glucose was added. However the most organized structure and more homogeneous pores were obtained for the glass/corn glucose mixture.

  1. Sawdust and fruit residues of Central Amazonian for Panus strigellus spawn’s production Serragem e resíduos de frutos da Amazônia Central para produção de semente-inóculo de Panus strigellus

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    Ruby Vargas-Isla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this work was to perform a screening of residues of forest species of the Central Amazon to prepare spawn of the edible mushroom Panus strigellus. Sawdust substrates from 11 forest species were tested. Then supplementation with beer yeast, cereal bran and regional fruit residues in sawdust:supplementation relation (5:1 and 10:1 were evaluated. Mycelial growth of P. strigellus occurred in all the substrates composed of the Amazonian forests species, suggesting that all have potential for use in spawn formulation and/or cultivation of this edible mushroom. Among these species the substrate formulated with Simarouba amara sawdust promoted higher mycelial growth (P<0.05. The formulation of S. amara supplemented with Astrocaryum aculeatum fruit shell bran (10:1 presented the best supplementation alternative among regional fruit residues. Three types of packaging for spawn preparation were evaluated, and the polypropylene sack (32×45 cm was considered the most appropriate. Simarouba amara sawdust and A. aculeatum fruit shell are readily available in the North region, and the results demonstrating that these residues might substitute Eucalyptus sp. sawdust and rice bran, commonly used in the South and Southeast of Brazil for mushroom spawn production.

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.07

    Neste trabalho objetivou-se realizar uma triagem de resíduos de espécies florestais da Amazônia Central para o preparo da semente-inóculo do cogumelo comestível Panus strigellus. Foram testados substratos de serragem de 11 espécies florestais. Em seguida, suplementação com levedura de cerveja, farelos de cereais e resíduos de frutas regionais foram avaliados na relação serragem:suplemento (5:1 e 10:1. O crescimento micelial de P. strigellus ocorreu em todos os substratos formulados com espécies florestais da Amazônia, apresentando potencial de uso na formulação da semente-inóculo e/ou cultivo deste fungo comestível. Entre

  2. Mycelial growth of two Lentinula edodes strains in culture media prepared with sawdust extracts from seven eucalyptus species and three eucalyptus clones = Crescimento micelial de duas linhagens de Lentinula edodes em meios de cultura à base de extrato de serragem de sete espécies e três clones de eucalipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro mycelial growth of Lentinula edodes strains LE-95/01 and LE- 96/18 were evaluated in solid culture media prepared with sawdust extracts from seven eucalyptus species (E. saligna, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. pellita, E. paniculata, E. citriodora, and E. camaldulensis and three eucalyptus clones (E. grandis × E. urophylla hybrids. Evaluations were made every 48 hours by means of colony diameter measurements (mean of four transversely-oriented measurements, during ten days of incubation in the dark at 25ºC±1°C. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, and treatment means were compared by Tukey test. The culture medium prepared from E. citriodora sawdust extract was the most promising to grow L. edodes strains LE-96/18 and LE-95/01. L. edodes strainLE-96/18 presented the fastest mycelial growth after incubation for ten days, regardless of sawdust extract type used in the culture medium.Avaliou-se o crescimento micelial in vitro das linhagens LE-95/01 e LE-96/18 de Lentinula edodes, em meios de cultura sólidos à base de extrato de serragem de sete espécies (Eucalyptus saligna, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. pellita, E. paniculata, E. citriodora e E. camaldulensis e três clones (híbridos de E. grandis x E. urophylla de eucalipto. As avaliações foram realizadas por meio de medições do diâmetro das colônias (média de quatro medidas diametralmenteopostas, a cada 48 horas, durante dez dias de incubação, no escuro a 25ºC ±1°C. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com uso do teste de Tukey para a comparação das médias. O meio de cultura à base de extrato de serragem de E. citriodora foio mais promissor no crescimento das linhagens LE-96/18 e LE-95/01 de L. edodes. A linhagem LE-96/18 de L. edodes foi a que apresentou o crescimento micelial mais rápido após dez dias de incubação, independentemente do tipo de extrato de serragem utilizado nomeio de cultura.

  3. Effect of sewage sludge and sawdust in association with hybrid ryegrass (Lolium x hybrydum Hausskin. on soil macroaggregates and water content Efectos de lodos urbanos y aserrín en asociación con ballica (Lolium x hybrydum Hausskn. sobre los microagregados y contenido de agua del suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Sandoval E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chilean soils degradation is a serious problem affecting directly the productivity of most of the crops. Some evidence indicates sewage sludge can improve soil physical properties, especially when combined with sawdust. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different mixtures of sewage sludge (LU and sawdust (RA on water-stable aggregates and available water content of a degraded Alfisol cropped with hybrid ryegrass (Lolium x hybridum Hausskn., under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was a completely randomized with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 9 (ryegrass x rates of sludge and sawdust. Treatments were 25 and 50 Mg LU ha-1 mixed with 10, 25, and 50 Mg RA ha-1. Ratio mixtures of LU/RA were set in pots with hybrid ryegrass. Soil available water content (AW, percentage of macroaggregates (MA and water-stable aggregates (AWD were evaluated. Ryegrass aboveground biomass was also measured. Mixtures of LU/RA amended to the soil increased MA and AWD, an effect that was most evident at 50 Mg ha-1. The AW value was greater when LU was amended to 50 Mg ha-1 mixed with RA at doses of 10, 25, and 50 Mg ha-1. There was greater aboveground biomass of hybrid ryegrass, directly related to increasing doses of LU and RA in the mixtures. The addition to soil of both organic residues combined, LU and RA, improved the physical parameters studied, especially in the presence of hybrid ryegrass.La degradation de los suelos chilenos es un serio problema que afecta directamente la productividad de la mayoría de los cultivos. Los lodos urbanos pueden mejorar las propiedades físicas del suelo, sobre todo si van acompanadas con aserrín. El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de distintas mezclas de lodo urbano (LU y aserrín (RA sobre los agregados estables al agua y el contenido de agua disponible en un Alfisol degradado y cultivado con ballica híbrida (Lolium x hybridum Hausskn., bajo invernadero. El diseno experimental fue completamente al

  4. EPR and DRIFT spectroscopic characterization of humic fractions during composting of sawdust and paper mill sludge Caracterização espectroscópica (RPE e DRIFT das frações húmicas durante a compostagem de lodo de fábrica de papel e serragem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria Branco de Freitas Maia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The spectroscopic characteristics (DRIFT, UV-visible and EPR of humic fractions were studied during composting of sawdust and paper mill sludge. Infrared spectroscopy reveals a compost rich in hydroxyl and alkyl groups and carboxylates and carbohydrates. The alkyl fraction is abundant in the humic acids and humin. The decreasing of the E4/E6 ratio during composting indicates an enhancement of the organic chains number, with conjugated double bonds. This decreasing would correspond to a reduction of the lignin content and/or formation of porphyrins. The EPR shows that humin presents the highest concentration of free radical and the lowest intensities of the Fe3+.

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.01

    The spectroscopic characteristics (DRIFT, UV-visible and EPR of As características espectroscópicas (DRIFT, UV-visível e RPE das frações húmicas foram estudadas durante a compostagem de serragem e lodo de fábrica de papel. A espectroscopia de infravermelho (DRIFT revelou um composto rico em hidroxilas, carboxilatos, alquilas e carboidratos. A fração alifática está concentrada nos ácidos húmicos e na humina. A diminuição da razão E4/E6 durante a compostagem indica um aumento de cadeias orgânicas com ligações duplas conjugadas. Esta redução corresponderia a uma diminuição do teor de lignina e/ou a formação de porfirinas. O RPE mostrou que a humina apresenta a concentração mais alta de radicais livres e a menor concentração de Fe3+ livre.

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.01

  5. Biodegradation of Urea formaldehyde modified saw-dust by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Rhizobium cellulosilyticum sp. nov., isolated from sawdust of Populus alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fraile, Paula; Rivas, Raúl; Willems, Anne; Peix, Alvaro; Martens, Miet; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Mateos, Pedro F; Velázquez, Encarna

    2007-04-01

    During a study of polysaccharide-hydrolysing bacteria present in different plant sources, two strains were isolated from pulverized decaying wood of Populus alba and classified in the genus Rhizobium on basis of their almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequences. Their closest phylogenetic relatives were Rhizobium galegae USDA 4128(T) and Rhizobium huautlense S02(T), with 98.2 and 98.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. recA and atpD sequence analysis showed that these species have less than 88 and 92 % similarity, respectively, to the novel strains. In contrast to their closest phylogenetic relatives, the two strains showed strong cellulase activity on plates containing CM-cellulose as a carbon source. They were also distinguishable from these species on the basis of other phenotypic characteristics. The strains were able to induce ineffective nodules on Medicago sativa and the sequence of their nodD gene was phylogenetically close to that of Ensifer meliloti 1021 (99.6 % similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization values ranged from 10 to 22 % with respect to R. galegae USDA 4128(T) and 14 to 25 % with respect to R. huautlense S02(T), showing that the strains from this study belong to a novel species, for which the name Rhizobium cellulosilyticum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ALA10B2(T) (=LMG 23642(T)=DSM 18291(T)=CECT 7176(T)).

  7. performance evaluation of clay-sawdust composite filter for point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Improving. Household Drinking Water Quality: Use of Ceramic. Water Filters in Cambodia”, WSP, Cambodia,. (2007). [13] Campbell, E “Study of Life Span of Ceramic Filter. Colloidal Silver Pot Shaped Model”, Agua Solutions,. Managua Nicaragua ...

  8. Carbothermal Upgrading of the Awaso Bauxite Ore using Sawdust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana's bauxite is exported in the raw state with no value addition. One way to achieve value addition is to carbothermally upgrade the ore into magnetic and nonmagnetic fractions, followed by separation using a magnet. This work investigates the carbothermal upgrading of the Awaso bauxite ore using reductant ...

  9. Gasification of sawdust in pressurised internally circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, R.; Lindblom, M. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A test plant for pressurised gasification of biofuels in a internally circulating fluidized bed has been built at the department of Chemical Engineering II at the University of Lund. The design performance is set to maximum 20 bar and 1 050 deg C at a thermal input of 100 kW or a maximum fuel input of 18 kg/in. The primary task is to study pressurised gasification of biofuels in relation to process requirements of the IGCC concept (integrated gasification combined cycle processes), which includes studies in different areas of hot gas clean-up in reducing atmosphere for gas turbine applications. (orig.)

  10. Synergistic Effect of Poultry Manure and Sawdust on Changes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were analysed using a 3 x 3 factorial in Randomized Complete Block Design (RBCD), significant means were detected using Fischer's Least Significant difference (F – LSD) at 5% probability level. Data were also subjected to correlation analysis using Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient. Result show that the ...

  11. after solid phase extraction on modified sawdust s

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    poly vinyl chloride [6], modified activated carbon [1, 7, 8], loaded Amberlite XAD-7 [9], modified alumina [10], octadecyl bonded silica [11], octadecyl-bonded silica memberane disk. [12], immobilized salen [13], Dowex optipore V-493 [14], MEFMAT [15], Ambersorb 563 adsorption resin [16] and modified activated carbon [17].

  12. Carbothermal Upgrading of the Awaso Bauxite Ore using Sawdust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... Dankwah, J., R. (2014), “Recycling Blends of. HDPE and Coconut Shells as Reducing Agent for the Production of Metallic Iron from Iron. Oxide (Fe2O3)”, International Journal Of. Scientific & Technology Research, Vol. 3,. Issue 1, pp. 40 – 46. Dankwah, J. R. (2013). “Recycling Blends of. Waste Plastics and ...

  13. Chemical composition of carcass sawdust residue as a predictor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    monsters was respektiewelik soos volg: vog: 56.4 en 55.0Vo (f = 0.137); vet: 2l .2 en 23.17o (y' = 0.923): proteien: ... (Reid et al., 1955; Hansard, 1961; Berg & Butterfield, 1976,. Kock & Preston, 1979; Fuller et a1.,1990). ... the f at and moisture content of the carcasses support the results, obtained on cattle and pigs, that the ...

  14. Utilização de serragem e bagaço de cana-de-açúcar para adsorção de cádmio Use of sawdust and pulp from cane as adsorbents of cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Albertini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Os metais provenientes de atividades antropogênicas contaminam o ambiente, insumos e matérias-primas e, conseqüentemente, a cadeia trófica, alcançando assim o homem. Em função do acúmulo desses metais, bem como de suas conseqüências danosas, estão sendo realizados estudos para avaliar os níveis alcançados por tais contaminações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a capacidade da serragem e do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, em adsorver metais pesados a partir de soluções modelo de cloreto de cádmio, nas concentrações de 25 e 50 mg.L-1. As triplicatas das amostras tomadas para análise foram secas ao ar em ambiente arejado, sem quaisquer processamentos, sendo os experimentos conduzidos com 10 g de resíduo e 500 mL de solução de cloreto de cádmio em reatores de PVC com capacidade de 1300 mL, e a homogeneização feita manualmente durante o contato de até 16 horas32. Como a capacidade de adsorção do metal pela serragem não foi esgotada na primeira utilização, estudou-se a possibilidade de um novo contato reutilizando-se a solução remanescente, mantendo a proporção 1:50(32. Numa segunda etapa, foram testados tempos de 12, 8 e 4 horas. O teor de cádmio foi determinado por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica (EAA na solução de contato, após separação da serragem por filtração. Pelos resultados obtidos, podemos dizer que estes resíduos podem ser utilizados como adsorventes de metais pesados no tratamento de efluentes.Metals which come from anthropogenic activities contaminate the atmosphere, inputs and raw materials and, consequently, the trophic chain, thus affecting humankind. Due to the accumulation of these metals, as well as their harmful consequences, studies are being carried out to evaluate the levels reached by such contaminations. The objective of this work was to test the capacity of the sawdust and pulp from cane, in adsorber heavy metals from model solutions of chloride of cadmium, at the

  15. Reflections of a Sawdust-Filled, Six-Foot, Tweeting, Taxidermy Alligator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Symanczyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the experience of assuming the Twitter identity of an inanimate object featured in Charles Dickens’s 'Our Mutual Friend' and its effect on the author’s perceptions of the novel.

  16. Dissolution of South African Eucalyptus sawdust wood in [Emim][OAc]/Co-solvent mixtures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tywabi, Zikhona

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available that the surface morphology of the regenerated cellulose samples exhibited a structure that was rather loose, disordered and curly: this was probably due to removal of lignin and decrease in cellulose crystallinity....

  17. Delignification of Sawdust White Teak (Gmelina arborea Roxb. by Fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium Irradiated Gamma Ray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhasni Nurhasni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Biomassa lignoselulosa yang merupakan limbah pemanenan kayu harus dilakukan proses untuk memisahkan selulosa, hemiselulosa dan lignin sehingga dapat termanfaatkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas inokulan fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium iradiasi gamma dan pretreatment kimia terhadap percepatan delignifikasi serbuk kayu jati putih (Gmelina arborea Roxb. sehingga dapat dimanfaatkan dalam proses pulping. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pretreatment substrat kayu jati putih (Gmelina arborea Roxb. menggunakan larutan NaOH 1% dan H2SO4 1% serta iradiasi gamma Co-60, yang mempunyai daya ionisasi kecil, daya tembus yang tinggi serta Co-60 dapat memancarkan sinar gamma dengan waktu paruh pendek. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam dua tahap, tahap pertama penentuan dosis optimum iradiasi gamma terhadap fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium (0 Gy, 200 Gy, 400 Gy, 600 Gy, 800 Gy, dan 1000 Gy dan tahap kedua analisis karakteristik substrat kayu jati putih yang telah di pretreatment dengan metode Solid State Fermentation (SSF selama 21 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dosis optimum pemberian iradiasi gamma pada fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium yaitu pada dosis 600 Gy yang dapat meningkatkan aktivitas enzim lignin peroksidase (LiP sebesar 22.18 U/mL. Proses pretreatment kimia dengan menggunakan H2SO4 1% dapat mempercepat proses biodelignifikasi yang menghasilkan efisiensi degradasi lignin tertinggi yaitu sebesar 25.65%.   Kata kunci: Lignoselulosa, delignifikasi, Solid State Fermentation (SSF, Phanerochaete chrysosporium,iradiasi gamma.   Abstract   Lignocellulose biomass is waste wood harvesting should be a process for separating cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin that can be utilized. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the inoculant fungi Phanerochaete chrysosphorium gamma irradiation and chemical pretreatment to accelerate delignification powder white teak (Gmelina arborea Roxb.. In this research, pretreatment of substrate wood white teak (Gmelina arborea Roxb. Using a solution of NaOH 1% and H2SO4 1% and gamma-ray irradiation Co-60, have the power of ionization is small, high penetrating power, and Co-60 which can emit gamma rays a short half-life time. This research was conducted in two stages, the first stage of determining the optimum dose gamma irradiation for fungi Phanerochaete chrysosphorium (0 Gy, 200 Gy, 400 Gy, 600 Gy, 800 Gy, and 1000 Gy and the second stage of the analysis of the characteristics of the substrate wood white teak has been in pretreatment by methode Solid State Fermentation (SSF for 21 days. The results showed that the optimum dose administration of gamma irradiation on fungi Phanerochaete chrysosphorium is a dose of 600 Gy which can increase the activity of enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP amounted to 22.18 U / mL. Chemical pretreatment process using H2SO4 1% biodelignification can accelerate the process of lignin degradation that produces the highest efficiency of 25.65%.   Keywords: Lignocellulose, delignification, Solid State Fermentation (SSF, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, gamma irradiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.3079

  18. Biocrude production via supercritical hydrothermal co-liquefaction of spent mushroom compost and aspen wood sawdust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasiunas, Lukas; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Toor, Saqib Sohail

    2017-01-01

    The work investigates a new potential feedstock source for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) driven biocrude production. Specifically, the focus is set on utilizing spent mushroom compost (SMC), the primary waste by-product from mushroom farming. It is considered as a feedstock for HTL conversion due...

  19. Characterization And Composition Liquid Smoke-charcoal-compost Bamboo Sawdust As Natural Pesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Wijaya M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to produce liquid smoke through pyrolisis process and to get fractions of potential chemical components from bamboo wastes. Results of this research are expected to give benefits as follows: (1 Liquid smoke produced from wood and bamboo waste through pyrolisis process is able to diversify preservative products, (2 Rate reaction from value rate constanta by pyrolitic kinetic model resulted from this process can be used to find expected compounds in large quantities. Results of pyrolisis bamboo dust have the highest yield of liquid smokes as much as 18.18% in pyrolitic temperature of 200 C. The highest acid content of results of pyrolisis of bamboo dust with electrical reactor resulted at pyrolitic temperature of 400 C was 7,89%, whereas, in pyrolisis result of bamboo dust with electrical reactor was shown ar pyrolitic temperature of 500 C. In terms of the charcoal produced from pyrolisis process containing the highest yield was bamboo dust (33,28%. Identification of GC-MS of bamboo dust could provide compounds that mostly derived from acid group and was dominated by aceton, acetic acid, 3 hidroksi 2 butanone, icocyanat acid and n butana. Change kinetic model of bamboo wastes is energy activasi bamboo. The technology of integrated bamboo vinegar-charcoal-compost production hence deserved its dissemination throughout Indonesia, as pesticide natural.

  20. Characterization and Composition Liquid Smoke-charcoal-compost Bamboo Sawdust as Natural Pesticide

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya M, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The research goal is to produce liquid smoke through pyrolisis process and to get fractions of potential chemical components from bamboo wastes. Results of this research are expected to give benefits as follows: (1) Liquid smoke produced from wood and bamboo waste through pyrolisis process is able to diversify preservative products, (2) Rate reaction from value rate constanta by pyrolitic kinetic model resulted from this process can be used to find expected compounds in large quantities. Resu...

  1. Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Using Hydrolyzates of Spruce Sawdust: Comparison of Hydrolyzates Detoxification by Application of Overliming, Active Carbon, and Lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Dan; Benesova, Pavla; Ladicky, Peter; Pekar, Miloslav; Sedlacek, Petr; Obruca, Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bacterial polyesters which are considered biodegradable alternatives to petrochemical plastics. PHAs have a wide range of potential applications, however, the production cost of this bioplastic is several times higher. A major percentage of the final cost is represented by the price of the carbon source used in the fermentation. Burkholderia cepacia and Burkholderia sacchari are generally considered promising candidates for PHA production from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. The wood waste biomass has been subjected to hydrolysis. The resulting hydrolyzate contained a sufficient amount of fermentable sugars. Growth experiments indicated a strong inhibition by the wood hydrolyzate. Over-liming and activated carbon as an adsorbent of inhibitors were employed for detoxification. All methods of detoxification had a positive influence on the growth of biomass and PHB production. Furthermore, lignite was identified as a promising alternative sorbent which can be used for detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolyzates. Detoxification using lignite instead of activated carbon had lower inhibitor removal efficiency, but greater positive impact on growth of the bacterial culture and overall PHA productivity. Moreover, lignite is a significantly less expensive adsorbent in comparison with activated charcoal and; moreover, used lignite can be simply utilized as a fuel to, at least partially, cover heat and energetic demands of fermentation, which should improve the economic feasibility of the process. PMID:28952532

  2. Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Using Hydrolyzates of Spruce Sawdust: Comparison of Hydrolyzates Detoxification by Application of Overliming, Active Carbon, and Lignite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Kucera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are bacterial polyesters which are considered biodegradable alternatives to petrochemical plastics. PHAs have a wide range of potential applications, however, the production cost of this bioplastic is several times higher. A major percentage of the final cost is represented by the price of the carbon source used in the fermentation. Burkholderia cepacia and Burkholderia sacchari are generally considered promising candidates for PHA production from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. The wood waste biomass has been subjected to hydrolysis. The resulting hydrolyzate contained a sufficient amount of fermentable sugars. Growth experiments indicated a strong inhibition by the wood hydrolyzate. Over-liming and activated carbon as an adsorbent of inhibitors were employed for detoxification. All methods of detoxification had a positive influence on the growth of biomass and PHB production. Furthermore, lignite was identified as a promising alternative sorbent which can be used for detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolyzates. Detoxification using lignite instead of activated carbon had lower inhibitor removal efficiency, but greater positive impact on growth of the bacterial culture and overall PHA productivity. Moreover, lignite is a significantly less expensive adsorbent in comparison with activated charcoal and; moreover, used lignite can be simply utilized as a fuel to, at least partially, cover heat and energetic demands of fermentation, which should improve the economic feasibility of the process.

  3. Conference presentation: Dissolution of South African Eucalyptus sawdust wood in [Emim][OAc]/ co-solvent mixtures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tywabi, Z

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficient utilization of biomass is increasingly important due to the diminishing resources of fossil fuels worldwide. Wood, and most of other components of wood are burnt to produce energy. This presentation focuses on the dissolution of South...

  4. Scavenging remazol brilliant blue R dye using microwave-assisted activated carbon from acacia sawdust: Equilibrium and kinetics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, M. F. M.; Aziz, H. A.; Ahmad, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    This work explores the feasibility of microwave-assisted acacia wood based activated carbon (AWAC) for remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR) dye removal from synthetic wastewater. Acacia wood (AW) was impregnated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and heated using microwave, resulting tremendously high fixed carbon content, surface area, total pore volume and adsorption capacity of 81.14%, 1045.56m2/g, 0.535cm3/g and 263.16mg/g respectively. Batch study conducted divulged an increasing trend in RBBR uptake when initial RBBR concentration and contact time were increased. pH study revealed that RBBR adsorption was best at acidic condition. Langmuir isotherm model fitted well the adsorption equilibrium data while the adsorption kinetic was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  5. Rearing Xyleborus volvulus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Media Containing Sawdust from Avocado or Silkbay, with or without Raffaelea lauricola (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like other ambrosia beetles, Xyleborus volvulus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) lives in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with fungi that serve as food source. Until recently, X. volvulus was not considered a pest, and none of its symbionts were considered plant pathogens. However, recent ...

  6. Enhanced thermal conductivity of waste sawdust-based composite phase change materials with expanded graphite for thermal energy storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Haiyue; Wang, Yazhou; Liu, Zhuangchao; Liang, Daxin; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Wenbo; Di, Xin; Wang, Chengyu; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    .... In particular, the application of phase change materials (PCMs) is considered as an effective and efficient approach to thermal energy storage because of the high latent heat storage capacity at small temperature intervals...

  7. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Young

    Full Text Available Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes. Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF WOOD PLASTIC BONDED BOARDS PRODUCED FROM COFFEE CHAFF AND CEIBA PENTANDRA SAWDUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Sesan AINA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Strength properties of Wood Plastic-bonded Boards (WPBB of 10mm in thickness were produced in this study from two lignocellulosic materials coffee and recycled low density polyethylene (rLDPE as a binder. WPBB were produced from particles of coffee chaff and Ceiba pentandra, at three levels of mixing ratio (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1, and at three levels of board density (500, 600 and 700kgm-3 given the total treatment combinations of 18 respectively. Effects of lignocelluloses particles, mixing ratio (MR and board density (BD on flexural strength properties of the WPBB were investigated. The flexural strength of the WPBB range from 0.25 to 4.79N/mm2 and 891.00 to 16415.87N/mm2 for modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE respectively. The statistically results shows that the main factor and interaction factors were significantly different at P≤0.05 level of probability. It was observed in this study that as the plastic content with density increased, flexural strength of the boards increases. The study showed that WPBB made from coffee chaff particles are stiffer and stronger than WPBBs made from Ceiba pentandra particles. Based on the outcome of the results in this study, coffee chaff could as well be used as filler in the polymer industry to produce stronger biopolymer composite for structural applications. This study would form a baseline strategy for further research efforts on production of composite from agro-residues wastes.

  9. Hydrodynamic behaviour of compacted granite sawdust from the dimension stone industry of Pontevedra (Spain) : Experimental and Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcon-Suarez, I.; Juncosa-Rivera, R.; Vardon, P.J.; Rammlmair, D.; Gunter, T.; Noell, U.; Delgado-Martın, J.

    2016-01-01

    Two large-scale column experiments have been performed to test the hydrodynamic behaviour of unsaturated, compacted granite sawdust—a material produced during the dressing of dimension stone in Pontevedra (Spain). One of the columns was equipped with psychrometers and capacitance probes while, in

  10. Treatment of Copper Contaminated Municipal Wastewater by Using UASB Reactor and Sand-Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust Column

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biswas, Swarup; Mishra, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    .... The laboratory scale UASB reactor and column system were observed for a period of 121 days. After the posttreatment column the average removal of monitoring parameters such as copper ion concentration (91.37...

  11. Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Using Hydrolyzates of Spruce Sawdust: Comparison of Hydrolyzates Detoxification by Application of Overliming, Active Carbon, and Lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Dan; Benesova, Pavla; Ladicky, Peter; Pekar, Miloslav; Sedlacek, Petr; Obruca, Stanislav

    2017-05-28

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bacterial polyesters which are considered biodegradable alternatives to petrochemical plastics. PHAs have a wide range of potential applications, however, the production cost of this bioplastic is several times higher. A major percentage of the final cost is represented by the price of the carbon source used in the fermentation. Burkholderia cepacia and Burkholderia sacchari are generally considered promising candidates for PHA production from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. The wood waste biomass has been subjected to hydrolysis. The resulting hydrolyzate contained a sufficient amount of fermentable sugars. Growth experiments indicated a strong inhibition by the wood hydrolyzate. Over-liming and activated carbon as an adsorbent of inhibitors were employed for detoxification. All methods of detoxification had a positive influence on the growth of biomass and PHB production. Furthermore, lignite was identified as a promising alternative sorbent which can be used for detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolyzates. Detoxification using lignite instead of activated carbon had lower inhibitor removal efficiency, but greater positive impact on growth of the bacterial culture and overall PHA productivity. Moreover, lignite is a significantly less expensive adsorbent in comparison with activated charcoal and; moreover, used lignite can be simply utilized as a fuel to, at least partially, cover heat and energetic demands of fermentation, which should improve the economic feasibility of the process.

  12. Xyleborus bispinatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) reared on artificial media using sawdust from avocado or silkbay in presence or absence of the laurel wilt pathogen (Raffaelea lauricola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was reported in Florida for the first time in 2013. Previously, it was unrecognized and not distinguished from the morphologically similar Xyleborus ferrugineus (F.). Like other members of the tribe Xyleborini, X. ferrugineus (and possibly X....

  13. Pressured fluidized-bed gasification experiments with wood, peat and coal at VTT in 1991-1992. Test facilities and gasification experiments with sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Laatikainen, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Fuel and Process Technology

    1993-12-31

    Fluidized-bed air gasification of Finnish pine saw dust was studied in the PDU-scale test facilities of VTT to support the development of simplified integrated gasification combined-cycle processes by providing new information on the formation and behaviour of different gas impurities in wood gasification. The gasifier was operated at 4-5 bar pressure and at 880-1 020 deg C Product gas was cleaned by ceramic candle filters operated at 490-715 deg C. Concentrations of tars, fixed nitrogen species and vapour-phase alkali metals were determined in different operating conditions. Carbon conversion exceeded 95 deg C in all test periods although the gasifier was operated without recycling the cyclone or filter fines back to the reactor. However, at the gasification temperature of 880-900 deg C more than 5 deg C of the wood carbon was converted to tars. The total concentration of tars (compounds heavier than benzene) was reduced from 6 000 to 3 000 mg/m{sup 3}n by increasing the gasification temperature from 880 deg C to 1 000 deg C. The expected catalytic effects of calcium on tar decomposition could not be achieved in these experiments by feeding coarse dolomite into the bed. The use of sand or aluminium oxide as an inert bed material did neither lead to any decrease in tar concentrations. However, the tar concentrations were dramatically reduced in the cogasification experiments, when a mixture of approximately 50 deg C/50 deg C wood and coal was used as the feed stock. Wood nitrogen was mainly converted into ammonia, while the concentrations of HCN and organic nitrogen containing compounds were very low

  14. The Effects of Iron Filling On Some Mechanical and Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work was aimed at producing particleboard from sawdust (matrix) and iron filling (particulate) under the same conditions as ordinary particleboard produced from sawdust alone and their properties compared. Sawdust –iron fillings particleboards were produced using a sawdust of particle size 1.18mm and ...

  15. Determination of appropriate growth medium for production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harcourt, Nigeria. Fresh and Composted sawdust were used for the cultivation of Pleurotus tuber-regium to determine a better substrate medium for sclerotia production. The composted sawdust was left to decompose for two weeks while the fresh ...

  16. M.A. ABURlYA9

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From practical use of the proposed model it was found that the sawdust stove could provide a relatively long period of steady heat output. For in- stance, a three kilogram (3 kg) capacity sawdust stove provided a ... Among the drawbacks to the use of the .... real benefits and problems associated with the useof the sawdust.

  17. Valorisation des sciures du bois de Moringa oleifera dans le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 déc. 2015 ... Mots clés : LES, lixiviats, coagulant, sciure. Abstract. Objective: This work aims to valorize biomaterials (raw sawdust; activated sawdust and calcined sawdust) stemming from Moringa oleifera's wood in the treatment of the leachates of the landfill area of Ouèssè / Ouidah. (South of Benin). Methodology and ...

  18. Influência da adição de serragem nas propriedades tecnológicas de painéis de madeira aglomerada de Pinus taeda / Influence of sawdust addition in the technological properties of Pinus taeda particleboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Torrell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, foram analisadas as propriedades físico-mecânicas de painéis de madeira aglomerada, de três camadas, produzidos em laboratório, com a adição de dois tipos de serragem obtidas em serrarias, as quais foram classificadas como tipo “fino” e “grosso” por meio de análise granulométrica. Três proporções de serragem (10, 20 e 30% foram adicionadas às partículas de madeira de Pinus taeda para a confecção dos painéis. Foram, também, confeccionados painéis sem resíduo, constituindo um experimento fatorial com sete tratamentos e três repetições. Utilizou-se adesivo de uréia-formaldeído na proporção de 10% e parafina na proporção de 1%. Os painéis foram produzidos com densidade nominal de 0,65 g/cm³ temperatura dos pratos da prensa de 160°C, pressão de prensagem de 40 Kgf/cm², tempo de prensagem de 8 minutos e tempo de fechamento da prensa de 40 segundos. Após a confecção, os painéis foram esquadrejados ficando com dimensões de 40 x 40 x 1,5 cm. Os ensaios de densidade aparente, estabilidade dimensional, flexão estática, tração perpendicular à superfície dos painéis e arrancamento de parafusos foram realizados de acordo com a norma norte-americana ASTM D 1037 – 93. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística entre tratamentos e entre fatores. Verificou-se que os painéis produzidos com adição de até 10% de serragem apresentaram qualidade semelhante aos produzidos apenas com partículas obtidas de madeira roliça, sendo assim uma alternativa para um melhor aproveitamento da serragem como matéria prima. Para maiores proporções, foi observado que um aumento da proporção de serragem causou diminuição das propriedades mecânicas e efeito negativo na estabilidade dimensional dos painéis

  19. Yield performance of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes), using different waste materials as substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Majid; Tavana, Maryam; Farsi, Mohammad; Oroojalian, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    In this research the effect of sawdust, malt extract, and wheat bran on yield, biological efficiency (BE), and mycelia growth of Ganoderma lucidum was investigated. Three kinds of sawdust (beech, poplar, and hornbeam) as basal medium were mixed with two levels of wheat bran (5% and 10% w/w) and malt extract (2.5% and 5% w/w) as medium supplement for production of G. lucidum in factorial experiments on the basis of completely randomized design with three replications. The results showed that various kinds of sawdust affect fruiting body yield, BE, and mycelia growth rate significantly. The highest fruiting body yield and BE (102.58 g/kg and 12.89%, respectively) were found using hornbeam sawdust. The beech sawdust promotes the mycelia growth rate more than other sawdust. Analysis of variance showed that there is a significant interaction between the sawdust type and wheat bran, sawdust type and malt extract, and wheat bran and malt extract as far as yield and BE of G. lucidum was concerned. A final comparison of the different formulae indicated that the best combinations for high yield (142.44 g/kg) and BE (18.68%) were obtained in a combination of poplar sawdust with 5% malt extract and 10% wheat bran. The highest mycelia growth rate (10.6 mm/day) was obtained in a combination of beech sawdust with 2.5% malt extract and 10% wheat bran.

  20. Physical and Strength Properties of Bricks Produced from Portland Cement and Saw Dust of Danielia Oliverii Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oriabure EKHUEMELO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of sawdust as partial replacement for sand in wood-concrete hollow blocks. Sharp sand, ordinary Portland cement (binder and sawdust were used as raw materials. Sawdust was treated by boiling then sieved after drying using British Standard sieve of 3.35mm to remove sticky wood capable of causing pores. The quantities of sawdust used were 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. A mixing proportion of 1:8 cement sand ratio, moulding machine with single 6” (450mm x 225mm x 150mm mould and vibrated with 5.0KW power machine for adequate compaction were used. Wood-concrete block was cured for 28 days. The blocks produced were tested for compressive strength and water absorption. The results showed that mean compressive strength of 100% sand was 2.81N/mm2 followed by 95% sand and 5% sawdust replacement with 1.58N/mm2 ; 90% Sand and 10% sawdust replacement with 0.55N/mm2 ; 85% sand and 15% sawdust replacement with 0.43 N/mm2 and 80% sand 20% sawdust replacement with 0.24N/mm2 . The result further showed that as the percentage of sawdust increased, the compressive strength decreased. At 28 days, the compressive strength of blocks with 5% SD replacement satisfied meets Ghana Building Code for non- load bearing walls. The results also reveals that blocks with 80% sand 20% sawdust replacement level has the highest water absorption (23.72% followed by 85% Sand and 15% sawdust replacement (20.40%; 90% sand and 10% sawdust replacement (18.0%; 95% sand and 5% sawdust replacement (12.12% and 100% sand and 0% sawdust replacement (11.43%. It was concluded that 5% sawdust (8kg replacement and cured 28 days could be used for non-load bearing walls. It was recommended that further research should be carried out to evaluate sawdust replacement level within the range of 1-4% to ascertain results that could be used for various other purposes.

  1. PHYSICAL AND STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF BRICKS PRODUCED FROM PORTLAND CEMENT AND SAW DUST OF DANIELIA OLIVERII WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oriabure EKHUEMELO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of sawdust as partial replacement for sand in wood-concrete hollow blocks. Sharp sand, ordinary Portland cement (binder and sawdust were used as raw materials. Sawdust was treated by boiling then sieved after drying using British Standard sieve of 3.35mm to remove sticky wood capable of causing pores. The quantities of sawdust used were 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. A mixing proportion of 1:8 cement sand ratio, moulding machine with single 6” (450mm x 225mm x 150mm mould and vibrated with 5.0KW power machine for adequate compaction were used. Wood-concrete block was cured for 28 days. The blocks produced were tested for compressive strength and water absorption. The results showed that mean compressive strength of 100% sand was 2.81N/mm2 followed by 95% sand and 5% sawdust replacement with 1.58N/mm2 ; 90% Sand and 10% sawdust replacement with 0.55N/mm2 ; 85% sand and 15% sawdust replacement with 0.43 N/mm2 and 80% sand 20% sawdust replacement with 0.24N/mm2 . The result further showed that as the percentage of sawdust increased, the compressive strength decreased. At 28 days, the compressive strength of blocks with 5% SD replacement satisfied meets Ghana Building Code for non- load bearing walls. The results also reveals that blocks with 80% sand 20% sawdust replacement level has the highest water absorption (23.72% followed by 85% Sand and 15% sawdust replacement (20.40%; 90% sand and 10% sawdust replacement (18.0%; 95% sand and 5% sawdust replacement (12.12% and 100% sand and 0% sawdust replacement (11.43%. It was concluded that 5% sawdust (8kg replacement and cured 28 days could be used for non-load bearing walls. It was recommended that further research should be carried out to evaluate sawdust replacement level within the range of 1-4% to ascertain results that could be used for various other purposes.

  2. Storage Methods Of Plantain ( Musa sp. AAB) Fruits Influenced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sawdust amended with 0, 5 and 10% table salt to enhance its moisture absorptive capacity and enclosed in plane, blue, red and yellow polyethylene bags were the storage methods. There were two control treatments comprising fruits sealed in polyethylene without sawdust [Po] and fruits kept on laboratory shelf [LS].

  3. Evaluation of microbiological and chemical parameters during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The object of this study is determining the optimum conditions of co- composting of dewatered sewage sludge and sawdust. Pilot scale study was performed in Isfahan municipal wastewater treatment plant. To perform this study, the dewatered sewage sludge with humidity between 78-82 percent was mixed with sawdust.

  4. Substrate affects growth and yield of shiitake mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lentinus edodes (Berk.), the shiitake mushroom, is worldwide one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms. Sawdust is the most popular basal ingredient used in synthetic substrate formulations for producing shiitake spawn. However, the best sawdust for this uses needs to be determined. Shiitake mushroom was cultivated ...

  5. Effect of substrate on the growth, nutritional and bioactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rosemary

    2016-07-06

    Jul 6, 2016 ... Two buckets of sawdust, dried corn flour, rice husk and slake lime were mixed using a cleaned spade. Water was ... Slake lime was diluted with water, and then showered onto the sawdust to adjust pH. The following are ..... ground using metal mortar and pestle. The powder was collected and ground again ...

  6. The suitability evaluation of lignocellulosic substrate as growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... The use of peat moss (PM) as a growing media is decreasing due to high costs and environmental considerations. ... hinoki wood sawdust and rice hull) in order to evaluate their use as components of growing media. Lignocellulosic ... polyortanphome, zeolite, coco peat and sawdust are used as growth ...

  7. Cellulase Production by Aspergillus flavus Linn Isolate NSPR 101 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bagasse, corncob and sawdust were used as lignocellulosic substrates for the production of cellulase enzyme using Aspergillus flavus after ballmilling and pretreatment with caustic soda. From the fermentation studies, sawdust gave the best result with an enzyme activity value of 0.0743IU/ml while bagasse and corncob ...

  8. Response of Musa species to macro-propagation. II: The effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sucker plantlets of five Musa genotypes were derived from sword-sucker-corms using ricehull and sawdust as initiation media. Plantlets initiated were transferred to three weaning/rooting media formulated with ricehull (RH), sawdust (SD) and poultry manure (PM). Weaning media and genotypes had significant (P<0.05) ...

  9. Initiation and growth of shoots of Gongronema latifolia Benth stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was significant reduction in number of days to shoot initiation and growth in sawdust medium in the wet season. Sawdust and soil gave a better performance of the cuttings in opening of apical buds, initiation of shoots, percentage of rooted cuttings, number of vines, vine length and number of opposite leaves on vines ...

  10. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stove is not as widely in domestic use as the wood stove and charcoal ”pot” even where sawdust abounds. This study therefore sought to find the reasons behind the non-adoption of the sawdust stove, and based on the findings, recommend practical and money—saving ways of using the stove. Literature review on saw-.

  11. Remediation of Cr and Fe from aqueous solution by natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    containers were washed with detergents, rinsed with distilled water and then soaked in a 10% HNO3 solution for 24hrs. They were then washed with deionised water and dried in an oven for 24 hrs at 80 °C (Todorovi et al.,. 2001). The adsorbent employed in this work were Sawdust, Maize cob and Coal. Hardwood sawdust ...

  12. adsorption isotherm a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The oil (crude oil, diesel and kerosene) sorption capacity, sorbed oil recoverability and retainability by sawdust was determined under the same experimental condition and compared with that of a standard. The result of the study shows that the sawdust has lesser oil sorption capacity and sorbed oil ...

  13. Levels of Lead, Cadmium and Chromium in Oreochromis Niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Chromium (Cr) levels in Oreochromis niloticus, aquatic plants, water and sawdust were collected and analyzed for Lead, Cadmium and Chromium using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results obtained showed that sawdust had the highest Lead and Chromium contents of 32.0 + 0.99 μg/g ...

  14. Development of an efficient procedure for the preconcentration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sensitive and selective preconcentration method has been developed for copper(II) using modified sawdust as an adsorbent. Sawdust was chemically modified with diethylenetriamine. Copper as CuCl42- was retained by the adsorbent in the column, eluted by nitric acid and subsequently determined by flame atomic ...

  15. Organic production systems in northern highbush blueberry: I. Impact of planting method, cultivar, fertilizer, and mulch on yield and fruit quality from planting through maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A long-term trial was established to identify organic production systems for maximum yield and quality in highbush blueberry. Treatments included raised beds or flat ground; granular feather meal or fish solubles at low and high rates; sawdust, yard debris compost topped with sawdust, or weed mat; a...

  16. Remediation trials of crude oil contaminated soil using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was also significant increase in the soil microbial counts in the amended soil as compared to the control. Therefore, detergent and sawdust in single or combinations can be used to restore crude oil polluted soil with the ability to reduce the toxic effect with treatment A (20 g detergent) and C (100 g sawdust) and D ...

  17. Mopping of crude oil and some refined petroleum products from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oil (crude oil, diesel and kerosene) sorption capacity, sorbed oil recoverability and retainability by sawdust was determined under the same experimental condition and compared with that of a standard. The result of the study shows that the sawdust has lesser oil sorption capacity and sorbed oil recoverability than the ...

  18. Effects of Different substrates on the yield and nutritional value of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering all the parameters investigated; a mixture of river sand and fermented sawdust substrate (M7) is recommended as the best substrate for the cultivation of P. tuberregium mushrooms while a mixture of corn waste and fermented sawdust substrate (S6) is recommended for sclerotial cultivation. Mushrooms grown ...

  19. The use of near-infrared scanning for the prediction of pulp yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The billet was pulped using the kraft pulping process to determine pulp yield. The disc was ground into sawdust and the chemical composition was determined using conventional wet chemistry. Sawdust was scanned on a NIR spectrophotometer to produce NIR spectra. Calibration models to predict pulp yield, cellulose ...

  20. Potentials of cellulosic wastes in media formulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-02-05

    Feb 5, 2007 ... and the modified equivalents containing cellulose, sawdust and sugarcane pulps as sole carbon sources. We report our data showing that the modified media formulated with sawdust and sugarcane pulp as carbon sources supported the growth of the microfungi as efficiently as the commercial media ...

  1. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass grade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass grade and immunity of pigs housed in sawdust fermentative pigstiesThis study determined the effect of space allowance on performance, carcass grade and physiological variables of pigs reared in sawdust fermentative pigsties. A total of 699 crossbred (Landrace ...

  2. Reproductive performance of female goats fed life-enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct-fed-microbes (DFM) (life-enzyme) was prepared in a traditional setting using Zymomonas mobilis (bacteria from palm sap) to ferment sawdust. The result revealed an improvement in the nutrient content of the sawdust and its feed values (protein, fibre etc.), and the feed usage efficiency. The reproductive ...

  3. Cultivation of Schizophyllum commune mushroom on different wood substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Dasanayaka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophyllum commune is an edible mushroom grown on wood under natural conditions. Present study focused on cultivation of S.commune on different wood substrates since it is not commercially cultivated. A pure culture of S. commune was obtained by growing a tissue of the mushroom on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA medium. Spawns were produced by growing the mycelium on paddy grains. Mushroom was cultivated on sawdust of seven different wood substrates. The maximum yield was observed in sawdust of jackfruit (Artocarpusheterophyllus followed by sawdust of rambutan (Nepheliumlappaceum and country almond (Terminaliacatappa. A significant difference was not observed when mango (Mangiferaindica elephant apple (Dilleniaindica, tulip wood tree (Harpulliaarborea and thungfaa (Alstoniamacrophylla sawdust used as substrate. The lowest yield was observed in thungfaa (Alstoniamacrophylla sawdust. Effect of some additives on the yield was studied and significant difference in yield was observed when rice bran and used-tea leaves used as additives. Effect of rice bran on yield was studied using different ratios of sawdust to rice bran and the highest was observed in 2:1 ratio of sawdust to rice bran. The best incubating temperature for mycelial growth on the substrate was 350C. The composition of the mushroom on a dry weight basis was; 71.4% moisture, 23.35% crude protein and 6% ash. Tested wood species are promising substrates for cultivation of S.communeas cottage industry.

  4. Investigation of waste biomass co-pyrolysis with petroleum sludge using a response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Zhang, Xinying; Li, Yubao

    2017-05-01

    The treatment of waste biomass (sawdust) through co-pyrolysis with refinery oily sludge was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. Response surface method was applied to evaluate the main and interaction effects of three experimental factors (sawdust percentage in feedstock, temperature, and heating rate) on pyrolysis oil and char yields. It was found that the oil and char yields increased with sawdust percentage in feedstock. The interaction between heating rate and sawdust percentage as well as between heating rate and temperature was significant on the pyrolysis oil yield. The higher heating value of oil originated from sawdust during co-pyrolysis at a sawdust/oily sludge ratio of 3:1 increased by 5 MJ/kg as compared to that during sawdust pyrolysis alone, indicating a synergistic effect of co-pyrolysis. As a result, petroleum sludge can be used as an effective additive in the pyrolysis of waste biomass for improving its energy recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Essais de culture de quelques champignons lignicoles comestibles de la région de Kinshasa (R.D. Congo sur divers substrats lignocellulosiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibaluka, MS.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation tests for some edible lignicolous mushrooms in the Kinshasa region (D.R. Congo on different lignocellulosic substrates. Nine strains of edible lignicolous mushrooms isolated on agar medium and tested on spawn substrates of corn grains and sawdust, and on fruiting substrates of sawdust and stems of Cyperus papyrus, gave satisfactory results. The highest average yield in sporophores, of 22% fresh weight, was obtained with a local strain of Pleurotus flabellatus on C. papyrus stems. An average yield of 19% was recorded with Lentinus squarrosulus on sawdust substrates. This constitutes the first publication of methodological data on the cultivation of local strains of edible mushrooms for central Africa.

  6. Covering of milled peat stockpile with wood chips; Jyrsinturveauman peittaeminen hakkeella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franssila, T.; Leinonen, A.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this project is to research the applicability of wooden materials for protection of milled peat stockpile against losses during storaging. Water transmission features of sawdust, wastewood chip and whole tree chip were investigated in laboratory with raining experiments. The plan for raining experiments was made with experiment planning program and results were analysed with multivariate analysis. Freezing features were investigated thorough breaking tests with hydraulic piston vice. Laboratory experiments were completed with field tests in Laakasuo near Sotkamo. On the basis of results covering peat stockpiles with sawdust is fully competitive comparing to present covering methods. Chip materials are technically not as good covering materials as sawdust

  7. Bits and Pieces ehk kolumna. White label : Chungin & The Strap-On Faggots. Kuula / DJ Pickney Tiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Pickney Tiger, pseud., 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Popmuusikauudised. Punk-ansamblist. Heliplaatidest: Sigur Ros "Hvart", Waylon Jennings "The Essential", "Eesti Rock Antoloogia", The Dynamics "Version Excursion", Pat Metheny "Secret Story", Raadio Maria "Siin Tallinn", Killers "Sawdust", "Electric Cypsyland 2: A Crammed Discs"

  8. Effects of Modifiers on Physiological Metabolism of Lolium perenne Seedlings in Diesel-Polluted Soils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ZHAO Xuan; HE Xing-dong; ZHANG Jing-lei

    2017-01-01

    The pot experiment for single-factor with diesel oil polluted soil and the pot experiment for three-factor orthogonal with sawdust-ammonium nitrate-monopotassium phosphate under diesel oil polluted...

  9. Environmental strategies to remove volatile aromatic fractions (BTEX) from petroleum industry wastewater using biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A S; Romão, L P C; Araújo, B R; Lucas, S C O; Maciel, S T A; Wisniewski, A; Alexandre, M R

    2012-02-01

    This work investigates the potentials of peat and angico hardwood sawdust to remove BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and isomers of xylene) from the produced water discharged into aquatic systems during petroleum extraction. Peat and angico sawdust samples were pyrolyzed at 500°C, and found to contain n-alkenes, n-alkanes and pentacyclic triterpenes (peat), and 4-methoxyphenol, 1,4-dimethoxyphenol and 1,3,4-trimethoxyphenol (angico sawdust). In batch experiments, the removal capacities using peat were 32.4%, 50.0%, 63.0%, 67.8%, and 61.8% for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylenes and o-xylene, respectively. This compared with removal capacities using angico sawdust of 20.2%, 36.4%, 52.8%, 57.8%, and 53.7% for these compounds respectively, demonstrating the superior performance of the peat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 7 CFR 319.40-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., flowers, fruits, buds, or seeds; bark; cork; laths; hog fuel; sawdust; painted raw wood products... decorative ground cover. Wood packaging material. Wood or wood products (excluding paper products) used in...

  11. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Cr(VI) onto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKS), Juniperus procera sawdust (JPS) and papaya peels (PP) were investigated as adsorbents for the removal of Cr(VI). The study employed a batch method to investigate the efficiency of the adsorbents. Parameters that influence adsorption ...

  12. Effects of Compost on Mycelia Growth and Fructification, Mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fries) singer on lingocellulosic waste. Long composted substrate formulations of sawdust (86%) + rice bran (10%) + cassava peel (4%) supported the longest mycelia growth and density. Long composted also produced larger fruitbodies and ...

  13. Pop / Erik Morna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Morna, Erik, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: The Killers "Sawdust", Forgotten Sunrise "Different knots of Ropelove", Youssou N'Dour "Rokku mi rokka", Wolfpack Unleashed "Anthems Of Resistance", Robert Plant / Alison Krauss "Raising Sand", Sigur Ros"Hvarf-Heim"

  14. Use of Areca nut pericarp as a substrate for the straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripheuk, P.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut pericarp and pararubber sawdust were used as a substrates for Volvariella volvacea cultivation. The five formulas of substrates were used as spawing media : entirely Areca nut pericarp, Areca nut pericarp : pararubber sawdust (ratios 3:1, 1:1, 1:3 and entirely pararubber sawdust. Five kilograms of each substrates was spread in baskets for 15 days until harvesting time. The average yields obtained were 600.0 (B.E. = 34.20%, 250.0 (B.E. = 14.25%, 380.0 (B.E. = 21.66%, 250.0 (B.E. = 14.25% and 330.0 (B.E. = 18.81% g/basket, respectively. Using entirely Areca nut pericarp gave thehighest yield, which was significantly different (p<0.05 from using entirely pararubber sawdust.

  15. production and characterization of activated carbon from leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    ABSTRACT. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) was prepared from leather buffing waste, sawdust and lignite by carbonization ... Key words: Activated carbon, carbonization, Steam activation, Adsorption efficiency, Leather buffing waste. INTRODUCTION ..... Distribution Measurement” Separation Science and Technology 28 ...

  16. Control of tomato bacterial wilt without disinfection using a new functional polymer that captures microbial cells alive on the surface and is highly biodegradable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Nariyoshi; Kishimoto, Hitoshi; Abe, Takayuki; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Yamanaka, Katsumi; Ikeuchi, Hisaya; Kakimoto, Chizuko

    2005-02-01

    This report describes a green chemical method for controlling soil-borne plant diseases without disinfection using an equimolar copolymer of N-benzyl-4-vinylpyridinium chloride with styrene (PBVP-co-ST) that captures microbial cells alive on the surface and is highly biodegradable. Tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum was controlled by the addition of sawdust coated with PBVP-co-ST prior to transplantation. This effected 87% reduction in appearance and 89% reduction in the index of symptom under appropriate conditions. The coated sawdust did not exhibit bactericidal activity. The half-life of PBVP-co-ST was 5.6 d when treated with activated sludge in soil. The disease control was explained in terms of reduction of infectious contact between the roots of tomato and the cells of R. solanacearum due to coagulation-like interaction between microbial cells and the coated sawdust, in addition to capture of microbial cells by the coated sawdust.

  17. Pit Fragment Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility contains two large (20 foot high by 20 foot diameter) double walled steel tubs in which experimental munitions are exploded while covered with sawdust....

  18. Development of Wood-Plastic Composite at Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Madaraka F. Mwema; Ngugi J. Mburu

    2015-01-01

    Disposal of plastics and other solid wastes has been a major problem in Kenya. Most of these wastes can be recycled through various ways and methods to produce new products. Plastics can be combined with sawdust to develop composite materials for applications such as in building. In this project, a wood-plastic composite (WPC) was developed from sawdust and plastic solid wastes. The composite bore the advantages of both wood and plastics which can be applied in various sectors inc...

  19. Study utilization of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrianie, Nuniek; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Ar-rosyidah, Fanny Husna; Rochman, Hilal Abdur

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays the existence of energy sources of oil and was limited. Therefore, it was important to searching for new innovations of renewable energy sources by utilizing the waste into a source of energy. On the other hand, the process of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation generated sludge that had calorific value and untapped. Because of the need for alternative sources of energy innovation with the concept of zero waste and the fuel potential from extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste, so it was necessary to study the use of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuel. In addition, sawdust is a waste that had a great quantities and also had a high calorific value to be mixed with extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and to determine the potential and a combination of a mixture of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and sawdust which has the best calorific value. The variables of this study was the composition of the waste and sawdust as follows 1:1; 1:3; and 3:1 (mass of sawdust : mass of waste) and time of sawdust carbonization was 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Sawdust was carbonized to get the high heating value. The characteristic of main material and fuel analysis performed with proximate analysis. While the calorific value analysis was performed with a bomb calorimeter. From the research, it was known that extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste had a moisture content of 3.06%; volatile matter 19.98%; ash content of 0.56%; fixed carbon content of 76.4% and a calorific value of 717 cal/gram. And a mixture that had the highest calorific value (4286.5 cal/gram) achieved in comparison sawdust : waste (3:1) by carbonization of sawdust for 20 minutes.

  20. Analisis Kualitas Briket Serbuk Gergaji Kayu Dengan Penambahan Tempurung Kelapa Sebagai Bahan Bakar Alternatif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Saleh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing fuel and liquid gas prices make this energy source is no longer cheap. Therefore, it is necessary to create an alternative energy resource that can be used to replace the role of fuel and gas. Waste sawdust and coconut shell has a huge potential that can be used as raw material charcoal briquettes. The purpose of this research is to improve the quality of sawdust briquettes with the addition of coconut shell charcoal. To improve the quality of charcoal briquettes, the addition of coconut shell charcoal with a variation of 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% of the weight of sawdust briquette charcoal. Authoring process is done by burning coconut shells directly and roasting methods to sawdust. Adhesives are used as much as 50%. The calorific value generated in sawdust briquettes with materials: coconut shell at a concentration of 100% is 5622.7769 cal/gram, a concentration of 80: 20% is 6504.67785 cal/gram, the concentration of 70: 30% is 6624.09305 cal/gram, the concentration of 60: 40% is 7017.5178 cal/gram, a concentration of 50: 50% is 7288.7523 cal/gram and 40: 60% is 7386.4805 cal/gram. Overall, the quality of sawdust briquettes with palm shell charcoal is quite good, so it can be used as an alternative fuel

  1. Evaluation of cellulose substrates treated with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin as a biological control agent against the termite Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Habibpour

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first report on the promising effect of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin to control populations of Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri. Biological control is an alternative to the long-term usage of chemical pesticides. M. anisopliae, the causal agent of green muscardine disease of insects, is an important fungus in biological control of insect pests. Bait systems can eliminate entire colonies of subterranean termites. Baiting reduces adverse environmental impacts caused by organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in the control of termites and creates sustainable protection of buildings against their invasion. Treated-sawdust bait was applied by two methods: a combination of treated sawdust and untreated filter paper, and b combination of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust. When combinations of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust were used, LC50 and LC90 were 8.4×106 and 3.9×107 (spore/ml, respectively. With the use of improved bait formula and more virulent strains, we hope to achieve better control of termite colonies and enable pathogens to become a useful element in the Integrated Pest Management system.

  2. Influence of bulking agents on CH4, N2O, and NH3 emissions during rapid composting of pig manure from the Chinese Ganqinfen system*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang-ping; Lu, Peng; Jiang, Tao; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guo-xue

    2014-01-01

    Mismanagement of the composting process can result in emissions of CH4, N2O, and NH3, which have caused severe environmental problems. This study was aimed at determining whether CH4, N2O, and NH3 emissions from composting are affected by bulking agents during rapid composting of pig manure from the Chinese Ganqinfen system. Three bulking agents, corn stalks, spent mushroom compost, and sawdust, were used in composting with pig manure in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for more than a month. Gas emissions were measured continuously, and detailed gas emission patterns were obtained. Concentrations of NH3 and N2O from the composting pig manure mixed with corn stalks or sawdust were higher than those from the spent mushroom compost treatment, especially the sawdust treatment, which had the highest total nitrogen loss among the three runs. Most of the nitrogen was lost in the form of NH3, which accounts for 11.16% to 35.69% of the initial nitrogen. One-way analysis of variance for NH3 emission showed no significant differences between the corn stalk and sawdust treatments, but a significant difference was noted between the spent mushroom compost and sawdust treatments. The introduction of sawdust reduced CH4 emission more than the corn stalks and spent mushroom compost. However, there were no significant differences among the three runs for total carbon loss. All treatments were matured after 30 d. PMID:24711356

  3. Kinetic models comparison for steam gasification of coal/biomass blend chars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaofen; Hu, Song; Xiang, Jun; Yang, Haiping; Sun, Lushi; Su, Sheng; Wang, Baowen; Chen, Qindong; He, Limo

    2014-11-01

    The non-isothermal thermogravimetric method (TGA) was applied to different chars produced from lignite (LN), sawdust (SD) and their blends at the different mass ratios in order to investigate their thermal reactivity under steam atmosphere. Through TGA analysis, it was determined that the most prominent interaction between sawdust and lignite occurred at the mass ratio of sawdust/lignite as 1:4, but with further dose of more sawdust into its blends with lignite, the positive interaction deteriorated due to the agglomeration and deactivation of the alkali mineral involved in sawdust at high steam gasification temperature. Through systematic comparison, it could be observed that the random pore model was the most suitable among the three gas-solid reaction models adopted in this research. Finally, rational kinetic parameters were reached from these gas-solid reaction models, which provided a basis for design and operation of the realistic system of co-gasification of lignite and sawdust in this research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Maize Residue as a Viable Substrate for Farm Scale Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abena O. Adjapong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the search for alternatives to sawdust as growing media in commercial mushroom cultivation, three organic substrates obtainable as crop residue, maize husk, maize cob, and maize stalk, with each being supplemented with rice bran, were evaluated as growth media for the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Kummer. For the tested alternatives to sawdust, the harvested weight of fruiting bodies that sprouted on a kilogram maize husk media per crop (32.99 g was the highest. Sawdust media supported significantly (P<0.001 heavier fruiting bodies (42.18 than the maize residues. The peak mushroom harvests for the various substrates were obtained between the first and seventh fruiting body flushes. The biological efficiency of the substrates, which measured usable nutrients indicated that maize stalk supplemented with rice bran, was 39% compared to that of the sawdust media (60%. The maize husk media and the maize cob media had biological efficiencies of 32% and 9.5%, respectively. These results indicate that two of the tested growing media (maize stalk or husk produced mushrooms with yield characteristics that were comparable to the well-used sawdust in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. The environmental and economic parameters involved in the use and carting of sawdust make these on-farm crop residues a viable alternative for mushroom cultivation in especially nonforest zones of Ghana.

  5. Selective enhancement and verification of woody biomass digestibility as a denitrification carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rongting; Zheng, Xilai; Xin, Jia; Sun, Zhaoyue; Zheng, Tianyuan

    2017-11-01

    The denitrification efficiency of woody biomass as carbon source is low because of its poor carbon availability. In this study, representative poplar sawdust was pretreated with lime and peracetic acid to enhance the biomass digestibility to different degrees; sawdust was then mixed with soil to investigate its denitrification efficiency. Under controllable conditions (25-95°C, 12-24h, varying dosages), sawdust digestibility (characterized by reducing sugar yield) was selectively enhanced 1.0-21.8 times over that of the raw sawdust (28.8mgeq.glucoseg-1 dry biomass). This increase was mainly attributed to the removal of lignin from the biomass. As a carbon source, the sawdust (digestibility enhanced by 5.4 times) increased the nitrate removal rate by 4.7 times, without N2O emission. However, the sawdust with high digestibility (12.6 or 18.0 times), despite releasing more dissolved organic carbon (DOC), did not exhibit further increase in denitrification efficiency, and emitted N2O. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of cost-effective substrates on growth cycle and yield of lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) from Northwestern Himalaya (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sheetal; Jandaik, Savita; Gupta, Dharmesh

    2014-01-01

    To find a cost-effective alternative substrate, the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum was grown on sawdusts of sheesham, mango, and poplar. Optimum spawn level was determined by spawning in substrates at various levels (1, 2, 3, and 4%). To determine the effect of supplementation, substrates were supplemented with wheat bran, rice bran and corn flour at different concentrations (10, 20, and 30%). Duration of growth cycle, mushroom yield, and biological efficiency data were recorded. Among substrates, mango sawdust was superior, with 1.5-fold higher yields than poplar sawdust, which was the least suitable. However with respect to fructification, mango sawdust produced the first primordia earlier (21±1 days) compared with the other investigated substrates. 3% spawn level was found to be optimal irrespective of the substrate. Yield and biological efficiency (BE) were maximally enhanced by supplementation with wheat bran, whereas rice bran was the least suitable supplement among those tested. Growth cycle shortened and mushroom yield increased to a maximum at the 20% level of supplements. Mango sawdust in combination with 20% wheat bran, if spawned at the 3% level, resulted in a high yield (BE = 58.57%).

  7. Evaluation of edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii cultivation on different lignocellulosic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Li, Zhiming; Liu, Yu; Rong, Chengbo; Wang, Shouxian

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the mycelial growth rate, mycelial colonization time, yield, and biological efficiency of the edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii were determined, and the effects of different substrate combinations on productivity, chemical contents and amino acids were evaluated. Lignocellulosic wastes, such as cottonseed hull, sawdust, corncob, and their combinations supplemented with 18% wheat bran and 2% lime, were used for the cultivation of O. canarii. The biological efficiency (BE) and essential amino acid content of treatment T1, which consisted of 80% cottonseed hull, were the highest among all the tested treatments. Mixtures that included sawdust, such as treatments T2 (80% sawdust), T4 (40% sawdust + 40% cottonseed hull), and T6 (40% sawdust + 40% corncob), exhibited lower yield and BE. Corncob was good for O. canarii production in terms of yield and BE, whereas the mycelial growth rate and colonization time were lower compared to those on other substrates. Comparing the BE, essential amino acids, and other traits of the six treatments, treatment T1 (80% cottonseed hull) was the best formula for O. canarii cultivation and should be extended in the future.

  8. Effect of Substrates on Germination and Seedling Emergence of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. at the Yongka Western Highlands Research/Garden Park, Bamenda-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerima, BPK.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out at the Yongka Western Highlands Research Garden Park, Nkwen­Bamenda in Cameroon to evaluate the effect of substrates on the germination and seedling emergence of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.. Seeds of African Giant variety were used with six substrate media (sawdust, sand, soil, sawdust­sand, sawdust­soil and sand­soil. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design in three replications. Germinated seeds were counted daily for a 15 days period. To estimate seedling emergence from two Weeks After Sowing (WAS up to four WAS, data on seedling height and number of leaves were recorded. The results showed that germination started 8 days after sowing for all substrates. Germination rate was significantly affected by the substrates but the rates were less than 80%. The highest germination rate was recorded on the soil substrate (75% while the lowest rate (25% was recorded on the sawdust substrate. Seedlings on the sawdust substrate were also less vigorous and had less leaves (12.67 cm height and 4.7 leaves than those on other substrates at four WAS (50–63 cm and 12.6–15.3 leaves. Based on the results, it is recommendable to use the soil substrate to nurse African Giant seeds.

  9. [Influence of different sorbents on adsorption effect of ammonia and compost property in aerobic composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian-jue; Zeng, Guang-ming; Huang, Guo-he; Liu, Hong-liang; Huang, Dan-lian; Yu, Hong-yan; Dai, Fang

    2005-01-01

    The three kinds of sorbents of 0.18% KH2PO4, 0.06% KH2PO4 + 15% sawdust mixture and 30% sawdust are added separately into composting to investigate their adsorption effect on ammonia. The experiment results exhibite that all the sorbents can restrain ammonia volatilizing. But sorption of 0.18% KH2PO4 sorbnet was best of all, one of 0.06% KH2PO4 + 15% sawdust mixture sorbent was secondly, one of 30% sawdust sorbent was thirdly. The total nitrogen loss ratios were separately reduced 25%, 23% and 17% after adding the three kinds of sorbents into composting. However, excessive KH2PO4 would produce negative influence on compost property, such as pH value being lessened, microorganism activity being reduced, and finally resulting in the reduction of biodegradation ratio of organic matter also. Comparing with it, there were not these problems as 0.06% KH2PO4 + 15% sawdust mixture being sorbent. The mixture sorbent not only produced finer adsorption effect on ammonia, but also made biodegradation ratio of organic matter to be promoted 7%.

  10. A Study on the Application of Different Types of Mulches on Some Growth Characteristics of Two Varieties of Tagetes in Mashhad Urban Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pakdel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of four types of mulch including wood chips, municipal compost, sawdust and gravel in three different thicknesses on temperature soil, moisture and growth characteristics of two cultivars of Tagetes (Tagetes patella var Durango Bee and Tagetes erecta var Antigua were examined in Mashhad area with semi-arid climate. The research was conducted as a split plot based on a completely random block design with four replications. Treatments included control (no mulching and four types of mulch including wood chips, municipal compost, sawdust and gravel in three thickness levels (4, 8 and 12 cm. During the study, soil moisture and temperature, total flower number, fresh and dry weight of plant, plant height and fresh weight of root were measured. Sawdust mulch with 12 cm thickness had the highest soil moisture (23.62% and lowest soil temperature (25.01ºC, and led to greater increases in growth characteristics of the two cultivars. In both cultivars, increasing of mulch thickness led to the increased rate of growth. The Antigua cultivar showed a better vegetative growth, smaller flower number, and larger flowers in comparison with Durango Bee cultivar. All mulch types were significantly different from control. Overall, in both cultivars the highest and smallest growth taits were detected in sawdust and control, respectively. It seems that sawdust by preserving soil moisture and reducing drought stress out performs the other mulches in dry and semi-arid areas.

  11. Evaluation of edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii cultivation on different lignocellulosic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the mycelial growth rate, mycelial colonization time, yield, and biological efficiency of the edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii were determined, and the effects of different substrate combinations on productivity, chemical contents and amino acids were evaluated. Lignocellulosic wastes, such as cottonseed hull, sawdust, corncob, and their combinations supplemented with 18% wheat bran and 2% lime, were used for the cultivation of O. canarii. The biological efficiency (BE and essential amino acid content of treatment T1, which consisted of 80% cottonseed hull, were the highest among all the tested treatments. Mixtures that included sawdust, such as treatments T2 (80% sawdust, T4 (40% sawdust + 40% cottonseed hull, and T6 (40% sawdust + 40% corncob, exhibited lower yield and BE. Corncob was good for O. canarii production in terms of yield and BE, whereas the mycelial growth rate and colonization time were lower compared to those on other substrates. Comparing the BE, essential amino acids, and other traits of the six treatments, treatment T1 (80% cottonseed hull was the best formula for O. canarii cultivation and should be extended in the future.

  12. Point-of-Use Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum from Water: Independent Effects of Disinfection by Silver Nanoparticles and Silver Ions and by Physical Filtration in Ceramic Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Lydia S; Su, Yi-Hsuan; Guerrant, Richard L; Swami, Nathan S; Smith, James A

    2015-11-03

    Ceramic water filters (CWFs) impregnated with silver nanoparticles are a means of household-level water treatment. CWFs remove/deactivate microbial pathogens by employing two mechanisms: metallic disinfection and physical filtration. Herein we report on the independent effects of silver salt and nanoparticles on Cryptosporidium parvum and the removal of C. parvum by physical filtration in porous ceramic filter media. Using a murine (mouse) model, we observed that treatment of oocysts with silver nitrate and proteinate-capped silver nanoparticles resulted in decreased infection relative to untreated oocysts. Microscopy and excystation experiments were conducted to support the disinfection investigation. Heat and proteinate-capped silver-nanoparticle treatment of oocysts resulted in morphological modifications and decreased excystation rates of sporozoites. Subsequently, disk-shaped ceramic filters were produced to investigate the transport of C. parvum. Two factors were varied: sawdust size and clay-to-sawdust ratio. Five disks were prepared with combinations of 10, 16, and 20 mesh sawdust and sawdust percentage that ranged from 9 to 11%. C. parvum removal efficiencies ranged from 1.5 log (96.4%) to 2.1 log (99.2%). The 16-mesh/10% sawdust had the greatest mean reduction of 2.1-log (99.2%), though there was no statistically significant difference in removal efficiency. Based on our findings, physical filtration and silver nanoparticle disinfection likely contribute to treatment of C. parvum for silver impregnated ceramic water filters, although the contribution of physical filtration is likely greater than silver disinfection.

  13. Behavior of solid carbon sources for biological denitrification in groundwater remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianmei; Feng, Chuanping; Hong, Siqi; Hao, Huiling; Yang, Yingnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the behavior of wheat straw, sawdust and biodegradable plastic (BP) as potential carbon sources for denitrification in groundwater remediation. The results showed that a greater amount of nitrogen compounds were released from wheat straw and sawdust than from BP in leaching experiments. In batch experiments, BP showed higher nitrate removal efficiency and longer service life than wheat straw and sawdust, which illustrated that BP is the most appropriate carbon source for stimulation of denitrification activity. In column experiments, BP was able to support complete denitrification at influent nitrate concentrations of 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 mg NO(3)(-)-N/L, showing corresponding denitrification rates of 0.12, 0.14, 0.17, 0.19, and 0.22 mg NO(3)(-)-N.L(-1).d(-1).g(-1), respectively. These findings indicate that BP is applicable for use as a carbon source for nitrate-polluted groundwater remediation.

  14. Aplikasi campuran serbuk kayu pinus dan fipronil sebagai umpan rayap tanah Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen (Isoptera: Termitidae di Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amran Amran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, termite bait comprising pinewood of sawdust and a slow action insecticide, fipronil, was made and applied to control subterranean termite Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen (Isoptera: Termitidae in Bandung. Colony size was measured using capture-mark-release-recapture prior to the bait application, along with the measurement of wood consumption at each station.  Colony foraging populations at all stations were estimated to be 77,951 termites, with mean wood consumption rates ranging from 0.02 to 6.16 g/station/day. Observation at 18 stations installed with bait consisted of 40 ppm fipronil mixed with pinewood sawdust showed that number of foraging activity termites was effectively reduced in 40 days. It is concluded that fipronil-treated pinewood sawdust bait is effective in controlling the population of foraging M. gilvus workers in 40 days.

  15. The reduction of oil pollutants of petroleum products storage-tanks sludge using low-cost adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtari-Hosseini Zahra Beagom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of storage tank sludge in oil depots is a major environmental concern due to the high concentration of hydrocarbons involved. This paper investigates the reduction of the sludge oil pollutants with initial oil and grease concentration of about 50 mass% using low cost adsorbents. Among the examined adsorbents, sawdust indicated the maximum removal of oil and grease. The screening and optimizing of process parameters were evaluated employing Plackett-Burman design and response surface method. For the optimized conditions, more than 60 mass% of oil and grease from the sludge was removed. Moreover, it was found that sawdust adsorption of the oil and grease approximately followed the Freundlich isotherm. The results indicated that oil pollutants of sludge could be reduced using sawdust as a low-cost, available and flammable adsorbent so that thus saturated adsorbents could be used as fuel in certain industries.

  16. Use of oil palm kernel meal as a supplement material for abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus O.K. Miller cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcharat, V. and

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimum rate of oil palm kernel meal, for an abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus cultivation. Different concentrations of oil palm kernel meal (5- 20% were added to pararubber sawdust and used to grow the abalone mushroom in plastic bags. Growth rate of the mycelia, number of days from watering to harvesting and yield were compared to those on 94% sawdust + 5% rice bran + 1% Ca(OH2. The results showed that 10% oil palm kernel meal was the optimum concentration for abalone mushroom cultivation. Yield on 950 g/bag of 89% sawdust + 10% oil palm kernel meal + 1% Ca(OH2 was 202.12 g/bag (B.E. = 60.79% during 120 days of havesting time. Addition of higher concentration of oil palm kernel meal (15-20% did not increase yield of the basidiocarps.

  17. Accumulation of cadmium, lead, and nickel by fungal and wood biosorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holan, Z.R.; Volesky, B. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    1995-05-01

    Native fungal biomass of fungi Absidia orchids, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus nugricans, and modified spruce sawdust (Picea engelmanii) sequestered metals in the following decreasing preference: Pb>Cd>Ni. The highest metal uptake was q{sub max}=351 mg Pb/g for A. orchidis biomass. P. chrysogenum biomass could accumulate cadmium best at 56 mg Cd/G. The sorption of nickel was the weakest always at >5 mg Ni/g. The spruce sawdust was modified by crosslinking, oxidation to acidic oxoforms, and by substitution. The highest metal uptake was observed in phosorylated sawdust reaching q{sub max}=224 mg Pb/g, 56 mg Cd/g, and 26 mg Ni/g. The latter value is comparable to the value of nickel sorption by wet commercial resin Duolite GT-73. Some improvement in metal uptake was also observed after reinforcement of fungal biomass. 40 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of biomorphic zirconia fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turakulova, A. O.; Zaletova, N. V.; Murav'eva, G. P.; Burova, M. V.; Lunin, V. V.

    2008-08-01

    Biomorphic zirconia fibers were prepared by successive carbonization and/or calcining of sawdust impregnated by a solution of zirconium oxynitrate. Pyrolysis was performed in nitrogen (500°C), and calcining, in air (600°C). The physicochemical characteristics of samples were studied by adsorption measurements, electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The biomorphic fibers were composed of zirconia nanoparticles not larger than 12 nm. The samples had a uniform phase composition dominated by the tetragonal ZrO2 phase; their specific surface area was 13 38 m2/g depending on the salt content in sawdust. It was assumed that the stabilization of the tetragonal phase could be related to the incorporation of mineral components (calcium, magnesium, and potassium compounds) of sawdust into zirconia; carbonization had no substantial effect on the properties of the resulting oxide. The method developed could be used to obtain tetragonal zirconia (without expensive reagents and water consumption) and utilize wood industry wastes.

  19. Influence of calcinated starfish powder on growth, yield, spawn run and primordial germination of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Bajpai, Vivek K; Lee, Nan-Hee

    2009-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the calcium absorption efficacy of Pleurotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom) in sawdust medium supplemented with starfish powder and to determine the effect of starfish powder as calcium supplement on growth, yield, spawn run and primordial germination of P. eryngii. Optimum calcination of starfish powder was achieved at the temperature ranging from 560.1 to 649.5 degrees C. A 1% supplementation of starfish powder in sawdust medium did not suppress the growth of P. eryngii. Also the supplementation of 1% calcinated starfish powder to sawdust medium potentially increased the calcium content up to a level of 256.0+/-16.3 in the fruiting body of P. eryngii without extension of spawn run period and the retardation of the days to primordial germination.

  20. Production of Biomass Crops Using Biowastes on Low-Fertility Soil: 1. Influence of Biowastes on Plant and Soil Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperschuetz, J; Anderson, C; Bulman, S; Lense, O; Horswell, J; Dickinson, N; Hofmann, R; Robinson, B H

    2016-11-01

    Land application of biosolids to low-fertility soil can improve soil quality by increasing concentrations of macronutrients and trace elements. Mixing biosolids with sawdust could reduce the risks of contaminant accumulation posed by rebuilding soils using biosolids alone. We aimed to determine the effects of biosolids and biosolids-sawdust on the plant quality and chemical composition of sorghum, rapeseed, and ryegrass. Plants were grown in a greenhouse over a 5-mo period in a low-fertility soil amended with biosolids (1250 kg N ha), biosolids-sawdust (0.5:1), or urea (200 kg N ha). Biosolids application increased the biomass of sorghum, rapeseed, and ryegrass up to 14.0, 11.9, and 4.1 t ha eq, respectively. Mixing sawdust with biosolids resulted in a growth response similar to biosolids treatments in rapeseed but nullified the effect of biosolids in sorghum. Urea fertilization provided insufficient nutrients to promote rapeseed growth and seed production, whereas seed yields after biosolids application were 2.5 t ha. Biosolids and biosolids-sawdust application enhanced plant quality by increasing element concentrations, especially Zn, and potentially toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Ni) did not exceed food safety standards. An application of 50 t ha of biosolids, equivalent to 1250 kg N ha, did not exceed current soil limits of Cu, Zn, and Cd and hence was effective in rebuilding soil without accumulating contaminants. The effect of mixing sawdust with biosolids varies with plant species but can further enhance plant nutrient quality in biomass and seeds, especially P, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, S, and Na. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Mycelial growth observation of Pleurotus eryngii (Higher Basidiomycota In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Nadhim Owaid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Five agro-substrates including date palm fibers (fibrillum, wheat straw, white sawdust and their combinations were investigated to grow Pleurotus eryngii. The longer mycelium complete time within bags was 20 days on sawdust (S4, in contrast, the shorter time for mycelium overgrew was completed after 15 days on date palm fiber (S5. In significant (p<0.05, S5 showed the higher growth intensity level (vigorous growth than other substrates. Thus use of date palm wastes (S5 medium may be useful for successfully cultivation king oyster mushroom in farm.International Journal of Environment Vol.5(3 2016, pp.1-10

  2. Pembuatan Kompos Campuran Kotoran Sapi Dan Serbuk Gergaji Dengan Menggunakan Stardec Sebagai Starter

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Rafika Hafsah

    2012-01-01

    Composting is the oldest practices to prepare the organic fertilizer then further more to expanded of the key of the recycling technology from the waste of the resident urban affair. Compost in this research madfrom the mixture of dirt of ox and sawdust by using stardec as starter. This research aim to analyze the influence of mixture of dirt of ox and sawdust in making of compost. This research is condicted by using random device complete with two treatment factor, that is the factor of aose...

  3. Continuous high-solids acid hydrolysis of biomass in a 1 1/2-in. Plug flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, J.A.; Wooldridge, D.

    1981-01-01

    A continuous pipe reactor fed with a twin-ram pump capable of handling biomass, sawdust, newspaper, straw, bagasse, corncob, and potato pieces, at 20-60% solids content was developed to produce glucose (I) and furfural (II) by hydrolysis with H2SO4. The I and II were obtained in 40-42% yield of theory from oak sawdust at 250 degrees, 4.5 min residence time, and 1.5% H2SO4, starchy materials gave I yields is less than or equal to 73%, and xylose in a 75-80% yield was obtained by continuous hydrolysis. Kinetic parameters for I production were also derived.

  4. Co-firing Bosnian coals with woody biomass: Experimental studies on a laboratory-scale furnace and 110 MWe power unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of research into cofiring two Bosnian cola types, brown coal and lignite, with woody biomass, in this case spruce sawdust. The aim of the research was to find the optimal blend of coal and sawdust that may be substituted for 100% coal in large coal-fired power stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Two groups of experimental tests were performed in this study: laboratory testing of co-firing and trial runs on a large-scale plant based on the laboratory research results. A laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated and entrained pulverized-fuel flow furnace. Coal-sawdust blends of 93:7% by weight and 80:20% by weight were tested. Co-firing trials were conducted over a range of the following process variables: process temperature, excess air ratio and air distribution. Neither of the two coal-sawdust blends used produced any significant ash-related problems provided the blend volume was 7% by weight sawdust and the process temperature did not exceed 1250ºC. It was observed that in addition to the nitrogen content in the co-fired blend, the volatile content and particle size distribution of the mixture also influenced the level of NOx emissions. The brown coal-sawdust blend generated a further reduction of SO2 due to the higher sulphur capture rate than for coal alone. Based on and following the laboratory research findings, a trial run was carried out in a large-scale utility - the Kakanj power station, Unit 5 (110 MWe, using two mixtures; one in which 5%/wt and one in which 7%/wt of brown coal was replaced with sawdust. Compared to a reference firing process with 100% coal, these co-firing trials produced a more intensive redistribution of the alkaline components in the slag in the melting chamber, with a consequential beneficial effect on the deposition of ash on the superheater surfaces of the boiler. The outcome of the tests confirms the feasibility of using 7%wt of sawdust in combination

  5. Nontraditional sources of wood for the paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J; Fabian, P.

    1984-01-01

    The nontraditional sources studied were wood waste from the forest industry (thinnings, limbs, roots and bark), and from the wood conversion industry (cuttings, slabs and sawdust) and wastes from the chemical processing of wood (spend liquors, sawdust and bark). Pulp produced from waste wood was more costly and of lower quality than pulp from tree stems. Bark pulping gave lower yields than wood pulping; pulps from tree tops and limbs had a lower average fibre length. The properties of beech kraft pulps produced from the stem, whole-tree and tree-top chips are tabulated and show that the stem gave the best pulp. 6 references.

  6. Use of Thermoanalytic Methods in the Evaluation of Combusted Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Krepelka

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes possibilities of using thermoanalytic methods for the evaluation and comparison of materials designed for a direct combustion. Differential thermal analysis (DTA and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA were both used in the evaluation. The paper includes a description of methods of data processing from analyses for the purposes of comparison of used materials regarding their heating values. The following materials were analysed in the experiments: wooden coal of objectional grain size, fly ash from heating plant exhaust funnels, dendromass waste: spruce sawdust, micro-briquettes of spruce sawdust and fly-ash combined.

  7. Preparation of polyurethane foams using fractionated products in liquefied wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junming Xu; Jianchun Jiang; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2014-01-01

    Liquefaction of sawdust was studied using glycerol and methanol as mix solvents. A new bio-polyol product consisting of high purity multi-hydroxy compounds was obtained by precipitation of the hydrophobic organics from the liquefied product in an aqueous solution. As identified by GC-MS, the dominate components in bio-polyol were glycerol, glycerol derivatives, and...

  8. abelmoschus esculentus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Values with the same alphabet are not significantly different (P< 0.05). 95. THE EFFECTS OF SAWDUST AND GOAT DUNG SUPPLEMENTS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF OKRO. (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L. MOENCH) IN DIESEL OIL CONTAMINATED SOIL. JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN FORESTRY, WILDLIFE ...

  9. Briquetting of Palm Kernel Shell | Ugwu | Journal of Applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The briquettes were analyzed for their combustion characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Palm kernel shell briquettes had higher calorific value than the briquettes from charcoal and sawdust. It also had other desirable combustion characteristics. @JASEM Keywords: Briquettes, carbonizing and combustion ...

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract PDF · Vol 31, No 1 (2012) - Research papers. A Rational Approach to Septic Tank Design Abstract PDF · Vol 35, No 4 (2016) - Agricultural, Bioresources, Biomedical, Food, Environmental & Water Resources Engineering Performance evaluation of clay-sawdust composite filter for point of use water treatment

  11. Production and characterization of activated carbon from leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Powdered activated carbon (PAC) was prepared from leather buffing waste, sawdust and lignite by carbonization at temperatures between 500 – 800oC followed by steam activation. Experimental results reveal a general decrease in yield of carbon residue with increase in temperature of carbonization. Samples of lignite ...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 163 ... Vol 10, No 1&2 (2011), Short-term effect of diesel oil on phytoplankton species in Great Kwa River Mangrove Swamp, S. E. Nigeria, Abstract ... Vol 4, No 1 (2005), The Use Of Sawdust As An Alternative Source Of Energy For Domestic Cooking And As A Means Of Reducing Deforestation, Abstract.

  13. Oil palm fruit fibre promotes the yield and quality of Lentinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Agricultural production and the agro-food industry furnish large volumes of solid wastes, which when unutilized could lead to environmental pollution. An attempt was made to utilize wastes from the oil palm and timber industries for the cultivation of Lentinus squarrosulus, a Nigerian edible mushroom. Mahogany sawdust ...

  14. Changes in Rheological Properties and Heavy Metal Content of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    amended with different types of ash relative to the control. However, research interests on the .... Effect of saw-dust ash plus urea on maize performance and nutrient status. Asian J. Agric ... nutrient release from cocoa pod ash, poultry manure and NPK 20%10% 10% fertilizer and their nutrient combinations inoculation study.

  15. Bulletproof Ice: How to Teach Materials Science Using Pykrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Students make and test a seemingly impossible material made from ice and sawdust that had been developed for possible emergency use during the Second World War. It was open to the students to be creative with their methods of testing the viability of such a material. The thought of making a battleship from ice that would gradually melt seems…

  16. What do you need to know to get started with wood and fish waste composting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie A. Micales

    2002-01-01

    Mountains and mountains of sawdust, hog fuel and wood chips have been generated by wood-processing mills and accumulated in large mountains in the past. But because of today's environmental con-straints, simply accumulating waste in piles is no longer acceptable. Landfilling may not be an option because of high tipping fees and the high costs of transportation to...

  17. 49 CFR 387.301 - Surety bond, certificate of insurance, or other securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Crushed stone. Drilling salt. Dry fertilizer. Fish scrap. Fly ash. Forest products; viz: Logs, billets, or... commercial fertilizer. Pumice stone, in bulk in dump vehicles. Salt, in bulk or in bags. Sand, other than asbestos, bird, iron, monazite, processed, or tobacco sand. Sawdust. Scoria stone. Scrap iron. Scrap steel...

  18. The effect of packaging material and storage method on shelf life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor harvesting, packaging, and storage practices harm cocoyam (Xanthosoma spp) cormels resulting in short shelf life and post harvest loses. Packaging materials namely, jute sack and woven polypropylene sack, and storage methods namely, storage in moistened 'wawa' sawdust and on platform in open-air were ...

  19. Flash pyrolysis kinetics of pine wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, B.M.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of sawdust pyrolysis in the temperature range from 300 to 600 °C has been measured. A thermogravimetric analyser was applied for the temperature range from 300 to 450 °C while for measurements in the temperature range from 450 to 600 °C, an entrained flow reactor has been used. The

  20. Removal of nickel from wastewater using an agricultural adsorbent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were fitted to experimental data to characterise the adsorption of the nickel ions by the pine sawdust. As a result, the highest adsorption capacity was attained at the combined effect of low adsorbent dose, high pH and high initial concentration. On the other hand, ...

  1. 218-IJBCS-Article-Dr S Nwodo Chinedu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    Common agro-wastes found in Lagos, Nigeria (cassava shavings, corncob, sawdust, and sugarcane pulp) were compared with ... the substrates investigated, cassava shavings have the best potential to serve as substrate for fermentation by. Penicillium ... including wood, fabrics and leather objects. While some species ...

  2. Ablative fast pyrolysis of biomass in the entrained-flow cyclonic reactor at SERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, J.; Scahill, J.

    1982-06-01

    Progress with the entrained flow cyclonic reactor at SERI is detailed. Feedstocks successfully used include wood flour and fairly large sawdust. Preliminary results show that relatively complete vaporization of the biomass is realized and that the yields of tar or gas can be varied over quite a range with trends following first order kinetic concepts.

  3. Optimizing cellulase production of Penicillium waksmanii F10-2 with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... effective carbon and nitrogen sources for cellulase production by P. waksmanii F10-2. Response surface methodology ... the production cost of cellulose. There have been extensive efforts to find more efficient ... The lignocellulosic materials, including wheat straw, corn straw, rice straw and sawdust were ...

  4. TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ... of Ramat Park Benin City. E. S. Okonofua, R. Ehigiator-Irughe and M. Ekun. 713. Compressibility Characteristics of Black Cotton Soil Admixed with Sawdust Ash and Lime. C. C. Ikeagwuani 718. Determination of Stresses Caused by Infinitely Long Line Loads on Semi-Infinite Elastic Soils using Fourier Transform Method.

  5. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 5, No 6 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conversion of masonia tree sawdust and cotton plant by product into feed by white rot fungus (Pleurotus sajor caju) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M A Belewu, 503-504 ...

  6. Experimental Study of Subcritical Water Liquefaction of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    In this work, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of wood industry residues (wood, bark, sawdust) and macroalgae for producing biofuels has been investigated under subcritical water conditions (at temperature of 300 C), with and without the presence of catalyst. The effects of catalyst and biomass type...

  7. Effect of thidiazuron on in vivo shoot proliferation of popular banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-09-30

    Sep 30, 2014 ... Moistened sawdust was steam-sterilized for 45 minutes and then filled for cooling in wooden propagators. Banana suckers were cleaned to remove roots and surface-sterilized for ..... stem fragments for plants mass propagation in in vivo horticulture conditions. Fruits 58: 315 –. 328. Makara, AM., Rubaihayo ...

  8. analysis of edible mushroom marketing in three villages in central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH

    agricultural products like sawdust, straws, sugar-cane waste products and coconut waste products. .... =Taxes (naira). X8,. = Quantity of edible mushroom consumed monthly(kg). X9,. = Average cost of transportation per month(naira). X10,. = Experience in (years) e1. = Error term four linear function forms were fitted in the ...

  9. Ghana Journal of Science - Vol 28, No 1 (1995)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An improved method of using sawdust as a faecal culture medium for the production of 3rd stage strongylate nematode larvae · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ... The physico-chemical properties of cassava starch in relation to the texture of the cooked root · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  10. Cultivation of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus spp.) on palm oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oyster mushroom is a popular mushroom due to its nutritional, medicinal and potential commercial value. In Malaysia, the fungus is currently cultivated on sawdust and rice husk. In this study, the efficiency of cultivating oyster mushroom was assessed using palm oil mesocarp fibre as a substrate. The experiment consisted ...

  11. Rooting, growth and sustainability of yellow Ficus ( Ficus retusa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rooting, growth and sustainability of yellow Ficus ( Ficus retusa 'Nitida') as affected by growth media under nursery conditions. ... Significantly (P<0.05) highest vegetative and root length was produced by plants grown on a mixture of sawdust, cow dung and topsoil (1:1:3). Root length of Ficus retusa 'Nitida' was best ...

  12. Effect of methanol on the liquefaction reaction of biomass in hot compressed water under microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junming Xu; Jianchun Jiang; Chun-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2013-01-01

    Liquefaction of sawdust was studied in methanol-water solutions using an acid catalyst under microwave energy. The effect of the methanol concentration on the changes of components in the liquefied products was analyzed by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS). It was found that 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and levulinic acid are the...

  13. effect of sowing media and gibberellic acid on the growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    available materials such as sawdust, peanut hull, rice hull, river sand, coconut fibre, farmyard manure and mixtures of these materials can be ... The concentrations of 100 and 200ppm of GA3 were prepared using the standard procedures as described by John (1987). Stock solution of the GA3 was prepared by dissolving ...

  14. MICGLOGM APLICADA INTERNATIONAL, 15(2), 2003, pp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bj

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... At present, most research work has been focused on mycelial growth of strains in Petri dish and mushroom yields. Supplemented formulations have been studied containing abundant regional organic materials such as sawdust from Quercus, Carpinus, Bursera,. Alnus, Heliocarpus, Nothofagus, Eucalyptus, ...

  15. Development and performance evaluation of an electrically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomass are available in large quantities in Nigeria and other developing countries as sawdust, ricehusks, wood-shavings, coconut fibers, palm fruit fibers and other agricultural waste. The utilization of this biomass in their pulverized form as fuel is difficult because of their low bulk density, low thermal efficiency and ...

  16. Mulches aid in regenerating California and Oregon forests: past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Ole T. Helgerson

    1990-01-01

    The use of mulches as a reforestation tool in Oregon and California began primarily in the late 1950's. Many types of mulches were tried including sheets of plastic, newspaper, and plywood; various thicknesses of bark, sawdust, sand, and straw; sprayed-on petroleum resin; and even large plastic buckets. Most proved to be ineffective, costly or both. Early trials...

  17. Determination of water absorption rate of palm kernel shells as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various organic pore agents are used for the production of insulating refractory bricks (IRB). Most times, the deficiencies of the respective pore agents appear to be ignored by the makers of the bricks, and the users. Sawdust, for instance, which is about the most commonly used organic pore agent is known to have high ...

  18. 7 CFR 51.912 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...” which are cushioned and/or covered with sawdust are not approved as protective packaging for export. [36...

  19. Nutritional food content of seed and effects of five different growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional food content of seed and effect of five different growing media: Top forest soil (TS), sawdust (SD), 2:1 mixture of; TS+SD, TS+composted poultry manure (TS+PM) and 2:1:1 mixture of TS+SD+PM on the seed germination and seedling growth of Afzelia Africana SM Caesalpiniaceae were investigated. Thirteen ...

  20. Agro-waste: a potential fermentation substrate for Penicillium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common agro-wastes found in Lagos, Nigeria (cassava shavings, corncob, sawdust, and sugarcane pulp) were compared with glucose and lactose as fermentation substrates for Penicillium chrysogenum PCL501. Cassava shavings significantly (P<0.001) produced the highest amount of mycelia weight (0.43 ± 0.02 mg/ml) ...

  1. Cellulase production by wild strains of Aspergillus niger, Penicillium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste cellulosic materials (corncob, sawdust and sugarcane pulp) and crystalline cellulose induced cellulase production in wild strains of Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum and Trichoderma harzianum isolated from a wood-waste dump in Lagos, Nigeria. Cellulose-supplemented media gave the maximum ...

  2. Impact of soil amendment on phytotoxicity of a 5-month old waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Phytoassessment of the polluted soil was carried out just before soil was amended with sawdust, and results showed that virtually all the cowpea seedlings died within 2 weeks; only those seedlings in unpolluted soils survived. Nine months after soil was amended, all cowpea plants survived up to fruiting. The present study ...

  3. The role of pH in heavy metal detoxification by biosorption from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high level of toxic metal pollution in the environment is a result of increased human activities. The hydrogen ion concentration of solutions has been known to affect reactions in solutions. The role of pH in As(V), Pb(II) and Hg(II) ions detoxification by bio-sorption from aqueous solutions using coconut fiber and sawdust ...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 1255 ... Vol 7, No 2 (2001), Biodegradation of Urea formaldehyde modified saw-dust by cellulolytic fungi, Details. B. T. NWUFO, B. O. ... Vol 14, No 2 (2008), Breeding losses in cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis L. causes and repercussion on generational propagation in arid ecology, Abstract. HA Sharah, E A Ali.

  5. GMJ V 13

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mcbee

    to recover dissolved gold complexes from solutions. (Soleimani and Kaghazchi, 2008; Navarro et al.,. 2006; Yalcin and Arol, 2002). Activated carbon can be produced from almost all carbon containing materials. In practice, materials such as coal, bones, sawdust, palm kernel shells and coconut shells, wood, peat, lignite, ...

  6. Sorptive removal of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride from simulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wastewater using sawdust: Kinetic study and effect of pH. Sunil Kumar .... ous adverse effects including acute renal failure, elevation of liver enzymes ...... Pract. Period. Hazardous Toxic Radioact. Waste 12. 275–280. BOEHM HP (1994) Some aspects of the surface chemistry of carbon blacks and other carbons. Carbon 32 ...

  7. 946-IJBCS-Article-Dr Adekayode F O

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    with a mixture of wood ash and demosan fungicide and planted in nursery made of moist sawdust. The minisetts sprouted after three weeks and at four weeks, transplanted to the ... The organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and the cation exchange capacity were in the medium adequate range for good seed yam ...

  8. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A. [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  9. Production of Solid Fuel Briquettes from Agricultural and Wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fibrous agricultural and wood waste materials have been compressed with suitable adhesive into solid fuel briquettes in a compressing machine, which was designed and constructed for this purpose. Nine samples of fibrous waste materials were prepared into different categories:- Category A (100% saw-dust, 100% ...

  10. UTILIZATION OF SECONDARY COMBUSTIBLE POWER RESOURCES FOR PRODUCTION OF MUNICIPAL AND HOUSEHOLD FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Berezovsky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows an advantage to utilize secondary power resources (lignin, wastes of fine coal with its dressing, sawdust in mixture with local types of fuel (peat in order to fulfill power supply purpose, namely: obtaining hot water in boilers of small capacity and obtaining household fuel.

  11. Science World Journal - Vol 1, No 1 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption efficiency of coconut shell-based activated carbons on colour of molasses, oils, dissolved oxygen and related parameters from industrial effluent · EMAIL ... Comparative studies on adsorption of methylene blue (MB) by sawdust and walnut shells carbon coated with ZnO · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption efficiency of coconut shell-based activated carbons on colour of molasses, oils, dissolved oxygen and related parameters from industrial effluent. Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 1 (2006) - Articles Comparative studies on adsorption of methylene blue (MB) by sawdust and walnut shells carbon coated with ZnO

  13. Aeration to improve biogas production by recalcitrant feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much agricultural waste is largely composed of polymers such as lignin and complex carbohydrates that are slowly or nearly completely non-degradable in anaerobic environments. An example of such a waste is chicken litter in which wood chips, rice hulls, and sawdust are commonly employed bedding mate...

  14. Science Study Aids 2: Mushrooms - Nature's Recyclers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Bill; Kurtzman, Ralph H., Jr.

    This publication is the second of a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grade levels 7 through 9. It is concerned with food value of liquified cellulosic agricultural wastes: paper, straw, corn cobs, sawdust and…

  15. Open transverse-slot substrate-integrated waveguide sensor for biomass permittivity determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel open transverse-slot substrate-integrated waveguide sensor is presented. The sensor is designed and fabricated for dielectric poperties measurements on sawdust at 8 GHz. Different configurations of the sensor were investigated by using simulation software and relationships between the simula...

  16. Screening of Pleurotus Ostreatus and Gleophylum Sepiarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fungal isolates identified as Pleurotus ostreatus and Gleophylum sepiarium isolated from sawdust dump-site were screened for protease enzyme production. High yields of protease enzyme were obtained by both fungi after 96h with concentrations of 1.6ug/ml/min for P ostreatus and 1.5ug/ml/min for G.sepiarium.

  17. To Study the Influence of Different Substrate on Shiitake Mushroom Fruiting (the First Production Report in IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Razeghi yadak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstarct Shiitake mushroom [Lentinula edodes(Berk Singer/Pegler] has the second production class among the most important edible mushrooms. For a long time this mushroom has draw attention due to its unique flavor and taste and also therapeutic properties. ِDue to the importance of this mushroom in the world and also the effect of substrate on the production of this medicinal mushroom, a research were conducted in randomized complete block design with 6 replications on 4 different substrate formulations including: 1 sawdust, wheat bran, millet; 2 sawdust, wheat bran, molasses, chalk, calcium super phosphate; 3sawdust, wheat bran, tea waste; 4sawdust, saccharose, citric acid, chalk and calcium carbonate on L.edodes production for determining the suitable substarte on early fruiting, yield, biological effeciency, average mushroom numbers and weights per block. Results showed that substrate formulation 1 caused earlier fruiting than others (58 days from incubation time, this formulation also had the highest yield (112/3 g/log and biological effeciency (35/09% between the others formula. mashroom number was the most in substrate formulation 1 (16/67 n/log and the highest mushroom wieght was obtained from formulation 4 (14/33 g/per mushroom. there wasn’t any significant differences at (p≤0.05 between substrate formulation 1 and 2. Keywords: Shiitake, Substrate formulation, Yield, Biological effeciency, Mushroom number and weight

  18. Laboratory Evaluations of Durability of Southern Pine Pressure Treated With Extractives From Durable Wood Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant T. Kirker; Amy Blodgett; Patricia Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Extracts from sawdust of four naturally durable wood species [Alaskan yellow cedar, AYC, Cupressus nootkanansis D. Don 1824; eastern red cedar, ERC, Juniperus virginiana L.; honey mesquite, HM, Prosopis glandulosa Torr.; and black locust, BL, Robinia pseudoacacia L.] were used to treat...

  19. Allometry, nitrogen status, and carbon stable isotope composition of Pinus ponderosa seedlings in two growing media with contrasting nursery irrigation regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Robert E. Brown

    2011-01-01

    Nursery irrigation regimes that recharged container capacity when target volumetric water content reached 72%, 58%, and 44% (by volume) influenced Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C. Lawson growth more than either a 1:1 (by volume) Sphagnum peat - vermiculite (PV) or a 7:3 (by volume) Sphagnum peat - sawdust (PS) medium. Exponential fertilization avoided...

  20. Development of Wood-Plastic Composite at Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madaraka F. Mwema

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of plastics and other solid wastes has been a major problem in Kenya. Most of these wastes can be recycled through various ways and methods to produce new products. Plastics can be combined with sawdust to develop composite materials for applications such as in building. In this project, a wood-plastic composite (WPC was developed from sawdust and plastic solid wastes. The composite bore the advantages of both wood and plastics which can be applied in various sectors including interior design work and in automotive among others, thereby curbing the problem of garbage accumulation in the environment. The project provides eco-friendly solutions by making best use of the available resources (wood and plastic resins thus, finding sustainable solutions to the problem of limited waste dumping sites and deforestation in the country. The composites were made from PP and HDPE thermoplastics and mahogany sawdust obtained from our wood workshop in Dedan Kimathi University. From the tests carried out and results obtained, it was found that, the composite has more advantages than the individual constituent materials. Water absorption test revealed that all the samples took up water though not as much pronounced as for plain sawdust. Additionally, the rate of water reduction was found to be excellent. They took less time to release the absorbed water to the environment meaning that they can be applied in humid or wet environ. The composite samples were easy to machine since they were easily shaped using a handsaw.

  1. Productive performance of rabbits as influenced by source of fibre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted using 36 growing rabbits of mixed breeds and sexes with initial liveweight of 658g to evaluate the effect of feeding diets containing three different fibre sources, Maize Cob (MC); Sawdust (SD); and Mango Leaves (ML) which were subjected to three processing methods viz: untreated, NaOH ...

  2. Pyrolysis of forest residues: an approach to techno-economics for bio-fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The techno-economics for producing liquid fuels from Maine forest residues were determined from a combination of: (1) laboratory experiments at USDA-ARS’s Eastern Regional Research Center using hog fuel (a secondary woody residue produced from mill byproducts such as sawdust, bark and shavings) as a...

  3. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) Vol. 16, No. 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    as insulating substance spread over the surface of the soil (Jules, 1999). Most mulching materials consist of plant refuse or by-products: leaves; straw, sawdust, rice husk, corn cobs, peat, tobacco stems, wood chips or paper. Inorganic substances such as rook wool, plastic or gravel can also be used as mulches. Ginger is a ...

  4. Hydrogen production from high moisture content biomass in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Xu, X. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.

    1998-08-01

    By mixing wood sawdust with a corn starch gel, a viscous paste can be produced that is easily delivered to a supercritical flow reactor by means of a cement pump. Mixtures of about 10 wt% wood sawdust with 3.65 wt% starch are employed in this work, which the authors estimate to cost about $0.043 per lb. Significant reductions in feed cost can be achieved by increasing the wood sawdust loading, but such an increase may require a more complex pump. When this feed is rapidly heated in a tubular flow reactor at pressures above the critical pressure of water (22 MPa), the sawdust paste vaporizes without the formation of char. A packed bed of carbon catalyst in the reactor operating at about 650 C causes the tarry vapors to react with water, producing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and some methane with a trace of carbon monoxide. The temperature and history of the reactor`s wall influence the hydrogen-methane product equilibrium by catalyzing the methane steam reforming reaction. The water effluent from the reactor is clean. Other biomass feedstocks, such as the waste product of biodiesel production, behave similarly. Unfortunately, sewage sludge does not evidence favorable gasification characteristics and is not a promising feedstock for supercritical water gasification.

  5. Geotechnical Properties of Clayey Soil Stabilized with Cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-31

    Dec 31, 2017 ... https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem and www.bioline.org.br/ja. Geotechnical Properties of Clayey Soil Stabilized with Cement-Sawdust Ash for Highway. Construction. *1. OWAMAH, HI;. 2. ATIKPO, E;. 3. OLUWATUYI, O;. 4. OLUWATOMISIN, AM. 1&2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, ...

  6. Modification of strength properties of lime-stabilized laterites with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of sawdust ash as a stabilizer for lateritic soils was investigated to determine the modifying effects on strength properties required for road construction. Three laterite samples, A, B and C were collected respect- ively from Akoda, Osogbo and Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Atterberg limits and strength tests were performed on ...

  7. Effect of substrates on the yield, yield attribute and dietary values of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on the effect of substrates on the yield, yield attributes and dietary values of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was conducted to identify the best substrates. The experiment included 23 treatments with three replications. The substrates were sawdust, rice straw, cottonseed hull & maize cob with 100%, 75%, ...

  8. Influence of various alternative bedding materials on pododermatitis in broilers raised in a built-up litter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broilers in the United States are frequently raised on built-up litter systems, primarily bedded with pine wood chips (shavings) or sawdust. There is continuing interest in alternative bedding materials as pine products are often in short supply and prices rise accordingly. Alternative bedding mat...

  9. The Effect of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking Pretreatment on Methane Generation Using Different Lignocellulosic Biomasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    In the present study aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a pretreatment method for the anaerobic digestion of three lignocellulosic biomasses of different origin: one agricultural residue: sunflower straw, one perennial crop: grass and a hardwood: poplar sawdust.The methane productio...

  10. Fusarium Damping-off of two Timber Species ( Terminalia Ivorensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of the damping–off disease of two timber species Terminalia ivorensis and Nauclea diderrichii sown in ground granite, sharp river sand, topsoil and sawdust was assessed at the nursery site of the Department of. Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt. The experiment was laid out in a ...

  11. Effects of crude humin and compost produced from selected waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste from oil palm plantations, paddy fields, sawn timber and poultries are substantial. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes can cause environmental problems such as air and land pollutions. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of crude humin and compost produced from rice straw, rice husk, sawdust, ...

  12. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass grade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    2016-09-09

    Sep 9, 2016 ... space allowance for maximizing the growth performance and stabilizing immune response of pigs in sawdust fermentative ... performed to investigate the optimal stocking density for maximizing growth performance, carcass grade and immunity of pigs. Materials and Methods ... barrows and gilts in a pen.

  13. Thermodynamics and Adsorption Efficiencies of Low Cost Natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermodynamics and sorption efficiencies for the remediation of Cr, Ni and Cd from their single component aqueous solutions (wastewater) using Maize Cob (MC) and Sawdust (SD) in a batch system are reported. Efficiencies were judged based on parameters such as sorbent weight, initial adsorbate loading ...

  14. Pleurotus sajor caju

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The influence of fungus treatment on the biochemical composition and degradation patter of sawdust and cotton plant by-products (cotton burns and cotton gin trash) by Pleurotus sajor caju were evaluated. Lignin degradation increased as the incubation period progressed while the highest loss of hemicellulose, cellulose ...

  15. Grow tubes change microclimate and bush architecture but have little effect on bush biomass allocation at the end of the establishment year in blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microclimate variables were integrated over a six-month period during which blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum cv. Liberty) bushes were grown in 51-cm high, 20-cm diameter round grow tubes (opaque or translucent) on a sawdust mulch-covered raised bed with the mulch incorporated into tilled soil. Grow t...

  16. Evaluation of alternative mulches for blueberry over five production seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is a calcifuge (acid-loving) plant that responds favorably to mulching with organic matter (OM). Until recently, most blueberry plantings in our region were grown with a mulch of douglas-fir sawdust, with additional nitrogen (N) fertilizer applied to comp...

  17. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... Collect wood flour or chips from the lathe or table saw or vertical sander from other machines that produce the desired wood particles/ sawdust. If it is possible grind appropriate dry wood for use. Note: Wood flour or chips from cherry, maple (temperate trees) mahogany, teak and walnut (ekom in Ibibio ...

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osemwegie, O.O. Vol 10, No 1 (2017) - Articles Cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curtis: Fr.) P. Karst on sawdust of Brachystagia nigerica Hoyle & A.P.D.Jones. Abstract. ISSN: 0855-5591. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  19. Agricultural and Food Science Journal of Ghana - Vol 10, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curtis: Fr.) P. Karst on sawdust of Brachystagia nigerica Hoyle & A.P.D.Jones. EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C. A Ihayere, J. A Okhuoya, O.O Osemwegie, 852-868 ...

  20. Effects of storage media on the green life span and culinary qualities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sawdust (SD) and ricehusk (RH)) used singly or mixed in varying proportions and enclosed in polyethylene were used to study the storage life of mature green plantain fruits. There were two control treatments comprising fruits sealed in polyethylene without plant residue and fruits kept on laboratory shelf. Fruits were sealed ...

  1. Vegetative propagation of Adansonia digitata (L.) using juvenile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for the variables assessed. Cuttings dipped in Indole-3-butylic Acid (with a concentration of 150mg/L) planted in sawdust media (SD/IBA/150mg/L) had the best result of all the variables assessed and therefore recommended for vegetative propagation of A. digitata. Key word: Vegetative propagation, Growth hormone, ...

  2. The effect of drying techniques on the elastoplastic properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of three different drying techniques i.e. microwave, sun and oven drying on the physicochemical and compressional characteristics of microcrystalline cellulose obtained from sawdust, an agricultural waste product. The physicochemical properties were investigated by assessing the tapped ...

  3. Clinical observations and haematological changes following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aliyu.jibril

    2017-03-21

    Mar 21, 2017 ... stored in a black polythene bags under room temperature. Plant extraction. The extraction ((95% methanol in ... Zaria. Water was provided ad libitum. The rats were kept in metal cages with sawdust used as bedding and changed when needed. Rats were identified by paint marks on their tails. Crotalaria.

  4. Evaluation of a cabinet dryer developed for cassava chips | Taiwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at evaluating the performance of a prototype sawdust-‐ fueled and fan-‐forced convection cabinet dryer developed for cassava chips. The specific objectives were to develop regression equations to relate drying (or elapsed) time and moisture content for sun drying and drying of fresh peeled cassava chips ...

  5. Assessment of Combustion and Potash Production as Options for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    every year. Also, sawdust has been used as fuel for some domestic cooking. In saw mills and wood industries in Nigeria, the heaps of wood wastes are usually burnt. ... of a series of 4-litre transparent plastic bottles. Pin- holes were made at the bottom of each bottle, through which the extract solution passing through the ash.

  6. Potential use of wood from forests damaged by industrial emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J.

    1984-01-01

    The amount of sawdust during chipping from dead, overdry trees in Czechoslovakia was found to increase with the time since the tree died; those dead for 4 and 8 years produced 6 and 12% more, respectively, than did fresh wood. Dry dead wood yielded less pulp, which was of a lower quality than that from fresh wood. 2 references.

  7. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  8. VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION OF Adansonia digitata (L.) USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ridwan

    Cuttings dipped in Indole-3-butylic Acid (with a concentration of 150mg/L) planted in sawdust media (SD/IBA/150mg/L) had the best result of all the variables assessed and therefore recommended for vegetative propagation of A. digitata. Key word: Vegetative propagation, Growth hormone, Rooting media. INTRODUCTION.

  9. Effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on blood plasma concentrations of some principal microelements and some vitamins in broilers. In this experiment, 645 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 litter group (straw, sawdust, alum ...

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... materials that have been employed as dye adsorbents including Ephedra strobilacea sawdust, wastewater sludge [3] and sewage sludge [11]. The removal of MB dye onto various adsorbents were due to the formation of physical and chemical bonds including van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonding, and ...

  11. 2200-IJBCS-Article-Julius Ghogomu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    tyres and sawdust (Hamadi et al., 2001), activated carbon (Han et al., 2000), smectite. (Ketcha et al., 2009), zeolite (Tahir et al.,. 1998), hydrated Iron hydroxyde ..... also notice the hydrophobic character of the adsorbents due to the presence of siloxane groups (Si-O-Si) (Djebbar et al., 2012) which is in conformity with our ...

  12. The association between bedding material and the bacterial counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and coliform bacteria on teat skin and in teat canals in lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Mohr, Elmar; Krömker, Volker

    2013-05-01

    Several mastitis-causing pathogens are able to colonize the bovine teat canal. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the treatment of sawdust bedding with a commercial alkaline conditioner and the bacterial counts on teat skin and in the teat canal. The study used a crossover design. Ten lactating Holstein cows that were free of udder infections and mastitis were included in the study. The animals were bedded on either untreated sawdust or sawdust that had been treated with a hydrated lime-based conditioner. Once a day, fresh bedding material was added. After 3 weeks, the bedding material was removed from the cubicles, fresh bedding material was provided, and the cows were rotated between the two bedding material groups. Teat skin and teat canals were sampled using the wet and dry swab technique after weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria were detected in the resulting agar plate cultures. The treatment of the bedding material was associated with the teat skin bacterial counts of Str. uberis, Esch. coli and other coliform bacteria. An association was also found between the bedding material and the teat canal bacterial counts of coliform bacteria other than Esch. coli. For Staph. aureus, no associations with the bedding material were found. In general, the addition of a hydrated lime-based conditioner to sawdust reduces the population sizes of environmental pathogens on teat skin and in teat canals.

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 282 of 282 ... AB Mustapha, W Dangaladima. Vol 18, No 1 (2010), The Effects of Iron Filling On Some Mechanical and Physical Properties of a Sawdust Particleboard, Abstract PDF. PAP Mamza, A Aliu, RA Muhammad. Vol 16, No 2 (2008), The Swelling Behaviour of Polystyrene (PS)/ Polyvinylacetate (Pvac) Blends ...

  14. 1063-IJBCS-Article-Charles Obunwo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    Niger Delta Biologia, 6(2): 31 – 39. RPI (Research Planning Institute). 1985. Environmental baseline studies for the establishment of control criteria and standards against petroleum related pollution in Nigeria. Shukla SS, Yu LI, Dorris KL, Shukla A. 2005. Removal of nickel from aqueous solution by sawdust. J. Hazardous ...

  15. Response of Musa species to macro-propagation. I: Genetic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival of plantlets varied with genotypes, initiation media and rooting status of plantlets at the time of excision. In most cases plantlets excised with roots had higher percentage of survival. However, all plantlets of 'Nsukka Local\\' initiated in sawdust but were rootless survived. Slightly higher proportion of plantlets initiated ...

  16. Minituber production potential of selected Potato ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three different propagation media (vermiculite, sand and sawdust) and seven different genotypes (two local genotypes- Magalabada and Rosita, five introduced genotypes-Up to date, Buffelspoort, Van der plank, Lady Rosetta and Bp 1 2007) were investigated. Plantlets grown on vermiculite performed better with higher ...

  17. Identification of Important Iranian Hardwoods by Morphological Properties of Vessel Elements (Maceration process)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidreza Safdari; Margaret S. Devall

    2011-01-01

    For the identification of small to large wood samples and various types of composites that may not provide enough of all surfaces necessary to reveal diagnostic characteristics, such as sawdust, decayed wood fragments, archeological wood, and even large wood samples, morphological and anatomical characteristics of vessels are very useful. In this research,...

  18. Bacteria associated with compost used for cultivation of Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteria involved in an outdoor single phase composting using sawdust and wheat bran as substrates for cultivation of Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.) Singer, and Lentinus squarrosulus (Berk.), two Nigerian edible mushrooms were identified. Composting was carried out for 2 weeks. The highest core and peripheral ...

  19. jfewr ©2017 - jfewr Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovat Ovat

    ABSTRACT. The production of indigenous mushroom in a commercial scale is constrained by lack of information on its growth requirement, threatened natural habitat resulting from deforestation and rising temperature. Rice offal, decaying mango wood, sawdust and decaying palm bunch were used as substrates.

  20. Nutritional analysis of some composted and non-composted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Nutrient supplements and agricultural wastes used for mushroom cultivation are important in improving establishment and production of mushrooms. Agricultural wastes such as sawdust, grass, sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw and maize cobs have successfully been used for the production of Kenyan ...

  1. Sustainable mushroom production in Africa: A case study in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated a sustainable alternative to grow crops using organic wastes as biofertilizers. Fresh fish waste (FFW) and cooked fish waste (CFW) mixed with sawdust from Tryplochyton scleroxylon wood species (Wawa) were made into compost heaps. Control compost from rice bran (CRB) was also prepared.

  2. In-vitro inhibition of growth of some seedling blight inducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma harzianum, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis were the microbes found associated with cow dung, sawdust and rice husk composted soils. Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum and Macrophomina phaseolina were isolated from blighted seedlings of Cowpea, ...

  3. Evaluation of microbiological and chemical parameters during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Devika

    1 -Corresponding Author: Dr. EdrissBazrafshan, Department of Environmental Health, school of Health, Zahedan. University of Medical ... Evaluation of microbiological and chemical parameters during wastewater Sludge and. Sawdust Co-composting. 1 ..... the environmental impact of municipal solid waste management.

  4. strategies paysannes de conservation de quelques ressources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    conservation are the use of «Huidza» and «Ava» granaries for maize, cask or bole and baril for cowpea. Some homemade products are added to seeds in order improve conservation ; these are kitchen salt, woodash, sawdust, fine sand, Azadirachta indica juice, for maize and dry pericarp of Citrus sp. and/or. Capsicum sp.

  5. Stratégies paysannes de conservation de quelques ressources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main practices of seed conservation are the use of «Huidza» and «Ava» granaries for maize, cask or bole and baril for cowpea. Some homemade products are added to seeds in order improve conservation ; these are kitchen salt, woodash, sawdust, fine sand, Azadirachta indica juice, for maize and dry pericarp of ...

  6. Further studies on Egyptian soil fungi: succession of sugar and osmophilic fungi in soil amended with five organic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, G M

    1996-01-01

    The sugar and osmophilic fungal composition of soils amended with five organic substrates (newspaper, orange peel, bromegrass leaves, wheat straw and wood sawdust) was estimated after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks using the dilution plate method on glucose and 50% sucrose Czapek's agar media. Wheat straw was the best substrate for total counts of both sugar and osmophilic fungi followed by newspaper, bromegrass leaves, wood sawdust and orange peel. Wood sawdust supported the highest average counts of total sugar fungi, Fusarium, Mucor, Scopulariopsis, Trichoderma and Trimmatostroma spp.; Newspaper, of Aspergillus (8 spp.), Penicillium (4 spp.) and Chaetomium sp.; bromegrass leaves of Cladosporium sp., Humicola sp. and Sporotrichum sp.; orange peel, of Alternaria sp., Circinella sp. and Stachybotrys sp.; and wheat straw, of Botryotrichum sp. and Myrothecium sp. Bromegrass leaves and orange peel supported the highest average counts of total osmophilic fungi, Aspergillus (10 spp.), Cladosporium sp. Paecillomyces sp. and Rhizopus sp.; and of Stemphylium sp., Trichoderma sp., Humicola sp. and Circinella sp. respectively; wheat straw, of Epicoccum sp., Scopulariopsis sp. and Trichothecium sp.; newspaper, of Penicillium (4 spp.) and Alternaria sp.; and wood sawdust of Curvularia sp. and Fusarium (3 spp.). The best colonizers throughout the experimental periods were Aspergilus and Penicillium spp.

  7. Culture de trois espèces fongiques sauvages comestibles du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation trials of three strains of three species of edible wood fungi: Pleurotus cystidiosus OK Miller, Lentinus cladopus Lev. and Marasmius buzungolo Singer agar medium on isolated PDA and whose mycelia were transplanted on substrates planting corn and sawdust grains produced fruit bodies on lignocellulosic ...

  8. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology (Vol. 33)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ladaf 2

    Soil Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) and okra growth performance (shoot length, leaf number, root length, total fresh weight, .... lubricating oil, and diesel oil tends to result in a Eleme market and sawdust obtained from timber mill rapid depletion of the available ..... engine oil polluted soil. J. Ecol. Nat. Environ., 2(6): 112-.

  9. effect of sowing media and gibberellic acid on the seedling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    sowing media (Top soil TS, mixtures of Top soil plus Poultry manure TS+PM and Top soil plus. Sawdust TS+SD) in the ratio of 2:1, three GA3 concentrations (0, 100 and 200ppm) and three plant species (Bougainvillea, Ixora and Rose); factorially combined and laid out in a completely randomized design with four repetitions ...

  10. Effect of thidiazuron on in vivo shoot proliferation of popular banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moistened sawdust was steam-sterilized for 45 minutes and then filled for cooling in wooden propagators. Banana suckers were cleaned to remove roots and surface-sterilized for 15 seconds. The sterilized corms were deshealthed to expose axillary buds and decorticated to suppress the apical meristems. These corns ...

  11. Catalytic Pyrolysis of Oak via Pyroprobe and Bench Scale, Packed Bed Pyrolysis Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pyrolytic conversion of oak sawdust at 500°C in flowing He over eight proprietary catalysts is described and compared to the control bed material, quartz sand. The reactions were conducted and compared in two reactors, an analytical, ug-scale pyroprobe reactor and a bench, g-scale packed bed re...

  12. for the removal of triphenyltin chloride (TPT) from dockyard wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-06

    Oct 6, 2014 ... that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemi- cal, biological, and photolytic processes (Ritter et ... to their widespread occurrence, strong resistance, long-range transportation and high level of ..... of methylene blue using cedar sawdust and crushed brick. J. Hazardous Mater. 135 264–273.

  13. Density, Shatter index, and Combustion properties of briquettes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-10-31

    Oct 31, 2014 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: This study investigated the potential use of sawdust of Daniellia oliveri (African Copaiba Balsam. Tree), Rice husk and Groundnut shells to make briquettes for energy generation. Methodology and Result: Doughnut shaped briquettes were produced from three biomass materials at ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uziaru, A. Vol 1, No 1 (2006) - Articles Comparative studies on adsorption of methylene blue (MB) by sawdust and walnut shells carbon coated with ZnO. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1597-6343. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  15. 49 CFR 174.103 - Disposition of damaged or astray shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... dry, fine sawdust or dry and clean cotton waste or elastic wads made from dry newspapers. A ruptured... explosive compositions that may be strewn on car floors or freight. In addition, the car floors must be thoroughly swept, and washed with a plentiful supply of water. Iron-wheel trucks, metal hammers, or other...

  16. Original Article The effect of grower feed diet supplemented with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a preliminary study on the effect of grower feed diet supplemented with mashed Ganoderma lucidum against some enteric zoonotic parasites of wild rock pigeons (Columba livia) in Benin City, Nigeria. The pigeons were fed ad libitum with supplemented and non-supplemented grower feed diet in sawdust-floored ...

  17. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 16, Number 3, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    requirements. Biomass Biomass is a natural renewable material, such as sawdust and wood chips, waste paper, cow manure, corn stalks, corn cobs, hemp , switch...costs will be reduced by up to 50%. The wireless solution eliminated prohibitive costs associated with underground cable installation or alternative

  18. Effect of phospho-compost on growth and yield of cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of phospho-compost on the growth and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was studied at Juaboso in the Western Region of Ghana. It was a factorial experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Phospho-compost, prepared from phosphate rock, cocoa pod husk, sawdust ...

  19. Potentials of cellulosic wastes in media formulation | Nwodo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential use of cellulosic wastes as carbon and energy sources in selective media formulations was investigated. Two agar media, Czapek-Dox and Sabouraud's agar, were modified by substituting their carbon sources with cellulose, sawdust and sugarcane pulps. Then, two fungi; Aspergillus niger ANL301 and ...

  20. Rearing redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), on semi-artifical media

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Lake Maner; James Hanula; S. Kristine Braman

    2014-01-01

    Semi-artificial diets consisting of redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng,; Laurales: Lauraceae) sawdust and various nutrients were tested for rearing Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in vitro. Comparison of 2 media, modified and standard, adapted from Biedermann et al. (2009) showed that the more...

  1. Biology of two members of the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), recently invasive in the U.S.A., reared on an ambrosia beetle artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Diet and rearing protocols were developed for two members of the cryptic Euwallacea fornicatus species complex, polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB) and tea shot hole borer (TSHB) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), using sawdust from boxelder Acer negundo and avocado Persea americana. 2. Bio...

  2. nutritional profile and yield of oyster mushroom cultivated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    com. (Received .... weighed with electronic digital balance and dried in a fabricated solar dryer of temperature 48±2°C for 4 days. ... Starch content of the mushroom compared well with substrates, except for sawdust. Kenaf had the lowest starch ...

  3. Performance Characteristics of a Wood By-Product as Base Friction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Material mix and composition as well as detailed production processes using saw-dust as base friction lining material have been studied. The resulting friction brake lining materials were additionally subjected to thermal cycles and associated baking and curing. The final products were thereafter subjected to laboratory and ...

  4. Valorisation des sciures du bois de Moringa oleifera dans le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology and results: several physico-chemical methods of analysis were used during these works: oxymetry, colorimetry, spectrophotometry, COT-metry etc. The obtained results show that the sawdust of calcined wood allows to better treat the leachates with the reduction of the turbidity (95 %), of the organic matter (90 ...

  5. Cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus on oil palm residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongwised, A.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to use oil palm residues to cultivate the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, which is one of the most important mushrooms cultivated worldwide. Spawn was prepared on sorghum seeds and inoculated on substrate in plastic bags. Oil palm fronds were cut and used to grow Pleurotus ostreatus. The first fructification occurred 20 days after waterring. The biological efficiency reached at 28.6%. When sawdust of para rubber logs was added to the cut oil palm fronds at the rate of 1:1 (vol : vol., the biological efficiency reached at 39.3%.Supplementary material at the rate of 5% was also added into the combination of cut oil palm frond and sawdust. The result showed that rice bran, corn meal or oil palm-kernel meal give yields between 142.2-165.0 g/bag (B.E. = 42.8-49.6, which were not statistically different. Oil palm pericarp waste was also used as main substrate for P. ostreatus cultivation. The average yield obtained during 40 days havesting period was 112.6 g/bag (B.E. = 64.3%. Addition of sawdust or rice bran into pericarp waste decreased the yield of the basidiocarps. Palm-kernel meal at the rate of 5-20% was used as a supplement material. Addition of 20% palmkernel meal into sawdust supported higher yield. The biological efficiency reached 55.8%. From the above results, four formulae of the substrate were prepared. Treatment of oil palm pericarp waste + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca(OH2 supported higher yield of the basidiocarps. The average yield obtained from 950 g of substrate was 190.2 g during 60 days havesting (B.E. = 57.2%. Using 6% palm-kernel substitute 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal supported the same yield (B.E. = 56.2% Using sawdust as the main substrate, the yield achieved was less than that obtained with oil palm pericarp waste. The average yield from treatment of sawdust + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca (OH2 was 154.0 g/bag (B.E. = 46.3% while treatment of sawdust + 6% palm-kernel meal + 0

  6. Pembuatan Papan Komposit dari Plastik Daur Ulang dan Serbuk Kayu serta Jerami Sebagai Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mulana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of composites was done by mixing the filler and matrix. The common matrix used to produce composite is plastic ore with types of poly propylene, poly ethylene and others. To know the characteristics of composite boards made from recycled plastic type poly ethylene so this research was conducted. This research aims to create a composite board made of solid waste sawdust and straw as a filler and recycled plastics as the matrix and to find out more details of the influence of variable solid waste types and ratio of solid waste weight and plastic toward the quality of the composite board product. Composite board manufacturing process was carried out by hot press method at a temperature of 145 oC for 20 minutes. The composite board products are tested on value of hardness, tensile strength, and thermal value. The results showed that the use of sawdust as a filler resulted the composite hardness value that is better (R79,5 compared with straw (R67 at a ratio of filler composition: matrix of 80:20 respectively. The use of sawdust also gives the value of tensile strength of 6.86 MPa that is better than the using a straw that valued of 3.62 MPa at composition ratio of filler: to matrix (60:40. Largest amount of heat needed to melt the composite boards are 31.19 J/g and 14.02 J/g at composition ratio sawdust: recycled plastics of 80:20 and at composition ratio straw: recycled plastics of 80:20, respectively. Visually composite board with a composition of sawdust:plastic HDPE 50:50 looks better with bright colors and shiny. Keywords: Composite, Solid waste, Plastic, Matrix, Filler,  Poly ethylene

  7. Caracterização de compósitos produzidos com polietileno de alta densidade (HDPE e serragem da indústria moveleira - parte II - extrusão em dupla-rosca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éverton Hillig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, wood plastic composites made of HDPE and different types of wood sawdust generate at furniture industries are characterised. The equipment used was a 19 mm co-rotating twin-screw extruder, complementing previous studies where the composites were mixed using a single-screw extruder. Temperatures of 180oC were applied at the five heating zones, rotating at 150 rpm with a flux of 1 kg.h-1. Residues of MDF, of loblolly pine and of eucalypt wood were used, and were mixed into the HDPE with a coupling agent (anhydride maleic. Physical characterization of the composites was performed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and by scanning electronic microscopy. In addition, the mechanical properties of tension, static bending and impact were analysed, according to ASTM D638, D790 and D256. All types of sawdust acted as a nucleate agent, since the composites showed a crystallinity index higher than pure HDPE. Also, it was observed that the type of sawdust influenced fibre¿s dispersion in the polymeric matrix. The mechanical tests showed differences in the properties of the composites made of different types of sawdust. In general, inclusion of MDF sawdust resulted in composites with higher bending strength and impact work than those containing eucalypt and pine. Comparing results obtained using a single-screw extruder and values obtained in this study, it can be concluded that the properties of the wood are more effectively transferred to the composite using a double-screw extruder.

  8. Premium Fuel Production From Mining and Timber Waste Using Advanced Separation and Pelletizing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R. Q.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B. K.; Tao, D.

    2005-12-05

    The Commonwealth of Kentucky is one of the leading states in the production of both coal and timber. As a result of mining and processing coal, an estimated 3 million tons of fine coal are disposed annually to waste-slurry impoundments with an additional 500 million tons stored at a number of disposal sites around the state due to past practices. Likewise, the Kentucky timber industry discards nearly 35,000 tons of sawdust on the production site due to unfavorable economics of transporting the material to industrial boilers for use as a fuel. With an average heating value of 6,700 Btu/lb, the monetary value of the energy disposed in the form of sawdust is approximately $490,000 annually. Since the two industries are typically in close proximity, one promising avenue is to selectively recover and dewater the fine-coal particles and then briquette them with sawdust to produce a high-value fuel. The benefits are i) a premium fuel product that is low in moisture and can be handled, transported, and utilized in existing infrastructure, thereby avoiding significant additional capital investment and ii) a reduction in the amount of fine-waste material produced by the two industries that must now be disposed at a significant financial and environmental price. As such, the goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of producing a premium fuel with a heating value greater than 10,000 Btu/lb from waste materials generated by the coal and timber industries. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the briquetting process indicated that the goal was successfully achieved. Low-ash briquettes containing 5% to 10% sawdust were produced with energy values that were well in excess of 12,000 Btu/lb. A major economic hurdle associated with commercially briquetting coal is binder cost. Approximately fifty binder formulations, both with and without lime, were subjected to an extensive laboratory evaluation to assess their relative technical and economical effectiveness as binding

  9. Comparative study of mycelial growth and basidiomata formation in seven different species of the edible mushroom genus Hericium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Han Gyu; Park, Hyuk Gu; Park, Sang Ho; Choi, Chang Won; Kim, Seong Hwan; Park, Won Mok

    2005-09-01

    The potential of using several agricultural by-products as supplements of sawdust substrate for the production of edible mushroom Hericium was evaluated using seven Hericium species. All the tested supplements (rice bran, wheat bran, barley bran, Chinese cabbage, egg shell, and soybean powder) were found to be suitable for the mycelial growth of all the tested species. In mycelial growth, soybean powder was the best supplement for Hericium americanum, Hericium coralloides, and Hericium erinaceum while barley bran was the best for Hericium alpestre, Hericium laciniatum, and Hericium erinaceus. For Hericium abietis, rice bran and Chinese cabbage was the best. The possibility of mushroom production on oak sawdust substrate with 20% rice bran supplement was demonstrated with H. coralloides, H. americanum, H. erinaceus, and H. erinaceum which showed 26-70% biological efficiency. Our results also showed that strain selection is important to improve biological efficiency and mushroom yield in Hericium cultivation.

  10. [Adaptability of Helianthus annuus seedlings to crude oil pollution in soil and its improvement measures under salinization stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-lei; Ci, Hua-cong; He, Xing-dong; Liang, Yu-ting; Zhao, Xuan; Sun, Hui-ting; Xie, Hong-tao

    2015-11-01

    To explore the adaptability of plant under salt stress to crude oil pollution of soil and improvement measures, a pot experiment of Helianthus annuus seedlings was conducted using orthogonal experiment method with crude oil-sodium chloride-desulfurization gypsum and cinder-zeolite-desulfurization gypsum-sawdust. The results showed that, with the increase of soil crude oil concentration, the relative growth rate (RGR) of plant height, RGR of aboveground biomass and root N: P ratios of H. annuus seedlings decreased significantly, while the activity of SOD and CAT increased at first and then decreased significantly. The RGR of plant height and aboveground biomass significantly increased (P pollution of soil could decrease the relative growth rate of H. annuus seedling, and sawdust could reduce the influence of crude oil pollution on plant growth under salt stress.

  11. Study on the preparation of wood vinegar from biomass residues by carbonization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiaomei; Zhang, Shouyu; Hou, Baoxin; Zheng, Hongjun; Deng, Wenxiang; Liu, Dahai; Tang, Wenjiao

    2015-03-01

    In the paper, the production of wood vinegar from Chinese fir sawdust (FS), cotton stalk (CS) and bamboo sawdust (BS) by carbonization process was addressed. The wood vinegar yield was investigated and the organic compounds contained were determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. It was found that the refined wood vinegar yield of FS increased firstly and then decreased with increasing carbonization temperature and the highest yield reached about 25% in 350-450°C. The relative contents of acids and ketones from FS decreased and that of phenols increased with increasing temperature. The relative contents of acids and phenols in the wood vinegars produced from the samples were in the order of BS>CS>FS and that of ketones reversed. KCl solution treatment caused a decrease in the relative contents of the phenols and ketones, but an increase in that of the acids in FS wood vinegar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of using lightweight eco-bricks as enclosures for individual houses of one story on zones of high seismicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dominguez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fired clay bricks are widely developed by focusing on the use of several wastes with the aim of obtaining lightweight materials. Despite research having provided positives experiences, most of these showed an important reduction of compression strength. This issue must be highlighted in particular, when seismic areas are considered. However, despite compression strength decreases in some cases the energy that can be absorbed by the brick might be increased. Hence, this paper tests and shows physical and mechanical properties of newly fired clays made by adding different percentages of sawdust. Results are used for calculating the response of an individual one-story house to medium intensity earthquakes. It is concluded that the use of bricks, with up to 5% sawdust added, is an ecological way for recycling these agro-wastes, while its behaviour against earthquakes performs better than other solutions, such as common perforated bricks.

  13. An Overview of Composting Based on Variable Feedstock Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Aeslina Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a biological treatment method that provides a potential sustainable way to convert food waste into organic compost. In composting, the feedstock material is an important item to ensure the success of the composting process. This paper reviewed the process of composting based on implementation different types of feedstock, namely: 1 animal waste such as cow dung, poultry litter, swine manure and chicken manure; and 2 agricultural waste such as sawdust, rice straw, bran, bagasse, banana waste and pine chip. The result for poultry litter, cow manure, swine manure, sawdust and rice straw has C/N ratio lower than 20 at final composting process which is considered as satisfactory level for compost maturity. As a conclusion, the selection of the feedstock material is based on the characteristics of the material itself and the selection of materials is important for the quality of compost.

  14. Impact of Saw Dust Application on the Distribution of Potentially Toxic Metals in Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awokunmi, Emmmanuel E

    2017-10-16

    The need to develop an approach for the reclamation of contaminated site using locally available agricultural waste has been considered. The present study investigated the application of sawdust as an effective amendment in the immobilization of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) by conducting a greenhouse experiment on soil collected from an automobile dumpsite. The amended and non-amended soil samples were analyzed for their physicochemical parameters and sequential extraction of PTMs. The results revealed that application of amendment had positive impact on the physicochemical parameters as organic matter content and cation exchange capacity increased from 12.1% to 12.8% and 16.4 to 16.8 meq/100 g respectively. However, the mobility and bioavalability of these metals was reduced as they were found to be distributed mostly in the non-exchangeable phase of soil. Therefore, application of sawdust successfully immobilized PTMs and could be applied for future studies in agricultural soil reclamation.

  15. Characterization and Production of Fuel Briquettes Made from Biomass and Plastic Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angeles Garrido

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the physical properties of briquettes produced from two different biomass feedstocks (sawdust and date palm trunk and different plastic wastes, without using any external binding agent, were investigated. The biomass feedstocks were blended with different ratios of two waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE plastics (halogen-free wire and printed circuit boards (PCBs and automotive shredder residues (ASR. The briquettes production is studied at different waste proportions (10–30%, pressures (22–67 MPa and temperatures (room–130 °C. Physical properties as density and durability rating were measured, usually increasing with temperature. Palm trunk gave better results than sawdust in most cases, due to its moisture content and the extremely fine particles that are easily obtained.

  16. Removal of organic matter from dairy industry waste water using low-cost adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, M.; Bhole, A.G. [College of Engineering, Badnera (India). Civil Engineering Department

    2002-07-01

    The present study envisages the use of cost-effective adsorbents such as fly ash, bagasse, wheat straw dust, sawdust, and coconut coir for the reduction of the TDS (total dissolved solids) from dairy industry effluent waste water. PAC (powdered activated carbon) was also used and the results were compared. Sorption data have been correlated with both the Langmuir and the Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The Freundlich static isotherm model is found applicable to all the six adsorbents for removing TDS from the dairy waste water. The order of selectivity is PAC, bagasse, fly ash, sawdust, wheat straw, coconut coir for the removal of TDS at optimum conditions. 8 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Biomass granular screw feeding: An experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Jianjun; Grace, John R. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6 T 1Z3 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    Successful feeding is critical to biomass utilization processes, but difficult due to the heterogeneity, physical properties and moisture content of the particles. The objectives of the present study were to find the mechanisms of blockage in screw feeding and to determine the effects of particle mean size (0.5-15 mm), size distribution, shape, moisture content (10-60%), density and compressibility on biomass particle feeding at room temperature. Wood pellets, sawdust, hog fuel and wood shavings were tested in a screw feeder/lock hopper system previously employed to feed sawdust into a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. Experimental results showed that large particles, wide size distributions, large bulk densities and high moisture contents generally led to larger torque requirements for screw feeding. The ''choke section'' and seal plug play important roles in determining the torque requirements. (author)

  18. COMPOSITES BASED ON SYNTHETIC POLYMERS AND WOOD WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia DUMITRESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research dedicated to synthesis and characterization of some new, ecological composite materials based on an acrylic copolymer, lignin derivative iron and chromium lignosulfonate and Salix wood sawdust. The FT-IR analysis put into evidence the complex interactions, by esterification and etherification reactions, between the organic functional hydroxyl groups of lignosulfonate and Salix sawdust (the fillers with the organic functional groups (carboxyl, ester from the structure of acrylic copolymer (the matrix and explain the improved properties of the new composites. The proposed new composites are in agreement with the research in the field of recycling lignocellulosic waste to obtain new ecological, environmental friendly materials.

  19. The effect of organic mulch amendments on the physical and chemical properties and revegetation success of a saline-sodic minespoil from central Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, A.H.; Sheridan, G.J.; Pearce, A.B.; Mulligan, D.R. [University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld. (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    Saline-sodic clay minespoil materials excavated during open-cut coal mining in central Queensland, Australia, pose significant challenges for revegetation, particularly where suitable topsoil capping is not available. We examined the ability of sawdust or straw mulch amendments to ameliorate the adverse properties of these minespoils and improve the success of revegetation efforts. In laboratory studies, mulch application improved infiltration, increased soil moisture retention and reduced surface crust strength. In the field, mulches incorporated to a depth of 0.15 m at application rates of at least 20 t/ha straw or 80 t/ha sawdust were needed to mitigate against capillary rise of salts during drying cycles and support satisfactory vegetation cover. Further research is needed to determine whether improvements are maintained beyond the 4-year trial period reported here.

  20. Optimization of manganese peroxidase production from Schizophyllum sp. F17 in solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Yang, Bing; Yang, Yang; Jia, Rong

    2014-03-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP), a crucial enzyme in lignin degradation, has wide potential applications in environmental protection. However, large-scale industrial application of this enzyme is limited due to several factors primarily related to cost and availability. Special attention has been paid to the production of MnP from inexpensive sources, such as lignocellulosic residues, using solid-state fermentation (SSF) systems. In the present study, a suitable SSF medium for the production of MnP by Schizophyllum sp. F17 from agro-industrial residues has been optimized. The mixed solid medium, comprising pine sawdust, rice straw, and soybean powder at a ratio of 0.52:0.15:0.33, conferred a maximum enzyme activity of 11.18 U/g on the sixth day of SSF. The results show that the use of wastes such as pine sawdust and rice straw makes the enzyme production more economical as well as helps solve environmental problems.

  1. Use of Cellulose-Containing Fillers in Composites with Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna LAKA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The composites, containing recycled polypropylene and fillers, obtained from different lignocellulosics by the thermocatalytic destruction method, were investigated. Birch sawdust, newsprint wastes, cotton residues and wood bleached sulphate pulp were used as raw materials for obtaining fillers. The indices of mechanical properties (tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, deformation at break, shear modulus, toughness, twisting moment of the composites' samples were determined. It has been found that the obtained composites have relatively good mechanical properties. Better results were obtained, using fillers from sawdust and wood pulp. After treating the fillers with rapeseed oil, their water vapour sorption and water retention value (WRV decreased. In this case, the strength of the composites was higher.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.484

  2. Optical Analysis of Fractional Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Koleda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of fractal particles, like sawdust or dust, by sieve method is rather difficult in terms of the measuring system and time-consuming at samples evaluation. The results give only partial information of the particle dimensions in an examinable sample. Modern optical methods of fractal particles analysis in the industry complexly acquaint with the sample; they provide information about the particle rate and size, average, maximum and minimum occurring dimension, particle surface, and shape composition of a sample. In our experiment were evaluated wood particles with IP camera IQEye 702. Camera captures the scene with sawdust and send video via ethernet. In program Matlab is in time captured in this video one picture, which is further processed and in it are found measured particles. Subsequently are measured required parameters of captured particles.

  3. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Ortega-Martínez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill is the world's second most important vegetable. In Mexico, the crop gains economic and social relevance by the generation of foreign exchange and jobs, the production systems of this vegetable have been diversified in order to increase performance, incorporating innovative technologies such as plastic covers, drop irrigation and hydroponics. One of the main factors determining the success of the crop is the substrate, being the medium in which roots were developed which have great influence on the growth and development. In thisstudy, we evaluated during the crop season 2008-2009, the effect of substrate: pine sawdust, compost of sheep manure, agricultural land and red volcanic rock, on growth and yield of tomato. The experimental design used was randomized complete block with four repetitions and ten treatments were evaluated results from a combination of substrates in a volume of 1:1, each experimental unit consisted of four plants, the studied variables were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA using the statistical package Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. The genotype used was Sun 7705. Significant differences between substrates, composting with sawdust mixing affected to a greater response for the variables height 4.61 m, 2.1 cm thick of stem, the fruits of greater weight 107.8 g, yield per plant and 4 kg and 25 kg/m-2. However, the number of flowers and clusters was higher in the sawdust substrate, so the composting with sawdust mixture may be a viable option for greenhouse tomato production.

  4. Shaw Air Force Base Infrastructure Project Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    constructed in the 1940s and is currently operated by a contractor. Five lift stations move the wastewater from the main cantonment and housing...is present southeast of the scarp. The two aquifers are not hydraulically connected due to the presence of the fine-grained Sawdust Landing...trucks, heavy trucks, buses, engines, and motorcycles . Nonroad sources are aircraft, Affected Environment EA for Infrastructure at Shaw AFB 3-27

  5. Manufacturing Hardwood Dimension Products Directly from Logs: Potential Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Wenjie Lin; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    When a hardwood log is sawn into lumber, over 16 percent of the volume is converted to sawdust. Furthermore, 12 percent of the log is converted to slabs and 17 percent is converted to edging and trimming pieces, all of which are chipped. Hence, less than 55 percent of the log is actually converted to lumber. Lumber must meet the requirements of specific NHLA grades and...

  6. Nitrogen transformations during co-composting of herbal residues, spent mushrooms, and sludge*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-lei; Liu, Ping; Luo, Yan-zhang; Tian, Guang-ming; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge composting is an important environmental measure. The reduction of nitrogen loss is a critical aim of compost maturation, and the addition of spent mushrooms (SMs) and herbal residues (HRs) may be helpful. To evaluate the nitrogen transformations during co-composting of sewage sludge, SMs, and HRs, windrows were constructed in a residual processing plant. Dewatered sewage sludge and sawdust were mixed with SMs and HRs at two proportions on a fresh weight basis, 3:1:1 (sewage sludge:sawdust:SMs or HRs) and 3:1:2 (sewage sludge:sawdust:SMs or HRs). The mixture was then composted for 40 d. Changes in the physicochemical characteristic of sewage sludge during composting were recorded and analyzed. Addition of SMs and HRs accelerated the temperature rise, mediating a quicker composting maturation time compared to control. The addition also resulted in lower nitrogen losses and higher nitrate nitrogen levels in the compost products. Among the windrows, SM and HR addition improved the nitrogen status. The total nitrogen (TN) and nitrogen losses for SM and HR treatments ranged from 22.45 to 24.99 g/kg and from 10.2% to 22.4% over the control values (18.66–21.57 g/kg and 40.5%–64.2%, respectively). The pile with the highest proportion of SMs (3:1:2 (sewage sludge:sawdust:SMs)) had the highest TN level and the lowest nitrogen loss. The germination index (GI) values for all samples at maturity were above 80%, demonstrating optimal maturity. The addition of SMs and HRs augments sewage composting. PMID:20593514

  7. Phytotoxicity Evolution of Biowastes Undergoing Aerobic Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, M. R.; C. Matsinhe; Belo, S.; M. J. Quina; Quinta-Ferreira, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study is mainly focused on the phytotoxicity improvement within five to six weeks of thermophilic composting of biowastes. Two sets of experiments were conducted involving both sawdust and rice husk as bulking agents, which were composted in self-heating reactors with potato-peel industrial waste and grass clippings as organic materials. The main variables observed over time were temperature, oxygen uptake rate (OUR), biodegradability, and germination index (GI). The effects of compo...

  8. Evaluation of two composts for the improvement of crop yield using tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) as test crop

    OpenAIRE

    Fawole Oluyemisi B.; Alori Elizabeth T.; Ojo Oluwatoyin A.

    2016-01-01

    In search of a more environmentally friendly alternative to the use of chemical fertilizers, a study was conducted to evaluate the use of compost for improved crop productivity. We compared the succession of microorganisms in the compost heaps using hot bed method of composting. They contained grass clippings, sawdust, NPK fertilizer, ashes, corn cobs, bean chaff, vegetable stalks, newspaper shreds and soil arranged in layers in a round structure. Poultry d...

  9. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) ...

  10. Numerical prediction of the chemical composition of gas products at biomass combustion and co-combustion in a domestic boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Radomiak Henryk; Bala-Litwiniak Agnieszka; Zajemska Monika; Musiał Dorota

    2017-01-01

    In recent years the numerical modelling of biomass combustion has been successfully applied to determine the combustion mechanism and predict its products. In this study the influence of the addition of waste glycerin in biomass wood pellets on the chemical composition of exhaust gases has been investigated. The pellets have been prepared from spruceand pine wood sawdust without and with addition of waste glycerin. The waste glycerol is a undesirable by-product of biodiesel transesterificatio...

  11. dynamic modeling of natural convection solar energy flat plate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    exposed to solar radiation, and was not given further black painting. The glazing material was clear window glass, 0.004m thick, 1.225m long, 0.95m wide, with 0.94m of the width exposed to solar radiation. The insulation material was sawdust obtained from a sawmill at Nsukka, Nigeria. The dimensions of the collector and ...

  12. Nanocarbon materials obtained of coniferous trees in the composition of black powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkhair Mansurov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Obtained black powders from coniferous wood. The carbon content of up to 90% can be used in warfare, pyrotechnics and industries. In the Republic of Kazakhstan does not produce gunpowder. In the energy-intensive materials laboratory, developed industrial black powders (ordinary, composed of components produced in the republic of Kazakhstan. Sulfur, activated carbon, based on apricot seeds and rice husks, softwood sawdust, which have lower costs than their foreign counterparts.

  13. Compost and Crude Humic Substances Produced from Selected Wastes and Their Effects on Zea mays L. Nutrient Uptake and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivell, Perumal; Susilawati, Kasim; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad

    2013-01-01

    Production of agriculture and timber commodities leads generation of enormous quantity of wastes. Improper disposal of these agroindustrial wastes pollutes the environment. This problem could be reduced by adding value to them. Therefore, a study was carried out to analyse and compare the nutrients content of RS, RH, SD, and EFB of composts and crude humic substances; furthermore, their effect on growth, dry matter production, and nutrient uptake for Zea mays L., and selected soil chemical properties were evaluated. Standard procedures were used to analyze humic acids (HA), crude fulvic acids (CFA), crude humin (CH), soil, dry matter production and nutrient uptake. Sawdust and RS compost matured at 42 and 47 days, respectively, while RH and EFB composts were less matured at 49th day of composting. Rice straw compost had higher ash, N, P, CEC, HA, K, and Fe contents with lower organic matter, total organic carbon, and C/N and C/P ratios. The HA of sawdust compost showed higher carbon, carboxylic, K, and Ca contents compared to those of RS, RH, and EFB. Crude FA of RS compost showed highest pH, total K, Ca, Mg, and Na contents. Crude humin from RS compost had higher contents of ash, N, P, and CEC. Rice straw was superior in compost, CFA, and CH, while sawdust compost was superior in HA. Application of sawdust compost significantly increased maize plants' diameter, height, dry matter production, N, P, and cations uptake. It also reduced N, P, and K based chemical fertilizer use by 90%. Application of CH and the composts evaluated in this study could be used as an alternative for chemical fertilizers in maize cultivation. PMID:24319353

  14. Compost and Crude Humic Substances Produced from Selected Wastes and Their Effects on Zea mays L. Nutrient Uptake and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Palanivell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of agriculture and timber commodities leads generation of enormous quantity of wastes. Improper disposal of these agroindustrial wastes pollutes the environment. This problem could be reduced by adding value to them. Therefore, a study was carried out to analyse and compare the nutrients content of RS, RH, SD, and EFB of composts and crude humic substances; furthermore, their effect on growth, dry matter production, and nutrient uptake for Zea mays L., and selected soil chemical properties were evaluated. Standard procedures were used to analyze humic acids (HA, crude fulvic acids (CFA, crude humin (CH, soil, dry matter production and nutrient uptake. Sawdust and RS compost matured at 42 and 47 days, respectively, while RH and EFB composts were less matured at 49th day of composting. Rice straw compost had higher ash, N, P, CEC, HA, K, and Fe contents with lower organic matter, total organic carbon, and C/N and C/P ratios. The HA of sawdust compost showed higher carbon, carboxylic, K, and Ca contents compared to those of RS, RH, and EFB. Crude FA of RS compost showed highest pH, total K, Ca, Mg, and Na contents. Crude humin from RS compost had higher contents of ash, N, P, and CEC. Rice straw was superior in compost, CFA, and CH, while sawdust compost was superior in HA. Application of sawdust compost significantly increased maize plants’ diameter, height, dry matter production, N, P, and cations uptake. It also reduced N, P, and K based chemical fertilizer use by 90%. Application of CH and the composts evaluated in this study could be used as an alternative for chemical fertilizers in maize cultivation.

  15. Effect of substrate type on the field performance and chemical composition of highbush blueberry cv.Patriot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. OCHMIAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of a 3-year study was to compare the effect of substrate type (peat, sawdust and cocoa husk on the yield, fruit quality, general and phenolic composition, and antioxidant activity of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cultivar Patriot. The largest berries and the highest yield were obtained from bushes grown in sawdust (3.661 kg ha-1. Berries from bushes grown in cocoa husk had the highest content of N (14.25 g kg-1, P (1.17 g kg-1, K (6.51 g kg-1, and Zn (8.78 mg kg-1, as well as P (1.26 g kg-1 and K (6.99 g kg-1 in the leaves. Both the leaves and fruits of plants grown in sawdust had higher Cu concentrations (3.89 and 3.01 mg kg-1. Berries from sawdust-grown bushes had the highest soluble solids (13.1% and total sugar (10.80 g 100 g-1 content. The fruits obtained from peat-grown bushes exhibited enhanced antioxidant capacity (38.6 ìmol Trolox g-1. However, the highest levels of phenolics were noted in berries produced in the cocoa husk (208.29 mg 100 g-1 and peat-bed system (174.07 mg 100 g-1. Regardless of the type of substrate used, the following phenols were identified (in descending order: anthocyanins>chlorogenic acid>flavonols. Delphinidin-glycosides were the most abundant pigments, and cyanidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin-glycosides were also detected. Total flavonol content (quercetin derivatives and kaempferol 3-rutinoside was not significantly affected by the type of substrate.;

  16. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide: New Hampshire Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    including tree stumps (whole or chipped), trees, tree limbs (whole or chipped), bark, sawdust, chips, scraps, slabs , millings, and shavings. Wood...waste tracking requirements (NHCAR Env-Hw 1105.06) [Added March 2003; Citation Revised March 2010]. (NOTE: See HW.480.22.NH. for applicability... prefabricated concrete that are securely fastened together and filled with stone ballast and which is typically used to support a structure in the

  17. Permeable Reactive Barrier: Technology Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Zeolites have been widely used for a number of water treatment applications, from removing heavy metals in wastewater treatment plants to the treatment of...number of wastewater treatment applications. Organophilic clays exhibit a synergistic effect when used as pretreatment to remove oil and grease prior...investigators have installed biowalls filled with a variety of waste cellulose solids (e.g., sawdust and mulch) for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated

  18. Analysis of the gamma radiation effects in the composite of polyurethane derived from castor oil and natural fibers; Analise dos efeitos da radiacao gama no composito de poliuretano derivado de mamona com serragem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienen, Victor D.; Todt, Matheus L.; Capellari, Giovanni S.; Azevedo, Elaine C. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Neto, Salvador C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Composite of Polyurethane derived from castor oil and natural fibers are obtained from renewable raw material, low cost, and for not assaulting nature. This paper analyzes the effects of gamma radiation on composite polyurethane derived from castor with sawdust irradiated with gamma radiation of 25 kGy . It was held from 3 tips bending tests and micrograph by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that gamma radiation decreases the breakdown voltage and the micrograph of the fracture indicates brittle fracture occurred. (author)

  19. Compost and crude humic substances produced from selected wastes and their effects on Zea mays L. nutrient uptake and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivell, Perumal; Susilawati, Kasim; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad

    2013-01-01

    Production of agriculture and timber commodities leads generation of enormous quantity of wastes. Improper disposal of these agroindustrial wastes pollutes the environment. This problem could be reduced by adding value to them. Therefore, a study was carried out to analyse and compare the nutrients content of RS, RH, SD, and EFB of composts and crude humic substances; furthermore, their effect on growth, dry matter production, and nutrient uptake for Zea mays L., and selected soil chemical properties were evaluated. Standard procedures were used to analyze humic acids (HA), crude fulvic acids (CFA), crude humin (CH), soil, dry matter production and nutrient uptake. Sawdust and RS compost matured at 42 and 47 days, respectively, while RH and EFB composts were less matured at 49th day of composting. Rice straw compost had higher ash, N, P, CEC, HA, K, and Fe contents with lower organic matter, total organic carbon, and C/N and C/P ratios. The HA of sawdust compost showed higher carbon, carboxylic, K, and Ca contents compared to those of RS, RH, and EFB. Crude FA of RS compost showed highest pH, total K, Ca, Mg, and Na contents. Crude humin from RS compost had higher contents of ash, N, P, and CEC. Rice straw was superior in compost, CFA, and CH, while sawdust compost was superior in HA. Application of sawdust compost significantly increased maize plants' diameter, height, dry matter production, N, P, and cations uptake. It also reduced N, P, and K based chemical fertilizer use by 90%. Application of CH and the composts evaluated in this study could be used as an alternative for chemical fertilizers in maize cultivation.

  20. Comparing growth of ponderosa pine in two growing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    I compared growth of container ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings grown in a 1:1 (v:v) Sphagnum peat moss:coarse vermiculite medium (P:V) and a 7:3 (v:v) Sphagnum peat moss:Douglas-fir sawdust medium (P:S) at three different irrigation regimes. By using exponential fertilization techniques, I was able to supply seedlings with similar amounts...

  1. Potential of Compost with Some Added Supplementary Materials on the Development of Agaricus blazei Murill

    OpenAIRE

    Horm, Visal; Ohga, Shoji; 大賀, 祥治

    2008-01-01

    Potential of compost on the development of Agaricus blazei Murill was evaluated on various compost concentrations with two kinds of supplementary materials. Sugarcane compost as well as cattle compost added with sawdust and rice bran was influential substrates on mycelial growth and fruit body development. The fast spawn running was realized on cattle compost concentrations, but primordial formation and fruit body development took a short period on sugarcane compost concentrations. All cattle...

  2. SHS synthesis of Si-SiC composite powders using Mg and reactants from industrial waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanadee, Tawat

    2017-11-01

    Si-SiC composite powders were synthesized by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) using reactants of fly ash-based silica, sawdust-based activated carbon, and magnesium. Fly ash-based silica and sawdust-based activated carbon were prepared from coal mining fly ash and Para rubber-wood sawdust, respectively. The work investigated the effects of the synthesis atmosphere (air and Ar) on the phase and morphology of the SHS products. The SHS product was leached by a two-step acid leaching processes, to obtain the Si-SiC composite powder. The SHS product and SHS product after leaching were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The results indicated that the SHS product synthesized in air consisted of Si, SiC, MgO, and intermediate phases (SiO2, Mg, Mg2SiO4, Mg2Si), whereas the SHS product synthesized in Ar consisted of Si, SiC, MgO and a little Mg2SiO4. The SiC content in the leached-SHS product was higher when Ar was used as the synthesis atmosphere. As well as affecting the purity, the synthesis atmospheres also affected the average crystalline sizes of the products. The crystalline size of the product synthesized in Ar was smaller than that of the product synthesized in air. All of the results showed that fly ash and sawdust could be effective waste-material reactants for the synthesis of Si-SiC composite powders.

  3. Loglines. January - February 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    will provide heat for the warehouse areas. The stoves burn pellets made from sawdust and heat water that will be pumped through tubes in the...DLA Training, part of DLA Human Resources Services in Columbus, Ohio. DLA corporate interns are brought on board in February and July, and there are...consists of service ribbons for military members, lapel pins for civilian employees and a unit streamer for the DLA ag, Brad Bunn, DLA Human Resources

  4. Detoxification and Disposal of Hazardous Organic Chemicals by Processing in Supercritical Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-06

    40 Ta1ble I0 - Results at Critical (647K; 22MN/M.) ....... ............. .. 62 T-jble 11 - Results of Reforming Maple Sawdust at 3770.C...Advisory Board and the technical staff of the Stellite Division of the Cabot Corporation have provided useful advice and technical support to MODAR ,in...business objectives are consistent with good technical practice. A unit at this scale will allow us to pin (town the fluid mechanical aspects of the process

  5. East Europe Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-11

    their crop yields to be high. At state farms, barn floors are covered with sawdust . The cattle pens are only 160 cm long because someone once figured...We are specialized in the manufacture of passive electronic components such as resistors, condensors, filters, switches, pin -and-socket connectors...draft board and opportunity to observe the behavior and attitudes of the conscripts and then their indoctrination gives much food for thought. Youth

  6. Growth evaluation of Lentinula edodes in solid medium cultures for mycelium production as inoculum

    OpenAIRE

    Villegas E Valeska; Pérez Ana Milena; Arredondo Clara

    2007-01-01

    Shitake (Lentinula edodes) Pegler jumbo strain growth was evaluated in different solid mediums and growth substrates for spawn production. Mycelium growth was tested in three culture mediums (MYA, OMYA, PDYA) at two pHs (5, 5.5), using two eucalyptus sawdust percentages (0.3%, 0.2%). Analysing variance revealed significant differences in culture medium (P0.05). The liquid inoculation technique was used for evaluating mushroom spawn production using five different combinations of eucalyptus sa...

  7. Tetraethylene glycol thermooxidation and the influence of certain compounds relevant to conserved archaeological wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Nordvig; Egsgaard, Helge; Hvilsted, Søren

    2012-01-01

    and formic acid. The rate of TEG degradation was significantly decreased by approximately 10 mmol/l KI, FeCl3, Cu(CH3COO)2, MnO2 and CuSO4, small amounts of fresh oak wood sawdust and gypsum-containing scrapings from the wood surface of the Vasa ship in Stockholm. Thus certain salts and natural components...

  8. Investigation of mechanical properties of briquette product of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research investigated the relaxed densities of biomass briquettes produced from combination of sawdust and charcoal. Cassava starch gel and orange waste were used as binder for briquetting. Five sizes; 0.2 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.6 mm, 0.8 mm and 1.0 mm and mixing ratios 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10 of biomass ...

  9. The kinetics of chromium(VI) adsorption from water on some natural materials

    OpenAIRE

    Šćiban Marina B.; Klašnja Mile T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the kinetics of chromium(VI) adsorption by wood sawdust, pulp, and Kraft lignin. In our previous works we determined adsorption efficiency of these adsorbents. In this paper we focused our attention on the influence of contact time on chromium(VI) adsorption from water by the same adsorbents. The analytical data were approached from the following kinetic models: First-order kinetic model, Parabolic diffusion model, Elovich model, and Modified Freundlich model. Elo...

  10. Gasification of wood in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, L.C. de; Marti, T.; Frankenhaeuser, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A first series of gasification experiments with our fluidized bed gasifier was performed using clean sawdust as fuel. The installation and the analytical systems were tested in a parametric study in which gasification temperature and equivalence ratio were varied. The data acquired will serve to establish the differences between the gasification of clean wood and the gasification of Altholz (scrapwood) and wood/plastics mixtures. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs., 5 refs.

  11. The effects of smoking on the nutritional qualities and shelf-life of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... burning of sawdust from different kinds of wood to simulate what is practised by ... Fresh (skin). 4.312. 4.593. Fresh (Gill). 4.255. 4.428. Freshly smoked (zero day). 2.061. 2.744. Table 3. Total coliform count (Log10 cfu/g) of smoked .... qualities of a scaly fish tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus smoked with two.

  12. Carbon source and energy harvesting optimization in solid anolyte microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunle, Ademola; Raghavan, Vijaya; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2017-07-01

    This work investigates the application of a solid anolyte microbial fuel cell (saMFC) as a long-lasting source of electricity for powering electronic devices. Broadly available biodegradable materials such as humus, cattle manure, peat moss, and sawdust are evaluated as solid anolytes. The initial comparison shows significantly higher power production in the saMFC operated using humus as compared to other solid anolytes. At the same time, power production in the humus-based saMFC is found to decline after about 40 days of operation, while the sawdust MFC demonstrates stable performance over the test period. Following this initial comparison, a combined humus - sawdust anolyte is developed to increase saMFC life span. The optimized saMFC demonstrates stable power production for over nine months. Furthermore, power production in the saMFC is maximized by using an intermittent connection to an electrical load (on/off operation) and optimizing the connection/disconnection times. These results demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing solid anolytes for developing inexpensive and long-lasting biobatteries operated on renewable carbon sources.

  13. Paddy straw as a substrate for the cultivation of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, S S; Pandey, Meera

    2011-01-01

    Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, is generally cultivated on hardwood logs or sawdust/woodchips based formulations. More than 100 million tonnes of paddy straw is being produced in India per year, and almost 50% of the straw is potentially available for growing mushrooms. In the present study an attempt was made to use paddy straw as a substrate to cultivate G. lucidim. Different proportions of paddy straw were mixed with 0, 22.5%, 45%, and 67.5% sawdust and 10% rice bran. Spawn run period, fruiting initiation period, yield, moisture content, dry recovery, and fruiting body characteristics were recorded and compared. Fructification was observed with all the substrate formulations and they did not show any significant difference in yield. The highest biological efficiency (BE) (29.9%) was observed with the combination sawdust:paddy straw:rice bran 22.5:67.5:10, followed by saw dust:paddy straw:rice bran 45:45:10 with BE 27.3%. The current study demonstrated for the first time that the cultivation of G. lucidum is possible with paddy straw as the base substrate and indicated the enormous potential of paddy straw for the cultivation of G. lucidum.

  14. KECEPATAN PERTUMBUHAN KAPANG (Trichoderma harzianum Rifai A1300-F006 DAN AKTIVITAS SELULASE DALAM PENANGANANAN SAMPAH SELULOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pebriana Nasution

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of waste in urban areas reached 0.5 kg/person /day and 80% consisted of organic waste, one of many types of waste mostly generated is household waste. Generally, this household organic waste containing structural compoundsuch us long chains of cellulose.Therefore, the use of microorganism that can produce cellulase is very important to reduce the weight of garbage. Trichoderma harzianumis known as the most potential mold compared to other molds in converting cellulose. Sawdust and bran contain cellulose and hemicellulose that can be used as the main component in the mediafor its growth. The objectives of this study was: To find an effective ratio between sawdust and bran as growth mediafor Trichoderma harzianum, To know the cellulase activity of Trichoderma harzianum. This study has been conducted from April 2015 to Juli 2015 in the Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Andalas. The results of this study concluded that an effective ratio between sawdust and bran as a growth media for Trichoderma harzianumwhich degraded organic waste was 50:50. The highest activity of cellulase in degrading organic waste is 100%.

  15. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-12-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) were tested for their efficacy in oyster mushroom production. Pure culture of oyster mushroom was obtained from Mycology laboratory, Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, Addis Ababa University. The pure culture was inoculated on potato dextrose agar for spawn preparation. Then, the spawn containing sorghum was inoculated with the fungal culture for the formation of fruiting bodies on the agricultural wastes. The oyster mushroom cultivation was undertaken under aseptic conditions, and the growth and development of mushroom were monitored daily. Results of the study revealed that oyster mushroom can grow on cotton seed, paper waste, sawdust and wheat straw, with varying growth performances. The highest biological and economic yield, as well as the highest percentage of biological efficiency of oyster mushroom was obtained from cotton seed, while the least was from sawdust. The study recommends cotton seed, followed by paper waste as suitable substrates for the cultivation of oyster mushroom. It also suggests that there is a need for further investigation on various aspects of oyster mushroom cultivation in Ethiopia to promote the industry.

  16. Co-combustion of bituminous coal and biomass fuel blends: Thermochemical characterization, potential utilization and environmental advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Xudong; Qi, Cuicui

    2016-10-01

    The thermochemical characteristics and gaseous trace pollutant behaviors during co-combustion medium-to-low ash bituminous coal with typical biomass residues (corn stalk and sawdust) were investigated. Lowering of ignition index, burnout temperature and activation energy in the major combustion stage are observed in the coal/biomass blends. The blending proportion of 20% and 30% are regarded as the optimum blends for corn stalk and sawdust, respectively, in according the limitations of heating value, activation energy, flame stability and base/acid ratio. The reductions of gaseous As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) were 4.5%, 7.8%, 6.3%, 9.8%, 9.4% and 17.4%, respectively, when co-combustion coal with 20% corn stalk. The elevated capture of trace elements were found in coal/corn stalk blend, while the coal/sawdust blend has the better PAHs control potential. The reduction mechanisms of gaseous trace pollutants were attributed to the fuel property, ash composition and relative residence time during combustion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Is the biochar produced from sewage sludge a good quality solid fuel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulka Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sewage sludge torrefaction temperature on fuel properties was investigated. Non-lignocellulosic waste thermal treatment experiment was conducted within 1 h residence time, under the following temperatures: 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300°C. Sawdust was used as lignocellulosic reference material. The following parameters of biochar have been measured: moisture, higher heating value, ash content, volatile compounds and sulfur content. Sawdust biochar has been confirmed to be a good quality solid fuel. High ash and sulfur content may be an obstacle for biochar energy reuse. The best temperature profile for sawdust torrefaction and fuel production for 1 h residence time was 220°C. At this temperature the product contained 84% of initial energy while decreased the mass by 25%. The best temperature profile for sewage sludge was 240°C. The energy residue was 91% and the mass residue was 85%. Higher temperatures in both cases caused excessive mass and energy losses.

  18. Treatment of metal-contaminated wastewater: a comparison of low-cost biosorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akunwa, N K; Muhammad, M N; Akunna, J C

    2014-12-15

    This study aimed to identify some optimum adsorption conditions for the use of low-cost adsorbent, seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum), sawdust and reed plant (Phragmites australis) root, in the treatment of metal contaminated wastewater for the removal of cadmium, chromium and lead. The effect of pH on the absorption capacity of each of these biosorbents was found to be significant and dependent on the metal being removed. Post-adsorption FTIR analysis showed significant binding activities at the nitro NO groups site in all biosorbents, especially for lead. Competitive metal binding was found to have possibly affected the adsorption capacity for chromium by A. nodosum more than it affected sawdust and P. australis root. Adsorption is believed to take place mainly by ion exchange particularly at low pH values. P. australis root exhibited the highest adsorption for chromium at pH 2, cadmium at pH 10 and lead at pH 7. A. nodosum seaweed species demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity of the three biosorbents used in the study, for cadmium at pH 7 and for lead at pH 2. Sawdust proved to be an efficient biosorbent for lead removal only at pH 7 and 10. No significant effect of temperature on adsorption capacity was observed, particularly for cadmium and lead removal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The RDF/SRF torrefaction: An effect of temperature on characterization of the product - Carbonized Refuse Derived Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białowiec, Andrzej; Pulka, Jakub; Stępień, Paweł; Manczarski, Piotr; Gołaszewski, Janusz

    2017-12-01

    The influence of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF)/Solid Recovery Fuel (SRF) torrefaction temperature on product characteristic was investigated. RDF/SRF thermal treatment experiment was conducted with 1-h residence time, under given temperatures: 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300°C. Sawdust was used as reference material. The following parameters of torrefaction char from sawdust and Carbonized Refuse Derived Fuel (CRDF) from RDF/SRF were measured: moisture, calorific value, ash content, volatile compounds and sulfur content. Sawdust biochar was confirmed as a good quality solid fuel, due to significant fuel property increase. The study also indicated that RDF torrefaction reduced moisture significantly from 22.9% to 1.4% and therefore increased lower heating value (LHV) from 19.6 to 25.3MJ/kg. Results suggest that RDF torrefaction may be a good method for increasing attractiveness of RDF as an energy source, and it could help unify RDF properties on the market. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of the lignocellulosic components of biomass residues for biorefinery opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, M K D; Schmidt, F L; Ferreira, M M C

    2015-11-01

    The present study aims to identify the renewable resources available in Brazil such as açai seed, coconut husks, coffee husks, rice husks, eucalyptus sawdust, grass, soy peel, bamboo, banana stems and banana stalks. To identify such renewable energy sources, samples were examined for their physical and chemical characteristics using X-ray diffraction (XRD), proximate and ultimate analyses, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), calorific value determination, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, high-pH anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC-PAD) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). Among the biomasses, açai and coffee exhibited higher total sugar content, 67.70% and 62.55%, respectively. Sawdust exhibited low ash, along with the highest calorific value and lignin content. The highest glucose contents were observed in bamboo (44.65%) and sawdust (38.80%). The maximum yield for the bioproducts levulinic acid (LA), formic acid (FA) and furfural were estimated; açai exhibited the highest yield of LA and FA, while coffee exhibited the best furfural yield. All of these properties indicate that the residues are potential candidates for bioenergy production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pneumatic conveying of wood powder by using a steam-jet ejector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, S.; Bjoern, K. [University of Technolgy, Luleaa (Sweden). Division of Energy Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Wood powder and sawdust are two fuels which will be tested in a pressurized cyclone-gasifier. The gasifier will be a part of combined cycle power plant where a gas turbine is run by the product gases from the gasifier and a steam boiler will use the exhaust gas from the turbine. To inject the fuel into the cyclone, a steam-jet ejector seems to be appropriate due to its simplicity and the possibility of using the steam produced by the boiler for feeding of the fuel. Three types of wood powder with different particle-size distribution have been tested in different ejector geometries. The results show that the steam-jet ejector is suitable as a feeding pump for wood powder and sawdust. For commercial wood powder fuel with particle size below 1 mm, a powder to steam mass flow ratio of about 25 and with coarser sawdust a mass flow ratio of at least 10 can be reached. The pressure gain required to overcome the pressure drop in the cyclone gasifier can be achieved. The relative pressure gain seems to be independent of the size distribution of the particles. (Author)

  2. Effects of Modifiers on Physiological Metabolism of Lolium perenne Seedlings in Diesel-Polluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pot experiment for single-factor with diesel oil polluted soil and the pot experiment for three-factor orthogonal with sawdust-ammonium nitrate-monopotassium phosphate under diesel oil polluted soil with salt stress, were performed to analyze the activity of antioxidant enzymes and chlorophyll content in Lolium perenne seedlings, and to explore the physiological response of L. perenne seedlings under diesel oil polluted soil and its regulations. The results showed that, soil diesel pollution significantly decreased the biomass. Compared with control, activity of superoxide dismutases(SOD in leaf decreased significantly at 0.3% and 0.9% soil diesel pollution, peroxidases (POD and catalase(CAT in leaf decreased significantly at 0.6% and 0.9% soil diesel pollution, the root SOD activity increased significantly at 0.9% diesel concentration while the root POD activity decreased significantly at 0.6% and 0.9% soil diesel pollution. As for the salinity soil polluted by diesel oil, the activity of POD and CAT in leaf increased significantly at 10% volume fraction of sawdust, and the content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b increased significantly as well. Meanwhile, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b content increased significantly at 0.3 g·kg-1 amount of ammonium nitrate. Thereby, sawdust and ammonium nitrate addition could effectively improve physiological metabolic of L. perenne seedlings.

  3. Perfomances de reproduction de l'escargot géant africain Archachatina marginata en captivité au Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchoumboue, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive and Growth Performances of African Giant Snail Archachatina marginata in Captivity in Cameroon. A study was carried out in the University of Dschang situated in the Soudano-Guinean Western highland of Cameroon with the aim of evaluating the reproductive performances of Archachatina marginata in captivity. Seventy-two adult snails were used as parent stock. Eggs were incubated in two types of boxes (cement blocks and plastic containers with four types of substrates (sand, loose soil, Eucalyptus robusta wood sawdust and Mansonia altisima wood sawdust. Results obtained show that, under the local conditions, A. marginata starts laying eggs from 13 months of age with an average weight of 83.90 ± 11.22 g. It lays 1 to 10 yellow or white eggs at depth up to 12.2 cm. Yellow eggs (1.58 ± 0.49 g are significantly (p≤ 0.05 heavier than white ones (1.38 ± 0.21 g. The incubation period and the hatch rate vary independently from the eggs color from 37 to 93 (mean= 60.62 ± 11.16 days and 0 to 100% (mean= 74.04%. These two parameters are also significantly (P≤ 0.01 influenced by both the type of boxes and the substrates for incubation. The plastic boxes and loose soil substrate seem to suit better for incubation compared to cement blocks and to sand and wood sawdust respectively.

  4. Experimental study of admixture on soil's physical and mechanical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zihong; Li, Tangyong; Yu, Dongke; Tang, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Li, Zhaochen; He, Dan

    2017-08-01

    Earth building is a traditional architectural form. With respect to environment protection, low cost, convenient advantages, its practical value is recognizing carefully. Due to poor mechanical properties and durability of earth, the development of earth building has been prevented. This experiment selects two kinds of soil. Sawdust and straw serve as admixture. More than 300 specimens have been performed to verify the effects of various factors on soil's physical and mechanical characteristics. Some useful characteristics are acquired by the experiment, such as soil's optimal moisture content, maximum dry density, optimal length of straw and contraction ratio. Testing the influence of admixture on soil's strength and deformation, this experiment shows that mixing straw and sawdust reduce soil's compressive and tensile strength. However, it may reduce soil's contraction ratio. Considering the influence of admixture on soil's contraction and strength, when soil 1 mixes with 0.1% sawdust, its contraction ratio decreases obviously and strength decreases slightly. It is a good choice according to the experiments.

  5. Recycling of Date-Palm Fiber to Produce Pleurotus Cornucopiae Var. Citrinopileatus Mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Nadhim Owaid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some local available organic matters, which are including wheat straw (Triticum aestivum, sawdust, and fiber of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L., were used for growing and cultivating of bright yellow oyster mushroom Pleurotus cornucopiae var. citrinopileatus. The possibility of using date palm fiber (in mixtures with other organic residues as a substrate for the cultivation and production of fruiting bodies of P. cornucopiae var. citrinopileatus was investigated. This mushroom is capable of biorecycling and utilization of some mixtures of lignocellulosic substrates successfully, especially the mixture S3 (50% wheat straw, 30% sawdust, and 20% date palm fiber. The lower mycelia completion time was 17 days, that shown in bags of the S3 substrate. Date-palm fiber substrate exhibited best growth intensity level (moderate significantly (p<0.05. The total yield and biological efficiency percent recorded approx. 90 g and 23% on the S3 substrate respectively, as a higher percent significantly (p<0.05, while sawdust substrate alone was an unsuitable medium for cultivation and production of this mushroom. Finally, the use of date-palm fibers in mixtures is usefulness in producing a fresh edible and medicinal mushroom.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-5, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2016, page: 56-65

  6. Evaluation of some natural water-insoluble cellulosic material as lost circulation control additives in water-based drilling fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Alsabagh

    2015-12-01

    In this work, three natural water-insoluble cellulosic materials; peanut hulls, bagasse and sawdust were investigated as lost circulation control materials. One hundred and eight different LCM samples made of various materials were tested with mud. The experiments were conducted in a permeability plugging apparatus (PPA at a differential pressure of 100 psi and 300 psi, using 10, 60 and 90 ceramic discs. The performance of each LCM sample was determined based on the amount of spurt loss and total fluid loss of the mud according to the American Petroleum Institute (API standard. The obtained results showed that, the amount of the fluid loss depends on the LCM material, concentration and size distribution, testing results show that, the peanut gives the best results among the bagasse and sawdust, especially fine size which exhibited better results in the filtration characteristics due to the better filling properties of this size. Peanut hulls, bagasse and sawdust show a slight effect on the rheological properties of the mud. The results were discussed on light of particle size distribution.

  7. Evaluasi Kuat Tumpu Alat Sambung Baut pada Papan WPC dari Limbah Sengon dan Plastik HDPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhi Arnandha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood Plastic Composite (WPC is wood based material that been produce by mixing sawdust as main composition and plastic polymer as bonding agent. Nowadays, WPC board already been produced in Indonesia using Sengon sawdust and recycle HDPE plastic. Sengon sawdust was used as WPC since its availability from plywood production waste, moreover HDPE plastic considered had higher strength and more rigid than PET plastic. WPC occasionally being used as non structural material, moreover from previous study about mechanical properties of WPC, it was found that WPC Sengon has high shear strength around 25 – 30 MPa. These lead that WPC Sengon had a potential used as shear wall sheathing, thus additional research need to be conducted in order to study the type of bolt and diameter of the bolt can be used for these shear wall. This study aimed to investigate the dowel bearing of bolt using full hole method based on ASTM D5764 with type and bolt diameter as specimen variation. Two types of bolt were used in this study; stainless bolt and standard bolt with diameter each of 6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm and 12 mm. According to ANOVA, there was insignificant result between stainless bolt and standard one, but there was significant result based on diameter of the bolt. Hereafter, it can be recommended the used of 10 mm diameter of bolt for structural purpose with dowel bearing strength around 67 – 70 MPa.

  8. High quality fuel gas from biomass pyrolysis with calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baofeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lei; Sun, Laizhi; Si, Hongyu; Chen, Guanyi

    2014-03-01

    The removal of CO2 and tar in fuel gas produced by biomass thermal conversion has aroused more attention due to their adverse effects on the subsequent fuel gas application. High quality fuel gas production from sawdust pyrolysis with CaO was studied in this paper. The results of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) experiments indicate that the mass ratio of CaO to sawdust (Ca/S) remarkably affects the behavior of sawdust pyrolysis. On the basis of Py-GC/MS results, one system of a moving bed pyrolyzer coupled with a fluid bed combustor has been developed to produce high quality fuel gas. The lower heating value (LHV) of the fuel gas was above 16MJ/Nm(3) and the content of tar was under 50mg/Nm(3), which is suitable for gas turbine application to generate electricity and heat. Therefore, this technology may be a promising route to achieve high quality fuel gas for biomass utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-heating co-pyrolysis of excessive activated sludge with waste biomass: energy balance and sludge reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hong-Sheng; Jiang, Hong

    2013-04-01

    In this work, co-pyrolysis of sludge with sawdust or rice husk was investigated. The results showed that the co-pyrolysis technology could be used to dispose of the excessive activated sludge without external energy input. The results also demonstrated that no obvious synergistic effect occurred except for heat transfer in the co-pyrolysis if the co-feeding biomass and sludge had similar thermogravimetric characteristics. The experimental results combined with calculation showed that adding sawdust accounting for 49.6% of the total feedstock or rice husk accounting for 74.7% could produce bio-oil to keep the energy balance of the co-pyrolysis system and self-heat it. The sludge from solar drying bed can be further reduced by 38.6% and 35.1% by weight when co-pyrolyzed with rice husk and sawdust, respectively. This study indicates that sludge reduction without external heat supply through co-pyrolysis of sludge with waste biomass is practically feasible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Coprocessing of a Turkish lignite with a cellulosic waste material. Part 3. A statistical study on product yields and total conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaca, Fatma; Bolat, Esen; Dincer, Salih [Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa-Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2002-02-20

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate statistically the effects of coprocessing parameters on liquefaction yields, to determine the key process variables affecting the oil+gas, oil and asphaltene yields and total conversion. A statistical experimental design based on Second Order Central Composite Design was planned fixing the liquefaction period at 1 h. Parameters such as temperature, initial cold pressure, tetralin/(lignite+sawdust) and sawdust/lignite ratios coded as x{sub 1}, x{sub 2}, x{sub 3} and x{sub 4}, respectively, were used. The parameters were investigated at five levels (-2, -1, 0, 1 and 2). The effects of these factors on dependent variables, namely, oil+gas, oil and asphaltene yields and total conversion were investigated. To determine the significance of effects, the analysis of variance with 99.9% confidence limits was used. It was shown that within the experimental ranges examined, temperature and sawdust/lignite ratio were the variables of highest significance for oil+gas yields, oil yields and total conversion.

  11. PHENOLS AND FLAVONOIDS CONCENTRATION AND FUNGISTATIC ACTIVITY OF WOOD AND BARK OF FIVE COMMON TROPICAL SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemio Carrillo-Parra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research determine the total phenol and flavonoids content as well as the fungistatic activity of hot water wood sawdust and bark extracts on Coniophora puteana and Trametes versicolor. Extracts tested were taken from Condalia hookeri M.C. Johnst., Ebenopsis ebano (Berl. Britton et Rose, Helietta parvifolia (Gray Benth, Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, and Prosopis laevigata (Humb. et Bonpl. ex Willd. The extraction was developed with soxhlet aparats, phenol concentration was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu method and flavonoide was determined by Heimler procedure. Phenol concentration ranged between 50±11 to 827±23 mg g-1 and flavonoids content between 15±2 to 708±30 mg g-1. All extracts tested inhibited growth of the fungal species. The highest inhibition effect (88%±1 occurred on C. puteana with L. leucocephala wood sawdust extracts at 2 mg ml-1, this species also reduced the growth on T. versicolor by 75%±12 when used at 10 mg ml-1, wood sawdust extracts of H. parvifolia and C. hookerii at same concentration reduced the growth of T. versicolor in 43%±3 and 40%±4 respectively. Inhibition of bark extracts of E. ebano was 84±5 and 80±7 % for H. parvifolia. A negative relationship between growing inhibitory activity and the content of total phenolics in the extracts was obtained.

  12. Kinetic and energy production analysis of pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass using a three-parallel Gaussian reaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianju; Zhang, Jinzhi; Wu, Jinhu

    2016-07-01

    The kinetic and energy productions of pyrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass were investigated using a three-parallel Gaussian distribution method in this work. The pyrolysis experiment of the pine sawdust was performed using a thermogravimetric-mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) analyzer. A three-parallel Gaussian distributed activation energy model (DAEM)-reaction model was used to describe thermal decomposition behaviors of the three components, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The first, second and third pseudocomponents represent the fractions of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, respectively. It was found that the model is capable of predicting the pyrolysis behavior of the pine sawdust. The activation energy distribution peaks for the three pseudo-components were centered at 186.8, 197.5 and 203.9kJmol(-1) for the pine sawdust, respectively. The evolution profiles of H2, CH4, CO, and CO2 were well predicted using the three-parallel Gaussian distribution model. In addition, the chemical composition of bio-oil was also obtained by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry instrument (Py-GC/MS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Flooring in front of the feed bunk affects feeding behavior and use of freestalls by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C B; Weary, D M; de Passillé, A M; Campbell, B; Rushen, J

    2006-06-01

    In 2 experiments we assessed how preferences, time budgets, and feeding behavior of dairy cows change in response to flooring surfaces in front of the feed bunk. In Experiment 1, 12 nonlactating dairy cattle were individually housed with access to 2 standing platforms filled with either concrete or sawdust. In Experiment 2, 24 nonlactating dairy cattle were given access to either concrete or Animat rubber flooring in front of the feed bunk. In Experiment 1, cows preferred the sawdust to the concrete flooring. In both experiments, cows provided with a softer floor in front of the feed bunk spent more time standing near the feed bunk without eating (Experiment 1: 67 vs. 40 min/d on sawdust vs. concrete, respectively, SEM = 5.6 min/d; Experiment 2: 176 vs. 115 min/d on Animat vs. concrete, respectively, SEM = 20.5 min/d) compared with when they were kept on concrete. The increased time spent at the feed bunk was due to a combination of more frequent eating and standing bouts, indicating that cows were more willing to move on nonconcrete flooring. Total time spent eating was significantly greater on the softer floor in Experiment 2, but not in Experiment 1 (Exp. 1: 289 vs. 275 min/d on sawdust and concrete, respectively, SEM = 7.3 min/d; Exp. 2: 330 vs. 289 min/d on Animat and concrete, respectively, SEM = 15.4), although feed intake was increased on the sawdust treatment in Experiment 1. Cows spent significantly more time lying in the feed alley when the flooring was rubber (219 vs. 53 min/d on Animat and concrete, SEM = 53.6 min/d), perhaps because the lying area in Experiment 2 was inadequate. In conclusion, cows prefer to stand on softer flooring in front of the feed bunk, and are more willing to move on and spend more time standing in front of the feed bunk when provided with softer flooring. These results indicate that cows find softer flooring surfaces more comfortable to stand on than concrete, and highlight the importance of evaluating the comfort of the

  14. UTILIZATION OF AREN (Arenga pinnata Merr. SAWMILLING WASTE FOR EDIBLE MUSHROOM CULTIVATION MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djarwanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aren (Arenga pinnata Merr. is a multipurpose tree that can be utilized for palm sugar, alcoholic drinks, beverages and construction wood. The use of aren sawdust has not been studied intensively. This study examines the utilization of aren sawdust as cultivation media for edible mushrooms. Aren sawdust was mixed with rice bran, CaCO3, gypsum, fertilizers and distilled water before sterilization in 30 minutes pressurized autoclave at 1210C and 1.5atm. The mixed media was inoculated with pure cultures containing four mushrooms species (Pleurotus flabellatus, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju and Lentinula edodes and incubated for five weeks to allow mycelium growth producing fruit bodies. The fruit bodies were harvested everyday within four months and examined for its gained mushroom-weight and biological conversion efficiency/BE. The core part of aren trunk was cut into smaller pieces of 10 cm (width by 5 cm (thickness, by 120 cm (length. Each core sample was bored from the surface inward, creating holes with a particular distance apart. Each hole was inoculated with pure cultures containing 6 mushroom species (four species above, P. cystidiosus and Auricularia polytricha. The inoculated samples were slanted on bamboo support, and placed in a bamboo hut. Harvesting was carried out everyday after the fruiting body became mature and examined for its gained mushroom weight. Results show that the use of sawdust supplemented with nutritious material is more likely to improve the mushroom yield than that of aren sawn-timber core. In this case, the BE values with aren-sawdust media were 21.97-89.45% (P. flabellatus, 15.36-105.36% (P. ostreatus, 63.88-76.86% (P. sajor-caju, and up to 62.88% (L. edodes. Meanwhile, the yields (gained mushroom weight with aren sawn-timber media were 210g (P. ostreatus, 368g (P. flabellatus, 331g (P. sajor-caju and 48g (A. polytricha; however, P. cystidiosus and L. edodes inoculated on aren stem core failed to grow.

  15. Evaluation of bolted connections in wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnandha, Yudhi; Satyarno, Iman; Awaludin, Ali; Irawati, Inggar Septia; Ihsan, Muhamad; Wijanarko, Felyx Biondy; William, Mahdinur, Fardhani, Arfiati

    2017-03-01

    Wood-plastic composite (WPC) is a relatively new material that consists of sawdust and plastic polymer using the extrusion process. Due to its attributes such as low water content, low maintenance, UV durability and being fungi and termite resistant. Nowadays, WPC has already been produced in Indonesia using sawdust from local wood such as Albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria) and Teak (Tectona grandis). Moreover preliminary studies about the physical and mechanical WPC board from Albizia sawdust and HDPE plastic have been carried out. Based on these studies, WPC has a high shear strength around 25-30 MPa higher than its original wood shear strength. This paper was a part of the research in evaluating WPC as potential sheathing in a shear wall system. Since still little is known about connection behavior in WPC using Indonesian local wood, this study evaluated the connection for both of these two types of wood-plastic composite. WPC board from Albizia sawdust will be projected as shear wall sheathing and WPC stud from Teak sawdust projected to be shear wall frame. For this study, the embedding strength for both WPC was determined according to ASTM D 5764 standard, using two types of bolts (stainless bolt and standard bolt) with several diameters as variation (6 mm, 8 mm, 10 and 12 mm). Hence, dowel-bearing test under fastened condition conducted accordance to ASTM D5652, hereby the yield strength then compared with the prediction yield strength from European Yield Model (EYM). According to both single and double shear connection, it can be concluded that yield strength from the EYM method tended to under-predict the 5% diameter offset yield than the actual yield strength from the test. The yield strength itself increase with the increase of bolt diameter. For single shear connection, the highest yield strength was 12 mm standard bolt around 9732 N, slightly higher than stainless bolt around 9393 N. Whereby for double shear connection, the highest yield strength was

  16. Cacao bean husk: an applicable bedding material in dairy free-stall barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Akira; Owada, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Suguru; Komatsu, Natsumi; Takehara, Kazuaki; Ito, Maria; Matsuda, Kazuhide; Sato, Kan; Itabashi, Hisao; Sugimura, Satoshi; Kanda, Shuhei

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess the effect of cacao bean husk as bedding material in free-stall barn on the behavior, productivity, and udder health of dairy cattle, and on the ammonia concentrations in the barn. Four different stall surfaces (no bedding, cacao bean husk, sawdust, and chopped wheat straw) were each continuously tested for a period of 1 week to determine their effects on nine lactating Holstein cows housed in the free-stall barn with rubber matting. The lying time and the milk yield were measured between d 4 and d 7. Blood samples for plasma cortisol concentration and teat swabs for bacterial counts were obtained prior to morning milking on d 7. The time-averaged gas-phase ammonia concentrations in the barn were measured between d 2 and d 7. The cows spent approximately 2 h more per day lying in the stalls when bedding was available than without bedding. The milk yield increased in the experimental periods when cows had access to bedding materials as compared to the period without bedding. The lying time was positively correlated with the milk yield. Bacterial counts on the teat ends recorded for cows housed on cacao bean husk were significantly lower than those recorded for cows housed without bedding. Ammonia concentration under cacao bean husk bedding decreased by 6%, 15%, and 21% as compared to no bedding, sawdust, and chopped wheat straw, respectively. The cortisol concentration was lowest in the period when cacao bean husk bedding was used. We observed a positive correlation between the ammonia concentrations in the barn and the plasma cortisol concentrations. Cacao bean husk is a potential alternative of conventional bedding material, such as sawdust or chopped wheat straw, with beneficial effects on udder health and ammonia concentrations in the barns.

  17. [Effect of Biochar on Soil Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Semi-arid Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-liang; Wang, Dan-dan; Zheng, Ji-yong; Zhao, Shi-wei; Zhang, Xing-chang

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of biochar addition on the emission of greenhouse gases from farmland soil in semi-arid region. Through an in-situ experiments, the influence of sawdust biochar(J) and locust tree skin biochar (H) at three doses (1%, 3%, and 5% of quality percentage) on C2, CH4 and N2O emissions were studied within the six months in the south of Ningxiaprovince. The results indicated that soil CO2 emission flux was slightly increased with the addition doses for both biochars, and the averaged CO2 emission flux for sawdust and locust tree skin biochar was enhanced by 1. 89% and 3. 34% compared to the control, but the difference between treatments was not statistically significant. The soil CH4 emission was decreased with the increasing of biochar doses, by 1. 17%, 2. 55%, 4. 32% for J1, J3, J5 and 2. 35%, 5. 83%, 7. 32% for H1, H3, H5, respectively. However, the difference was statistically significant only for J5, H3 and H5 treatments (P effect on soil N2O emission. Our study indicated that the biochar has no significant influence on soil CO2 and N2O emissions within six months in semi-arid region and can significantly influence soil CH4 emissions (P < 0. 05). As for biochar type, the locust tree skin biochar is significantly better than the sawdust biochar in terms of restraining CH4 emission(P = 0. 048).

  18. Biodegradation of toxic chemicals by Pleurotus eryngii in submerged fermentation and solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bea-Ven; Chang, Yi-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The toxic chemicals bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF), nonylphenol (NP), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that have consequently drawn much concern regarding their effect on the environment. The objectives of this study were to investigate the degradation of BPA, BPF, NP, and TBBPA by enzymes from Pleurotus eryngii in submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF), and also to assess the removal of toxic chemicals in spent mushroom compost (SMC). BPA and BPF were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography; NP and TBBPA were analyzed by gas chromatography. NP degradation was enhanced by adding CuSO4 (1 mM), MnSO4 (0.5 mM), gallic acid (1 mM), tartaric acid (20 mM), citric acid (20 mM), guaiacol (1 mM), or 2,2'-azino-bis- (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid; 1 mM), with the last yielding a higher NP degradation rate than the other additives from SmF. The optimal conditions for enzyme activity from SSF were a sawdust/wheat bran ratio of 1:4 and a moisture content of 5 mL/g. The enzyme activities were higher with sawdust/wheat bran than with sawdust/rice bran. The optimal conditions for the extraction of enzyme from SMC required using sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0, solid/solution ratio 1:5), and extraction over 3 hours. The removal rates of toxic chemicals by P. eryngii, in descending order of magnitude, were SSF > SmF > SMC. The removal rates were BPF > BPA > NP > TBBPA. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Dewatering and low-temperature pyrolysis of oily sludge in the presence of various agricultural biomasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Song; Zhou, Xiehong; Wang, Chuanyi; Jia, Hanzhong

    2017-08-24

    Pyrolysis is potentially an effective treatment of waste oil residues for recovery of petroleum hydrocarbons, and the addition of biomass is expected to improve its dewatering and pyrolysis behavior. In this study, the dewatering and low-temperature co-pyrolysis of oil-containing sludge in the presence of various agricultural biomasses, such as rice husk, walnut shell, sawdust, and apricot shell, were explored. As a result, the water content gradually decreases with the increase of biomass addition within 0-1.0 wt % in original oily sludge. Comparatively, the dewatering efficiency of sludge in the presence of four types of biomasses follows the order of apricot shell > walnut shell > rice husk > sawdust. On the other hand, rice husk and sawdust are relatively more efficient in the recovery of petroleum hydrocarbons compared with walnut shell and apricot shell. The recovery efficiency generally increased with the increase in the biomass content in the range of 0-0.2 wt %, then exhibited a gradually decreasing trend with the increase in the biomass content from 0.2 to 1.0 wt %. The results suggest that optimum amount of biomass plays an important role in the recovery efficiency. In addition, the addition of biomass (such as rice husk) also promotes the formation of CxHy and CO, increasing the calorific value of pyrolysis residue, and controlled the pollution components of the exhaust gas discharged from residue incineration. The present work implies that biomass as addictive holds great potential in the industrial dewatering and pyrolysis of oil-containing sludge.

  20. Studying the Effects of Two Various Methods of Composting on the Degradation Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sewage Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poluszyńska, Joanna; Jarosz-Krzemińska, Elżbieta; Helios-Rybicka, Edeltrauda

    2017-01-01

    The research comprised of studying the effect composting sewage sludge with sawdust and vermicomposting with earthworm Eisenia fetida has on the degradation of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Raw rural sewage sludge prior composting was more contaminated with PAHs than urban sewage sludge, in both cases exceeding EU cutoff limits of 6 mg/kg established for land application. Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBahAnt), acenaphtylene (Acy) and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene (IPyr) were predominant in rural sewage sludge, whilst the urban sewage sludge contained the highest concentrations of benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbFl), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkFl) and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene (IPyr). Thirty days of composting with sawdust has caused a significant reduction of 16 PAHs on average from 26.07 to 4.01 mg/kg (84.6%). During vermicomposting, total PAH concentration decreased on average from 15.5 to 2.37 mg/kg (84.7%). Vermicomposting caused full degradation of hydrocarbons containing 2 and 6 rings and significant reduction of PAHs with 3 aromatic rings (94.4%) as well as with 5 aromatic rings (83.2%). The lowest rate of degradation (64.4%) was observed for hydrocarbons with 4 aromatic rings such as fluoranthene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene and pyrene. On the other hand, the highest level of degradation was determined for PAHs with 2 rings (100%), 3 rings (88%) and 6 aromatic rings in the molecule (86.9%) after composting with sawdust. Acenaphthene and pyrene were found to be the most resistant to biodegradation during both composting methods.

  1. Applicable properties of the bio-fertilizer spent mushroom substrate in organic systems as a byproduct from the cultivation of Pleurotus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Nadhim Owaid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The spent mushroom substrate (SMS is a byproduct of cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp. and represents the composted substrate that remains after completion the harvested crop. This study mentioned the role of some effective date palm wastes in improving spent mushroom substrate properties which containing fibers of date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. (Fibrillum, mixed with white sawdust and wheat straw in three formulas. These mixtures of SMS namely, SMS1 (wheat straw, SMS2 (wheat straw 70%, sawdust 20% and date palm fiber 10% and SMS3 (wheat straw 50%, sawdust 30% and date palm fiber 20% were obtained from locally mushroom farm in western Iraq and sent to determine some properties such as moisture content, dry matter, EC, pH, ash, carbon, nitrogen, protein contents and C:N ratio. Generally, determinations of Hydrogen ion concentration (pH for SMS extracts had acidic value at average 5.06. The higher EC was 3.30 ms/cm for SMS1-P. ostreatus (white, while the lower value reached to 1.13 ms/cm for SMS3 of same species. The higher nitrogen content was 9.98 g/kg for SMS3-P. ostreatus (white, SMS1 of Pleurotus salmoneostramineus and SMS2-P. ostreatus (white, while, SMS3-P. salmoneostramineus had lower nitrogen content (6.65 g/kg. The higher C:N ratio was reported with SMS3 of P. salmoneostramineus at value 35.36, while SMS2-P. ostreatus (grey had ratio 22.03, significantly (p < 0.05. Overall, these SMS was suitable as a natural fertilizer and soil amender in agriculture and horticulture fields.

  2. Pellet production from agricultural raw materials - A systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Bernesson, Sven; Hansson, Per-Anders [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    The demand for biofuel pellets has increased considerably in recent years, causing shortage of the traditional raw materials sawdust and wood shavings. In this study, the costs and energy requirements for the production of pellets from agricultural raw materials were analysed. The materials studied were Salix, reed canary grass, hemp, straw, screenings, rape-seed meal, rape cake and distiller's waste. Four production scales were analysed, having an annual output of 80,000, 8000, 800 and 80 tonnes of pellets per year. It was concluded that the raw materials of greatest interest were Salix and reed canary grass. They had competitive raw material costs and acceptable fuel properties and could be mixed with sawdust in existing large-scale pelleting factories. Straw had low production costs but can cause serious ash-related problems and should, as also is the case for screenings, be avoided in small-scale burners. Hemp had high raw material costs and is of less commercial interest, while distiller's waste, rape-seed meal and rape cake had higher alternative values when used as protein feed. The scale of production had a crucial influence on production costs. The machinery was used much more efficiently in large-scale plants, resulting in clear cost savings. Small-scale pelleting, both static and mobile, required cheap raw materials, low labour costs and long utilisation times to be profitable. In most cases, briquetting would be more commercially viable. The energy use in manufacturing pellets from air-dried crops was generally no higher than when moist sawdust was used as the raw material. (author)

  3. Management of agricultural biomass wastes: preliminary study on characterization and valorisation in clay matrix bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Luisa; Andreola, Fernanda; Lancellotti, Isabella; Taurino, Rosa

    2013-11-01

    In this work the feasibility of using woody agricultural biomass wastes as grapes and cherries seeds, sawdust, as pore forming agent, and sugar cane ash, as silica precursor, in bricks, were reported. Sawdust and grapes and cherries seeds, thanks to their organic substances content, during their combustion, bring an energetic support in the bricks firing phase and act as pore forming agent. Usually the addition of this kind of waste is limited to 10wt.% in order to reach an equilibrium between positive (weight and shrinkage decrease and porosity increase) and negative (increase of water absorption and mechanical resistance decrease) effects. The results show that grapes and cherries seeds, added in a percentage of 5wt.% to a brick formulation, have better influence with respect to the sawdust, maintaining the mechanical properties of the fired brick (950°C), showing modulus of rupture around 21-23MPa with a weight reduction of 3-10% (respect to the standard one). Regarding the sugar cane ash, the addition of 5wt.% improves the mechanical properties (modulus of rupture around 27MPa) and no weight decrease is observed. These results confirmed the role played by this kind of agricultural waste, which thanks to its high silica content (61wt.%) is capable to demonstrate a filler and plasticity reducing effect on the brick bodies. Tests carried out highlighted that the addition of these by-products (5wt.%) do not change negatively the main technological properties measured (water absorption, linear shrinkage, flexural resistance, etc.) and permit to hypothesize their use to obtain bricks with both insulating and higher mechanical properties using a pore agent forming or silica carrier alternative raw materials, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the Potential Use of Agricultural and Forestial Waste in Spawn Production of Medicinal Mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tavana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Spawn quality plays an important role in successful production of medicinal mushrooms. In this study, firstly, to determine the optimum temperature for mycelia growth of G. lucidum, four basal media, including seeds of wheat, barley, millet and Abies sp. wood chip were studied separately at 25±1˚C and 29±1˚C. In the second section, in order to achieve suitable the mycelia growth, barley, wheat and millet seeds were mixed with different ratios of agriculture waste including wheat bran (10, 20 and 30% dry weight and millet peel (20, 40 and 60% dry weight and also Abies sp wood chips (20, 30, 50 and 60% dry weight as forestial waste. In the final section, several forestial waste including sawdusts (Platanus orientalis, Acer sp, Robinia peseudoacacia, Ailanthus altissima, Fagus orientals, Alnus subcordata and Populas alba were used as medium for spawn production. In the first experiment, a higher mycelia growth rate (8.92 mm/day was obtained by applying wheat seed at 29±1˚C. In the second experiment, the results showed that higher mycelia growth rate was obtained by using wheat with 10% wheat bran (9.66 mm/day. In the final section of spawn production, R. peseudoacacia sawdust (C/N=25.84 was generated higher growth rate (9.36 mm/day. Also, using supplements containing nitrogen (N such as sawdust and bran, encourage mycelium growth and with increasing C/N ratios more than 61.3 decreased growth rate due to reduce N amount.

  5. Mortality and repellent effects of microbial pathogens on Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Maureen S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae, and one bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, were tested for their ability to cause mortality of Formosan subterranean termites (FST, Coptotermes formosanus (Shiraki, after liquid exposure, and for their lack of propensity to repel FST. Results The fungus Isaria fumosorosea at 108 spores/ml caused 72.5% mortality on day 7, significantly higher than the control and 106 spores/ml treatment. On day 14, the 106 and 108 concentrations caused 38.8% and 92.5% mortality, respectively, significantly higher than the control. On day 21, 82.5% and 100% of the termites were killed by the 106 and 108 treatments, respectively. I. fumosorosea did not repel termites at 106 nor 108 spores/g in sand, soil or sawdust. The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae at 108 spores/ml caused 57.5% mortality on day 7, 77.5% mortality on day 14 and 100% mortality on day 21. Conclusions On all three days the rate of mortality was significantly higher than that of the control and 106 spores/ml treatment with I. fumosorosea. Neither I. fumosorosea nor M. anisopliae caused repellency of FST in sand, soil or sawdust. The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis did not cause significant mortality on days 7, 14 or 21. When termites were exposed to cells of B. thuringiensis in sawdust and when termites were exposed to a mixture of spores and cells in sand, a significantly higher number remained in the control tubes. Repellency was not seen with B. thuringiensis spores alone, nor with the above treatments in the other substrates.

  6. Komparasi Laju Pertumbuhan Miselium Jamur Tiram Putih (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr Kummer pada Komposisi Media Bibit (F3 dan Baglog yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE SUDARMA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth rate comparison of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex FrKummer mycelium in the composition of different seed (F3 and baglog media . Cultivation ofoyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr Kummer has grown rapidly along with the increasein income and health awareness. Oyster mushrooms growing need for media with a particular compositionin order to grow optimally. Oyster mushroom production is determined by the quality of the seeds (F3is used, which is sourced from the media with good quality and composition. The research aimed todetermine the rate of growth of white oyster mushroom mycelium in the different composition of seedmedium (F3 (sawdust: fine bran: corn flour: CaCO3 . The experiments was conducted at nurseriesand oyster mushroom development, Jl. Siulan Gang Zella No. 7 Denpasar, from June to August 2013.Each treatment contained 50 bottles, and 10 bottles only used as a sample, in environmental conditionswith temperature and humidity ranges, 20-29oC and 59-86% respectively . T-test was used todifferentiate the growth rate of white oyster mushroom mycelium with different compositions. Theresults showed that seeds (F3 derived from the growing media composition, sawdust (1 week old:fine bran: corn flour: CaCO3 (10:4:2:0,5 significantly different and better than the composition sawdust(age 1 month : fine bran: corn flour (20:2:1:0.5, with a growth rate of mycelium in a mean 6.14±0.56cm/week and 1,81±0,82 cm/week, respectively. Spawn running in baglog with media composition10:4:2:0.5 was 2.77±1.22cm/week, but with composition media 20:2:1:0.5 mycelium could not grow.Effect of temperature and humidity on the growth rate of white oyster mushroom mycelium in seedmedia (F3 is not significantly.

  7. Sandia National Laboratories Small-Scale Sensitivity Testing (SSST) Report: Calcium Nitrate Mixtures with Various Fuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Jason Joe [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Based upon the presented sensitivity data for the examined calcium nitrate mixtures using sugar and sawdust, contact handling/mixing of these materials does not present hazards greater than those occurring during handling of dry PETN powder. The aluminized calcium nitrate mixtures present a known ESD fire hazard due to the fine aluminum powder fuel. These mixtures may yet present an ESD explosion hazard, though this has not been investigated at this time. The detonability of these mixtures will be investigated during Phase III testing.

  8. The suitability of horse manure and bedding materials for combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyni, S.; Tiainen, M. S.; Laitinen, R. S. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland)). email: sanna.tyni@oulu.fi

    2009-07-01

    The number of horses has increased in Finland since 1994 approximately by 2000 horse/ year and 2008 there was almost 70000 registered horses and ponies in Finland. This has derived to a considerable number of new stables at city area where the waste management, particularly of the mixture of manure and bedding material, is a challenge. These stables have disposed their residues often by land filling. The present legislation prohibits the dispose of organic material by land filling since the anaerobic decomposition emits for example methane that is a greenhouse gas. The legislation also regulates using of manure as fertilizer in fields. This leads to the situation where stable owners have urge for new ways to dispose of residues. In Finland peat, sawdust, and straw are commonly used as a bedding material for horses in stable boxes. The more important function of the bedding material is to keep the boxes dry and clean by absorbing urine. The selection of bedding material depends on the properties of the materials such as availability, price, absorption capacity, and hygiene properties. Composting of sawdust is slower than peat, therefore mixture of manure and sawdust is not preferred for utilization as fertilizer. Additionally use of the manure residues as fertilizers is limited by impurities such as plant seeds in manure. Combustion would be attractive way to solve disposal problems of the mixture of manure and bedding materials. At the moment legislation in Finland defines manure residues as a waste. Therefore the combustion is only allowed in waste combustion units. If the combustion of the manure residues would be allowed at farms or at small local boilers, it enables farms to have better degree of self-sufficiency of energy. The utilization of these new materials as a fuel demands study of combustion properties of these biomasses. It is also essential to have knowledge of chemical composition and behaviour of ashes, when the final disposing is considered e.g. as

  9. Cultivo do coentro com e sem cobertura do solo em diferentes espaçamentos

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Façanha Marques; Damiana Cleuma de Medeiros; José Cavalcante Neto; Glauber Henrique de Sousa Nunes; Karidja Kalliany Carlos de Freitas

    2010-01-01

    A field trial was carried out the vegetable garden of Plant Science Department of UFERSA, in Mossoró, RN, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the effect of plant spacing and soil cover or cilantro growth. Treatments were disposed in of randomized blocks design with four replications, and consisted of combination between five plant spacing (10 x 10; 10 x 15; 10 x 20; 10 x 25 and 10 x 30 cm) and two soil covers (with or without sawdust). Plants in excess were eliminated ten days after emer...

  10. A semi-empirical model for pressurised air-blown fluidized-bed gasification of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Ilkka; Kurkela, Esa

    2010-06-01

    A process model for pressurised fluidized-bed gasification of biomass was developed using Aspen Plus simulation software. Eight main blocks were used to model the fluidized-bed gasifier, complemented with FORTRAN subroutines nested in the programme to simulate hydrocarbon and NH(3) formation as well as carbon conversion. The model was validated with experimental data derived from a PDU-scale test rig operated with various types of biomass. The model was shown to be suitable for simulating the gasification of pine sawdust, pine and eucalyptus chips as well as forest residues, but not for pine bark or wheat straw. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of biofuel in agglomeration process on production of pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesko Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of agglomerate in the metallurgical company belongs among the largest sources of emissions damaging the environment. Effects of coke breeze substitution by charcoal, pine, and oak sawdust there were sintering performed in a laboratory agglomeration pan with substitution ratios of 14 % and 20 % by the emissions of CO2, CO, NOx and NO. Variations in the gas emissions might have been affected by physical and chemical properties of the input materials and the technological parameters of agglomeration. It is important and necessary to seek other methods and materials with which it would be possible to optimize the production of emissions and protect the environment.

  12. ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM VEGETAL RAW MATERIALS TO SOLVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Mukhin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Technologies for active carbons obtaining from vegetable byproducts such as straw, nut shells, fruit stones, sawdust, hydrolysis products of corn cobs and sunflower husks have been developed. The physico-chemical characteristics, structural parameters and sorption characteristics of obtained active carbons were determined. The ability of carbonaceous adsorbents for detoxification of soil against pesticides, purification of surface waters and for removal of organic pollutants from wastewaters has been evaluated. The obtained results reveal the effectiveness of their use in a number of environmental technologies.

  13. EFFECT OF COMPOST FROM BY-PRODUCT OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY ON CROP YIELD AND MICROELEMENT CONTENT IN MAIZE

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Radziemska; Zbigniew Mazur

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to compare the effects of compost from fish waste with mineral and manure fertilization on the yield and chemical composition of the overground parts of maize (Zea mays L.). The experiment comprised two series: I – composts at a dose of 1 g of compost per pot, and II – composts with 0.5 g of urea. The treatments were conducted on the following types of composts: compost 1: fish waste (80% d.m.), sawdust (20% d.m.); compost 2: fish waste (80% d.m.), straw (20% d....

  14. An experimental study of particle-driven gravity currents on steep slopes with entrainment of particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rastello

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of laboratory experiments are presented in which a finite suspension of sawdust particles was released instantaneously into a rectangular channel immersed in a water tank. Two kinds of gravity currents were studied: currents with or without entrainment of particles from the bed. Experiments were repeated for two slopes: 30° and 45°. We observed that the velocity of the front was significantly in-creased as particle entrainment occurred. In addition, our experiments showed that the front kept a quasi-constant velocity for both runs. This might suggest that the flow regime corresponded to the "slumping regime" or "adjustment phase" described earlier by Huppert and Simpson (1980.

  15. Regressional modeling of electrodialytic removal of Cu, Cr and As from CCA treated timber waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, E.E.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Mateus, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Waste of wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is expected to increase in volume over the next decades. Alternative disposal options to landfilling are becoming more attractive to study, especially those that promote re-use. The authors have studied and modeled the electrodialytic (ED......) removal of Cu, Cr and As from CCA treated timber waste. The method uses a low-level direct current as the cleaning agent, combining the electrokinetic movement of ions in the matrix with the principle of electrodialysis. The technique was tested in eight experiments using a laboratory cell on sawdust...

  16. Mold biomass as a potential source of nutrient proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuska, J.; Kollarova, A.

    1977-01-01

    In submerged cultures of Penicillium resticulosum, Mycelium sterilium, Gibberella fuiikuroi, and Coprinus species grown for 72 hours in medium containing 5 to 7% sawdust hydrolyzate, 1.28 to 1.45 g of dry biomass per 100 mL of culture was produced with 28.1 to 35.3% total amino acids and 15 to 18% essential amino acids; 80 to 90% of the cellular protein was digestible. Mannose, glucose and galactose of the hydrolyzate were utilized faster than xylose and arabinose.

  17. Root system in declining forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, F.H.

    1987-07-11

    Trees with obligate ectomycorrhiza are more sensitive to environmental stress than those without ectomycorrhiza or with facultative ectomycorrhiza. With spruce seedlings growing in humus material from a declining spruce forest an experimental proof was given, that reduction of the mineral nitrogen content by adding sawdust to the rooting substrate increases the share of root tips converted to ectomycorrhizas. A close correlation has been found between the mycorrhiza frequency and the number of root tips. This means, that the ramification of a root system is the more intense the better the conditions for mycorrhizal development are.

  18. IGARSS 1989: Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing (12th) (Symposium Canadien sur la Teledetection): Quantitative Remote Sensing: An Economic Tool for the Nineties Held in Vancouver, Canada on 10-14 July 1989. Volume 4. Thursday, July 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-14

    while sawdust-amended plots ranged from 675.2 to Limited Number of Samples: Application to Carbonate In 779.9 kg/ha and control plots ranged from 755.0...nutrient and water availability of the carbon dynamics of Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir", (in preparation). Hlavka, C., "Destripping AIS data using Fourier...cover the peak of the emitted radiation Atmospheric Pilot Experiment and Mod’lisation du curve. Note that channels 5 and 6 roughly correspond Bilan

  19. Eradication of Salmonella and Arizona species from turtle hatchlings produced from eggs treated on commercial turtle farms.

    OpenAIRE

    Siebeling, R J; Caruso, D.; Neuman, S

    1984-01-01

    On commercial turtle farms more than 40% of the hatchlings excrete detectable levels of Salmonella and Arizona spp. when hatched from nonsanitized eggs incubated in sawdust or dirt-filled chambers. Over a 3-year period on 10 farms, more than 10(6) turtle eggs were treated in an attempt to hatch Salmonella-free turtles. Eggs were sanitized in disinfectant, treated by temperature- or pressure-differential dip methods in solutions containing 500 micrograms or more of gentamicin sulfate per ml, a...

  20. Ice in the Tropics: the Export of ‘Crystal Blocks of Yankee Coldness’ to India and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marc W. Herold

    2011-01-01

    The Boston natural ice trade thrived during 1830-70 based upon Frederic Tudor’s idea of combining two useless products – natural winter ice in New England ponds and sawdust from Maine’s lumber mills. Tudor ice was exported extensively to the tropics from the West Indies to Brazil and the East Indies as well as to southern ports of the United States. In tropical ice ports, imported natural ice was a luxury product, e.g., serving to chill claret wines (Calcutta), champagne (Havana and Manaus), ...

  1. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 1. Welcome, Keynote Address, Invited Papers, Pyrotechnic Shock, and Shock Testing and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    managers activities of the JTCG/AS are directed by a four member (PMA’s). Executive Board composed of one principal member from each of the four...exceeding 80,000 pin ./in. at rates greater than 3,000 i n./in./see are shown. INTRODUCTION charge size was the same as was used for the subscale specimens...placing a berm of sawdust and fine soil in an enclosure built from massive con- Six Kulite type HKS-375 10,000 psi crete blocks 2 m from the tube muzzle

  2. Effect of heat curing methods on the temperature history and strength development of slab concrete for nuclear power plant structures in cold climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gun Cheol [Korea Conformity Laboratories, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Min Cheol [Cheong-ju University, Cheong Ju (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Dae Hyun; Koh, Kyung Taek [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the effect of heat curing methods on the temperature history and strength development of slab concrete exposed to -10 degrees Celsius. The goal was to determine proper heat curing methods for the protection of nuclear power plant structures against early-age frost damage under adverse (cold) conditions. Two types of methods were studied: heat insulation alone and in combination with a heating cable. For heat curing with heat insulation alone, either sawdust or a double layer bubble sheet (2-BS) was applied. For curing with a combination of heat insulation and a heating cable, an embedded heating cable was used with either a sawdust cover, a 2-BS cover, or a quadruple layer bubble sheet (4-BS) cover. Seven different slab specimens with dimensions of 1200, 600, 200 mm and a design strength of 27 MPa were fabricated and cured at -10 degrees Celsius for 7 d. The application of sawdust and 2-BS allowed the concrete temperature to fall below 0 degrees Celsius within 40 h after exposure to -10 degrees Celsius, and then, the temperature dropped to -10 degrees Celsius and remained there for 7 d owing to insufficient thermal resistance. However, the combination of a heating cable plus sawdust or 2-BS maintained the concrete temperature around 5 degrees Celsius for 7 d. Moreover, the combination of the heating cable and 4-BS maintained the concrete temperature around 10 degrees Celsius for 7 d. This was due to the continuous heat supply from the heating cable and the prevention of heat loss by the 4-BS. For maturity development, which is an index of early-age frost damage, the application of heat insulation materials alone did not allow the concrete to meet the minimum maturity required to protect against early-age frost damage after 7 d, owing to poor thermal resistance. However, the combination of the heating cable and the heat insulating materials allowed the concrete to attain the minimum maturity level after

  3. Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa

    2007-08-01

    The effect of wood ash, sawdust, ground cocoa husk, spent grain and rice bran upon root development, ash content, pod yield and nutrient status and soil fertility for okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L NHAe 47 variety) was studied. The five organic fertilizer treatments were compared to chemical fertilizer (400kg/ha/crop NPK 15-15-15) and unfertilized controls in four field experiments replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results showed that the application of 6tha(-1) of plant residues increased (Pokra in all four experiments relative to the control treatment. For instance, spent grain treatment increased the okra pod yield by 99%, 33%, 50%, 49%, 65% and 67% compared to control, NPK, wood ash, cocoa husk, rice bran and sawdust treatments respectively. In the stepwise regression, out of the total R(2) value of 0.83 for the soil nutrients to the pod yield of okra; soil N accounted for 50% of the soil fertility improvement and yield of okra. Spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk were the most effective in improving okra pod weight, pod nutrients, ash content, root length and soil fertility whereas the rice bran and sawdust were the least effective. This was because the spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk had lower C/N ratio and higher nutrient composition than rice bran and sawdust, thus, the former enhanced an increase in pod nutrients, composition for better human dietary intake, increased the root length, pod weight of okra and improved soil fertility and plant nutrition crop. The significance of the increases in okra mineral nutrition concentration by plant residues is that consumers will consume more of these minerals in their meals and monetarily spend less for purchasing vitamins and mineral supplement drugs to meet health requirements. In addition, the increase in plant nutrition and soil fertility would help to reduce the high cost of buying synthetic inorganic fertilizers and maintain the long term productivity of soils for

  4. Influence of olive oil press cakes on Shiitake culinary-medicinal mushroom, lentinus edodes (Berk.) singer (higher basidiomycetes) fruiting bodies production and effect of their crude polysaccharides on CCRF-CEM cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Andrej; Kretschmer, Nadine; Wagner, Susanne; Boechzelt, Herbert; Klinar, Dusan; Bauer, Rudolf; Pohleven, Franc

    2012-01-01

    Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer fruiting bodies were cultivated on substrates composed of beech sawdust, wheat bran, and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (gypsum), containing different proportions of olive oil press cakes (OOPC). We determined the influence of OOPC on fruiting bodies production and proliferation of CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. A negative influence of OOPC on mycelia growth and maturation was noticed. When growth medium contained 80% OOPC, fruiting bodies ceased forming. To investigate the cytotoxicity on CCRF-CEM cells in vitro, cells were treated with crude polysaccharides extracted from L. edodes fruiting bodies. Also in this case a negative correlation between OOPC content and cytotoxicity was found.

  5. Accumulation of heavy metals (cadmium, zinc, and copper) from smelter in forest ecosystems and their uptakes by Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing. ) and Nameko mushroom (Pholiota glutinosa Kawamura) through polluted bed logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, T.; Fujita, K.; Furukawa, H.; Yoshimoto, M.

    1977-12-01

    Mushrooms cultivated on sawdust medium which had been innoculated with heavy metals accumulated the metals increasingly in stems, pileus, gill and spores, in that order. There were strain differences, in accumulation, and highest concentration was found in the first-born fruit body. At 2 ppm, cadmium did not affect yield of the fruiting body. At 20 ppm, however, yield was seriously reduced. Species differences in absorption capacity for heavy metals were noted. Seasonal variations in cadmium and copper accumulation were noted, along with zinc. Cadmium concentration in fruiting bodies increased with increase of cadmium concentration in the growth substrate. 23 figures, 16 tables.

  6. The kinetics of chromium(VI adsorption from water on some natural materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the kinetics of chromium(VI adsorption by wood sawdust, pulp, and Kraft lignin. In our previous works we determined adsorption efficiency of these adsorbents. In this paper we focused our attention on the influence of contact time on chromium(VI adsorption from water by the same adsorbents. The analytical data were approached from the following kinetic models: First-order kinetic model, Parabolic diffusion model, Elovich model, and Modified Freundlich model. Elovich model was shown to be the best fit for the description of chromium(VI adsorption. It was found that adsorption was the fastest on pulp and slowest on Kraft lignin.

  7. Optimasi Kekuatan Tarik Komposit Polyester Diperkuat Serat Sisal Dengan Filler Serbuk Gergaji Kayu Sengon Menggunakan Metode Respon Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Okariawan, IDK; Fajar, M; Hidayatullah, S

    2016-01-01

    Composite is an engineering material, which is made from combination of two or more different materials into a new material with new properties. The aim of this research is to investigate optimum composition of sisal fiber reinforced sawdust sengon filled polyester composites on the tensile strength using respon surface methodology.The testing of tensile strength is based on ASTM D 3039 standard. It has dimension 6 mm in thick, 25 mm in width and 340 mm in length. The composites are made by u...

  8. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  9. Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki revisited: Domestication study and antioxidant properties of its basidiocarps and mycelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wee-Cheat; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Phan, Chia-Wei; Tan, Yee-Shin; Raman, Jegadeesh; Anuar, Azliza Mad; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-07-27

    Mushroom cultivation benefits humankind as it deliberately encourages wild mushrooms to be commercially propagated while recycling agricultural wastes. Ganoderma neo-japonicum is a rare polypore mushroom found growing on decaying Schizostachyum brachycladium (a tropical bamboo) clumps in Malaysia. The Malaysian indigenous tribes including the Temuans and Temiars use the basidiocarps of G. neo-japonicum to treat various ailments including diabetes. In this study, the domestication of G. neo-japonicum in artificial logs of different agricultural residues was investigated. Sawdust promoted the mycelia spawn colonisation in the shortest period of 38 ± 0.5 days. However, only sawdust and bamboo dust supported the primodia formation. Complex medium supported mycelium growth in submerged cultures and 27.11 ± 0.43 g/L of mycelia was obtained after 2 weeks of cultivation at 28 °C and 200 rpm. Antioxidant potential in mushroom may be influenced by different cultivation and extraction methods. The different extracts from the wild and cultivated basidiocarps as well as mycelia were then tested for their antioxidant properties. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of mycelia and basidiocarps tested had varying levels of antioxidant activities. To conclude, domestication of wild G. neo-japonicum using agroresidues may ensure a continuous supply of G. neo-japonicum for its medicinal use while ensuring the conservation of this rare species.

  10. Genetic and Metabolic Intraspecific Biodiversity of Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pawlik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen Ganoderma lucidum strains from different geographic regions were identified using ITS region sequencing. Based on the sequences obtained, the genomic relationship between the analyzed strains was determined. All G. lucidum strains were also genetically characterized using the AFLP technique. G. lucidum strains included in the analysis displayed an AFLP profile similarity level in the range from 9.6 to 33.9%. Biolog FF MicroPlates were applied to obtain data on utilization of 95 carbon sources and mitochondrial activity. The analysis allowed comparison of functional diversity of the fungal strains. The substrate utilization profiles for the isolates tested revealed a broad variability within the analyzed G. lucidum species and proved to be a good profiling technology for studying the diversity in fungi. Significant differences have been demonstrated in substrate richness values. Interestingly, the analysis of growth and biomass production also differentiated the strains based on the growth rate on the agar and sawdust substrate. In general, the mycelial growth on the sawdust substrate was more balanced and the fastest fungal growth was observed for GRE3 and FCL192.

  11. Effects of Wood Pollution on Pore-Water Sulfide Levels and Eelgrass Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelem, C.

    2016-02-01

    Historically, sawmills released wood waste onto coastal shorelines throughout the Pacific Northwest of the USA, enriching marine sediments with organic material. The increase in organic carbon boosts the bacterial reduction of sulfate and results in the production of a toxic metabolite, hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide is a phytotoxin and can decrease the growth and survival of eelgrass. This is a critical issue since eelgrass, Zostera marina, forms habitat for many species, stabilizes sediment, and plays a role in nutrient cycling and sediment chemistry. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of wood debris on sediment pore-water hydrogen sulfide concentrations and eelgrass germination. To test the impact of wood inputs on sulfide production and seed germination, we conducted a laboratory mesocosm experiment, adding sawdust to marine sediments and measuring the sulfide levels weekly. We subsequently planted seeds in the mesocosms and measured germination rates. Higher concentrations of sawdust led to higher levels of pore-water hydrogen sulfide and drastically slower eelgrass germination rates. Treatments with greater than 10% wood enrichment developed free sulfide concentrations of 0.815 (± 0.427) mM after 118 days, suggesting sediments with greater than 10% wood pollution may have threateningly high pore-water hydrogen sulfide levels. These results can be used to set thresholds for remediation efforts and guide seed distribution in wood polluted areas.

  12. Effect of Growing Media on Yield and Fruitbody Properties of Hericium Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Atila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, it was aimed to determinate the effects of different substrates on mycelial growth, fructification, yield, sizes and colours of fruit bodies of Hericium isolates (HE-Ankara, HE-Denizli, HE, HE-Trabzon, HE-İzmit, HC, HE-Amerika. Experiments were conducted with 7 different substrates prepared with oak sawdust (MT, wheat bran (BK, cotton seed hulls (PK and olive press cake (ZP (80MT:20BK, 90MT:10PK, 80MT:20PK, 70MT:30PK, 90MT:10ZP, 80MT:20ZP, 70MT:30ZP. 1 kg (wet weight of substrates were packed in polypropylene autoclaveable bags of 25x45 cm and sterilized in autoclave at 121oC during 90 minutes. Sterilized substrate was inoculated and then carried to growing room at 25±2ºC. After full colonization, the bags were exposed to 400 lux for a 12 hours photoperiod at 20±2ºC with a humidity of 80-90% in a cropping room. The best yield and BE were detected from oak sawdust medium supplemented with 20 and 30% cotton seed hulls on HE-Ankara, HE-Denizli, HE, HE-İzmit, HC, HE-Amerika isolates while the best yield and BE were detected from 70MT:30ZP on Trabzon isolate. Significant differences were found among substrates regarding yield, BE, average mushroom weigh, fruit body size and colour of Hericium isolates.

  13. Optimization of waste combinations during in-vessel composting of agricultural waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, V Sudharsan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S; Kumar, Bimlesh

    2017-01-01

    In-vessel composting of agricultural waste is a well-described approach for stabilization of compost within a short time period. Although composting studies have shown the different combinations of waste materials for producing good quality compost, studies of the particular ratio of the waste materials in the mix are still limited. In the present study, composting was conducted with a combination of vegetable waste, cow dung, sawdust and dry leaves using a 550 L rotary drum composter. Application of a radial basis functional neural network was used to simulate the composting process. The model utilizes physico-chemical parameters with different waste materials as input variables and three output variables: volatile solids, soluble biochemical oxygen demand and carbon dioxide evolution. For the selected model, the coefficient of determination reached the high value of 0.997. The complicated interaction of agricultural waste components during composting makes it a nonlinear problem so it is difficult to find the optimal waste combinations for producing quality compost. Optimization of a trained radial basis functional model has yielded the optimal proportion as 62 kg, 17 kg and 9 kg for vegetable waste, cow dung and sawdust, respectively. The results showed that the predictive radial basis functional model described for drum composting of agricultural waste was well suited for organic matter degradation and can be successfully applied.

  14. [Comparison of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soil by composting in the spring and winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Wei, Yuan-Song; Yang, Yu; Shen, Ying; Zheng, Jia-Xi

    2010-06-01

    In this study, lab-scale bioremediation experiments of soil contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) with aerated composting were compared in the Spring and Winter. Results showed that PAHs degradation rate in the winter was higher than that in the spring, and the total PAHs degradation rates were over 70% for both Pile 1 (the dry weight ratio of soil, swine manure and sawdust as 1: 1: 1) and Pile 2 (the dry weight ratio of soil, swine manure and sawdust as 1: 3: 1), but the PAHs degradation rate of Pile 1 as 74.61% was higher than that of Pile 2 the degradation rates of low, middle, high benzene-ring types PAHs were 66.46%, 79.12%, 75.88%, respectively. After composting most of kinds of PAHs contents in soil were less than 1 000 microg/kg (dry weight) except BbF, for example, BbF contents of these two piles in the Spring, 25 000 microg/kg and 20 000 microg/kg, respectively, were much higher than those in the winter experiments, both less than 5 000 microg/kg. The first reaction order model was used to simulate degradation of PAHs during composting, and results showed that the model was fitted better in winter (R2 > 0.6) than in spring, and the half-life of PAHs degradation in winter was about 13 d.

  15. Enhancement of β-Glucan Content in the Cultivation of Cauliflower Mushroom (Sparassis latifolia) by Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Ryu, Sung-Ryul

    2014-03-01

    The effectiveness of three kinds of enzymes (chitinase, β-glucuronidase, and lysing enzyme complex), employed as elicitors to enhance the β-glucan content in the sawdust-based cultivation of cauliflower mushroom (Sparassis latifolia), was examined. The elicitors were applied to the cauliflower mushroom after primordium formation, by spraying the enzyme solutions at three different levels on the sawdust-based medium. Mycelial growth was fully accomplished by the treatments, but the metabolic process during the growth of fruiting bodies was affected. The application of a lysing enzyme resulted in an increase in the β-glucan concentration by up to 31% compared to that of the control. However, the treatment resulted in a decrease in mushroom yield, which necessitated the need to evaluate its economic efficiency. Although we still need to develop a more efficient way for using elicitors to enhance functional metabolites in mushroom cultivation, the results indicate that the elicitation technique can be applied in the cultivation of medicinal/edible mushrooms.

  16. Phytotoxicity Evolution of Biowastes Undergoing Aerobic Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Soares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is mainly focused on the phytotoxicity improvement within five to six weeks of thermophilic composting of biowastes. Two sets of experiments were conducted involving both sawdust and rice husk as bulking agents, which were composted in self-heating reactors with potato-peel industrial waste and grass clippings as organic materials. The main variables observed over time were temperature, oxygen uptake rate (OUR, biodegradability, and germination index (GI. The effects of compost water extracts on seed germination and primary root growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum were measured to calculate the germination index (GI. The biodegradability was well assessed by measuring lignin content, using the Klason method. The experimental results showed that initial compositions strongly determined the profiles of phytotoxicity and the period of maturation. The phytotoxicity assessment in the experiments with sawdust revealed that after 39 days of composting, the GI attained the maximum value of 30%, but using rice husk, it was possible to reach 70% in the same period of time. Our findings showed that, at a certain point, higher cumulative OUR led to lower germination index, and proportional relationship between the cumulative OUR and GI was observed, after thermophilic phase.

  17. Biochar from different residues on soil properties and common bean production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isley Cristiellem Bicalho da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The production of biochar from organic residues promises to be an interesting strategy for the management of organic waste. To assess the effect of biochar on soil properties and the production and nutrition of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., three simultaneous experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with different biochar from organic residues (rice husk, sawdust, and sorghum silage used as filtration material for swine biofertilizer. In each experiment the treatments consisted of five different biochar concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 L m−3, arranged in a completely randomized design, with four repetitions. In the experiments, the use of biochar increased soil pH, cation exchange capacity, nutrient availability in the soil, and nutrient accumulation in grains. The biochar concentrations corresponding to the maximum production of grain dry matter of bean plants were 100, 68, and 71 L m−3 for biochar from rice husk filter (BRHF, biochar from sawdust filter (BSF, and biochar from sorghum silage filter (BSSF, respectively.

  18. Improving quality of textile wastewater with organic materials as multi soil layering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyadi; Widijanto, H.; Pranoto; Dewi, AK

    2016-02-01

    On agricultural land, fresh water is needed especially for irrigation. Alternative ways to fulfill needs of fresh water is by utilizing wastewater from industry. Wastewater that produced in the industry in Surakarta is over flowing especially textile wastewater. Wastewater that produced from industry has many pollutants that affected decreasing fresh water quality for irrigation. Multi Soil Layering (MSL) is one of method that utilize the soil ability as main media by increasing its function of soil structure to purify wastewater, so it does not contaminate the environment and reusable. This research was purposed to know affectivity of organic materials (such as rice straw, baggase, sawdust, coconut fibre, and corncob) and dosage (5%, 10% and 25%) in MSL, also get alternative purification ways with easy and cheaper price as natural adsorbent. This study using field and laboratory experiment. The result shows that MSL can be an alternative method of purification of wastewater. The appropriate composition of organic materials that can be used as adsorbent is MSL with wood sawdust 10% dosage because it can increase pH, decrease the number of Cr, ammonia, and phosphate but less effective to decrease BOD and COD.

  19. com resíduos de uma indústria de celulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pedrazzi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the quality of particleboards made with Eucalyptus saligna wood residues, resulting from the chiping of logs for pulp production. The boards were producted with two types of residues, sticks and sawdust, used pure. The adhesive used was urea-formaldehyde resin in proportions of 4, 8 and 12% (based on ovendry weight of wood particles and the nominal densities were 0.55, 0.65 and 0.75 g/cm3. Bending properties, internal bond, screw withdrawal, water absorption and thickness swelling ware evaluated. The results indicated that the bending properties, internal bond and screw withdrawal were slightly higher with the sawdust type residue than boards made with sticktype residue. For water absorption, the values increased with the reduction of the density, for both type of particles. Thickness swelling increased with the reduction of resin proportion, independent of the type of residue used. Results showed that using both particles type with larger resin proportion and larger densities, boards with acceptable quality can be made.

  20. Briquetting soda weed (Salsola tragus) to be used as a rural fuel source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumak, Hasan [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yuzuncu Yil University, 65080 Van (Turkey); Ucar, Tamer [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Bozok University, 66200 Yozgat (Turkey); Seyidbekiroglu, Nesim [Agricultural Machinery Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Yuzuncu Yil University, 65080 Van (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    Amount of traditional fuel sources in the world has been decreasing and there is a definite need to produce and utilize alternative fuels such as biomass materials. In this study, briquetting conditions of Russian tumbleweed, Salsola tragus, (commonly named soda weed in Turkey) which grows in salty soils were investigated. Soda weeds were first chopped coarsely in a local tresher, then chopped finely in a hammer mill. Weed materials at three moisture levels (7%, 10%, and 13%) were prepared in the lab. Chopped weed materials were filled in cylindrical and square dies and compressed using a hydraulic press at three pressure levels of 15.7, 19.6 and 31.4 MPa. Optimum temperature, moisture rate, and pressure values were determined to produce stable briquettes. Further experiments were conducted to produce briquettes using sawdust and walnut shells as additives in conical dies of two different sizes. Results of a statistical analysis of parameters to produce briquettes in different dies indicated that moisture rates of 7-10%, pressure of 31.4 MPa, and temperatures of 85-105 C were suitable for briquetting soda weed. Furthermore, sawdust and walnut shells additives increased briquette density without any negative effects on production process and product stability. (author)