WorldWideScience

Sample records for savings regulatory hypotheses

  1. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumpy, T. [International Legal Counsel, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  2. ITSSOIN Hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anheier, H.K.; Krlev, G.; Preuss, S.; Mildenberger, G.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Brink Lund, A.

    2014-01-01

    This report brings together findings from the first ITSSOIN project working steps to formulate empirically testable hypotheses on the impact of the third sector and social innovation – in particular regarding the role of the third sector in generating social innovation but also with reference to

  3. Psychological determinants of financial buffer saving : The influence of financial risk tolerance and regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magendans, J.; Gutteling, Jan M.; Zebel, Sven

    With governments redistributing more responsibilities unto citizens, individuals have an increasing need for financial resources acting as a buffer against life’s setbacks and unexpected expenditures. The purpose of this study was to examine psychological determinants of saving for a financial

  4. Self-Policing Statutes: Do They Reduce Pollution and Save Regulatory Costs?

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Guerrero; Robert Innes

    2013-01-01

    State-level statutes provide firms that engage in environmental self-audits, and that self-report their environmental violations, a variety of regulatory rewards, including "immunity" from penalties and "privilege" for information contained in self-audits. This article studies a panel of state-level industries from 1989 through 2003, to determine the effects of the different types of statutes on toxic pollution and government inspections. We find that, by encouraging self-auditing, privilege ...

  5. Regulatory and cost barriers are likely to limit biosimilar development and expected savings in the near future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Henry G; Guha, Rahul; Salgado, Maria

    2014-06-01

    In March 2010 Congress established an abbreviated Food and Drug Administration approval pathway for biosimilars-drugs that are very similar but not identical to a reference biological product and cost less. Because bringing biosimilars to the market currently requires large investments of money, fewer biosimilars are expected to enter the biologics market than has been the case with generic drugs entering the small-molecule drug market. Additionally, given the high regulatory hurdles to obtaining interchangeability-which would allow pharmacists to substitute a biosimilar for its reference product, subject to evolving state substitution laws-most biosimilars will likely compete as therapeutic alternatives instead of as therapeutic equivalents. In other words, biosimilars will need to compete with their reference product on the basis of quality; price; and manufacturer's reputation with physicians, insurers, and patient groups. Biosimilars also will face dynamic competition from new biologics in the same therapeutic class-including "biobetters," which offer incremental improvements on reference products, such as extended duration of action. The prospects for significant cost savings from the use of biosimilars appear to be limited for the next several years, but their use should increase over time because of both demand- and supply-side factors. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. Testing hypotheses in order

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Rosenbaum

    2008-01-01

    In certain circumstances, one wishes to test one hypothesis only if certain other hypotheses have been rejected. This ordering of hypotheses simplifies the task of controlling the probability of rejecting any true hypothesis. In an example from an observational study, a treated group is shown to be further from both of two control groups than the two control groups are from each other. Copyright 2008, Oxford University Press.

  7. Impacts of the regulatory model for market risk capital: application in a special savings company, an insurance company, and a pension fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Lilian Chan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In line with the regulation brought in by Solvency II, the Superintendence of Private Insurance (Susep introduced the market risk capital requirement at the end of 2015, with 50% of the minimum capital for this type of risk being required by December 31st 2016 and 100% the following year. This regulatory model consists of calculating parametric value at risk with a 99% confidence level and a three month time horizon, using the net exposure of expected cash flows from assets and liabilities and a covariance matrix updated with market data up to July 2014. One limitation of this regulatory approach is that the updating of the covariance matrix depends on prior approval by the National Council of Private Insurance, which can limit the frequency the covariance matrix is updated and the model’s adherence to the current market reality. As this matrix considers the period before the presidential election, the country’s loss of investment grade status, and the impeachment process, which all contributed to an increase in market volatility, this paper analyses the impacts of applying the regulatory model, considering the market volatility updated to December 31st 2015, for a special savings company (sociedade de capitalização, an insurance company, and an pension fund. Furthermore, the paper discusses the practical implications of the new market risk requirement for managing the investments of the entities supervised by Susep, listing the various assumptions that can be used in the regulated entities’ Asset and Liability Management decision models and possible trade-offs to be addressed in this process.

  8. Save Energy: Save Money!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccli, Eugene; And Others

    This publication is a collection of inexpensive energy saving tips and home improvements for home owners, particularly in low-income areas or in older homes. Section titles are: (1) Keeping Warm; (2) Getting Heat Where You Need It; (3) Using the Sun; (4) Furnaces, Stoves, and Fireplaces; (5) Insulation and Other Energy Needs; (6) Do-It-Yourself…

  9. Testing statistical hypotheses

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann, E L

    2005-01-01

    The third edition of Testing Statistical Hypotheses updates and expands upon the classic graduate text, emphasizing optimality theory for hypothesis testing and confidence sets. The principal additions include a rigorous treatment of large sample optimality, together with the requisite tools. In addition, an introduction to the theory of resampling methods such as the bootstrap is developed. The sections on multiple testing and goodness of fit testing are expanded. The text is suitable for Ph.D. students in statistics and includes over 300 new problems out of a total of more than 760. E.L. Lehmann is Professor of Statistics Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the recipient of honorary degrees from the University of Leiden, The Netherlands and the University of Chicago. He is the author of Elements of Large-Sample Theory and (with George Casella) he is also the author of Theory of Point Estimat...

  10. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    suggested in the informal saving literature can be captured in the standard optimizing model. Particular attention is given to recent work on the precautionary motive and its implications for saving and consumption behavior. We also discuss the "behavioral" or "psychological" approach that eschews the use......In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...

  11. Statutory Rewards to Environmental Self-Auditing: Do They Reduce Pollution and Save Regulatory Costs? Evidence from a Cross-State Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, Santiago; Innes, Robert

    2008-01-01

    State-level statutes provide firms that engage in environmental self-audits, and that self-report their environmental violations, with a variety of different regulatory rewards, including "immunity" from penalties and "privilege" for information contained in self-audits. This paper studies a panel of State-level industries from 1989-2003, in order to determine the effects of the different statutes on toxic pollution and government inspections. We find that, by encouraging self-auditing, privi...

  12. Scientific 'Laws', 'Hypotheses' and 'Theories'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    theories, defines a hypothesis as "any supposition which we may ... about the origin of the solar system are also hypotheses of this type. They are about the birth of the planets, an event, which has happened, in the past history of our Universe.

  13. Scientific 'Laws', 'Hypotheses' and 'Theories'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    verified, the hypothesis changes from the status of a 'mere' hypothesis, and ... a pre-existing law and the body of facts upon which that law is based. Hypotheses .... implicit belief that order objectively exists in nature, and that scientific laws ...

  14. Testing statistical hypotheses of equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Wellek, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Equivalence testing has grown significantly in importance over the last two decades, especially as its relevance to a variety of applications has become understood. Yet published work on the general methodology remains scattered in specialists' journals, and for the most part, it focuses on the relatively narrow topic of bioequivalence assessment.With a far broader perspective, Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence provides the first comprehensive treatment of statistical equivalence testing. The author addresses a spectrum of specific, two-sided equivalence testing problems, from the

  15. Net savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    2001-01-01

    The state of e-commerce in the Canadian upstream oil and natural gas sector is examined in an effort to discover the extent to which the .com economy has penetrated the marketplace. The overall assessment is that although the situation varies from producer to producer and process to process, a bustling digital marketplace in the Canadian oil business has yet to emerge. Nevertheless, there are several examples of companies using e-business tools to minimize technology staffing and to eliminate wasteful practices. Initiatives cited include streamlining of supply chains to cut handling costs, using application service providers to trim information technology budgets, and adopting electronic joint interest billing to save on printing, postage and re-entering data. Most notable efforts have been made by companies such as BXL Energy Limited and Genesis Exploration Limited, both of which are boosting efficiency on the inside by contracting out data storage and software applications. For example, BXL has replaced its microfilm log library occupying six cabinets, and totalling about 9,000 lbs., by a fibre optic line. All applications can now be run from a laptop which weighs three to four pounds. In a similar vein, Genesis Exploration started using application service providers (ASPs) to avoid the cost and hassle of buying and maintaining major software applications in-house. By accessing the ASPs, Genesis staff can run software without buying or installing it on their own computers. In yet another example of cutting information technology costs, Pengrowth Corporation has its network administration done remotely over the Internet by Northwest Digital Systems (NWD). As far as the industry at large is concerned, the answer appears to be in a digital marketplace specifically tailored to the upstream sector's unique profile. As a start, a study is underway by Deloitte Consulting to explore producer interest in joining or founding an upstream digital marketplace. The study was

  16. Net savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2001-02-01

    The state of e-commerce in the Canadian upstream oil and natural gas sector is examined in an effort to discover the extent to which the .com economy has penetrated the marketplace. The overall assessment is that although the situation varies from producer to producer and process to process, a bustling digital marketplace in the Canadian oil business has yet to emerge. Nevertheless, there are several examples of companies using e-business tools to minimize technology staffing and to eliminate wasteful practices. Initiatives cited include streamlining of supply chains to cut handling costs, using application service providers to trim information technology budgets, and adopting electronic joint interest billing to save on printing, postage and re-entering data. Most notable efforts have been made by companies such as BXL Energy Limited and Genesis Exploration Limited, both of which are boosting efficiency on the inside by contracting out data storage and software applications. For example, BXL has replaced its microfilm log library occupying six cabinets, and totalling about 9,000 lbs., by a fibre optic line. All applications can now be run from a laptop which weighs three to four pounds. In a similar vein, Genesis Exploration started using application service providers (ASPs) to avoid the cost and hassle of buying and maintaining major software applications in-house. By accessing the ASPs, Genesis staff can run software without buying or installing it on their own computers. In yet another example of cutting information technology costs, Pengrowth Corporation has its network administration done remotely over the Internet by Northwest Digital Systems (NWD). As far as the industry at large is concerned, the answer appears to be in a digital marketplace specifically tailored to the upstream sector's unique profile. As a start, a study is underway by Deloitte Consulting to explore producer interest in joining or founding an upstream digital marketplace. The study

  17. Water Saving for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  18. Quantitative linking hypotheses for infant eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yurovsky

    Full Text Available The study of cognitive development hinges, largely, on the analysis of infant looking. But analyses of eye gaze data require the adoption of linking hypotheses: assumptions about the relationship between observed eye movements and underlying cognitive processes. We develop a general framework for constructing, testing, and comparing these hypotheses, and thus for producing new insights into early cognitive development. We first introduce the general framework--applicable to any infant gaze experiment--and then demonstrate its utility by analyzing data from a set of experiments investigating the role of attentional cues in infant learning. The new analysis uncovers significantly more structure in these data, finding evidence of learning that was not found in standard analyses and showing an unexpected relationship between cue use and learning rate. Finally, we discuss general implications for the construction and testing of quantitative linking hypotheses. MATLAB code for sample linking hypotheses can be found on the first author's website.

  19. Virginia Power's regulatory reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    Virginia Power has two nuclear plants, North Anna and Surry Power Stations, which have two units each for a total of four nuclear units. In 1992, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission solicited comments from the nuclear industry to obtain their ideas for reducing the regulatory burden on nuclear facilities. Pursuant to the new regulatory climate, Virginia Power developed an internal program to evaluate and assess the regulatory and self-imposed requirements to which they were committed, and to pursue regulatory relief or internal changes where possible and appropriate. The criteria were that public safety must be maintained, and savings must be significant. Up to the date of the conference, over US$22 million of one-time saving had been effected, and US$2.75 million in annual savings

  20. Private Sector Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitonáková Renáta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of household savings are in the form of bank deposits. It is therefore of interest for credit institutions to tailor their deposit policy for getting finances from non-banking entities and to provide the private sector with the loans that are necessary for investment activities and consumption. This paper deals with the determinants of the saving rate of the private sector of Slovakia. Economic, financial and demographic variables influence savings. Growth of income per capita, private disposable income, elderly dependency ratio, real interest rate and inflation have a positive impact on savings, while increases in public savings indicate a crowding out effect. The inflation rate implies precautionary savings, and dependency ratio savings for bequest. There are also implications for governing institutions deciding on the implementation of appropriate fiscal and monetary operations.

  1. Adaptive hatching hypotheses do not explain asynchronous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the core of the suite of adaptive hatching hypotheses advanced to explain asynchronous hatching in birds is the assumption that if food is not limited then all the hatchlings will develop normally to adulthood. In this study Brown-headed Parrot Poicephalus cryptoxanthus chicks were hand fed and weighed on a daily basis.

  2. Scientific'Laws','Hypotheses' and'Theories'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 12. Scientific 'Laws', 'Hypotheses' and 'Theories' - How are They Related? J R Lakshmana Rao. General Article Volume 3 Issue 12 December 1998 pp 55-61. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Energy saving certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    The French ministry of economy, finances and industry and the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) have organized on November 8, 2005, a colloquium for the presentation of the energy saving certificates, a new tool to oblige the energy suppliers to encourage their clients to make energy savings. This document gathers the transparencies presented at this colloquium about the following topics: state-of-the-art and presentation of the energy saving certificates system: presentation of the EEC system, presentation of the EEC standard operations; the energy saving certificates in Europe today: energy efficiency commitment in UK, Italian white certificate scheme, perspectives of the different European systems. (J.S.)

  4. Spending to save

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    the energy distribution companies meet their overall saving obligation, the net savings impact are about a third of the savings reported by the obligated parties. Further it was found that while energy savings in the public and business sector have a high net impact, some subsidies given under the EEO...... perspective. The evaluation has resulted in noticeable adjustments of the design of the Danish EEO, e.g. introduction of a 1 year payback-time limit for projects receiving subsidies, a minimum baseline for insulation products, and specification of documentation requirements....

  5. Singularity hypotheses a scientific and philosophical assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Moor, James; Søraker, Johnny; Steinhart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment offers authoritative, jargon-free essays and critical commentaries on accelerating technological progress and the notion of technological singularity. It focuses on conjectures about the intelligence explosion, transhumanism, and whole brain emulation. Recent years have seen a plethora of forecasts about the profound, disruptive impact that is likely to result from further progress in these areas. Many commentators however doubt the scientific rigor of these forecasts, rejecting them as speculative and unfounded. We therefore invited prominent computer scientists, physicists, philosophers, biologists, economists and other thinkers to assess the singularity hypotheses. Their contributions go beyond speculation, providing deep insights into the main issues and a balanced picture of the debate.

  6. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  7. New hypotheses regarding the Danish health puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakah, May; Raphael, Dennis

    2017-12-01

    Nordic welfare states have achieved admirable population health profiles as a result of public policies that provide economic and social security across the life course. Denmark has been an exception to this rule, as its life expectancies and infant mortality rates since the mid-1970s have lagged behind the other Nordic nations and, in the case of life expectancy, behind most Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development nations. In this review paper, we identify a number of new hypotheses for why this may be the case. These hypotheses concern the health effects of neo-liberal restructuring of the economy and its institutions, the institution of flexi-security in Denmark's labour market and the influence of Denmark's tobacco and alcohol industries. Also of note is that Denmark experienced higher unemployment rates during its initial period of health stagnation, as well as its treatment of non-Western immigrants and high wealth inequality and, until recently, the fact that Denmark did not systematically address the issue of health inequalities. These hypotheses may serve as covering explanations for the usually provided accounts of elevated behavioural risks and psychosocial stress as being responsible for Denmark's health profile.

  8. Contract saving schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O'Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    Contractual saving schemes for housing are institutionalised savings programmes normally linked to rights to loans for home purchase. They are diverse types as they have been developed differently in each national context, but normally fall into categories of open, closed, compulsory, and ‘free

  9. What actions in the domain of energy saving?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourlia, J.P.; Richard, P.

    2007-01-01

    The energy saving potentialities are very often put forward to justify actions of mastery of energy demand. What are the possible substitutes and their result in terms of energy saving? What are the tools implemented and the services proposed by energy suppliers to end-users? What is the optimum mix between the regulatory measures and the market instruments to perform energy saving? What are the costs generated by such measures with respect to the expected results? How to sensibilize citizens to energy saving actions? These questions were debated during a round table which gathered 4 participants and two chairmen. (J.S.)

  10. Measuring industrial energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly Kissock, J.; Eger, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measurement of energy savings from industrial energy efficiency projects can reduce uncertainty about the efficacy of the projects, guide the selection of future projects, improve future estimates of expected savings, promote financing of energy efficiency projects through shared-savings agreements, and improve utilization of capital resources. Many efforts to measure industrial energy savings, or simply track progress toward efficiency goals, have had difficulty incorporating changing weather and production, which are frequently major drivers of plant energy use. This paper presents a general method for measuring plant-wide industrial energy savings that takes into account changing weather and production between the pre and post-retrofit periods. In addition, the method can disaggregate savings into components, which provides additional resolution for understanding the effectiveness of individual projects when several projects are implemented together. The method uses multivariable piece-wise regression models to characterize baseline energy use, and disaggregates savings by taking the total derivative of the energy use equation. Although the method incorporates search techniques, multi-variable least-squares regression and calculus, it is easily implemented using data analysis software, and can use readily available temperature, production and utility billing data. This is important, since more complicated methods may be too complex for widespread use. The method is demonstrated using case studies of actual energy assessments. The case studies demonstrate the importance of adjusting for weather and production between the pre- and post-retrofit periods, how plant-wide savings can be disaggregated to evaluate the effectiveness of individual retrofits, how the method can identify the time-dependence of savings, and limitations of engineering models when used to estimate future savings

  11. Seed dormancy and germination - Emerging mechanisms and new hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eNonogaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy has played a significant role in adaptation and evolution of seed plants. While its biological significance is clear, molecular mechanisms underlying seed dormancy induction, maintenance and alleviation still remain elusive. Intensive efforts have been made to investigate gibberellin and abscisic acid metabolism in seeds, which greatly contributed to the current understanding of seed dormancy mechanisms. Other mechanisms, which might be independent of hormones, or specific to the seed dormancy pathway, are also emerging from genetic analysis of seed dormancy mutants. These studies suggest that chromatin remodeling through histone ubiquitination, methylation and acetylation, which could lead to transcription elongation or gene silencing, may play a significant role in seed dormancy regulation. Small interfering RNA and/or long non-coding RNA might be a trigger of epigenetic changes at the seed dormancy or germination loci, such as DELAY OF GERMINATION1. While new mechanisms are emerging from genetic studies of seed dormancy, novel hypotheses are also generated from seed germination study with high throughput gene expression analysis. Recent studies on tissue-specific gene expression in tomato and Arabidopsis seeds, which suggested possible mechanosensing in the regulatory mechanisms, advanced our understanding of embryo-endosperm interaction and have potential to re-draw the traditional hypotheses or integrate them into a comprehensive scheme. The progress in basic seed science will enable knowledge translation, another frontier of research to be expanded for food and fuel production.

  12. Saving and credit cooperatives in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha E. Izquierdo Muciño

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Saving service and Credit Popular (Cajas de Ahorro y Credito Popular first appeared in Mexico in 1951 at the initiative of the priest Pedro Velazquez, similar to the popular savings banks that existed in Canada, which had been founded by Alphonse Desjardins in the early XX century.These savings service (Cajas de Ahorro were developing successfully in almost all Mexican communities, most of them remained faithful to the principles and ordinances of the church that gave rise to them, without the government participate in this activity and without policies encouraging or regulatory actions. It was not until 1991 when the General Law of Organizations and Auxiliary Credit Activities (Ley General de Organizaciones y Actividades was enacted. However in 2000 they began to emerge problems arising from fraudulent activities by some people taking advantage of loopholes established irregular saving services. Consequently and in order to solve these problems was changing the law. The last of the fraud occurred with the popular financial called FICREA (2015, to which was amended regulatory law again and while thus sought to avoid another fraud, who really was affected is a large amount very poor indigenous and peasants.Received: 03.06.2015Accepted: 17.07.2015

  13. Invisible costs, visible savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, G

    1999-08-01

    By identifying hidden inventory costs, nurse managers can save money for the organization. Some measures include tracking and standardizing supplies, accurately evaluating patients' needs, and making informed purchasing decisions.

  14. Realized Cost Savings 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset is provided as a requirement of OMB’s Integrated Data Collection (IDC) and links to VA’s Realized Cost Savings and Avoidances data in JSON format. Cost...

  15. Constant conditional entropy and related hypotheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Dębowski, Łukasz; Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2013-01-01

    Constant entropy rate (conditional entropies must remain constant as the sequence length increases) and uniform information density (conditional probabilities must remain constant as the sequence length increases) are two information theoretic principles that are argued to underlie a wide range of linguistic phenomena. Here we revise the predictions of these principles in the light of Hilberg’s law on the scaling of conditional entropy in language and related laws. We show that constant entropy rate (CER) and two interpretations for uniform information density (UID), full UID and strong UID, are inconsistent with these laws. Strong UID implies CER but the reverse is not true. Full UID, a particular case of UID, leads to costly uncorrelated sequences that are totally unrealistic. We conclude that CER and its particular cases are incomplete hypotheses about the scaling of conditional entropies. (letter)

  16. Assessing hypotheses about nesting site occupancy dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bled, Florent; Royle, J. Andrew; Cam, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    Hypotheses about habitat selection developed in the evolutionary ecology framework assume that individuals, under some conditions, select breeding habitat based on expected fitness in different habitat. The relationship between habitat quality and fitness may be reflected by breeding success of individuals, which may in turn be used to assess habitat quality. Habitat quality may also be assessed via local density: if high-quality sites are preferentially used, high density may reflect high-quality habitat. Here we assessed whether site occupancy dynamics vary with site surrogates for habitat quality. We modeled nest site use probability in a seabird subcolony (the Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla) over a 20-year period. We estimated site persistence (an occupied site remains occupied from time t to t + 1) and colonization through two subprocesses: first colonization (site creation at the timescale of the study) and recolonization (a site is colonized again after being deserted). Our model explicitly incorporated site-specific and neighboring breeding success and conspecific density in the neighborhood. Our results provided evidence that reproductively "successful'' sites have a higher persistence probability than "unsuccessful'' ones. Analyses of site fidelity in marked birds and of survival probability showed that high site persistence predominantly reflects site fidelity, not immediate colonization by new owners after emigration or death of previous owners. There is a negative quadratic relationship between local density and persistence probability. First colonization probability decreases with density, whereas recolonization probability is constant. This highlights the importance of distinguishing initial colonization and recolonization to understand site occupancy. All dynamics varied positively with neighboring breeding success. We found evidence of a positive interaction between site-specific and neighboring breeding success. We addressed local

  17. Dental Hypotheses: Seeks to Publish Hypotheses from All Areas of Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward F. Rossomando

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting a new open access journal in a rapid growing scientific panorama is a severe challenge. However, the first issue of dental hypotheses is now history and the even skeptics can appreciate that dental hypotheses is a success - it is a journal of high quality that provides an outlet for publication of articles that encourage readers to question dental paradigms. But dental hypotheses readers might have noticed that the majority of the articles published in the first issue of dental hypotheses concern clinical dentistry. However, dental hypotheses editors recognize that there are many other areas in dentistry that present challenges and that our readers may offer suggestions for their solution. Some of these challenges relate to: dental education; digital dental technology; teledentistry and access to dental care; dental practice issues, such as, dental office design, dental office management, the slow rate of acceptance of innovative technology in the dental office; and issues related to innovation and dental entrepreneurship including intellectual property protection. Nevertheless, the dental profession faces many challenges - in many areas - and with the publication of dental hypotheses our profession has a venue for presentation of possible solutions. If you have developed a hypothesis that might help, please share it with your colleagues. As many have noted, the intellectual power of the global village in which we now live is formidable. The internet has provided the technology to bring us together and dental hypotheses has provided the venue. Please use it. New radical, speculative and non-mainstream scientific ideas are always welcome.

  18. 12 CFR 567.2 - Minimum regulatory capital requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum regulatory capital requirement. 567.2... Regulatory Capital Requirements § 567.2 Minimum regulatory capital requirement. (a) To meet its regulatory capital requirement a savings association must satisfy each of the following capital standards: (1) Risk...

  19. Electroconvulsive therapy's mechanism of action: neuroendocrine hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, Roger F

    2014-06-01

    Despite a range of etiological theories since the introduction of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) more than 75 years ago, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. The neuroendocrine hypothesis is based on the seizure-related release of hypothalamic hormones into the blood and cerebrospinal fluid and evidence of endocrine dysfunction in many patients with severe mood disorder. The specific effect of ECT was hypothesized to result from the transverse passage of current through the brain with direct stimulation of axial structures including the diencephalon. The prompt release of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, and prolactin into blood followed ECT with a return to pretreatment baseline levels in several hours. The elevated levels of hormones were absorbed by the cerebrospinal fluid, providing contact with brain cells and central nervous system structures. An apparently specific pattern of ECT-induced hormone changes, limited to prolactin and cortisol, suggested that ECT released a substance with dopaminergic antagonist and antipsychotic properties. As hypothalamic dysfunction is a key finding in endogenomorphic depression and the abnormal endocrine and physiological functions usually normalize with recovery, this led to a search for biological markers that would supplement clinical assessment of diagnosis and treatment response. One of these, the overnight dexamethasone suppression test found that 40% to 50% of melancholic depressed patients had abnormal results, whereas 90% of control patients suppressed normally. This was followed by a period of uncritical overenthusiasm followed by wholesale rejection of the clinical neuroendocrine strategies. Several key methodological issues received inadequate attention, and there have been calls to revisit this topic.

  20. Limits on hypothesizing new quantum numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, G.R.; Moravcsik, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    According to a recent theorem, for a general quantum-mechanical system undergoing a process, one can tell from measurements on this system whether or not it is characterized by a quantum number, the existence of which is unknown to the observer, even though the detecting equipment used by the observer is unable to distinguish among the various possible values of the ''secret'' quantum number and hence always averages over them. The present paper deals with situations in which this averaging is avoided and hence the ''secret'' quantum number remains ''secret.'' This occurs when a new quantum number is hypothesized in such a way that all the past measurements pertain to the system with one and the same value of the ''secret'' quantum number, or when the new quantum number is related to the old ones by a specific dynamical model providing a one-to-one correspondence. In the first of these cases, however, the one and the same state of the ''secret'' quantum number needs to be a nondegenerate one. If it is degenerate, the theorem can again be applied. This last feature provides a tool for experimentally testing symmetry breaking and the reestablishment of symmetries in asymptotic regions. The situation is illustrated on historical examples like isospin and strangeness, as well as on some contemporary schemes involving spaces of higher dimensionality

  1. Sign Up for Savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses performance service contracts between educational facilities and energy services companies, in which the company provides the money for energy-efficiency improvements and the school pays the company an annual fee. The company guarantees the savings will meet or exceed the fee. (EV)

  2. Saving Malta's music memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Maltese music is being lost. Along with it Malta loses its culture, way of life, and memories. Dr Toni Sant is trying to change this trend through the Malta Music Memory Project (M3P) http://www.um.edu.mt/think/saving-maltas-music-memory-2/

  3. Save Our Water Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  4. Gun control saves lives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gun control legislation. One study estimated that more than 4 500 lives were saved across five SA cities from 2001 to 2005.[5] Pro-gun interest groups seeking to promote gun ownership and diffusion have attacked these findings, suggesting that stricter gun control was only enacted in 2004 following the publication of ...

  5. Saving, efficiency and management of electric sector demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez de Tembleque, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    Spanish economic model of development is based on energy consumption, and its main source is imported fossil fuels, which have some environmental and scarcity consequences in the mid term, among others. These problems could be reduced in two ways: economic activity reduction or energy efficiency improvement. In the presence of these possibilities, It may be desirable to bet for saving and energy efficiency, to maintain the economic development. This assignment analyzes the main available regulatory and social mechanisms to promote saving and energy efficiency in the power sector, like systems to internalize social costs in the electricity price, efficiency standards, and encourage the new saving culture. (Author) 15 refs

  6. Regulatory agencies and regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that regulatory risk is due to the discretionary behaviour of regulatory agencies, caused by a too extensive regulatory mandate provided by the legislator. The normative point of reference and a behavioural model of regulatory agencies based on the positive theory of regulation are presented. Regulatory risk with regard to the future behaviour of regulatory agencies is modelled as the consequence of the ex ante uncertainty about the relative influence of inter...

  7. Save energy - for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The article is an interview with Glenn Bjorklund, Vice President of SCalEd (Southern California Edison). The variations in Californian power demand and public electricity consumption habits are explained, together with types of power source used in electricity production. Questions are posed concerning SCalEd's energy saving strategy. The political implications of electricity charge changes are discussed. The planned energy resources for 1982-1992 are given with nuclear power being the largest contributor. (H.J.P./G.T.H.)

  8. Entrepreneurial Saving Practices and Reinvestment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, Thorsten; Pamuk, Haki; Uras, Burak R.

    2017-01-01

    We use a novel enterprise survey to gauge the relationship between saving instruments and entrepreneurial reinvestment. We show that while most informal saving practices are not associated with a lower likelihood of reinvestment when compared with formal saving practices, there is a significantly

  9. Social Capital and Savings Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Khai, Luu Duc

    In this paper, we analyze household savings in rural Vietnam paying particular attention to the factors that determine the proportion of savings held as formal deposits. Our aim is to explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in promoting formal savings behavior. Social capital...

  10. Saving water through global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2005-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water

  11. Energy. Saving 'Private' Areva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    While Areva keeps on loosing money (billions of euros for 2014), the saving of this company is at stake. Staff is already planned to be reduced in La Hague, and other staff reductions might occur after the failure of a previous strategic plan. Various activities could be sold (dismantling, mining). The article outlines the difficult relationships between Areva and EDF and the problems also faced by EDF. Some actors think that Areva should remain independent from EDF in order to be free to compete on international bidding. The rapprochement between these two companies is said to be necessary for the Ministry but seems very difficult to achieve

  12. Savings for the Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Mas

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the relevance of formal financial services – in particular, savings – to poor people, the economic factors that have hindered the mass-scale delivery of such services in developing countries, and the technology-based opportunities that exist today to make massive gains in financial inclusion. It also highlights the benefits to government from universal financial access, as well as the key policy enablers that would need to be put in place to allow the necessary innovati...

  13. Locomotive energy savings possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic indicators of electrodynamic braking have not been properly estimated. Vehicles with alternative power trains are transitional stage between development of pollution- free vehicles. According to these aspects the investigation on conventional hybrids drives and their control system is carried out in the article. The equation that allows evaluating effectiveness of regenerative braking for different variants of hybrid drive are given. Presenting different types of locomotive energy savings power systems, which are using regenerative braking energy any form of hybrid traction vehicles systems, circuit diagrams, electrical parameters curves.

  14. Learning to save lives!

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    They're all around you and watch over you, but you won't be aware of them unless you look closely at their office doors. There are 308 of them and they have all been given 12 hours of training with the CERN Fire Brigade. Who are they? Quite simply, those who could one day save your life at work, the CERN first-aiders. First-aiders are recruited on a volunteer basis. "Training is in groups of 10 to 12 people and a lot of emphasis is placed on the practical to ensure that they remember the life-saving techniques we show them", explains Patrick Berlinghi, a CERN first-aid instructor from TIS Division. He is looking forward to the arrival of four new instructors, which will bring the total number to twelve (eleven firemen and one member of the Medical Service). "The new instructors were trained at CERN from 16 to 24 May by Marie-Christine Boucher Da Ros (a member of the Commission Pédagogie de l'Observatoire National Français du Secourisme, the education commission of France's national first-aid body). This in...

  15. NegaWatt 2011-2050 scenario - Hypotheses and method. Technical report, May 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    This report proposes an analysis of the negaWatt 2011 scenario. It describes in detail the methodology adopted to elaborate this prospective scenario, and presents the major part of the hypotheses which structure this scenario. A first part presents the approach and methodology (constraints, scenario, model). The second part addresses the issue of energy saving and energy efficiency through a sector-based analysis (housing and office building, transports, industrial and agricultural production). The third part studies the substitution by renewable energies through a supply analysis: energy production based on biomass, renewable energies, and fissile and fossil energies. It outlines the major role of grids in the supply-demand balance. The results of the negaWatt 2011 scenario are presented in terms of final energy, primary energies, and impact on greenhouse gas emissions. Hypotheses and results related to the different sectors (building, transports, industry and agriculture, energy production) are given in appendix

  16. Does Daylight Saving Save Energy? A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Havránek, Tomáš; Herman, Dominik; Irsova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    The original rationale for adopting daylight saving time (DST) was energy savings. Modern research studies, however, question the magnitude and even direction of the effect of DST on energy consumption. Representing the first meta-analysis in this literature, we collect 162 estimates from 44 studies and find that the mean reported estimate indicates modest energy savings: 0.34% during the days when DST applies. The literature is not affected by publication bias, but the results vary systemati...

  17. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  18. Can lean save lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingham, David

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how over the last 18 months Bolton Hospitals NHS Trust have been exploring whether or not lean methodologies, often known as the Toyota Production System, can indeed be applied to healthcare. This paper is a viewpoint. One's early experience is that lean really can save lives. The Toyota Production System is an amazingly successful way of manufacturing cars. It cannot be simply translated unthinkingly into a hospital but lessons can be learned from it and the method can be adapted and developed so that it becomes owned by healthcare staff and focused towards the goal of improved patient care. Working in healthcare is a stressful and difficult thing. Everyone needs a touch of inspiration and encouragement. Applying lean to healthcare in Bolton seems to be achieving just that for those who work there.

  19. Pearce element ratios: A paradigm for testing hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J. K.; Nicholls, Jim; Stanley, Clifford R.; Pearce, T. H.

    Science moves forward with the development of new ideas that are encapsulated by hypotheses whose aim is to explain the structure of data sets or to expand existing theory. These hypotheses remain conjecture until they have been tested. In fact, Karl Popper advocated that a scientist's job does not finish with the creation of an idea but, rather, begins with the testing of the related hypotheses. In Popper's [1959] advocation it is implicit that there be tools with which we can test our hypotheses. Consequently, the development of rigorous tests for conceptual models plays a major role in maintaining the integrity of scientific endeavor [e.g., Greenwood, 1989].

  20. Predictive hypotheses are ineffectual in resolving complex biochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Michael

    2018-03-20

    Scientific hypotheses may either predict particular unknown facts or accommodate previously-known data. Although affirmed predictions are intuitively more rewarding than accommodations of established facts, opinions divide whether predictive hypotheses are also epistemically superior to accommodation hypotheses. This paper examines the contribution of predictive hypotheses to discoveries of several bio-molecular systems. Having all the necessary elements of the system known beforehand, an abstract predictive hypothesis of semiconservative mode of DNA replication was successfully affirmed. However, in defining the genetic code whose biochemical basis was unclear, hypotheses were only partially effective and supplementary experimentation was required for its conclusive definition. Markedly, hypotheses were entirely inept in predicting workings of complex systems that included unknown elements. Thus, hypotheses did not predict the existence and function of mRNA, the multiple unidentified components of the protein biosynthesis machinery, or the manifold unknown constituents of the ubiquitin-proteasome system of protein breakdown. Consequently, because of their inability to envision unknown entities, predictive hypotheses did not contribute to the elucidation of cation theories remained the sole instrument to explain complex bio-molecular systems, the philosophical question of alleged advantage of predictive over accommodative hypotheses became inconsequential.

  1. Cost savings from nuclear regulatory reform: An econometric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canterbery, E.R.; Johnson, B.; Reading, D.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear-generated power touted in the 1950s as someday being open-quotes too cheap to meterclose quotes got dismissed in the 1980s as incapable of being both safe and cost effective. Today, less than 20 percent of American's electricity is nuclear-generated, no new plants are planned or on order, and some of the earliest units are scheduled for decommissioning within the next decade. Even so, interest in nuclear power has been revived by increasing energy demands, concerns about global warming, and the uncertainty surrounding oil resources in the Persian Gulf. As a long-term alternative to fossil fuels, atomic energy offers the important advantages of clean air and domestic availability of fuel. But these advantages will count for little unless and until the costs of nuclear power can be seen as reasonable. The authors premise is that the relevant costs are those of providing safe and environmentally clean electric energy. To the extent that increased costs have resulted from increasingly stringent regulations, they reflect the internalization of external costs. Indeed, the external costs of nuclear power (particularly safety and environmental protection) have been internalized to a greater degree than with most alternative fuel sources used by electric utilities. Nuclear construction costs are properly compared with those of alternative sources only after the latter are adjusted for environmental damage and endangerment, including, as examples, the costs of oil spills, of building double-hulled tankers, and of building off-shore offloading facilities. A shift to nuclear sources could reduce these costs whereas it would increase disposal costs for radioactive materials. The authors contend that a better understanding of nuclear plant construction costs is pivotal to a balanced evaluation of the merits of uranium relative to other fuel choices. 12 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  2. 12 CFR 583.21 - Savings association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.21 Savings association. The term savings association means a Federal savings and loan association or a Federal savings bank chartered under section 5 of the Home Owners' Loan Act, a building and loan, savings and loan or homestead association or a cooperative...

  3. Reinforcement Learning and Savings Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C; Metrick, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    We show that individual investors over-extrapolate from their personal experience when making savings decisions. Investors who experience particularly rewarding outcomes from saving in their 401(k)-a high average and/or low variance return-increase their 401(k) savings rate more than investors who have less rewarding experiences with saving. This finding is not driven by aggregate time-series shocks, income effects, rational learning about investing skill, investor fixed effects, or time-varying investor-level heterogeneity that is correlated with portfolio allocations to stock, bond, and cash asset classes. We discuss implications for the equity premium puzzle and interventions aimed at improving household financial outcomes.

  4. Testing hypotheses for differences between linear regression lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2009-01-01

    Five hypotheses are identified for testing differences between simple linear regression lines. The distinctions between these hypotheses are based on a priori assumptions and illustrated with full and reduced models. The contrast approach is presented as an easy and complete method for testing for overall differences between the regressions and for making pairwise...

  5. Testing competing hypotheses about single trial fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Purushotham, Archana; Kim, Seong-Ge

    2002-01-01

    We use a Bayesian framework to compute probabilities of competing hypotheses about functional activation based on single trial fMRI measurements. Within the framework we obtain a complete probabilistic picture of competing hypotheses, hence control of both type I and type II errors....

  6. Saving gas project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasques, Maria Anunciacao S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garantizado, Maria Auxiliadora G. [CONCREMAT Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The work presented was implemented in municipalities around the construction of the pipeline project Urucu-Coari-Manaus, the Engineering / IETEG-IENOR, because of the constant release of workers, consequently the finishing stages of this work and its future completion. The Project aims to guide saving gas with the workforce, their families and communities to the enterprise of small business cooperatives and solidarity within the potential of the site. This project is developed through the workshops: entrepreneur ship, tourism, use, reuse and recycling of products, and hortifruiti culture, agroecology, agribusiness (cooperativism solidarity) and forestry. Its execution took place in two phases, the first called 'pilot' of 12/12/2007 to 27/03/2008 in sections A and B1, in the municipality of Coari stretch and B2 in Caapiranga. The second phase occurred from 30/06 to 27/09/08, in the words B1, in the municipalities of Codajas and Anori words and B2 in Iranduba, Manacapuru and Anama. The workshops were held in state and municipal schools and administered by the Institute of Social and Environmental Amazon - ISAM, which had a team of coordinators, teachers, experts and masters of the time until the nineteen twenty-two hours to implement the project. (author)

  7. Save energy, without entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmeyer, D.

    1992-01-01

    When we talk about saving energy what we usually mean is not wasting work. What we try to do when we design a process, is to use work as effectively as possible. It's hard to do that if we can't see it clearly. This paper illustrates how work can be seen (or calculated) without imposing entropy as a screen in front of it. We've all heard that the second law tells us that the entropy of the universe is increasing, and we are left with the feeling that the universe is ultimately headed for chaos, but receive little other information from this statement. A slightly more useful statement of the second law is the work potential of the universe is decreasing. However, this statement carries a needlessly negative ring. A simplified definition of the second law is: It takes work to change things. With these two corollaries: We can calculate the theoretical minimum work needed for a given change; and We can express the value of all changes in terms of work

  8. Implementation of energy-saving policies in China: How local governments assisted industrial enterprises in achieving energy-saving targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaofan; Li, Huimin; Wu, Liang; Qi, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Local governments have replaced the national ministries that are in charge of various industries to become the primary implementer of energy-saving policies in China since 2000. This paper employs a case study-based approach to demonstrate the significance of local governments’ policy measures in assisting industrial enterprises with energy-saving activities in China. Based on the longitudinal case of the Jasmine Thermal Electric Power Company, this paper hypothesizes that sub-national governments have played a major role in implementing energy-saving policies in China since the 11th Five-year-plan period. A wide range of provincial and municipal agencies collaborated in implementing five types of policy measures – informational policy, skill building, improved enforcement of central directives, price adjustment, and funding – that reduced barriers to energy saving and motivated active pursuit of energy-saving activities at industrial enterprises. The case study demonstrates how an enterprise and local governments work together to achieve the enterprise's energy-saving target. The authors will investigate the hypothesis of this paper in the context of multiple case studies that they plan to undertake in the future. - Highlights: • We employ a case study-based approach to study policy implementation in China. • Local governments have played a major role in implementing energy-saving policies. • Local public agencies collaborated in implementing five types of policy measures. • Local policy measures reduced barriers to energy saving at industrial enterprises. • Enterprises and local governments work together to achieve energy-saving targets

  9. Saving-Based Asset Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Schneider, Johannes; T. Smith, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of a novel class of preferences for the behavior of asset prices. Following a suggestion by Marshall (1920), we entertain the possibility that people derive utility not only from consumption, but also from the very act of saving. These ‘‘saving-based’’ prefere...

  10. Geology of Woman Saving Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh Madani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Money is lubricant and an instrument for economic transaction. Money social dimension has increased over time, transforming it from a sole economic instrument to a device for various transactions. Money economic value in society is indicated through different forms, one of which is saving, in the sense of money accumulation and its use under specific future circumstances. Women, who form half of the society, take specific approaches to money and savings. The current research aims to investigate the perspectives and changing attitude strategy to money and saving among married women. The participants of this study include 20 to 70 year-old employed household married women who were observed phenomenologically and interviewed qualitatively on saving through.   The findings of this study demonstrated women perspectives on various types of saving, ways of saving, transfer methods, saving consumption forms and their mechanism. It also revealed that while money is an economic instrument and possess the economic material; attitudes and acts related to money are influenced by social conditions that has consequently turned saving into a social phenomenon.

  11. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  12. In silico generation of alternative hypotheses using causal mapping (CMAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel E Weinreb

    Full Text Available Previously, we introduced causal mapping (CMAP as an easy to use systems biology tool for studying the behavior of biological processes that occur at the cellular and molecular level. CMAP is a coarse-grained graphical modeling approach in which the system of interest is modeled as an interaction map between functional elements of the system, in a manner similar to portrayals of signaling pathways commonly used by molecular cell biologists. CMAP describes details of the interactions while maintaining the simplicity of other qualitative methods (e.g., Boolean networks.In this paper, we use the CMAP methodology as a tool for generating hypotheses about the mechanisms that regulate molecular and cellular systems. Furthermore, our approach allows competing hypotheses to be ranked according to a fitness index and suggests experimental tests to distinguish competing high fitness hypotheses. To motivate the CMAP as a hypotheses generating tool and demonstrate the methodology, we first apply this protocol to a simple test-case of a three-element signaling module. Our methods are next applied to the more complex phenomenon of cortical oscillations observed in spreading cells. This analysis produces two high fitness hypotheses for the mechanism that underlies this dynamic behavior and suggests experiments to distinguish the hypotheses. The method can be widely applied to other cellular systems to generate and compare alternative hypotheses based on experimentally observed data and using computer simulations.

  13. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C; Poole, C; Almstrup, K; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; McGlynn, K A

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term 'testicular cancer' and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail-based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate the plausibility of the suggested etiologic hypotheses on a scale of 1 (very implausible) to 10 (very plausible). This report describes the methodology of the survey, the score distributions by individual hypotheses, hypothesis group, and the participants' major research fields, and discuss the hypotheses that scored as most plausible. We also present plans for improving the survey that may be repeated at a next international meeting of experts in testicular cancer. Overall 52 of 99 (53%) registered participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop submitted the plausibility rating form. Fourteen of 27 hypotheses were related to exposures during pregnancy. Hypotheses with the highest mean plausibility ratings were either related to pre-natal exposures or exposures that might have an effect during pregnancy and in post-natal life. The results of the survey may be helpful for triggering more specific etiologic hypotheses that include factors related to endocrine disruption, DNA damage, inflammation, and nutrition during pregnancy. The survey results may stimulate a multidisciplinary discussion about new etiologic hypotheses of testicular cancer. Published 2014. This article is a U. S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  15. Mirror bootstrap method for testing hypotheses of one mean

    OpenAIRE

    Varvak, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The general philosophy for bootstrap or permutation methods for testing hypotheses is to simulate the variation of the test statistic by generating the sampling distribution which assumes both that the null hypothesis is true, and that the data in the sample is somehow representative of the population. This philosophy is inapplicable for testing hypotheses for a single parameter like the population mean, since the two assumptions are contradictory (e.g., how can we assume both that the mean o...

  16. 12 CFR 561.43 - Savings association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., chartered under section 5 of the Act, or a building and loan, savings and loan, or homestead association, or... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings association. 561.43 Section 561.43... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.43 Savings association. The term savings association means a...

  17. Reinforcement Learning and Savings Behavior*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Metrick, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We show that individual investors over-extrapolate from their personal experience when making savings decisions. Investors who experience particularly rewarding outcomes from saving in their 401(k)—a high average and/or low variance return—increase their 401(k) savings rate more than investors who have less rewarding experiences with saving. This finding is not driven by aggregate time-series shocks, income effects, rational learning about investing skill, investor fixed effects, or time-varying investor-level heterogeneity that is correlated with portfolio allocations to stock, bond, and cash asset classes. We discuss implications for the equity premium puzzle and interventions aimed at improving household financial outcomes. PMID:20352013

  18. Regulatory focus and the family-work interface : the role of regulatory fit between cohabiting partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.; Tetrick, L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of regulatory focus in goal pursuit and regulatory fit between marital partners on family conditions and the family–work interface. We hypothesized that when both partners are high on promotion focus (fit) they experience higher developmental

  19. Overview of contractual savings institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Vittas, Dimitri; Skully, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Contractual savings institutions include national provident funds, life insurance companies, private pension funds, and funded social pension insurance systems. They have long-term liabilities and stable cash flows and are therefore ideal providers of term finance, not only to government and industry, but also to municipal authorities and the housing sector. Except for Singapore, Malaysia, and a few other countries, most developing countries have small and insignificant contractual savings in...

  20. The rise of corporate savings

    OpenAIRE

    Roc Armenter

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades, several developed economies have experienced large changes in how much households and firms save. In fact, a sharp increase in firms’ savings behavior has changed the net position of the (nonfinancial) corporate sector vis-à-vis the rest of the economy. ; Why have firms in the business of producing goods or services become lenders? This is quite at odds with traditional models of corporate finance, which suggest that firms issue debt and equity to fund their operati...

  1. HyQue: evaluating hypotheses using Semantic Web technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Key to the success of e-Science is the ability to computationally evaluate expert-composed hypotheses for validity against experimental data. Researchers face the challenge of collecting, evaluating and integrating large amounts of diverse information to compose and evaluate a hypothesis. Confronted with rapidly accumulating data, researchers currently do not have the software tools to undertake the required information integration tasks. Results We present HyQue, a Semantic Web tool for querying scientific knowledge bases with the purpose of evaluating user submitted hypotheses. HyQue features a knowledge model to accommodate diverse hypotheses structured as events and represented using Semantic Web languages (RDF/OWL). Hypothesis validity is evaluated against experimental and literature-sourced evidence through a combination of SPARQL queries and evaluation rules. Inference over OWL ontologies (for type specifications, subclass assertions and parthood relations) and retrieval of facts stored as Bio2RDF linked data provide support for a given hypothesis. We evaluate hypotheses of varying levels of detail about the genetic network controlling galactose metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to demonstrate the feasibility of deploying such semantic computing tools over a growing body of structured knowledge in Bio2RDF. Conclusions HyQue is a query-based hypothesis evaluation system that can currently evaluate hypotheses about the galactose metabolism in S. cerevisiae. Hypotheses as well as the supporting or refuting data are represented in RDF and directly linked to one another allowing scientists to browse from data to hypothesis and vice versa. HyQue hypotheses and data are available at http://semanticscience.org/projects/hyque. PMID:21624158

  2. HyQue: evaluating hypotheses using Semantic Web technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Alison; Dumontier, Michel; Shah, Nigam H

    2011-05-17

    Key to the success of e-Science is the ability to computationally evaluate expert-composed hypotheses for validity against experimental data. Researchers face the challenge of collecting, evaluating and integrating large amounts of diverse information to compose and evaluate a hypothesis. Confronted with rapidly accumulating data, researchers currently do not have the software tools to undertake the required information integration tasks. We present HyQue, a Semantic Web tool for querying scientific knowledge bases with the purpose of evaluating user submitted hypotheses. HyQue features a knowledge model to accommodate diverse hypotheses structured as events and represented using Semantic Web languages (RDF/OWL). Hypothesis validity is evaluated against experimental and literature-sourced evidence through a combination of SPARQL queries and evaluation rules. Inference over OWL ontologies (for type specifications, subclass assertions and parthood relations) and retrieval of facts stored as Bio2RDF linked data provide support for a given hypothesis. We evaluate hypotheses of varying levels of detail about the genetic network controlling galactose metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to demonstrate the feasibility of deploying such semantic computing tools over a growing body of structured knowledge in Bio2RDF. HyQue is a query-based hypothesis evaluation system that can currently evaluate hypotheses about the galactose metabolism in S. cerevisiae. Hypotheses as well as the supporting or refuting data are represented in RDF and directly linked to one another allowing scientists to browse from data to hypothesis and vice versa. HyQue hypotheses and data are available at http://semanticscience.org/projects/hyque.

  3. HyQue: evaluating hypotheses using Semantic Web technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callahan Alison

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Key to the success of e-Science is the ability to computationally evaluate expert-composed hypotheses for validity against experimental data. Researchers face the challenge of collecting, evaluating and integrating large amounts of diverse information to compose and evaluate a hypothesis. Confronted with rapidly accumulating data, researchers currently do not have the software tools to undertake the required information integration tasks. Results We present HyQue, a Semantic Web tool for querying scientific knowledge bases with the purpose of evaluating user submitted hypotheses. HyQue features a knowledge model to accommodate diverse hypotheses structured as events and represented using Semantic Web languages (RDF/OWL. Hypothesis validity is evaluated against experimental and literature-sourced evidence through a combination of SPARQL queries and evaluation rules. Inference over OWL ontologies (for type specifications, subclass assertions and parthood relations and retrieval of facts stored as Bio2RDF linked data provide support for a given hypothesis. We evaluate hypotheses of varying levels of detail about the genetic network controlling galactose metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to demonstrate the feasibility of deploying such semantic computing tools over a growing body of structured knowledge in Bio2RDF. Conclusions HyQue is a query-based hypothesis evaluation system that can currently evaluate hypotheses about the galactose metabolism in S. cerevisiae. Hypotheses as well as the supporting or refuting data are represented in RDF and directly linked to one another allowing scientists to browse from data to hypothesis and vice versa. HyQue hypotheses and data are available at http://semanticscience.org/projects/hyque.

  4. Energy savings: persuasion and persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eijadi, David; McDougall, Tom; Leaf, Kris; Douglas, Jim; Steinbock, Jason; Reimer, Paul [The Weidt Group, Minnetonka, MN (United States); Gauthier, Julia [Xcel Energy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wild, Doug; Richards McDaniel, Stephanie [BWBR Architects, Inc., Saint Paul, MN (United States)

    2005-07-01

    In this study, the architects, sponsoring utility and energy simulation specialist joined together to investigate the persistence of energy savings in three completed projects: a college library; a municipal transportation facility; and a hospital. The primary question being 'How well did the design decisions made with the help of simulation analysis translate into building operations over several years?' Design simulation and metered performance data are compared for specific energy-saving strategies. The paper provides a brief overview of the basis of selection of the three projects, the energy design assistance methods employed and the decisions made, along with their savings expectations. For each case, design characteristics, modelling assumptions, selected strategies and actual metered performance are outlined. We find evidence of appropriate levels of energy conservation, but they are not the absolute values predicted. In each case, the discrepancies between modelling assumptions and final construction or operating procedures are identified, examined and rectified. The paper illustrates that while owners are saving energy, they are not always getting the full savings potential for what they install. The paper concludes with a re-examination of the overall process. It evaluates the potential for additional savings of individual technologies and related larger utility incentives to design teams and building owners.

  5. The revelation effect: A meta-analytic test of hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aßfalg, André; Bernstein, Daniel M; Hockley, William

    2017-12-01

    Judgments can depend on the activity directly preceding them. An example is the revelation effect whereby participants are more likely to claim that a stimulus is familiar after a preceding task, such as solving an anagram, than without a preceding task. We test conflicting predictions of four revelation-effect hypotheses in a meta-analysis of 26 years of revelation-effect research. The hypotheses' predictions refer to three subject areas: (1) the basis of judgments that are subject to the revelation effect (recollection vs. familiarity vs. fluency), (2) the degree of similarity between the task and test item, and (3) the difficulty of the preceding task. We use a hierarchical multivariate meta-analysis to account for dependent effect sizes and variance in experimental procedures. We test the revelation-effect hypotheses with a model selection procedure, where each model corresponds to a prediction of a revelation-effect hypothesis. We further quantify the amount of evidence for one model compared to another with Bayes factors. The results of this analysis suggest that none of the extant revelation-effect hypotheses can fully account for the data. The general vagueness of revelation-effect hypotheses and the scarcity of data were the major limiting factors in our analyses, emphasizing the need for formalized theories and further research into the puzzling revelation effect.

  6. 76 FR 16477 - General Reporting and Recordkeeping by Savings Associations and Savings and Loan Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... Savings Associations and Savings and Loan Holding Companies AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS...), 12 CFR 562.4 (audit of savings association, savings and loan holding company, or affiliate), 12 CFR... the savings association), 12 CFR 584.1(f) (books and records of each savings and loan holding company...

  7. Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tscharntke, T.; Tylianakis, J.M.; Rand, T.A.; Didham, R.K.; Fahrig, L.; Batary, P.; Bengtsson, J.; Clough, Y.; Crist, T.O.; Dormann, C.; Ewers, R.M.; Frund, J.; Holt, R.D.; Holzschuh, A.; Klein, A.M.; Kleijn, D.; Kremen, C.; Landis, D.A.; Laurance, W.F.; Lindenmayer, D.B.; Scherber, C.; Sodhi, N.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Thies, C.; Putten, van der W.H.; Westphal, C.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how landscape characteristics affect biodiversity patterns and ecological processes at local and landscape scales is critical for mitigating effects of global environmental change. In this review, we use knowledge gained from human-modified landscapes to suggest eight hypotheses, which

  8. Twelve testable hypotheses on the geobiology of weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.L. Brantley; J.P. Megonigal; F.N. Scatena; Z. Balogh-Brunstad; R.T. Barnes; M.A. Bruns; P. van Cappelen; K. Dontsova; H.E. Hartnett; A.S. Hartshorn; A. Heimsath; E. Herndon; L. Jin; C.K. Keller; J.R. Leake; W.H. McDowell; F.C. Meinzer; T.J. Mozdzer; S. Petsch; J. Pett-Ridge; K.S. Pretziger; P.A. Raymond; C.S. Riebe; K. Shumaker; A. Sutton-Grier; R. Walter; K. Yoo

    2011-01-01

    Critical Zone (CZ) research investigates the chemical, physical, and biological processes that modulate the Earth's surface. Here, we advance 12 hypotheses that must be tested to improve our understanding of the CZ: (1) Solar-to-chemical conversion of energy by plants regulates flows of carbon, water, and nutrients through plant-microbe soil networks, thereby...

  9. What Is the Problem of Ad Hoc Hypotheses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, Greg

    1999-01-01

    Philosophers' attempts to convincingly explicate the received view of an ad hoc hypothesis--that it accounts for only the observations it was designed to account for--have been unsuccessful. Familiar and firmer criteria for evaluating the hypotheses or modified theories so classified are characteristically available. Contains 41 references.…

  10. Editorial: hypotheses about protein folding - the proteomic code and wonderfolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agutter Paul S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Theoretical biology journals can contribute in many ways to the progress of knowledge. They are particularly well-placed to encourage dialogue and debate about hypotheses addressing problematical areas of research. An online journal provides an especially useful forum for such debate because of the option of posting comments within days of the publication of a contentious article.

  11. Toward Valid Measurement of Stephen Pepper's World Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, John A.

    Two measures of the "world hypotheses" of Stephen Pepper were mailed to 100 sociobiologists, 87 behaviorists, 79 personality psychologists, and 45 human developmentalists. The World Hypothesis Scale (WHS) was designed to measure Pepper's four world views: (1) formism; (2) mechanism; (3) organicism; and (4) contextualism. The…

  12. Testing Hypotheses About Glacial Cycles Against the Observational Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, Robert; Juselius, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    We estimate an identified cointegrated vector autoregression (CVAR) model of the climate system to test hypotheses about the physical mechanisms that may drive glacial cycles during the late Pleistocene. Results indicate that a permanent doubling of CO2 generates a 11.1oC rise in Antarctic...

  13. Testing hypotheses involving Cronbach's alpha using marginal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, R.E.; van der Ark, L.A.; Croon, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the statistical testing of three relevant hypotheses involving Cronbach's alpha: one where alpha equals a particular criterion; a second testing the equality of two alpha coefficients for independent samples; and a third testing the equality of two alpha coefficients for dependent

  14. Data-driven efficient score tests for deconvolution hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langovoy, M.

    2008-01-01

    We consider testing statistical hypotheses about densities of signals in deconvolution models. A new approach to this problem is proposed. We constructed score tests for the deconvolution density testing with the known noise density and efficient score tests for the case of unknown density. The

  15. Cancer stem cell hypotheses: Impact on modern molecular

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    basis for the so-called cancer stem cell (CSC) hypotheses. The first exact proof of CSC ... or less equal ability for tumour regeneration and repopulation. (Nowell 1976 .... Also, there are reports that the 'stemness' (stem-like properties) of brain.

  16. Causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines: Hypotheses and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, P.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of industrial-scale wind turbines are being built across the world each year to meet the growing demand for sustainable energy. Bats of certain species are dying at wind turbines in unprecedented numbers. Species of bats consistently affected by turbines tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years toward better understanding the problem, the causes of bat fatalities at turbines remain unclear. In this synthesis, we review hypothesized causes of bat fatalities at turbines. Hypotheses of cause fall into 2 general categoriesproximate and ultimate. Proximate causes explain the direct means by which bats die at turbines and include collision with towers and rotating blades, and barotrauma. Ultimate causes explain why bats come close to turbines and include 3 general types: random collisions, coincidental collisions, and collisions that result from attraction of bats to turbines. The random collision hypothesis posits that interactions between bats and turbines are random events and that fatalities are representative of the bats present at a site. Coincidental hypotheses posit that certain aspects of bat distribution or behavior put them at risk of collision and include aggregation during migration and seasonal increases in flight activity associated with feeding or mating. A surprising number of attraction hypotheses suggest that bats might be attracted to turbines out of curiosity, misperception, or as potential feeding, roosting, flocking, and mating opportunities. Identifying, prioritizing, and testing hypothesized causes of bat collisions with wind turbines are vital steps toward developing practical solutions to the problem. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  17. Control Evaluation Information System Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Sutedjo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the control of information system savings in the banking and to identify the weaknesses and problem happened in those saving systems. Research method used are book studies by collecting data and information needed and field studies by interview, observation, questioner, and checklist using COBIT method as a standard to assess the information system control of the company. The expected result about the evaluation result that show in the problem happened and recommendation given as the evaluation report and to give a view about the control done by the company. Conclusion took from this research that this banking company has met standards although some weaknesses still exists in the system.Index Terms - Control Information System, Savings

  18. Are Women Empowered to Save?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Woolley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Female economic empowerment – rising earnings, increased opportunities, greater labour force participation – has given many women the means to save. The shifting of responsibility for retirement security from employers and governments onto individuals has given women a reason to save. But are women actually saving? In this paper, we explore the relationship between the gender dynamics within a family and the accumulation of wealth. We find that little evidence in support of the conventional wisdom that families with a female financial manager save more and repay their debts more often. We find some evidence that male financial management leads to greater savings, and other evidence suggesting that savings patterns have a complex relationship with intra-family gender dynamics. El empoderamiento económico de la mujer – el aumento de los ingresos, mayores oportunidades, mayor participación laboral – ha dado a muchas mujeres los medios para ahorrar. Al pasar la responsabilidad de los ingresos de la jubilación de los empleadores y el gobierno a los individuos ha dado a las mujeres un motivo para ahorrar. ¿Pero realmente ahorran las mujeres? En este artículo se analizan las relaciones entre las dinámicas de género en una familia, y la acumulación de riqueza. Se ha llegado a la conclusión de que hay poca evidencia que apoye la creencia convencional de que las familias en las que una mujer gestiona las financias ahorran más y devuelven sus créditos más frecuentemente. Se ha encontrado alguna evidencia de que la gestión financiera por varones acarrea mayores ahorros, y otras evidencias que sugieren que los patrones de ahorro tienen una relación compleja con las dinámicas de género dentro de la familia.

  19. Saving Face and Group Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Mao, Lei; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2015-01-01

    their self- but also other group members' image. This behavior is frequent even in the absence of group identity. When group identity is more salient, individuals help regardless of whether the least performer is an in-group or an out-group. This suggests that saving others' face is a strong social norm.......Are people willing to sacrifice resources to save one's and others' face? In a laboratory experiment, we study whether individuals forego resources to avoid the public exposure of the least performer in their group. We show that a majority of individuals are willing to pay to preserve not only...

  20. Improved methods to evaluate realised energy savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis regards the calculation of realised energy savings at national and sectoral level, and the policy contribution to total savings. It is observed that the results of monitoring and evaluation studies on realised energy savings are hardly applied in energy saving policy. Causes are the lack

  1. Assessment of the benefits and impacts in the U.S. Nuclear Power Industry of hypothesized lower occupational dose limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, R.L.; Schmitt, J.F. [Nuclear Energy Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements have issued recommendations that would limit occupational exposure of individuals to doses lower than regulatory limits contained in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s 10 CFR Part 20, {open_quotes}Standards for Protection Against Radiation{close_quotes}. Because of this situation, there is interest in the potential benefits and impacts that would be associated with movement of the NRC regulatory limits toward the advisory bodies recommendations. The records of occupational worker doses in the U.S. commercial nuclear power industry show that the vast majority of these workers have doses that are significantly below the regulatory limit of 50 mSv (5 rem) per year. Some workers doses do approach the limits, however. This is most common in the case of specially skilled workers, especially those with skills utilized in support of plant outage work. Any consideration of the potential benefits and impacts of hypothesized lower dose limits must address these workers as an important input to the overall assessment. There are also, of course, many other areas in which the benefits and impacts must be evaluated. To prepare to provide valid, constructive input on this matter, the U.S. nuclear power industry is undertaking an assessment, facilitated by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), of the potential benefits and impacts at its facilities associated with hypothesized lower occupational dose limits. Some preliminary results available to date from this assessment are provided.

  2. Assessment of the benefits and impacts in the U.S. Nuclear Power Industry of hypothesized lower occupational dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, R.L.; Schmitt, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements have issued recommendations that would limit occupational exposure of individuals to doses lower than regulatory limits contained in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's 10 CFR Part 20, open-quotes Standards for Protection Against Radiationclose quotes. Because of this situation, there is interest in the potential benefits and impacts that would be associated with movement of the NRC regulatory limits toward the advisory bodies recommendations. The records of occupational worker doses in the U.S. commercial nuclear power industry show that the vast majority of these workers have doses that are significantly below the regulatory limit of 50 mSv (5 rem) per year. Some workers doses do approach the limits, however. This is most common in the case of specially skilled workers, especially those with skills utilized in support of plant outage work. Any consideration of the potential benefits and impacts of hypothesized lower dose limits must address these workers as an important input to the overall assessment. There are also, of course, many other areas in which the benefits and impacts must be evaluated. To prepare to provide valid, constructive input on this matter, the U.S. nuclear power industry is undertaking an assessment, facilitated by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), of the potential benefits and impacts at its facilities associated with hypothesized lower occupational dose limits. Some preliminary results available to date from this assessment are provided

  3. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  4. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  5. 17 CFR 230.237 - Exemption for offers and sales to certain Canadian tax-deferred retirement savings accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... laws of Canada, the laws of any province or territory of Canada, and the rules or regulations of any federal, provincial, or territorial regulatory authority, or any self-regulatory authority, of Canada. (2... “Registered Retirement Savings Plan” or “Registered Retirement Income Fund” administered under Canadian law...

  6. Kolmogorov's refined similarity hypotheses for turbulence and general stochastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolovitzky, G.; Sreenivasan, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    Kolmogorov's refined similarity hypotheses are shown to hold true for a variety of stochastic processes besides high-Reynolds-number turbulent flows, for which they were originally proposed. In particular, just as hypothesized for turbulence, there exists a variable V whose probability density function attains a universal form. Analytical expressions for the probability density function of V are obtained for Brownian motion as well as for the general case of fractional Brownian motion---the latter under some mild assumptions justified a posteriori. The properties of V for the case of antipersistent fractional Brownian motion with the Hurst exponent of 1/3 are similar in many details to those of high-Reynolds-number turbulence in atmospheric boundary layers a few meters above the ground. The one conspicuous difference between turbulence and the antipersistent fractional Brownian motion is that the latter does not possess the required skewness. Broad implications of these results are discussed

  7. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops...... and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term 'testicular cancer' and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail-based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate...... that scored as most plausible. We also present plans for improving the survey that may be repeated at a next international meeting of experts in testicular cancer. Overall 52 of 99 (53%) registered participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop submitted the plausibility rating form. Fourteen of 27...

  8. Revolving fund for energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prebensen, K.

    1993-01-01

    A key issue in Eastern Europe is the adjustment of prices from the former COMECON level to a level conforming with free market conditions. In the case of household heating, this issue involves the removal of government subsidies leading to sharply increasing prices, metering of individual consumption, improving the efficiency of energy production, distribution and use - where savings of 30-50% in each link are technically feasible - thereby providing a potential for a adapting consumption patterns to higher energy prices, provided that funds are available. Currently, investment in commercial heat production and distribution systems have received substantial international support - whereas investment in reduction of demand has been little exploited. The Revolving Fund for Energy Savings in Polish Households is a concept for efficient financing of small-scale projects. It aims at financing, on the level of housing cooperatives, on the basis of a simplified lending and project evaluation procedure, well suited to current Polish conditions or an organizationally and financially weak banking system and little developed technical knowledge in the field of energy saving. A general introduction to the issue is given and technical problems are elaborated. The implementation of Energy Savings in Housing seen from the banking point of view, and a current pilot scheme for financing, are described. (AB)

  9. Social Capital and Savings Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    We explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in imparting information about the returns to saving where potential knowledge gaps and mistrust exists. Using data from Vietnam we find strong evidence to support the hypothesis that information transmitted via reputable social...

  10. Save the Boulders Beach Penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerer, Katherine; Schnittka, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maybe it's the peculiar way they walk or their cute little suits, but students of all ages are drawn to penguins. To meet younger students' curiosity, the authors adapted a middle-school level, penguin-themed curriculum unit called Save the Penguins (Schnittka, Bell, and Richards 2010) for third-grade students. The students loved learning about…

  11. Explanatory hypotheses formation and the anomalous β spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauderis, Tjerk [Centre for Logic and Philosophy of Science, Ghent University (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    Between 1928 and 1934, a persevering anomaly mystified the physics community: while alpha decay behaved perfectly according to the new quantum mechanics, the energy of electrons emitted in beta decay displayed a broad continuous spectrum. This puzzle invoked a lively debate among the most established physicists at the time. But the curious thing was that they all suggested hypotheses of very different formal types: Rutherford and Chadwick thought of varying internal energies, Bohr suggested to restrict the energy conservation principle, Heisenberg tinkered with a new quantization of space, and Pauli suggested the existence of a new elementary particle - all these hypotheses being radical and highly controversial. In physics, an anomalous experimental result can trigger the formation of formally very different hypotheses. A scientist confronted with such a result has no strict guidelines to help her decide whether she should explain this result by withdrawing or adapting a constraint (e.g. a law) of the current theory, or by presupposing the existence of a hitherto unobserved entity (e.g. a particle) that makes the anomaly fit within that theory. In this talk I aim to gain some insights how scientists make this choice, by examining in the above case study how the choice of the various mentioned physicists depended on their previous experiences and their specific perception of the problem.

  12. 76 FR 31680 - General Reporting and Recordkeeping by Savings Associations and Savings and Loan Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Savings Associations and Savings and Loan Holding Companies AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... Savings and Loan Holding Companies. OMB Number: 1550-0011. Form Number: N/A. Description: This information...), 12 CFR 562.4 (audit of savings association, savings and loan holding company, or affiliate), 12 CFR...

  13. Phylemon 2.0: a suite of web-tools for molecular evolution, phylogenetics, phylogenomics and hypotheses testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Rubén; Serra, François; Tárraga, Joaquín; Medina, Ignacio; Carbonell, José; Pulido, Luis; de María, Alejandro; Capella-Gutíerrez, Salvador; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Gabaldón, Toni; Dopazo, Joaquín; Dopazo, Hernán

    2011-07-01

    Phylemon 2.0 is a new release of the suite of web tools for molecular evolution, phylogenetics, phylogenomics and hypotheses testing. It has been designed as a response to the increasing demand of molecular sequence analyses for experts and non-expert users. Phylemon 2.0 has several unique features that differentiates it from other similar web resources: (i) it offers an integrated environment that enables evolutionary analyses, format conversion, file storage and edition of results; (ii) it suggests further analyses, thereby guiding the users through the web server; and (iii) it allows users to design and save phylogenetic pipelines to be used over multiple genes (phylogenomics). Altogether, Phylemon 2.0 integrates a suite of 30 tools covering sequence alignment reconstruction and trimming; tree reconstruction, visualization and manipulation; and evolutionary hypotheses testing.

  14. Phylemon 2.0: a suite of web-tools for molecular evolution, phylogenetics, phylogenomics and hypotheses testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Rubén; Serra, François; Tárraga, Joaquín; Medina, Ignacio; Carbonell, José; Pulido, Luis; de María, Alejandro; Capella-Gutíerrez, Salvador; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Gabaldón, Toni; Dopazo, Joaquín; Dopazo, Hernán

    2011-01-01

    Phylemon 2.0 is a new release of the suite of web tools for molecular evolution, phylogenetics, phylogenomics and hypotheses testing. It has been designed as a response to the increasing demand of molecular sequence analyses for experts and non-expert users. Phylemon 2.0 has several unique features that differentiates it from other similar web resources: (i) it offers an integrated environment that enables evolutionary analyses, format conversion, file storage and edition of results; (ii) it suggests further analyses, thereby guiding the users through the web server; and (iii) it allows users to design and save phylogenetic pipelines to be used over multiple genes (phylogenomics). Altogether, Phylemon 2.0 integrates a suite of 30 tools covering sequence alignment reconstruction and trimming; tree reconstruction, visualization and manipulation; and evolutionary hypotheses testing. PMID:21646336

  15. Can health promotion programs save Medicare money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzel, Ron Z; Shechter, David; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Stapleton, David C; Lapin, Pauline J; McGinnis, J Michael; Gordon, Catherine R; Breslow, Lester

    2007-01-01

    The impact of an aging population on escalating US healthcare costs is influenced largely by the prevalence of chronic disease in this population. Consequently, preventing or postponing disease onset among the elderly has become a crucial public health issue. Fortunately, much of the total burden of disease is attributable to conditions that are preventable. In this paper, we address whether well-designed health promotion programs can prevent illness, reduce disability, and improve the quality of life. Furthermore, we assess evidence that these programs have the potential to reduce healthcare utilization and related expenditures for the Medicare program. We hypothesize that seniors who reduce their modifiable health risks can forestall disability, reduce healthcare utilization, and save Medicare money. We end with a discussion of a new Senior Risk Reduction Demonstration, which will be initiated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in 2007, to test whether risk reduction programs developed in the private sector can achieve health improvements among seniors and a positive return on investment for the Medicare program. PMID:18044084

  16. Cancer risks near nuclear facilities: the importance of research design and explicit study hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Steve; Richardson, David B; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2011-04-01

    In April 2010, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission asked the National Academy of Sciences to update a 1990 study of cancer risks near nuclear facilities. Prior research on this topic has suffered from problems in hypothesis formulation and research design. We review epidemiologic principles used in studies of generic exposure-response associations and in studies of specific sources of exposure. We then describe logical problems with assumptions, formation of testable hypotheses, and interpretation of evidence in previous research on cancer risks near nuclear facilities. Advancement of knowledge about cancer risks near nuclear facilities depends on testing specific hypotheses grounded in physical and biological mechanisms of exposure and susceptibility while considering sample size and ability to adequately quantify exposure, ascertain cancer cases, and evaluate plausible confounders. Next steps in advancing knowledge about cancer risks near nuclear facilities require studies of childhood cancer incidence, focus on in utero and early childhood exposures, use of specific geographic information, and consideration of pathways for transport and uptake of radionuclides. Studies of cancer mortality among adults, cancers with long latencies, large geographic zones, and populations that reside at large distances from nuclear facilities are better suited for public relations than for scientific purposes.

  17. Hypothesized eye movements of neurolinguistic programming: a statistical artifact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, A; Rooney, R; Cunningham, J R

    1985-12-01

    Neurolinguistic programming's hypothesized eye-movements were measured independently from videotapes of 30 subjects, aged 15 to 76 yr., who were asked to recall visual pictures, recorded audio sounds, and textural objects. chi 2 indicated that subjects' responses were significantly different from those predicted. When chi 2 comparisons were weighted by number of eye positions assigned to each modality (3 visual, 3 auditory, 1 kinesthetic), subjects' responses did not differ significantly from the expected pattern. These data indicate that the eye-movement hypothesis may represent randomly occurring rather than sensory-modality-related positions.

  18. FY 1997 cost savings report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellards, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    With the end of the cold war, funding for the Environmental Management program increased rapidly as nuclear weapons production facilities were shut down, cleanup responsibilities increased, and facilities were transferred to the cleanup program. As funding for the Environmental Management (EM) program began to level off in response to Administration and Congressional efforts to balance the Federal budget, the program redoubled its efforts to increase efficiency and get more productivity out of every dollar. Cost savings and enhanced performance are an integral pair of Hanford Site operations. FY1997 was the third year of a cost savings program that was initially defined in FY 1995. The definitions and process remained virtually the same as those used in FY 1996

  19. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  20. Water Saving Strategies & Ecological Modernisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Elle, Morten

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on case studies of water saving campaigns and new collaborations, the pa-per will serve, on the one hand, as an interpretation of the water saving strategy in Co-penhagen in the light of Ecological Modernisation, and on the other hand, as a critical discussion of Ecological Modernisation...... as a frame for understanding resource manage-ment. The water management in Copenhagen has in recent years undergone a rather radi-cal transition. Along with strong drivers for resource management in the region the mu-nicipal water supplier has tested and implemented a number of initiatives to promote sus...... to 125 l/capita/day in 2002. A series of different strategies, targets and tools have been implemented: Emphasizing demand side instead of supply side, using and communicating indicators, formulating goals for reducing water consumption and developing learning processes in water management. A main...

  1. Cost savings through innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, J.M.; Jackson, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Newly developed technologies can and already are saving money. Other technologies under development will provide solutions to problems which are currently impossible or too expensive to address, and still others will offer alternative strategies where baseline approaches are not acceptable to the public. All of these options will be considered as the nation decides what it wishes to accomplish, and fund, to clean up the nuclear weapons complex

  2. Political Participation Online: The Replacement and the Mobilisation Hypotheses Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Linaa

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the state of political participation online more than ten years after the Internet’s great popular breakthrough as an everyday medium. Denmark is used as a case study to critically re-examine the frequently discussed replacement and mobilisation hypotheses on behalf of the ...... participation, efficacy and social capital seem to have less impact on online political participation. In the end, these findings are related to more overall discussions on the democratising potential of the Internet.......This article discusses the state of political participation online more than ten years after the Internet’s great popular breakthrough as an everyday medium. Denmark is used as a case study to critically re-examine the frequently discussed replacement and mobilisation hypotheses on behalf...... of the Internet. The pure replacement hypothesis is rejected. Instead, it is found that the Internet still supplements rather than replaces other media, even among heavy Internet users. The Internet is one among several media used by ‘media omnivores’, and political participation online supplements rather than...

  3. Transfer factor - hypotheses for its structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrine, M; Scibienski, R

    1975-01-01

    Transfer factor (TF) is a dialyzable extract from primed lymphocytes that is able to transfer specific delayed hypersensitivity from one animal to another. On the basis of available data we suggest that TF is a polypeptide with a molecular weight below 15,000 daltons. We hypothesize that TF is the variable light or heavy chain domain of immunoglobulin: such a molecule conforms with the accepted properties of TF and also has the necessary specificity requirements. We also hypothesize that TF is part of a receptor site. beta-2-microglobulin, a molecule that is an integral part of cell surfaces, could be the anchor for TF. beta-2-microglobulin has homologies with the constant portion of immunoglobulin light or heavy chain and thus would combine with the variable domain (TF) to form a complete receptor site for a specific antigen. The properties of TF suggest its mode of action, which is discussed in detail in the text. The biologic advantages of TF is its ability to confer immediate (immunologie specific) protection while the 'normal' immune response develops.

  4. Experienced physicians benefit from analyzing initial diagnostic hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Adam; Geddes, Colin; Wright, Bruce; Coderre, Sylvain; Rikers, Remy; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Background Most incorrect diagnoses involve at least one cognitive error, of which premature closure is the most prevalent. While metacognitive strategies can mitigate premature closure in inexperienced learners, these are rarely studied in experienced physicians. Our objective here was to evaluate the effect of analytic information processing on diagnostic performance of nephrologists and nephrology residents. Methods We asked nine nephrologists and six nephrology residents at the University of Calgary and Glasgow University to diagnose ten nephrology cases. We provided presenting features along with contextual information, after which we asked for an initial diagnosis. We then primed participants to use either hypothetico-deductive reasoning or scheme-inductive reasoning to analyze the remaining case data and generate a final diagnosis. Results After analyzing initial hypotheses, both nephrologists and residents improved the accuracy of final diagnoses (31.1% vs. 65.6%, p inductive reasoning (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 5.69 [1.59, 20.33], p = 0.07), whereas the performance of experienced nephrologists did not differ between strategies (odds ratio 0.57 [0.23, 1.39], p = 0.20). Discussion Experienced nephrologists and nephrology residents can improve their performance by analyzing initial diagnostic hypotheses. The explanation of the interaction between experience and the effect of different reasoning strategies is unclear, but may relate to preferences in reasoning strategy, or the changes in knowledge structure with experience. PMID:26451203

  5. Holiday homes - electric power savings; Sommerhuse - elbesparelser her og nu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofoed Esbensen, N -U; Roed Rasmussen, E [Esbensen Raadgivende Ingenioerer A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark); Weldingh, P [Lokalenergi, Viby J. (Denmark); Worm, J; Adams Rasmussen, L [Energitjenesten, Aarhus (Denmark); Reuss, M [Elsparefonden, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ellehauge, K; Kjaergaard, C -J [Ellehauge og Kildemoes, Aarhus (Denmark); Jensen, Ole Michael [Aalborg Univ. SBi, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2010-09-15

    A questionnaire survey among 700 holiday home owners was conducted and followed up by interviews with representatives of typical groups of holiday home owners and a number of key persons representing rental, building, electricity supply, regulatory processing and supply of renewable energy facilities to holiday homes. The results of the questionnaire survey and of former surveys on technical savings potential are included in an easy-to-read catalogue of ideas with directions and recommendations for various groups of holiday home users and players. The recommendations are grouped into eight topics of more or less relevance for the various target groups. (LN)

  6. Maintenance cost savings - snubber elimination with limit stops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monette, P.; Baltus, R.; Cloud, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    ''Active'' snubbers can be replaced with ''passive'' Limit Stops using two separate strategies. One is a straightforward piping re-analysis to optimize the number of dynamics supports and replace remaining snubbers with Limit Stops. A second approach is to take implicit advantage of the margins afforded by the ASME Code Case N-411 damping ratios and simply replace snubbers one-for-one with no re-analysis. Both methods result in major maintenance cost savings and both have been received favorably by the USNRC (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission). Approaches to maintenance cost reduction using these strategies are discussed in this paper. (Author). 11 refs., 4 figs

  7. Energy Savings in a Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The paper outlines the concept of energy savings as opposed to energy efficency. Afterwards are described briefly the up and down role of energy savings in recent Danish energy policy. It discusses the failure of leaving electricity savings and Integrated Resource Planning to the electricity...

  8. 24 CFR 221.1 - Savings clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Savings clause. 221.1 Section 221.1... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Eligibility Requirements-Low Cost Homes-Savings Clause § 221.1...

  9. Consumer behaviours: Teaching children to save energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-08-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents.

  10. From themes to hypotheses: following up with quantitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David L

    2015-06-01

    One important category of mixed-methods research designs consists of quantitative studies that follow up on qualitative research. In this case, the themes that serve as the results from the qualitative methods generate hypotheses for testing through the quantitative methods. That process requires operationalization to translate the concepts from the qualitative themes into quantitative variables. This article illustrates these procedures with examples that range from simple operationalization to the evaluation of complex models. It concludes with an argument for not only following up qualitative work with quantitative studies but also the reverse, and doing so by going beyond integrating methods within single projects to include broader mutual attention from qualitative and quantitative researchers who work in the same field. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. About hypotheses and paradigms: exploring the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaellis, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Hypotheses generally conform to paradigms which, over time, change, usually tardily, after they have become increasingly difficult to sustain under the impact of non-conforming evidence and alternative hypotheses, but more important, when they no longer are comfortably ensconced in the surrounding social-economic-political-cultural milieu. It is asserted that this milieu is the most important factor in shaping scientific theorizing. Some examples are cited: the rejection of the evidence that the world orbits around the sun (suspected by Pythagoras) in favor of centuries-long firm adherence to the Ptolemaic geocentric system; the early acceptance of Natural Selection in spite of its tautological essence and only conjectural supporting evidence, because it justified contemporaneous social-political ideologies as typified by, e.g., Spencer and Malthus. Economic, social, and cultural factors are cited as providing the ground, i.e., ideational substrate, for what is cited as the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm (DCP), that has increasingly dominated physics, biology, and medicine for over a century and which invokes small, discrete packets of energy/matter (quanta, genes, microorganisms, aberrant cells) functioning within an environment of statistical, not determined, causality. There is speculation on a possible paradigmatic shift from the DCP, which has fostered the proliferation, parallel with ("splitting") taxonomy, of alleged individual disease entities, their diagnoses, and, when available, their specific remedies, something particularly prominent in, e.g., psychiatry's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, a codified compendium of alleged mental and behavioral disorders, but evident in any textbook of diagnosis and treatment of physical ailments. This presumed paradigm shift may be reflected in Western medicine, presently increasingly empirical and atomized, towards a growing acceptance of a more generalized, subject-oriented, approach to health and disease, a non

  12. Testing evolutionary hypotheses for phenotypic divergence using landscape genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, W Chris; Murphy, Melanie A

    2010-02-01

    Understanding the evolutionary causes of phenotypic variation among populations has long been a central theme in evolutionary biology. Several factors can influence phenotypic divergence, including geographic isolation, genetic drift, divergent natural or sexual selection, and phenotypic plasticity. But the relative importance of these factors in generating phenotypic divergence in nature is still a tantalizing and unresolved problem in evolutionary biology. The origin and maintenance of phenotypic divergence is also at the root of many ongoing debates in evolutionary biology, such as the extent to which gene flow constrains adaptive divergence (Garant et al. 2007) and the relative importance of genetic drift, natural selection, and sexual selection in initiating reproductive isolation and speciation (Coyne & Orr 2004). In this issue, Wang & Summers (2010) test the causes of one of the most fantastic examples of phenotypic divergence in nature: colour pattern divergence among populations of the strawberry poison frog (Dendrobates pumilio) in Panama and Costa Rica (Fig. 1). This study provides a beautiful example of the use of the emerging field of landscape genetics to differentiate among hypotheses for phenotypic divergence. Using landscape genetic analyses, Wang & Summers were able to reject the hypotheses that colour pattern divergence is due to isolation-by-distance (IBD) or landscape resistance. Instead, the hypothesis left standing is that colour divergence is due to divergent selection, in turn driving reproductive isolation among populations with different colour morphs. More generally, this study provides a wonderful example of how the emerging field of landscape genetics, which has primarily been applied to questions in conservation and ecology, now plays an essential role in evolutionary research.

  13. Hypotheses about geoglyphs at Nasca, Peru: new discoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Klokočník

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The known hypotheses about the reasons why the geoglyphs in the Nasca and Palpa region of Peru were created are many: roads/paths, rituals/ceremonials, use of hallucinogens, astronomical meaning, influence of extraterrestrials, underground water… and so on. We present a new hypothesis, formulated by J. Sonnek (first published in 2011 in the context of all previous hypotheses.1 Sonnek explains the geoglyphs as tidied work areas for the production of rope and nets, although he goes much further than Stierlin. This eccentric hypothesis now has not only experimental but also archaeological and ethnographical support, which is presented here. Geoglyphs of a special shape were discovered in the pampas; they may represent technical objects – different types of ‘rope twisters’. Following this idea, Sonnek made technical devices (using today’s materials and tested them in practice; they work perfectly, see his YouTube videos.2 In November 2012, wooden pieces, which may be the remnants of ropemaking, were collected from the pampa near the towns of Nasca and Palpa, in vicinity of these hypothetic ropemaking places. Radiocarbon testing by 14C standardized radio-carbon age according to Stuiver-Polach convention and Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS of these wood pieces shows the age to be in a wide range from Early Nasca to the 17th century (and to our epoch with a fake geoglyph, too, thus supporting (but surely not proving the new hypothesis. Moreover, in the Quechua language, the word huasca, waskha (read: uasca means a rope or cord or place where these are produced. This word is very similar to ‘nasca’.

  14. Experienced physicians benefit from analyzing initial diagnostic hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bass

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most incorrect diagnoses involve at least one cognitive error, of which premature closure is the most prevalent. While metacognitive strategies can mitigate premature closure in inexperienced learners, these are rarely studied in experienced physicians. Our objective here was to evaluate the effect of analytic information processing on diagnostic performance of nephrologists and nephrology residents. Methods: We asked nine nephrologists and six nephrology residents at the University of Calgary and Glasgow University to diagnose ten nephrology cases. We provided presenting features along with contextual information, after which we asked for an initial diagnosis. We then primed participants to use either hypothetico-deductive reasoning or scheme-inductive reasoning to analyze the remaining case data and generate a final diagnosis. Results: After analyzing initial hypotheses, both nephrologists and residents improved the accuracy of final diagnoses (31.1% vs. 65.6%, p < 0.001, and 40.0% vs. 70.0%, p < 0.001, respectively. We found a significant interaction between experience and analytic processing strategy (p = 0.002: nephrology residents had significantly increased odds of diagnostic success when using scheme-inductive reasoning (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 5.69 [1.59, 20.33], p = 0.007, whereas the performance of experienced nephrologists did not differ between strategies (odds ratio 0.57 [0.23, 1.39], p = 0.2. Discussion: Experienced nephrologists and nephrology residents can improve their performance by analyzing initial diagnostic hypotheses. The explanation of the interaction between experience and the effect of different reasoning strategies is unclear, but may relate to preferences in reasoning strategy, or the changes in knowledge structure with experience.

  15. Access pricing for transmission networks: Hypotheses and empirical evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martoccia, Maria [Decision Technology Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-08-01

    The sectors characterised by the use of transmission or transport networks as inputs of production (electricity, gas, telecommunications) have long been considered as natural monopolies. Thanks to the technological innovations which have modified the economics of production (as in electricity generation) or that have driven the development of high value added services (as in telecommunications), the boundaries of the old natural monopolies have been eroded by the presence of operators potentially able to compete in national and international markets. The objective is to delineate, by analysing the more significant theoretical contributions and some of the restructuring experiences of the sector in question, the possible regulatory solutions which, in the perspective of a `European market` for electricity, makes the management and the expansion of the transmission networks adequate for the `open access` of national electricity sectors. The analysis of some mature experiences, such as in Chile, Argentina, the UK and Norway, in the second section, will offer a useful support to this evaluation. The regulatory solution here adopted will be analysed, in particular, with reference to the two main problems outlined above: on the one hand, the problem of providing through prices the necessary information about the opportunities of using the transmission assets; and on the other hand, the problem of defining an efficient incentive mechanism for the behaviour of the monopolist (the owner of the transmission assets). Finally, by considering the limits found in the solutions explored in these models, we will try, in the third section, to delineate the evolution that the regulation of the analysed sectors could follow, in an attempt to make the optimal solution defined in the first section consistent with the imperfections of the real scenarios. (EHS)

  16. Global Regulatory Differences for Gene- and Cell-Based Therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppens, Delphi G M; De Bruin, Marie L; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2017-01-01

    Gene- and cell-based therapies (GCTs) offer potential new treatment options for unmet medical needs. However, the use of conventional regulatory requirements for medicinal products to approve GCTs may impede patient access and therapeutic innovation. Furthermore, requirements differ between...... jurisdictions, complicating the global regulatory landscape. We provide a comparative overview of regulatory requirements for GCT approval in five jurisdictions and hypothesize on the consequences of the observed global differences on patient access and therapeutic innovation....

  17. Energy saving consulting in Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-01

    For anyone who wants to realise the dream of his own house, the terms of thermal insulation and saving heating plant should be central in planning this. One needs advice from experts for this. A survey of the many consultants offices available in Hamburg is provided. The list was compiled with the assistance of the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce and the Hamburg Trades Council and of professional associations. The information on the special fields of activity of the named consultants is based on their statements.

  18. Medical savings accounts make waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J

    1995-02-27

    MSAs: the theory. Medical savings account legislation would allow consumers to set aside pre-tax dollars to pay for day-to-day healthcare costs. The accounts are to be backed up by a catastropic policy with a deductible roughly equal to the maximum amount allowed in the MSA. The aim is to reduce healthcare cost inflation by making consumers more aware of the costs of healthcare than they are under comprehensive policies and enabling them to shop for the lowest-cost, highest-quality care.

  19. Student saving, does it exist? : A study of students' saving behavior, attitude towards saving and motivation to save.

    OpenAIRE

    Tuvesson, Joakim; Yu, Shiyu

    2011-01-01

    Swedish households are getting deeper in debt and house prices keeps on rising. This is what happened in USA and it was one of the major causes of the recent financial crisis. To avoid a similar crisis in Sweden we think one part of the solution is to make sure that those who are students today and soon will get jobs, buy houses, take loans etcetera have necessary knowledge to do so. Students’ saving is an area that almost completely lacked researchers’ attention, and one goal with this thesi...

  20. Value of travel time savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Masurier, P.; Polak, J.; Pawlak, Janet

    2015-01-01

    A team of specialist market researchers and Value of Time experts comprising members from SYSTRA, Imperial College London and the Technical University of Denmark has conducted a formal audit and peer review of research undertaken by Arup/ITS Leeds/Accent to derive Value of Travel Time Savings...... Preference (RP) models that were used to derive final Values of Travel Time (VTT). This report contains the findings of our audit and peer review of the procedures adopted by the research team during data collection of the three surveys (SP, RP and Employers Surveys); a peer review of the reported approach...

  1. Connecting possibilistic prudence and optimal saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Lucia Casademunt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the optimal saving problem in the framework of possibility theory. The notion of possibilistic precautionary saving is introduced as a measure of the way the presence of possibilistic risk (represented by a fuzzy number influences a consumer in establishing the level of optimal saving. The notion of prudence of an agent in the face of possibilistic risk is defined and the equivalence between the prudence condition and a positive possibilistic precautionary saving is proved. Some relations between possibilistic risk aversion, prudence and possibilistic precautionary saving were established.

  2. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  3. Risk transfer via energy-savings insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Evan

    2003-01-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and potential disputes over stipulated savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building diagnostics and commissioning), financial methods are less developed in the energy management arena than in other segments of the economy. Energy-savings insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - transfers and spreads both types of risk over a larger pool of energy efficiency projects and reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy service firms who lack sufficiently strong balance sheets to self-insure the savings. ESI encourages those implementing energy-saving projects to go beyond standard measures and thereby achieve more significant levels of energy savings. Insurance providers are proponents of improved savings measurement and verification techniques, as well as maintenance, thereby contributing to national energy-saving objectives. If properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy-saving projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Governmental agencies have been pioneers in the use of ESI and could continue to play a role

  4. Federal Aviation Administration retained savings program proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostick, D.J.; Larson, L.L.; Hostick, C.J.

    1998-03-01

    Federal legislation allows federal agencies to retain up to 50% of the savings associated with implementing energy efficiency and water conservation measures and practices. Given budget pressures to reduce expenditures, the use of retained savings to fund additional projects represents a source of funds outside of the traditional budget cycle. The Southwest Region Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a model retained savings program for Southwest Region FAA use and as a prototype for consideration by the FAA. PNNL recommends the following steps be taken in developing a Southwest Region FAA retained savings program: Establish a retained savings mechanism. Determine the level at which the retained savings should be consolidated into a fund. The preliminary recommendation is to establish a revolving efficiency loan fund at the regional level. Such a mechanism allows some consolidation of savings to fund larger projects, while maintaining a sense of facility ownership in that the funds will remain within the region

  5. Energy saving synergies in national energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system, energy savings are essential. The possibility of energy savings through conservation or efficiency increases can be identified in, for instance, the heating and electricity sectors, in industry, and in transport. Several studies point...... to various optimal levels of savings in the different sectors of the energy system. However, these studies do not investigate the idea of energy savings being system dependent. This paper argues that such system dependency is critical to understand, as it does not make sense to analyse an energy saving...... without taking into account the actual benefit of the saving in relation to the energy system. The study therefore identifies a need to understand how saving methods may interact with each other and the system in which they are conducted. By using energy system analysis to do hourly simulation...

  6. Saving in cycles: how to get people to save more money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Leona; Dholakia, Utpal

    2014-02-01

    Low personal savings rates are an important social issue in the United States. We propose and test one particular method to get people to save more money that is based on the cyclical time orientation. In contrast to conventional, popular methods that encourage individuals to ignore past mistakes, focus on the future, and set goals to save money, our proposed method frames the savings task in cyclical terms, emphasizing the present. Across the studies, individuals who used our proposed cyclical savings method, compared with individuals who used a linear savings method, provided an average of 74% higher savings estimates and saved an average of 78% more money. We also found that the cyclical savings method was more efficacious because it increased implementation planning and lowered future optimism regarding saving money.

  7. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  8. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of bench-marking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  9. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  10. Masticatory-stress hypotheses and the supraorbital region of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, W L; Picq, P G; Johnson, K R

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to test various masticatory-stress hypotheses about the evolution and function of well-developed browridges of higher primates. This was done by measuring and analyzing patterns of in vivo bone strain recorded from three-element rosette strain gages bonded to the supraorbital region and to other portions of the bony face of Macaca fascicularis and Papio anubis during mastication and incision. The magnitude and direction of the principal strains recorded support Endo's hypothesis that the supraorbital region during mastication and incision is bent in the frontal plane (Endo, 1966). Our data do not, however, support his hypothesis that the supraorbital region is bent more during incision than during mastication. The data also demonstrate that overall levels of supraorbital strain are not larger in more prognathic subjects. Most importantly, the data indicate that the supraorbital region of nonhuman catarrhines is strained very little during mastication and incision. This indicates that there is much more supraorbital bone than is necessary both to counter masticatory loads and to provide an adequate safety factor to failure for these loads. This in turn suggests that the macaque and baboon browridges can be considerably reduced in size and still maintain these required structural characteristics. Thus, our experiments provide no support whatsoever for those hypotheses that directly link browridge morphology to masticatory stress (cf. Endo, 1966; Russell, 1983, 1985). A recent review of Endo's original work indicates that this latter statement is also true for humans (Picq and Hylander, 1989). We conclude, therefore, that there is no good reason to believe that enlarged browridges in living and/or fossil primates are structural adaptations to counter intense masticatory forces. The evolution of browridge morphology in primates is best explained on the basis of factors related to the position of the brain relative to the orbits (Moss and

  11. Using Transcranial tDCS to test cognitive hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazbanou Nozari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS is used increasingly often for testing cognitive hypotheses. It is, however, often ignored that many assumptions regarding how the neural tissue reacts to stimulation have only been verified in the motor domain. Extrapolating these assumptions to the cognitive domain has a set of unique issues which, if ignored, can lead to incorrect interpretations. In this talk I will review a number of common pitfalls in using tDCS for testing a cognitive hypothesis, and discuss some solutions for better-controlled designs. I will address the following issues: 1- Making an incorrect assumption about the nature of the effect: It is often assumed that anodal stimulation has “excitatory” and cathodal stimulation has “inhibitory” effects. Results are then interpreted in light of this assumption. Obviously, if the assumption is incorrect, the interpretation of the results too will be incorrect. I will discuss how the effects of polarity can change as a function of a number of design parameters, and the dangers of making a priori assumptions about the direction of stimulation effects, especially when employing a new design. 2- Choosing an inappropriate montage: By definition, tDCS requires two electrodes, although we are often only interested in stimulating one brain region. Where the second (reference electrode is placed may not be of theoretical interest to us, but it can have serious consequences for our effects of interest. For one thing the path of the direct current changes as a function of where the reference electrode is placed. This affects the density of the current, as well as the regions that undergo stimulation. Moreover, the region directly under the reference electrode is very likely to be affected by stimulation. Therefore, sometimes the changes in behavior may be due to the unanticipated effects at the reference electrode site, as opposed to the hypothesized effects at the target electrode site

  12. Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscharntke, Teja; Tylianakis, Jason M; Rand, Tatyana A; Didham, Raphael K; Fahrig, Lenore; Batáry, Péter; Bengtsson, Janne; Clough, Yann; Crist, Thomas O; Dormann, Carsten F; Ewers, Robert M; Fründ, Jochen; Holt, Robert D; Holzschuh, Andrea; Klein, Alexandra M; Kleijn, David; Kremen, Claire; Landis, Doug A; Laurance, William; Lindenmayer, David; Scherber, Christoph; Sodhi, Navjot; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Thies, Carsten; van der Putten, Wim H; Westphal, Catrin

    2012-08-01

    Understanding how landscape characteristics affect biodiversity patterns and ecological processes at local and landscape scales is critical for mitigating effects of global environmental change. In this review, we use knowledge gained from human-modified landscapes to suggest eight hypotheses, which we hope will encourage more systematic research on the role of landscape composition and configuration in determining the structure of ecological communities, ecosystem functioning and services. We organize the eight hypotheses under four overarching themes. Section A: 'landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns' includes (1) the landscape species pool hypothesis-the size of the landscape-wide species pool moderates local (alpha) biodiversity, and (2) the dominance of beta diversity hypothesis-landscape-moderated dissimilarity of local communities determines landscape-wide biodiversity and overrides negative local effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Section B: 'landscape moderation of population dynamics' includes (3) the cross-habitat spillover hypothesis-landscape-moderated spillover of energy, resources and organisms across habitats, including between managed and natural ecosystems, influences landscape-wide community structure and associated processes and (4) the landscape-moderated concentration and dilution hypothesis-spatial and temporal changes in landscape composition can cause transient concentration or dilution of populations with functional consequences. Section C: 'landscape moderation of functional trait selection' includes (5) the landscape-moderated functional trait selection hypothesis-landscape moderation of species trait selection shapes the functional role and trajectory of community assembly, and (6) the landscape-moderated insurance hypothesis-landscape complexity provides spatial and temporal insurance, i.e. high resilience and stability of ecological processes in changing environments. Section D: 'landscape constraints on

  13. An automated framework for hypotheses generation using literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedi Vida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bio-medicine, exploratory studies and hypothesis generation often begin with researching existing literature to identify a set of factors and their association with diseases, phenotypes, or biological processes. Many scientists are overwhelmed by the sheer volume of literature on a disease when they plan to generate a new hypothesis or study a biological phenomenon. The situation is even worse for junior investigators who often find it difficult to formulate new hypotheses or, more importantly, corroborate if their hypothesis is consistent with existing literature. It is a daunting task to be abreast with so much being published and also remember all combinations of direct and indirect associations. Fortunately there is a growing trend of using literature mining and knowledge discovery tools in biomedical research. However, there is still a large gap between the huge amount of effort and resources invested in disease research and the little effort in harvesting the published knowledge. The proposed hypothesis generation framework (HGF finds “crisp semantic associations” among entities of interest - that is a step towards bridging such gaps. Methodology The proposed HGF shares similar end goals like the SWAN but are more holistic in nature and was designed and implemented using scalable and efficient computational models of disease-disease interaction. The integration of mapping ontologies with latent semantic analysis is critical in capturing domain specific direct and indirect “crisp” associations, and making assertions about entities (such as disease X is associated with a set of factors Z. Results Pilot studies were performed using two diseases. A comparative analysis of the computed “associations” and “assertions” with curated expert knowledge was performed to validate the results. It was observed that the HGF is able to capture “crisp” direct and indirect associations, and provide knowledge

  14. An automated framework for hypotheses generation using literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Vida; Zand, Ramin; Yeasin, Mohammed; Faisal, Fazle Elahi

    2012-08-29

    In bio-medicine, exploratory studies and hypothesis generation often begin with researching existing literature to identify a set of factors and their association with diseases, phenotypes, or biological processes. Many scientists are overwhelmed by the sheer volume of literature on a disease when they plan to generate a new hypothesis or study a biological phenomenon. The situation is even worse for junior investigators who often find it difficult to formulate new hypotheses or, more importantly, corroborate if their hypothesis is consistent with existing literature. It is a daunting task to be abreast with so much being published and also remember all combinations of direct and indirect associations. Fortunately there is a growing trend of using literature mining and knowledge discovery tools in biomedical research. However, there is still a large gap between the huge amount of effort and resources invested in disease research and the little effort in harvesting the published knowledge. The proposed hypothesis generation framework (HGF) finds "crisp semantic associations" among entities of interest - that is a step towards bridging such gaps. The proposed HGF shares similar end goals like the SWAN but are more holistic in nature and was designed and implemented using scalable and efficient computational models of disease-disease interaction. The integration of mapping ontologies with latent semantic analysis is critical in capturing domain specific direct and indirect "crisp" associations, and making assertions about entities (such as disease X is associated with a set of factors Z). Pilot studies were performed using two diseases. A comparative analysis of the computed "associations" and "assertions" with curated expert knowledge was performed to validate the results. It was observed that the HGF is able to capture "crisp" direct and indirect associations, and provide knowledge discovery on demand. The proposed framework is fast, efficient, and robust in

  15. SAVE ENERGY IN TEXTILE SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCALIA Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency and competitiveness in textile and clothing manufacturing sector must take into account the current and future energy challenges. Energy efficiency is a subject of critical importance for the Textile & Clothing industry, for other sectors and for the society in general. EURATEX has initiated Energy Made-to-Measure, an information campaign running until 2016 to empower over 300 textile & clothing companies, notably SMEs, to become more energy efficient. SET( Save Energy in Textile SMEs a collaborative project co-funded within the European Programme Intelligent Energy Europe II helps companies to understand their energy consumption and allows them to compare the sector benchmarks in different production processes. SET has developed the SET tool, Energy Saving and Efficiency Tool, a free of charge tool customized for textile manufacturers. The SET tool is made up of 4 elements: a stand-alone software (SET Tool for self-assessment based on an Excel application; an on-line part (SET tool Web for advanced benchmarking and comparison of the performances across years; a guiding document for the companies and overview of financial incentives and legal obligations regarding energy efficiency. Designed specifically for small and medium enterprises (SMEs, the SET tool enables the evaluation of energy consumption and recommends measures to reduce the consumption. Prior to modifying the company’s production processes and making investments to increase energy efficiency, textile SMEs need to get different type of information, including legal context, economic and technical peculiarities.

  16. Cost-savings for biosimilars in the United States: a theoretical framework and budget impact case study application using filgrastim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Simrun; Ramsey, Scott; Balu, Sanjeev; Carlson, Josh J

    2018-05-18

    Biosimilars can directly reduce the cost of treating patients for whom a reference biologic is indicated by offering a highly similar, lower priced alternative. We examine factors related to biosimilar regulatory approval, uptake, pricing, and financing and the potential impact on drug expenditures in the U.S. We developed a framework to illustrate how key factors including regulatory policies, provider and patient perception, pricing, and payer policies impact biosimilar cost-savings. Further, we developed a budget impact cost model to estimate savings from filgrastim biosimilars under various scenarios. The model uses publicly available data on disease incidence, treatment patterns, market share, and drug prices to estimate the cost-savings over a 5-year time horizon. We estimate five-year cost savings of $256 million, of which 18% ($47 million) are from reduced patient out-of-pocket costs, 34% ($86 million) are savings to commercial payers, and 48% ($123 million) are savings for Medicare. Additional scenarios demonstrate the impact of uncertain factors, including price, uptake, and financing policies. A variety or interrelated factors influence the development, uptake, and cost-savings for Biosimilars use in the U.S. The filgrastim case is a useful example that illustrates these factors and the potential magnitude of costs savings.

  17. Exploration of miRNA families for hypotheses generation.

    KAUST Repository

    Kamanu, T.K.

    2013-10-15

    Technological improvements have resulted in increased discovery of new microRNAs (miRNAs) and refinement and enrichment of existing miRNA families. miRNA families are important because they suggest a common sequence or structure configuration in sets of genes that hint to a shared function. Exploratory tools to enhance investigation of characteristics of miRNA families and the functions of family-specific miRNA genes are lacking. We have developed, miRNAVISA, a user-friendly web-based tool that allows customized interrogation and comparisons of miRNA families for hypotheses generation, and comparison of per-species chromosomal distribution of miRNA genes in different families. This study illustrates hypothesis generation using miRNAVISA in seven species. Our results unveil a subclass of miRNAs that may be regulated by genomic imprinting, and also suggest that some miRNA families may be species-specific, as well as chromosome- and/or strand-specific.

  18. Fear of knowledge: Clinical hypotheses in diagnostic and prognostic reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiffi, Daniele; Zanotti, Renzo

    2017-10-01

    Patients are interested in receiving accurate diagnostic and prognostic information. Models and reasoning about diagnoses have been extensively investigated from a foundational perspective; however, for all its importance, prognosis has yet to receive a comparable degree of philosophical and methodological attention, and this may be due to the difficulties inherent in accurate prognostics. In the light of these considerations, we discuss a considerable body of critical thinking on the topic of prognostication and its strict relations with diagnostic reasoning, pointing out the distinction between nosographic and pathophysiological types of diagnosis and prognosis, underlying the importance of the explication and explanation processes. We then distinguish between various forms of hypothetical reasoning applied to reach diagnostic and prognostic judgments, comparing them with specific forms of abductive reasoning. The main thesis is that creative abduction regarding clinical hypotheses in diagnostic process is very unlikely to occur, whereas this seems to be often the case for prognostic judgments. The reasons behind this distinction are due to the different types of uncertainty involved in diagnostic and prognostic judgments. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Origin of honeycombs: Testing the hydraulic and case hardening hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruthans, Jiří; Filippi, Michal; Slavík, Martin; Svobodová, Eliška

    2018-02-01

    Cavernous weathering (cavernous rock decay) is a global phenomenon, which occurs in porous rocks around the world. Although honeycombs and tafoni are considered to be the most common products of this complex process, their origin and evolution are as yet not fully understood. The two commonly assumed formation hypotheses - hydraulic and case hardening - were tested to elucidate the origin of honeycombs on sandstone outcrops in a humid climate. Mechanical and hydraulic properties of the lips (walls between adjacent pits) and backwalls (bottoms of pits) of the honeycombs were determined via a set of established and novel approaches. While the case hardening hypothesis was not supported by the determinations of either tensile strength, drilling resistance or porosity, the hydraulic hypothesis was clearly supported by field measurements and laboratory tests. Fluorescein dye visualization of capillary zone, vapor zone, and evaporation front upon their contact, demonstrated that the evaporation front reaches the honeycomb backwalls under low water flow rate, while the honeycomb lips remain dry. During occasional excessive water flow events, however, the evaporation front may shift to the lips, while the backwalls become moist as a part of the capillary zone. As the zone of evaporation corresponds to the zone of potential salt weathering, it is the spatial distribution of the capillary and vapor zones which dictates whether honeycombs are created or the rock surface is smoothed. A hierarchical model of factors related to the hydraulic field was introduced to obtain better insights into the process of cavernous weathering.

  20. Host Lipid Mediators in Leprosy: The Hypothesized Contributions to Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. M. Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of clinical forms observed in leprosy and its pathogenesis are dictated by the host’s immune response against Mycobacterium leprae, the etiological agent of leprosy. Previous results, based on metabolomics studies, demonstrated a strong relationship between clinical manifestations of leprosy and alterations in the metabolism of ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, and the diverse set of lipid mediators derived from PUFAs. PUFA-derived lipid mediators provide multiple functions during acute inflammation, and some lipid mediators are able to induce both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses as determined by the cell surface receptors being expressed, as well as the cell type expressing the receptors. However, little is known about how these compounds influence cellular immune activities during chronic granulomatous infectious diseases, such as leprosy. Current evidence suggests that specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs are involved in the down-modulation of the innate and adaptive immune response against M. leprae and that alteration in the homeostasis of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators versus SPMs is associated with dramatic shifts in the pathogenesis of leprosy. In this review, we discuss the possible consequences and present new hypotheses for the involvement of ω3 and ω6 PUFA metabolism in the pathogenesis of leprosy. A specific emphasis is placed on developing models of lipid mediator interactions with the innate and adaptive immune responses and the influence of these interactions on the outcome of leprosy.

  1. [The evolution of plant life span: facts and hypotheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    There are two different views on the evolution of life forms in Cormophyta: from woody plants to herbaceous ones or in opposite direction - from herbs to trees. In accordance with these views it is supposed that life span in plants changed in the course of evolution from many years (perennials) to few years (annuals, biennials), or went in reverse - from few years to many years. The author discusses the problems of senescence and longevity in Cormophyta in the context of various hypotheses of ageing (programmed death theory, mutation accumulation, antagonistic pleiotropy, disposable soma, genes of ageing, genes of longevity). Special attention is given to bio-morphological aspects of longevity and cases of non-ageing plants ("negative senescence", "potential immortality"). It is proposed to distinguish seven models of simple ontogenesis in Cormophyta that can exemplify the diversity of mechanisms of ageing and longevity. The evolution of life span in plants is considered as an indirect result of natural selection of other characteristics of organisms or as a consequence of fixation of modifications (episelectional evolution). It seems that short life span could emerge several times during evolution of one group of plants, thus favoring its adaptive radiation.

  2. Drug-Resistant Epilepsy: Multiple Hypotheses, Few Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Tang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that affects over 70 million people worldwide. Despite the recent introduction of new antiseizure drugs (ASDs, about one-third of patients with epilepsy have seizures refractory to pharmacotherapy. Early identification of patients who will become refractory to ASDs could help direct such patients to appropriate non-pharmacological treatment, but the complexity in the temporal patterns of epilepsy could make such identification difficult. The target hypothesis and transporter hypothesis are the most cited theories trying to explain refractory epilepsy, but neither theory alone fully explains the neurobiological basis of pharmacoresistance. This review summarizes evidence for and against several major theories, including the pharmacokinetic hypothesis, neural network hypothesis, intrinsic severity hypothesis, gene variant hypothesis, target hypothesis, and transporter hypothesis. The discussion is mainly focused on the transporter hypothesis, where clinical and experimental data are discussed on multidrug transporter overexpression, substrate profiles of ASDs, mechanism of transporter upregulation, polymorphisms of transporters, and the use of transporter inhibitors. Finally, future perspectives are presented for the improvement of current hypotheses and the development of treatment strategies as guided by the current understanding of refractory epilepsy.

  3. Can health promotion programs save Medicare money?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Z Goetzel

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Ron Z Goetzel1, David Shechter2, Ronald J Ozminkowski1, David C Stapleton3, Pauline J Lapin4, J Michael McGinnis5, Catherine R Gordon6, Lester Breslow71Institute for Health and Productivity Studies, Cornell University, Washington, DC; 2Health and Productivity Research, Thomson Medstat, Santa Barbara, CA; 3Cornell Institute for Policy Research, Cornell University, Washington, DC; 4Office of Research, Development, and Information, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Baltimore, MD; 5National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, The National Academies, Washington, DC; 6Office of the Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Washington, DC; 7UCLA School of Public Health, Dept. of Health Services, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: The impact of an aging population on escalating US healthcare costs is influenced largely by the prevalence of chronic disease in this population. Consequently, preventing or postponing disease onset among the elderly has become a crucial public health issue. Fortunately, much of the total burden of disease is attributable to conditions that are preventable. In this paper, we address whether well-designed health promotion programs can prevent illness, reduce disability, and improve the quality of life. Furthermore, we assess evidence that these programs have the potential to reduce healthcare utilization and related expenditures for the Medicare program. We hypothesize that seniors who reduce their modifiable health risks can forestall disability, reduce healthcare utilization, and save Medicare money. We end with a discussion of a new Senior Risk Reduction Demonstration, which will be initiated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in 2007, to test whether risk reduction programs developed in the private sector can achieve health improvements among seniors and a positive return on investment for the Medicare program.Keywords: health promotion, return on investment, Medicare, financial

  4. Neural reflex pathways in intestinal inflammation: hypotheses to viable therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemze, Rose A; Luyer, Misha D; Buurman, Wim A; de Jonge, Wouter J

    2015-06-01

    Studies in neuroscience and immunology have clarified much of the anatomical and cellular basis for bidirectional interactions between the nervous and immune systems. As with other organs, intestinal immune responses and the development of immunity seems to be modulated by neural reflexes. Sympathetic immune modulation and reflexes are well described, and in the past decade the parasympathetic efferent vagus nerve has been added to this immune-regulation network. This system, designated 'the inflammatory reflex', comprises an afferent arm that senses inflammation and an efferent arm that inhibits innate immune responses. Intervention in this system as an innovative principle is currently being tested in pioneering trials of vagus nerve stimulation using implantable devices to treat IBD. Patients benefit from this treatment, but some of the working mechanisms remain to be established, for instance, treatment is effective despite the vagus nerve not always directly innervating the inflamed tissue. In this Review, we will focus on the direct neuronal regulatory mechanisms of immunity in the intestine, taking into account current advances regarding the innervation of the spleen and lymphoid organs, with a focus on the potential for treatment in IBD and other gastrointestinal pathologies.

  5. Endocardial tip cells in the human embryo - facts and hypotheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugurel C Rusu

    Full Text Available Experimental studies regarding coronary embryogenesis suggest that the endocardium is a source of endothelial cells for the myocardial networks. As this was not previously documented in human embryos, we aimed to study whether or not endothelial tip cells could be correlated with endocardial-dependent mechanisms of sprouting angiogenesis. Six human embryos (43-56 days were obtained and processed in accordance with ethical regulations; immunohistochemistry was performed for CD105 (endoglin, CD31, CD34, α-smooth muscle actin, desmin and vimentin antibodies. Primitive main vessels were found deriving from both the sinus venosus and aorta, and were sought to be the primordia of the venous and arterial ends of cardiac microcirculation. Subepicardial vessels were found branching into the outer ventricular myocardium, with a pattern of recruiting α-SMA+/desmin+ vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes. Endothelial sprouts were guided by CD31+/CD34+/CD105+/vimentin+ endothelial tip cells. Within the inner myocardium, we found endothelial networks rooted from endocardium, guided by filopodia-projecting CD31+/CD34+/CD105+/ vimentin+ endocardial tip cells. The myocardial microcirculatory bed in the atria was mostly originated from endocardium, as well. Nevertheless, endocardial tip cells were also found in cardiac cushions, but they were not related to cushion endothelial networks. A general anatomical pattern of cardiac microvascular embryogenesis was thus hypothesized; the arterial and venous ends being linked, respectively, to the aorta and sinus venosus. Further elongation of the vessels may be related to the epicardium and subepicardial stroma and the intramyocardial network, depending on either endothelial and endocardial filopodia-guided tip cells in ventricles, or mostly on endocardium, in atria.

  6. Savings and Debts in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Luminita Sarbovan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The savings and debts problematic bring us in front the Keynesian principles of supporting the global demand, so spectacular immortalized inside his “General Theory of Money. The architects of the European Union consider that production in agriculture and other economic branches is “ab initio” grounded on the credit mechanism administrated by banks: the present day approach of the agricultural process configured it as costly, owing a relatively medium to long term duration, and risky, making important the banking institution for mitigating such constrains. Romania fights for the ambitious goal of entering in the euro zone, and this target became even more challenging after the new EU Regulation No 1176/2011 on the prevention and correction of macroeconomic imbalances, which stipulates a safer surveillance for the member states. In fact, our country has to meet the exigencies of nominal and real convergence criteria, measured by the European scoreboard and relevant index.

  7. Moonlight project promotes energy-saving technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, A.

    1986-01-01

    In promoting energy saving, development of energy conservation technologies aimed at raising energy efficiency in the fields of energy conversion, its transportation, its storage, and its consumption is considered, along with enactment of legal actions urging rational use of energies and implementation of an enlightenment campaign for energy conservation to play a crucial role. Under the Moonlight Project, technical development is at present being centered around the following six pillars: (1) large scale energy saving technology; (2) pioneering and fundamental energy saving technology; (3) international cooperative research project; (4) research and survey of energy saving technology; (5) energy saving technology development by private industry; and (6) promotion of energy saving through standardization. Heat pumps, magnetohydrodynamic generators and fuel cells are discussed.

  8. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    a short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock......A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...

  9. Curie's hypotheses concerning radioactivity and the origin of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, P.K.

    1999-01-01

    Pierre Curie gave two hypotheses at first; (1) It can be supposed that the radioactive substances borrow the energy, which they release, from an external radiation, and their radiation would then be a secondary radiation, (2) It can be supposed that the radioactive substances draw from themselves the energy which they release. The second hypothesis has shown the more fertile in explaining the properties of the radioactive substances. Consequently, the first hypothesis became more or less forgotten. It appears, however, the first hypothesis should play an important role in explaining the phenomena concerning the origin of the elements. The Oklo Phenomenon has demonstrated that a nuclear fire had once existed on our planet earth and formation of heavy elements was occurring in nature. The author pointed out that the difference in the isotopic compositions of xenon found in meteorites, lunar samples and in the earth's atmosphere can only be explained as due to the alterations of the isotropic compositions of xenon by combined effect of (a) mass-fractionation, (b) spallation, and (c) stellar temperature neutron-capture reactions. The strange xenon components are not isotopically pure substance. Instead, xenon-HL is a mixture of the 244 Pu fission xenon and the xenon whose isotopic compositions is severely altered by a combined effect of the processes (a), (b) and (c) mentioned above. These results also indicate that C1 carbonaceous chondrites, which is generally as the most primitive sample of the solar system material, began to retain its xenon 5.1 billion years ago, when the plutonium to uranium ratio in the solar system was as high as almost 0.6 (atom/atom), while the C2 carbonaceous chondrite began to retain their xenon about 150 million years later and the ordinary chondrites and achondrite about 500 to 600 million years later. This means that the birth of the solar system began soon after the last supernova exploded about 5.1 billion years ago, and the generally

  10. Saving in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest Aryeetey; Christopher Udry

    2000-01-01

    Gross domestic savings in Africa averaged only 8 percent of GDP in the 1980s, compared to 23 percent for Southeast Asia and 35 percent in the Newly Industrialized Economies. Aside from being generally low, saving rates in most of Africa have shown consistent decline over the last thirty years. These savings figures must be considered tentative, because they are derived as a residual in the national accounts from expenditure and production data that are themselves quite unreliable. Notwithstan...

  11. Adopting a surgical safety checklist could save money and improve the quality of care in U.S. hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semel, Marcus E; Resch, Stephen; Haynes, Alex B; Funk, Luke M; Bader, Angela; Berry, William R; Weiser, Thomas G; Gawande, Atul A

    2010-09-01

    Use of the World Health Organization's Surgical Safety Checklist has been associated with a significant reduction in major postoperative complications after inpatient surgery. We hypothesized that implementing the checklist in the United States would generate cost savings for hospitals. We performed a decision analysis comparing implementation of the checklist to existing practice in U.S. hospitals. In a hospital with a baseline major complication rate after surgery of at least 3 percent, the checklist generates cost savings once it prevents at least five major complications. Using the checklist would both save money and improve the quality of care in hospitals throughout the United States.

  12. How the mainstream limits the spreading of alternative hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenda, Pavel

    2014-05-01

    that prof. Djuric had tried for more than 10 years to publish this article in various peer-reviewed journals. So, prof. Djuric got into the official book (list) of "scientific dissidents" among hundreds of other professors and doctors of science (De Climont 2012). These "scientific dissidents" do not have access to established journals and may possibly publish privately or at best on the web in marginal journals whose list was published by De Climont (2012). Such a marginal journal in the field of geophysics and geology is New Concepts in Global Tectonics. This journal has been established because the current hypothesis about the movement of the continents due to convection currents in the mantle becomes under the weight of new observation quite untenable. 4) Scientific consensus History has known many hypotheses that were accepted as proven truth but later, in the light of new knowledge, they completely failed. - No one has the right to decide which scientific hypotheses will be accepted and which will not get into print. Perhaps the worst situation is in climatology (due to global effects and impacts), when the plenary session of IPCC consensually stated that the current global warming was mainly due to the human activity. References De Climont, J. (2012): The worldwide list of dissident scientists. http://astrojan.hostei.com/droa.htm. Djurič, J. (2006): Unification Of Gravitation And Electromagnetism. http://jovandjuric.tripod.com/ David H. Douglass, John R. Christy, Benjamin D. Pearson and S. Fred Singer (2007): A comparison of tropical temperature trends with model predictions. International Journal of Climatology, Volume 28, Issue 13, 15 November 2008, Pages: 1693-1701. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.1651/pdf. Einstein, A. : List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein. /wiki/List_of_scientific_publications_by_Albert_Einstein. Kolínský, P., Valenta, J. and Gaždová, R. (2012): Seismicity, groundwater level variations and earth tides in

  13. Energy savings in CSFR - building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Czechoslovak/Danish project on energy savings in buildings proves that it is possible to save up to 30% of the energy in buildings. 10% can be saved at an investment of 27 bill KCS. The total investment that is needed to save 30% is 140 bill KCS. Further energy savings can be obtained through more energy efficient supply systems. Information dissemination is important for the energy saving programme as are economic incentives. Investments in energy savings should be profitable for the investor, but this is not the case in the Czech and Slovak republics today. Changes are needed. Energy prices are still to low, compared to investment costs. Financial possibilities are not satisfactory for private investors. Price systems are not favourable to investment in energy savings. Training is needed for boiler men and energy consultants. Legislation is essential for the support of the full range of activities in the energy sector. Research and Development activities must back up the development of the sector. Pilot projects can illuminate the savings potential. The production of technical equipment for control and metering and production of insulation materials must be promoted. (AB)

  14. Cogeneration an opportunity for industrial energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, R.A.; Butt, Z.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about the cogeneration from industrial energy savings opportunities perspective. The energy crisis in these days forces industry to find ways to cope with critical situation. There are several energy savings options which if properly planned and implemented would be beneficial both for industry and community. One way of energy saving is Cogeneration i.e. Combined Heat and Power. The paper will review the basic methods, types and then discuss the suitability of these options for specific industry. It has been identified that generally process industry can get benefits of energy savings. (author)

  15. Systems analysis of transcriptome data provides new hypotheses about Arabidopsis root response to nitrate treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eCanales

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Plants adapt to changes in N availability partly by changes in global gene expression. We integrated publicly available root microarray data under contrasting nitrate conditions to identify new genes and functions important for adaptive nitrate responses in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Overall, more than two thousand genes exhibited changes in expression in response to nitrate treatments in Arabidopsis thaliana root organs. Global regulation of gene expression by nitrate depends largely on the experimental context. However, despite significant differences from experiment to experiment in the identity of regulated genes, there is a robust nitrate response of specific biological functions. Integrative gene network analysis uncovered relationships between nitrate-responsive genes and eleven highly co-expressed gene clusters (modules. Four of these gene network modules have robust nitrate responsive functions such as transport, signaling and metabolism. Network analysis hypothesized G2-like transcription factors are key regulatory factors controlling transport and signaling functions. Our meta-analysis highlights the role of biological processes not studied before in the context of the nitrate response such as root hair development and provides testable hypothesis to advance our understanding of nitrate responses in plants.

  16. Saving oil in a hurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    During 2004, oil prices reached levels unprecedented in recent years. Though world oil markets remain adequately supplied, high oil prices do reflect increasingly uncertain conditions. Many IEA member countries and non-member countries alike are looking for ways to improve their capability to handle market volatility and possible supply disruptions in the future. This book aims to provide assistance. It provides a new, quantitative assessment of the potential oil savings and costs of rapid oil demand restraint measures for transport. Some measures may make sense under any circumstances; others are primarily useful in emergency situations. All can be implemented on short notice ? if governments are prepared. The book examines potential approaches for rapid uptake of telecommuting, ?ecodriving?, and car-pooling, among other measures. It also provides methodologies and data that policymakers can use to decide which measures would be best adapted to their national circumstances. This ?tool box? may help countries to complement other measures for coping with supply disruptions, such as use of strategic oil stocks.

  17. Energy-saving motor; Energiesparmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegger, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development and testing of an advanced electrical motor using a permanent-magnet rotor. The aims of the project - to study the technical feasibility and market potential of the Eco-Motor - are discussed and the three phases of the project described. These include the calculation and realisation of a 250-watt prototype operating at 230 V, the measurement of the motor's characteristics as well as those of a comparable asynchronous motor on the test bed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, and a market study to establish if the Eco-Motor and its controller can compete against normal asynchronous motors. Also, the results of an analysis of the energy-savings potential is made, should such Eco-Motors be used. Detailed results of the three phases of the project are presented and the prospects of producing such motors in Switzerland for home use as well as for export are examined.

  18. Enershield : energy saving air barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallihan, D. [Enershield Industries Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Enershield Industries is a leader in air barrier technology and provides solution for the Canadian climate. This presentation described the advantages of air barriers and the impact of rising energy costs. An air barrier is used to separate areas of differing environments and makes existing building systems more efficient. This presentation discussed how an air barrier works. It also identified how Enershield Industries calculates energy savings. It described air barrier applications and those who use barrier technology. These include the commercial and industrial sector as well as the personnel and retail sector. Barrier technology can be used for cold storage; vehicle and equipment washes; food processing; and environmental separation. Features and benefits such as the ability to create seal, acoustic insulation, and long term durability were also discussed. Last, the presentation addressed model selection and design criteria issues. Design criteria that were presented included a discussion of acoustic installation, articulating nozzles, scroll cased fans, and structural frame. Other design criteria presented were galvanized frames, telescopic sliders, and off the shelf parts. It was concluded that the ability to reduce energy consumption and enhance employee/client comfort is beneficial to the employer as well as to the employee. figs.

  19. Concepts. Environmental care through energy saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.

    1987-04-01

    Energy saving is an important ingredient of a preventive energy policy. It helps to reduce pollutants which are one essential source of damage done to air, water and soil. But even the environmentally damaging side effects of energy production, storage and distribution can be cut down through energy saving.

  20. Housing-related lifestyle and energy saving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2017-01-01

    of relevant background characteristics. A multivariate GLM analysis reveals that when differences in housing-related lifestyles are controlled, neither country of residence nor the interaction between lifestyle and country of residence influence energy saving innovativeness or everyday energy-saving efforts...

  1. Mozambican Aggregate Consumption and Domestic Saving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was an unprecedented decade for its break with the previous trend; but so far, the new trend does not correspond to a substantial change in growth strategy to ensure that foreign savings become complementary rather than a substitute for domestic savings. Keywords: consumption, economic growth strategy, domestic ...

  2. 37 CFR 11.61 - Savings clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Savings clause. 11.61 Section... Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.61 Savings clause. (a... subsequent to such effective date, if such conduct would continue to justify suspension or exclusion under...

  3. Saving Energy. Managing School Facilities, Guide 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This guide offers information on how schools can implement an energy saving action plan to reduce their energy costs. Various low-cost energy-saving measures are recommended covering heating levels and heating systems, electricity demand reduction and lighting, ventilation, hot water usage, and swimming pool energy management. Additional…

  4. The High Cost of Saving Energy Dollars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    In alternative financing a private company provides the capital and expertise for improving school energy efficiency. Savings are split between the school system and the company. Options for municipal leasing, cost sharing, and shared savings are explained along with financial, procedural, and legal considerations. (MLF)

  5. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a...

  6. Savings Behavior and Satisfaction with Savings: A Comparison of Low- and High-Income Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth P.; Schumm, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Data on 1,739 married couples from 13 states were analyzed. Associations between satisfaction with savings and level of savings with measures of motivation to save, motivations to spend, and family resources were found to differ substantially between low- and high-income couples. (Author/CH)

  7. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2001-10-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of the economy. Energy Savings Insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - is one method of transferring financial risks away from the facility owner or energy services contractor. ESI offers a number of significant advantages over other forms of financial risk transfer, e.g. savings guarantees or performance bonds. ESI providers manage risk via pre-construction design review as well as post-construction commissioning and measurement and verification of savings. We found that the two mos t common criticisms of ESI - excessive pricing and onerous exclusions - are not born out in practice. In fact, if properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy savings projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Debt service can also be ensured by matching loan payments to projected energy savings while designing the insurance mechanism so that payments are made by the insurer in the event of a savings shortfall. We estimate the U.S. ESI market potential of $875 million/year in premium income. From an energy-policy perspective, ESI offers a number of potential benefits: ESI transfers performance risk from the balance sheet of the entity implementing the energy savings project, thereby freeing up capital otherwise needed to ''self-insure'' the savings. ESI reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy services firms who do not have sufficiently strong balance

  8. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Evan

    2001-01-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of the economy. Energy Savings Insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - is one method of transferring financial risks away from the facility owner or energy services contractor. ESI offers a number of significant advantages over other forms of financial risk transfer, e.g. savings guarantees or performance bonds. ESI providers manage risk via pre-construction design review as well as post-construction commissioning and measurement and verification of savings. We found that the two mos t common criticisms of ESI - excessive pricing and onerous exclusions - are not born out in practice. In fact, if properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy savings projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Debt service can also be ensured by matching loan payments to projected energy savings while designing the insurance mechanism so that payments are made by the insurer in the event of a savings shortfall. We estimate the U.S. ESI market potential of$875 million/year in premium income. From an energy-policy perspective, ESI offers a number of potential benefits: ESI transfers performance risk from the balance sheet of the entity implementing the energy savings project, thereby freeing up capital otherwise needed to ''self-insure'' the savings. ESI reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy services firms who do not have sufficiently strong balance sheets to self

  9. Saving electricity in a hurry - update 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquier, Sara Bryan

    2011-06-15

    As demonstrated by the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami-triggered blackouts in Japan, electricity shortfalls can happen anytime and anywhere. Countries can minimise the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of such electricity shortfalls by developing emergency energy-saving strategies before a crisis occurs. This new IEA report highlights preliminary findings and conclusions from electricity shortfalls in Japan, the United States, New Zealand, South Africa and Chile. It draws on recent analysis to: reinforce well-established guidelines on diagnosing electricity shortfalls, identifying energy-saving opportunities and selecting a package of energy-saving measures; and highlight proven practice for implementing emergency energy-saving programmes. This paper will be valuable to government, academic, private-sector and civil-society stakeholders who inform, develop and implement electricity policy in general, and emergency energy-saving programmes in particular.

  10. ONU Power Saving Scheme for EPON System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Hiroaki; Tano, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Masaki; Kozaki, Seiji; Yamanaka, Hideaki

    PON (Passive Optical Network) achieves FTTH (Fiber To The Home) economically, by sharing an optical fiber among plural subscribers. Recently, global climate change has been recognized as a serious near term problem. Power saving techniques for electronic devices are important. In PON system, the ONU (Optical Network Unit) power saving scheme has been studied and defined in XG-PON. In this paper, we propose an ONU power saving scheme for EPON. Then, we present an analysis of the power reduction effect and the data transmission delay caused by the ONU power saving scheme. According to the analysis, we propose an efficient provisioning method for the ONU power saving scheme which is applicable to both of XG-PON and EPON.

  11. Values and Technologies in Energy Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    2000-01-01

    of this saving can cause what is called the rebound effect, which reduces the savings obtained from the technology. Ways to avoid this effect are suggested, and they require value changes, primarly around frugality, consumption, and hard-working. There are indications that some of the necessary changes are well......The chapter is based on the assumption, that technology improvement is not sufficient to achieve a sustainable world community. Changes in people´s values are necessary. A simple model suggest how values, together with basic needs and with the environmental and societal frames, determine people......´s behavioural pattern and lifestyles. Deliberate changes in social values are illustrated by a historical example. From the side of technology the basic principles in the economy of energy savings are briefly described. The marginally profitable energy savings provides an economic saving. The application...

  12. Can this merger be saved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, S

    1999-01-01

    In this fictional case study, a merger that looked like a marriage made in heaven to those at corporate headquarters is feeling like an infernal union to those on the ground. The merger is between Synergon Capital, a U.S. financial-services behemoth, and Beauchamp, Becker & Company, a venerable British financial-services company with strong profits and an extraordinarily loyal client base of wealthy individuals. Beauchamp also boasts a strong group of senior managers led by Julian Mansfield, a highly cultured and beloved patriarch who personifies all that's good about the company. Synergon isn't accustomed to acquiring such companies. It usually encircles a poorly managed turnaround candidate and then, once the deal is done, drops a neutron bomb on it, leaving file cabinets and contracts but no people. Before acquiring Beauchamp, Synergon's macho men offered loud assurances that they would leave the tradition-bound company alone-provided, of course, that Beauchamp met the ambitious target numbers and showed sufficient enthusiasm for cross-selling Synergon's products to its wealthy clients. In charge of making the acquisition work is Nick Cunningham, one of Synergon's more thoughtful executives. Nick, who was against the deal from the start, is the face and voice of Synergon for Julian Mansfield. And Mansfield, in his restrained way, is angry at the constant flow of bureaucratic forms, at the rude demands for instant information, at the peremptory changes. He's even dropping broad hints at retirement. Nick has already been warned: if Mansfield goes, you go. Six commentators advise Nick on how to save his job by bringing peace and prosperity to the feuding couple.

  13. As to achieve regulatory action, regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, R.; Encinas, D.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement of the effectiveness in the performance of a nuclear regulatory body has been a permanent challenge in the recent history of nuclear regulation. In the post-Fukushima era this challenge is even more important. This article addresses the subject from two complementary points of view: the characteristics of an effective regulatory body and the regulatory approaches. This work is based on the most recent studies carried out by the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities, CNRA (OECD/NEA), as well as on the experience of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, the Spanish regulatory body. Rafael Cid is the representative of CSN in these project: Diego Encinas has participated in the study on regulatory approaches. (Author)

  14. Energy saving in residential and tertiary sectors: regulations, inciting measures and consumer attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, P.; Aubert, D.; Grel, P.; Herant, P.; Molia, J.P.; Thelinge, H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy saving regulations in the residential and tertiary sectors are under permanent evolution. What are the most significant rules already existing and under preparation? What is the position of the natural gas industry with respect to this regulatory environment? Is there more specific regulatory measures that would be needed to reach the CO 2 abatement goals? What are the means to sensibilize consumers? What are the contributions of the building industry and of energy services? This workshop gathered five experts and a chairman who debated these different points. (J.S.)

  15. Reactor Core Coolability Analysis during Hypothesized Severe Accidents of OPR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yongjae; Seo, Seungwon; Kim, Sung Joong; Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Hwan-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the safety features over the hypothesized severe accidents may be performed experimentally or numerically. Due to the considerable time and expenditures, experimental assessment is implemented only to the limited cases. Therefore numerical assessment has played a major role in revisiting severe accident analysis of the existing or newly designed power plants. Computer codes for the numerical analysis of severe accidents are categorized as the fast running integral code and detailed code. Fast running integral codes are characterized by a well-balanced combination of detailed and simplified models for the simulation of the relevant phenomena within an NPP in the case of a severe accident. MAAP, MELCOR and ASTEC belong to the examples of fast running integral codes. Detailed code is to model as far as possible all relevant phenomena in detail by mechanistic models. The examples of detailed code is SCDAP/RELAP5. Using the MELCOR, Carbajo. investigated sensitivity studies of Station Black Out (SBO) using the MELCOR for Peach Bottom BWR. Park et al. conduct regulatory research of the PWR severe accident. Ahn et al. research sensitivity analysis of the severe accident for APR1400 with MELCOR 1.8.4. Lee et al. investigated RCS depressurization strategy and developed a core coolability map for independent scenarios of Small Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA), SBO, and Total Loss of Feed Water (TLOFW). In this study, three initiating cases were selected, which are SBLOCA without SI, SBO, and TLOFW. The initiating cases exhibit the highest probability of transitioning into core damage according to PSA 1 of OPR 1000. The objective of this study is to investigate the reactor core coolability during hypothesized severe accidents of OPR1000. As a representative indicator, we have employed Jakob number and developed JaCET and JaMCT using the MELCOR simulation. Although the RCS pressures for the respective accident scenarios were different, the JaMCT and Ja

  16. Saving can save from death anxiety: mortality salience and financial decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz; Gasiorowska, Agata; Kesebir, Pelin

    2013-01-01

    Four studies tested the idea that saving money can buffer death anxiety and constitute a more effective buffer than spending money. Saving can relieve future-related anxiety and provide people with a sense of control over their fate, thereby rendering death thoughts less threatening. Study 1 found that participants primed with both saving and spending reported lower death fear than controls. Saving primes, however, were associated with significantly lower death fear than spending primes. Study 2 demonstrated that mortality primes increase the attractiveness of more frugal behaviors in save-or-spend dilemmas. Studies 3 and 4 found, in two different cultures (Polish and American), that the activation of death thoughts prompts people to allocate money to saving as opposed to spending. Overall, these studies provided evidence that saving protects from existential anxiety, and probably more so than spending.

  17. Saving can save from death anxiety: mortality salience and financial decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zaleskiewicz

    Full Text Available Four studies tested the idea that saving money can buffer death anxiety and constitute a more effective buffer than spending money. Saving can relieve future-related anxiety and provide people with a sense of control over their fate, thereby rendering death thoughts less threatening. Study 1 found that participants primed with both saving and spending reported lower death fear than controls. Saving primes, however, were associated with significantly lower death fear than spending primes. Study 2 demonstrated that mortality primes increase the attractiveness of more frugal behaviors in save-or-spend dilemmas. Studies 3 and 4 found, in two different cultures (Polish and American, that the activation of death thoughts prompts people to allocate money to saving as opposed to spending. Overall, these studies provided evidence that saving protects from existential anxiety, and probably more so than spending.

  18. Electric energy savings from new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, R.J.; Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for ten technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all ten technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Thus, the savings projected here represent between 4% and 14% of total consumption projected for 2000. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference forecast, reducing projected electricity consumption from what it otherwise would have been, the savings estimated here should not be directly subtracted from the reference forecast.

  19. Energy conservation. Federal shared energy savings contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Milans, Flora H.; Kirk, Roy J.; Welker, Robert A.; Sparling, William J.; Butler, Sharon E.; Irwin, Susan W.

    1989-04-01

    A number of impediments have discouraged federal agencies from using shared energy savings contracts. As of November 30, 1988, only two federal agencies - the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and the Department of the Army -had awarded such contracts even though they can yield significant energy and cost savings. The three major impediments we identified were uncertainty about the applicability of a particular procurement policy and practice, lack of management incentives, and difficulty in measuring energy and cost savings. To address the first impediment, the Department of Energy (DOE) developed a manual on shared energy savings contracting. The second impediment was addressed when the 100th Congress authorized incentives for federal agencies to enter into shared savings contracts. DOE addressed the third impediment by developing a methodology for calculating energy consumption and cost savings. However, because of differing methodological preferences, this issue will need to be addressed on a contract-by-contract basis. Some state governments and private sector firms are using performance contracts to reduce energy costs in their buildings and facilities. We were able to identify six states that were using performance contracts. Five have established programs, and all six states have projects under contract. The seven energy service companies we contacted indicated interest in federal shared energy savings contracting

  20. Survey of industrial radioisotope savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Only three decades after the discovery of artificial radioactivity and two after radioisotopes became available in quantity, methods employing these as sources or tracers have found widespread use, not only in scientific research, but also in industrial process and product control. The sums spent by industry on these new techniques amount to millions of dollars a year. Realizing the overall attitude of industry to scientific progress - to accept only methods that pay relatively quickly - one can assume that the economic benefits must be of a still larger order of magnitude. In order to determine the extent to which radioisotopes are in daily use and to evaluate the economic benefits derived from such use, IAEA decided to make an 'International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry'. In 1962, the Agency invited a number of its highly industrialized Member States to participate in this Survey. Similar surveys had been performed in various countries in the 1950's. However, the approaches and also the definition of the economic benefits differed greatly from one survey to another. Hence, the Agency's approach was to try to persuade all countries to conduct surveys at the same time, concerning the same categories of industries and using the same terms of costs, savings, etc. In total, 24 Member States of the Agency agreed to participate in the survey and in due course they submitted contributions. The national reports were discussed at a 'Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics', convened in Vienna in March 1964. Based upon these discussions, the national reports have been edited and summarized. A publication showing the administration of the Survey and providing all details is now published by the Agency. From the publication it is evident that in general the return of technical information was quite high, of the order of 90%, but, unfortunately the economic response was much lower. However, most of the reports had some bearing on the economic aspects

  1. Freshwater savings from marine protein consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, Jessica A; Pace, Michael L; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Marine fisheries provide an essential source of protein for many people around the world. Unlike alternative terrestrial sources of protein, marine fish production requires little to no freshwater inputs. Consuming marine fish protein instead of terrestrial protein therefore represents freshwater savings (equivalent to an avoided water cost) and contributes to a low water footprint diet. These water savings are realized by the producers of alternative protein sources, rather than the consumers of marine protein. This study quantifies freshwater savings from marine fish consumption around the world by estimating the water footprint of replacing marine fish with terrestrial protein based on current consumption patterns. An estimated 7 600 km 3  yr −1 of water is used for human food production. Replacing marine protein with terrestrial protein would require an additional 350 km 3  yr −1 of water, meaning that marine protein provides current water savings of 4.6%. The importance of these freshwater savings is highly uneven around the globe, with savings ranging from as little as 0 to as much as 50%. The largest savings as a per cent of current water footprints occur in Asia, Oceania, and several coastal African nations. The greatest national water savings from marine fish protein occur in Southeast Asia and the United States. As the human population increases, future water savings from marine fish consumption will be increasingly important to food and water security and depend on sustainable harvest of capture fisheries and low water footprint growth of marine aquaculture. (paper)

  2. Principles of valuing business travel time savings

    OpenAIRE

    Fowkes, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    OVERVIEW\\ud \\ud There are two approaches to valuing travel time savings to business people. The first is that which has formed the basis of UK policy for about 30 years, and which is set out in Section 2. This takes the value of travel time savings on employer’s business as equal to the gross wage rate plus an allowance for other costs that the employer saves. These might include such things as desk space, computer, tools, uniform, protective clothing, travel expenses. These were investigated...

  3. Who's in the business of saving lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Chang, Pepe

    2006-10-01

    There are individuals, including children, dying needlessly in poverty-stricken third world countries. Many of these deaths could be prevented if pharmaceutical companies provided the drugs needed to save their lives. Some believe that because pharmaceutical companies have the power to save lives, and because they can do so with little effort, they have a special obligation. I argue that there is no distinction, with respect to obligations and responsibilities, between pharmaceutical companies and other types of companies. As a result, to hold pharmaceutical companies especially responsible for saving lives in third world countries is unjustified.

  4. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  5. Must losing taxes on saving be harmful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    on account of international tax evasion mayprevent the overall saving-investment tax wedge from becoming too high, and hencemay be beneficial for moderate preferences for public goods. A world with 'high-spending' governments, in contrast, is made worse off by the loss of saving taxes,and hence stands...... are financed by taxes on savingand investment. There is international cross-ownership of firms, and countries areassumed to be unable to tax away pure profits. Countries then face an incentiveto impose a rather high investment tax also borne by foreigners. In this setting,the loss of the saving tax instrument...

  6. 12 CFR 583.20 - Savings and loan holding company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings and loan holding company. 583.20... REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.20 Savings and loan holding company. The term savings and loan holding company means any company that directly or indirectly controls a savings...

  7. User behaviour impact on energy savings potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    and the residents' behaviour and if these defaults do not reflect actual circumstances, it can result in non-realisation of expected energy savings. Furthermore, a risk also exists that residents' behaviour change after the energy upgrading, e.g. to obtain improved comfort than what was possible before......, 3) Domestic hot water consumption and 4) Air change rate. Based on the analysis, a methodology is established that can be used to make more realistic and accurate predictions of expected energy savings associated with energy upgrading taking into account user behaviour....... the upgrading and this could lead to further discrepancies between the calculated and the actual energy savings. This paper presents an analysis on how residents’ behaviour and the use of standard assumptions may influence expected energy savings. The analysis is performed on two typical single-family houses...

  8. Maintaining a Viable Energy Savings Performance Contract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weber, Katherine L; Huckeby, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Substantial amounts of information are available on Energy Savings Performance Contract award requirements, measurement, and verification, but we have found very little information on the day-to-day...

  9. Potential Logistics Cost Savings from Engine Commonality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Robert L; Higer, Matthew W

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this MBA Project is to determine potential logistics cost savings the USAF and DoD could have realized through the life of the F-16 fighter aircraft had they required engine commonality...

  10. Radioisotope savings in industry and agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-01-15

    Benefits and savings achieved in industry and agriculture were described by leading experts from six different countries at a public discussion organized by the Agency on 24 September 1963, during the last IAEA General Conference.

  11. Site preparation savings through better utilization standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.F. Watson; B.J. Stokes; I.W. Savelle

    1984-01-01

    This reports preliminary paper results of a study to determine the savings in the cost of site preparation that can be accomplished by the intensive utiliiation of understory biomass. mechanized sys terns can potentially be used for recovering this material.

  12. Caustic saving potentile in textile processing mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M.; Rehman, A.; Ghafar, A.; Hafeez, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    The textile processing industry of pakistan has great potential of improvement in resource consumption in various production processes. One major concern is the heavy usage of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) especially during the mercerization process which incurs a significant cost to a textile processing mill. To reduce the unit fabric production cost and stay competitive, the industry need to minimize the caustic wastage and explore the caustic saving potential. This paper describe the detailed caustic consumption practices and saving potentials in woven textile sector based on the data base of 100 industries. Region wise caustic saving potential is also investigated . Three caustic conservation option including process improvement, reuse and recycling, and caustic recovery plants are discussed. Detailed technical and and financial requirements. saving potentials and paybacks of these options are provided. (author)

  13. Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight! Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents People with glaucoma see the world through a tunnel. Glaucoma is ...

  14. Statistical Uncertainty in the Medicare Shared Savings...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to analysis reported in Statistical Uncertainty in the Medicare Shared Savings Program published in Volume 2, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  15. The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software (SAVES) package is a tool to help school designers assess the potential financial payback and indoor humidity control benefits of Energy Recovery Ventilation (ERV) systems for school applications.

  16. 31 CFR 359.35 - May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds through a payroll savings plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... savings bonds through a payroll savings plan? 359.35 Section 359.35 Money and Finance: Treasury... May I purchase definitive Series I savings bonds through a payroll savings plan? You may purchase definitive bonds through deductions from your pay if your employer maintains a payroll savings plan. An...

  17. 31 CFR 351.47 - May I purchase definitive Series EE savings bonds through a payroll savings plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... savings bonds through a payroll savings plan? 351.47 Section 351.47 Money and Finance: Treasury....47 May I purchase definitive Series EE savings bonds through a payroll savings plan? You may purchase... maintains a payroll savings plan. An authorized issuing agent must issue the bonds. ...

  18. The value of business travel time savings

    OpenAIRE

    Fowkes, A.S.; Marks, P.; Nash, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The value of time savings for business travellers forms a sizeable part of the benefits from trunk road, rail and air transport improvement schemes. It is therefore important to possess appropiate values to place on business travel time savings for evaluation purposes. The normal approach in practice is to adopt the wage rate of the workers in question plus an increment for overheads and non-wage payments. \\ud \\ud In this paper criticisms of this approach are discssed and the implications of ...

  19. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed.......The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed....

  20. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Evan

    2001-01-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of t...

  1. Individual savings accounts for social insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, Lans; Hansen, Martin Ino; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2008-01-01

    Using Danish data, we find that about three-fourths of the taxes levied to finance public transfers actually finance benefits that redistribute income over the life cycle of individual taxpayers rather than redistribute resources across people. This finding and similar results for other countries...... provide a rationale for financing part of social insurance via mandatory individual savings accounts. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of mandatory individual savings accounts for social insurance and survey some recent alternative proposals for such accounts...

  2. Professional and Regulatory Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional and Regulatory search are designed for people who use EPA web resources to do their job. You will be searching collections where information that is not relevant to Environmental and Regulatory professionals.

  3. Creation of Carbon Credits by Water Saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutoshi Shimizu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Until now, as a way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from Japanese homes, the emphasis has been on reduction of energy consumption for air-conditioning and lighting. In recent years, there has been progress in CO2 emission reduction through research into the water-saving performance of bathroom fixtures such as toilets and showers. Simulations have shown that CO2 emissions associated with water consumption in Japanese homes can be reduced by 25% (1% of Japan’s total CO2 emissions by 2020 through the adoption of the use of water-saving fixtures. In response to this finding, a program to promote the replacement of current fixtures with water-saving toilet bowls and thermally insulated bathtubs has been added to the Government of Japan’s energy-saving policy. Furthermore, CO2 emission reduction through widespread use of water-saving fixtures has been adopted by the domestic credit system promoted by the Government of Japan as a way of achieving CO2 emission-reduction targets; application of this credit system has also begun. As part of a bilateral offset credit mechanism promoted by the Government of Japan, research to evaluate the CO2 reduction potential of the adoption of water-saving fixtures has been done in the city of Dalian, in China.

  4. Refrigeration: Introducing energy saving opportunities for business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    In some industries, most notably food and drink and chemicals, refrigeration accounts for a significant proportion of overall site energy costs. For instance, in the industrial handling of meat, poultry and fish, it often accounts for 50% of total energy costs. In ice-cream production the proportion is 70%. In a number of commercial sectors, refrigeration also represents a significant proportion of overall energy costs. For example: Cold storage 90%; Food supermarkets 50%; Small shops with refrigerated cabinets 70% or over; Pubs and clubs 30%. Against these high costs, even a small reduction in refrigeration energy use can offer significant cost savings, resulting in increased profits. Energy saving need not be expensive. Energy savings of up to 20% can be realised in many refrigeration plant through actions that require little or no investment. In addition, improving the efficiency and reducing the load on a refrigeration plant can improve reliability and reduce the likelihood of a breakdown. Most organisations can save energy and money on refrigeration by: More efficient equipment; Good maintenance; Housekeeping and control. This publication provides an understanding of the operation of refrigeration systems, identifies where savings can be realised and will enable readers to present an informed case on energy savings to key decision makers within their organisation. (GB)

  5. RECRUITMENT FINANCED BY SAVED LEAVE (RSL PROGRAMME)

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel; Tel. 73903

    1999-01-01

    Transfer to the saved leave account and saved leave bonusStaff members participating in the RSL programme may opt to transfer up to 10 days of unused annual leave or unused compensatory leave into their saved leave account, at the end of the leave year, i.e. 30 September (as set out in the implementation procedure dated 27 August 1997).A leave transfer request form, which you should complete, sign and return, if you wish to use this possibility, has been addressed you. To allow the necessary time for the processing of your request, you should return it without delay.As foreseen in the implementation procedure, an additional day of saved leave will be granted for each full period of 20 days remaining in the saved leave account on 31 December 1999, for any staff member participating in the RSL programme until that date.For part-time staff members participating in the RSL programme, the above-mentioned days of leave (annual, compensatory and saved) are adjusted proportionally to their contractual working week as...

  6. Saving-enhanced memory: the benefits of saving on the learning and remembering of new information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Benjamin C; Stone, Sean M

    2015-02-01

    With the continued integration of technology into people's lives, saving digital information has become an everyday facet of human behavior. In the present research, we examined the consequences of saving certain information on the ability to learn and remember other information. Results from three experiments showed that saving one file before studying a new file significantly improved memory for the contents of the new file. Notably, this effect was not observed when the saving process was deemed unreliable or when the contents of the to-be-saved file were not substantial enough to interfere with memory for the new file. These results suggest that saving provides a means to strategically off-load memory onto the environment in order to reduce the extent to which currently unneeded to-be-remembered information interferes with the learning and remembering of other information. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Future nuclear regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996, the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities concluded that changes resulting from economic deregulation and other recent developments affecting nuclear power programmes have consequences both for licensees and regulatory authorities. A number of potential problems and issues which will present a challenge to nuclear regulatory bodies over the next ten years have been identified in a report just released. (author)

  8. Exploring the time-saving bias: How drivers misestimate time saved when increasing speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Peer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the time-saving bias, drivers underestimate the time saved when increasing from a low speed and overestimate the time saved when increasing from a relatively high speed. Previous research used a specific type of task --- drivers were asked to estimate time saved when increasing speed and to give a numeric response --- to show this. The present research conducted two studies with multiple questions to show that the time-saving bias occurs in other tasks. Study 1 found that drivers committed the time-saving bias when asked to estimate (a the time saved when increasing speed or (b the distance that can be completed at a given time when increasing speed or (c the speed required to complete a given distance in decreasing times. Study 2 showed no major differences in estimations of time saved compared to estimations of the remaining journey time and also between responses given on a numeric scale versus a visual analog scale. Study 3 tested two possible explanations for the time-saving bias: a Proportion heuristic and a Differences heuristic. Some evidence was found for use of the latter.

  9. Assessment of energy savings and of side effects associated with consumption cutoffs. Complete report + abridged version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    As France has been the first European country to implement a legal and regulatory framework which acknowledges the role of cut-off operators, and promotes their direct participation to markets, this report aims at preparing an evolution of this framework, notably by focusing on the notion of energy saving. It highlights the importance of definitions regarding levels of consumption deferment and of energy saving associated with consumption cutoffs. The report first analyses the context: assessment of energy savings associated with consumption cutoffs, discussion of the existence or absence of a typical profile of consumption deferment, and definition of a consumption deferment rate, importance of these works for cut-off integration into the electric power system. It proposes a presentation of the present status of knowledge on energy savings and side effects, defines the energy saving rate, and discusses the sensitivity of this rate to calculation parameters. The next part presents the method adopted to analyse results obtained during experiments. The obtained results are then discussed by distinguishing those obtained in the industrial sector, in the tertiary sector, and in the residential sector. Economic studies are then reported regarding the impact of a wrong choice for the deferment rate on market mechanism rules, and the impact of an explicit taking of the deferment into account. Appendices contain detailed presentations of some specific aspects of these assessments and studies. An abridged version of the report is then provided

  10. Regulatory activities; Actividades regulatorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information.

  11. Energy Savings from Industrial Water Reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; de Fontaine, Andre

    2015-08-03

    Although it is widely recognized that reducing freshwater consumption is of critical importance, generating interest in industrial water reduction programs can be hindered for a variety of reasons. These include the low cost of water, greater focus on water use in other sectors such as the agriculture and residential sectors, high levels of unbilled and/or unregulated self-supplied water use in industry, and lack of water metering and tracking capabilities at industrial facilities. However, there are many additional components to the resource savings associated with reducing site water use beyond the water savings alone, such as reductions in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, treatment chemicals, and impact on the local watershed. Understanding and quantifying these additional resource savings can expand the community of businesses, NGOs, government agencies, and researchers with a vested interest in water reduction. This paper will develop a methodology for evaluating the embedded energy consumption associated with water use at an industrial facility. The methodology developed will use available data and references to evaluate the energy consumption associated with water supply and wastewater treatment outside of a facility’s fence line for various water sources. It will also include a framework for evaluating the energy consumption associated with water use within a facility’s fence line. The methodology will develop a more complete picture of the total resource savings associated with water reduction efforts and allow industrial water reduction programs to assess the energy and CO2 savings associated with their efforts.

  12. THE PUZZLE OF SIMULTANEOUS SAVINGS AND DEBTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA IANOLE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available „Neither a borrower nor a lender be” recommends Shakespeare in Hamlet. The advice seems particularly interesting in nowadays society where a person can be easily found in both approximate situations, in the same time. It goes without saying that saving and borrowing do not describe mutually exclusive strategies of financial management and thus many people retain savings or carry on saving at the same time as having debts. We add to this fact a more pragmatically wisdom, the one of the economist Robert Solow -“We (economists think of wealth as fungible; we think a dollar is a dollar. Why don't they (the others do so?” (Solow, 1987 – and we naturally ask ourselves if the mechanism of having simultaneous savings and debts is a rational one, according to traditional economics.Making appeal to the emerging body of behavioral economics literature we reach to the mental accounting theory to see if it can explain savings inclination versus debt inclination. The main research question we want to explore is the following: if mental accounting prevents people from spending money from one „mental account” on goods belonging to another one, will people – after using all their money from a given account – be willing to go into debt to buy goods belonging to this account in a situation when they still have money in other accounts?

  13. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  14. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  15. Feeding your piggy bank with intentions : A study on saving behaviour, saving strategies, and happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Francisco Vela, S.; Desmet, P.M.A.; Casais, M.

    2014-01-01

    The act of saving money can connect one’s present state to a meaningful future state, especially if we consider money not as a direct source of happiness, but as a resource for engaging in meaningful activities. To explore how design can contribute to making the act of saving more meaningful, we

  16. Saving for Success: Financial Education and Savings Goal Achievement in Individual Development Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Mary L.; Mauldin, Teresa; Sabia, Joseph J.; Koonce, Joan; Palmer, Lance

    2011-01-01

    Using microdata from the American Dream Demonstration, the current study examines factors associated with savings and savings goal achievement (indicated by a matched withdrawal) among participants of individual development account (IDA) programs. Multinomial logit results show that hours of participation in financial education programs, higher…

  17. Public-opinion poll on energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    A public-opinion poll was carried out on energy saving from November 26 to December 2, 1981, across the country. The number of persons participated in the survey was 5,000, whose age was 20 and above. The recovery ratio was 4,007 persons (80.1 %). The results of the survey and also the question-answer form are given with respective percentages. The questions were in the following three categories: (1) cognizance of energy saving - space-heating temperature, energy saving conscience use of private cars, purchase of highenergy consumption appliances; (2) energy for future - energy consumption, energy consumption trend, new types of energy, main sources of power generation, nuclear power in the overall electric power, apprehension toward nuclear power plants, safety measures in nuclear power plants; (3) governmental energy policy measures. (J.P.N.)

  18. An energy saving system for hospital laundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsanis, J.S.; Tsarabaris, P.T.; Polykrati, A.D.; Proios, A.N. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Koufakis, E.I. [Public Power Corp. S.A., Crete (Greece)

    2009-07-01

    Hospital laundries are one of the largest consumers of water and electrical and thermal energy. This paper examined the energy savings achieved by a system using the hot wastewater from the washing process. Hospital laundries consume thermal energy using steam, which is produced in boilers by burning diesel oil or natural gas. Electrical energy for the mechanical drives, ventilation and also the lighting required in the laundry area are big consumers of energy. The paper presented the proposed system and discussed the parameters of the system and system dimensioning. The paper also provided and discussed an interpretation of steam and energy savings. The proposed system was considered to be economically viable, simple in its construction, installation and operation. From the application of the suggested system, the cost savings resulted in a satisfactory payback period for the capital invested of approximately three to five years. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  19. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

  20. Savings in its sights for Somerset Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Colin

    2011-10-01

    Colin Russell, healthcare specialist at Schneider Electric (pictured), explains how the company has recently worked with Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation Trust to implement a major energy-saving project at the Trust's Musgrove Park Hospital in Taunton. He argues that, at a time when all areas of the service are being asked to reduce costs, such partnerships can potentially save the institution millions of pounds and significantly reduce carbon emissions, while "revitalising" parts of the NHS estate, and ensuring continuity of vital hospital services for facilities managers.

  1. Nuclear recycling: costs, savings, and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter discusses the economics, physical and chemical processes, and safety of nuclear fuel recycling. The spent fuel must be chemically reprocessed in order to recover uranium and plutonium. Topics considered include indifference costs, recycling in light water reactors (LWRs), plutonium in fast reactors, the choice between recycling and storage, safeguards, and weapons proliferation. It is shown that the economics of recycling nuclear fuel involves the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved, and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium

  2. Raising household saving: does financial education work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, William G; Harris, Benjamin H; Levine, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the prevalence and economic outcomes of financial illiteracy among American households, and reviews previous research that examines how improving financial literacy affects household saving. Analysis of the research literature suggests that previous financial literacy efforts have yielded mixed results. Evidence suggests that interventions provided for employees in the workplace have helped increase household saving, but estimates of the magnitude of the impact vary widely. For financial education initiatives targeted to other groups, the evidence is much more ambiguous, suggesting a need for more econometrically rigorous evaluations.

  3. Financing aspects of electricity saving's in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacca, S.A.; Sauer, I.L.

    1996-01-01

    Programs regarding to energy saving in Brasil arised by the early 80's from the concern with oil products consumption. The situation has changed and electricity is growing in importance when energy conservation is discussed. Thus, the government, following examples from abroad, has been trying to overcome the barriers that obstruct a massive process evolution towards energy saving, since the potential is spread out in many society segments. One important issue is related to financing energy conservation. This paper attempts to analyze the utilities efforts allied to public and private banks investments towards energy conservation financing. (author)

  4. Saving water to save the environment: Contrasting the effectiveness of environmental and monetary appeals in a residential water saving intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijs, M.S.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Veling, H.P.; Lange, M.A. de; Meegeren, P. van; Lion, R.

    2017-01-01

    To convince people to reduce their energy consumption, two types of persuasive appeals often are used by environmental organizations: Monetary appeals (i.e., 'conserving energy will save you money') and environmental appeals (i.e., 'conserving energy will protect the environment'). In this field

  5. Regulatory Challenges for Cartilage Repair Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Kevin B; Stiegman, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, few Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved options exist for the treatment of focal cartilage and osteochondral lesions. Developers of products for cartilage repair face many challenges to obtain marketing approval from the FDA. The objective of this review is to discuss the necessary steps for FDA application and approval for a new cartilage repair product. FDA Guidance Documents, FDA Panel Meetings, scientific organization recommendations, and clinicaltrials.gov were reviewed to demonstrate the current thinking of FDA and the scientific community on the regulatory process for cartilage repair therapies. Cartilage repair therapies can receive market approval from FDA as medical devices, drugs, or biologics, and the specific classification of product can affect the nonclinical, clinical, and regulatory strategy to bring the product to market. Recent FDA guidance gives an outline of the required elements to bring a cartilage repair product to market, although these standards are often very general. As a result, companies have to carefully craft their study patient population, comparator group, and clinical endpoint to best showcase their product's attributes. In addition, regulatory strategy and manufacturing process validation need to be considered early in the clinical study process to allow for timely product approval following the completion of clinical study. Although the path to regulatory approval for a cartilage repair therapy is challenging and time-consuming, proper clinical trial planning and attention to the details can eventually save companies time and money by bringing a product to the market in the most expeditious process possible.

  6. Taxation and the household saving rate: evidence from OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Tanzi

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes anew the relationship between taxation and the household saving rate. On the basis of standard savings and tax revenue data from a sample of OECD countries, it provides compelling empirical evidence of a powerful impact of taxes on household savings. In particular, income taxes are shown to affect negatively the household saving rate much more than consumption taxes.

  7. 12 CFR 541.18 - Interim Federal savings association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an existing savings and loan holding company or to facilitate any other transaction the Office may... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim Federal savings association. 541.18... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.18 Interim Federal savings association. The term...

  8. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life-saving appliances. 173.219 Section 173.219... Life-saving appliances. (a) A life-saving appliance, self-inflating or non-self-inflating, containing small quantities of hazardous materials that are required as part of the life-saving appliance must...

  9. Black/White Differences in Adolescent Drug Use: A Test of Six Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Sunshine M.; Taylor, John

    2014-01-01

    Six specific hypotheses have been developed to account for why Caucasians have higher rates of drug use compared to African-Americans. This article utilizes data from a South Florida-based community study of 893 young adults (1998-2002) to test these hypotheses. Specifically, Caucasians (1) initiate drug use at younger ages than African-Americans…

  10. Evaluating hypotheses in geolocation on a very large sample of Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salehi, Bahar; Søgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Recent work in geolocation has madeseveral hypotheses about what linguisticmarkers are relevant to detect where peoplewrite from. In this paper, we examinesix hypotheses against a corpus consistingof all geo-tagged tweets from theUS, or whose geo-tags could be inferred,in a 19% sample of Twitter...

  11. Research and regulatory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, J.S.; Fryer, D.R.H.

    1979-01-01

    To enable the regulatory review to be effectively undertaken by the regulatory body, there is a need for it to have ready access to information generated by research activities. Certain advantages have been seen to be gained by the regulatory body itself directly allocating and controlling some portion of these activities. The princial reasons for reaching this conclusion are summarised and a brief description of the Inspectorates directly sponsored programme outlined. (author)

  12. Blue Line Innovations brochure : Think green, act smart, save energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Blue Line Innovations Inc. is working with leading electric utilities and regulatory agencies to provide smart-home technologies to consumers for demand-side management. Their latest product is the PowerCost Monitor, a real-time feedback product that help households understand and reduce the amount of electricity they use. The monitor, which reveals electricity use in real-time by both total and current cost and kilowatt hour, uses wireless encrypted technology to send usage information from an outside meter to an in-home display. The small detector/transmitter can be easily installed to an existing household electro-mechanical utility meter by the homeowner without an electrician or service disruption. Studies have shown that when domestic users are provided with real-time feedback on electricity usage, they can reduce their energy bills by as much as 20 per cent. This in-home measuring and reporting unit helps customers make decisions about changing their usage habits, purchasing electricity-saving light and appliances and conserving energy. In a demonstration project, Hydro-One installed PowerCost Monitors in the homes of Hydro One customers in Ontario in July 2004. The objective was to determine the extent of changes in customer behaviour and reductions in electricity consumption resulting from direct real-time feedback information on electricity consumption. Other demonstration projects have been launched in conjunction with CEA Technologies Inc., Natural Resources Canada, Newfoundland Power and BC hydro to install the monitors in homes on both coasts of Canada. Governments, utilities, communities and individuals are recognizing that saving energy is a critical factor to sustainable development by conserving natural resources and reducing pollution. A list of suggestions for reducing electricity use in lighting, kitchens, laundry and heating and cooling were also presented. 1 fig.

  13. Regulatory Commission of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Map Help Regulatory Commission of Alaska Login Forgot Password Arrow Image Forgot password? View Cart login Procedures for Requesting Login For Consumers General Information Telephone Electric Natural Gas

  14. 12 CFR 575.10 - Acquisition and disposition of savings associations, savings and loan holding companies, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... associations, savings and loan holding companies, and other corporations by mutual holding companies. 575.10... COMPANIES § 575.10 Acquisition and disposition of savings associations, savings and loan holding companies... savings and loan holding company in the stock form that is not a subsidiary holding company, provided the...

  15. Boiler house modernization through shared savings program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W. [Tecogen, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Throughout Poland as well as the rest of Eastern Europe, communities and industries rely on small heat only boilers to provide district and process heat. Together these two sectors produce about 85,000 MW from boilers in the 2 to 35 MW size range. The bulk of these units were installed prior to 1992 and must be completely overhauled to meet the emission regulations which will be coming into effect on January 1, 1998. Since the only practical fuel is coal in most cases, these boilers must be either retrofit with emission control technology or be replaced entirely. The question that arises is how to accomplish this given the current tight control of capital in Poland and other East European countries. A solution that we have for this problem is shared savings. These boilers are typically operating with a quiet low efficiency as compared to western standards and with excessive manual labor. Installing modernization equipment to improve the efficiency and to automate the process provides savings. ECOGY provides the funds for the modernization to improve the efficiency, add automation and install emission control equipment. The savings that are generated during the operation of the modernized boiler system are split between the client company and ECOGY for a number of years and then the system is turned over in entirety to the client. Depending on the operating capacity, the shared savings agreement will usually span 6 to 10 years.

  16. Save Beady Kid from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrikopoulos, Melissa; Thompson, Wesley; Pecore, John

    2017-01-01

    Art and science help students investigate light energy and practice fair testing. With the goal of finding a way to save "Beady Kid" from invisible rays, students used science practices to investigate the transfer of light energy from the Sun. During this art-integrated science lesson presented in this article, upper elementary (grades…

  17. Water savings through off-farm employment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachong Castro, V.; Heerink, N.; Shi, X.; Qu, W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to gain more insight into the relationship between off-farm employment of rural households and water-saving investments and irrigation water use in rural China. Design/methodology/approach – Data from a survey held among 317 households in Minle County, Zhangye

  18. Use staff wisely to save NHS money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alison

    2015-12-09

    The NHS could save up to £ 2 billion a year by improving workflow and containing workforce costs, according to Labour peer Lord Carter's review of NHS efficiency. Changes in areas such as rostering and management of annual leave must avoid increasing the pressure on staff.

  19. Charter School Spending and Saving in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sherrie; Rose, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Examining resource allocation practices, including savings, of charter schools is critical to understanding their financial viability and sustainability. Using 9 years of finance data from California, we find charter schools spend less on instruction and pupil support services than traditional public schools. The lower spending on instruction and…

  20. Tip Saves Energy, Money for Pennsylvania Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wastewater treatment plant in Berks County, Pennsylvania is saving nearly $45,000 a year and reducing hundreds of metric tons of greenhouse gases since employing an energy conservation tip offered by the Water Protection Division in EPA’s R3 and PADEP.

  1. How to save money on medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website. Saving money on prescription drugs. www.fda.gov/Drugs/EmergencyPreparedness/BioterrorismandDrugPreparedness/ucm134215.htm . Updated May 4, 2016. Accessed October 14, 2016. U.S. Food and Drug ...

  2. Energy saving baking methods. Energibesparende bagemetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gry, P.

    1988-01-01

    The project ''Energy Saving Baking Methods'', run as part of the Energy Research Project-1984, and has as its aim to investigate potentials for energy saving by employing microwaves in the baking process. The project is a follow-up of the Nordic Industry Fund project which was completed in 1983. Smaller test ovens with IR long waves, warm air convection and microwaves of 2,47 GHz were used. Measurements of heat distribution from all three energy sources have been made. Extensive experiments have been carried out in order to develope baking methods for white loaves which are energy saving, but where the quality of the bread does not undergo any form of deterioration. Tests were made using microwaves alone, and in combination with hot air and IR. A resulting saving 35% baking time was achieved, and a further reduction of baking time can be reached where a greater improvement of energy distribution can take place, especially in the case of microwaves and IR. (AB).

  3. Savings impact of a corporate energy manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikorski, B.D.; O'Donnell, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the cost savings impact of employing an energy manager with a 16,000-employee corporation. The corporation, Canada's second largest airline, is currently operating nearly 3,000,000 ft 2 of mixed-use facilities spread across the country, with an annual energy budget for ground facilities of over Cdn $4,000,000. This paper outlines the methodology used by the energy manager to deploy an energy management program over a two-year period between April 1995 and May 1997. The paper examines the successes and the lessons learned during the period and summarizes the costs and benefits of the program. The energy manager position was responsible for developing an energy history database with more than 100 active accounts and for monitoring and verifying energy savings. The energy manager implemented many relatively low-cost energy conservation measures, as well as some capital projects, during the first two years of the program. In total, these measures provided energy cost savings of $210,000 per year, or 5% of the total budget. In each case, technologies installed as part of the energy retrofit projects provided not only cost savings but also better control, reduced maintenance, and improved working conditions for employees

  4. Food Processing Contracts: Savings for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Egmond-Pannell, Dorothy

    1983-01-01

    Food processing contracts between schools and food manufacturers can result in huge cost savings. Fairfax County, Virginia, is one of 30 "letter of credit" sites in a three-year study of alternatives. After one year it appears that schools can purchase more for the dollar in their local areas. (MD)

  5. How Palo Verde saved millions of dollars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In autumn 1992, Arizona Public Service adopted new project control procedures for outages at its three-unit Palo Verde PWR site, including: the switch to a PC-based environment; a new scheduling system; and the generation of improved graphics for decision making. Major cost savings were made and three further outages have now benefitted from the new systems. (author)

  6. Communication Can Save Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the August 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Antibiotic-resistant germs cause at least 23,000 deaths each year. Learn how public health authorities and health care facilities can work together to save lives.

  7. Finding Savings in Community Use of Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the growing challenge of managing community groups using educational facilities for meetings, athletics, and special events. It describes how, by using an online scheduling software program, one school district was able to track payments and save time and money with its event and facility scheduling process.

  8. Opinion: Composition Studies Saves the World!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzell, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Stanley Fish in his new book ["Save the World on Your Own Time" (New York: Oxford UP,2008)] says that composition studies presents "the clearest example" of what is desperately wrong in the academy, because in writing classrooms, he says, "more often than not anthologies of provocative readings take center stage and the actual teaching of writing…

  9. Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham

    2014-03-28

    This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.

  10. Analysis of savings mobilization determinants among rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result showed that 90% were within the age group of 30 to 69 years while about 79% ... The average family size was six while about 37% of the sampled household heads had ... Key words: Savings mobilization, income and determinants ...

  11. Saving energy: bringing down Europe's enery prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenbroek, E.; Blok, K.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2011 the European Commission proposed a new Directive on Energy Efficiency. Its purpose is to put forward a framework to deliver the EU’s target of reducing its energy consumption by 20% by 2020. Currently, the EU is only on track to achieve half of those savings. Apart from the

  12. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  13. Exploring Demand Charge Savings from Commercial Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Commercial retail electricity rates commonly include a demand charge component, based on some measure of the customer’s peak demand. Customer-sited solar PV can potentially reduce demand charges, but the magnitude of these savings can be difficult to predict, given variations in demand charge designs, customer loads, and PV generation profiles. Moreover, depending on the circumstances, demand charges from solar may or may not align well with associated utility cost savings. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are collaborating in a series of studies to understand how solar PV can reduce demand charge levels for a variety of customer types and demand charges designs. Previous work focused on residential customs with solar. This study, instead, focuses on commercial customers and seeks to understand the extent and conditions under which rooftop can solar reduce commercial demand charges. To answer these questions, we simulate demand charge savings for a broad range of commercial customer types, demand charge designs, locations, and PV system characteristics. This particular analysis does not include storage, but a subsequent analysis in this series will evaluate demand charge savings for commercial customers with solar and storage.

  14. Acquiring energy savings in manufactured housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, the Northwest utilities faced a complex situation. They needed new sources of electrical power to avoid future deficits. A significant block of energy savings was available in the manufactured housing sector in the form of energy savings from increased insulation to new manufactured homes. The manufacturers were interested in saving the electricity in the homes, but would only deal with the utility sector as a whole. Half of the homes targeted were sited in investor-owned utility (IOU) service territories, and half in the public sector made up of utilities that purchased some or all of their electricity from the Bonneville Power Administration. Utilities agreed to acquire energy from manufacturers In the form of thermal efficiency measures specified by the Bonneville Power Administration. The program that resulted from over one year of negotiations was called the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program, or MAP. Manufacturers, the utilities, State Energy Offices, the Northwest Power Planning Council and Bonneville all worked closely and with tenacity to build the program that went into effect on April 1, 1992, and should save the region between 7 and 9 megawatts, enough energy to supply 11,000 homes in the Northwest

  15. C. h. p. saves fuel in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugas, C F

    1979-04-01

    A combined heat and power plant based on a diesel generator to produce 12MW of electricity and 12MW of heat has successfully supplied the town of Skultuna in Sweden during the winter and has saved 3,700t of oil annually.

  16. Do You Automate? Saving Time and Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Christine H.

    2010-01-01

    An automated workforce management strategy can help schools save jobs, improve the job satisfaction of teachers and staff, and free up precious budget dollars for investments in critical learning resources. Automated workforce management systems can help schools control labor costs, minimize compliance risk, and improve employee satisfaction.…

  17. Should Reformers Support Education Savings Accounts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Matthew; Smith, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    In this article, "Education Next" talks with Matthew Ladner and Nelson Smith on the topic of Education Savings Accounts (ESAs). ESAs apply the logic of school choice to the ever-expanding realm of education offerings. Rather than simply empowering families to select the school of their choice, ESAs provide families with most or all of…

  18. 78 FR 20097 - Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... procedures, scope definition, Measurement and Verification (M&V), financing procurement, and definition of... government. More than $2.71 billion has been invested in Federal energy efficiency and renewable energy... more than $7.18 billion of cumulative energy cost savings for the Federal Government. While FEMP has...

  19. Advertising energy saving programs: The potential environmental cost of emphasizing monetary savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Lave, Lester

    2015-06-01

    Many consumers have monetary or environmental motivations for saving energy. Indeed, saving energy produces both monetary benefits, by reducing energy bills, and environmental benefits, by reducing carbon footprints. We examined how consumers' willingness and reasons to enroll in energy-savings programs are affected by whether advertisements emphasize monetary benefits, environmental benefits, or both. From a normative perspective, having 2 noteworthy kinds of benefit should not decrease a program's attractiveness. In contrast, psychological research suggests that adding external incentives to an intrinsically motivating task may backfire. To date, however, it remains unclear whether this is the case when both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are inherent to the task, as with energy savings, and whether removing explicit mention of extrinsic motivation will reduce its importance. We found that emphasizing a program's monetary benefits reduced participants' willingness to enroll. In addition, participants' explanations about enrollment revealed less attention to environmental concerns when programs emphasized monetary savings, even when environmental savings were also emphasized. We found equal attention to monetary motivations in all conditions, revealing an asymmetric attention to monetary and environmental motives. These results also provide practical guidance regarding the positioning of energy-saving programs: emphasize intrinsic benefits; the extrinsic ones may speak for themselves. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  1. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  2. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  3. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  4. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  5. Trust in regulatory regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Six, Frédérique; Verhoest, Koen

    2017-01-01

    Within political and administrative sciences generally, trust as a concept is contested, especially in the field of regulatory governance. This groundbreaking book is the first to systematically explore the role and dynamics of trust within regulatory regimes. Conceptualizing, mapping and analyzing

  6. Nuclear Regulatory legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 97th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the Executive Legal Director, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document

  7. Effects of daylight-saving time changes on stock market volatility: a comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Mark J; Kramer, Lisa A; Levi, Maurice D

    2010-12-01

    In a recent article in this journal, Berument, Dogan, and Onar (2010) challenged the existence of the previously documented daylight-saving effect. Kamstra, Kramer, and Levi's original finding (2000) was that average stock market returns on Mondays following time changes are economically and statistically significantly lower than typical Monday returns. Kamstra, et al. hypothesized that the effect may arise due to heightened anxiety or risk aversion on the part of market participants after they experience a 1-hr. disruption in their sleep habits, in accordance with prior findings in the psychology literature linking sleep desynchronosis with anxiety. Berument, et al. replicated the original findings using ordinary least squares estimation, but when they modeled the mean of returns using a method prone to producing biased estimates, they obtained puzzling results. The analysis here, based on standard, unbiased modeling techniques, shows that the daylight-saving effect remains intact in the U.S.

  8. Trigeneration primary energy saving evaluation for energy planning and policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicco, Gianfranco; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2007-01-01

    Trigeneration or combined heat, cooling and power (CHCP) is becoming an increasingly important energy option, particularly on a small-scale basis (below 1 MW e ), with several alternatives nowadays available for the cooling power production and the coupling to cogeneration systems. This paper deals with the introduction of a suitable framework for assessing the energy saving performance of trigeneration alternatives, orientated towards energy planning studies and the development of regulatory policies. In particular, a new generalized performance indicator-the trigeneration primary energy saving (TPES)-is introduced and discussed, with the aim of effectively evaluating the primary energy savings from different CHCP alternatives. The potential of the TPES indicator is illustrated through specific analyses run over different combinations of trigeneration equipment, providing numerical examples based on time-domain simulations to illustrate the dependence of the energy saving characteristics on the CHCP system configurations and equipment, as well as on the loading levels. In addition, the key aspect of adequately establishing the reference efficiencies for the conventional separate production of electrical, thermal and cooling power is addressed in detail. This aspect affects both equipment selection and potential profitability of the considered solutions under the outlook of receiving financial incentives

  9. Deposit Insurance and Risk Shifting in a Strong Regulatory Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Justesen, Lene Gilje

    This study provides empirical evidence on the moral hazard implications of introducing deposit insurance into a strong regulatory environment. Denmark offers a unique setting because commercial banks and savings banks have different ownership structures, but are subject to the same set...... of regulations. The ownership structure in savings banks implies that they have no incentive to increase risk after the implementation of a deposit insurance scheme whereas commercial banks have. Also, at the time of introduction, Denmark had high capital requirements and a strict closure policy. Using...... a difference-in-difference framework we show that commercial banks did not increase their risk compared to savings banks when deposit insurance was introduced. The results also hold for large commercial banks, indicating that the systemic risk did not increase either. Thus for a system with high capital...

  10. Improving nuclear regulatory effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Ensuring that nuclear installations are operated and maintained in such a way that their impact on public health and safety is as low as reasonably practicable has been and will continue to be the cornerstone of nuclear regulation. In the past, nuclear incidents provided the main impetus for regulatory change. Today, economic factors, deregulation, technological advancements, government oversight and the general requirements for openness and accountability are leading regulatory bodies to review their effectiveness. In addition, seeking to enhance the present level of nuclear safety by continuously improving the effectiveness of regulatory bodies is seen as one of the ways to strengthen public confidence in the regulatory systems. This report covers the basic concepts underlying nuclear regulatory effectiveness, advances being made and future requirements. The intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, but government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)

  11. Energy saving and cost saving cooling; Energie und Kosten sparende Kuehlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Klaus W. [Architektur- und Fachpressebuero Klaus W. Koenig, Ueberlingen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In the case of cost reduction, energy conservation and resource savings, rain water is an ideal medium offering more advantages in comparison to the cooling with drinking water. There are no fees for the drinking water and drainage of rain water. It is not necessary to soften rain water so that further operational costs for the treatment and drainage of waste water can be saved. The avoidance of the related material flows and necessary energy is a practiced environmental protection and climate protection.

  12. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  13. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  14. Serial Learning Process: Test of Chaining, Position, and Dual-Process Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurintano, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    The chaining, position, and dual-process hypotheses of serial learning (SL) as well as serial recall, reordering, and relearning of paired-associate learning were examined to establish learning patterns. Results provide evidence for dual-process hypothesis. (DS)

  15. A criterion for testing hypotheses about the covariance function of a stationary Gaussian stochastic process

    OpenAIRE

    Kozachenko, Yuriy; Troshki, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    We consider a measurable stationary Gaussian stochastic process. A criterion for testing hypotheses about the covariance function of such a process using estimates for its norm in the space $L_p(\\mathbb {T}),\\,p\\geq1$, is constructed.

  16. A Bayesian decision procedure for testing multiple hypotheses in DNA microarray experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Villegas, Miguel A; Salazar, Isabel; Sanz, Luis

    2014-02-01

    DNA microarray experiments require the use of multiple hypothesis testing procedures because thousands of hypotheses are simultaneously tested. We deal with this problem from a Bayesian decision theory perspective. We propose a decision criterion based on an estimation of the number of false null hypotheses (FNH), taking as an error measure the proportion of the posterior expected number of false positives with respect to the estimated number of true null hypotheses. The methodology is applied to a Gaussian model when testing bilateral hypotheses. The procedure is illustrated with both simulated and real data examples and the results are compared to those obtained by the Bayes rule when an additive loss function is considered for each joint action and the generalized loss 0-1 function for each individual action. Our procedure significantly reduced the percentage of false negatives whereas the percentage of false positives remains at an acceptable level.

  17. Testing contingency hypotheses in budgetary research: An evaluation of the use of moderated regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Frank G.H.; Moers, Frank

    1999-01-01

    In the contingency literature on the behavioral and organizational effects of budgeting, use of the Moderated Regression Analysis (MRA) technique is prevalent. This technique is used to test contingency hypotheses that predict interaction effects between budgetary and contextual variables. This

  18. A novel approach to generating CER hypotheses based on mining clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Li, Lin; Yu, Yiqin; Sun, Xingzhi; Xu, Linhao; Zhao, Wei; Teng, Xiaofei; Pan, Yue

    2013-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is a scientific method of investigating the effectiveness of alternative intervention methods. In a CER study, clinical researchers typically start with a CER hypothesis, and aim to evaluate it by applying a series of medical statistical methods. Traditionally, the CER hypotheses are defined manually by clinical researchers. This makes the task of hypothesis generation very time-consuming and the quality of hypothesis heavily dependent on the researchers' skills. Recently, with more electronic medical data being collected, it is highly promising to apply the computerized method for discovering CER hypotheses from clinical data sets. In this poster, we proposes a novel approach to automatically generating CER hypotheses based on mining clinical data, and presents a case study showing that the approach can facilitate clinical researchers to identify potentially valuable hypotheses and eventually define high quality CER studies.

  19. Corrigendum to: Bayesian evaluation of informative hypotheses in SEM using Mplus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schoot, R.; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hoijtink, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper corrects: van de Schoot, R., Verhoeven, M., & Hoijtink, H. (2013). Bayesian evaluation ofinformative hypotheses in SEM using Mplus: A black bear story. EuropeanJournal of Developmental Psychology, 10, 81 –98.

  20. Promoting cooperative federalism through state shared savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Alan

    2013-08-01

    The Affordable Care Act is transforming American federalism and creating strain between the states and the federal government. By expanding the scale of intergovernmental health programs, creating new state requirements, and setting the stage for increased federal fiscal oversight, the act has disturbed an uneasy truce in American federalism. This article outlines a policy proposal designed to harness cooperative federalism, based on the shared state and federal desire to control health care cost growth. The proposal, which borrows features of the Medicare Shared Savings Program, would provide states with an incentive in the form of an increased share of the savings they generate in programs that have federal financial participation, as long as they meet defined performance standards.

  1. Energy saving certificates: an improved instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    This report first presents Energy Saving Certificates as one of among other instruments aimed at reducing energy consumption, and indicates how the French consumer is concerned. The benefits of this instrument are outlined: low cost, autonomy, awareness-raising, quantitative assessment of achieved energy savings. Its objectives and results since its creation in 2006 are commented, and the report outlines that this type of instrument is spreading over Europe. The authors show that its efficiency has been improved along the years due to a periodic review of standardised operation sheets, a simplification of the declaration, and an optimization of related programmes. Besides, targets have been better identified. The report outlines that assessment and controls must however be strengthened in order to reduce financial risks and potential drifts. Answers to this report by the concerned minister and ADEME are provided

  2. About instrumental innovation. Energy saving certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baiz, Adam; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence

    2016-09-01

    Energy saving certificates (in French CEE for certificats d'economie d'energie) have been implemented in 2006, and have proven to be a rather efficient tool of public policy, with a low cost, and a good social acceptability, notably due to its hybrid nature (incentive and coercive) in function of the targeted actors. Thus, this document addresses and discusses the interest of such instruments for the public environmental policy. It outlines that instruments tend to be always less coercive, and then comments the example of these energy saving certificates: brief presentation, discussion and explanation of their efficiency, multi-dimensional nature of this instrument, benefits of more or less coercive instruments depending on the actors (State, households, energy providers)

  3. Energy saving in refineries and petrochemical complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, L

    1975-01-01

    Possible measures applicable in the design of refineries and petrochemical complexes, to effect energy savings were investigated. This was not limited to the single process unit problems, on the contrary the attention is mainly addressed to the identification of the interrelations between different units, emphasizing possible integrations. Particularly, the optimization of the pressure levels and number of the utility networks for steam distribution inside plant facilities, is considered, in order to maximize heat recovery in the process units, and electric power production in the central steampower generation plant. A computer program of general application, based on profitability evaluation at various fuel oil prices and different project configurations, has been developed for these purposes. The general measures applicable within certain limits are then briefly examined. The task of the process engineer is discussed in the perspective of the ''energy saving'' goal.

  4. Preliminary testing of flow-ecology hypotheses developed for the GCP LCC region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Shannon K.; Davis, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The Ecological Limits of Hydrological Alteration (ELOHA) framework calls for the development of flow-ecology hypotheses to support protection of the flow regime from ecologically harmful alteration due to human activities. As part of a larger instream flow project for the Gulf Coast Prairie Landscape Conservation Cooperative (GCP LCC), regional flow-ecology hypotheses were developed for fish, mussels, birds, and riparian vegetation (Davis and Brewer 20141). The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of existing ecological and hydrological data to test these hypotheses or others that may be developed in the future. Several databases related to biological collections and hydrologic data from Oklahoma, Texas, and Louisiana were compiled. State fish-community data from Oklahoma and Louisiana were summarized and paired with existing USGS gage data having at least a 40-year period of record that could be separated into reference and current conditions for comparison. The objective of this study was not to conduct exhaustive analyses of these data, the hypotheses, or analyses interpretation, but rather to use these data to determine if existing data were adequate to statistically test the regional flow-ecology hypotheses. The regional flow-ecology hypotheses were developed for the GCP LCC by a committee chaired by Shannon Brewer and Mary Davis (Davis and Brewer 2014). Existing data were useful for informing the hypotheses and suggest support for some hypotheses, but also highlight the need for additional testing and development as some results contradicted hypotheses. Results presented here suggest existing data are adequate to support some flow-ecology hypotheses; however, lack of sampling effort reported with the fish collections and the need for ecoregion-specific analyses suggest more data would be beneficial to analyses in some ecoregions. Additional fish sampling data from Texas and Louisiana will be available for future analyses and may ameliorate

  5. The influence of regulatory fit on evaluation and intentions to buy genetically modified foods: The mediating role of social identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, M.L.; Reinders, M.J.; Bartels, J.; Maassen, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines how communicated messages could be effective in affecting consumers' attitudes and behavioural intentions regarding genetically modified (GM) foods. Based on Regulatory Focus Theory, it was hypothesized that exposure to a communication message matching a consumer's

  6. Biosimilars: How Can Payers Get Long-Term Savings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre-Ferrandiz, Jorge; Towse, Adrian; Berdud, Mikel

    2016-06-01

    The term 'biosimilar' refers to an alternative similar version of an off-patent innovative originator biotechnology product (the 'reference product'). Several biosimilars have been approved in Europe, and a number of top-selling biological medicines have lost, or will lose, patent protection over the next 5 years. We look at the experience in Europe so far. The USA has finally implemented a regulatory route for biosimilar approval. We recommend that European and US governments and payers take a strategic approach to get value for money from the use of biosimilars by (1) supporting and incentivising generation of high-quality comprehensive outcomes data on the effectiveness and safety of biosimilars and originator products; and (2) ensuring that incentives are in place for budget holders to benefit from price competition. This may create greater willingness on the part of budget holders and clinicians to use biosimilar and originator products with comparable outcomes interchangeably, and may drive down prices. Other options, such as direct price cuts for originator products or substitution rules without outcomes data, are likely to discourage biosimilar entry. With such approaches, governments may achieve a one-off cut in originator prices but may put at risk the creation of a more competitive market that would, in time, produce much greater savings. It was the creation of competitive markets for chemical generic drugs-notably, in the USA, the UK and Germany-rather than price control, that enabled payers to achieve the high discounts now taken for granted.

  7. Skin Stem Cell Hypotheses and Long Term Clone Survival - Explored Using Agent-based Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Li, X.; Upadhyay, A.K.; Bullock, A.J.; Dicolandrea, T.; Xu, J.; Binder, R.L.; Robinson, M.K.; Finlay, D.R.; Mills, K.J.; Bascom, C.C.; Kelling, C.K.; Isfort, R.J.; Haycock, J.W.; MacNeil, S.; Smallwood, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial renewal in skin is achieved by the constant turnover and differentiation of keratinocytes. Three popular hypotheses have been proposed to explain basal keratinocyte regeneration and epidermal homeostasis: 1) asymmetric division (stem-transit amplifying cell); 2) populational asymmetry (progenitor cell with stochastic fate); and 3) populational asymmetry with stem cells. In this study, we investigated lineage dynamics using these hypotheses with a 3D agent-based model of the epiderm...

  8. Comparison for aphasic and control subjects of eye movements hypothesized in neurolinguistic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, K O; Farmer, A

    1988-08-01

    Neurolinguistic programming's hypothesized eye movements were measured independently using videotapes of 10 nonfluent aphasic and 10 control subjects matched for age and sex. Chi-squared analysis indicated that eye-position responses were significantly different for the groups. Although earlier research has not supported the hypothesized eye positions for normal subjects, the present findings support the contention that eye-position responses may differ between neurologically normal and aphasic individuals.

  9. Energy saving in industrial varnishing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirst, W.

    1978-01-01

    The search for more effective varnishing techniques and better varnish surfaces and the increasing consideration of environmental protection, energy and raw materials conservation have helped to promote electron beam hardening. Also the development of high-solid varnishes have brought about the following improvements: Better quality of the varnish surface, possible saving of one layer in multilayer coatings, reduced emission in the waste air of the spray booth, conservation of valuable raw materials and energy. (orig.) [de

  10. Communication Can Save Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-04

    This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the August 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Antibiotic-resistant germs cause at least 23,000 deaths each year. Learn how public health authorities and health care facilities can work together to save lives.  Created: 8/4/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/4/2015.

  11. Structured packing: an opportunity for energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez T, R.H.; Guadarrama G, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    This work emphasizes the advantages about the use of structured packing. This type of packings allows by its geometry to reduce the processing time giving energy savings and throw down the production costs in several industries such as heavy water production plants, petrochemical industry and all industries involved with separation processes. There is a comparative results of energy consumption utilizing the structured vs. Raschig packings. (Author)

  12. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  13. When financiers are concerned with energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, J.

    2005-01-01

    Innovative financial systems allow to finance investments for the energy efficiency improvement of public or residential buildings. Such solutions are implemented in Belgium and Germany. They are based on the association between a financial company, an energy supplier who makes an energy audit and the building owner who refunds the investments with the saving made on the space heating and power consumption of the building. Short paper. (J.S.)

  14. Energy saving estimation on radiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Hideaki; Maekawa, H.; Ito, Y.; Nishikawa, I.; Fujii, H.; Murata, K.

    1982-01-01

    When the quantity of paint used for industrial coating is assumed to be 420,000 tons, it is estimated that the area being coated is 2.8 billion m 2 , the petroleum required for pretreatment steam, drying and baking is 1.68 million tons, and the required amount of energy saving is 120,000 tons per year in terms of petroleum. The authors examined how the adoption of electron beam curing for surface coating contributes to the energy saving. So far, it has been said that electron beam curing is more efficient than thermal or light curing in energy consumption, but the premise condition was not clear. The theoretical energy requirement for thermal curing, light curing and electron beam curing was calculated and compared. The comparison of the measured values was also performed. The amount of energy required for thermal curing, UV light curing and electron beam curing was roughly 100:10:1, and the cost of energy for them was 50:5:1. In spite of the large merit of electron beam curing, it has not spread as expected, because of the repayment cost of the facility and the cost of inert gas required for the process. Energy saving is brought about by electron beam curing, but the overall cost must be examined case by case. (Kako, I.)

  15. About "Save the Children Committee (India)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the activity among charitable committees to provide education and shelter to orphans and homeless children in India. "Save The Children Committee" of the All India Women's Conference began operations during the Bengal famine of 1943 by providing shelter to children who were homeless or did not know where their parents were. The Bengal Relief Committee also provided shelters, which later became Children's Homes, which were operated by the Save The Children Committee. Funding support for the homes came from individual donors and organizations. The Bengal government provided Rs.25/month/child for 450 children. Children's homes were set up in Phola, Mymensingh, and Brahmanberia, in the present day Bangladesh, and in Bankura. The Committee took over homes in Mahishadal, Khagda, and Belbeni. After 1948, the Children's Homes in East Pakistan were transferred to India. In 1952, several Children's Committees merged. Funds were supplied by international organizations. Government support levels varied over time. Schools for orphans changed from an emphasis on self-reliance and work to ordinary schooling. Brief descriptions are provided for homes at Pifa, Mangalgunge in Bongaon Subdivision, Thakurpukur in 24-Parganas, and Khagda in Midnapore district. For example, the home at Khagda was begun by the Bengal Relief Committee at the time of the famine of 1944. Save The Children Committee took over its operations in 1946. It is now a home for 21 boys. The boys have access to a good high school, have achieved academically, and received respect from the community.

  16. Energy saving potential in existing industrial compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittorini, Diego; Cipollone, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Air Sector accounts for a mean 10% worldwide electricity consumption, which ensures about its importance, when energy saving and CO_2 emissions reduction are in question. Since the compressors alone account for 15% overall industry electricity consumption, it appears vital to pay attention to machine performances. The paper presents an overview of present compressor technology and focuses on saving directions for screw and sliding vanes machines, according to data provided by the Compressed Air and Gas Institute and PNEUROP. Data were processed to obtain consistency with fixed reference pressures and organized as a function of main operating parameters. Each sub-term, contributing to the overall efficiency (adiabatic, volumetric, mechanical, electric, organic), was considered separately: the analysis showed that the thermodynamic improvement during compression achievable by splitting the compression in two stages, with a lower compression ratio, opens the way to significantly reduce the energy specific consumption. - Highlights: • Compressors technology overview in industrial compressed air systems. • Market compressors efficiency baseline definition. • Energy breakdown and evaluation of main efficiency terms. • Assessment of air cooling-related energy saving potential. • Energy specific consumption reduction through dual stage compression.

  17. Regulatory guidance document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM's evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7

  18. Managing Regulatory Body Competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, the IAEA published TECDOC 1254, which examined the way in which the recognized functions of a regulatory body for nuclear facilities results in competence needs. Using the systematic approach to training (SAT), TECDOC 1254 provided a framework for regulatory bodies for managing training and developing and their maintaining their competence. It has been successfully used by many regulators. The IAEA has also introduced a methodology and an assessment tool - Guidelines for Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) - which provides practical guidance on analysing the training and development needs of a regulatory body and, through a gap analysis, guidance on establishing competence needs and how to meet them. In 2009, the IAEA established a steering committee (supported by a bureau) with the mission to advise the IAEA on how it could best assist Member States to develop suitable competence management systems for their regulatory bodies. The committee recommended the development of a safety report on managing staff competence as an integral part of a regulatory body's management system. This Safety Report was developed in response to this request. It supersedes TECDOC 1254, broadens its application to regulatory bodies for all facilities and activities, and builds upon the experience gained through the application of TECDOC 1254 and SARCoN and the feedback received from Member States. This Safety Report applies to the management of adequate competence as needs change, and as such is equally applicable to the needs of States 'embarking' on a nuclear power programme. It also deals with the special case of building up the competence of regulatory bodies as part of the overall process of establishing an 'embarking' State's regulatory system

  19. Everything to be known about the tax credit for energy saving expenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Tax credits for energy saving have become a commercial argument for the energy professionals. However, this argument is more often superior to the technical demonstration. If its principle is simple, its implementation requires a careful reading of legislative texts. An additional instruction from the French ministry of budget has been necessary to comment and precise some regulatory dispositions of the French tax code. This paper presents some important excerpts of the instruction from May 18, 2006 about some specific space heating appliances, in particular those using a renewable energy source. (J.S.)

  20. Good practice in saving energy at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Paola; Bonazzi, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    We teach students between 14 and 18 years old at a high school in Italy. In the first class, one of the topics we treat is related to the atmosphere. The students learn the composition of air, the importance of the natural greenhouse effect in keeping the average temperature of the planet and how human activity is increasing the level of greenhouse gases, enhancing greenhouse effect and causing global warming. It is possible to reach this knowledge using different materials and methods such as schoolbooks, articles, websites or films, individual or group work, but as students gradually become aware of the problem of climate change due to global warming, it is necessary to propose a solution that can be experienced and measured by students. This is the aim of the project "Switch off the light, to switch on the future". The project doesn't need special materials to be carried out but all the people in the community who work and "live" at school should participate in it. The project deals directly with saving electric energy, by changing the habits of the use of electricity. Saving electric energy means saving CO2 emitted to atmosphere, and consequently contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Normally, lights in the school are switched on in the early morning and switched off at the end of lessons. Nobody is responsible to turn out the lights in classes, so students choose one or two "Light guardians" who are responsible for the light management. Simple rules for light management are written and distributed in the classes so that the action of saving energy is spread all over the school. One class participates in the daily data collection from the electricity meter, before and after the beginning of the action. At the end of the year the data are treated and presented to the community, verifying if the electric consumption has been cut down or not. This presentation is public, with students who directly introduce collected data, results and

  1. The modern water-saving agricultural technology: Progress and focus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... saving agricultural technology, which include modern biological water-saving technology, unconventional ... and innovation, water, nutrient migration theory, regula- .... urban sewage of more than 50%; Mexico City, 90% of.

  2. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN MANAGEMENT OF ENERGY SAVING PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитро Валерійович МАРГАСОВ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The information technology structure is considered of energy saving projects. The project management diagram of energy saving projects is developed, using GIS, ICS, BIM and other control and visual systems.

  3. Dynamic analysis of savings and economic growth in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dynamic analysis of savings and economic growth in Nigeria. ... a trivariate dynamic Granger causality model with savings, economic growth and foreign ... It is recommended that in the short run, policies in Nigeria should be geared towards ...

  4. Energy saving and consumption reducing evaluation of thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiu; Han, Miaomiao

    2018-03-01

    At present, energy saving and consumption reduction require energy saving and consumption reduction measures for thermal power plant, establishing an evaluation system for energy conservation and consumption reduction is instructive for the whole energy saving work of thermal power plant. By analysing the existing evaluation system of energy conservation and consumption reduction, this paper points out that in addition to the technical indicators of power plant, market activities should also be introduced in the evaluation of energy saving and consumption reduction in power plant. Ttherefore, a new evaluation index of energy saving and consumption reduction is set up and the example power plant is calculated in this paper. Rresults show that after introducing the new evaluation index of energy saving and consumption reduction, the energy saving effect of the power plant can be judged more comprehensively, so as to better guide the work of energy saving and consumption reduction in power plant.

  5. Cost-saving production technologies and partial ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Barcena-Ruiz; Norma Olaizola

    2007-01-01

    This work analyzes the incentives to acquire cost-saving production technologies when cross-participation exists at ownership level. We show that cross-participation reduces the incentives to adopt the cost-saving production technology.

  6. Financial development and domestic savings in emerging Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz BAYAR

    2014-01-01

    Saving is one of the important determinants of economic growth. Therefore determinants of saving are indirectly important for a sustainable economic growth. Financial sector has come into prominence as a possible determinant of saving in the globalized financial markets. This study examines the relationship between gross domestic savings and financial development in the emerging Asian countries during the period 1992-2011 by using panel regression. We found that financial de...

  7. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition

  8. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition

  9. Through the regulatory hoop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, N.P.

    1985-01-01

    There are many regulatory hoops through which waste generators, brokers, and disposal site operators must jump to dispose of waste safely. As the proposed exclusionary date of January 1, 1986, approaches, these regulatory hoops have the distinct possibility of multiplying or at least changing shape. The state of Washington, in its role as an Agreement State with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, licenses and inspects the commercial operator of the Northwest Compact's low-level radioactive waste disposal site on the Hanford Reservation. Washington has received as much as 53%, or 1.4 million cubic feet per year, of the nation's total volume of waste disposed. To control such a large volume of waste, a regulatory program involving six agencies has developed over the years in Washington

  10. Entrepreneurial Saving Practices and Reinvestment : Theory and Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Pamuk, H.; Uras, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    We use a novel enterprise survey from Tanzania to gauge the relationship between saving instruments and entrepreneurial reinvestment. While most informal savings practices do not imply a lower likelihood of entrepreneurial reinvestment when compared with formal savings practices, we find a

  11. Saving in Childhood and Adolescence: Insights from Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Annette

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses variables related to child and adolescent saving and explains the development of skills and behaviors that facilitate saving from an economic socialization perspective. References are made to the differences between the economic world of children, adolescents, and adults as well as to existing theories of saving. Children's…

  12. Casual relationship between gross domestic saving and economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The empirical study confirmed that a significant relationship between domestic savings and ... and, which ultimately increases the country domestic saving level. ... which increase saving and investment into the country due to its dual effect. ... South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19); Togo ...

  13. Saving and Habit Formation : Evidence from Dutch Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Teppa, F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of habit formation in individual preferences over consumption and saving.We closely relate to Alessie and Lusardi's (1997) model as we estimate a model which is based on their closed-form solution, where saving is expressed as a function of lagged saving and other

  14. Causal Links among Saving, Investment and Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between saving, investment and GDP still remains an empirical issue. In their aspiration to catch up the rest of the world, developing countries provides a special place on this matter. This paper tried to investigate the main determinants of saving and the connection among saving, investment and GDP in the ...

  15. Entrepreneurial saving practices and reinvestment : Theory and evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Pamuk, Haki; Uras, Burak

    2017-01-01

    We use a novel enterprise survey to gauge the relationship between saving instruments and entrepreneurial reinvestment. We show that while most informal saving practices are not associated with a lower likelihood of reinvestment when compared with formal saving practices, there is a significantly

  16. 48 CFR 48.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a) The Government shares collateral savings with the contractor, unless the head of the contracting activity has...

  17. 48 CFR 2448.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Sharing collateral savings... DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING 2448.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a) The authority of the HCA to determine that the cost of calculating and tracking collateral savings will exceed the...

  18. The modern water-saving agricultural technology: Progress and focus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... DEVELOPING TENDENCY OF MODERN WATER-. SAVING AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY. Excavation of the own water-saving potential using biotechnology. The biological water-saving technology that uses crop physiology control and modern breeding techniques to increase production and water ...

  19. 76 FR 35085 - Savings and Loan Holding Company Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Savings and Loan Holding Company... Proposal: Savings Loan Holding Company Application. OMB Number: 1550-0015. Form Numbers: H-(e). Description... that no company, or any director or officer of a savings and loan holding company, or any individual...

  20. 76 FR 20459 - Savings and Loan Holding Company Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Savings and Loan Holding Company... concerning the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Savings and Loan Holding Company... officer of a savings and loan holding company, or any individual who owns, controls, or holds with power...

  1. The EU must triple its energy saving policy effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, B.; Eichhammer, W.; Harmsen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of EU energy savings policy must triple to achieve the bloc’s 2020 energy savings goal. But such efforts could get a much better foundation if European leaders set a binding energy consumption target, rather than the current indicative savings target. The evidence for such

  2. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review--2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program is an initiative of the Government of Canada. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in Registered…

  3. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in…

  4. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program (CESP) has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG) and the Canada Learning Bond (CLB). These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's…

  5. Building Savings and Investments Culture among Nigerians | Imegi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is therefore necessary to build among Nigerians savings and investments culture. A review of extant literature revealed that people save and invest for several reasons among which are to enhance the standard of living, take advantage of rare business opportunities, and meet unforeseen circumstances. Savings can be ...

  6. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2006-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water

  7. Framing of information on the use of public finances, regulatory fit of recipients and tax compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Marianne; Hoelzl, Erik; Kirchler, Erich; Leder, Susanne; Mannetti, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    Information campaigns to increase tax compliance could be framed in different ways. They can either highlight the potential gains when tax compliance is high, or the potential losses when compliance is low. According to regulatory focus theory, such framing should be most effective when it is congruent with the promotion or prevention focus of its recipients. Two studies confirmed the hypothesized interaction effects between recipients' regulatory focus and framing of information campaigns, with tax compliance being highest under conditions of regulatory fit. To address taxpayers effectively, information campaigns by tax authorities should consider the positive and negative framing of information, and the moderating effect of recipients' regulatory focus. PMID:20495689

  8. Framing of information on the use of public finances, regulatory fit of recipients and tax compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Marianne; Hoelzl, Erik; Kirchler, Erich; Leder, Susanne; Mannetti, Lucia

    2008-08-01

    Information campaigns to increase tax compliance could be framed in different ways. They can either highlight the potential gains when tax compliance is high, or the potential losses when compliance is low. According to regulatory focus theory, such framing should be most effective when it is congruent with the promotion or prevention focus of its recipients. Two studies confirmed the hypothesized interaction effects between recipients' regulatory focus and framing of information campaigns, with tax compliance being highest under conditions of regulatory fit. To address taxpayers effectively, information campaigns by tax authorities should consider the positive and negative framing of information, and the moderating effect of recipients' regulatory focus.

  9. Challenges in orphan drug development and regulatory policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice; Xie, Zhi

    2017-01-18

    While regulatory policy is well defined for orphan drug development in the United States and Europe, rare disease policy in China is still evolving. Many Chinese patients currently pay out of pocket for international treatments that are not yet approved in China. The lack of a clear definition and therefore regulatory approval process for rare diseases has, until now, de-incentivized pharmaceutical companies to pursue rare disease drug development in China. In turn, many grassroots movements have begun to support rare disease patients and facilitate drug discovery through research. Recently, the Chinese FDA set new regulatory guidelines for drugs being developed in China, including an expedited review process for life-saving treatments. In this review, we discuss the effects of these new policy changes on and suggest potential solutions to innovate orphan drug development in China.

  10. Saving Money and Time with Virtual Server

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft Virtual Server 2005 consistently proves to be worth its weight in gold, with new implementations thought up every day. With this product now a free download from Microsoft, scores of new users are able to experience what the power of virtualization can do for their networks. This guide is aimed at network administrators who are interested in ways that Virtual Server 2005 can be implemented in their organizations in order to save money and increase network productivity. It contains information on setting up a virtual network, virtual consolidation, virtual security, virtual honeypo

  11. Small scale models equal large scale savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.; Segroves, R.

    1994-01-01

    A physical scale model of a reactor is a tool which can be used to reduce the time spent by workers in the containment during an outage and thus to reduce the radiation dose and save money. The model can be used for worker orientation, and for planning maintenance, modifications, manpower deployment and outage activities. Examples of the use of models are presented. These were for the La Salle 2 and Dresden 1 and 2 BWRs. In each case cost-effectiveness and exposure reduction due to the use of a scale model is demonstrated. (UK)

  12. Future cost savings from engineering innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemer, R.E.; Foster, D.C.; Jacobs, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power plant design and operating experience in the 1970s and 1980s continues to provide feedback to the technology base. The lessons learned in these two decades, coupled with engineering innovation, will lead to improvements and cost-reductions in the plants of the 1990s. Two types of innovations related to piping are described: snubber reduction and pipe rupture elimination. A brief account of the industry experience is given for each, followed by an account of the technical methodology involved. A discussion of expected benefits, including cost savings of millions of dollars (U.S.), is provided. (author)

  13. Food industry hungry for energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, D

    1989-04-01

    The United Kingdom food and drink industry is a significant user of energy. Energy use figures are given showing the breakdown in terms of different sectors of the industry and also in terms of the fuel used. Four energy monitoring and target setting demonstration projects are outlined at factories typical of their type in different sectors. The projects have resulted in a much greater awareness by management in the factories involved of energy consumption and waste. Examples are given of improved energy efficiency and consequent energy savings which have resulted from this awareness. (U.K.).

  14. The energy saving manual; Das Energiesparbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetze, Monika; Pinn, Gudrun

    2009-07-01

    The constant increase in the cost of electric power, petroleum, gasoline and gas burden the household budget. At the same time, greenhouse gases are speeding up global warming alarmingly. It is time to reconsider our style of living. This guide presents simple and practical hints to reduce energy costs and protect the climate. Exemplary calculations show how up to 1100 Euro can be saved per household member and per annum. Subjects: Identifying fields of excess energy consumption; No wasting of electricity, heat, and warm water; Food, shopping and climate; Mobility and climate protection; How to establish an individual energy conservation profile. (orig.)

  15. Saving Money or Spending Tomorrow's Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗芳梅

    2017-01-01

    Chinese are normally believed to be thrifty.However,economic development has had a tremendous impact upon Chinese society,uprooting the long-engraved ideas.With the emergence of the credit cards,spending tomorrow's money becomes a reality.In this way,people are in dilemma:saving money or spending tomorrow's money.Firstly,this paper focuses on the benefits of spending tomorrow's money.Secondly,it shows that spending tomorrow's money is confronted with many challenges.Finally,the paper comes up with some suggestions to solve these problems.

  16. Causal null hypotheses of sustained treatment strategies: What can be tested with an instrumental variable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sonja A; Labrecque, Jeremy; Hernán, Miguel A

    2018-05-02

    Sometimes instrumental variable methods are used to test whether a causal effect is null rather than to estimate the magnitude of a causal effect. However, when instrumental variable methods are applied to time-varying exposures, as in many Mendelian randomization studies, it is unclear what causal null hypothesis is tested. Here, we consider different versions of causal null hypotheses for time-varying exposures, show that the instrumental variable conditions alone are insufficient to test some of them, and describe additional assumptions that can be made to test a wider range of causal null hypotheses, including both sharp and average causal null hypotheses. Implications for interpretation and reporting of instrumental variable results are discussed.

  17. Does extending daylight saving time save energy? Evidence from an Australian experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, R. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics; Wolff, H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics]|[Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit (IZA), Bonn (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Several countries are considering extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) in order to conserve energy, and the U.S. will extend DST by one month beginning in 2007. However, projections that these extensions will reduce electricity consumption rely on extrapolations and simulations rather than empirical evidence. This paper, in contrast, examines a quasiexperiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. Using detailed panel data and a triple differences specification, we show that the extension did not conserve electricity, and that a prominent simulation model overstates electricity savings when it is applied to Australia. (orig.)

  18. Perceptions of regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halin, Magnus; Leinonen, Ruusaliisa

    2012-01-01

    Ms. Ruusaliisa Leinonen and Mr. Magnus Halin from Fortum gave a joint presentation on industry perceptions of regulatory oversight of LMfS/SC. It was concluded that an open culture of discussion exists between the regulator (STUK) and the licensee, based on the common goal of nuclear safety. An example was provided of on how regulatory interventions helped foster improvements to individual and collective dose rate trends, which had remained static. Regulatory interventions included discussions on the ALARA concept to reinforce the requirement to continuously strive for improvements in safety performance. Safety culture has also been built into regulatory inspections in recent years. Training days have also been organised by the regulatory body to help develop a shared understanding of safety culture between licensee and regulatory personnel. Fortum has also developed their own training for managers and supervisors. Training and ongoing discussion on LMfS/SC safety culture is considered particularly important because both Fortum and the regulatory body are experiencing an influx of new staff due to the demographic profile of their organisations. It was noted that further work is needed to reach a common understanding of safety culture on a practical level (e.g., for a mechanic setting to work), and in relation to the inspection criteria used by the regulator. The challenges associated with companies with a mix of energy types were also discussed. This can make it more difficult to understand responsibilities and decision making processes, including the role of the parent body organisation. It also makes communication more challenging due to increased complexity and a larger number of stakeholders

  19. Estimating the energy saving potential of telecom operators in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tian-Jian; Zhang, Yue-Jun; Huang, Jin; Peng, Ruo-Hong

    2013-01-01

    A set of models are employed to estimate the potential of total energy saved of productions and segmented energy saving for telecom operators in China. During the estimation, the total energy saving is divided into that by technology and management, which are derived from technical reform and progress, and management control measures and even marketing respectively, and the estimating methodologies for energy saving potential of each segment are elaborated. Empirical results from China Mobile indicate that, first, the technical advance in communications technology accounts for the largest proportion (70%–80%) of the total energy saved of productions in telecom sector of China. Second, technical reform brings about 20%–30% of the total energy saving. Third, the proportions of energy saving brought by marketing and control measures appear relatively smaller, just less than 3%. Therefore, China's telecom operators should seize the opportunity of the revolution of communications network techniques in recent years to create an advanced network with lower energy consumption

  20. Energy supply and energy saving in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Ilchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main problems and solutions of energy saving and energy supply in Ukraine. Low energy efficiency has become one of the main factors of the crisis in the Ukrainian economy. The most relevant scientific and methodical approaches to assessment of the level of energy consumption and saving are indicated. The comparative analysis of annual energy use has been made. A potential to solve energy supply problems is strongly correlated with the ability to ensure the innovative development of economy for efficient and economical use of existing and imported energy resources. The ways for reducing of energy resource consumption have been suggested. Creation of technological conditions for the use of alternative energy sources is considered to be rational also. The development of renewable sources of energy (alternative and renewable energy sources will provide a significant effect in reducing the use of traditional energy sources, harmful emissions and greenhouse gas. Under these conditions, increasing of energy efficiency of economy and its competitiveness can be real. Improvement of environmental and social conditions of citizens of the country will mark a positive step towards the EU, and also will cancel some problems of the future generation.

  1. Defining a standard metric for electricity savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, Jonathan; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Brown, Marilyn; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B; Greenberg, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70% capacity factor with 7% T and D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kWh/year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO 2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question-Dr Arthur H Rosenfeld.

  2. Defining a standard metric for electricity savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, Jonathan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Stanford University, PO Box 20313, Oakland, CA 94620-0313 (United States); Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Brown, Marilyn; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B; Greenberg, Steve, E-mail: JGKoomey@stanford.ed

    2010-01-15

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70% capacity factor with 7% T and D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kWh/year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question-Dr Arthur H Rosenfeld.

  3. Electric power production contra electricity savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Soerensen, H.

    1991-01-01

    The expansion of electricity-producing plants has, in Denmark until now, taken place in accordance with the demand for electricity. Recently, it has been suggested that the cost of the further development of such systems is greater than the cost of instigating and carrying out energy conservation efforts. The aim of the project was to evaluate the consequences for power producing plants of a reduction of the electricity consumption of end-users. A method for the analysis of the costs involved in the system and operation of power plants contra the costs that are involved in saving electricity is presented. In developing a model of this kind, consideration is given to the interplay of the individual saving project and the existing or future electricity supply. Thus it can be evaluated to what extent it would be advisable to substitute investments in the development of the capacity of the power plants with investments in the reduction of electricity consumption by the end users. This model is described in considerable detail. It will be tested in representative situations and locations throughout the Nordic countries. (AB) 17 refs

  4. Energy saving screw compressor technology; Energiebesparende schroefcompressortechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, A. [RefComp, Lonigo (Italy); Neus, M. [Delta Technics Engineering, Breda (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Smart solutions to reduce the energy consumption are continuously part of investigation in the refrigeration technology. This article subscribed the technology on which way energy can be saved at the operation of screw compressors which are used in air conditioners and refrigerating machinery. The combination of frequency control and Vi-control (intrinsic volumetric ratio) such as researched in the laboratory of RefComp is for the user attractive because the energy efficiency during part load operation is much better. Smart uses of thermodynamics, electric technology and electronic control are the basics of these applications. According to the manufacturer's information it is possible with these new generation screw compressors to save approx. 26% energy in comparison with the standard screw compressor. [Dutch] In dit artikel wordt de technologie omschreven waarmee veel energie bespaard kan worden bij schroefcompressoren die worden gebruikt in airconditioningsystemen en koel- en vriesinstallaties. De combinatie van frequentieregeling en Vi- regeling (Vi is de intrinsieke volumetrische verhouding) zoals onderzocht in het laboratorium van RefComp biedt de gebruiker veel voordelen doordat de energie-efficintie van de compressor tijdens deellast enorm wordt verbeterd. Slim gebruik van thermodynamika, elektrotechniek en elektronica vormen de basis van deze toepassing. Volgens de fabrikant kan met deze nieuwe generatie schroefcompressoren circa 26 procent op het energiegebruik tijdens deellast worden bespaard in vergelijking met de standaard serie schroefcompressoren.

  5. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H; Sweeney, James L; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-03-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70percent capacity factor with 7percent T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kW h per year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question--Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

  6. 77 FR 41864 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... its filing with the Commission, the self-regulatory organization included statements concerning the... Members to route through EDGX first before going to other destinations on the System routing table, and... share in cost savings realized by EDGA when routing orders to other destinations). The concept is also...

  7. Nuclear regulatory decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, Patricia; Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2011-01-01

    The scientific considerations upon which the nuclear regulations are based provide objective criteria for decisions on nuclear safety matters. However, the decisions that a regulatory agency takes go far beyond granting or not an operating license based on assessment of compliance. It may involve decisions about hiring experts or research, appeals, responses to other government agencies, international agreements, etc.. In all cases, top management of the regulatory agency should hear and decide the best balance between the benefits of regulatory action and undue risks and other associated impacts that may arise, including issues of credibility and reputation. The establishment of a decision framework based on well established principles and criteria ensures performance stability and consistency, preventing individual subjectivity. This article analyzes the challenges to the decision-making by regulatory agencies to ensure coherence and consistency in decisions, even in situations where there is uncertainty, lack of reliable information and even divergence of opinions among experts. The article explores the basic elements for a framework for regulatory decision-making. (author)

  8. Nuclear regulatory decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies is to ensure that nuclear utilities operate their plants at all times in an acceptably safe manner. In meeting this objective, the regulatory body should strive to ensure that its regulatory decisions are technically sound, consistent from case to case, and timely. In addition, the regulator must be aware that its decisions and the circumstances surrounding those decisions can affect how its stakeholders, such as government policy makers, the industry it regulates, and the public, view it as an effective and credible regulator. In order to maintain the confidence of those stakeholders, the regulator should make sure that its decisions are transparent, have a clear basis in law and regulations, and are seen by impartial observers to be fair to all parties. Based on the work of a Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) expert group, this report discusses some of the basic principles and criteria that a regulatory body should consider in making decisions and describes the elements of an integrated framework for regulatory decision making. (author)

  9. Chinese hotel general managers' perspectives on energy-saving practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yidan

    As hotels' concern about sustainability and budget-control is growing steadily, energy-saving issues have become one of the important management concerns hospitality industry face. By executing proper energy-saving practices, previous scholars believed that hotel operation costs can decrease dramatically. Moreover, they believed that conducting energy-saving practices may eventually help the hotel to gain other benefits such as an improved reputation and stronger competitive advantage. The energy-saving issue also has become a critical management problem for the hotel industry in China. Previous research has not investigated energy-saving in China's hotel segment. To achieve a better understanding of the importance of energy-saving, this document attempts to present some insights into China's energy-saving practices in the tourist accommodations sector. Results of the study show the Chinese general managers' attitudes toward energy-saving issues and the differences among the diverse hotel managers who responded to the study. Study results indicate that in China, most of the hotels' energy bills decrease due to the implementation of energy-saving equipments. General managers of hotels in operation for a shorter period of time are typically responsible for making decisions about energy-saving issues; older hotels are used to choosing corporate level concerning to this issue. Larger Chinese hotels generally have official energy-saving usage training sessions for employees, but smaller Chinese hotels sometimes overlook the importance of employee training. The study also found that for the Chinese hospitality industry, energy-saving practices related to electricity are the most efficient and common way to save energy, but older hotels also should pay attention to other ways of saving energy such as water conservation or heating/cooling system.

  10. Regulatory and Economic Considerations of Retinal Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankoor R; Williams, George A

    2016-01-01

    The advent of anti-VEGF therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration and macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion and diabetes mellitus has prevented blindness in tens of thousands of people. However, the costs of these drugs are without precedent in ophthalmic drug therapeutics. An analysis of the financial implications of retinal drugs and the impact of the Food and Drug Administration on treatment of retinal disease must include not only an evaluation of the direct costs of the drugs and the costs associated with their administration, but also the cost savings which accrue from their clinical benefit. This chapter will discuss the financial and regulatory issues associated with retinal drugs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  12. The creation of the SAVE consortium – Saving Asia's Vultures from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the background to this problem, caused mainly by the veterinary drug diclofenac, and the establishment and structure of the SAVE consortium created to help coordinate the necessary conservation response. The lessons learnt in Asia and the working model of such a consortium are presented, which ...

  13. Vestigial Biological Structures: A Classroom-Applicable Test of Creationist Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Phil; Ambrocio, Zenis; Andrade, Julia B.; Foust, Katanya K.; Gaston, Jasmine E.; Lewis, Ryshonda P.; Liniewski, Rachel M.; Ragin, Bobby A.; Robinson, Khanna L.; Stanley, Shane G.

    2015-01-01

    Lists of vestigial biological structures in biology textbooks are so short that some young-Earth creationist authors claim that scientists have lost confidence in the existence of vestigial structures and can no longer identify any verifiable ones. We tested these hypotheses with a method that is easily adapted to biology classes. We used online…

  14. Bullying Victimization and Adolescent Self-Harm: Testing Hypotheses from General Strain Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Carter; Meldrum, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology. Drawing from Agnew's (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate…

  15. Method of Check of Statistical Hypotheses for Revealing of “Fraud” Point of Sale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Bolotskaya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Application method checking of statistical hypotheses fraud Point of Sale working with purchasing cards and suspected of accomplishment of unauthorized operations is analyzed. On the basis of the received results the algorithm is developed, allowing receive an assessment of works of terminals in regime off-line.

  16. Educational Transitions in Israel: A Test of the Industrialization and Credentialism Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavit, Yossi; Kraus, Vered

    1990-01-01

    Explores the industrialization and credentialism hypotheses and predictions of educational attainment levels. Finds the effects of the father's education and occupation were stable for those attending school in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s. Notes that the effects of ethnicity declined in the transition from primary to secondary school. (NL)

  17. De bruikbaarheid van de ‘shaken baby syndroom’-hypothese in het strafproces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, R.A.

    In het Nederlandse strafproces wordt regelmatig gebruik gemaakt van deskundigenbewijs van deskundigen die uitgaan van de ‘shaken baby syndroom’-hypothese om aan te tonen dat een verdachte een baby heeft mishandeld of gedood. In onder meer de Verenigde Staten en Engeland woedt een felle discussie

  18. Hypotheses on citation practices as revealed in the literature of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citations found in two historical articles, which appeared in Cancer Research, a top American Journal, were used to show both positive and negative attitudes towards my 22 historical publications on cancer carriage in the body. Therefore, scientific information concepts are cited critically and two hypotheses are advanced ...

  19. ADOPTING SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN PROFILING GREEN CONSUMERS: A REVIEW OF HYPOTHESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hartono

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades worldwide environmental consciousness has increased dramatically as well as profiling green consumers have gained tremendous attention in the past. Segmenting and targeting markets base on pro-environmental purchase behavior are essential when companies positioning their green products. Socio-demographic characteristics have gained a lot of attention as the key profiling variables. Such characteristics have been employed by many scholars more frequently for the bases of segmenting and profiling green consumers. However, most existing studies of green consumers’ socio-demographic were US based. The present article attempts to review the common hypotheses of socio-demographic characteristics in profiling green consumers. The present article reviews five general hypotheses relating to socio-demographics and environmental consciousness of green consumers, namely the gender, age, education level, income, and occupation hypotheses, as well as the theoretical explanation for each hypothesis. Most previous studies tend to have the same conclusion in the gender, age, education level, and  income characteristics. Critics to socio-demographic characteristics and a need to conduct green marketing research in Indonesia was also reviewed.Key words: profiling, socio-demographic, green consumer, hypotheses.

  20. Learned Helplessness and Depression in a Clinical Population: A Test of Two Behavioral Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Price, Kenneth P.

    1978-01-01

    This study was undertaken to extend the learned helplessness phenomenon to a clinical population and to test the competing hypotheses of Seligman and Lewinsohn. 96 male hospitalized psychiatric and medical patients were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. Results replicate the learned helplessness phenomenon in a group of…

  1. Improving the Development of Student's Research Questions and Hypotheses in an Introductory Business Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangman, Lauria; Knowles, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In an introductory research methods course, students often develop research questions and hypotheses that are vague or confusing, do not contain measurable concepts, and are too narrow in scope or vision. Because of this, the final research projects often fail to provide useful information or address the overall research problem. A Lesson Study…

  2. INFLUENCES ON AND FROM THE SEGMENTATION OF NETWORKS - HYPOTHESES AND TESTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BAERVELDT, C; SNIJDERS, T

    This article discusses (a) the influence of network structure on the diffusion of (new) cultural behavior within the network and (b) the influence of external events, especially of social programs, on the diffusion of (new) cultural behavior, and on the network structure. Hypotheses are formulated

  3. Testing Alternative Hypotheses Regarding the Association between Behavioral Inhibition and Language Development in Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ashley K. Smith; Patel, Deepika; Corley, Robin P.; Friedman, Naomi P.; Hewitt, John K.; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Rhee, Soo H.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have reported an inverse association between language development and behavioral inhibition or shyness across childhood, but the direction of this association remains unclear. This study tested alternative hypotheses regarding this association in a large sample of toddlers. Data on behavioral inhibition and expressive and receptive…

  4. Utility of Krashen's Five Hypotheses in the Saudi Context of Foreign Language Acquisition/Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Malik Ajmal; Gulnaz, Fahmeeda; Ijaz, Attiya

    2014-01-01

    In the last twenty years, the paradigm that has dominated the discipline of language teaching is the SLA theory and Krashen's five hypotheses which are still proving flexible to accommodate earlier reforms. This paper reviews second language acquisition (SLA) theory to establish an understanding of its role in the EFL/ESL classrooms. Other areas…

  5. Support for major hypotheses in invasion biology is uneven and declining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeschke, J.M.; Aparicio, L.G.; Haider, S.; Heger, T.; Lortie, C. J.; Pyšek, Petr; Strayer, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 14 (2012), s. 1-20 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * hypotheses * testing Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  6. The Association between Relational Aggression and Perceived Popularity in Early Adolescence: A Test of Competing Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangel, Meghan J.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.; Shanahan, Lilly; O'Brien, Marion

    2017-01-01

    This study examined two competing hypotheses regarding the moderators of the association between relational aggression and peer status in early adolescence. The "mitigation relational aggression" hypothesis examined whether positive social behaviors reduced the negative effects of relational aggression, thus amplifying the association…

  7. The Ranschburg Effect: Tests of the Guessing-Bias and Proactive Interference Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael F.; Schwartz, Marian

    1977-01-01

    The guessing-bias and proactive interference hypotheses of the Ranschburg Effect were investigated by giving three groups different instructions as to guessing during recall. Results failed to support the prediction that the effect should be reduced or eliminated on shift trials. Neither hypothesis received significant support. (CHK)

  8. Use of hypotheses for analysis of variance Models: Challenging the current practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wesel, F.; Boeije, H.R.; Hoijtink, H

    2013-01-01

    In social science research, hypotheses about group means are commonly tested using analysis of variance. While deemed to be formulated as specifically as possible to test social science theory, they are often defined in general terms. In this article we use two studies to explore the current

  9. Message and source factors, market uncertainty and extrafunctional information processing : hypotheses and empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, X.M.

    2001-01-01

    This article examines how the perceived quality of extrafunctional information improves the innovation management process and contributes to success with innovations. Data collected from 420 Japanese managers and 270 US managers are used to test hypotheses about the antecedents of satisfaction with

  10. Williams Syndrome Hypersociability: A Neuropsychological Study of the Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitao, Liliana; Sampaio, Adriana; Fernandez, Montse; Sousa, Nuno; Pinheiro, Ana; Goncalves, Oscar F.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome display indiscriminate approach towards strangers. Neuroimaging studies conducted so far have linked this social profile to structural and/or functional abnormalities in WS amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In this study, the neuropsychological hypotheses of amygdala and prefrontal cortex involvement in WS…

  11. Coping with the Stigma of Mental Illness: Empirically-Grounded Hypotheses from Computer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Har, Sarah K.

    2011-01-01

    This research demonstrates how affect control theory and its computer program, "Interact", can be used to develop empirically-grounded hypotheses regarding the connection between cultural labels and behaviors. Our demonstration focuses on propositions in the modified labeling theory of mental illness. According to the MLT, negative societal…

  12. Interactions between domestic and export markets for softwood lumber and plywood: tests of six hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Darr

    1981-01-01

    Price formation in export markets and available data on export and domestic markets are discussed. The results of tests of several hypotheses about interactions between domestic and export markets are presented and interpreted from the standpoints of trade promotion and trade policy.

  13. Delinquency and Peer Acceptance in Adolescence: A Within-Person Test of Moffitt's Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Kelly L.; Kreager, Derek A.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    We tested 2 hypotheses derived from Moffitt's (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. We tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from delinquent…

  14. Gender Relations and Economic Development: Hypotheses about the Reversal of Fortune in EurAsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Pleijt, A.M.; van Zanden, J.L.; Carmichael, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops an interrelated set of hypotheses about the links between gender relations, family systems and economic development in EurAsia. Firstly, we briefly discuss a number of ideas from the recent literature about the links between gender relations and economic development. Secondly, we

  15. Automatic Bayes Factors for Testing Equality- and Inequality-Constrained Hypotheses on Variances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böing-Messing, Florian; Mulder, Joris

    2018-05-03

    In comparing characteristics of independent populations, researchers frequently expect a certain structure of the population variances. These expectations can be formulated as hypotheses with equality and/or inequality constraints on the variances. In this article, we consider the Bayes factor for testing such (in)equality-constrained hypotheses on variances. Application of Bayes factors requires specification of a prior under every hypothesis to be tested. However, specifying subjective priors for variances based on prior information is a difficult task. We therefore consider so-called automatic or default Bayes factors. These methods avoid the need for the user to specify priors by using information from the sample data. We present three automatic Bayes factors for testing variances. The first is a Bayes factor with equal priors on all variances, where the priors are specified automatically using a small share of the information in the sample data. The second is the fractional Bayes factor, where a fraction of the likelihood is used for automatic prior specification. The third is an adjustment of the fractional Bayes factor such that the parsimony of inequality-constrained hypotheses is properly taken into account. The Bayes factors are evaluated by investigating different properties such as information consistency and large sample consistency. Based on this evaluation, it is concluded that the adjusted fractional Bayes factor is generally recommendable for testing equality- and inequality-constrained hypotheses on variances.

  16. Examining Preservice Science Teachers' Skills of Formulating Hypotheses and Identifying Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine preservice science teachers' skills of formulating hypotheses and identifying variables. The research has a phenomenological research design. The data was gathered qualitatively. In this study, preservice science teachers were first given two scenarios (Scenario-1 & Scenario-2) containing two different…

  17. Advancing the literature on designing audit and feedback interventions: identifying theory-informed hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, Heather L; Carroll, Kelly; Eva, Kevin W; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Ivers, Noah; Michie, Susan; Sales, Anne; Brehaut, Jamie C

    2017-09-29

    Audit and feedback (A&F) is a common strategy for helping health providers to implement evidence into practice. Despite being extensively studied, health care A&F interventions remain variably effective, with overall effect sizes that have not improved since 2003. Contributing to this stagnation is the fact that most health care A&F interventions have largely been designed without being informed by theoretical understanding from the behavioral and social sciences. To determine if the trend can be improved, the objective of this study was to develop a list of testable, theory-informed hypotheses about how to design more effective A&F interventions. Using purposive sampling, semi-structured 60-90-min telephone interviews were conducted with experts in theories related to A&F from a range of fields (e.g., cognitive, health and organizational psychology, medical decision-making, economics). Guided by detailed descriptions of A&F interventions from the health care literature, interviewees described how they would approach the problem of designing improved A&F interventions. Specific, theory-informed hypotheses about the conditions for effective design and delivery of A&F interventions were elicited from the interviews. The resulting hypotheses were assigned by three coders working independently into themes, and categories of themes, in an iterative process. We conducted 28 interviews and identified 313 theory-informed hypotheses, which were placed into 30 themes. The 30 themes included hypotheses related to the following five categories: A&F recipient (seven themes), content of the A&F (ten themes), process of delivery of the A&F (six themes), behavior that was the focus of the A&F (three themes), and other (four themes). We have identified a set of testable, theory-informed hypotheses from a broad range of behavioral and social science that suggest conditions for more effective A&F interventions. This work demonstrates the breadth of perspectives about A&F from non

  18. The influence of multiple goals on driving behavior: the case of safety, time saving, and fuel saving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Ebru; Steg, Linda; Delhomme, Patricia

    2011-09-01

    Due to the innate complexity of the task drivers have to manage multiple goals while driving and the importance of certain goals may vary over time leading to priority being given to different goals depending on the circumstances. This study aimed to investigate drivers' behavioral regulation while managing multiple goals during driving. To do so participants drove on urban and rural roads in a driving simulator while trying to manage fuel saving and time saving goals, besides the safety goals that are always present during driving. A between-subjects design was used with one group of drivers managing two goals (safety and fuel saving) and another group managing three goals (safety, fuel saving, and time saving) while driving. Participants were provided continuous feedback on the fuel saving goal via a meter on the dashboard. The results indicate that even when a fuel saving or time saving goal is salient, safety goals are still given highest priority when interactions with other road users take place and when interacting with a traffic light. Additionally, performance on the fuel saving goal diminished for the group that had to manage fuel saving and time saving together. The theoretical implications for a goal hierarchy in driving tasks and practical implications for eco-driving are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear Regulatory Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 100th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the General Counsel, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document. Persons using this document are placed on notice that it may not be used as an authoritative citation in lieu of the primary legislative sources. Furthermore, while every effort has been made to ensure the completeness and accuracy of this material, neither the United States Government, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor any of their employees makes any expressed or implied warranty or assumes liability for the accuracy or completeness of the material presented in this compilation

  20. Evaluation of Extremal Hypotheses as a Criterion to Resolve Channel Indeterminacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranmer, A.

    2012-12-01

    Design criteria for river restoration and sustainable development have significantly advanced in recent decades, yet complete deterministic formulations to address channel form and sinuosity still prove elusive. Many hypotheses have been presented to ascertain the dynamic-equilibrium of a stream at both the cross sectional and reach level. These efforts to better understand the functioning of alluvial systems include regime theory, stability theory, perturbation analysis, threshold theory, reference reach comparison, downstream hydraulic geometry, and extremal hypotheses. The latter of these theories, the extremal hypothesis, is based on optimizing one variable or criterion in the alluvial system in order to find closure to the channel design problem. Currently, there is no method to directly compare the various hypotheses at the system scale, understanding of their sensitivity to the various formulae employed or consensus regarding which hypothesis is most appropriate. This study analyzed the various extremal hypotheses in as close to a pristine environment as exists (a remote part of Patagonia, Chile), in order to assess which hypothesis (or collective hypotheses) is most appropriate for channel design. Extremal hypotheses were applied in the longitudinal direction, under the assumption of a space-for-time substitution, to evaluate the geomorphic trends of a river evolving during deglaciation. The space-for-time model assumes the watershed reaches stable, dynamic-equilibrium in its lower meandering reaches and the point of equilibrium extends upstream through its braiding reaches as the watershed adapts to new climatic and environmental conditions. Extremal hypotheses applied in a downstream fashion are then expected to predict chaotic and oversized channel characteristics in the upstream reaches and trend towards a point of equilibrium (minimum/maximum of tested hypothesis). Initial findings indicate that many hypotheses predict similar geometry and sinuosity

  1. Regulatory and licensee surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the workshop two CSNI/WGHOF surveys were distributed. One survey was directed at regulatory bodies and the other was directed at plant licensees. The surveys were: 1 - Regulatory Expectations of Licensees' Arrangements to Ensure Suitable Organisational Structure, Resources and Competencies to Manage Safety (sent to WGHOF regulatory members). The survey requested that the respondents provide a brief overview of the situation related to plant organisations in their country, their regulatory expectations and their formal requirements. The survey addressed three subjects: the demonstration and documentation of organisational structures, resources and competencies, organisational changes, issues for improvement (for both current and new plants). Responses were received from eleven regulatory bodies. 2 - Approaches to Justify Organisational Suitability (sent to selected licensees). The purpose of the survey to was to gain an understanding of how licensees ensure organisational suitability, resources and competencies. This information was used to assist in the development of the issues and subjects that were addressed at the group discussion sessions. Responses were received from over fifteen licensees from nine countries. The survey requested that the licensees provide information on how they ensure effective organisational structures at their plants. The survey grouped the questions into the following four categories: organisational safety functions, resource and competence, decision-making and communication, good examples and improvement needs. The findings from these surveys were used in conjunction with other factors to identify the key issues for the workshop discussion sessions. The responses from these two surveys are discussed briefly in Sections 4 and 5 of this report. More extensive reviews of the regulatory and licensee responses are provided in Appendix 1

  2. Prediction of regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandelin, Albin

    2008-01-01

    Finding the regulatory mechanisms responsible for gene expression remains one of the most important challenges for biomedical research. A major focus in cellular biology is to find functional transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) responsible for the regulation of a downstream gene. As wet......-lab methods are time consuming and expensive, it is not realistic to identify TFBS for all uncharacterized genes in the genome by purely experimental means. Computational methods aimed at predicting potential regulatory regions can increase the efficiency of wet-lab experiments significantly. Here, methods...

  3. Rationales for regulatory activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perhac, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  4. Public Perceptions of Regulatory Costs, Their Uncertainty and Interindividual Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B; Finkel, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Public perceptions of both risks and regulatory costs shape rational regulatory choices. Despite decades of risk perception studies, this article is the first on regulatory cost perceptions. A survey of 744 U.S. residents probed: (1) How knowledgeable are laypeople about regulatory costs incurred to reduce risks? (2) Do laypeople see official estimates of cost and benefit (lives saved) as accurate? (3) (How) do preferences for hypothetical regulations change when mean-preserving spreads of uncertainty replace certain cost or benefit? and (4) (How) do preferences change when unequal interindividual distributions of hypothetical regulatory costs replace equal distributions? Respondents overestimated costs of regulatory compliance, while assuming agencies underestimate costs. Most assumed agency estimates of benefits are accurate; a third believed both cost and benefit estimates are accurate. Cost and benefit estimates presented without uncertainty were slightly preferred to those surrounded by "narrow uncertainty" (a range of costs or lives entirely within a personally-calibrated zone without clear acceptance or rejection of tradeoffs). Certain estimates were more preferred than "wide uncertainty" (a range of agency estimates extending beyond these personal bounds, thus posing a gamble between favored and unacceptable tradeoffs), particularly for costs as opposed to benefits (but even for costs a quarter of respondents preferred wide uncertainty to certainty). Agency-acknowledged uncertainty in general elicited mixed judgments of honesty and trustworthiness. People preferred egalitarian distributions of regulatory costs, despite skewed actual cost distributions, and preferred progressive cost distributions (the rich pay a greater than proportional share) to regressive ones. Efficient and socially responsive regulations require disclosure of much more information about regulatory costs and risks. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Implementation of the Save and Restoration application for KOMAC operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Ha; Song, Young-Gi; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    KOMAC has been operating a 100 MeV proton linear Accelerator. There are about 10,000 PVs for operating the 100 MeV proton linac. It is important to archive the operating parameters for operating beam lines and machine study. The parameters are reported manually and with screenshot. There not fixed reporting type so it is difficult to compare archived data. To improve and compensate the reporting system, a Save and Restoration application, which is based on JAVA has been implemented and connected with KOMAC Control system based on EPICS with JCA library. The operating data are saved in Save and Restoration Server in file type, and are restored to the required values using the saved files. This paper presents Implementation of the Save and Restoration application and its function. The group list is shown in restore page using reload button. The saved value of the PVs in group is shown as selecting a group which clients require and current values are appeared beside the restore value table to compare with saved data. The set restore button input the values in restore value table to each PV. The Save and Restore application save and restore the value of the PVs that clients require. The application is installed in client PC but data are archived in save and restore server in file format.

  6. Saving energy. [Metal Coating With Infrared Dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, K

    1981-01-01

    One way of saving energy in metal coating is by using electrically heated infrared dryers with medium-wave radiation (2 to 3 ..mu..m). The absorbing capacity of varnishes and plastic coatings is >90% in this range so that the radiation energy is almost completely transformed into heat. Medium-wave radiation sources have a much higher service life than short-wave sources (30.000 hours of operation) and do not require cooling; compared with long-wave sources, they have a higher heat transfer and thus much shorter drying times. The main fields of application, a cost example, and practical examples among the customers of Messrs. Eisenmann are presented.

  7. Does nuclear energy save global environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki

    2006-01-01

    Since the ecological footprint analysis in 1970s suggested changing consumption patterns and overpopulation concerns, energy policy such as energy conservation and use of renewable energy has become of prime importance. Several results of the long-term energy demand and supply analysis in 2050 or 2100 to reduce drastically carbon dioxide emission as a measure against global warming, showed the necessity of nuclear power deployment as well as maximum efforts to save energy, exploitation of the separation and disposal of carbon dioxide, and shifting energy sources to fuels that emit less greenhouse gases or non-fossil fuels. As a promising means to contribute to long-term energy supply, nuclear power generation is expected with improving safety, economic efficiency, environmental adaptability, and nuclear proliferation resistance of the technologies. (T.Tanaka)

  8. COMPUTER MODELLING OF ENERGY SAVING EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian JANCZAREK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the dynamics of the heat transfer through the outer wall of the thermal technical spaces, taking into account the impact of the sinusoidal nature of the changes in atmospheric temperature. These temporal variations of the input on the outer surface of the chamber divider result at the output of the sinusoidal change on the inner wall of the room, but suitably suppressed and shifted in phase. Properly selected phase shift is clearly important for saving energy used for the operation associated with the maintenance of a specific regime of heat inside the thermal technical chamber support. Laboratory tests of the model and the actual object allowed for optimal design of the chamber due to the structure of the partition as well as due to the orientation of the geographical location of the chamber.

  9. Reform Proposals for Replenishing Retirement Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2008-2009 economic crisis dealt a serious blow to Canadians’ retirement savings. While markets have since partially recovered, the ratio of Canadians’ household net-worth relative to disposable income still remains below where it was in 2007. So much wealth that workers had accumulated to prepare for retirement has been wiped away, while the years since 2008 that might have otherwise been spent compounding retirement savings have been spent, instead, on trying to recover losses in a low-interest-rate environment that has limited returns. With large waves of older workers approaching retirement age, and these future retirees projected to live longer than previous cohorts, Canada now faces the very realistic scenario that a significant number of people will reach retirement age without the funds they will need to provide a comfortable post-working-life income. Canadian policy-makers may not have the ability to restore that destroyed wealth. And with most governments already struggling to resolve serious deficits, the situation is not likely to be ameliorated with anything that requires additional spending, or that could reduce tax revenues. But there are policy reforms available that can help at least in better preparing the coming waves of retirees for a financially secure retirement. The reforms need not be far-reaching to have a meaningful impact. And they need not be costly, either. They can include a modest expansion of the Canada Pension Plan (CPP to allow larger contributions — shared by employers and employees, or covered entirely by employees — that would, in turn, allow retiring workers to draw a larger maximum pension, rather than having to rely on the guaranteed income supplement (GIS. CPP contributions could also be made deductible from taxable income, like RRSP investments, to encourage workers to maximize contributions. To minimize an increase in payroll taxes, the eligibility age for CPP benefits could be increased to

  10. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2004-01-01

    , various simulations of solar heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar......In this paper the realistic behaviour and efficiency of heating systems were analysed, based on long term monitoring projects. Based on the measurements a boiler model was evaluated. Comparisons of measured and calculated fuel consumptions showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model...... gain due to a strong increase of the system efficiency. As the monitored boilers were not older than 3 years, it can be assumed that the saving potential with older boilers could be even higher than calculated in this paper....

  11. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2006-01-01

    showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model, various simulations of solar domestic hot water heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal...... system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar gain due to a strong increase of the system efficiency. As the monitored boilers were not older than 3 years, it can be assumed that the saving potential with older boilers could be even higher than calculated......In this paper the realistic behaviour and efficiency of heating systems were analysed, based on long term monitoring projects. Based on the measurements a boiler model used to calculate the boiler efficiency on a monthly basis was evaluated. Comparisons of measured and calculated fuel consumptions...

  12. Energy-Saving in Brew-Rectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Ulyanau

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates dynamics of rectification process on one plate of a column. The basic channels controlling brew-rectification process are described in the paper.The paper also considers problems pertaining to synthesis of an adaptive system that controls non-stationary objects with delay. Synthesis of adaptive systems that automatically control product quality and saving on power resources and productivity with the help of the second method of Lyapunov has been carried out in the paper.Industrial introduction of the given automatic control system of technological process shall permit to increase productivity of a rectification (10–15 %, to decrease specific power consumption by (5–10 % while preserving the specified quality of rectified ethyl alcohol and decrease alcohol losses with luting water and malt-residue.

  13. SWEEP - Save Water & Energy Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Gregory P.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Hillman, Tim C.; Hadley, Adam; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Payson, David R.

    2001-05-03

    The objective of this study was to develop, monitor, analyze, and report on an integrated resource-conservation program highlighting efficient residential appliances and fixtures. The sites of study were 50 homes in two water-constrained communities located in Oregon. The program was designed to maximize water savings to these communities and to serve as a model for other communities seeking an integrated approach to energy and water resource efficiency. The program included the installation and in-place evaluation of energy- and water-efficient devices including the following: horizontal axis clothes washers (and the matching clothes dryers), resource-efficient dishwashers, an innovative dual flush low-flow toilet, low-flow showerheads, and faucet aerators. The significance of this activity lies in its integrated approach and unique metering evaluation of individual end-use, aggregated residential total use, and system-wide energy and water benefits.

  14. Cost savings from extended life nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, L.R. Jr.; Deutsch, T.R.; Schenler, W.W.

    1988-09-01

    This study assesses the costs and benefits of nuclear power plant life extension (NUPLEX) for the overall US under widely varying economic assumptions and compares these with alternative new coal- fired plants (NEWCOAL). It is found that NUPLEX saves future electricity consumers more than 3 cents/-kwh compared with NEWCOAL. The NUPLEX costs and benefits for existing individual US nuclear power plants under base-line, or most likely, assumptions are assessed to determine the effects of the basic plant design and plant age. While benefits vary widely, virtually all units would have a positive benefit from NUPLEX. The study also presents a cost-benefit analysis of the nuclear industry's planned advanced light water reactor (ALWR). It is concluded that ALWR offers electrical power at a substantially lower cost than NEWCOAL. 9 refs., 6 figs

  15. Potential cost savings with terrestrial rabies control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Bryan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost-benefit of raccoon rabies control strategies such as oral rabies vaccination (ORV are under evaluation. As an initial quantification of the potential cost savings for a control program, the collection of selected rabies cost data was pilot tested for five counties in New York State (NYS in a three-year period. Methods Rabies costs reported to NYS from the study counties were computerized and linked to a human rabies exposure database. Consolidated costs by county and year were averaged and compared. Results Reported rabies-associated costs for all rabies variants totalled $2.1 million, for human rabies postexposure prophylaxes (PEP (90.9%, animal specimen preparation/shipment to laboratory (4.7%, and pet vaccination clinics (4.4%. The proportion that may be attributed to raccoon rabies control was 37% ($784,529. Average costs associated with the raccoon variant varied across counties from $440 to $1,885 per PEP, $14 to $44 per specimen, and $0.33 to $15 per pet vaccinated. Conclusion Rabies costs vary widely by county in New York State, and were associated with human population size and methods used by counties to estimate costs. Rabies cost variability must be considered in developing estimates of possible ORV-related cost savings. Costs of PEPs and specimen preparation/shipments, as well as the costs of pet vaccination provided by this study may be valuable for development of more realistic scenarios in economic modelling of ORV costs versus benefits.

  16. Barriers to investments in energy saving technologies. Case study for the industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masselink, Dirk Jan

    2007-01-01

    To realise future energy saving targets, the government needs to increase energy reduction rates. One option to increase energy savings is found in removing barriers to investments in cost-effective energy saving technologies. Many technologies save energ

  17. Developing regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Lars Axelsson presented SSM progress on oversight of LMfS/SC since the Chester 1 Workshop in 2007. Current SSM approaches for safety culture oversight include targeted safety management and safety culture inspections, compliance inspections which cover aspects of safety management/safety culture and multi-disciplinary team inspections. Examples of themes for targeted inspections include management of ambiguous operational situations or other weak signals, understanding of and attitudes to Human Performance tools, the Safety Department's role and authority and Leadership for safety. All regulatory activities provide inputs for the SSM yearly safety evaluation of each licensee. A form has been developed to capture safety culture observations from inspections and other interactions with licensees. Analysis will be performed to identify patterns and provide information to support planning of specific Safety Culture activities. Training has been developed for regulatory staff to enhance the quality of regulatory interventions on safety culture. This includes a half-day seminar to provide an overview of safety culture, and a workshop which provides more in-depth discussion on cultural issues and how to capture those during regulatory activities. Future plans include guidance for inspectors, and informal seminars on safety culture with licensees

  18. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This document compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rule making which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  19. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considered action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  20. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This document is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  1. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This document provides a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  2. Comments on regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented

  3. Comments on regulatory reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented.

  4. 3 CFR - Regulatory Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as a means of promoting regulatory goals. The fundamental principles and structures governing... review. In this time of fundamental transformation, that process—and the principles governing regulation... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has reviewed Federal regulations. The purposes of such...

  5. Regulatory issues with multiplicity in drug approval: Principles and controversies in a changing landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Norbert; Brandt, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Recently, new draft guidelines on multiplicity issues in clinical trials have been issued by European Medicine Agency (EMA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), respectively. Multiplicity is an issue in clinical trials, if the probability of a false-positive decision is increased by insufficiently accounting for testing multiple hypotheses. We outline the regulatory principles related to multiplicity issues in confirmatory clinical trials intended to support a marketing authorization application in the EU, describe the reasons for an increasing complexity regarding multiple hypotheses testing and discuss the specific multiplicity issues emerging within the regulatory context and being relevant for drug approval.

  6. Energy saving in housing in Syria; Energieeinsparung im Wohnungsbau in Syrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantouch, Yaser

    2009-06-03

    The demand for energy is increasing in Syria annually by 10-11% and the population increases annually 2.54% This growth leads also to increase in the housing,that it is energy-unconscious and consumes many energy. This large increase in energy consumption is an important problem in the housing in Syria, particularly with the lack of observance of various climatic factors,this leads to install the heating or cooling system in all housing in order to improve thermal comfort. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency. The starting point is the experience from other countries (such as Germany), which have extensive policies, experience and rules for energy-saving buildings. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency to win. The starting point is the experience from other countries such as Germany, which has extensive policies and rules for energy-saving buildings have. These are transferred with appropriate additions to residential buildings in Syria, and they are specified for special conditions, as well as the economic, social, climatic and regulatory requirements in Syria. There is a new architectural concepts in the design of residential buildings in Syria on their energy issues to research.it was discussed the links between architecture, energy and ecology, concepts of energy-saving building and influencing factors in energy consumption in buildings analyzed and influence of these factors on building and energy in the study area (Syria). This work includes the calculations of energy-efficient building (temperature and energy consumption) for different variants with different simulation programs, and these are assessed socially and economically through interviews, surveys and calculations of Energy Price and the Cost of Buildings. It turns out that there are many opportunities for energy saving in housing in Syria by architectural, design

  7. Political market orientation and strategic party postures: Some hypotheses regarding profiles and relationship strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C. M.

    2007-01-01

    an integrated construct of political marketing strategy which is exemplified by the derivation of hypotheses of the relationships between organizational stances on the one hand, and attitudinal and behavioural aspects of political market orientation on the other. We propose two levels of hypotheses: Firstly......Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing as well as political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles (e.g., Henneberg 2006a; O'Cass 1996; Ormrod 2005, 2007). These have laid the theoretical foundations for further empirical work (e.g., Henneberg 2006b; O......'Cass 1996, 2001a, 2001b; Ormrod et al. 2007; Ormrod and Henneberg 2008 forthcoming). However, despite the close conceptual relatedness between some of these concepts they have yet to be integrated to provide a more nuanced picture which researchers but also political marketing practitioners can utilise...

  8. A set working hypotheses towards a unified view of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecher, J.-C.; Vigier, J.P.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 75 - Paris; Paris-6 Univ., 75

    1976-01-01

    Some observation evidence (anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the Hubble constant, abnormal red shifts) led the authors to formulate working hypotheses compatible with these observations. The logics of these hypotheses led to consider the universe as a ''hierarchical'' universe similar to Charlier one, and to find the cause of the apparent expansion in the interactions affecting the path of the photons. As, in some cases, intrinsic red shifts are very important this reduces the distance of the considered objects and their absolute luminosity, and forces to link them with ordinary galaxies; a scheme of evolution of extragalactic objects is suggested, to account for the geometrical location of abnormal objects, and for some aspects of their morphology. Coherent picture of the universe might emerge from the suggested studies

  9. Global changes of climate through human activities. New clues and hypotheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl, H

    1988-02-01

    New clues to world-wide changes of climate through human activities have been found or corroborated: Precipitation belts have shifted during the last 30 years; ozone over Antarctica in spring has fallen to its lowest level ever (1956); near-ground ozone in our latitudes has at least doubled in this century. Newly discussed hypotheses are: The oxidation capacity and, consequently, the purification capacity of the atmosphere decreases in the southern hemisphere owing above all to the increase in methane. Increased backscatter of solar radiation through low clouds during periods of turbid air in the atmosphere attenuates the greenhouse effect, the increase in icy clouds through condensation trails of jets flying at high altitudes intensifies the greenhouse effect of the atmosphere. The paper analyses these hypotheses and shows that the distinction between change of climate on the one hand and ecological damage on the other is not justifiable any longer. (orig./HSCH).

  10. Estimating the Proportion of True Null Hypotheses in Multiple Testing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluyemi Oyeniran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of estimating the proportion, π0, of the true null hypotheses in a multiple testing problem is important in cases where large scale parallel hypotheses tests are performed independently. While the problem is a quantity of interest in its own right in applications, the estimate of π0 can be used for assessing or controlling an overall false discovery rate. In this article, we develop an innovative nonparametric maximum likelihood approach to estimate π0. The nonparametric likelihood is proposed to be restricted to multinomial models and an EM algorithm is also developed to approximate the estimate of π0. Simulation studies show that the proposed method outperforms other existing methods. Using experimental microarray datasets, we demonstrate that the new method provides satisfactory estimate in practice.

  11. Using potential performance theory to test five hypotheses about meta-attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafimow, David; Hunt, Gayle; Rice, Stephen; Geels, Kasha

    2011-01-01

    Based on I. Kant's (1991) distinction between perfect and imperfect duties and the attribution literature pertaining to that distinction, the authors proposed and tested 5 hypotheses about meta-attribution. More specifically, violations of perfect duties have been shown to arouse both more negative affect and stronger correspondent inferences than do violations of imperfect duties (e.g., D. Trafimow, I. K. Bromgard, K. A. Finlay, & T. Ketelaar, 2005). But when it comes to making meta-attributions-that is, guessing the attributions others would make-is the affect differential an advantage or a disadvantage? In addition to the null hypothesis of no effect, the authors proposed and tested additional hypotheses about how negative affect might increase or decrease the effectiveness of people's meta-attribution strategies and how even if there is no effect on strategy effectiveness, negative affect could increase or decrease the consistencies with which these strategies could be used.

  12. Skin Stem Cell Hypotheses and Long Term Clone Survival – Explored Using Agent-based Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Upadhyay, A. K.; Bullock, A. J.; Dicolandrea, T.; Xu, J.; Binder, R. L.; Robinson, M. K.; Finlay, D. R.; Mills, K. J.; Bascom, C. C.; Kelling, C. K.; Isfort, R. J.; Haycock, J. W.; MacNeil, S.; Smallwood, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial renewal in skin is achieved by the constant turnover and differentiation of keratinocytes. Three popular hypotheses have been proposed to explain basal keratinocyte regeneration and epidermal homeostasis: 1) asymmetric division (stem-transit amplifying cell); 2) populational asymmetry (progenitor cell with stochastic fate); and 3) populational asymmetry with stem cells. In this study, we investigated lineage dynamics using these hypotheses with a 3D agent-based model of the epidermis. The model simulated the growth and maintenance of the epidermis over three years. The offspring of each proliferative cell was traced. While all lineages were preserved in asymmetric division, the vast majority were lost when assuming populational asymmetry. The third hypothesis provided the most reliable mechanism for self-renewal by preserving genetic heterogeneity in quiescent stem cells, and also inherent mechanisms for skin ageing and the accumulation of genetic mutation. PMID:23712735

  13. Skin stem cell hypotheses and long term clone survival--explored using agent-based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Upadhyay, A K; Bullock, A J; Dicolandrea, T; Xu, J; Binder, R L; Robinson, M K; Finlay, D R; Mills, K J; Bascom, C C; Kelling, C K; Isfort, R J; Haycock, J W; MacNeil, S; Smallwood, R H

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial renewal in skin is achieved by the constant turnover and differentiation of keratinocytes. Three popular hypotheses have been proposed to explain basal keratinocyte regeneration and epidermal homeostasis: 1) asymmetric division (stem-transit amplifying cell); 2) populational asymmetry (progenitor cell with stochastic fate); and 3) populational asymmetry with stem cells. In this study, we investigated lineage dynamics using these hypotheses with a 3D agent-based model of the epidermis. The model simulated the growth and maintenance of the epidermis over three years. The offspring of each proliferative cell was traced. While all lineages were preserved in asymmetric division, the vast majority were lost when assuming populational asymmetry. The third hypothesis provided the most reliable mechanism for self-renewal by preserving genetic heterogeneity in quiescent stem cells, and also inherent mechanisms for skin ageing and the accumulation of genetic mutation.

  14. Rules of Thumb in Life-Cycle Saving Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Joachim; Schlafmann, Kathrin; Rodepeter, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    We analyse life-cycle saving decisions when households use simple heuristics, or rules of thumb, rather than solve the underlying intertemporal optimization problem. We simulate life-cycle saving decisions using three simple rules and compute utility losses relative to the solution of the optimization problem. Our simulations suggest that utility losses induced by following simple decision rules are relatively low. Moreover, the two main saving motives re ected by the canonical life-cyc...

  15. Liquidity in Retirement Savings Systems: An International Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Beshears, John Leonard; Choi, James J.; Hurwitz, Joshua Bayard; Laibson, David I.; Madrian, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    What is the socially optimal level of liquidity in a retirement savings system? Liquid retirement savings are desirable because liquidity enables agents to flexibly respond to pre-retirement events that raise the marginal utility of consumption. On the other hand, pre-retirement liquidity is undesirable when it leads to under-saving arising from, for example, planning mistakes or self-control problems. This paper compares the liquidity that six developed economies have built into their employ...

  16. Crushing leads to waste disposal savings for FUSRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, J. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In this article the author discusses the application of a rock crusher as a means of implementing cost savings in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. Transportation and offsite disposal costs are at present the biggest cost items in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. If these debris disposal problems can be handled in different manners, then remediation savings are available. Crushing can result in the ability to handle some wastes as soil disposal problems, which have different disposal regulations, thereby permitting cost savings.

  17. How doctors generate diagnostic hypotheses: a study of radiological diagnosis with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Melo

    Full Text Available In medical practice, diagnostic hypotheses are often made by physicians in the first moments of contact with patients; sometimes even before they report their symptoms. We propose that generation of diagnostic hypotheses in this context is the result of cognitive processes subserved by brain mechanisms that are similar to those involved in naming objects or concepts in everyday life.To test this proposal we developed an experimental paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI using radiological diagnosis as a model. Twenty-five radiologists diagnosed lesions in chest X-ray images and named non-medical targets (animals embedded in chest X-ray images while being scanned in a fMRI session. Images were presented for 1.5 seconds; response times (RTs and the ensuing cortical activations were assessed. The mean response time for diagnosing lesions was 1.33 (SD ±0.14 seconds and 1.23 (SD ±0.13 seconds for naming animals. 72% of the radiologists reported cogitating differential diagnoses during trials (3.5 seconds. The overall pattern of cortical activations was remarkably similar for both types of targets. However, within the neural systems shared by both stimuli, activation was significantly greater in left inferior frontal sulcus and posterior cingulate cortex for lesions relative to animals.Generation of diagnostic hypotheses and differential diagnoses made through the immediate visual recognition of clinical signs can be a fast and automatic process. The co-localization of significant brain activation for lesions and animals suggests that generating diagnostic hypotheses for lesions and naming animals are served by the same neuronal systems. Nevertheless, diagnosing lesions was cognitively more demanding and associated with more activation in higher order cortical areas. These results support the hypothesis that medical diagnoses based on prompt visual recognition of clinical signs and naming in everyday life are supported by similar

  18. Economic and evolutionary hypotheses for cross-population variation in parochialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Henrich, Joseph

    2013-09-11

    Human populations differ reliably in the degree to which people favor family, friends, and community members over strangers and outsiders. In the last decade, researchers have begun to propose several economic and evolutionary hypotheses for these cross-population differences in parochialism. In this paper, we outline major current theories and review recent attempts to test them. We also discuss the key methodological challenges in assessing these diverse economic and evolutionary theories for cross-population differences in parochialism.

  19. Economic and evolutionary hypotheses for cross-population variation in parochialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jacob Hruschka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Human populations differ reliably in the degree to which people favor family, friends and community members over strangers and outsiders. In the last decade, researchers have begun to propose several economic and evolutionary hypotheses for these cross-population differences in parochialism. In this paper, we outline major current theories and review recent attempts to test them. We also discuss the key methodological challenges in assessing these diverse economic and evolutionary theories for cross-population differences in parochialism.

  20. Economic and evolutionary hypotheses for cross-population variation in parochialism

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Jacob Hruschka; Joseph eHenrich

    2013-01-01

    Human populations differ reliably in the degree to which people favor family, friends and community members over strangers and outsiders. In the last decade, researchers have begun to propose several economic and evolutionary hypotheses for these cross-population differences in parochialism. In this paper, we outline major current theories and review recent attempts to test them. We also discuss the key methodological challenges in assessing these diverse economic and evolutionary theories...

  1. Towards Self-Learning Based Hypotheses Generation in Biomedical Text Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Vishrawas; Jha, Kishlay; Xun, Guangxu; Ngo, Hung Q; Zhang, Aidong

    2017-12-26

    The overwhelming amount of research articles in the domain of bio-medicine might cause important connections to remain unnoticed. Literature Based Discovery is a sub-field within biomedical text mining that peruses these articles to formulate high confident hypotheses on possible connections between medical concepts. Although many alternate methodologies have been proposed over the last decade, they still suffer from scalability issues. The primary reason, apart from the dense inter-connections between biological concepts, is the absence of information on the factors that lead to the edge-formation. In this work, we formulate this problem as a collaborative filtering task and leverage a relatively new concept of word-vectors to learn and mimic the implicit edge-formation process. Along with single-class classifier, we prune the search-space of redundant and irrelevant hypotheses to increase the efficiency of the system and at the same time maintaining and in some cases even boosting the overall accuracy. We show that our proposed framework is able to prune up to 90% of the hypotheses while still retaining high recall in top-K results. This level of efficiency enables the discovery algorithm to look for higher-order hypotheses, something that was infeasible until now. Furthermore, the generic formulation allows our approach to be agile to performboth open and closed discovery.We also experimentally validate that the core data-structures upon which the system bases its decision has a high concordance with the opinion of the experts.This coupled with the ability to understand the edge formation process provides us with interpretable results without any manual intervention. The relevant JAVA codes are available at: https://github.com/vishrawas/Medline-Code_v2. vishrawa@buffalo.edukishlayj@buffalo.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  2. Statistical analysis of hypotheses on the cointegrating relations in the I(2) model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    The cointegrated vector autoregressive model for I(2) variables is a non-linear parametric restriction on the linear I(2) regression model for variables of order I(0), I(1) and I(2). In this paper we discuss non-linear submodels given by smooth parametrizations. We give conditions on the parametr......) and the reformulation is applied to show that some hypotheses on the cointegrating coefficients in the cointegrated I(2) model give asymptotic ¿² inference....

  3. Deformational plagiocephaly in normal infants: a systematic review of causes and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Freia; Braun, Volker; Renz-Polster, Herbert

    2017-06-01

    Deformational plagiocephaly (DP) is one of the most prevalent abnormal findings in infants and a frequent reason for parents to seek paediatric advice. To systematically review the literature and identify evidence and hypotheses on the aetiology and determinants of DP in otherwise healthy infants. Systematic keyword search in all major biomedical databases to identify peer-reviewed publications reporting (a) empirical research or (b) hypotheses on the aetiology of DP in healthy, term infants. 3150 studies published between 1985 and 2016 and containing relevant keywords were screened. In a two-pronged approach, results were summarised separately for the body of empirical work (22 studies) and the body of hypotheses (110 articles). Only a few empirical studies have examined risk factors in non-selected patient populations on a higher grade methodological level. The most commonly reported risk factors were: male gender, supine sleep position, limited neck rotation or preference in head position, first-born child, lower level of activity and lack of tummy time. Agreement between empirical studies was poor for most exposures, including supine sleep position, tummy time and use of car seats. The articles reporting hypotheses on the aetiology of DP cover a wide field of environmental and biological factors, but include little suggestions as to the potential influence of the everyday care environment of the baby. The evidence on the aetiology of DP is fragmentary and heterogeneous. In addition, factors possibly relevant to the development of DP have not been appreciated in the scientific discussion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Five hypotheses concerning the fate of the Singapore issues in the Doha Round

    OpenAIRE

    Evenett, Simon J.

    2017-01-01

    At the Cancún Ministerial Conference, the members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) disagreed on whether to launch negotiations on multilateral disciplines concerning the four areas of government policy collectively known as the ‘Singapore issues'. This amounted to a decision not to expand the WTO's boundaries along these dimensions. In this paper, five hypotheses concerning the treatment of the Singapore issues by the WTO's membership are described and assessed. The implications of this ...

  5. Mechanistic Mathematical Modeling Tests Hypotheses of the Neurovascular Coupling in fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lundengård

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI measures brain activity by detecting the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD response to neural activity. The BOLD response depends on the neurovascular coupling, which connects cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and deoxyhemoglobin level to neuronal activity. The exact mechanisms behind this neurovascular coupling are not yet fully investigated. There are at least three different ways in which these mechanisms are being discussed. Firstly, mathematical models involving the so-called Balloon model describes the relation between oxygen metabolism, cerebral blood volume, and cerebral blood flow. However, the Balloon model does not describe cellular and biochemical mechanisms. Secondly, the metabolic feedback hypothesis, which is based on experimental findings on metabolism associated with brain activation, and thirdly, the neurotransmitter feed-forward hypothesis which describes intracellular pathways leading to vasoactive substance release. Both the metabolic feedback and the neurotransmitter feed-forward hypotheses have been extensively studied, but only experimentally. These two hypotheses have never been implemented as mathematical models. Here we investigate these two hypotheses by mechanistic mathematical modeling using a systems biology approach; these methods have been used in biological research for many years but never been applied to the BOLD response in fMRI. In the current work, model structures describing the metabolic feedback and the neurotransmitter feed-forward hypotheses were applied to measured BOLD responses in the visual cortex of 12 healthy volunteers. Evaluating each hypothesis separately shows that neither hypothesis alone can describe the data in a biologically plausible way. However, by adding metabolism to the neurotransmitter feed-forward model structure, we obtained a new model structure which is able to fit the estimation data and successfully predict new

  6. Kolmogorov similarity hypotheses for scalar fields: sampling intermittent turbulent mixing in the ocean and galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Kolmogorov's three universal similarity hypotheses are extrapolated to describe scalar fields like temperature mixed by turbulence. The analogous first and second hypotheses for scalars include the effects of Prandtl number and rate-of-strain mixing. Application of velocity and scalar similarity hypotheses to the ocean must take into account the damping of active turbulence by density stratification and the Earth's rotation to form fossil turbulence. By the analogous Kolmogorov third hypothesis for scalars, temperature dissipation rates χ averaged over lengths r > L K should be lognormally distributed with intermittency factors σ 2 that increase with increasing turbulence energy length scales L O as σ ln r 2 approx = μ θ ln(L O /r). Tests of kolmogorovian velocity and scalar universal similarity hypotheses for very large ranges of turbulence length and timescales are provided by data from the ocean and the galactic interstellar medium. These ranges are from 1 to 9 decades in the ocean, and over 12 decades in the interstellar medium. The universal constant for turbulent mixing intermittency μ θ is estimated from oceanic data to be 0.44±0.01, which is remarkably close to estimates for Kolmorgorov's turbulence intermittency constant μ of 0.45±0.05 from galactic as well as atmospheric data. Extreme intermittency complicates the oceanic sampling problem, and may lead to quantitative and qualitative undersampling errors in estimates of mean oceanic dissipation rates and fluxes. Intermittency of turbulence and mixing in the interstellar medium may be a factor in the formation of stars. (author)

  7. Controversial hypotheses on the relationship between researcher and informant in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, V

    1992-02-01

    This paper addresses methodological issues that emerged unexpectedly during a qualitative study set up to explore nurses' descriptions of difficult, challenging and satisfying experiences at work. The purpose of the study had been to look for critical factors influencing nurses' perceptions of their performance in specific situations, and their labelling of each event. Ten nurses were asked to describe in detail three events; a difficult situation in which they had coped well, a difficult situation in which they would like to have coped better, and a satisfying or rewarding situation. The critical incident technique was used. Rich descriptions were obtained, tape recorded, transcribed verbatum, and analysed by constant comparative analysis, following the principles of grounded theory. Some suprising hypotheses emerged regarding the methodology of the informal interview in qualitative research. This paper addresses these hypotheses, which focus on the interaction between the researcher and informant, the role conflict facing the nurse researcher, the effect of the researcher's past experience on the interaction, the use of counselling strategies and the principle of self-disclosure. These hypotheses were incidental to the original area of study and were more exciting in their emergence because of this.

  8. Risk, innovation, electricity infrastructure and construction cost overruns: Testing six hypotheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Gilbert, Alex; Nugent, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the frequency and magnitude of cost and time overruns occurring during the construction of 401 electricity projects built between 1936 and 2014 in 57 countries. In aggregate, these projects required approximately $820 billion in investment, and amounted to 325,515 MW of installed capacity and 8495 km of transmission lines. We use this sample of projects to test six hypotheses about construction cost overruns related to (1) diseconomies of scale, (2) project delays, (3) technological learning, (4) regulation and markets, (5) decentralization and modularity, and (6) normalization of results to scale. We find that nuclear reactors are the riskiest technology in terms of mean cost escalation as a percentage of budget and frequency; that hydroelectric dams stand apart for their mean cost escalation in total dollars; that many of the hypotheses grounded in the literature appear wrong; and that financing, partnerships, modularity, and accountability may have more to do with overruns than technology. - Highlights: • Many hypotheses about construction overruns grounded in the literature appear wrong. • Nuclear reactors are the most prone to cost overruns as a percentage of budget and frequency. • Hydroelectric dams stand apart for their mean cost escalation in total dollars. • Solar and wind energy systems are least at risk to cost overruns

  9. Validity of the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypotheses in Water Pollution A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hediyeh Alishiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the different environmental pollutions, water pollution is of especial importance due to the rather unchanging supply of this vital resource on a global scale and because of the dire consequences of its pollution for human health. The relationship between water production and its pollution can thus established and used as a measure of environmental degradation. This relationship can then be captured and analyzed in terms of environmental Kuznets hypotheses. It may be claimed that the early stages of economic growth is associated with lower per capita income and water pollution but the trend is reversed with increasing per capita income and improved economic growth. The present study was conducted using the panel data technique and the Kuznets environmental hypotheses were examined for the two groups of developed and developing countries under the two scenarios of using either per capita GDP or the share of industry to the added value in GDP as an indicator of economic growth. Results indicate that under both scenarios, Kuznets hypotheses are confirmed when studying the situation in developing countries but refuted in the case of developed countries.

  10. Do Medicaid home and community based service waivers save money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Charlene; Ng, Terence; Kitchener, Martin

    2011-10-01

    This article estimates the potential savings to the Medicaid program of using 1915c Home and Community Based Services (HCBS) waivers rather than institutional care. For Medicaid HCBS waiver expenditures of $25 billion in 2006, we estimate the national savings to be over $57 billion, or $57,338 per waiver participant in 2006 compared with the cost of Medicaid institutional care (for which all waiver participants are eligible). When taking into account a potential 50% "woodwork effect" (for people who might have refused institutional services), the saving would be $21 billion. This analysis demonstrates that HCBS waiver programs present significant direct financial savings to Medicaid long-term care (LTC) programs.

  11. Energy Saver: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  12. Energy Savers Tips on Saving Energy& Money at Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-06-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances

  13. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  14. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    Energy savings seems to be the most environmentally benign element in an energy policy. The paper is a reflection on the work on saving energy both by improving technology and by adapting human daily behaviour. A simple model is suggested for the energy chain which converts the primary energy all...... the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life...

  15. Will Instructors Save Time Using a Specifications Grading System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Grace Prescott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Specifications Grading: Restoring Rigor, Motivating Students, and Saving Faculty Time; Linda Nilson and Claudia J. Stranny; (2014. Stylus Publishing, Sterling, VA. 184 pages.

  16. Macroeconomic determinants of savings in Egypt "Statistical Model"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Abdelaty Hasan Esmail

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Like lot of countries, aggregate consumption constitutes a major portion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP in Egypt. Consumption decisions determine savings decisions. In long term growth literature, differences in long term growth had been explained to a large extent by differences in the rates of savings which also determine a country’s investment in productive capacity, human capital and socio-economic infrastructure. In this study, we analyse macroeconomic determinants of savings in Egypt using Ordinary multiple regression. Our results indicate that national savings rate is positively related with real GDP growth rate. This suggests that saving is a positive function of income. The evidence suggests that national savings rate is negatively related with federal debt growth and inflation. This hints towards crowding out of private sector investment through decline in savings rate as a result of government’s indebtedness. Finally, negative association between savings rate and inflation implies that the consumer is rational and makes decisions based on his perceptions when it comes to allocating the lifetime resources over the period of his life. Increase in inflation dampens the incentive to save and people respond rationally which is made evident by the negative sign on inflation coefficient in our model.

  17. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  18. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  19. Inferring Saving in Training Time From Effect Size Estimates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burright, Burke

    2000-01-01

    .... Students' time saving represents a major potential benefit of using them. This paper fills a methodology gap in estimating the students' timesaving benefit of asynchronous training technologies...

  20. Diamond-set drill bits: savings achieved at Cominak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artru, P.; Bibert, F.X.; Croisat, G.

    1988-01-01

    Rotary instead of percussion adoption of drilling in the underground Akouta mine (Niger) has been the cause of important savings in blasting and bolting operations. Other savings affect capital expenditures and indirect savings are coming from better working conditions. For blast holes drilling and bolting, spare parts expenditures are 2.4 times lower with rotary drilling. Drilling rods are cheaper and last longer with rotary drilling. A rotary equipped Jumbos fleet is cheaper to maintain and is 18% more available, due to less mechanical and other breakdowns. Total savings for the mine owner and operator Cominak reach more than a billion of CFA francs [fr

  1. Saving doses by outage planning strategy and architectural arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1993-01-01

    All radiation doses come out as a result of dose rate and exposure time, and the main part of the occupational exposure is caused during outages. While every reasonable attempt should be made to lower the dose rates, the other factor, the exposure time, may not be forgotten. The paper presents possible ways of saving man-hours in the controlled zone by outage planning strategy. And every saved man-hour means a saved radiation dose. At Loviisa NPS also some special architectural arrangements contribute to shortening the outage time, thus saving doses

  2. Saving more to consume more. EDF's communication ambiguities during the energy saving era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Since 1974, EDF is placed between a communication scheme imposed for energy savings and an industrial strategy of massive investment in nuclear power. In ten years, the company managed to increase households electricity consumption without advertising, due in particular to electric heating. But strong tensions were generated by this situation and led the company to develop an institutional communication to the employees and to the general public

  3. Energy Savings From System Efficiency Improvements in Iowa's HVAC SAVE Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Wells, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to explore the energy savings potential of maximizing furnace and distribution system performance by adjusting operating, installation, and distribution conditions. The goal of the Iowa HVAC System Adjusted and Verified Efficiency (SAVE) program is to train contractors to measure installed system efficiency as a diagnostic tool to ensure that the homeowner achieves the energy reduction target for the home rather than simply performing a tune-up on the furnace or having a replacement furnace added to a leaky system. The PARR research team first examined baseline energy usage from a sample of 48 existing homes, before any repairs or adjustments were made, to calculate an average energy savings potential and to determine which system deficiencies were prevalent. The results of the baseline study of these homes found that, on average, about 10% of the space heating energy available from the furnace was not reaching the conditioned space. In the second part of the project, the team examined a sample of 10 homes that had completed the initial evaluation for more in-depth study. For these homes, the diagnostic data shows that it is possible to deliver up to 23% more energy from the furnace to the conditioned space by doing system tune ups with or without upgrading the furnace. Replacing the furnace provides additional energy reduction. The results support the author's belief that residential heating and cooling equipment should be tested and improved as a system rather than a collection of individual components.

  4. A REALLY WHEEZY WAY TO SAVE MONEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Grace; Almossawi, Ofran; Dulfeker, Hasna; Jones, Vicky; Taylor, Felicity

    2016-09-01

    to £2.48 for the equivalent dose of non-soluble prednisolone dispensed with a tablet crusher. Several hospital trusts have switched to using non-soluble prednisolone in order to achieve cost savings, but there have been anecdotal reports of poor palatability, raising concerns about compliance with taking medication once discharged.The switch from a soluble to a non-soluble formulation of prednisolone represents an annual saving of more than £44,000 for this hospital alone and, at scale, could realise substantial potential savings to the NHS, without compromising patients' clinical care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. A functional SNP in the regulatory region of the decay-accelerating factor gene associates with extraocular muscle pareses in myasthenia gravis

    KAUST Repository

    Heckmann, J M; Uwimpuhwe, H; Ballo, R; Kaur, M; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Prince, S

    2009-01-01

    Complement activation in myasthenia gravis (MG) may damage muscle endplate and complement regulatory proteins such as decay-accelerating factor (DAF) or CD55 may be protective. We hypothesize that the increased prevalence of severe extraocular

  6. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide

  7. Determining the Cost-Savings Threshold and Alignment Accuracy of Patient-Specific Instrumentation in Total Ankle Replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Kamran S; Matson, Andrew P; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Scott, Daniel J; Mather, Richard C; DeOrio, James K

    2017-01-01

    Traditional intraoperative referencing for total ankle replacements (TARs) involves multiple steps and fluoroscopic guidance to determine mechanical alignment. Recent adoption of patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) allows for referencing to be determined preoperatively, resulting in less steps and potentially decreased operative time. We hypothesized that usage of PSI would result in decreased operating room time that would offset the additional cost of PSI compared with standard referencing (SR). In addition, we aimed to compare postoperative radiographic alignment between PSI and SR. Between August 2014 and September 2015, 87 patients undergoing TAR were enrolled in a prospectively collected TAR database. Patients were divided into cohorts based on PSI vs SR, and operative times were reviewed. Radiographic alignment parameters were retrospectively measured at 6 weeks postoperatively. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) was used to derive direct costs. Cost vs operative time-savings were examined via 2-way sensitivity analysis to determine cost-saving thresholds for PSI applicable to a range of institution types. Cost-saving thresholds defined the price of PSI below which PSI would be cost-saving. A total of 35 PSI and 52 SR cases were evaluated with no significant differences identified in patient characteristics. Operative time from incision to completion of casting in cases without adjunct procedures was 127 minutes with PSI and 161 minutes with SR ( P cost-savings threshold range at our institution of $863 below which PSI pricing would provide net cost-savings. Two-way sensitivity analysis generated a globally applicable cost-savings threshold model based on institution-specific costs and surgeon-specific time-savings. This study demonstrated equivalent postoperative TAR alignment with PSI and SR referencing systems but with a significant decrease in operative time with PSI. Based on TDABC and associated sensitivity analysis, a cost-savings threshold

  8. Characteristics of regulatory regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noralv Veggeland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The overarching theme of this paper is institutional analysis of basic characteristics of regulatory regimes. The concepts of path dependence and administrative traditions are used throughout. Self-reinforcing or positive feedback processes in political systems represent a basic framework. The empirical point of departure is the EU public procurement directive linked to OECD data concerning use of outsourcing among member states. The question is asked: What has caused the Nordic countries, traditionally not belonging to the Anglo-Saxon market-centred administrative tradition, to be placed so high on the ranking as users of the Market-Type Mechanism (MTM of outsourcing in the public sector vs. in-house provision of services? A thesis is that the reason may be complex, but might be found in an innovative Scandinavian regulatory approach rooted in the Nordic model.

  9. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter. The rules on which final action has been taken since March 31, 1993 are: Repeal of NRC standards of conduct; Fitness-for-duty requirements for licensees who possess, use, or transport Category I material; Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel; Monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants; Licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive wastes; and Licensees' announcements of safeguards inspections

  10. Power saving regulated light emitting diode circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haville, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    A power saving regulated light source circuit, comprising a light emitting diode (LED), a direct current source and a switching transistor connected in series with the LED, a control voltage producing resistor connected in series with the LED to produce a control voltage corresponding to the current through the LED, a storage capacitor connected in parallel with the series combination of the LED and the resistor, a comparator having its output connected to the input of the transistor, the comparator having a reference input and a control input, a stabilized biasing source for supplying a stabilized reference voltage to the reference input, the control input of the comparator being connected to the control voltage producing resistor, the comparator having a high output state when the reference voltage exceeds the control voltage while having a low output state when the control voltage exceeds the reference voltage, the transistor being conductive in response to the high state while being nonconductive in response to the low state, the transistor when conductive being effective to charge the capacitor and to increase the control voltage, whereby the comparator is cycled between the high and low output states while the transistor is cycled between conductive and nonconductive states

  11. Saving Science by Doing Less of It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaebnick, Gregory E

    2016-11-01

    In the current issue of The New Atlantis, Daniel Sarewitz, professor of science and society at Arizona State University, argues that science is broken because it is managed and judged by scientists themselves, operating under Vannevar Bush's famous 1945 declaration that scientific progress depends on the "free play of free intellects … dictated by their curiosity." With that scientific agenda, society ends up with a lot of unnecessary, uncoordinated, and unproductive research. To save science, holds Sarewitz, we need to put it in the hands of people who are looking for practical solutions to specific problems. In one article in this issue of the Hastings Center Report (November-December 2016), Kirstin Borgerson poses a question in this same conceptual space: are there too many clinical trials? Other pieces in the issue cover a mix of topics: the lead article addresses some of the challenges that will have to be faced as "artificial organs" become available, a third article looks at how crowdfunding sites like GoFundMe can be used to make public appeals for medical funding, and a special report found in a supplement to the issue offers a round of analysis and recommendations about the provision of medical care to professional football players. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF KOSOVO PENSION SAVING TRUST FUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ymer Havolli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pension system in Kosovo has experienced various developments in the last three decades. These changes have been driven by both, political and economic developments. The political developments were most important, especially that the previous system failed due to the lack of access to the fund in the post-war Kosovo. The newly established system in post-war Kosovo continues its operations with principles of modern pension fund, savings-based. KPST was established by Law in December 2001 as a not-for-profit institution. As such, the sole objective of KPST is to serve only the best interests of its contributors. KPST is funded in a similar way as are all defined contribution pension funds i.e. by charging fees on assets under management (pension assets. KPST is funded in a similar way as are all defined contribution pension funds i.e. by charging fees on assets under management (pension assets. Throughout this discussion paper, the implications of the crisis, management, asset management issues and most importantly, investment strategy are discussed and some potential solutions to these problems are proposed in order to increase the flexibility of the fund to improve performance in times of crisis.

  13. Will Renewable Energy Save Our Planet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojić, Milorad

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses some important fundamental issues behind application of renewable energy (RE) to evaluate its impact as a climate change mitigation technology. The discussed issues are the following: definition of renewable energy, concentration of RE by weight and volume, generation of electrical energy and its power at unit area, electrical energy demand per unit area, life time approach vs. layman approach, energy return time, energy return ratio, CO2 return time, energy mix for RES production and use, geographical distribution of RES use, huge scale of energy shift from RES to non-RES, increase in energy consumption, Thermodynamic equilibrium of earth, and probable solutions for energy future of our energy and environmental crisis of today. The future solution (that would enable to human civilization further welfare, and good living, but with lower release of CO2 in atmosphere) may not be only RES. This will rather be an energy mix that may contain nuclear energy, non-nuclear renewable energy, or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration, efficient energy technologies, energy saving, and energy consumption decrease.

  14. Humanitarian response: improving logistics to save lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Each year, millions of people worldwide are affected by disasters, underscoring the importance of effective relief efforts. Many highly visible disaster responses have been inefficient and ineffective. Humanitarian agencies typically play a key role in disaster response (eg, procuring and distributing relief items to an affected population, assisting with evacuation, providing healthcare, assisting in the development of long-term shelter), and thus their efficiency is critical for a successful disaster response. The field of disaster and emergency response modeling is well established, but the application of such techniques to humanitarian logistics is relatively recent. This article surveys models of humanitarian response logistics and identifies promising opportunities for future work. Existing models analyze a variety of preparation and response decisions (eg, warehouse location and the distribution of relief supplies), consider both natural and manmade disasters, and typically seek to minimize cost or unmet demand. Opportunities to enhance the logistics of humanitarian response include the adaptation of models developed for general disaster response; the use of existing models, techniques, and insights from the literature on commercial supply chain management; the development of working partnerships between humanitarian aid organizations and private companies with expertise in logistics; and the consideration of behavioral factors relevant to a response. Implementable, realistic models that support the logistics of humanitarian relief can improve the preparation for and the response to disasters, which in turn can save lives.

  15. Major savings promised by new dipper technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ednie, H.

    2005-10-01

    A Canadian rope shovel dipper prototype was tested at the Suncor oil sands operations in May 2005. The 3 cubic yard JPi 2005 series dipper was designed by JPi, a geo-industry engineering consultant firm. The new design minimizes shovel dipper wear and resistance while digging at a rock face. This simple concept could offer major savings for mine operators. The main feature of the shovel dipper is its shape. Rather than having a straight-lined profile, the lip to latch keeper is curved to match the range of motions of the machine itself. This provides optimum penetration angles with minimum resistance when digging, thereby increasing productivity while eliminating heel wear. The dipper was originally designed to dig softer materials, but can actually be used to dig or scoop any material from blasted hard rock to the softest oil sand. The dipper is also more open at the door than at the lip allowing the oil sand to naturally flow out of the dipper upon release. The prototype was demonstrated to an industry-wide audience in May 2005 on a recently rebuilt 1949 Dominion 500 shovel. Preliminary results indicate that the design is meeting the expectations of the designer. However, more tests are scheduled and JPi will continue to seek collaborations and partnerships with mining operations to produce and test a 75 cubic yard version of the dipper for use with modern shovels. 2 figs.

  16. Daylight savings time and myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Amneet; Seth, Milan; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has shown a transient increase in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after daylight savings time (DST) in the spring as well as a decrease in AMI after returning to standard time in the fall. These findings have not been verified in a broader population and if extant, may have significant public health and policy implications. We assessed changes in admissions for AMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium (BMC2) database for the weeks following the four spring and three fall DST changes between March 2010 and September 2013. A negative binomial regression model was used to adjust for trend and seasonal variation. There was no difference in the total weekly number of PCIs performed for AMI for either the fall or spring time changes in the time period analysed. After adjustment for trend and seasonal effects, the Monday following spring time changes was associated with a 24% increase in daily AMI counts (p=0.011), and the Tuesday following fall changes was conversely associated with a 21% reduction (p=0.044). No other weekdays in the weeks following DST changes demonstrated significant associations. In the week following the seasonal time change, DST impacts the timing of presentations for AMI but does not influence the overall incidence of this disease.

  17. Does Daylight Savings Time encourage physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Cathleen D

    2014-07-01

    Extending Daylight Savings Time (DST) has been identified as a policy intervention that may encourage physical activity. However, there has been little research on the question of if DST encourages adults to be more physically active. Data from residents of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah ages 18-64 who participated in the 2003-2009 American Time Use Survey are used to assess whether DST is associated with increased time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The analysis capitalizes on the natural experiment created because Arizona does not observe DST. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that shifting 1 hour of daylight from morning to evening does not impact MVPA of Americans living in the southwest. While DST may affect the choices people make about the timing and location of their sports/recreational activities, the potential for DST to serve as a broad-based intervention that encourages greater sports/recreation participation is not supported by this analysis. Whether this null effect would persist in other climate situations is an open question.

  18. Calculating cost savings in utilization management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Donna

    2014-01-01

    A major motivation for managing the utilization of laboratory testing is to reduce the cost of medical care. For this reason it is important to understand the basic principles of cost accounting in the clinical laboratory. The process of laboratory testing includes three distinct components termed the pre-analytic, analytic and post-analytic phases. Utilization management efforts may impact the cost structure of these three phases in different ways depending on the specific details of the initiative. Estimates of cost savings resulting from utilization management programs reported in the literature have often been fundamentally flawed due to a failure to understand basic concepts such as the difference between laboratory costs versus charges and the impact of reducing laboratory test volumes on the average versus marginal cost structure in the laboratory. This article will provide an overview of basic cost accounting principles in the clinical laboratory including both job order and process cost accounting. Specific examples will be presented to illustrate these concepts in various different scenarios. © 2013.

  19. Use a defibrillator, save a life

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    With the work for Long Shutdown 1 looming on the horizon, the CERN Fire Brigade is anticipating a heavy workload: more people working at CERN means more call-outs. So the more trained first-aiders around to help out before the paramedics arrive, the better. Would you know what to do in a medical emergency?   It could happen at any time: two colleagues are having a coffee at work, when one suddenly clutches his or her chest and falls to the floor unconscious. What would you do? Run to find a first-aider? Call the ambulance and wait, finishing your coffee? Neither response is entirely correct. On Monday 11 June in Building 40 the CMS safety group, in collaboration with the Fire Brigade and the Medical Service, demonstrated the recommended, potentially life-saving response to cardiac arrest (see the video), including the correct use of a defibrillator, ten of which were recently installed in key CERN locations (the Bulletin reported).     “In countries where...

  20. STATE BENEFIT - INCENTIVE FOR SAVINGS AND INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ISAC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to be an answer for many investors with financial powers, seeking financial instruments with yields above the average interest rate on the banking market. One such tool, fairly new to the Romanian banking market, has been implemented for about 14 years, and is becoming more and more an instrument for savings, investments or an aid in the purchase of a house. Regardless of the perspective presented in the table of contents, the incentive for choosing such a banking product is the state benefit, a form through which the administration creates the conditions necessary to update and develop the housing system. In the thesis I have explored aspects of legislation which, in such a short period of time have changed 3 times the amount and the method of granting the state benefit and I have also tried a quick historical and legislative evolution of the implementation of Bauspar system throughout Europe. It is pointed out that in comparison with other countries - namely Germany, England or Austria where this system is well-known and has been implemented for over 120 years - Romania is at the beginning of its journey, a fact proved especially by the number of signed contracts in relation to the number of inhabitants.

  1. A flexible regulatory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, T.

    2000-01-01

    Regulatory reform of the Finnish electricity market meant opening up potentially competitive parts of the electricity sector to competition and eliminating all unnecessary forms of regulation covering generation, wholesale supply, retail supply, and foreign trade in electricity. New types of control and regulatory mechanisms and institutions were set up for those parts of the electricity industry that were excluded from competition, such as network operations. Network activities now have to be licensed, whereas no licence is needed for generation or supply. A new sector-specific regulatory authority was established in 1995 to coincide with the implementation of the Electricity Market Act, known as the Electricity Market Authority. This is responsible for regulating network activities and retail supply to captive customers. The core function of the authority, which employs some 14 people, is to promote the smooth operation of the Finnish electricity market and to oversee the implementation of the Electricity Market Act and its provisions. Its most important duties are linked to overseeing the process by which network companies price their electricity. As price regulation no longer exists, all the companies in the electricity sector set their tariffs independently, even network companies. The job of controlling the pricing of network services is handed by the Electricity Market Authority, following the principles of competition control. Pricing control takes place ex post - after a pricing system has been adopted by a company and concentrates on individual cases and companies. There is no ex ante system of setting or approving prices and tariffs by the regulator. The tariffs and pricing of network services can be evaluated, however, by both the Electricity Market Authority and the Finnish Competition Authority, which have overlapping powers as regards the pricing of network activities. The Finnish regulatory framework can be described as a system of light

  2. The changing regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, G.

    1999-01-01

    The role and value of regulation in the energy sector was discussed, demonstrating how, despite common perception, regulation is an essential part of Canada's strategy to find and develop new opportunities. The future vision of regulation for industry participants was presented with particular focus on issues related to streamlining the regulatory process. As far as pipelines are concerned, regulatory actions are necessary to facilitate capacity increases and to ensure the line's integrity, safety and environmental record. Furthermore, regulation provides economic solutions where market forces cannot provide them, as for example where business has elements of monopoly. It arbitrates interests of landowners, business, consumers, and environmental groups. It looks for ways to ensure conditions under which competition can flourish. It acts as the guardian of citizens' rights in a democratic society by providing citizens with an opportunity to be heard on the building or expansion of pipelines and associated facilities. As citizens become more and more concerned about their property and the land that surrounds them, citizen involvement in decision making about how industry activity affects their quality of life will become correspondingly more important. Regulatory agencies are committed to facilitate this engagement by flexible hearing procedures and by making use of evolving communication and information technology

  3. Regulatory aspects of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, K.

    1985-01-01

    Regulatory systems in the field of radiopharmaceuticals have two main purposes: efficacy and safety. Efficacy expresses the quality of the diagnostic and therapeutic process for the patient. Safety involves the patient, the staff, and the environment. The world situation regarding regulations for radiopharmaceuticals is reviewed on the basis of a survey in WHO Member States. The main content of such regulations is discussed. The special properties of radiopharmaceuticals compared with ordinary drugs may call for modified regulations. Several countries are preparing such regulations. Close co-operation and good understanding among scientists working in hospital research, industry and regulatory bodies will be of great importance for the fast and safe introduction of new radiopharmaceuticals for the benefit of the patient. Before introducing new legislation in this field, a radiopharmaceutical expert should analyse the situation in the country and the relationship to the existing regulations. It is expected that the most important factor in promoting the fast introduction of new, safe and effective radiopharmaceuticals will be the training of people working within the regulatory bodies. It is foreseen that the IAEA and WHO will have an important role to play by providing expert advice and training in this area. (author)

  4. Effects of a behaviour change intervention for Girl Scouts on child and parent energy-saving behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet, Hilary; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Flora, June; Armel, K. Carrie; Desai, Manisha; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2016-08-01

    Energy education programmes for children are hypothesized to have great potential to save energy. Such interventions are often assumed to impact child and family behaviours. Here, using a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 30 Girl Scout troops in Northern California, we assess the efficacy of two social cognitive theory-based interventions focused on residential and food-and-transportation energy-related behaviours of Girl Scouts and their families. We show that Girl Scouts and parents in troops randomly assigned to the residential energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported residential energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention and after more than seven months of follow-up, compared with controls. Girl Scouts in troops randomly assigned to the food-and-transportation energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported food-and-transportation energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention, compared with controls, but not at follow-up. The results demonstrate that theory-based, child-focused energy interventions have the potential to increase energy-saving behaviours among both children and their parents.

  5. Pickles and ice cream! Food cravings in pregnancy: hypotheses, preliminary evidence, and directions for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orloff, Natalia C.; Hormes, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, (1) perimenstrually and (2) prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of (1) hormonal changes, (2) nutritional deficits, (3) pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and (4) cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: (1) validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, (2) use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, (3) implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and GWG, and (4) development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess GWG. PMID:25295023

  6. "On Clocks and Clouds:" Confirming and Interpreting Climate Models as Scientific Hypotheses (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, L.

    2009-12-01

    The certainty of climate change projected under various scenarios of emissions using general circulation models is an issue of vast societal importance. Unlike numerical weather prediction, a problem to which general circulation models are also applied, projected climate changes usually lie outside of the range of external forcings for which the models generating these changes have been directly evaluated. This presentation views climate models as complex scientific hypotheses and thereby frames these models within a well-defined process of both advancing scientific knowledge and recognizing its limitations. Karl Popper's Logik der Forschung (The Logic of Scientific Discovery, 1934) and 1965 essay “On Clocks and Clouds” capture well the methodologies and challenges associated with constructing climate models. Indeed, the process of a problem situation generating tentative theories, refined by error elimination, characterizes aptly the routine of general circulation model development. Limitations on certainty arise from the distinction Popper perceived in types of natural processes, which he exemplified by clocks, capable of exact measurement, and clouds, subject only to statistical approximation. Remarkably, the representation of clouds in general circulation models remains the key uncertainty in understanding atmospheric aspects of climate change. The asymmetry of hypothesis falsification by negation and much vaguer development of confidence in hypotheses consistent with some of their implications is an important practical challenge to confirming climate models. The presentation will discuss the ways in which predictions made by climate models for observable aspects of the present and past climate can be regarded as falsifiable hypotheses. The presentation will also include reasons why “passing” these tests does not provide complete confidence in predictions about the future by climate models. Finally, I will suggest that a “reductionist” view, in

  7. Pickles and Ice Cream! Food Cravings in Pregnancy: Hypotheses, Preliminary Evidence, and Directions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia C. Orloff

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, 1 perimenstrually and 2 prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of 1 hormonal changes, 2 nutritional deficits, 3 pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and 4 cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: 1 validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, 2 use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, 3 implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and gestational weight gain, and 4 development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess

  8. Evaluating Hypotheses of Plant Species Invasions on Mediterranean Islands: Inverse Patterns between Alien and Endemic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bjarnason

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species cause major changes to ecosystem functioning and patterns of biodiversity, and the main factors involved in invasion success remain contested. Using the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece as a case study, we suggest a framework for analyzing spatial data of alien species distributions, based on environmental predictors, aiming to gain an understanding of their spatial patterns and spread. Mediterranean islands are under strong ecological pressure from invading species due to their restricted size and increased human impact. Four hypotheses of invasibility, the “propagule pressure hypothesis” (H1, “biotic resistance hypothesis vs. acceptance hypothesis” (H2, “disturbance-mediated hypothesis” (H3, and “environmental heterogeneity hypothesis” (H4 were tested. Using data from alien, native, and endemic vascular plant species, the propagule pressure, biotic resistance vs. acceptance, disturbance-mediated, and environmental heterogeneity hypotheses were tested with Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM of 39 models. Based on model selection, the optimal model includes the positive covariates of native species richness, the negative covariates of endemic species richness, and land area. Variance partitioning between the four hypotheses indicated that the biotic resistance vs. acceptance hypothesis explained the vast majority of the total variance. These results show that areas of high species richness have greater invasibility and support the acceptance hypothesis and “rich-get-richer” distribution of alien species. The negative correlation between alien and endemic species appears to be predominantly driven by altitude, with fewer alien and more endemic species at greater altitudes, and habitat richness. The negative relationship between alien and endemic species richness provides potential for understanding patterns of endemic and alien species on islands, contributing to more effective conservation

  9. Net-Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings -

    Science.gov (United States)

    only an estimated 1% of commercial buildings are built to net-zero energy criteria. One reason for this Continuum Magazine | NREL Net-Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings Net -Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings Researchers work to package and share step

  10. 10 CFR 436.21 - Savings-to-investment ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... is the ratio of the present value savings to the present value costs of an energy or water conservation measure. The numerator of the ratio is the present value of net savings in energy or water and non... conservation measure. The denominator of the ratio is the present value of the net increase in investment and...

  11. 76 FR 71437 - Mutual Savings Association Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... (MSAAC or Committee) formerly administered by the Office of Thrift Supervision, as it is necessary and in...: Timothy T. Ward, Deputy Comptroller for Thrift Supervision, 250 E Street SW., Washington, DC 20219. FOR... as federal savings associations (including federal savings banks); and (2) issue charters therefore...

  12. Finally clarity when energy saving; Endlich Klarheit beim Energiesparen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    How much money do users in mechanical engineering and plant construction save in the implementation of energy efficiency measures? What actions bring which savings? Festo AG and Co. KG (Esslingen, Federal Republic of Germany) provides answers to these questions in terms of the pneumatic control system.

  13. Money in the bank : Feeling powerful increases saving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbinsky, E.; Klesse, A.K.; Aaker, J.

    2014-01-01

    Across five studies, this research reveals that feeling powerful increases saving. This effect is driven by the desire to maintain one’s current state. When the purpose of saving is no longer to accumulate money but to spend it on a status-related product, the basic effect is reversed, and those who

  14. Estimated Incident Cost Savings in Shipping Due to Inspections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); C. Heij (Christiaan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe effectiveness of safety inspections has been analysed from various angles, but until now, relatively little attention has been given to translate risk reduction into incident cost savings. This paper quantifies estimated cost savings based on port state control inspections and

  15. Estimated incident cost savings in shipping due to inspections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapp, S.; Bijwaard, G.E.; Heij, C.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of safety inspections of ships has been analysed from various angles, but until now, relatively little attention has been given to translate risk reduction into incident cost savings. This paper provides a monetary quantification of the cost savings that can be attributed to port

  16. Action Program for Implementing Heat Savings in Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Karlsson, Kenneth; Engell, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    This main report summarized the content of the three sub-report of the project, including the background for the project, the potentails for saving heat and the barriers for implementing these savings. Afterwards the report define the geographical area considered, as well as the present situation...

  17. 12 CFR 563e.26 - Small savings association performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small savings association performance standards. 563e.26 Section 563e.26 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 563e.26 Small savings association performance...

  18. Advances in Biological Water-saving Research: Challenge and Perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lun Shan; Xiping Deng; Suiqi Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Increasing the efficiency of water use by crops continues to escalate as a topic of concern because drought is a restrictive environmental factor for crop productivity worldwide. Greater yield per unit rainfall is one of the most important challenges in water-saving agriculture. Besides water-saving by irrigation engineering and conservation tillage, a good understanding of factors limiting and/or regulating yield now provides us with an opportunity to identify and then precisely select for physiological and breeding traits that increase the efficiency of water use and drought tolerance under water-limited conditions, biological water-saving is one means of achieving this goat. A definition of biological water-saving measures is proposed which embraces improvements in water-use efficiency (WUE) and drought tolerance, by genetic improvement and physiological regulation. The preponderance of biological water-saving measures is discussed and strategies identified for working within natural resource constraints. The technology and future perspectives of biological water saving could provide not only new water-saving techniques but also a scientific base for application of water-saving irrigation and conservation tillage.

  19. HOUSEHOLD SAVINGS AS A SOURCE OF INVESTMENT RESOURCES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nosova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The approaches of scientists in definition of the household savings, the motives of their creation and the role they perform are identified; the role of household savings in the economy is described; the importance of household saving transformation from unorganized to organized forms is analyzed; the size of saving in financial and nonfinancial forms, its dynamics and structure are characterized; comparison between household savings and main macroeconomic indicators is conducted; ways of investment of households savings are discussed; the dynamics of deposits in banks and credit unions, the participation of households in collective investment schemes (private and corporate investment funds is characterized; the dynamics of household deposits in national and foreign currencies is shown; the dynamics of nominal value of investment fund’s securities, that have been placed among resident individuals are characterized; the dynamics of deposit accounts and the number of credit unions members are described; the comparative characteristics of different ways to invest money is given; the reasons of unorganized savings existence are marked; barriers to convert savings into investments and the ways of overcoming them are identified.

  20. Sphincter Saving Surgery in Low Rectal Carcinoma in a Resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Surgery is the principal modality of treatment of rectal carcinoma in order to achieve cure. Sphincter saving surgery improves the quality of life of patients with low rectal carcinoma. Aim: To report a case of sphincter saving low anterior resection for low rectal cancer with hand sown colorectal anastomosis